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Sample records for earl 20th century

  1. Eigenvalue Computation in the 20th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golub, G.H.; Vorst, H.A. van der

    2000-01-01

    This paper sketches the main research developments in the area of computational meth­ ods for eigenvalue problems during the 20th century. The earliest of such methods dates back to work of Jacobi in the middle of the nineteenth century. Since computing eigenvalues and vectors is essentially

  2. Crystallography in the 20th Century

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Crystallography in the 20th Century. 230 space groups are for periodic crystals. It excludes aperiodic incommensurate and quasicrystals that require higher than 3- dimensional crystallography: superspace crystallography. It also excludes periodic magnetic structures ...

  3. Bible translations into Italian (20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Wróbel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing twentieth-century translations of the Bible into Italian we have to make a crucial distinction: there are different translations and different editions; the latter are more numerous, as the same translation may appear in different forms. For many of them it is difficult to determine to whom they are addressed: some of the features show a broad willingness to promote the content of the Bible, while others make them a tool only for a group of specialists. The article discusses the issue of the Bibles, which were printed in Italy in the twentieth century; there were 27. It deliberately does not include translations and elaborations less prevalent or partial studies for professionals. The information is presented in a tangible and transparent scheme, which facilitates their mutual compatibility. Each description contains the name or title of work, author’s name, place and date of publication, publisher’s name, names of translators, editors, source of translation, editing characteristics, and other observations.

  4. Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century

    CERN Document Server

    Narkiewicz, Wladyslaw

    2012-01-01

    The last one hundred years have seen many important achievements in the classical part of number theory. After the proof of the Prime Number Theorem in 1896, a quick development of analytical tools led to the invention of various new methods, like Brun's sieve method and the circle method of Hardy, Littlewood and Ramanujan; developments in topics such as prime and additive number theory, and the solution of Fermat's problem. "Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century: From PNT to FLT" offers a short survey of 20th century developments in classical number theory, documenting between

  5. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2 (20CRV2)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the entire...

  6. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2c)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2c (20CRV2c)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the...

  7. Football in England of first half 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Dohnal, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    (English) This disetation describes progress of football as a sport in the first half of the 20th century, including his position in society during both World Wars Keywords: football competition, number of fans and their culture, football in World Wars, women football, football clubs, organisation of football, football and the media

  8. Early 20th century conceptualization of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy

    2017-12-01

    This historical analysis of the term 'health promotion' during the early 20th century in North American journal articles revealed concepts that strongly resonate with those of the 21st century. However, the lineage between these two time periods is not clear, and indeed, this paper supports contentions health promotion has a disrupted history. This paper traces the conceptualizations of health promotion during the 1920s, attempts to operationalize health promotion in the 1930s resulting in a narrowing of the concept to one of health education, and the disappearance of the term from the 1940s. In doing so, it argues a number of factors influenced the changing conceptualization and utilization of health promotion during the first half of the 20th century, many of which continue to present times, including issues around what health promotion is and what it means, ongoing tensions between individual and collective actions, tensions between specific and general causes of health and ill health, and between expert and societal contributions. The paper concludes the lack of clarity around these issues contributed to health promotion disappearing in the mid-20th century and thus resolution of these would be worthwhile for the continuation and development of health promotion as a discipline into the 21st century. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES IN CLOTHING DESIGN SINCE 20th CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Sabanuc Gonul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a search for the new/different in the history of clothing design. Yet, from 20th century onwards changes in these search reached to a considerable level with the advent of artistic expression beside functionality. A modern understanding that broke the routine predominated within which the ‘new’ is questioned. The effects that were considered as innovation before 20th Century began to metamorphose. As a result of artistic movements and technological progress, experimental movements of the 20th century affected the 21st century in the sense that the experimentalism in clothing design became a style of expression rather than a search. These developments brought a new dimension into the relation of art and and clothing design. The paper reflects on the historical process of experimental approach, volumetric and sculptural effects and search for innovative materials with prominent examples. Current work includes analysis on the emergence of clothing ‘independent of human body’ as an object of art as well as inquiries on current situation.

  10. The Risorgimento in 20th century Italian political discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand both continuities and changes in the reference to the Risorgimento in 20th century political discourse. The narrative proceeds by analyzing historical “snapshots,” from the Liberal period to post-Cold War Italy, that allows us to spell out what has changed...... and what has remained constant in the memorization and actualization of the Risorgimento in the 20th century political discourse. We single out historical events, public rituals and public discourses unfolding in the context of symbolic years and anniversaries of the nation like 1911, 1932, and 1961 where...... the nexus between the Risorgimento past and the political present came to the fore with particular emphasis. In the contextual discussion of these memorization events, we discuss intellectual elaborations of Risorgimento memorization and indicate how such elaborations spread to wider layers of the populace...

  11. Mechanics of the lung in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzner, Wayne

    2011-10-01

    Major advances in respiratory mechanics occurred primarily in the latter half of the 20th century, and this is when much of our current understanding was secured. The earliest and ancient investigations involving respiratory physiology and mechanics were frequently done in conjunction with other scientific activities and often lacked the ability to make quantitative measurements. This situation changed rapidly in the 20th century, and this relatively recent history of lung mechanics has been greatly influenced by critical technological advances and applications, which have made quantitative experimental testing of ideas possible. From the spirometer of Hutchinson, to the pneumotachograph of Fleisch, to the measurement of esophageal pressure, to the use of the Wilhelmy balance by Clements, and to the unassuming strain gauges for measuring pressure and rapid paper and electronic chart recorders, these enabling devices have generated numerous quantitative experimental studies with greatly increased physiologic understanding and validation of mechanistic theories of lung function in health and disease. 2011 American Physiological Society

  12. Musical instrument technology of the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Paul

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the technical development of musical instruments during the 20th century. Starting with early electronic instruments (such as the Theremin-1917) invented prior to the organization of ASA, the history includes the development of electronic organs, synthesizers, and computer music. This paper provides an introduction to the session, giving a framework for the papers which follow in the session.

  13. Mathematical and conceptual foundations of 20th-century physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emch, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    This book is primarily intended for Mathematicians, but it is also hoped that students in the physical sciences, will find here information not usually available in physics texts. The main aim of the book is to provide a unified mathematical account of the conceptual foundations of 20th-century Physics, in a form suitable for a one-year survey course in Mathematics or Mathematical Physics. Emphasis is laid on the interlocked historical development of mathematical and physical ideas. (Auth.)

  14. Spanish nurses' credentialing in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Conesa, J M; Cayuela Fuentes, P S; Beneit Montesinos, J V; González Jurado, M

    2012-06-01

    Nurses credentialing as healthcare professionals commenced in Western Europe and in the USA by the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, boosted by the protestant reform movement. In Spain, it started in 1915, during the kingdom of Alfonso XIII (1902-1931). This historical period was marked by great political instability and big flaws in the healthcare delivery system. To describe the regulatory pathway that gave rise to the nursing profession in Spain, through official credentialing and regulation during the first third of the 20th century. Documental, historical and regulatory documental research describing and analysing the national legislative sources used to regulate the professional development, as well as the education, training and competencies of the nursing practice in Spain, as compared with the developments in the European and American context. Professional development of the nursing profession in Western Europe and in the USA is consolidated during the 20th century as resulting in educational and training enhancement and the establishment of national and international professional bodies. In Spain, the regulatory and legal recognition of the nursing profession come into being in 1915 in response to a request from a female religious congregation. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  15. A Surprising Alliance: Two Giants of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Robert M

    2017-06-01

    Alexis Carrel and Charles Lindbergh were among the most famous international figures in the 20th century: Carrel, the surgeon-scientist who won a Nobel prize as a young surgeon, and Lindbergh, the aviator-engineer who pioneered aviation and promoted commercial flight throughout his life. Surprisingly, these two amazing individuals came together to collaborate on the early development of extracorporeal circulation. Their work was interrupted by the onset of World War II, which destroyed one of them and nearly destroyed the other. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mathematical and conceptual foundations of 20th-century physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emch, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    This volume presents a unified mathematical account of the conceptual foundations of 20th-century Physics. Part 1 provides a survey of classical physics divided in separate chapters on mechanics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism. This study provides opportunities to place in perspective the successive advents of calculus, of probability and statistics, of differential and sympletic geometry, and of classical functional analysis. Relativity is presented in part 2 of this book and quantum theory in part 3. The motivation provided by physical problems in the development of mathematical disciplines such as, for instance, pseudo-Riemannian geometries, Hilbert spaces and operator algebras, are emphasized. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; schemes

  17. Contagious rhythm: infectious diseases of 20th century musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartin, Jeffrey S

    2010-07-01

    Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock 'n' roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures.

  18. The expression of emotions in 20th century books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbi, Alberto; Lampos, Vasileios; Garnett, Philip; Bentley, R Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We report here trends in the usage of "mood" words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decidedly more "emotional" than British English in the last half-century, as a part of a more general increase of the stylistic divergence between the two variants of English language.

  19. PHONOGRAPHIC INDUSTRY: SUMMIT AND DECLINE IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valterlei Borges de Araújo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available By highlighting the Brazilian context as the analytical approach, this article gathers data on the impacts on music consumption brought by the development of the phonographic industry. Since the emergence of the phonograph in the late 19th century until the revolution brought by the digitization and sharing of files in the first decade of the 21st century, this research presents, chronologically, the main devices for sound reproduction or physical music supports that have appeared within this time period, thus creating a record of the technological evolution in the phonographic industry in the 20th century. It is a fact that many of the resources currently used were already available in the second half of the last century, however to a small extent and with a high cost of production. This article targets the present-day reconfiguration of the means of production and distribution of music, as well as its means of consumption and some of its effects on the industry, the artists and users.

  20. Intergenerational Educational Rank Mobility in 20th Century United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    that for cohorts born after the War, Blacks have a much smaller probability of upward income mobility than do Whites. This would suggest that the equalization in upward educational mobility reported in my study has not brought about similar equalization in upward income mobility. Second, my study offers......BACKGROUND: Studies of educational mobility in the United States report widespread persistence in the association between parental and offspring schooling over most of the 20th century. Despite this apparent persistency, many other studies report substantial improvements in the educational...... performance of historically disadvantaged groups. To reconcile these diverging trends, I propose examining educational mobility in terms of percentile ranks in the respective schooling distributions of parents and offspring. Using a novel estimator of educational rank, I compare patterns of mobility...

  1. Reassessment of 20th century global mean sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Marcos, Marta; Wöppelmann, Guy; Conrad, Clinton P; Frederikse, Thomas; Riva, Riccardo

    2017-06-06

    The rate at which global mean sea level (GMSL) rose during the 20th century is uncertain, with little consensus between various reconstructions that indicate rates of rise ranging from 1.3 to 2 mm⋅y -1 Here we present a 20th-century GMSL reconstruction computed using an area-weighting technique for averaging tide gauge records that both incorporates up-to-date observations of vertical land motion (VLM) and corrections for local geoid changes resulting from ice melting and terrestrial freshwater storage and allows for the identification of possible differences compared with earlier attempts. Our reconstructed GMSL trend of 1.1 ± 0.3 mm⋅y -1 (1σ) before 1990 falls below previous estimates, whereas our estimate of 3.1 ± 1.4 mm⋅y -1 from 1993 to 2012 is consistent with independent estimates from satellite altimetry, leading to overall acceleration larger than previously suggested. This feature is geographically dominated by the Indian Ocean-Southern Pacific region, marking a transition from lower-than-average rates before 1990 toward unprecedented high rates in recent decades. We demonstrate that VLM corrections, area weighting, and our use of a common reference datum for tide gauges may explain the lower rates compared with earlier GMSL estimates in approximately equal proportion. The trends and multidecadal variability of our GMSL curve also compare well to the sum of individual contributions obtained from historical outputs of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. This, in turn, increases our confidence in process-based projections presented in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  2. Reassessment of 20th century global mean sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Marcos, Marta; Wöppelmann, Guy; Conrad, Clinton P.; Frederikse, Thomas; Riva, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    The rate at which global mean sea level (GMSL) rose during the 20th century is uncertain, with little consensus between various reconstructions that indicate rates of rise ranging from 1.3 to 2 mm⋅y−1. Here we present a 20th-century GMSL reconstruction computed using an area-weighting technique for averaging tide gauge records that both incorporates up-to-date observations of vertical land motion (VLM) and corrections for local geoid changes resulting from ice melting and terrestrial freshwater storage and allows for the identification of possible differences compared with earlier attempts. Our reconstructed GMSL trend of 1.1 ± 0.3 mm⋅y−1 (1σ) before 1990 falls below previous estimates, whereas our estimate of 3.1 ± 1.4 mm⋅y−1 from 1993 to 2012 is consistent with independent estimates from satellite altimetry, leading to overall acceleration larger than previously suggested. This feature is geographically dominated by the Indian Ocean–Southern Pacific region, marking a transition from lower-than-average rates before 1990 toward unprecedented high rates in recent decades. We demonstrate that VLM corrections, area weighting, and our use of a common reference datum for tide gauges may explain the lower rates compared with earlier GMSL estimates in approximately equal proportion. The trends and multidecadal variability of our GMSL curve also compare well to the sum of individual contributions obtained from historical outputs of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. This, in turn, increases our confidence in process-based projections presented in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. PMID:28533403

  3. Dynamical structure and risk assessment of 20th Century Windstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varino, Filipa; Philippe, Arbogast; Bruno, Joly; Gwendal, Rivière; Marie-Laure, Fandeur; Henry, Bovy; Jean-Baptiste, Granier; Mitchell-Wallace, Kirsten

    2017-04-01

    Windstorms play an important role in weather variability over western Europe. Strong winds associated with fronts and sting jets can lead to several social and economic damages. However, in addition to wind intensity, the displacement speed of the storm, its area and position are also important factors in determining loss. In this study we focus on windstorms associated with the highest damages of the 20th century, and we analyse whether the dynamical structure of the storm is related to its impact. First, we apply an extra-tropical storm tracking algorithm to the ECMWF ERA-20C reanalysis that covers the whole twentieth century and for the whole Northern Hemisphere. Secondly, using the same data, we compute the 3-hourly Loss and Meteorological index for 18 different European countries as in Pinto et al. (2012) with a 25km grid resolution. Thirdly, we develop a High-Loss Tracking Method that matches information from the Loss Index results and the trajectories tracked to systematically associate damages over a particular country to a particular storm. Such a combination provides information on the typical life cycle of storms that create strong damages over a particular country. Finally, only storms hitting France are considered. More than 1500 storms are detected over the whole period and their evolution is analyzed by performing various composites depending on their position relative to the jet stream and their region of impact.

  4. Strategy in the 20th Century: Explanations from History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Silveira Conke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we argue that an historical perspective helps to understand some of the strategic choices made by organizations. More specifically, the purpose here is to describe the great influence of historical events (related to economy, politics, technological advancement etc. on the creation, acceptance, spreading and / or establishment of the strategic theories and tools developed since the beginning of the 20th century. Texts that usually discuss management and history outline only the Industrial Revolution or the transition from feudalism to capitalism, underestimating other historical forces that offer additional explanations to the evolution of strategic thinking. As a result of an extensive bibliographical research, we were able to identify four periods where the strategic theories developed reveal suitable responses to the challenges created by the environment: in the first one (1900-1938, strategy is concerned with organization and control of business activities, resembling the ideas developed by Scientific Administration; in the second period (1939-1964, strategic planning is formalized and the area is broadly recognized; the next decades (1965-1989 are characterized by competition and uncertainty, making strategy focus on problems emerged from the outside; finally, on the turn of the century (1990-2010, the unlimited information availability enhances the need for strategists’ conceptual and practical knowledge. Also, as a final contribution, we suggest two possible trends to the future of strategy.

  5. Social religious movement in java 19Th - 20Th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarno; Trilaksana, A.; Kasdi, A.

    2018-01-01

    Religious social movements are very interesting to be studied because this phenomenon is affecting the urban and rural communities, among the rich and the poor people, the educated and the less educated. The purpose of this study was to analyze several religious social movements in Java in the 19Th - 20Th centuries. The methods used are historical methods that include: Source feeding (main source is reference), Source Critique (source test), Interpretation of fact (analyzing the fact), and Historiography (writing research results) in the form of Journal Articles. Religious Social Symbols arise as a result of a depressed society, oppressed by the political system, or poverty as a result of colonial exploitation. For indigenous and less religious societies social pressures breed social protest movements and social revolutions. Meanwhile, in the Javanese society that has social and religious characteristics make the nature of the movement multidimensional. The form of movement is a blend of social movements that lead in the form of protests and revolutions, on the other hand formed religious movements that are politer nature because it is related to the life of the world and the hereafter. In various religious social movements in Java include the Nativist movement, Millennial/millenarianism, Messianic, Nostalgic, sectarian, and Revivalist. The movement emerged as a social impact of the Dutch colonization in the form of Cultivation which gave birth to the suffering of the people in the economic and social fields.

  6. Nutrition and food commodities in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Sharon A; Phillips, Marshall

    2009-09-23

    Nutrition in the 20th century is examined with respect to changes in the American diet due to changes in the economy and evolution from an agrarian to an industrialized society. The American farm family diet from two regions of the United States during the 1930s is studied on the basis of overall availability of food commodities. A discussion of the diet staples and differences in farm family health is presented and related to nutritional deficiencies. Beginning in the 1920s through the early 1930s dietary deficiencies became a major focus of public health officials in the United States. Identification of the cause of these human nutritional deficiencies prompted significant research by government agencies such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and National Institutes of Health. Medical schools, universities, pharmaceutical corporations, and private institutions directed their resources into basic chemical research and clinical trials to assess the role of vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nutrients for improving human health and nutrition. Chemists played an important role in the discovery of vitamins, minerals, and essential nutrients, validating the efficacy through tedious clinical trials. They developed synthetic vitamins affording food manufacturers and pharmaceutical companies the opportunity to capitalize upon fortifying foods for consumers. The American chemist was also responsible for the development of commodities to maximize crop yield through pesticides and fertilizers.

  7. Health Paradigm Shifts in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel DeAngulo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of systems theory and the study of complexity to medicine and human health allows for a more comprehensive understanding and a more holistic view of what it means to be human. Such application overcomes the limitations of the traditional, fragmented understanding of phenomena and problems based on the mechanistic or Newtonian worldview. It recognizes that phenomena are interrelated, and that individual parts cannot be understood by only focusing on the analysis of their individual qualities. Rather, the individual parts can only be understood in relation to the whole and by being analyzed in the context of their interaction with the whole. The door is opened to previously unimagined models of thinking.In the 20th Century there have been shifts in the paradigms that have governed medicine and human health in the modern western world. There has been a shift from the focus on specific biological analysis and pathological diagnostics to complex human interactions with the environment and with sociopolitical and economic processes. There are complex models of systems in immunology, in neuroscience, and in genetics, as well as complex ways of understanding interactions as in epidemic modeling, in social media technologies, socioeconomic factors, and artificial intelligence.In this paper we describe three paradigms of the health-disease process that in some degree correspond to the historical development of modern medicine and healthcare over the previous century. The oldest paradigm focused on specific disease mechanisms and treatment. This gave way to paradigms that historically were broader and more inclusive, such as “international health”. The international health paradigm focused primarily on the control of epidemics across national borders and considered government as the only health actor. However, this perspective has come to be seen as excessively reductionist and excluded many critical components essential to a robust

  8. [The history of sleep research in the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, J

    1995-12-12

    Not until the 19th century theories on sleep were based upon experimental findings in animal and humans. The so-called 'hypnotoxin theory' culminated, when Legendre and Piéron successfully induced sleep in a dog by transmission of cerebrospinal fluid from a dog deprived of sleep. The main discussion concerning the origin of sleep has been the question if sleep is a passive or an active state. Similarities with coma, the positive Babinski sign and pathoanatomical findings in patients who died after encephalitis lethargica were the arguments for the 'deafferentiation hypothesis'. Bremer's classical brainstem-transsections in cats confirmed this idea. Pavlov was the major representative of the idea that sleep was due to a general inhibition of the brain. Hess induced physiological sleep in cats by electrical stimulation of the diencephalon, proving the active nature of sleep. The introduction of the EEG in animals by Caton and in humans by Berger allowed for the first time the measurement of sleep depth without waking the sleeper. After discovery of the REM sleep periods by Aserinsky and Kleitman in 1953 and the demonstration of periodical sleep cycles by Dement and Kleitman, polysomnography with simultaneous whole night recording of EEG, EMG, electrooculogram and other physiological parameters was established as the major diagnostic tool in sleep disorders. One of the most important questions about the function of sleep is still unresolved. NREM sleep is believed to have a restorative function, whereas REM sleep might be involved in learning processes. According to the sleep interpretation of Sigmund Freud, the dream content represents endogenous wishes which cannot be expressed during wakefulness because of an internal 'sensor'. A more recent theory by Hobson explains the dreams by a very unspecific brainstem activity occurring during REM sleep which projects to the frontal brain and activates stored memory. The most important sleep disease of the 20th century is

  9. The Enigma of 20th century sea level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathles, Larry

    2014-05-01

    Sea level has been constant at near-present levels from ~5500 calendar years BP to the end of the Little Ice Age at ~1860 AD. Since ~1900, tide gauge measurements indicate that it has risen steadily at ~2 mm/yr by about 18 cm. The comparative stability of sealevel from 5500 cal yr BP to 1860 AD is robust, being suggested by near-shore Mediterranean archeological sites, the few sea level records that extend back to 1700 AD, and the impossibility of projecting the current sea level rise of ~2 mm/y back 5000 years (it would produce a global 10 m inundation, which is not observed) (Douglas et al., 2001, Academic Press). The post 1870 sea level rise is not due to heating of the upper ocean (Liviticus et al., 2000, Science). Munk (2002, PNAS) characterized it as an "enigma", dismissing an upper ocean steric sea level explanation as "too little" (~3 cm), "too late" (the rise started in 1860), and "too linear" (not accelerating with the accelerating CO2 increase). GRACE gravity measurements show a near zero change in ocean mass. Cazenave et al. (2009, Global and Planetary Change) indicate a slight decrease in ocean mass between 2003 and 2008. The rate of meltwater mass being added to the oceans essentially equals the GIA correction (Chambers et al., 2010, JGR). Different GIA models give ocean mass increase ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm/y of equivalent sea level rise. Our GIA model suggests no ocean mass increases (~0 mm/y of equivalent sea level rise). In this talk I show that the heating of a two layer ocean model driven by the temperature changes that have occurred over the last 1000 years since the peak of the Medieval Warm Period produces a ~2mm/yr linear sea level rise over the last 100 years with much smaller preceding sea level changes. Ocean mass could be unchanging over the last century as well as the last ~5000 years. This result is compatible with GRACE measurements and eclipse data constraints, predictions of our GIA model, and it resolves the enigma the 20th

  10. Global physical water scarcity trajectories for the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Eisner, Stefanie; Flörke, Martina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Food security and the overall wellbeing of human kind are threatened by overexploitation of our freshwater resources. Water scarcity is not only a threat to people, but also to many of the planet's key ecosystems. Due to increasing population pressure, changing water consumption behaviour, and climate change, the threat is projected to become even worse in the future. Water can be physically scarce in two ways: population-driven water shortage occurs in areas where a large population has to depend on a limited resources (indicated by m3/capita/yr), while demand-driven water stress is related to the excessive use of otherwise sufficient water resources (indicated by demand/supply ratio). Although many studies have increased our understanding of current water scarcity and how this may increase in the future, the understanding of trajectories with the past development of the water scarcity is less well understood. To date, studies of past water resources have focused on either water shortage or water stress. We aim to calculate global water scarcity, both water stress and water shortage, for the period 1900-2005. We can thus provide, for the first time, continuous regional trends and local analyses of trajectories of water scarcity for the entire 20th century. By including both dimensions of water scarcity, we can increase the understanding of reasons behind the scarcity. We found that in year 1900 13% of the population (i.e. 0.22 billion people) was living in areas that suffer some kind of water scarcity (0.2), while in year 2005 this percentage has increased to 57% (3.80 billion). Especially the population suffering from both high water stress (ratio >0.4) and high water shortage (<1000 m3/capita/yr) has risen considerably, from 2% (29 million people) in 1900, up to 19% (1.2 billion people) in 2005. Geographically these concern mainly northern African regions, the Middle East, Pakistan and parts of India and Northern China. The region of sub-Saharan Africa mainly

  11. Training African-American residents in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2004-03-01

    needed not only to serve minority populations but also to serve as mentors and role models for prospective and current students. The first African-American resident to graduate from the Bellevue Residency Program did indeed treat the underserved, as Dr. Vincent founded the Vincent Sanatorium, dedicated to treating African-American patients, and training African-American nurses and doctors. Over the course of the 20th century, Bellevue Hospital has trained increasing numbers of African-American physicians. It is hoped that, like their predecessor, Dr. Vincent, they will provide care to underserved communities and to the community as a whole, as well as serve as role models for generations to come.

  12. The white of the 20th century : an explorative survey into Dutch modern art collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, B.A.; van den Berg, K. J.; Gerretzen, J.; Dik, J.

    2018-01-01

    White pigments were abundantly used in 20th century paintings, and relate to several degradation risks such as titanium white mediated photocatalytic binder degradation or zinc soap formation. Knowledge about the white pigments that were used is essential for risk assessments of 20th century

  13. Exceptional 20th century glaciological regime of a major SE Greenland outlet glacier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Camilla S.; Kokfelt, Ulla; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine

    2017-01-01

    at least 300 AD lasting until 1900 AD followed by elevated 20th century glacier calving due to the loss of the tongue. We attribute this regime shift to 20th century unprecedented low sea-ice occurrence in the East Greenland Current and conclude that properties of this current are important...

  14. LBA Regional Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a subset of "Global Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)" (2000a). This subset characterizes mean monthly surface climate...

  15. LBA Regional Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a subset of "Global Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)" (2000a). This subset characterizes mean monthly surface climate over the...

  16. Commercial Banks and Capital Regulation in the Early 20th Century US

    OpenAIRE

    Gou, Michael

    2017-01-01

    My dissertation investigates the effect of capital requirements on commercial banks and the impact of commercial bank suspensions on the United States economy during the early 20th century. The first chapter examines the effect of capital requirements on bank stability. The early 20th century United States provides an opportunity to determine whether imposing capital requirements on commercial banks promotes banking stability in the long run. The structure of the national banking system fac...

  17. The Object as Subject in 20th Century American Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how three groups of twentieth-century U.S. artists--Landscape and architectural artists, pop artists, and the photo-realists--used the object as the primary image in their artwork. Maintains that this approach to studying still life may be more relevant for teachers and students today. (KM)

  18. The International "Trial of the 20th Century": Nuremberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemerinsky, Erwin

    1999-01-01

    Considers the Nuremberg trials to be the "Trial of the Century." Highlights the series of 13 trials in which Nazi leaders, officials, judges, and others were tried, and most convicted, for war crimes. Relates that these trials had far-reaching effects in that they showed that moral obligations transcend national boundaries. (CMK)

  19. The impact of new media on 20th century astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.

    2002-07-01

    This paper offers a few comments on the impact and changing sociology of astronomy information handling over the past century (especially its last third), drifting from individual measurements or records to catalogues and data centres, and moving recently from information hubs to distributed digital research facilities including the current projects of so-called `virtual observatories'. After an introductory part and some notes on personal experience, the paper discusses data centres, methodologies, electronic publishing, as well problems and challenges inherited from the new media: fragility, security and ethics, not to forget the most important one, quality.

  20. Radiation legacy of the 20th century: Environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    As a result of events in the twentieth century, mainly related to the development of nuclear energy, mankind has been forced to deal with the restoration of the environments which contain radioactive residues. The International Conference RADLEG-200 was particularly focused on the radioactive legacy of the countries of the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. By means of reviews and case studies the conference assessed the overall situation with respect to the contaminated sites and sources of potential environmental contamination and evaluated the achievements of rehabilitation and remediation programmes as well as identifying future needs in this field. The Conference was attended by 266 participants from 16 countries and 6 international organizations with 49 papers presented orally and 64 presented as posters. This publication contains the 49 orally presented papers, each of them was indexed separately

  1. “The Glamour of Arabic Numbers”: Pliny Earle's Challenge to Nineteenth-Century Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodheart, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    A well-established interpretation associates the nineteenth-century psychiatrist Pliny Earle's deflation of high cure rates for insanity with the onset of a persistent malaise in patient treatment and public health policy during the Gilded Age. This essay comes not to praise Earle but to correct and clarify interpretations, however well intentioned, that are incomplete and inaccurate. Several points are made: the overwhelming influence of antebellum enthusiasm on astonishing therapeutic claims; the interrogation of high “recovery” rates begun decades before Earle's ultimate provocation; and, however disruptive, the heuristically essential contribution of Earle's challenge to furthering a meaningful model of mental disorder. In spite of the impression created by existing historiography, Earle, a principled Quaker, remained committed to “moral treatment.” PMID:26232441

  2. What was Glaucoma Called Before the 20th Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Christopher T.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Giliberti, Francesca M.; Young, Matthew T.; Bermudez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena, or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray) and viriditate oculi. Angle closure, with palpable hardness of the eye, mydriasis, and anterior prominence of the lens, was described in greater detail in the 18th and 19th centuries. The introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850 permitted the visualization of the excavated optic neuropathy in eyes with a normal or with a dilated greenish-gray pupil. Physicians developed a better appreciation of the role of intraocular pressure in both conditions, which became subsumed under the rubric “glaucoma”. PMID:26483611

  3. Physicians as detectives in detective fiction of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daryll

    2002-10-01

    Surprisingly few detectives are physicians in 20th-century detective fiction. Potential books with physician-detective characters were located by pursuing all mentions of characters referred to as 'Doctor" in any of several reference materials pertaining to mystery and detective fiction. As a result of the search, 53 authors whose detective characters are physicians were found. Examination of novels by these authors revealed that early in the 20th century, physicians applied their own specialized scientific knowledge to detection. Mid-century physicians worked by intuition. In the 1990s, science returned to detective fiction in the form of standard forensic procedure, and the level of violence dramatically increased. The relation between science and violence at the end of the 20th century may not be accidental.

  4. Is classical mechanics a prerequisite for learning physics of the 20th century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwema, Godfrey B.; French, Debbie A.; Verley, Jim D.; Burrows, Andrea C.

    2016-11-01

    Physics of the 20th century has contributed significantly to modern technology, and yet many physics students are never availed the opportunity to study it as part of the curriculum. One of the possible reasons why it is not taught in high school and introductory physics courses could be because curriculum designers believe that students need a solid background in classical mechanics and calculus in order to study physics of the 20th century such as the photoelectric effect, special and general relativity, the uncertainty principle, etc. This presumption may not be justifiable or valid. The authors of this paper contend that teaching physics of the 20th century aids students in relating physics to modern technology and the real world, making studying physics exciting. In this study, the authors correlated scores for matched questions in the Mechanics Baseline Test and a physics of the 20th century test in order to examine the trend of the scores. The participants included undergraduate students attending an introductory algebra-based physics course with no intention of taking physics at a higher level. The analysis of the scores showed no significant correlation for any of the matched pairs of questions. The purpose of this article is to recommend that even without a solid background in classical mechanics, teachers can introduce physics of the 20th century to their students for increased interest.

  5. The economic impact of climate change in the 20th and 21st centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    2013-01-01

    The national version of FUND3. 6 is used to backcast the impacts of climate change to the 20th century and extrapolate to the 21st century. Carbon dioxide fertilization of crops and reduced energy demand for heating are the main positive impacts. Climate change had a negative effect on water

  6. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  7. Catholic nursing sisters and brothers and racial justice in mid-20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing's work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses' work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of "bearing witness," a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely.

  8. Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ted G

    2014-01-01

    What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

  9. From Generation to Generation: Oral Histories of Scientific Innovations from the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Mindy J.

    2010-01-01

    The 20th century saw some of the most important technological and scientific discoveries in the history of humankind. The space shuttle, the internet, and other modern advances changed society forever, and yet many students cannot imagine what life was like before these technologies existed. In the project described here, students take a firsthand…

  10. Changes in the flora of the Netherlands in the 20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamis, Wilhelmus Laurentius Martinus

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the flora of the Netherlands in the 20th century Throughout the world, biodiversity is under major threat from human activity. As the gravity of the situation unfolds, critical analysis shows that our knowledge and understanding of these developments is still very incomplete, both

  11. Early 20th-century Arctic warming intensified by Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokinaga, Hiroki; Xie, Shang-Ping; Mukougawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    With amplified warming and record sea ice loss, the Arctic is the canary of global warming. The historical Arctic warming is poorly understood, limiting our confidence in model projections. Specifically, Arctic surface air temperature increased rapidly over the early 20th century, at rates comparable to those of recent decades despite much weaker greenhouse gas forcing. Here, we show that the concurrent phase shift of Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal variability modes is the major driver for the rapid early 20th-century Arctic warming. Atmospheric model simulations successfully reproduce the early Arctic warming when the interdecadal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is properly prescribed. The early 20th-century Arctic warming is associated with positive SST anomalies over the tropical and North Atlantic and a Pacific SST pattern reminiscent of the positive phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation. Atmospheric circulation changes are important for the early 20th-century Arctic warming. The equatorial Pacific warming deepens the Aleutian low, advecting warm air into the North American Arctic. The extratropical North Atlantic and North Pacific SST warming strengthens surface westerly winds over northern Eurasia, intensifying the warming there. Coupled ocean–atmosphere simulations support the constructive intensification of Arctic warming by a concurrent, negative-to-positive phase shift of the Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal modes. Our results aid attributing the historical Arctic warming and thereby constrain the amplified warming projected for this important region. PMID:28559341

  12. Early 20th-century Arctic warming intensified by Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokinaga, Hiroki; Xie, Shang-Ping; Mukougawa, Hitoshi

    2017-06-01

    With amplified warming and record sea ice loss, the Arctic is the canary of global warming. The historical Arctic warming is poorly understood, limiting our confidence in model projections. Specifically, Arctic surface air temperature increased rapidly over the early 20th century, at rates comparable to those of recent decades despite much weaker greenhouse gas forcing. Here, we show that the concurrent phase shift of Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal variability modes is the major driver for the rapid early 20th-century Arctic warming. Atmospheric model simulations successfully reproduce the early Arctic warming when the interdecadal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is properly prescribed. The early 20th-century Arctic warming is associated with positive SST anomalies over the tropical and North Atlantic and a Pacific SST pattern reminiscent of the positive phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation. Atmospheric circulation changes are important for the early 20th-century Arctic warming. The equatorial Pacific warming deepens the Aleutian low, advecting warm air into the North American Arctic. The extratropical North Atlantic and North Pacific SST warming strengthens surface westerly winds over northern Eurasia, intensifying the warming there. Coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations support the constructive intensification of Arctic warming by a concurrent, negative-to-positive phase shift of the Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal modes. Our results aid attributing the historical Arctic warming and thereby constrain the amplified warming projected for this important region.

  13. Wildlife of southern forests habitat & management (Chapter 3): Natural Resources-Into the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson

    2003-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century descendants of the early European settlers who first colonized the coasts of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia were established throughout the region. Most all of the native people had been displaced. Cotton was king. The mature forests were being eliminated. And wildlife populations had been seriously depleted by the...

  14. Governmentality and the good offices of translation in 20th-century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    discourses and processes that helped shape the translation profession and the activities of translators in 20th-century South Africa. Drawing on the work of Pennycook (2002, 2006) on language governmentality, translation is linked to language policy as an instance of 'cultural governance'. The notion of language ...

  15. From Card Catalogues to WebPACs: Celebrating Cataloguing in the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Michael

    This paper provides an overview of cataloging in the 20th century. Highlights include: (1) issues in 1901, including the emerging cooperative cataloging system and the work of Charles Ammi Cutter; (2) the 1908 code, i.e., "Catalog Rules: Author and Title Entries," published in British and American editions; (3) the Vatican rules, a code…

  16. Changes in ranges of hoverflies in the Netherlands in the 20th century (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemer, M.; Smit, J.T.; Steenis, van W.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in ranges of hoverflies in the Netherlands in the 20th century (Diptera: Syrphidae) In July 2001 the database of the Netherlands Syrphidae Recording Scheme contained approximately 200 000 records of Syrphidae. This database was used to examine changes in the hoverfly fauna of the Netherlands

  17. Impact of reservoirs on river discharge and irrigation water supply during the 20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, H.; Haddeland, I.; Kabat, P.; Ludwig, F.; Hutjes, R.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative estimation of the impact of reservoirs on discharge and irrigation water supply during the 20th century at global, continental, and river basin scale. Compared to a natural situation the combined effect of reservoir operation and irrigation extractions decreased

  18. Propaganda Art from the 20th to the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, J.H.

    2018-01-01

    This study by artist Jonas Staal explores the development of propaganda art from the 20th to the 21st century. Staal defines propaganda as the performance of power by means of the equation propaganda = power + performance. Through his work as a propaganda researcher and practice as a

  19. The Devolution of 20th Century Presidential Campaign Rhetoric: A Call for "Rhetorical Service."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Robert L.

    Over the course of the 20th century, American Presidential campaign rhetoric has undergone various metamorphoses. Most of these changes can be traced to developments in technology and media. Furthermore, many of these changes have had the unfortunate effect of undermining a rational choice of the electorate, and thus threaten our democracy. Like…

  20. Visual Preferences of Young School Children for Paintings from the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuscevic, Dubravka; Kardum, Goran; Brajcic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of young school children in the visual preferences of paintings from the 20th century. The study was conducted at 4 elementary schools around Split, Croatia. A total of 200 children participated in the study, of which 87 were girls and 113 were boys aged 6-10 years. Visual preference testing…

  1. Early 20th-century Arctic warming intensified by Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokinaga, Hiroki; Xie, Shang-Ping; Mukougawa, Hitoshi

    2017-06-13

    With amplified warming and record sea ice loss, the Arctic is the canary of global warming. The historical Arctic warming is poorly understood, limiting our confidence in model projections. Specifically, Arctic surface air temperature increased rapidly over the early 20th century, at rates comparable to those of recent decades despite much weaker greenhouse gas forcing. Here, we show that the concurrent phase shift of Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal variability modes is the major driver for the rapid early 20th-century Arctic warming. Atmospheric model simulations successfully reproduce the early Arctic warming when the interdecadal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is properly prescribed. The early 20th-century Arctic warming is associated with positive SST anomalies over the tropical and North Atlantic and a Pacific SST pattern reminiscent of the positive phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation. Atmospheric circulation changes are important for the early 20th-century Arctic warming. The equatorial Pacific warming deepens the Aleutian low, advecting warm air into the North American Arctic. The extratropical North Atlantic and North Pacific SST warming strengthens surface westerly winds over northern Eurasia, intensifying the warming there. Coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations support the constructive intensification of Arctic warming by a concurrent, negative-to-positive phase shift of the Pacific and Atlantic interdecadal modes. Our results aid attributing the historical Arctic warming and thereby constrain the amplified warming projected for this important region.

  2. Temperature variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Milan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available According to data of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climatic Change, the global surface air temperature increased to 0,6 ± 0,2 °C in the 20th century. Weber G. R., (1995 quotes that there is a trend of cold in the last 60 years in the middle latitudes including Europe, too. Starting from already mentioned perplexities we have tried to perceive the problem of climate variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century, when it came to very important increasing of concentration of CO2. With that aim we observed the decade values of average annual temperatures in the network of 20 climatic stations. In the period 1951 - 1990 a decrease of temperature was registered in 13 stations while in other stations an increase was less than 0,1 °C. Explorers from Bulgaria (Alexandrov V., 2000 and Hungary (Domonkos P., Zoboki J., 2000 came to similar results, too. However, if we take in account the last decade 20th century the number of stations with positive changes is enlarged on 15. Stations that have small changes and those with decrease of temperature were localized in the south and south eastern part of the country, and they are mainly coincided with before separated climatic regions with maritime pluviometric regime (Radovanović M., 2001. Using Dzerdzevskis B. L., (1975 division on three main types of circulation in the north hemisphere, we found that the increase of temperatures in the last decade 20th century is above all caused by change of dominant type of circulation from the south meridian to zonal. An analysis of seasonal changes showed that in the last five decades 20th century it came to decrease of winter temperatures in almost half of the stations in contrast with results of paleoclimatics models of possible greenhouse effect.

  3. Cartography of major urban settlements on Saudi Arabian Peninsula between 18th -20th centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin, Murat; Al-Dosary, Adel S.; Doyduk, Senem; Çelebioğlu, Banu

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a urban morphological analysis of the transformation of Saudi Arabian cities from the late 18th century onwards through a cartographical urban inventory as its basis. The paper focuses on the cartographical information about the major cities in the Saudi Arabian Peninsula associated with the period between late 18th and early 20th centuries. This study was mainly conducted as a survey through the archives that have hitherto been kept closed for research purposes in ...

  4. Marital research in the 20th century and a research agenda for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottman, John M; Notarius, Clifford I

    2002-01-01

    In this article we review the advances made in the 20th century in studying marriages. Progress moved from a self-report, personality-based approach to the study of interaction in the 1950s, following the advent of general systems theory. This shift led, beginning in the 1970s, to the rapid development of marital research using a multimethod approach. The development of more sophisticated observational measures in the 1970s followed theorizing about family process that was begun in the decade of the 1950s. New techniques for observation, particularly the study of affect and the merging of synchronized data streams using observational and self-report perceptual data, and the use of sequential and time-series analyses produced new understandings of process and power. Research in the decades of the 1980s and 1990s witnessed the realization of many secular changes in the American family, including the changing role of women, social science's discovery of violence and incest in the family, the beginning of the study of cultural variation in marriages, the expansion of the measurement of marital outcomes to include longevity, health, and physiology (including the immune system), and the study of comorbidities that accompany marital distress. A research agenda for the 21st century is then described.

  5. Land motion due to 20th century mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Khan, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying the contribution from ice sheets and glaciers to past sea level change is of great value for understanding sea level projections into the 21st century. However, quantifying and understanding past changes are equally important, in particular understanding the impact in the near-field where the signal is highest. We assess the impact of 20th century mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet on land motion using results from Kjeldsen et al, 2015. These results suggest that the ice sheet on average lost a minimum of 75 Gt/yr, but also show that the mass balance was highly spatial- and temporal variable, and moreover that on a centennial time scale changes were driven by a decreasing surface mass balance. Based on preliminary results we discuss land motion during the 20th century due to mass balance changes and the driving components surface mass balance and ice dynamics.

  6. Observed 20th century desert dust variability: impact on climate and biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Mahowald

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere over the 20th century to be −0.14 ± 0.11 W/m2 (1990–1999 vs. 1905–1914. The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980–1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955–1964 time periods (−0.57 ± 0.46 W/m2, which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 °C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and

  7. Observed 20th Century Desert Dust Variability: Impact on Climate and Biogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University; Kloster, Silvia [Cornell University; Engelstaedter, S. [Cornell University; Moore, Jefferson Keith [University of California, Irvine; Mukhopadhyay, S. [Harvard University; McConnell, J. R. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV; Albani, S. [Cornell University; Doney, Scott C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Bhattacharya, A. [Harvard University; Curran, M. A. J. [Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre; Flanner, Mark G. [University of Michigan; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Lawrence, David M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Mayewski, P. A. [University of Maine; Neff, Jason [University of Colorado, Boulder; Rothenberg, D. [Cornell University; Thomas, E. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Zender, Charlie S. [University of California, Irvine

    2010-01-01

    Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere) over the 20th century to be -0.14 {+-} 0.11 W/m{sup 2} (1990-1999 vs. 1905-1914). The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980-1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955-1964 time periods (-0.57 {+-} 0.46 W/m{sup 2}), which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC) reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC) of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding

  8. Research in plant morphoanatomy in the province of Vojvodina in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luković Jadranka Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the diversity of flora and vegetation in a region, the knowledge of the biology of particular plant species is very important. Under the influence of numerios complex biotic and abiotic factors, biological plasticity of the species is reflected in the morphological level through a series of macro and micro adaptations. The subject of the initial research was the analysis of the external plant form, which was implemented in the fields of plant systematics and taxonomy. In the mid-20th century, with the development of the microtechnical equipment, morphoanatomy become a separate scientific area. Numerous researchers contributed to its development. The contribution of some of them is the subject of this paper. This paper gives a general overview of scientific results in different areas of plant morphoanatomy, resulting from researches carred out in the province of Vojvodina during the 20th century, as well as a list of bibliographic units published in scientific journals.

  9. The 20th century retreat of ice caps in Iceland derived from airborne SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnsson, Helgi; Dall, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    We present observations of the long-term recession of surging outlets of Icelandic ice caps in response to 20th century climate. In August 1998, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, covering the western part of Vatnajokull and the northern part of Myrdalsjokull in southern Iceland, were acquired...... reconstruction of the margin at that time. The data offer a unique opportunity to estimate the area decrease of these ice caps in the 20th century. The influence of the fluctuations of the surge type outlets, constituting most of W-Vatnajokull area and a good part of N-Myrdalsjokull area, is minimal, since...... of the outlets of western Vatnajokull since maximum Neoglacial extent of each outlet, is log km(2) (6.7%) corresponding to an average retreat of 850 in over a 130 km long margin. In the same period the outlet Slettjokull, in N-Myrdalsjokull, has decreased by 33 km(2) (20%) corresponding to an average retreat...

  10. The Economic Impact of Climate Change in the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, Richard S. J.

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED The national version of FUND3.6 is used to infrapolate the impacts of climate change to the 20th century. Carbon dioxide fertilization of crops and reduced energy demand for heating are the main positive impacts. Climate change had a negative effect on water resources and, in most years, human health. Most countries benefitted from climate change until 1980, but after that the trend is negative for poor countries and positive for rich countries. The global average impact was posi...

  11. [Anti-positivist inspiration in European medical historiography in the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2002-01-01

    The article presents the most important anti-positivist (the neo-romantic, socio-cultural and relativistic) currents in 20th century European medical historiography. The author discusses the genesis of the anti-positivist opposition in the medical historiography, starting with a presentation of the main points of the positivist programme, and shows the reasons behind the earlier broad reception of this programme by medical historians from the medical profession. The author attributes the emergence of an anti-positivist opposition in this milieu mainly to the medical progress which occurred in the first half of the 20th century and which induced some doctors, engaged in research into medical history, to reject the positivist model of teaching and replace it wit another. This factor played a leading role in the formation of the socio-cultural and relativist currents. According to the author, the second important factor in the birth of this opposition is the 20th century progress in the methodology of historical research, which freed itself from the constraints of positivist scientism as the only acceptable method of interpreting facts. The author also discusses the socio-cultural and political conditions which led to the formation and spread of the neo-romantic movement solely in Germany. The article presents the programme principles and the most important representatives of anti-positivist currents in European (mainly German) and the circumstances behind the reception of each current by the community of medical historians, and presents the development prospects of Polish medical historiography on the treshold of the 20th and 21st centuries, in connection with the research into this field of science undertaken by a large and continuously growing number of university-educated researchers.

  12. [Developments and trends in 19th- and 20th-century German nursing historiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses important trends in 19th- and 20th-century German nursing historiography. Frequently, the diverse contributions, which were predominantly written by physicians and nurses, were strongly shaped by the occupational background of the author and purposes of professional politics. In recent years, valuable scholarly contributions on nursing organisations have appeared. Anglo-American nursing history research should serve as a model for Germany. The paper calls for the extension of a recently founded nursing history research network.

  13. Early 20th Century Arctic Warming Intensified by Pacific and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokinaga, H.; Xie, S. P.; Mukougawa, H.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the influence of Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability on the Arctic temperature, with a particular focus on the early 20th century Arctic warming. Arctic surface air temperature increased rapidly over the early 20th century, at rates comparable to those of recent decades despite much weaker greenhouse gas forcing than at present. We find that the concurrent phase shift of Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability is the major driver for the early 20th century Arctic warming. Atmospheric model simulations reproduce the early Arctic warming when the interdecadal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is properly prescribed. The early Arctic warming is associated with the cold-to-warm phase shifts of Atlantic and Pacific multidecadal variability modes, a SST pattern reminiscent of the positive phase of the Pacific decadal and Atlantic multidecadal oscillations. The extratropical North Atlantic and North Pacific SST warming strengthens surface westerly winds over northern Eurasia, intensifying the warming there. The equatorial Pacific warming deepens the Aleutian low, advecting warm air to the North American Arctic. Coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations support the constructive intensification of Arctic warming by a concurrent, cold-to-warm phase shift of the Pacific and Atlantic multidecadal variability. Our results aid attributing the historical Arctic warming and thereby constrain the amplified warming projected for this important region.

  14. The influence of Meyerhold's biomechanics on 20th century theatre: The principle of equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prpa-Fink Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Meyerhold's biomechanics (Mejerhol'd Ë. V., as an acting technique in preparation for a role and performance in front of the audience, originated in the 1920s. It represents a genuine way of work, as it derived from Meyerhold's authentic personality. The need to research the importance and influence of Meyerhold's biomechanics on the 20th century theatre stems from the importance of the opus that Vsevolod Emilevich Meyerhold produced, as well as from the assumption that the output of the 20th century directors Jerzy Grotowski, Eugenio Barba and Peter Brook was largely founded on the principles of biomechanics, which Meyerhold had based his work on with theatrical actors for years. The principle of equivalence is one of the principles in the book A Dictionary of Theatre Anthropology: The Secret Art of the Performer by Eugenio Barba and Nicola Savarese. It provides help with the interpretation of the influence that Meyerhold's biomechanics had on the 20th century theatre and the authors such as Grotowski, Barba and Brook.

  15. [The 20th century legal framework regarding risk at work and occupational health in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Soler, Juan M; Luna-García, Jairo E; Correa-Moreno, Yerson A; Campos, Adriana C

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the 20th century Colombian legal framework from the point of view of labor law, social security and public health for identifying concepts regarding occupational health and professional risk and trying to establish convergence and differences between such foci and whether they fulfilled a complementary view. This work involved documentary research by means of thematic categorical analysis of the laws and statutes promulgated in 20th century Colombia, considering the main element or entity which should have regulated that related to professional risk or occupational health. The development of the 20th century Colombian legal framework regarding health at work was periodized, revealing the predominance of a view of social law focused on protecting dependent workers' work-related risks, as part of a tendency extending to the Colombian Sistema General de Riesgos Laborales. The proposed stages used for organizing the legal framework concerning social security regarding professional risk and occupational health facilitated some important elements being recognized concerning the social, legal and institutional context from which workers' health laws emerged. Tension was noted concerning statutes orientated towards redress and compensation regarding accidents at work and legislation emphasizing prevention.

  16. Multidecadal changes in the Etesians-Indian Summer Monsoon teleconnection along the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Delgado, F. de Paula; Vega, Inmaculada; Gallego, David; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina; Ribera, Pedro; García-Herrera, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    In this work we made use of historical winds record taken aboard ships to reconstruct a series of the prevalent summer northerly winds (Etesian winds) over the Eastern Mediterranean for the entire 20th century. Previous studies have shown a significant link between the frequency and strength of these winds and the strength of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM), but this relationship had only been studied in detail for the second half of the 20th century due to the absence of long and continous series of observed wind in the Eastern Mediterranean for previous periods. In this work, a new climatic index, the so-called " Etesian Wind Index " (EWI), is defined as the percentage of days with prevalent northerly wind (wind blowing from 305° to 35°) in a fixed region [20E-30E, 32N-37N]. By using historical wind observations, we have been able to compute this index for the summer (JJAS) since 1880 and analyze the long term variability of the Etesians, as well as to research into its relation with the ISM at an unprecedent temporal coverage. A running coverage analysis revealed a strong and significant positive correlation between the EWI and the strength of the ISM for the period 1960-1980, more markedly in July and August. This result is in accordance with other recent studies. However, we have found that the correalation fades out in the first half of the 20th century (1900-1950) and in the period 1980-2012, even showing significant negative values around the subperiod 1920-1950. Similar indices to the EWI were computed using two different 20th century reanalysis datasets (ERA20C and 20CR-V2C). Despite the fact that both indices show some discrepancies with the EWI before 1950, the correlation analysis with the ISM revealed similar results, pointing out a strong loss of the EWI-ISM correlation in the first half of the 20th century and from 1980 onwards, as well as a marked positive correlated period between 1960 and 1980, specially in August. In this study, we show that

  17. The Roman Catholic Monastic Orders in Eastern Galicia in the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Zhernokleyev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study involves the analysis of the overall quantitative, structural and sociodemographic characteristics of the Roman Catholic monastic Orders in Eastern Galicia as a part of the Galician Crown land of Austria-Hungary in the early 20th century. In the second half of the 19th century, the Roman Catholic monastic communities renewed their activity after a period of decline in the epoch of Enlightenment. The analysis indicates two features that characterize the contemporary Galician monastic Orders – a significant predominance of female members and active social work among the population of the region. Quantitatively, the Roman Catholic monastic structures considerably exceeded those of the Greek Catholic Church.

  18. Alfred Werner's role in the mid-20th century flourishing of American inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labinger, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    The development of organic and physical chemistry as specialist fields, during the middle and end of the 19th century respectively, left inorganic behind as a decidedly less highly regarded subfield of chemistry. Despite Alfred Werner's groundbreaking studies of coordination chemistry in the early 20th century, that inferior status remained in place - particularly in the US - until the 1950s, when the beginnings of a resurgence that eventually restored its parity with the other subfields can be clearly observed. This paper explores the extent to which Werner's heritage - both direct, in the form of academic descendants, and indirect - contributed to those advances.

  19. Numerical methods for ordinary differential equations in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, J. C.

    2000-12-01

    Numerical methods for the solution of initial value problems in ordinary differential equations made enormous progress during the 20th century for several reasons. The first reasons lie in the impetus that was given to the subject in the concluding years of the previous century by the seminal papers of Bashforth and Adams for linear multistep methods and Runge for Runge-Kutta methods. Other reasons, which of course apply to numerical analysis in general, are in the invention of electronic computers half way through the century and the needs in mathematical modelling of efficient numerical algorithms as an alternative to classical methods of applied mathematics. This survey paper follows many of the main strands in the developments of these methods, both for general problems, stiff systems, and for many of the special problem types that have been gaining in significance as the century draws to an end.

  20. The Formation and Development of the Municipal Heraldry in Latvia from the 13th century until 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Šnē, Sigita

    2011-01-01

    Annotation The Formation and Development of the Municipal Heraldry in Latvia from the 13th century until 20th century The Ph.D. thesis aim to characterize the constitution, development, usage and meaning of the coats of arms of Latvia State, towns and cities, and regions (or municipal heraldry) on the basis of the collected both published sources and unpublished archive materials. These issues have been studied only on the popular level up to now, so this research will attempt to fol...

  1. Assortative mating and differential fertility by phenotype and genotype across the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Dalton; Laidley, Thomas; Belsky, Daniel W; Fletcher, Jason M; Boardman, Jason D; Domingue, Benjamin W

    2016-06-14

    This study asks two related questions about the shifting landscape of marriage and reproduction in US society over the course of the last century with respect to a range of health and behavioral phenotypes and their associated genetic architecture: (i) Has assortment on measured genetic factors influencing reproductive and social fitness traits changed over the course of the 20th century? (ii) Has the genetic covariance between fitness (as measured by total fertility) and other traits changed over time? The answers to these questions inform our understanding of how the genetic landscape of American society has changed over the past century and have implications for population trends. We show that husbands and wives carry similar loadings for genetic factors related to education and height. However, the magnitude of this similarity is modest and has been fairly consistent over the course of the 20th century. This consistency is particularly notable in the case of education, for which phenotypic similarity among spouses has increased in recent years. Likewise, changing patterns of the number of children ever born by phenotype are not matched by shifts in genotype-fertility relationships over time. Taken together, these trends provide no evidence that social sorting is becoming increasingly genetic in nature or that dysgenic dynamics have accelerated.

  2. Social stratification at the peasant farmstead in the 20th century in middle Bohemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrcka, Václav; Smrcka, Vít

    2009-01-01

    Three agricultural village homesteads (farmsteads) have been used to describe social development in the course of the 20th century. Distribution of the work, including stratification of prestige and power, is described in detail for the social group living at the farmstead before the World War I and by its end. We used this first period (1901-1918) at the beginning of the 20th century as a model for the social relations outlasting long from the Middle Ages. In the period from the establishment of the First Republic till the end of the World War II (1918-1945) we can witness the replacement of anterior members of the working team (ploughman and senior maid). Due to the lack of farm-hands they are replaced by immigrants from Slovakia. Since 1945 till 1948 the larger family and German prisoners are engaged in the distribution of the work at the farm. In this period of social changes the farmsteads are gradually abolished, which brings about also decomposition of the social group, which was earning its living from the farm. In the development period between 1948 and 1990 we can see the collapse and destruction of the social groups at smaller agricultural farmsteads including larger estates and their replacement by social organisation of agricultural co-operative farms. In the development period lasting from 1990 till the end of the 20th century the agricultural system of smaller farmsteads was partially restored. Thanks to the introduction of new agricultural machines the family alone is able to cultivate the arable land belonging to the farmstead. Specialised companies performing partial works are employed for occasional works. At the majority of farmsteads the traditional farming has not been restored any more.

  3. Coupled model simulations of climate changes in the 20th century and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhi, Hai; Wang, Bin; Wan, Hui; Li, Chao; Liu, Hailong; Li, Wei; Zheng, Weipeng; Zhou, Tianjun

    2008-07-01

    Several scenario experiments of the IPCC 4th Assessment Report (AR4) are performed by version g1.0 of a Flexible coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model (FGOALS) developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP/CAS), including the “Climate of the 20th century experiment”, “CO2 1% increase per year to doubling experiment” and two separate IPCC greenhouse gases emission scenarios A1B and B1 experiments. To distinguish between the different impacts of natural variations and human activities on the climate change, three-member ensemble runs are performed for each scenario experiment. The coupled model simulations show: (1) from 1900 to 2000, the global mean temperature increases about 0.5°C and the major increase occurs during the later half of the 20th century, which is in consistent with the observations that highlights the coupled model’s ability to reproduce the climate changes since the industrial revolution; (2) the global mean surface air temperature increases about 1.6°C in the CO2 doubling experiment and 1.5°C and 2.4°C in the A1B and B1 scenarios, respectively. The global warming is indicated by not only the changes of the surface temperature and precipitation but also the temperature increase in the deep ocean. The thermal expansion of the sea water would induce the rise of the global mean sea level. Both the control run and the 20th century climate change run are carried out again with version g1.1 of FGOALS, in which the cold biases in the high latitudes were removed. They are then compared with those from version g1.0 of FGOALS in order to distinguish the effect of the model biases on the simulation of global warming.

  4. THE POETICS OF IGOR SEVERYANIN AND LITERARY PARODY AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20 TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Kuznetsova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the specificity of the pre-emigrant work by Igor Severyanin and its poetics (absurdity, paradox, mixture of style, nonsense, and exaggeration against the rapid development of popular literature at the turn of the 19 th and 20 th centuries and the rise of parodic genres in particular. Beginning his literary career, the young poet had to develop his own style deriving from the preceding generations of poets — elder and younger generations of Russian Symbolists. Most likely, his style developed as a conscious parody of Symbolist themes, images, masks, and stylistic devices. Critics (K. Mochulsky, W. Hovin, and О. Kushlina already pointed at the overlaps between Severyanin and other Symbolists and featured parodic elements in the work of the former. The rapid development of the genre of literary parody in the Russian literature at the turn of 19 th and 20 th centuries was likely to inspire Severyanin to use parody techniques in his work. To prove this hypothesis, the essay compares Severyanin’s poems with those of his elder contemporaries, such as V. Bryusov and K. Bal’mont and with literary parodies by S. Gorny, K. Chukovsky, and A. Blok that were famous in the early 20 th century. I read some of Severyanin’s poems as hidden parodies or “ambiguous texts.” They are different from traditional parodies in that they may be perceived as serious and independent works in case the background knowledge about their literary context is lost and also depending on the reader’s individual viewpoint.

  5. Melancholia before the 20th century: Fear and Sorrow or Partial Insanity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo eTelles-Correia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of Psychopathology, several meanings have been assigned to the term melancholia. The main ones were related to affective (fear and sadness and thought disorders (a type of mental disorder characterised mainly by the presence of abnormal believes. At the time of Hippocrates melancholia was regarded mainly in its affective component. Since that time, and until the 18th century, authors and opinions have been divided, with both aspects (affective and thought disorders, being valued. Finally, in the 18th-19th centuries, with Pinel at its peak, melancholia becomes exclusively a synonym of thought disorders (abnormal believes: delusions/overvalued ideas.At the turn of the 19th to the 20th century, the affective component returns as the main aspect characterising melancholia.

  6. Life expectancy of the 20th century Venda: a compilation of skeletal and cemetery data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Abbé, E N; Steyn, M; Loots, M

    2008-01-01

    Little information is available on the 20th century mortality rates of rural black South African groups, such as the Venda. The purpose of this study was to apply abridged life tables in order to estimate life expectancy from both skeletal remains and death registry information of modern South African communities. Comparisons were also made with prehistoric and contemporary groups as a means to better evaluate life expectancy for this time period. The sample consisted of 160 skeletons of known Venda origin and burial registry information for 1364 black South Africans from the Rebecca Street and Mamelodi Cemeteries in Pretoria, South Africa. Standard anthropological techniques were applied to determine sex and estimate age from the skeletal remains. The stationary and non-stationary life table models were used to analyse the data. A high rate of child mortality, low juvenile and adult mortality with a steady increase in mortality after the age of 30 years was observed for both the Venda and the cemetery samples. Throughout the 20th century, life expectancy was shown to increase for black South Africans. However, due to the widespread HIV infection/AIDS of the 21st century, infant and young adult mortality rates continue to rise at such a speed that the decline in mortality seen for South Africans in the last 50 years will most likely to be lost in the next decade due to this disease.

  7. The process of Danish nurses’ professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    1904 and 1996. The analysis was inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, in particular the concepts of rupture and rules of formation. First, we explain how the dominating role of the human body in nursing textbooks disappears in the mid-20th century. This transformation can of course be attributed...... to changes in tasks and responsibilities for nurses or to the implementation of increasing amounts of knowledge and theories from other disciplines than medicine into the nurses' knowledge base. However, inspired by Foucault, we consider these historical changes to be the conditions of possibilities...

  8. Paleoimaging of a modern mummy from Lithuania (circa 19th–20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Piombino-Mascali

    Full Text Available An anthropogenic human mummy curated in the Museum of the History of Medicine, Vilnius University, was recently examined by means of computed tomography. Although the mummy lacked data regarding its specific context and historical information on its identity and chronology, the investigation focused on the embalming method adopted to preserve it. Some pathological alterations were also recorded. This research appears to suggest that this body was prepared for educational and/or scientific purposes rather than funerary purposes. Hence, the case could be categorized as a “medical mummy” prepared between the mid-19th and the mid-20th centuries. Keywords: Mummy, Embalming, Education, Anatomy, Radiology

  9. The influence of Meyerhold's biomechanics on 20th century theatre: The principle of equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Prpa-Fink Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Meyerhold's biomechanics (Mejerhol'd Ë. V.), as an acting technique in preparation for a role and performance in front of the audience, originated in the 1920s. It represents a genuine way of work, as it derived from Meyerhold's authentic personality. The need to research the importance and influence of Meyerhold's biomechanics on the 20th century theatre stems from the importance of the opus that Vsevolod Emilevich Meyerhold produced, as well as from the assumption that the output of the 20t...

  10. Advances in stability theory at the end of the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Martynyuk, AA

    2003-01-01

    This volume presents surveys and research papers on various aspects of modern stability theory, including discussions on modern applications of the theory, all contributed by experts in the field. The volume consists of four sections that explore the following directions in the development of stability theory: progress in stability theory by first approximation; contemporary developments in Lyapunov''s idea of the direct method; the stability of solutions to periodic differential systems; and selected applications. Advances in Stability Theory at the End of the 20th Century will interest postgraduates and researchers in engineering fields as well as those in mathematics.

  11. Survival advantage of siblings and spouses of centenarians in 20th-century Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Jarry

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Longevity runs in families, either through genetic or environmental influences. Using Quebec civil registration and historical Canadiancensuses, we compared the longevity of siblings and spouses of 806 centenarians to a group of controls, all born in Quebec at the turnof the 20th century. Our results show that siblings of centenarians, who share half of their genes and a common childhood environment,lived 3–4 years longer than their birth cohort. However, husbands and wives of centenarians lived 4 and 2.5 years longer than theircounterparts of the same sex, respectively, suggesting that longevity is also modulated by shared environment in adulthood.

  12. Nelson Lichtenstein vs. Nelson Lichtenstein and the 20th Century Labor Question

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Kesselman

    2006-01-01

    As Nelson Lichtenstein writes, State of the Union explores the relationship between 20th century U.S. unions and the “labor question,” i.e., the condition of workers, notably marked by social injustice, industrial strife and dislocation. Why, he asks, did labor stand far closer to the center of the nation’s political and moral consciousness than it does today and what role has institutional unionism played here? In other words, why have labor’s “larger ambitions” failed? In this paper, I hope...

  13. Commentary: Mid-20th Century Development of Brazilian Archaeology (1964–1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Two recent articles in the International Journal of Historical Archaeology provide a bit of light on the development of Brazilian archaeology in the middle 20th century. The first is one by Pedro Paulo de Abreu Funari entitled ‘Class Interests in Brazilian Archaeology’ (Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 209–216, 2002 and the second is a heated response to Funari, along with his rejoinder, by James A. Delle, Igor Chmyz, Ondemar Ferreira Dias, Tania Andrade Lima, Betty J. Meggers, and Pedro Paulo de Abreu Funari, entitled ‘On Collaboration, Class Conflict, and Archaeology in Brazil’ (Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 223–237, 2003.

  14. Human impacts on 20th century fire dynamics and implications for global carbon and water trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Lawrence, David M.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben

    2018-03-01

    Fire is a fundamental Earth system process and the primary ecosystem disturbance on the global scale. It affects carbon and water cycles through changing terrestrial ecosystems, and at the same time, is regulated by weather and climate, vegetation characteristics, and, importantly, human ignitions and suppression (i.e., the direct human effect on fire). Here, we utilize the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) to quantify the impacts of changes in human ignition and suppression on fire dynamics and associated carbon and water cycles. We find that the impact is to significantly reduce the 20th century global burned area by a century average of 38 Mha/yr and by 103 Mha/yr at the end of the century. Land carbon gain is weakened by 17% over the 20th century, mainly due to increased human deforestation fires and associated escape fires (i.e., degradation fires) in the tropical humid forests, even though the decrease in burned area in many other regions due to human fire suppression acts to increase land carbon gain. The direct human effect on fire weakens the upward trend in global runoff throughout the century by 6% and enhances the upward trend in global evapotranspiration since 1945 by 7%. In addition, the above impacts in densely populated, highly developed (if population density > 0.1 person/km2), or moderately populated and developed regions are of opposite sign to those in other regions. Our study suggests that particular attention should be paid to human deforestation and degradation fires in the tropical humid forests when reconstructing and projecting fire carbon emissions and net atmosphere-land carbon exchange and estimating resultant impacts of direct human effect on fire.

  15. Human impacts on 20th century fire dynamics and implications for global carbon and water trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fang; Lawrence, David M.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben

    2018-03-01

    Fire is a fundamental Earth system process and the primary ecosystem disturbance on the global scale. It affects carbon and water cycles through changing terrestrial ecosystems, and at the same time, is regulated by weather and climate, vegetation characteristics, and, importantly, human ignitions and suppression (i.e., the direct human effect on fire). Here, we utilize the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) to quantify the impacts of changes in human ignition and suppression on fire dynamics and associated carbon and water cycles. We find that the impact is to significantly reduce the 20th century global burned area by a century average of 38 Mha/yr and by 103 Mha/yr at the end of the century. Land carbon gain is weakened by 17% over the 20th century, mainly due to increased human deforestation fires and associated escape fires (i.e., degradation fires) in the tropical humid forests, even though the decrease in burned area in many other regions due to human fire suppression acts to increase land carbon gain. The direct human effect on fire weakens the upward trend in global runoff throughout the century by 6% and enhances the upward trend in global evapotranspiration since ~ 1945 by 7%. In addition, the above impacts in densely populated, highly developed (if population density > 0.1 person/km2), or moderately populated and developed regions are of opposite sign to those in other regions. Our study suggests that particular attention should be paid to human deforestation and degradation fires in the tropical humid forests when reconstructing and projecting fire carbon emissions and net atmosphere-land carbon exchange and estimating resultant impacts of direct human effect on fire.

  16. CHANGING PARADIGMS IN SPACE THEORIES: Recapturing 20th Century Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Kaçmaz Erk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of space entered architectural history as late as 1893. Studies in art opened up the discussion, and it has been studied in various ways in architecture ever since. This article aims to instigate an additional reading to architectural history, one that is not supported by “isms” but based on space theories in the 20th century. Objectives of the article are to bring the concept of space and its changing paradigms to the attention of architectural researchers, to introduce a conceptual framework to classify and clarify theories of space, and to enrich the discussions on the 20th century architecture through theories that are beyond styles. The introduction of space in architecture will revolve around subject-object relationships, three-dimensionality and senses. Modern space will be discussed through concepts such as empathy, perception, abstraction, and geometry. A scientific approach will follow to study the concept of place through environment, event, behavior, and design methods. Finally, the reearch will look at contemporary approaches related to digitally  supported space via concepts like reality-virtuality, mediated experience, and relationship with machines.

  17. A multidisciplinary study of significant migrations on the territory of Vojvodina in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjeljac Željko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrations of population in a particular area and/or at a particular time represent the phenomenon of global proportions. As such, they require multidisciplinary approach to research. The most common questions posed by the individual, but also multidisciplinary scientific disciplines are: Who is moving? Where are they going? Why do they go? What are the natural and economic conditions of migrations? Why do migrations occur and how they maintain over time? Multidisciplinary research of migrations is very important for a more complete understanding of this process, primarily from the physical, historical, economic, ethnographic, anthropological, legal, politicological, sociological, etc. The aim of the paper is to highlight the importance of multidisciplinary research through the representation of some major migrations in Vojvodina in the 20th century. As a subject of research the following has been singled out: colonization (immigration of population from 1919 to 1930, 1945-1948 (there are some similarities among them (population decline, new social and political conditions and legal regulation, difficulties to get used to new ways of life, mixing folklore and customs with the local population. The paper includes the emigration of the German population from Vojvodina, 1944-1950, as part of one of the largest (e migrations in Europe in the 20th century. This migration, seen from legal, economic, historical and political aspects has consequences today, during the approach of Serbia to the European Union. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47007 i br. III47027

  18. Banknote Typography with a Particular Reference to Croatia through the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilko Žiljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the research of transformation of formatting information on banknotes during the 20th century, which is the period of some of the greatest graphical innovations after Gutenberg’s invention of movable type printing. Computer graphics had taken over in the field of typography in the exact moment of hand engraving’s highest level of art in the creation of the font cut. About forty years ago, the era of etching used in copper etching and steel engraving in hand - made drawings had begun, along with the use of phototypesetting as the representative of digital technology. Quality of the written lines has introduced microtypography as a special method of rasterization in the background of banknotes. In Croatia, the above mentioned modifications are present through the works of our typographers, even though the multiplication of banknotes was done in foreign printing houses that had appropriately protected printing technology. The paper contributes to the scientific analysis of the technical aspect of banknote making on Croatia’s soil during the course of the 20th century, and this, with the methods of analysis and synthesis incorporated, gives a clear picture and transparency into the method of banknote making, both from a technological and development cycle - making aspect. Given the fact that not only the Croatian banknotes are examined, analysis contributes to comparative procedures of local scopes in the field of technological manufacture of other banknotes that belong to the same time period.

  19. „One-way ticket” Romanian Migration at the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bocancea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the new age of migration that we are experiencing now, the social mobility specific to the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century may be defined by the expression “one way ticket”; the immigrant, usually a man, used to leave his country of origin and settle for good in his host-country (he did not look for his happiness from state to state, as it happens now. The Romanian migration of that time was directed mainly towards the New World (particularly to the USA, and less to Canada. This paper is an attempt to sketch the image of Romanian emigration by taking into account the peculiarities determined by: emigration causes, geographical predominance, social composition, occupational options in the host-country, and the structure of Romanian immigrant communities.

  20. The municipal continuum: Research on maritime water pollution in Helsinki in the 20th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, S. K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social History; Laakkonen, S. J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Policy

    2004-07-01

    In general, the history of environmental research is not known very well. Our study contributes to filling this gap by focusing on the history of the methods that were used during the 20th century to study the state of the urban sea area in Helsinki, Finland. From the beginning of the past century, the methodological basis of municipal water pollution studies in Helsinki was broad, involving the use of physical, chemical, hygienic and biological methods. Since 1904, municipal laboratories have overseen and conducted most physico-chemical and bacteriological studies of pollution of urban watercourses, and they have done regular annual sampling since 1947. In the 1920s and 1930s, the municipal laboratories cooperated with the University of Helsinki and, secondarily, with the Helsinki University of Technology in order to develop the skills and manpower that were required in order to conduct pollution studies. Statutory monitoring was initiated in the mid-1960s, and it continues today. (orig.)

  1. Historiography of mathematics in the 19th and 20th centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Martina; Sørensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the historiography of mathematics as it was practiced during the 19th and 20th centuries by paying special attention to the cultural contexts in which the history of mathematics was written. In the 19th century, the history of mathematics was recorded by a diverse range of people trained in various fields and driven by different motivations and aims. These backgrounds often shaped not only their writing on the history of mathematics, but, in some instances, were also influential in their subsequent reception. During the period from roughly 1880-1940, mathematics modernized in important ways, with regard to its content, its conditions for cultivation, and its identity; and the writing of the history of mathematics played into the last part in particular. Parallel to the modernization of mathematics, the history of mathematics gradually evolved into a field of research with its own journals, societies and academic positions. Reflecting both a new professional identity and changes in its prim...

  2. Effects of Irrigation on Global Climate During the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, M. J.; Cook, B. I.

    2010-01-01

    Various studies have documented the effects of modern ]day irrigation on regional and global climate, but none, to date, have considered the time ]varying impact of steadily increasing irrigation rates on climate during the 20th century. We investigate the impacts of observed irrigation changes over this century with two ensemble simulations using an atmosphere general circulation model. Both ensembles are forced with transient climate forcings and observed sea surface temperatures from 1902 to 2000; one ensemble includes irrigation specified by a time ]varying data set of irrigation water withdrawals. Early in the century, irrigation is primarily localized over southern and eastern Asia, leading to significant cooling in boreal summer (June.August) over these regions. This cooling spreads and intensifies by century fs end, following the rapid expansion of irrigation over North America, Europe, and Asia. Irrigation also leads to boreal winter (December.February) warming over parts of North America and Asia in the latter part of the century, due to enhanced downward longwave fluxes from increased near ]surface humidity. Precipitation increases occur primarily downwind of the major irrigation areas, although precipitation in parts of India decreases due to a weaker summer monsoon. Irrigation begins to significantly reduce temperatures and temperature trends during boreal summer over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and tropics beginning around 1950; significant increases in precipitation occur in these same latitude bands. These trends reveal the varying importance of irrigation ]climate interactions and suggest that future climate studies should account for irrigation, especially in regions with unsustainable irrigation resources.

  3. Impact test comparisons of 20th and 21st century American football helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam; Benzel, Edward; Miele, Vincent; Prakash, Vikas

    2012-01-01

    Concussion is the signature American football injury of the 21st century. Modern varsity helmets, as compared with vintage leather helmets, or "leatherheads," are widely believed to universally improve protection by reducing head impact doses and head injury risk for the 3 million young football players in the US. The object of this study was to compare the head impact doses and injury risks with 11 widely used 21st century varsity helmets and 2 early 20th century leatherheads and to hypothesize what the results might mean for children wearing similar varsity helmets. In an injury biomechanics laboratory, the authors conducted front, oblique front, lateral, oblique rear, and rear head impact tests at 5.0 m/second using helmeted headforms, inducing near- and subconcussive head impact doses on par with approximately the 95th percentile of on-field collision severity. They also calculated impact dose injury risk parameters common to laboratory and on-field traumatic neuromechanics: linear acceleration, angular acceleration, angular velocity, Gadd Severity Index, diffuse axonal injury, acute subdural hematoma, and brain contusion. In many instances the head impact doses and head injury risks while wearing vintage leatherheads were comparable to or better than those while wearing several widely used 21st century varsity helmets. The authors do not advocate reverting to leather headgear, but they do strongly recommend, especially for young players, instituting helmet safety designs and testing standards, which encourage the minimization of linear and angular impact doses and injury risks in near- and subconcussive head impacts.

  4. Atomic Pioneers Book 3 From the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1973-01-01

    This book tells the story of the atom by presenting a brief account of the lives and work of 24 atomic scientists who brought the world into the complex Age of the Atom by mid-20th century. The 24 are: Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Peter J.W. Debye, Niels Bohr, George von Hevesy, Henry G.J. Moseley, Gustav Hertz, Erwin Schrodinger, Otto Stern, James Chadwick, Arthur H. Compton, Louis Victor de Broglie, Harold C. Urey, John D. Cockcroft, Patrick M.S. Blackett, Isidor I. Rabi, Leo Szilard, Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Wolfgang Pauli, Ernest O. Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Robert J. Van de Graaff.

  5. Corpus methods and their reflection in linguistic theories of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Krek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 20th century structuralism established itself as the central linguistic theory, in the first half mainly through its originator Ferdinand de Saussure, and in the second half with the figure of Noam Chomsky. The latter consistently refused to acknowledge analysis of extensive quantity of texts as a valuable method, and favoured linguistic intuition of a native speaker instead. In parallel with structuralism other trends in linguistics emerged which pointed to the inadequateness of the prevailing linguistic paradigm and to theoretical insights which were only possible after the systematic analysis of large quantities of texts. The paper discusses some of the dilemmas stemming from this dichotomy and places corpus linguistics in a broader linguistic context.

  6. Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.

    The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milanković on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

  7. Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ~450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ~70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3oC, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system.

  8. Cognitive study and upgrading of the 20th century architectonic heritage: experiences and methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ascione

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One component of the heritage of publicly funded property developments put up since the Second World War is residential districts designed by leading architects in which upgrading has to take into account considerations of safeguarding. The raising of the threshold from 50 to 70 years before safeguarding norms come into effect means that local authorities and management companies have sole responsibility for the modification and safeguarding of this heritage. This paper looks at some examples of 20th century housing estates designated for upgrading in order to highlight the specific strategies adopted, selected from a range of actions based on the need for accurate knowledge and collective agreement by all the parties involved right from the design phase.

  9. A sort of revolution: Systematics and physical anthropology in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmill, Matt

    2018-04-01

    During the first four decades of the 20th century, a system of ideas about the evolution and systematics of humans and other primates coalesced around the work of George Gaylord Simpson and W. E. Le Gros Clark. Buttressed by the "new physical anthropology" of the 1950s, that system provided an authoritative model-a disciplinary matrix or paradigm-for the practice of that aspect of biological anthropology. The Simpson-Le Gros Clark synthesis began to unravel in the 1960s and collapsed in the 1970s under the onslaught of cladistic systematics. The cladistic "revolution" resembles a paradigm shift of the sort proposed by Thomas Kuhn because it was driven, not by new biological discoveries or theories, but by a change in aesthetics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. WILLIAM GURNEE SINNIGEN - 20TH CENTURY CLASSICIST AND ROMAN HISTORIAN: BIOGRAPHY & BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Gray Marsh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available William Gurnee Sinnigen was a Classicist and Roman historian, active in the mid-to-late 20th century. Trained at the University of Michigan by noted Roman administrative historian Arthur E. R. Boak, Sinnigen continued his mentor’s work in administrative history, producing several articles on different aspects of Roman and Byzantine administrative topics.  Sinnigen was also responsible for the revision and update of Boak’s acclaimed textbook on Roman history, as well as Charles Alexander Robinson’s textbook on Ancient history.  This article will provide a brief biography of Professor Sinnigen, along with a bibliography of his published works and reviews by other scholars of his work.

  11. Rapid 20th-century increase in coastal upwelling off northwest Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, H V; Dima, M; Fischer, H W; Mulitza, S

    2007-02-02

    Near-shore waters along the northwest African margin are characterized by coastal upwelling and represent one of the world's major upwelling regions. Sea surface temperature (SST) records from Moroccan sediment cores, extending back 2500 years, reveal anomalous and unprecedented cooling during the 20th century, which is consistent with increased upwelling. Upwelling-driven SSTs also vary out of phase with millennial-scale changes in Northern Hemisphere temperature anomalies (NHTAs) and show relatively warm conditions during the Little Ice Age and relatively cool conditions during the Medieval Warm Period. Together, these results suggest that coastal upwelling varies with NHTAs and that upwelling off northwest Africa may continue to intensify as global warming and atmospheric CO2 levels increase.

  12. Trousseau: economic and design aspects from the second half of 20th century in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laktim, M. C.; Giacomin, A. M.; Silva-Santos, M. C.; Santos, H. N.; Borelli, C.; Baruque-Ramos, J.

    2017-10-01

    The trousseau is notorious since antiquity and has been influenced by a series of modifications, reflected in the type of fabric, confection, design, fashion and market share. This study aimed to present economic and design aspects of the bedding, table and bath linen sector (also known as bed, bath and beyond) occurred from the second half of the 20th century to recently in Brazil. A bibliographic research was carried out from the scientific literature and magazines of the area, notably the “Revista Vogue Casa Brasil” (“Vogue House Brazil Magazine”). It is concluded that the classic patterns predominate: white color and cotton in bed, table and bath products, being embroidery the most outstanding style ornament. The maintenance of these standards by the Brazilian manufacturers is interesting to maintain sales in the domestic market, but a limitation for export products destined to publics with different values and aesthetic tastes and with greater supply of items with variety of surface designs.

  13. Delusion content across the 20th century in an American psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Brooke J; Kramer, Lorraine Masinos

    2012-05-01

    Differences in delusion content have been studied across time periods and in various international samples, with variations reflecting sociocultural influences. A similar analysis of delusion content in an American sample has yet to be reported. : The current study seeks to contribute to this growing database by reporting delusion content from a sample in the US across a 100-year period. Archival medical records of 102 patients hospitalized for psychosis across the 20th century were examined for types of delusion content. Random samples were selected from each decade. All patients were hospitalized at the same state psychiatric facility in the US. Persecutory was the most common delusion category, followed by religious, somatic and grandiose. Greater frequency of persecutory delusions occurred after 1950. Delusion content also reflected sociocultural factors during the associated time period. As in most samples internationally, persecutory was the most common delusion type. Delusion content paralleled sociocultural changes, as has been reported in non-American samples.

  14. [Demographic and epidemiologic changes in Colombia during the 20th century: facts and explanations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2005-12-01

    Research, education, organization and administration activities in health need an updated panoramic view of demographic and epidemiologic changes and tendencies. To describe the main changes in demography and epidemiology during the 20th century in Colombia and to comment on the causative models used by some authors. A descriptive and longitudinal study. Second hand information from various sources was used. The final section of the review includes a discussion on the interpretation of data given by the original authors. In 1905-2005, population increased from 4,737,588 inhabitants to 48,864,013. The age distribution of the population showed dramatic changes: the true pyramid, as seen in 1951, changed into a distorted figure (no apparent differences between 0 and 14 years of age). Both children and youngsters lost representation on age structure, while adult and older individuals gain representation. During 1905-1938, the birth rate was 43% and by the end of 2005 it will be 22%. Mortality dropped a 75%, falling from 23% in 1905-1912 to 6% in 1885-1993, but it rose a 33% after 1993, and will reach 8.3% in 2010. In 1938, the urban population was 31% and in 2002, 72%. Mortality discriminated by cause changed in a significant manner during the second half of the 20th century. Infectious-parasitic and perinatal diseases, the main cause of death by the end of the 1960-1969 decade, lost importance on behalf of degenerative diseases, accidents and homicides which are now the most frequent. Conclusions. Our present population density is relatively low. The demographic change has been profound but the velocity has been more important. The aging of population has serious implications for the country. These notable modifications in Colombian families raise challenges in all social fields. The demographic and epidemiological changes (structure and level of morbimortality) require a serious analysis, and easy explanations do not have to be accepted without repairs.

  15. Sub-daily extreme events distribution and changes in Northeastern Brazil in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Basso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regional analysis of extreme hydrological events is connected with the availability of a dense network of rainfall data that is absent or inaccessible in Brazil, especially for sub-daily information. In engineering, extreme events rainfall information is represented by intensity–duration–frequency (IDF relationships which are the most commonly used tools in water resources engineering for planning and design. Even if the sub-daily information that is included in the relationships is not available, the extreme rainfall information rest in the fundamentals of the IDF. This paper analyzes spatial distribution and track changes in sub-daily precipitation over Northeastern (NE Brazil. Precipitation was estimated from IDF relationships information in Brazil based in rainfall measured from 1920's to 1950's (but still used in engineering projects and information from the last half of the 20th century obtained from several IDFs gathered from municipalities' manuals, local symposia and books in many cases not easily obtainable. Results showed an intensification of extreme events in recent years, especially in shorter duration rainfall (less than 12 h. Hourly rainfall is bigger in almost all the Brazilian region, but especially in littoral and Northern portion, however, 12 and 24 h rainfall exhibit increases in the North, but, lower values in the Southern half of the region in concordance with flood changes reported by Milly et al. (2005. Analyzing the ratio between 1 and 24 h rainfall is possible to confirm its increase in all the region, with up to 35% in some areas. These results were able to show insight of sub-daily extreme events changes during 20th century in NE Brazil were previous reports were not found. The results also alerts for the necessity of engineering projects review, as outdated information is still being used for design purposes.

  16. Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC and cloudy types; most of these studies focus on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain since the second half of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. These estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866–2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the majority of the trends observed in many areas of the world in previous

  17. Introduction to Music and Art in Albania during the 20-th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kaçinari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Albanian music, which dates back to the Albanian Independence, is characterized by two main aspects: supporting of patriotic, illuminist and democratic ideas and a model in most classical or romantic music as well as being linked to folk music. The history of last year’s is followed with the oppression and dream to come close to the European Culture. During this relatively long period (almost half century, the first musical compositions were created in Albania. Initially there were some pre - professional attempts to create genuine musical compositions which had a significant role in some aspects. First, these compositions leaded to the creation of the first musical genres of the Albanian music. Second, different vocal and orchestral ensembles started to include in their repertoires operas of Albanian authors and in the case of vocal operas, even with Albanian language texts. Third, the level of musical compositions was updated, from folk music towards a level that would improve decade after decade. From the ranking of piano operas of the Albanian music that I did and showed at the end of this work, it is noticed that the first operas of our piano music sprung during the first years of 20th century. Those years were filled with endeavours and struggles for national identity, for the protection of borders from excessive greed of our neighbours or superpowers interests and also years of the first attempts to follow the steps of developed countries’ cultures that surround us. So it was the time of efforts for cultivation of people and step by step creation of our cultural identity. Referring to this, the Albanian writer, aesthete, translator and teacher Ernest Koliqi wrote: “It is an axiomatic affirmation that small nations that would not know how to organise their culture, fatally would dissolve under huge political and social exacerbations emerging today. We are moving toward formation of a politically united Europe and through sufferings

  18. [Curse and blessing of combat ophthalmology in the 20th and 21st centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümbel, H

    2009-08-01

    Combat injuries in the literature are dominated by reports on the rescue of life and body trauma treatment of casualties. In the 20th and 21st centuries, preservation of the eyes would be more and more an extremely important goal. In World War I and II and along with the trends in current warfare, automatic weapons and conventional munitions like shrapnel will continue to cause a significant percentage of all ocular trauma in combat. There are also laser weapons which have the potential to cause blinding eye injuries. In spite of the curse of war there are also blessings of combat ophthalmology like the invention of the intraocular lens after the Second World War, when the plexiglas of a broken cockpit canopy was found to be inert in penetrating eye injuries. A significant ly better eye protection was developed following terror attacks, such as terrorist blasts in the 21st century. Finally, every new generation of military ophthalmologists has had to learn on its own from earlier armed conflicts and some of this knowledge could be helpful for our patients in more peaceful times. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  19. Age-specific measles mortality during the late 19th-early 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G D; Waller, M; Briem, H; Gottfredsson, M

    2015-12-01

    Measles mortality fell prior to the introduction of vaccines or antibiotics. By examining historical mortality reports we sought to determine how much measles mortality was due to epidemiological factors such as isolation from major population centres or increased age at time of infection. Age-specific records were available from Aberdeen; Scotland; New Zealand and the states of Australia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Despite the relative isolation of Australia, measles mortality was concentrated in very young children similar to Aberdeen. In the more isolated states of Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland adults made up 14-15% of measles deaths as opposed to 8-9% in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales. Mortality in Iceland and Faroe Islands during the 1846 measles epidemic was used as an example of islands isolated from respiratory pathogens. The transition from crisis mortality across all ages to deaths concentrated in young children occurred prior to the earliest age-specific mortality data collected. Factors in addition to adult age of infection and epidemiological isolation such as nutritional status and viral virulence may have contributed to measles mortality outcomes a century ago.

  20. [Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat, Haring 20th century American painters from a psychological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petôvári, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat and Haring made an international reputation for themselves with their art foremost of the American artists of the 20th century, and became pop cultural icons for the man in the street and for the media as well. Accordingly to the habits of the consumer society their art and even themselves become product and consumer's goods. Their not mistaken, individual style - which also became their trademark - makes that possible. The connection between the four artists is that each of them had a dependent personality, their fine art activity was arguable in their period, and after all themselves and his artworks get into the increased attention of the media. These four artists embody the brand-new artist type, who steps into a star status. Besides the artworks the artist also get into the focus of interest. Through psychological aspect their artworks tell a lot about their way of life, their personality, and the social estate around them. Four of them were catalysts, they set new art trends. The influence of Basquiat and Haring stretched over to the 21st century, and keeps going in the graffiti street-art which gets into the "high art" at last, and captivates the art galleries and critics as well.

  1. Compositores Latino-Americanos and New Paradigms of the 20th Century Classical Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Monteiro da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the direction taken by some Latin American composers in light of the new tendencies aimed to challenge paradigms of traditional Western classical music during the 20th century. Latin American composers were influenced by these tendencies to a greater or lesser degree depending on the place and time they lived. They worked with different styles and techniques while attempting to maintain a dialogue with the production of other contemporary artists without losing their identity. Some of these practices are shown in this paper. The examples were taken from a set of 54 pieces for piano recorded by Beatriz Balzi, an Argentinian-Brazilian pianist, contained in her album entitled Compositores Latino-americanos [Latin American Composers]. Exemplifying 13 Latin American countries, this repertoire was analyzed by the authors in order to define the most common practices adopted and/or created by the composers chosen by Balzi. These practices were then catalogued into six topics and organized in chronological order of events and styles to which they relate. To describe the main tendencies mentioned in this paper the authors adopted Stefan Kostka's Materials and Techniques of Twentieth Century Music for his clear, objective writing. This work helped to contextualize Balzi's repertoire, comparing the Latin American compositional process to some of the most respected musicians of the Western world.

  2. Santorini Volcano's 20th Century Eruptions: A Combined Petrogenetical, Volcanological, Sociological and Environmental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymoni, Kyriaki; Magganas, Andreas; Pomonis, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    Santorini, the famous stratovolcano in the Aegean Sea, erupted three time periods during the 20th century (1925-1928, 1939-1941, 1950) and since then remains dormant. This study tried to combine and evaluate new and published volcanological, petrological, geochemical, environmental and sociological data of these three phases of Santorini's activity, which practically restricted to the caldera center on the Nea Kameni Islet. After field work on the formed dacite flows, pyroclastics and domes, representative rock samples and enclaves were collected and investigated for their texture, physical parameters, mineralogy and chemical composition by polarizing light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), XRD, Raman spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The petrogenetic evaluation of the data obtained suggests slight but significant changes in the solid and aerial phases produced during the three explosion stages, which can be attributed to minor variations in the magmatic differentiation and magma chamber physicochemical conditions. These variations were also expressed by decrease of duration and intensity of the eruptions, as well as in their volume of ejecta and lava. Probably, the subsequent relatively long dormant period of the volcano is also related to this tension of decrease. The first compared results were collected from scientific literature, old photos as well as local and regional press and state documents from the different periods of volcanism, record the past hazard case scenarios and civil defense planning of the individual eruptions. As part of the disaster management a pilot survey, in which personal interviews with aged local islanders that were eye-witnesses of the events and elderly people or tourists that they indirectly experienced or have heard about them, was also conducted. This event-tracing, along with air pollution software models using volcanological data have shown the social impacts and the environmental consequences of the volcanic

  3. [Development of 'Ordnungstherapie' by Bircher-Benner in naturopathy of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, J; Melchart, D; Saller, R

    2004-10-01

    The German term 'Ordnungstherapie' is one of the five therapeutics which defines naturopathy in German-speaking countries. Who formed the term Ordnungstherapie in naturopathy and what does it mean? Heuristics and criticism of literature of the 20th century as well as database research. Nowadays in German-language medical books Ordnungstherpie belongs to the five therapeutics which define European naturopathy. Yet, the interpretation ranges from health education to body-orientated forms of psychotherapy. The term Ordnungstherapie is often related with the German priest and hydropath Sebastian Kneipp, however, term and definition have been founded by the Swiss physician Maximillian Bircher-Benner. In 1937 he defined Ordnungstherapie as a complex concept of natural healing. It is based upon the rather nosological idea that health is order/harmony in the human body (physically, psychologically), the environment and the daily course. Illness occurs if disorder appears in one of these fields. The therapeutic setting of Ordnungstherapy is defined by 9 rules of conduct to maintain order, which include nutrition, the skin as an organ (exposure to light, air, water), breathing, movement, rhythm of life, and psyche. For all these aspects Bircher-Benner himself uses the terms somatotherapy (dietotherapy, sun and light therapy, hydrotherapy, exercise therapy, breathing technique, order of the rhythm of live) and psychotherapy. He chose these complementary methods subjectively after learning them from 1897 onwards in an eclectic manner and after gaining therapeutic empiricism. Nevertheless his ideas of the Ordnungstherapie correlate with the socio-political context of the 1940ies. The term Ordnungstherapie was introduced by Bircher-Benner as an umbrella term in 1937 to describe a complex concept of naturopathic therapies. It comprises, with certain limitations for phytotherapy, the therapies which nowadays define European naturopathy. Yet, in European naturopathy today

  4. Intra- to multi-decadal terrestrial precipitation regimes at the end of the 20th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauget, S.A. [US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, USDA Plant Stress and Water Conservation Laboratory, Lubbock, Texas, 3810 4th Street, Lubbock, TX 79415 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    Intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) variation in terrestrial precipitation during 1901-98 was evaluated here by sampling annual precipitation rankings over 6-30 year moving time windows and converting those rankings to Mann-Whitney U statistics. Those U statistics were then used to identify the most significant concentrations of wet and dry years relative to a null hypothesis that assumes stationary climate variability. This time series analysis approach served as the basis of a climate survey method used to identify IMD precipitation regimes over continental areas, and was also used to evaluate IMD variation in time series of annual precipitation spatially averaged over those areas. These methods showed a highly significant incidence of wet years over North America during 1972-98, with 8 of the 10 wettest years of 1901-98 occurring during that 27-year period. A comparably significant incidence of late century wetness was also found over a northern Europe grid region, with 7 of the 10 wettest years occurring during 1978-98. Although significant wet and dry regimes were also found over other land areas in the last decades of the 20th century, the late century North American and northern European wet periods stood out as the most statistically significant found here during 1901-98. It is suggested that these recent wet periods are actually terrestrial evidence of a single multi-decadal precipitation mode extending across the North Atlantic, and the most observable evidence of an even broader pattern of recent North Atlantic climate change.

  5. William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse astronomy and the castle in nineteenth-century Ireland

    CERN Document Server

    Mollan, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    This is a revealing account of the family life and achievements of the Third Earl of Rosse, a hereditary peer and resident landlord at Birr Castle, County Offaly, in nineteenth-century Ireland, before, during and after the devastating famine of the 1840s. He was a remarkable engineer, who built enormous telescopes in the cloudy middle of Ireland. The book gives details, in an attractive non-technical style which requires no previous scientific knowledge, of his engineering initiatives and the astronomical results, but also reveals much more about the man and his contributions - locally in the

  6. Reconciling past changes in Earth's rotation with 20th century global sea-level rise: Resolving Munk's enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Dumberry, Mathieu; Stanley, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    In 2002, Munk defined an important enigma of 20th century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise that has yet to be resolved. First, he listed three canonical observations related to Earth's rotation [(i) the slowing of Earth's rotation rate over the last three millennia inferred from ancient eclipse observations, and changes in the (ii) amplitude and (iii) orientation of Earth's rotation vector over the last century estimated from geodetic and astronomic measurements] and argued that they could all be fit by a model of ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) associated with the last ice age. Second, he demonstrated that prevailing estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (~1.5 to 2.0 mm/year), after correction for the maximum signal from ocean thermal expansion, implied mass flux from ice sheets and glaciers at a level that would grossly misfit the residual GIA-corrected observations of Earth's rotation. We demonstrate that the combination of lower estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (up to 1990) improved modeling of the GIA process and that the correction of the eclipse record for a signal due to angular momentum exchange between the fluid outer core and the mantle reconciles all three Earth rotation observations. This resolution adds confidence to recent estimates of individual contributions to 20th century sea-level change and to projections of GMSL rise to the end of the 21st century based on them.

  7. International dimensions of higher education in nursing in Canada: tapping the wisdom of the 20th century while embracing possibilities for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Linda D; Paul, Pauline; Burgess-Pinto, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    New focus on the internationalization of universities occurred in the late 20th century and higher education in nursing has been quick to embrace the opportunities. In this manuscript, writers provide a brief overview of the nursing and more general literature from the late 20th century relating to key dimensions of internationalization, as well as present data from a survey conducted in 1995-96 of the international activities and dimensions at Canadian faculties/schools of nursing. While it is clear that nurses in Canadian universities were engaged in significant international endeavours in the 20th century, the literature and our experience suggest that the extent of such activity has increased substantially in recent years. Discussion centres on examination of how knowledge generated in the 20th century can inform current internationalization initiatives and on identification of key questions that merit consideration as we move forward in the 21st century.

  8. The Investigation in Terms of Design Component of Ottoman Women Entari in 19th Century and Early 20th Century

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    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study various entaries belonging to the 19th century and early 20th century in terms of design elements and principles. As result of the studies, it was seen that the X silhouette, the straight line type, vertical line direction, velvet, and silky textures, purple color tones in the base, and golden yellow in the embroidery were mostly used. Symmetric balance and symmetric decoration are observed most and it was determined that there were no principle of motion in entari in general, the point of emphasis was in the embroidery, there was no contrast in line and color elements and all design details were in compliance with each other. This study is deemed significant in terms of attracting attention to and introduction of historical clothing important in protecting cultural heritage, and for exhibiting the refined superior aesthetics of period Ottoman Turks.

  9. The dynamic intensity of CO 2 emissions: empirical evidence for the 20 th century

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    DIEGO CARNEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The debate around the economic growth and environmental degradation is the hot topic among academics. However, up to a point, all of them embrace the uncontroversial view that tells us that anthropic factors have leverage on global climate. It happens that the so-called greenhouse effect is closely related to the accumulation of certain gases in the atmosphere, e.g., carbon dioxide, whose original source comes from productive sectors. Thus, our purpose in this article is to estimate the rate of emission intensity - here we mean the ratio between CO2 emissions and GDP - which has increased since the early part of the 20th century. To support that idea, this study reports on data from 24 different countries. In terms of C02 emission, the results undoubtedly show that United Kingdom and the United States highlight a negative picture, particularly when both are compared to India. It should be noted the presence of structural changes, which coincide with three major historical events: the World War I (1914-1918, the Great Depression in the 1930s, and finally the Oil-price shocks in the 1970s. As the result of the analysis demonstrates, the amount of emission produced by developing countries is surprisingly low. That the technology reveals its relative merit for reducing the overall emission intensity is transparently obvious.

  10. The Development of Agriculture and Trade Relations in the Caucasus in the Early 20th Century

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    Tatiana E. Gvarliani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of agriculture and trade relations in the Caucasus in the early 20th century. This article utilizes the records of Georgian national archives, pre-revolutionary periodicals and monographic literature published in pre-revolutionary, soviet and Russian contemporary periods. The authors used the research methods such as principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, comprehensive accounting of the economic indicators of agriculture development and trade in the Caucasus and the maximum possible neutrality of the researcher to interpret factual material. The authors come to the conclusion that the development of agriculture in the Caucasus after the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907 years in the subsequent period before the First World War entered into the stage of recovery. The reasons of this phenomenon became the discovery of significant quantities of oil, cement, manganese and other fields. The objects of the industry demanded also the additional food supply, this enabled the agriculture in the Caucasus to develop actively.

  11. Coralline algal barium as indicator for 20th century northwestern North Atlantic surface ocean freshwater variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzinger, S; Halfar, J; Zack, T; Mecking, J V; Kunz, B E; Jacob, D E; Adey, W H

    2013-01-01

    During the past decades climate and freshwater dynamics in the northwestern North Atlantic have undergone major changes. Large-scale freshening episodes, related to polar freshwater pulses, have had a strong influence on ocean variability in this climatically important region. However, little is known about variability before 1950, mainly due to the lack of long-term high-resolution marine proxy archives. Here we present the first multidecadal-length records of annually resolved Ba/Ca variations from Northwest Atlantic coralline algae. We observe positive relationships between algal Ba/Ca ratios from two Newfoundland sites and salinity observations back to 1950. Both records capture episodical multi-year freshening events during the 20th century. Variability in algal Ba/Ca is sensitive to freshwater-induced changes in upper ocean stratification, which affect the transport of cold, Ba-enriched deep waters onto the shelf (highly stratified equals less Ba/Ca). Algal Ba/Ca ratios therefore may serve as a new resource for reconstructing past surface ocean freshwater changes.

  12. Quantifying the quiet epidemic: Diagnosing dementia in late 20th-century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan

    2014-12-01

    During the late 20 th century numerical rating scales became central to the diagnosis of dementia and helped transform attitudes about its causes and prevalence. Concentrating largely on the development and use of the Blessed Dementia Scale, I argue that rating scales served professional ends during the 1960s and 1970s. They helped old age psychiatrists establish jurisdiction over conditions such as dementia and present their field as a vital component of the welfare state, where they argued that 'reliable modes of diagnosis' were vital to the allocation of resources. I show how these arguments appealed to politicians, funding bodies and patient groups, who agreed that dementia was a distinct disease and claimed research on its causes and prevention should be designated 'top priority'. But I also show that worries about the replacement of clinical acumen with technical and depersonalized methods, which could conceivably be applied by anyone, led psychiatrists to stress that rating scales had their limits and could be used only by trained experts.

  13. Measles epidemics of variable lethality in the early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis; Hu, Zheng; Waller, Michael; Lee, Seung-eun; Terfa, Daniel; Howard, Alan; van Heyningen, Elizabeth; Brundage, John F

    2014-02-15

    Until the mid-20th century, mortality rates were often very high during measles epidemics, particularly among previously isolated populations (e.g., islanders), refugees/internees who were forcibly crowded into camps, and military recruits. Searching for insights regarding measles mortality rates, we reviewed historical records of measles epidemics on the Polynesian island of Rotuma (in 1911), in Boer War concentration camps (in 1900-1902), and in US Army mobilization camps during the First World War (in 1917-1918). Records classified measles deaths by date and clinical causes; by demographic characteristics, family relationships (for Rotuma islanders and Boer camp internees), and prior residences; and by camp (for Boer internees and US Army recruits). During the Rotuman and Boer War epidemics, measles-related mortality rates were high (up to 40%); however, mortality rates differed more than 10-fold across camps/districts, even though conditions were similar. During measles epidemics, most deaths among camp internees/military recruits were due to secondary bacterial pneumonias; in contrast, most deaths among Rotuman islanders were due to gastrointestinal complications. The clinical expressions, courses, and outcomes of measles during first-contact epidemics differ from those during camp epidemics. The degree of isolation from respiratory pathogens other than measles may significantly determine measles-related mortality risk.

  14. Randomised multichannel singular spectrum analysis of the 20th century climate data

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    Teija Seitola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a new algorithm called randomised multichannel singular spectrum analysis (RMSSA, which is a generalisation of the traditional multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA into problems of arbitrarily large dimension. RMSSA consists of (1 a dimension reduction of the original data via random projections, (2 the standard MSSA step and (3 a recovery of the MSSA eigenmodes from the reduced space back to the original space. The RMSSA algorithm is presented in detail and additionally we show how to integrate it with a significance test based on a red noise null-hypothesis by Monte-Carlo simulation. Finally, RMSSA is applied to decompose the 20th century global monthly mean near-surface temperature variability into its low-frequency components. The decomposition of a reanalysis data set and two climate model simulations reveals, for instance, that the 2–6 yr variability centred in the Pacific Ocean is captured by all the data sets with some differences in statistical significance and spatial patterns.

  15. Parenthood characteristics in Serbia at the end of the 20th century, relevant for reproductive behavior

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    Kuburović Ankica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of insufficient childbearing is a demographic and social problem of contemporary society. In order to resolve the determination of low fertility in Serbia at the end of the 20th century, empirical research of the effects of reproductive behavior had been intensified. The purpose of this paper is to point out to the characteristics of parenthood relevant for bringing the decision on giving birth to children on the basis of this empirical material. A comparative approach, based on illuminating the compatibility of practice and models of responsible parenthood, enables the recognition of limiting factors of childbearing not only of those who are already parents but of young people who still do not have this experience. The complexity and responsibility of the parent role are stressed as part of the experience as well as the basic characteristic of the parenthood model. An adequate and efficient rehabilitation of the role of parenthood, as a necessity of the pro-natal policy must take into consideration the gender asymmetry of parenthood into consideration as well.

  16. Limited creativity: Women in the Serbian architecture from the early 20th century to date

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    Vukotić-Lazar Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to point out the change in women's position in architecture in the period from the early 20th century to date through a prism of their architectural and professional achievements as a form of exercising their rights and achieving the equality with their male colleagues. The purpose of this paper is to also shed light on the reasons of tacit acceptance of the system of discriminatory character that allowed the women architects to be only the „anonymous associates“ (so that they could be able to deal with the job of architect, „assistants in the profession“ (urban planners or critics and publicists where they gained the most popularity and success or to become „female reformers“ particularly in the domain of legal reforms, planning and development, which they essentially became only after the Second World War when the modernisation and emancipation processes took place and when the Law on Invalidity of the Previous Discriminatory Regulations was passed by which the women acquired suffrage. The paper particularly addresses the status of women architects today who are, besides all professional temptations, also in a conflicting situation. They are a pillar of family and social life, on the one hand, while they are constantly facing the attempts to be pushed from the mainstream of professional life and the attempts to deny their importance, role and influence in society, on the other hand.

  17. Figurative Potential of Russian Hydronymes in the Poetry of 19th – 20th Centuries

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    Azaliya R. Gizatullina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the peculiarities of Dnieper, Don, Volga and Neva hydronyms use as aesthetically significant elements of an artistic text. The urgency of the work is that the development of language and speech aesthetics issues are among the promising trends of linguistic studies. However, the aesthetic resources of most onomastic units, including toponyms, are still poorly studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze the figurative possibilities of these hydronyms, functioning in the poetic works of Russian authors. The following methods were used as the main ones in the work: modeling, distributive, semantic-stylistic and quantitative analysis. The material for the study was represented by the poetic works of the 19-20th centuries, extracted from the "National Corpus of the Russian Language". The novelty of the work was made up of selected figurative paradigms, in which the considered hydronyms are used as the subject of comparison. During the performed study five most voluminous figurative paradigms were revealed, in which the position of the right member is replaced by lexical units related to the concepts of "being", "water", "substance", "tissue" and "terrestrial space". The criteria of intentional rapprochement of hydronyms with other subject lexemes were determined in order to develop the imagery of a poetic text. The findings can be used to study the onomastic space of Russian language, as well as for the further development of artistic speech theory.

  18. Increased baseflow in Iowa over the second half of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.; Libra, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Historical trends in annual discharge characteristics were evaluated for 11 gauging stations located throughout Iowa. Discharge records from nine eight-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC-8) watersheds were examined for the period 1940 to 2000, whereas data for two larger river systems (Cedar and Des Moines Rivers) were examined for a longer period of record (1903 to 2000). In nearly all watersheds evaluated, annual baseflow, annual minimum flow, and the annual baseflow percentage significantly increased over time. Some rivers also exhibited increasing trends in total annual discharge, whereas only the Maquoketa River had significantly decreased annual maximum flows. Regression of stream discharge versus precipitation indicated that more precipitation is being routed into streams as baseflow than as stormflow in the second half of the 20th Century. Reasons for the observed streamflow trends are hypothesized to include improved conservation practices, greater artificial drainage, increasing row crop production, and channel incision. Each of these reasons is consistent with the observed trends, and all are likely responsible to some degree in most watersheds.

  19. Pedagogy in Slovenia at the Beginning of the 20th Century

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    Tadej Vidmar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogy in Slovenia gradually won its recognition as an academic science, and therefore obtained improved possibilities for its conceptualization, when the university in Ljubljana was established in 1919. The time between the two world wars was marked with three principal pedagogical concepts: Herbartianism, geisteswissenschaftliche pedagogy, and reform pedagogy. The first of these to be theoretically conceptualized in Slovenia was the geisteswissenschaftliche, or cultural pedagogy. Ideas of reform pedagogy, especially its social-critical movement, interpreted, represented, and defended primarily left-oriented pedagogues and teachers, who were convinced that actual school reform would be possible only after (revolutionary changes of social conditions. In the first decades of the 20th century, numerous conflicts and disagreements occurred in the process of establishing individual pedagogical currents and orientations in Slovenia. The strongest and most productive polemics were held between geisteswissenschaftliche, or cultural pedagogy, and some currents, or just individual representatives, of reform pedagogy (e.g., theory vs. praxis, old vs. new school. Unfortunately, the postwar Marxist pedagogical concept was highly unfavorable to the prewar orientations and prevented their further development.

  20. The mid 19th and early 20th Century Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Vitor

    2012-09-01

    The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and early 20th century astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.

  1. Introduction: contexts and concepts of adaptability and plasticity in 20th-century plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranski, Marci; Peirson, B R Erick

    2015-04-01

    Nowhere is the problem of understanding the complex linkages between organisms and their environments more apparent than in the science of plants. Today, efforts by scientists to predict and manage the biological consequences of shifting global and regional climates depend on understanding how organisms respond morphologically, physiologically, and behaviorally to changes in their environments. Investigating organismal "adaptability" (or "plasticity") is rarely straightforward, prompting controversy and discourse among and between ecologists and agricultural scientists. Concepts like agro-climatic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, and genotype-environment interaction (GxE) are key to those debates, and their complex histories have imbued them with assumptions and meanings that are consequential but often opaque. This special section explores the diverse ways in which organismal adaptability has been conceptualized and investigated in the second half of the 20th century, and the multifarious political, economic, environmental, and intellectual contexts in which those conceptions have emerged and evolved. The papers in this section bring together perspectives from the histories of agriculture, population ecology, evolutionary theory, and plant physiology, cutting across Asian, North American, and British contexts. As a whole, this section highlights not only the diversity of meanings of "adaptability" and "plasticity," but also the complex linkages between those meanings, the scientific practices and technologies in which they are embedded, and the ends toward which those practices and technologies are employed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [History of neurosurgery at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpel, V

    1986-01-01

    Taking the example of the renowned German surgeon of the bile ducts Hans Kehr (1862-1916) and two cases published by him, the possibilities and limitations of neurosurgical activity within the frame of general surgery at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century at a private surgical hospital are outlined. A typical factor of the early history of specialised medical fields can be considered to be the successful autodidactic performance of almost all major interventions in all parts of the body and at the same time the turn to a topographically or pathophysiologically determined field of working. Here, peak performances in a partial field could still be well connected with a maintenance of the shole field. Kehr's actions in the practical-surgical treatment of the lesions of the skull corresponded in their basic conceptions to our present ideas. The further development, however, showed that the responsible and successful surgery in a special field-in the case of Kehr the surgery of the bile ducts-could only be performed with a far-reaching renunciation of other surgical activities.

  3. Numerical Simulation of the Water Cycle Change Over the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2003-01-01

    We have used numerical models to test the impact of the change in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the global circulation, particularly focusing on the hydrologic cycle, namely the global cycling of water and continental recycling of water. We have run four numerical simulations using mean annual SST from the early part of the 20th century (1900-1920) and the later part (1980-2000). In addition, we vary the CO2 concentrations for these periods as well. The duration of the simulations is 15 years, and the spatial resolution is 2 degrees. We use passive tracers to study the geographical sources of water. Surface evaporation from predetermined continental and oceanic regions provides the source of water for each passive tracer. In this way, we compute the percent of precipitation of each region over the globe. This can also be used to estimate precipitation recycling. In addition, we are using the passive tracers to independently compute the global cycling of water (compared to the traditional, Q/P calculation).

  4. Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the rise of 20th Century Astrophysics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, James E.; Bohlender, David; Crabtree, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Construction of Canada’s Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) commenced in 1914 with first light on 6 May 1918. Its varied, rich contributions to the astronomical heritage of the 20th century continue into the 21st century. The first major research observatory built with public funding on the West Coast of North America, it was Canada’s first ‘big science’ project. DAO welcomed scientists from around the world to use its 1.8m telescope designed by John Stanley Plaskett working in close collaboration with the Warner and Swasey Company of Cleveland, OH. Their original design was copied seven times around the globe, the last occasion being in the 1960s. From Day 1 the DAO welcomed the public for viewing and interaction with the small scientific staff whose early efforts would today be characterized as ‘Key Projects’. Those efforts included measuring the radial velocities of O and B stars that, interpreted through Oort’s ideas of differential rotation, determined the most reliable estimate of the size and mass of the Milky Way available until radio astronomical techniques emerged in the 1950s. The first organic molecule in interstellar space, CH, was discovered by a DAO astronomer. The first, very puzzling estimate of ~3K for the temperature of interstellar space was deduced from interstellar CN observations a year after interstellar CH and CN were discovered. DAO’s heritage of innovative instrumentation continues to the present day where expertise in optically efficient, mechanically stable spectrographs and adaptive optics are much in evidence at Mauna Kea’s CFHT, Gemini and Subaru observatories. In 2009 the DAO was designated a National Historic Site. This presentation will draw links between DAO, developments of Canadian astronomy and the emergence of Mauna Kea as an exceptional global astronomical reserve.

  5. The Economic Situation of the Kishinev Diocese in the 19th - early 20th Century

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    Morozan Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells, on the basis of archival materials for the first time in the national and foreign historiography, on the economic situation of Kishinev Eparchy within the Russian Orthodox Church in the period from Bessarabia’s accedence to the Russian Empire till early 20th century. An important indicator of the priests’material well-beingis sufficiency of their land estates and emoluments. In this context, the author focused on the size of land holdings of particular clergy parishes and the financial allowance of the clergy. The essay also pays attention to the revenues of particular clergy parishes from occasional services and sale of candles. The study revealed that most of the venues from candle trading could not be used by the members of clergy parishes for their needs, but were transferred to the general beudget of the eparchy. The clergy spent a signifi cant portion of their income on renting and upkeeping of housing. With regard for this circumstance, an attempt was made to determine the extent of suffi ciency of housing for this category of clergy. In the course of research, the author managed to fi nd the information on the number of Bessarabian priests’children in their care at the time the country has joined the Russian Empire, and on their level of education. These data are extremely important for comprehending the private life of the clergy and inancial standing of their families, as such information is found in the documentary materials of early 19th century extremely seldom, regardless of diocesan affi liation of priests.

  6. Ochres and earths: matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

    2013-02-15

    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Raman microscopy, μ-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. μ-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. μ-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 19th-century and early 20th-century jaundice outbreaks, the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, C G

    2018-01-01

    Historical enquiry into diseases with morbidity or mortality predilections for particular demographic groups can permit clarification of their emergence, endemicity, and epidemicity. During community-wide outbreaks of hepatitis A in the pre-vaccine era, clinical attack rates were higher among juveniles rather than adults. In community-wide hepatitis E outbreaks, past and present, mortality rates have been most pronounced among pregnant women. Examination for these characteristic predilections in reports of jaundice outbreaks in the USA traces the emergence of hepatitis A and also of hepatitis E to the closing three decades of the 19th century. Thereafter, outbreaks of hepatitis A burgeoned, whereas those of hepatitis E abated. There were, in addition, community-wide outbreaks that bore features of neither hepatitis A nor E; they occurred before the 1870s. The American Civil War antedated that period. If hepatitis A had yet to establish endemicity, then it would not underlie the jaundice epidemic that was widespread during the war. Such an assessment may be revised, however, with the discovery of more extant outbreak reports.

  8. Images of Commitment: 20th Century Women Artists. A Fine Art Print Program: Junior/Senior High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordich, Diane D.

    This teacher's resource guide is designed to accompany resource packets that include fine art reproductions. The resource introduces students to the accomplishments and contributions of eight 20th century women artists: Isabel Bishop; Jenny Holzer; Kathe Kollwitz; Maya Ying Lin; Mary Ellen Mark; Maria Martinez; Alice Neel; and Faith Ringgold. This…

  9. The Opinions of Music Education Students about 20th and 21st Centuries Classical Music: Uludag University Exemplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakin, Ajda Senol

    2016-01-01

    The debates of music historians, composers, and performers on difficulties in understanding the 20th and 21st Centuries international classical music and the reasons have been ongoing for years. The opinions of music education students on this matter and their interests in music of these periods are a matter of curiosity. With this research,…

  10. Gender, Identity, Missions, and Empire: Letters from Christian Teachers in China in the Early 20th and 21st Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mary Shepard

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a historically-informed comparative study that juxtaposes the lives of three missionary educators in China in the early 20th century with three Christian educators in China today. Data sources included hundreds of letters from the women written in China to their families and friends over several decades and…

  11. A very British affair six Britons and the development of time series analysis during the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, T

    2012-01-01

    This book develops the major themes of time series analysis from its formal beginnings in the early part of the 20th century to the present day through the research of six distinguished British statisticians, all of whose work is characterised by the British traits of pragmatism and the desire to solve practical problems of importance.

  12. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-01-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For t...

  13. MOSCOW PRINTERS-FOREIGNERS IN THE LAST THIRD OF THE 19TH - EARLY 20TH CENTURY

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    Г В Аксенова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of foreigners in the publishing business of Moscow in the last third of the 19th - early 20th century on the example of Moscow printers E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson, whose ancestors came to Russia from Austria and Germany. The historio-graphical review showed that the history of Moscow publishing houses and foreign printers who arrived in Russia remains beyond the scope of the current scientifi c interest. There are analyzed the stages of the development of the publishing business, it features, printing fi ndings, the specifi cs of the book market.E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson are the brightest fi gures in Russia in the fi eld of publishing. Starting from scratch, they were able to create unique typography, in which it was possible to produce multicolour hard products, phototype table, to improve engraving, chromolithography and colour photozincography. To perform these works, they attracted specialists who were able to develop and implement new ways of printing. E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson collaborated with the best artists of Russia helping to implement the ideas of publishing quality printed products that contributed to the aesthetic education of readers. The article reveals the importance of the activities of the two publishers of German origin E.-C. A. Lissner and A. Levenson in the development of the Russian culture (literature and art and the popularization of scientifi c knowledge. They laid new principles of publishing and printing of illustrations, created a new trend in book production. Their activities contributed to the opening of new names in literature and art, promotion of Russian printing technology and book production to both domestic and foreign markets, development of book art and improve-ment of printing.

  14. Meteorological Effects of Land Cover Changes in Hungary during the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drüszler, Á.; Vig, P.; Csirmaz, K.

    2012-04-01

    Geological, paleontological and geomorphologic studies show that the Earth's climate has always been changing since it came into existence. The climate change itself is self-evident. Therefore the far more serious question is how much does mankind strengthen or weaken these changes beyond the natural fluctuation and changes of climate. The aim of the present study was to restore the historical land cover changes and to simulate the meteorological consequences of these changes. Two different land cover maps for Hungary were created in vector data format using GIS technology. The land cover map for 1900 was reconstructed based on statistical data and two different historical maps: the derived map of the 3rd Military Mapping Survey of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Synoptic Forestry Map of the Kingdom of Hungary. The land cover map for 2000 was derived from the CORINE land cover database. Significant land cover changes were found in Hungary during the 20th century according to the examinations of these maps and statistical databases. The MM5 non-hydrostatic dynamic model was used to further evaluate the meteorological effects of these changes. The lower boundary conditions for this mesoscale model were generated for two selected time periods (for 1900 and 2000) based on the reconstructed maps. The dynamic model has been run with the same detailed meteorological conditions of selected days from 2006 and 2007, but with modified lower boundary conditions. The set of the 26 selected initial conditions represents the whole set of the macrosynoptic situations for Hungary. In this way, 2×26 "forecasts" were made with 48 hours of integration. The effects of land cover changes under different weather situations were further weighted by the long-term (1961-1990) mean frequency of the corresponding macrosynoptic types, to assume the climatic effects from these stratified averages. The detailed evaluation of the model results were made for three different meteorological

  15. Ethnic Migrations in Vojvodina in the Second Half of the 20th Century

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    Nada Raduški

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Population migrations are a significant social phenomen which undoubtedly left a mark on the last decade of the 20th century. Political changes in the 90’s made migrations even more relevant from a demographic, economic and legal aspect, taking into consideration not only their scope, but also the new specific forms of migration movements that arose (voluntary and forced migrations, ethnocentric migrations, refugees, displaced persons, etc. along with their reasons and consequences. The violent disintegration of Yugoslavia and the subsequent creation of new ethnonational states and bouts of ethnic cleansing had as a consequence enormous population movements, as well as the creation of considerable number of refugees gravitating towards their mother countries. The large refugee wave which took refuge in Vojvodina exceeds, by its number, even the large colonization of this province after World War II. Apart from refugees, internally displaced persons of non-Albanian nationality, who immigrated from Kosovo and Metohija due to political reasons, are found in Vojvodina. Placed together, all this represents a significant problem, especially given the grave economic situation which the country is experiencing. Ethnocentric migrations (both voluntary and forced were the driving force behind the change of the country’s ethnic structure in terms of creating more nationally homogeneous regions, not only with regard to the national structure of the refugee-population, but also taking into account the emigration of other nationalities as well (Hungarians and Croats who migrated to their mother countries for political and economic reasons. Bearing in mind that Vojvodina is a multiethnic and multiconfessional region, the question of minorities and interethnic relations are unquestionably of great significance for the stability and demographic development of this region.

  16. Recepcion of Rousseau in formation initial of primary school teachers (Spain, 20th century

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    Antonio Viñao, España.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a imagem e idéias de e sobre Rousseau transmitidas na Espanha ao magistério primário durante o século 20, através dos manuais de História da Educação e outras fontes similares. Após analisar as fontes utilizadas e seus destinatários, se expõe a imagem e a idéia de Rousseau como pai da pedagogia moderna, predominante nos escritos pedagógicos da época para, em seguida, e a modo de contraste, examinar o lugar e o tratamento dado à Rousseau nos mencionados manuais. Esse exame se divide em duas épocas: a anterior à guerra civil e a posterior, com o fim de mostrar o predomínio, sobre tudo durante o franquismo, de uma visão católica, conservadora, moralizante e crítica do genebriano. Palavras-chave: Rousseau, manuais escolares, educação primária, formação do magistério primário, Espanha (século 20.   Recepcion of Rousseau in formation initial of primary school teachers (Spain, 20th century Abstract This article deals with Rousseau’s images and ideas present in the school books of History of Education, and other similar sources, used in the training of primary school teachers in Spain during the 20th century. After analyzing the sources used and their addresses, the predominance of Rousseau’s ideas and image as the father of modern pedagogy in the pedagogical literature of this period is explained. Immediately after, by way of contrast, Rousseau’s place and the way of considering him in the above mentioned school books are examined. The above analysis is divided into two periods, before and after the civil war, in order to show the predominance of the catholic-conservative moralizing and critical approach, particularly during francoism. Key-words: Rousseau, school books, primary education, teacher’s training, Spain (20th century.   La recepción de Rousseau en la formación inicial del magisterio primario (España, siglo 20 Resumen Este artículo versa sobre la imagen e ideas de y sobre Rousseau

  17. PLOT REELED INTO AN EKPHRASIS IN BELLES LETTRES OF THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

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    Elena Vasil’evna Astaschenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plots reeled into the ekphrasis have always existed. In belles lettres of the beginning of the 20th century, the fight between the pagan and the Christian manifests in the opposition of scenic space and it creates a powerful «magnetic» field. This is a special type of mythologism in which the Christian imagery is on the positive side of the binary opposition with its respective system of ethical coordinates. In «polytheistic systems, the presentations of evil is static as of the essential and eternal beginning of the world», but in the orthodox Christianity, the devil is a ghost, lure, disembodied temptation and «with every day it approaches nonexistence» (from the «Moralia» of the 6th century by Gregory the Great. However, Gregory the Great also notes that the power of Satan is from God as all other powers, he just distorted his power with his God-given free will. Even at the level of worldly wisdom aphorisms there is a conventional belief that our shortcomings are the continuation of our merits, and therefore it is necessary to adhere to the golden mean. Accroding to A. Gracheva in the book «Dialogues of Janus: Belles lettres and classics in the Russian literature of the early twentieth century», at the beginning of the 19th century, the mythologism of the spontaneous and not experimental type (often encyclopaedic and «algebraic» like in the works of Joyce and Bely, is especially pronounced in the works of writers, who are close to mass literature with their democracy or «boudoir» and especially in the works of female writers. This is due both to existing archetypes of the collective unconscious (some of which are even atavistic and «migratory plots» which are characteristic of both folklore and popular culture. Despite the compelling erotic subject matter, belles lettres is not always frivolous and, on the contrary, it is edifying and full of moral questions, which are sometimes rhetorical: «What is a sin and what does the

  18. Marriage in North-Western Transylvania (2nd Half of the 19th Century – Beginning of the 20th Century). External Conditionings and Marital Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Brie, Mircea

    2009-01-01

    Marriage in North-Western Transylvania (2nd Half of the 19th Century – Beginning of the 20th Century). External Conditionings and Marital Strategies In the latter half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, in north-western Transylvania there was a traditional rural society, except for some urban centres and their neighbouring areas (the urban character is also proved by the analysis of the marital behaviour). The major events in the family life, such as baptism, marriage ...

  19. Final Scientific Report for "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, John C. H. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wehner, Michael F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-29

    This is the final scientific report for grant DOE-FG02-08ER64588, "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall."The project investigates the role of the interhemispheric pattern in surface temperature – i.e. the contrast between the northern and southern temperature changes – in driving rapid changes to tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future climates. Previous observational and modeling studies have shown that the tropical rainband – the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over marine regions, and the summer monsoonal rainfall over land – are sensitive to the interhemispheric thermal contrast; but that the link between the two has not been applied to interpreting long-term tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future.The specific goals of the project were to i) develop dynamical mechanisms to explain the link between the interhemispheric pattern to abrupt changes of West African and Asian monsoonal rainfall; ii) Undertake a formal detection and attribution study on the interhemispheric pattern in 20th century climate; and iii) assess the likelihood of changes to this pattern in the future. In line with these goals, our project has produced the following significant results: 1.We have developed a case that suggests that the well-known abrupt weakening of the West African monsoon in the late 1960s was part of a wider co-ordinated weakening of the West African and Asian monsoons, and driven from an abrupt cooling in the high latitude North Atlantic sea surface temperature at the same time. Our modeling work suggests that the high-latitude North Atlantic cooling is effective in driving monsoonal weakening, through driving a cooling of the Northern hemisphere that is amplified by positive radiative feedbacks. 2.We have shown that anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may have partially contributed to driving a progressively southward displacement of the Atlantic Intertropical

  20. The reversal of the relation between economic growth and health progress: Sweden in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Granados, José A; Ionides, Edward L

    2008-05-01

    Health progress, as measured by the decline in mortality rates and the increase in life expectancy, is usually conceived as related to economic growth, especially in the long run. In this investigation it is shown that economic growth is positively associated with health progress in Sweden throughout the 19th century. However, the relation becomes weaker as time passes and is completely reversed in the second half of the 20th century, when economic growth negatively affects health progress. The effect of the economy on health occurs mostly at lag 0 in the 19th century and is lagged up to 2 years in the 20th century. No evidence is found for economic effects on mortality at greater lags. These findings are shown to be robustly consistent across a variety of statistical procedures, including linear regression, spectral analysis, cross-correlation, and lag regression models. Models using inflation and unemployment as economic indicators reveal similar results. Evidence for reverse effects of health progress on economic growth is weak, and unobservable in the second half of the 20th century.

  1. Sound or Expression: Dilemmas in the Phenomenological Aesthetics of 20th Century Music (Sound or Expression: Dilemmas in the Phenomenological Aesthetics of 20th Century Music

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    Martina Stratilková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenology, as a philosophy of the twentieth century, is often confronted with music of the same period, which in contrast with the classical-romantic repertoire recedes from previously codified means for the organisation of musical structure (namely tonality and holds up the actual matter of the music – sound – for admiration. So musical experience dwells more at the sound and its direct appearance rather than rushing to the musical meanings intended through sensuous moments. From this aspect music in the first decades of the twentieth century complemented the other arts undergoing a similar development. Romantic art was replaced by artistic creativity relying on the objectivity of the musical material and not on the emotional quality. The paper considers circumstances under which some of the phenomenological approaches adopt a positive approach to the music of the twentieth century (those which stress the immediacy of the perceptive presence and some of which tend to reject it (those which apply the requirement of expressive intentionality.

  2. MINING ENTREPRENEURS IN CROATIA FROM THE MID-19TH TO THE MID-20TH CENTURY

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    Berislav Šebečić

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The masters, or owners, of mining rights for the exploration of ores were prospectors and free or independent prospectors. Concession books and registers were kept about the proprietors of ore fields or mines. In them was entered, among other things, which ore was planned to be exploited. The possessor of a licence, permits for exploration and exploitation of ores, paid a certain fee every year. He could also sell his mining righis. in the shape of permits, partially or, more frequently, totally, as was recorded in the books. If he did not pay taxes, he could lose all his rights, which were then deleted, or crossed out of the mining books. Those who possessed mining permits had to solve the questions of compensation to the owners of the lands where they intended to do detailed explorations, and to exploit the ore, even to the extent of leasing or buying the land. The mining activity in Croatia between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries is richly documented in the (Imperial and Royal mining captaincies in Zagreb, Zadar and Split. The basic mining law was the General Austrian Mining Law of 1854, with its amendments of 1911 (Legal Article VI about mineral oil substances and natural gases. In Croatia, mining enterpreneurs were individuals or companies (including the slate with the proviso that at the beginning there were more foreigners. However, Croatian traders, industrialists, magnates, officials, bankers, various companies, engineers, artists, retired persons, peasants, officers and others soon became involved in mining. Among the entrepreneurs there were various noblemen. It has been ascertained in this research that in individual periods between 1855 and 1945 there was a dominance of individuals (mainly 81%-85% while today (1990-1995 it is quite the opposite (86% are companies, because this is the end of the long term control of the socially owned companies. Thes same situation obtains today with respect to exploitation licenses, where

  3. Evaluation for sustainable agriculture water use from River, Reservoirs and Groundwater in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Yamada, H.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    High water stress due to economic growth and climate change (ex. global warming) will be falling into 2 billion people to 4 billion people in the future. Agricultural water use accounting for about 70% of global water consumption might continue to increase due to production of foods and biofuels occurred by population growth in the future. In particular, water demand, food and biofuel production have an inextricable link. It is very important to evaluate these relationship for sustainable water use from past to the future. In this study, we focused on the objective to assess the impact of water withdrawal from various sources (stream flow, medium-sized reservoirs and nonrenewable nonlocal blue water) in the 20th century by considering irrigation area and climate change. Irrigation water withdrawal is the most important water use sector accounting for about 90% of total water withdrawal. First, we make the global spatial database of equipped irrigation area change and medium-sized reservoirs capacity. Then, water withdrawal from each sources for 50 years from 1950 to 2000 were simulated in global-scale at a resolution of 1.0 degree x 1.0 degree using an integrated global water resources model (hereafter, the H08 model). The H08 model can simulate both natural or anthropogenic water flow and anthropogenic water withdrawals. For comparison with our results, distribution of agricultural, industrial and domestic water withdrawals from 1950 to 2000 were estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data from AQUASTAT with irrigation area, urban population and total population, respectively. Groundwater withdrawal was then estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data based on statistical data from WRI, IGRAC and AQUASTAT with the total water withdrawal. As a result, agricultural water withdrawal change from nonrenewable nonlocal blue water during the past 50 years agreed well with the observed groundwater abstraction based on statistical data. In

  4. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS OF RUSSIAN SPIRITUAL ACADEMIES’ TEACHERS OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

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    M. A. Ershova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of philosophical and theological creativity of Russian theological academies’ teachers of the early 20th century. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of methodological foundations’ changes of philosophical-theological quest on the teachers of Russian theological academies and the educational process itself in theological schools. Methods. The author focuses on the content of training courses delivered in the theological academies in the first two decades of the 20th century; problem statement peculiarities; aspect and priority choice in the fundamental researches conducted by the teachers of these schools. The applied methods include the comparative method, analysis, synthesis, method of abstraction, other philosophical and scientific methods. Results. The author comes to the conclusion that the changes of methodological installations in scientific research representatives of spiritual and academic theism beginning of the 20th century can be compared with similar studies of the nineteenth century. It is mentioned that reorientation of a number of prominent representatives of spiritual and academic theism from scholastic methods, speculative psychology and metaphysics towards Patristics, asceticism and personal experiences allows us to propose this movement as West-European Philosophy searches of the same period. Thus, V. I. Nesmelov sees the basis of any religious teachings in the experience of human cognition. M. M. Tareev draws up his own moral theology reading course based on the personal experience living the Gospel Book. Archimandrite Sergious (Stragorodsky interprets the topic of finding salvation not against the background of the changes in God, but from the standpoint of the changes that occur in humanity. Bishop Theodore (Pozdeevsky, Archbishop Hilarion (Troitsky and Bishop Barnabas (Belyaev make known scholasticism as epistemological malice characterizing the specifics of theological

  5. [Occult medicine in the 20th century: pharmacotherapy by Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer, known as Surya (1873 - 1949)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstädter, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer (1873-1949), called "Surya", Sanskrit for "sun", was an important representative of medical occultism in the first half of the 20th century. He worked as a journal editor and published a 13-volume book series about occult medicine, mainly written by himself. His hypotheses were closely related to the "Lebensreform" movement around 1900. Regarding diagnostics, he relied on astrology, cheiromancy, and clairvoyance, while therapeutics were dominated by diet and spagyric remedies according to Cesare Mattei (1809-1896) and Carl-Friedrich Zimpel (1801-1879). In his later years, he developed his own healing system, initially comprising eight, later only two preparations. Surya remedies were commercially available until the end of the 20th century,

  6. Norm of Exploitation of Miners in Siberia in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

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    Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of the distribution of added value in the mining industry in Siberia in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Relying on the analysis of financial reports from Siberian goldmines and coalmines, the author reveals the correlation between the means spent on workforce and the means spent on income and the companies’ non-production expenses. The calculated norm of added value – the most precise reflection of the measure of wage labour exploitation – turned out to be higher for Siberian mine workers in the late 19th – early 20th centuries than for workers in the European Russia and demonstrated the tendency to further growth. The author believes it to be a consequence of the modernization of production and the exploitation of the richest and most easily accessible Siberian deposits.

  7. The evolution of casualty evacuation in the British Army in the 20th century (Part 3)--1945 to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, M C M

    2003-03-01

    This is the third in a series of papers describing the evolution of the British casualty evacuation chain during the 20th century. This period was dominated by the threat of war between NATO and the Warsaw Pact in Central Europe. The Suez Crisis in 1956, the Falklands War in 1982, the GulfWar in 1991 and events in the Balkans during the 1990s demonstrated the requirement for a flexible system for medical support to the UK Armed Forces.

  8. Heroísmos (1922, the representation of medical practice at the beginning of the 20th century

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    Josep BARCELÓ PRATS

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work, focused in the film Heroísmos, intends to reconstruct the processes of health and illness, inside and outside to the hospital, more frequents in Catalonia at the beginning of the 20th century. For this reason a local film is used, exceptional for its origin and ethnographic view, as a tool for analyzing the model of medical practice and its social representations within collective imagination of the population.

  9. ESTIMATES OF THE POLITICAL SYSTEM OF "PARLIAMENTARY MONARCHY" IN LIBERAL JOURNALISM AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    K. N. TARASOV; N. I. NIKULINA

    2016-01-01

    Article represents research of an important aspect of the political program of the Russian monarchic movement of the beginning of the 20th century. It is about the relation of the right ideologists to the political system of the Russian Empire updated during revolution of 1905-1907. The documentary base of research is made by materials of monarchic periodicals during 1905-1917, and also epistolary heritage of the leading theorists of conservatism of that time. Authors pay attention to such qu...

  10. Mediators and agents of change. Youth and centre/periphery relations in coastal Iceland in the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur

    2002-01-01

    The article offers a perspective on the 20th century youth in coastal Iceland as agents actively shaping their society. It explores four periods of such agency, starting with young people at the forefront of the release from the old agricultural society. It explores the changes of emphasis between...... social, cultural, polical, economic and technical agency. Currently young people in several villages play an active role on mediating between local life-forms and global impulses on all these levels....

  11. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

  12. The Loss of Balance between the Art and Science of Management: Observations on the British Experience of Education for Management in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero Wilson, Robbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the developments in education for management in 20th-century Britain. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that is, the highpoint of the United Kingdom's economic success, management was considered more of an art than a science, and formal education specifically for management was limited. After the Second World War,…

  13. Law, Imperial Bureaucracy and Russian Jews Beyond the Pale of Settlement in 19 – Beginning of the 20th Centuries

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    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies into history of regional Jewish communities in the Russian Empire in the period between the 19th and early 20th century have so far been extremely erratic. There are topics that have rarely come into focus of Russian, Israeli and American Jewish studies. North Caucasus and Siberia were not included in the Pale of Settlement. The Jews who lived in Siberia as in North Caucasus had a specific legal status. Discrepancies in the national and regional laws adversely affected the lives and activities of local Jewish communities. Not only did the laws determine areas where Jews were permitted to reside, but also those sectors of the economy in which they could work. Law-making in the 19th and early 20th century regarding the Jewish population of Siberia and North Caucasus had no general trend and was subject to change from conservative to liberal character, depending on the state’s national policy. In this article, we will make use of specific examples and comparative analyse to look at the dynamics of the Russian laws on Jews of Siberia and North Caucasus in the 19th and early 20th century. This article is based on archival materials and acts of legislation.

  14. Enforced linguistic conversion: translation of the Macedonian toponyms in the 20th century

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    Katica Kulavkova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Enforced linguistic conversion: translation of the Macedonian toponyms in the 20th century The article deals with the issue of forced conversion of Macedonian toponyms, considered as a form of linguistic and cultural dislocation or luxation (the Latin luxatio originating from luxus – dislocated. The toponyms are not just eminently linguistic but also a part of civilization’s memory of nations and of humankind, and that is why they are protected by international regulations. The act of translating toponyms from one language to another, within the frames of culturally and ethnically marked space, is undeniable violence against the cultural heritage. A change of a toponym, its forced translation into another language is, according to these legal acts, a crime against culture. For a toponym is a true reflection of historical facts and historical memories. Toponyms can be transcribed onto a different alphabet, letter‑by‑letter (transliteration, but should not be translated, especially not on the territory which is their civilization’s cradle, where they are practiced and inherited. Violent conversion of toponyms is an introduction to conversion of historical narratives and modern ethno‑cultural identities. History shows that there are violent forms of linguistic, cultural, religious and ethnic dislocations. The example of radical dislocation of Macedonian toponyms is probably one of the few in modern history. It has been taking place over an almost entire century – from the 1920s to the 21st century’s first decade. Macedonian toponyms, for centuries present on the territory of ethnic Macedonia (for which there is indisputable evidence, are being dislocated from their original linguistic/cultural context within several national entities: the Greek, Albanian and – paradoxically – Macedonian states. Such violent translation of toponyms is not devoid of geopolitical consequences. The conversions of Macedonian toponyms are just a step

  15. Phenology in Germany in the 20th century : methods, analyses and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Jörg

    2002-07-01

    The length of the vegetation period (VP) plays a central role for the interannual variation of carbon fixation of terrestrial ecosystems. Observational data analysis has indicated that the length of the VP has increased in the last decades in the northern latitudes mainly due to an advancement of bud burst (BB). This phenomenon has been widely discussed in the context of Global Warming because phenology is correlated to temperatures. Analyzing the patterns of spring phenology over the last century in Southern Germany provided two main findings: - The strong advancement of spring phases especially in the decade before 1999 is not a singular event in the course of the 20th century. Similar trends were also observed in earlier decades. Distinct periods of varying trend behavior for important spring phases could be distinguished. - Marked differences in trend behavior between the early and late spring phases were detected. Early spring phases changed as regards the magnitude of their negative trends from strong negative trends between 1931 and 1948 to moderate negative trends between 1948 and 1984 and back to strong negative trends between 1984 and 1999. Late spring phases showed a different behavior. Negative trends between 1931 and 1948 are followed by marked positive trends between 1948 and 1984 and then strong negative trends between 1984 and 1999. This marked difference in trend development between early and late spring phases was also found all over Germany for the two periods 1951 to 1984 and 1984 to 1999. The dominating influence of temperature on spring phenology and its modifying effect on autumn phenology was confirmed in this thesis. However, - temperature functions determining spring phenology were not significantly correlated with a global annual CO2 signal which was taken as a proxy for a Global Warming pattern. - an index for large scale regional circulation patterns (NAO index) could only to a small part explain the observed phenological variability in

  16. 20th century acidification and warming as recorded in two alpine lakes in the Tatra Mountains (South Poland, Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorowski, Michał; Sienkiewicz, Elwira

    2010-02-01

    Sediment profiles of two alpine lakes located in the Tatra Mountains, the Toporowy Staw Nizni (TSN) and the Zielony Staw Gasienicowy (ZSG), were studied for their chronology, lithology, diatom and cladoceran remains. The sediment sequences, 50cm long from TSN and 30cm long from ZSG, were deposited during the last 1000 and 300 years, respectively. Vertical changes in lithology, diatom and Cladocera allow the reconstruction of three periods in the lakes' evolution: mild climatic conditions during Medieval Warm Period (MWP, only in TSN), severe conditions between the end of 14th and 19th centuries, identified as the Little Ice Age (LIA), and 20th century warming. The LIA was recorded in the sediments of both lakes in the form of intensified erosion and lower lake ecosystem productivity, as indicated by organic matter lower content, changes in diatom species composition, and decline in Daphnia. The 20th century was a time of acidification in both lakes. The scale of acidification was assessed based on the decline in diatom-inferred pH (DI-pH). DI-pH dropped by 1.2 pH units during the last century in TSN and by 0.4 pH unit in ZSG. The decline of DI-pH was noted in both lakes, but its intensity was clearly higher in TSN due to the lower acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) of this lake. The lower pH during the final decades of the 20th century was lethal to some water organisms while attracting others, such as Daphnia. The Daphnia population increased after the pH drop, probably due to the high food flexibility of this genus. A similar increase was not observed in ZSG, where planktonivorous fishes were introduced in the 1940s, which effectively limited the crustacean plankton density. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A new daily observational record from Grytviken, South Georgia: exploring 20th century extremes in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Z.; Turney, C. S.; Allan, R.; Colwell, S.; Kelly, G.; Lister, D.; Jones, P. D.; Beswick, M.; Alexander, L. V.; Lippmann, T.; Herold, N.; Jones, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    Although recent work has highlighted a host of significant late 20th century environmental changes across the mid to high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, the sparse nature of observational records limits our ability to place these changes in the context of long-term (multi-decadal and centennial) variability. As a result, investigating the impact of anthropogenic forcing on climate modes of variability and ecosystems is particularly challenging. Sub-Antarctic islands are particularly important in this regard, straddling major ocean and atmospheric boundaries and offering the potential to develop highly resolved records of change. In 1905, a whaling and meteorological station was established at Grytviken on Sub-Antarctic South Georgia in the South Atlantic (54°S) providing near-continuous observations through to present day. Although South Georgia lies in a strategic location for understanding Southern Ocean atmosphere-ocean dynamics, only a monthly resolved dataset has until now been available. Here we report a near continuous daily observational record from Grytviken for temperature and precipitation, which we compare to different datasets (including Twentieth Century Reanalysis; 20CR version 2c). A warming trend over the 20th century is observed in mean daily temperature at Grytviken with an average rate of temperature rise of 0.14°C per decade over the period 1907-2016 (p<0.0001). We find a significant trend towards increasingly warmer daytime extremes commencing from the mid-20th century accompanied by warmer night-time temperatures. Analysis of these data, and reanalysis products, suggest a realignment of synoptic conditions across the mid to high-latitudes, with a link between increasing temperature trends and atmospheric circulation dominated by stronger westerly airflow, resulting in significant foehn-related warming.

  18. Women's Position in Lithuanian Labour Market in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginija Jureniene

    2008-09-01

    los compromisos familiares.The paper draws attention to women's position in the changing labour market of the 1920s-1930s and after the reestablishment of independence in 1990 in the Republic of Lithuania. The author carries out a historical analysis of the impact of the laws issued at that period to solve the issue of unemployment and explores their implications to women's position in the labour market. Among the most significant laws dealing with rising unemployment in Lithuania at the beginning of the 20th century was the one demanding from an employer to dismiss an employee whose spouse had a job. Since the society of that time was predominantly patriarchal, married women were the first to be dismissed. The law raised a stormy reaction from women who sought support from international organizations such as the Federation of International Diplomaed Women and the Union of the Nations. However, the issue was not solved till 1940 and burst out after the reestablishment of the state in 1990 and persisted till 1998 when the law of Equal Opportunities was issued.

  19. THE ROLE OF AUTHORIAL SELF-REFLECTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW BELARUSIAN LITERATURE ( EARLY 20 TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A. Gorodnitsky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The essay focuses on the development of a new Belarusian literature in the early decades of the 20 th century and the ways Belarusian writers reflected on the perspectives of the national literary development. During this period, literary works to some extent took on the functions of literary criticism and literary studies. The works of the founders of the new Belarusian literature contained ideas about the nature of creative writing and the relation of literature to reality. In 1913, there took place an important discussion on the correlation of the social and aesthetic content in literature. A prominent Belarusian poet Maxim Bogdanovich was not directly involved in this discussion but his prose piece “Apocrypha” was an indirect response to the discussants. This story is written in the form of a parable. It tells about Jesus Christ coming on earth. Christ answers the question of a folk singer whether his art may serve simple peasants who toil in the busy season. Working people need beauty like all the rest of us, says Christ. The artist should not reproach himself for idleness because his work serves people. In many other classical works by Yanka Kupala, Yakub Kolas, Maxim Bogdanovich, and other writers of the early 20 th century, creative process too becomes a subject of self-reflection. The poem “Symon- Musician” by Yakub Kolas shows that the artist’s life experience is a priceless treasure, which is subject to artistic reflection and transformation. Belarusian classical literature that emerged in the early 20 th century thus faced a difficult challenge; it had to outbalance the social orientation of literary works with artistic quests. This task was eventually solved and this experience remains actual and useful in our time.

  20. [The construction of a medical discipline and its challenges: Orthopedics in Switzerland during the 19th and 20th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Mariama

    2015-07-01

    During the 19th century, numerous figures, with different qualifications, claimed to practice orthopedics: doctors, surgeons, inventors of equipment and instruments, and other empiricists. They performed certain types of techniques, massages, surgical operationsand/or fitted prostheses. The polysemous notion of orthopedics had created conflicts of interest that would reach their height at the end of the 19th century. The integration of orthopedics into the training at the university level enhanced its proximity to surgery, a discipline that has dominated the so-called modern medicine. During the 20th century, various medical branches defend the legitimacy of certain orthopedic practices, thereby threating to a degree the title itself of this specialization. By examining the challenges that have shaped the history of orthopedics in Switzerland, this article also seeks to shed light on the strategies that were implemented in adopting a medical and technical discipline within a transforming society.

  1. The Destiny of an Eastern Observatory Follows the Dramatic One of this Part of Europe During the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, M.

    Founded at the dawn of the 20th century (1908), the Astronomical Observatory of Bucharest had an evolution that followed the destiny of its country. After about half a century along which it lives the usual life of any European institution for research and education, it leaves the education after the World War II, becoming an institute of the Academy. A short period of progress is followed by an unprecedented, total isolation, even from the neighbouring countries. The fall of the communist system in the last decade of the 20th century brings new endeavours, but also a hard competition with the worldwide astronomy. What is important is that in each situation the Romanian astronomers have found the interior resources to resist and to keep the national astronomy competitive, at least as regards some of its fields. Moreover, by setting the South-Eastern Branch of the European Astronomical Society, it wishes to contribute to the finding of local solutions, with the goal of increasing the level of astronomy in countries that face the same problems, the same difficulties.

  2. Divergent hydrological responses to 20th century climate change in shallow tundra ponds, western Hudson Bay Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brent B.; Light, Erin M.; Macrae, Merrin L.; Hall, Roland I.; Eichel, Kaleigh; Jasechko, Scott; White, Jerry; Fishback, LeeAnn; Edwards, Thomas W. D.

    2011-12-01

    The hydrological fate of shallow tundra lakes and ponds under conditions of continued warming remains uncertain, but has important implications for wildlife habitat and biogeochemical cycling. Observations of unprecedented pond desiccation, in particular, signify catastrophic loss of aquatic habitat in some Arctic locations. Shallow tundra ponds are a ubiquitous feature in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL), a region that has undergone intense warming over the past ˜50 years. But it remains unknown how hydrological processes in these ponds have responded. Here, we use cellulose-inferred pond water oxygen isotope records from sediment cores, informed by monitoring of modern pond water isotope compositions during the 2009 and 2010 ice-free seasons, to reconstruct hydrological conditions of four shallow tundra ponds in the western HBL over the past three centuries. Following an interval of relative hydrological stability during the early part of the records, results reveal widely differing hydrological responses to 20th century climate change among the study sites, which is largely dependent on hydrological connectivity of the basins within their respective surrounding peatlands. These findings suggest the 20th century has been characterized by an increasingly dynamic landscape that has variably influenced surface water balance - a factor that is likely to play a key role in determining the future water balance of ponds in this region.

  3. The controversial early brightening in the first half of 20th century: a contribution from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Antón, M.; Vaquero, J. M.; Aparicio, A. J. P.

    2014-01-01

    A long-term decrease in downward surface solar radiation from the 1950s to the 1980s ("global dimming") followed by a multi-decadal increase up to the present ("brightening") have been detected in many regions worldwide. In addition, some researchers have suggested the existence of an "early brightening" period in the first half of 20th century. However, this latter phenomenon is an open issue due to the opposite results found in literature and the scarcity of solar radiation data during this...

  4. Twixt Pragmatism and Idealism: British Approaches to the Balkan Policy Revisited (the late 19th/early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O I Aganson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define how home debates on international issues influence a state's foreign policy. This task was undertaken on the pattern of Britain's policy in the Balkans in the late 19th/early 20th century. The author examines the role played by the radicals (left-wing liberals in formulating Britain's approaches to the Eastern question. It is stated that the interaction between the Foreign Office and the radicals rendered British policy in the Balkans more flexible.

  5. SAFARI 2000 Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This is a data set of mean monthly surface climate data over Southern Africa for nearly all of the twentieth century. The data set is gridded at 0.5-degree...

  6. SAFARI 2000 Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a data set of mean monthly surface climate data over Southern Africa for nearly all of the twentieth century. The data set is gridded at 0.5-degree...

  7. The Lowland Rivers of The Netherlands - Geodiversity and Cultural Heritage on 19th and early 20th century Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Moes, Constance

    2015-04-01

    One of the major Dutch landscapes is formed by lowland rivers. They divide the country in a southern and a northern part, both physically and culturally. We screened the freely available database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis & Buunk, www.simonis-buunk.com, looking for lowland river landscapes depicting geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships (See References for other landscapes). Emperor Napoleon declared The Netherlands as naturally belonging to his empire as its lands originated from muds originating in France and transported there by the big rivers. A description that may have given rise to the idea of the Netherlands as a delta, but from a geomorphological perspective The Netherlands consists of series of river plains of terrestrial origin, of which the north-western part are subsiding and invaded by the sea. Now, the rivers Meuse and Rhine (including its branches Waal and IJssel) meander through ever larger river plains before reaching the North Sea. They end in estuaries, something one would not expect of rivers with catchments discharging a large part of Western Europe. Apart from the geological subsidence, the estuaries might be due to human interference, the exploitation of peat and building of dikes since the 11th century, heavy storms and the strong tidal currents. Archaeological finds show Vikings and Romans already used the river Rhine system for trading and transporting goods. During the Roman Empire the Rhine was part of The Limes, the northern defence line of the empire. Romans already influenced the distribution of water over the different river branches. Since the middle of the 19th century groins and canalization drastically changed the character of the rivers. The 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings illustrate this change as well as changes in land use. Examples of geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships shown: - meanders and irregular banks disappear as river management increases, i.a. bends

  8. MIKHAIL BAKUNIN AND HIS IDEAS IN THE GERMAN ANARCHISIC PRESS IN THE FIRST THIRD OF 20 TH CENTURY

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    Наталия Александровна Жукова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of research of the article is five German anarchistic newspapers and journals of the first third of 20 th century. The purpose of this article is to find out specifics of the perception of Mikhail Bakunin’s ideas among the part of German society. The analysis allowed determining general trends, stages of the German anarchistic press and showing the difference of views on Bakunin’s theory depending on period. The author of the article concludes that the interest in Russian anarchist study among German authors was stable during the first third of 20 th century. Before the First World War the name of Bakunin was used for propaganda of active revolutionary movement. After 1918 he was the main critic of centralism and Marxism. German authors appreciated positively theories of Bakunin and try to find in his works answers for contemporary problems; he was for them an ideal revolutionary, who was always ready for struggle, for leading the way and who can inspire the other people.

  9. On the stationarity of annual flood peaks in the continental United States during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarini, Gabriele; Serinaldi, Francesco; Smith, James A.; Krajewski, Witold F.

    2009-08-01

    Annual peak discharge records from 50 stations in the continental United States with at least 100 years of record are used to investigate stationarity of flood peaks during the 20th century. We examine temporal trends in flood peaks and abrupt changes in the mean and/or variance of flood peak distributions. Change point analysis for detecting abrupt changes in flood distributions is performed using the nonparametric Pettitt test. Two nonparametric (Mann-Kendall and Spearman) tests and one parametric (Pearson) test are used to detect the presence of temporal trends. Generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS) are also used to parametrically model the annual peak data, exploiting their flexibility to account for abrupt changes and temporal trends in the parameters of the distribution functions. Additionally, the presence of long-term persistence is investigated through estimation of the Hurst exponent, and an alternative interpretation of the results in terms of long-term persistence is provided. Many of the drainage basins represented in this study have been affected by regulation through systems of reservoirs, and all of the drainage basins have experienced significant land use changes during the 20th century. Despite the profound changes that have occurred to drainage basins throughout the continental United States and the recognition that elements of the hydrologic cycle are being altered by human-induced climate change, it is easier to proclaim the demise of stationarity of flood peaks than to prove it through analyses of annual flood peak data.

  10. Collective Memory and Collective Identity of Hlučín Region Inhabitants in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kubátová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hlučín Region is a small border area in the Moravia-Silesia Region. Its history is specific. Over 25 years in the 20th century, its border shifted three times and its inhabitants’ nationality also changed three times. The region was annexed by the German Reich in 1938 and its inhabitants gained the rights of citizens of the Reich, with the obligation to enlist in the Wehrmacht, the armed forces of Germany. These historical turning points and their consequences after the Second World War are part of the cultural and communicative memory of most of the local people. The purpose of the article is to show the communicative memory of Hlučín Region inhabitants and the common knowledge of 20th century historical events to be one of the important integral parts of regional identity, which is a source of regional consciousness. Hlučín Region inhabitants identify themselves strongly with their region and society. This identification results from specific culture finding its expression in shared values, faith and traditions, and from the awareness of their own specificity. As a consequence of the predominant regional endogamy, this culture is handed down from one generation to another. Strong regional consciousness based on this identification, has a positive influence on the rich communal life and possibilities of stabilization and further development of the region.

  11. A multidisciplinary approach of the status of women in Europe in the 20th-21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century was marked by the feminine revolution and the change of status of women throughout the world. The following article wishes to approach from a multidisciplinary perspective the contrasting differences of the woman’s condition in two different “worlds” (Occidental and the Balkans given the access of women towards education, social attitude and the afferent politics for women. These indexes influence the rate of participation of women in the working field, thus, they play a crucial role in the personal development of them. The comparative analysis of the specialized literature points out the main characteristics of women from France and Germany (as defining parts of the Occidental Europe and Turkey and Bosnia (representative countries for the Balkans and the Islamic part of the continent throughout the 20th and the 21st century. Although there is a common set of features, it is the differences that draw attention regarding the unequal participation of women in the social, economical and political life.

  12. Tree ring evidence of a 20th century precipitation surge in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram R.

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the first attempt to develop an annual (August-July) precipitation series back to AD 1330 using a tree ring data network of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don) from the Lahaul-Spiti region in the western Himalaya, India. The rainfall reconstruction reveals high magnitude multidecadal droughts during the 14th and 15th centuries and thenceforth a gradual increase in precipitation. Increasingly wet conditions during the 20th century are consistent with other long-term precipitation reconstructions from high Asia and reflect a large-scale intensification of the hydrological cycle, coincident with what is anticipated due to global warming. Significant relationships between reconstructed precipitation and precipitation records from central southwest Asia, east of the Caspian Sea, ENSO (NINO4-SST) variability and summer monsoon rainfall over central northeast India underscore the utility of our data in synoptic climatology.

  13. Friuli in the Venetian Historiography between 19th and 20th Century

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    Andrea Zannini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how the Venetian and the Friulian historians from the mid-XIX century to the mid-XX century considered the domination of the Republic of Venice on the Friuli in the early modern period. The different historiographical positions have intertwined with issues such as the Italian character of the Friulian territory, irredentism and the Adriatic ambitions of post-First World War Italy. Only from the 1920s onwards, with the works of Pier Silverio Leicht, and then Pio Paschini and Roberto Cessi, there is a renewal of historiography.

  14. Syphilis in the Russian army (in the 18 th and 20 th centuries

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    Zavyalov A.I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the domestic medical literature, reflecting the incidence of syphilis in the Russian army and the Russian military civilians in times of conflict in the XVII — beginning of XX century. The methods of struggle with sexually transmitted diseases and their prevention in the military in wartime and peacetime are present.

  15. Nonmilitary applications of the rocket between the 17th and 20th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Nonmilitary uses of the rocket through history were investigated. It was found that through the 17th century rockets were used in whaling as harpoon drives. In later years, rockets were used in lifesaving and in commercial signalling at sea. Rocket utilization was traced up to the present application of sending the first men to the moon.

  16. Flipping Their Fins for a Place to Stand: 19th- and 20th-Century Mermaids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Wilson, Gloria Lodato

    1993-01-01

    Juxtaposition of Hans Christian Andersen's "The Little Sea Maid" (1837) and Disney's home video "The Little Mermaid" (1989) illustrates how the adolescent princesses have evolved with changing views of women's roles. The mermaid of the twentieth century, part of the world of men, is still in a subservient role. (SLD)

  17. Careers of men and women in the 19th and 20th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, W.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies the process of status attainment during the careers of men and women in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the influence of modernization processes on that process of status attainment. During the decades following World War II, the Western world saw an increasing

  18. “The Concert of Europe” In 20th Century British and American Historiography

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    Ekaterina V. Romanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a critical analysis of the interpretations of the Concert of Europe by British and American historians of the XXth century. The interest in the study of this phenomenon is rooted in its relation to the problems of the maintenance of international order and stability. It is not only academic, being partly determined by the fact that throughout the XX century first Britain and then the USA was at the top of the world hierarchy, and accordingly played a leading role in the construction and maintenance of the European order. Current international environment, the experience of the two World Wars of the XXth century determined the angle from which the phenomenon of the Concert of Europe was studied. Whereas in the second half of the 1910s - early 1920s historians pointed to the deficiencies of the international system of the preceding century (and in particular, the institution of the Concert of Europe, the students of the Vienna system working after the Second World War regarded the period of 1815-1914 as relatively stable, compared to the short interwar interlude. The Concert of Europe was named as one of the factors contributing to stability and peace. Certain logic can be discerned in the development of the historiography of the problem, which to some degree reflected the evolution of ideas about international relations management. At the same time, the differences in the interpretations of the Concert of Europe derive from the fact that this very concept in the XIXth century was not fixed and static. Great Powers' readiness to cooperation did not mean that there were no conflicts of interests. They struggled for leadership within the Concert and sought to impart to it their own interpretation.

  19. [History of public health in Mexico: 19th and 20th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez de Romo, A C; Rodríguez Pérez, M E

    1998-01-01

    During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, its growth accompanied the country's political and social changes. In the early half of the nineteenth century, care for the sick depended in part on religious charity. So-called public beneficial care was later introduced and consolidated under president Benito Juárez (1856) and then continued under Porfirio Díaz (1880-1910). The Mexican Revolution (1910-1917) brought the notion that public-health assistance is the State's social responsibility. Health care and social security are now both part of so-called "institutional medicine," which also encompasses research and teaching on public health. This analysis of public-health care in Mexico examines the question of diseases and their control, the emergence of institutions, and the development of the concept of public health.

  20. [The changes in architecture and structure of the European hospital in 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Peter R

    From the development of architecture over more than a century we can infer the development of society. Especially in the construction of hospitals reflects social history that is determined by the progress of medical knowledge and techniques. This progress calls for reconsidering and changing conceptions of the construction of hospitals. This paper gives a representative overview of impacts on hospital construction and presents significant, path-breaking projects of the respective time. First it describes the basic principles of hospital construction dating from the 19th century, and then it discusses the influences on modern ways between 1900 and 1945.The next chapters are dedicated to the buildings dating from 1970s and 1980s, and to some examples of the years after 2000. Finally an outlook into the future is given.

  1. Late 19th- and early 20th-century discussions of animal magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Carlos S

    2009-10-01

    The mesmerists explained the phenomena of what was later called hypnosis as the effects of a force called animal magnetism. Both psychologists' and physicians' writings generally create the impression that the magnetic movement disappeared after the mid-19th century. While the concept of animal magnetism declined significantly by the end of the 19th century, it did not disappear completely. Some examples include the work of Hector Durville, Henri Durville, Emile Magnin, and Edmund Shaftesbury. Detailed accounts of the work of Edmund Gurney and Albert de Rochas are presented. Similar to its earlier counterpart, the late mesmeric movement was associated with what today is known as parapsychological phenomena. This association, and the belief that the demise of magnetic theory represents scientific progress, has led many to emphasize a history that is incomplete.

  2. Hans Bethe and Physics in/of the 20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweber, Silvan [Brandeis University

    2012-12-12

    I will present some facets of Hans Bethe’s life to illustrate how I have used biography to narrate certain aspects of the history of twentieth century physics. I will focus on post World War II quantum field theory, on the relation between solid state/condensed matter physics and high energy physics, and make some observations regarding certain “top down” views in solid state physics in postmodernity.

  3. Gender Disturbance: Women and War in 20th Century United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Claire; Cacqueray, Elizabeth de; Cacqueray, Elizabeth de; Esteves, Olivier; Magot, Céline; Meschia, Karen; Molinari, Véronique; Noakes, Lucy; Pham Dinh, Rose-May; Stirling, Martine; Vervaecke, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In most societies gender stereotyped roles attribute to men combative functions related to defence and attack, whilst women are engaged in the functions of motherhood and caring for the community. This was nowhere more the case than in the UK, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century: strict division of gender roles, in the middle and upper classes, allotting men to the public domain and women to the home, suited the demands of developing industrial production. However, between 1939...

  4. A New Cost Accounting Concept by the End of 20th Century: Strategic Cost Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bekçioğlu, Selim; Kaderli, Yusuf; Köroğlu, Çağrı; Sezer, Durmuş

    2016-01-01

    Competition is very heavy in today’s business environments due to globalisation. In order to survive and be successful, businesses try hard to use resources they own in the most productive manner. The most important resource they own is information, which is a strategic vitality element. Cost accounting, which emerged and developed beginning from the early 19th century, was a powerful instrument for to determine and watch the costs related with products and services that are being produced, a...

  5. Economic Development of Sarepta District of the Tsaritsyn County at the Turn of the 19th-20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parfenov Aleksandr E.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the process of the industrial development of Sarepta district (now the southern part of Volgograd at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. By the end of the 19th century the Sarepta district comprised 17 production entities. The majority of them were small workshops that manufactured various household goods and had from 5 to 10 workers. Besides, Sarepta had a larger industrial enterprise – the Mustard Factory of the Glitsch – which was known throughout Russia for the high quality of its produce. Agriculture played a minor role in Sarepta district. The population of Sarepta district amounted to about 1800 people in 1894. It comprised landowners, small industrialists, and their hired workers. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a rapid industrial development of the area. The first stage of the process was the building of the Tsaritsyn- Tikhoretskaya railway line. It connected the Kuban wheat-growing region with central areas of Russia. A 13-kilometres long section of the railway line passed through Sarepta district. Near Sarepta a station, a locomotive depot, and repair workshops were built in 1895-98. In 1901 the railway line and station were supplemented with a large cargo port on the Volga near Sarepta. The creation of the large transport hub sharply raised the economic significance of Sarepta district. Social and demographic characteristics of the area also changed dramatically. Due to the inflow of workers to the station and port, the district population nearly doubled and the ratio of proletariat raised sharply.

  6. 20th-Century Climate Change over Africa: Seasonal Variation in Hydroclimate Trends and Sahara Desert Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S.; Thomas, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    Twentieth-century trends in seasonal temperature and precipitation over the African continent are analyzed from observational data sets and historical climate simulations. Given the agricultural economy of the continent, a seasonal perspective is adopted as it is more pertinent than an annual-average one which can mask off-setting but agriculturally-sensitive seasonal hydroclimate variations. Examination of linear trends in seasonal surface air temperature (SAT) shows that heat stress has increased in several regions, including Sudan and Northern Africa where largest SAT trends occur in the warm season. Broadly speaking, the northern continent has warmed more than the southern one in all seasons. Precipitation trends are varied but notable declining trends are found in the countries along the Gulf of Guinea, especially in the source region of Niger river in West Africa, and in the Congo river basin. Rainfall over the African Great Lakes - one of the largest freshwater repositories - has however increased. We show that the Sahara Desert has expanded significantly over the 20th century - by 12-20% depending on the season. The desert expanded southward in summer, reflecting retreat of the northern edge of the Sahel rainfall belt; and to the north in winter, indicating potential impact of the widening of the Tropics. Specific mechanisms driving the expansion in each season are investigated. Finally, this observational analysis is used to evaluate the state-of-the-art climate models from a comparison of the 20th-century hydroclimate trends with those manifest in historical climate simulations. The evaluation shows that modeling regional hydroclimate change over the Africa continent remains challenging.

  7. Childcare in Reggio Emilia: Origins and Changes between the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Raimondo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reconstruct the evolution in the type of interventions and childcare models adopted by the institutions charged with caring for orphans in 18th- and 19th-century Reggio Emilia, Italy. Through analysis of the documents – some previously unseen – preserved at the archives of ASP Reggio Emilia Città delle Persone and Polo Archivistico Comunale, it is possible to understand how the city of Reggio Emilia adapted itself to the developing needs of its wards, and social, legislative and especially educational changes, seeking to go beyond the isolatory and custodial spirit that characterised life within orphanages until the end of the 19th century. The history of the local institutions intertwines with that of the national processes and changes which revolutionised the traditional concept of «institute». The monolithic, centuries-old and obsolete «orphanage» gave way to care within the community (1962, founded on the principles of protection, promotion and education of individuals. The stories of these individuals that emerge from the personal records and material analysed enable us to broaden our gaze on the reconstruction of institutional history, starting from a more internal perspective and focusing on the «subjectivity» of those in need of basic care. Such personal histories enable us to not only to understand the peculiarities of the various «cases», but also their living conditions, and the ways in which care, and at the same time education, was provided.

  8. Portrayal of 20th-century European totalitarian regimes in Spanish secondary education textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Naval, C. (Concepción); Pavón-Benito, J. (Julia)

    2011-01-01

    This paper intends to give a first impression of how XX-century European totalitarian regimes have been seen and presented by analysing a selection of Spanish History textbooks used in secondary education (ESO). Nowadays, both in our country and in the rest of Europe, a study of this type of manuals demands a reference to the debates which, in the last few decades, have focused on the didactic rethinking of the teaching of History. And, in the case of Spain, this issue has b...

  9. THE INTERSECTION OF POLITICS AND RELIGION IN 20TH CENTURY SOUTHWESTERN COLOMBIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Troyan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Historians have discussed and debated the many reasons for the Colombian Catholic church’sdecline. National trends such as the growing secularization of society, emergence of Protestantism, and the decline of the Conservative Party have all been cited as contributing to the weakening of the Catholic Church’s importance. This article examines the evolution of theCatholic Church in the department of Cauca during the twentieth century. It focuses specifically on the changes in the relationship between the Catholic Church and indigenous people.

  10. America's Water in the 20th Century: Measures to address climate induced risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devineni, N.

    2017-12-01

    This work develops an understanding of water risk for USA considering linkages between water supply and competing demands. It explores how climate variability and changing water demands manifest as water deficits and how public-private management decisions determine regional water availability and drought resilience. We develop insights on regional water risks, infrastructure investments, sectoral allocation and policy modifications for America's future water sustainability. In this talk, I will focus on demonstrating how the variations in climate over the last century influenced changes in water use across the continent USA. A peak into our interactive modeling environment for future evolution of water use and supply will also be provided.

  11. Reproduction in cold water: paradigm changes in the 20th century and a role for cidaroid sea urchins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, John S.; Lockhart, Susanne J.

    2004-07-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, powerful ideas about the biology of marine animals in cold waters (polar and deep sea) were in early stages of development. (1) General similarities between some Arctic and Antarctic species suggested a past or present continuity between the poles, possibly through tropical submergence. (2) The discovery of subantarctic species brooding their offspring suggested that supposedly harsh polar conditions select against species with pelagic, dispersive larvae. (3) The linkage between seasonal temperature changes and seasonal reproduction suggested that where temperatures were constant, as in polar and deep seas, reproduction would be aseasonal or continuous throughout the year. (4) Recognition of the phenomenon of metabolic temperature adaptation suggested that animals living in cold water should exhibit rates of physiological processes similar to rates in warmer environments. Observations and experiments throughout the first half of the 20th century generally supported and reinforced these ideas. During the second half of the 20th century, however, the generality of these paradigms broke down. Detailed analyses of fuller data indicated that Arctic, Antarctic, and deep-sea faunas are not the same and probably have different phylogenies reflecting different vicariant histories. Moreover, many species in these habitats have pelagic larvae, they generally spawn seasonally, and their physiological processes (respiration, gametogenesis, development, feeding, growth) are slow, showing little evidence of the expected temperature adaptation. Nevertheless, entering the 21st century, we are challenged by important exceptions that do support many of the earlier ideas. Bipolarity in some groups does indicate relict distributions, and other groups show equatorial submergence. Moreover, major species-rich clades in the Antarctic (unlike the Arctic) do brood their young. Most species with pelagic larvae produce non-feeding (lecithotrophic) larvae

  12. LAND USE CHANGES IN THE TRANS-BOUNDARY AMUR RIVER BASIN IN THE 20TH CENTURY

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    Victor Ermoshin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All distinctions in the economic and nature protection policy of the neighboring states are well reflected and shown within trans-boundary river basins. The parts of trans-boundary geosystem of one country can experience an essential negative influence from rash decisions in the field of nature use and nature protection policy of the neighboring state. The Amur River Basin covers the territories of Russia, the Peoples Republic of China, Mongolia and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and occupies more than 2 million km2. The most intensive development of the basin territory has started since the middle of the 19th century. We compiled two maps of land use in the Amur River basin in the 1930–1940s and in the early 21st century. Results showed that, negative dynamics is marked for forest lands, meadows, wetlands and mountain tundra. The basic features in the change of land use within national parts of the basin in Russia, China and Mongolia are analyzed. The comparative analysis of land use peculiarities of the countries for the last 70 years has been done.

  13. Methodological disputes about interpretation of neum notation in the 20th century

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    Peno Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the end of the twentieth century in Byzantine musicological science there were two diametrically opposite approaches to the interpretation of the Byzantine neum notation systems and post-Byzantine music heritage after the Fall of Constantinople. Western European scholars, ignoring the post-Byzantine Chant tradition and the last semeography reform from the early nineteenth century, looked at the problems of the musical past only from the perspective of the Middle Ages. Greek researchers have shared the belief that the condition of an adequate understanding of the mid-Byzantine notation, or the so-called old method, is the knowledge of analytical neum system and theory, the basics of which were set up by musicians from the end of the seventeenth and during the eighteenth century, and were finally shaped by Chrisantos, Gregory and Chourmouzios and officially accepted in the Greek church in 1814. The path to overcoming the issues relating to the development of neum notation, and finding an adequate manner of decoding it, led through the understanding of the phenomenon of "interpretation" and other tendencies that marked the post-Byzantine music practice. Two scientists -the Danish Jørgen Raasted, a follower of the Western European musicological methods established by founders of Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, and Greek theologist and musicologist Gregory Stathes - are specifically responsible for the reconciliation of the different methodological approaches. After numerous and often heated debates, the Danish scientist eventually largely accepted the views of his Greek counterpart. Moreover, he himself insisted, at the musicological conferences organized during the 1980s, on reviewing the controversial issues: the existence of chromatic intervals in the psalmody of the Middle-Ages, the problem of syllabic and melismatic interpretations of stenographic neum records, and so on. Concerning the above mentioned issues, the contemporary trends in

  14. Customs of Galati Port at the Beginning of the 20th Century

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    Constantin Tănase

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Common practices, whether recognized or not as a source of law, represented an area of great importance in economic practice and judicial bodies, especially in maritime and river transport, but also rail and air transport. The Civil Code of 1864 made some references to local custom, while the new Civil Code provisions establish that practices are sources of law. In this way was settled a particularly sensitive area, namely, the existence and applicability of common practices in special matters such as those on business, commercial transactions, financial and otherwise, being directly related to maritime and river transport. This study attempts to identify specific features of the common practices application in Galaţi port in the early twentieth century.

  15. Mexico and the constitution of the cultural patrimony policy in museums throughout the 20th Century

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    Márcio Rogério Olivato Pozzer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical, political and social role that the public policies of cultural heritage played in museums occupied in Mexico during the XX century, especially since the ‘Mexican Revolution’ of 1910, involved diverse social sectors in the creation of museological collections and also of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (Inah and the National Institute of Fine Arts (Inba, that, in turn were responsible for the extension of the concept of cultural heritage, which implied the insertion of cultural practices and communities that were excluded from the ‘official’ patrimony. These processes have transformed Mexican cultural policy into a new paradigm for Latin American countries and have inserted Mexico and its museums into one of the world's top tourist destinations.

  16. [Naturalism, novel and society in 19th-20th century transition in Spain.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The second half of the nineteenth century in Spain was a period characterized by a strong presence of social science, which even came to permeate the masses. Evolutionary theories and some figures such as Charles Darwin himself were present in areas far from the scientific activity proper. The use of concepts and laws of biological origin for the diagnosis and political practice against certain problematic social realities, such as crime or poverty, gave rise to theories and intellectual schools that asserted the value of evolutionary principles for the analysis of complex realities of socio-cultural inequality. The attraction for difference and the scientific method, with the possibility of observation of poverty and social inequality that industrial development and modernity put forward to the writers, added to the naturalist and biological interest a literary curiosity for the degeneration, both physical and cultural, of that unfortunate part of humanity.

  17. Introduction. Towards a Contemporary Historiography of Amateurs in Science (18th–20th Century).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemain, Hervé; Richard, Nathalie

    The last few decades have seen considerable growth in the role played by amateurs in the sciences. With the development of new techniques for collecting information, new virtual networks and the emergence of new problematics calling for the participation of citizens, this role has also become more visible, while the modern boundary between professionalism and amateurism, first erected in the 19th century, has been shaken. These contemporary developments have changed our perspective on amateurs in science and brought forth questions and analyses that sometimes coincide with recent inflections in the history of science. Thus it is now possible to take a new approach to the historical study of amateurs in contemporary science. This introduction hopes to demonstrate this, while the essays brought together in this volume, some of which explore extreme cases, reveal the very relative nature of the definition of the “amateur” category and how complex and fertile its implementation has been in the history of science.

  18. Agronomists and the construction of policy for agricultural teaching in the early 20th Century

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    Marco Arlindo Amorim Melo Nery

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussions on agricultural modernization and the formation of specialized workers, already present throughout the 19th century, were highlighted by the establishment of the National Society of Agriculture (SNA. This fact demonstrated the rise of the landed elite seeking more space in politics, coupled to the emergence of agronomists as holders of scientific knowledge focused on agricultural practices. SNA members counterpoised the power of the São Paulo landed elite and demanded from the central Brazilian government the establishment of a policy that would meet the organization's interests. The Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Trade (1906 was the result of tensions between the SNA and the São Paulo coffee growers. Four years later, legislation on agricultural education was enacted.

  19. Heritage of convenience: protection of the 20th century in Pescara - myth and reality

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    Claudio Varagnoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pescara was born from the merger of two small existing towns, in 1926. The new town thus feels like a place with no past, no history; something that is far from the truth. This notion has endorsed the ongoing demolition and replacement, even in recent times. An initial survey of the architectural heritage carried out by L. Bartolini Salimbeni, in 1994, highlighted considerable architectural heritage, that should have been defended by a variant of the urban master plan approved in 2007. However, recent demolitions of buildings of a certain importance (the Porta Nuova Station, the former Centrale del Latte, a textile mill from the early twentieth century proceed amid protests from citizens and associations. The Town Hall tried to remedy the situation, entrusting revision of the current urban master plan to a group of experts, who extended the work of Bartolini Salimbeni. However, the Administrative Court rejected these and other attempts of protection, disputing the application of restrictive rules on the part of the Town Hall: only the Superintendence, the local office of the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, in fact, may apply such restrictions. The essay highlights the need to improve alternative means of protection instead of traditional ways. However, it also points out that, in Italy, the economic and financial aspects of “heritage” still prevail. New dangers threaten other important buildings, such as the Adriatic Stadium, designed by Luigi Piccinato (1952-56. The issue not only concerns the preservation of monuments, but also the quality of life of the inhabitants. The risk is that our towns will be reduced to mere merchandise. Keywords: Pescara, Conservation, Nineteenth century, Demolitions, Heritage

  20. Morphological evolution of athletes over the 20th century: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, K; Olds, T

    2001-01-01

    Over the course of the past century it has become increasingly difficult to find athletes of the size and shape required to compete successfully at the highest level. Sport is Darwinian in that only the 'fittest' reach the highest level of participation. Not every physical characteristic could be expected to play a role in this selection process, but two that are important and for which substantial data assemblies exist, are height and mass. Measurements of elite athlete sizes were obtained from a variety of sources as far back as records allowed. We charted the shift in these anthropometric characteristics of elite sportspeople over time, against a backdrop of secular changes in the general population. Athletes in many sports have been getting taller and more massive over time; the rates of rise outstripping those of the secular trend. In open-ended sports, more massive players have an advantage. Larger players average longer careers and obtain greater financial rewards. In some sports it is equally difficult to find athletes small enough to compete. In contrast, there are sports that demand a narrow range of morphological characteristics. In these sports the size of the most successful athletes over the century has remained constant, despite the drift in the population characteristics from which they are drawn. A number of social factors both drive and are driven by the search for athletes of increasingly rare morphology. These include globalisation and international recruitment, greater financial and social incentives, and the use of special training methods and artificial growth stimuli. In many sports the demand for a specific range in body size reinforces the need to adopt questionable and illegal behaviours to reach the required size and shape to compete at the top level. Future scenarios also include 'gene-farming' through assortative mating and athlete gamete banks.

  1. The reception of the models of the New School in the Spanish manualistic of the early 20th century

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    Agustín ESCOLANO BENITO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines certain aspects related to the reception of the patterns of the New Education in the Spanish textbooks of the first third of the 20th century. This appropiation of the renewing pedagogical models by writers of didac- tic texts is also related to the processes of school modernisation during the period in Spanish and supose a mode of metamorphosis undergone by the principles of the renewed education on being transferred to the world of the prevailing educational practice. This influence consisted of the changes which affected the classical textbooks and in the appearance of new types of manuals which correspond to specific models and give rise to new textual forms.

  2. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, B.A.; Johnson, W. Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2013-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

  3. [Social Control, work world and the National Conferences of Health at the turn of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaz, Francisco Antonio de Castro; Flório, Solange Maria Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    The practice of social control in the field of the worker's health has been facing barriers imposed by the globalization and the restructuring in the work world, either because of the weakness of the workers' unions, or by the absence of representatives of the various workers categories without formal work bond, belonging to the expressive informal/precarious market. In the beginning of the 20th century, big National Conferences of Health were marked by political contexts with significant differences, favoring the lack of articulation among the representative bases that were engaged mainly in fragmented demands and particulars interests. To contemplate on as the legitimate representation of the workers' classes is configured, either belonging to the formal market, or informal/precarious, is necessary against the evidences that the current arrangement is impeding the deepening of the specific worker's health issues.

  4. Using atmospheric CO2 data to assess a simplified carbon-climate simulation for the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Rachel M.; Kowalczyk, Eva A.; Wangs, Ying-Ping

    2006-01-01

    The CSIRO biosphere model has been coupled to an atmosphere model and a simulation has been performed for the 20th century. Both biosphere and atmosphere are forced with global CO 2 concentration and the atmosphere is also forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures. The simulation follows the C4MIP Phase 1 protocol. We assess the model simulation using atmospheric CO 2 data. Mauna Loa growth rate is well simulated from 1980 but overestimated before that time. The interannual variations in growth rate are reasonably reproduced. Seasonal cycles are underestimated in northern mid-latitudes and are out of phase in the southern hemisphere. The north-south gradient of annual mean CO 2 is substantially overestimated due to a northern hemisphere net biosphere source and a southern tropical sink. Diurnal cycles at three northern hemisphere locations are larger than observed in many months, most likely due to larger respiration than observed

  5. Climate-change impact on the 20th-century relationship between the Southern Annular Mode and global mean temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guojian; Cai, Wenju

    2013-01-01

    The positive phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) increases global mean temperature, and contributes to a negative phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the dominant mode of climate variability in the Southern Hemisphere. This interannual relationship of a high global mean temperature associated with a negative SAM, however, is opposite to the relationship between their trends under greenhouse warming. We show that over much of the 20th century this relationship undergoes multidecadal fluctuations depending on the intensity of ENSO. During the period 1925-1955, subdued ENSO activities weakened the relationship. However, a similar weakening has occurred since the late 1970s despite the strong ENSO. We demonstrate that this recent weakening is induced by climate change in the Southern Hemisphere. Our result highlights a rare situation in which climate change signals emerge against an opposing property of interannual variability, underscoring the robustness of the recent climate change.

  6. Assessing the 20th century performance of global climate models and application to climate change adaptation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geil, Kerrie

    Rapid environmental changes linked to human-induced increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations have been observed on a global scale over recent decades. Given the relative certainty of continued change across many earth systems, the information output from climate models is an essential resource for adaptation planning. But in the face of many known modeling deficiencies, how confident can we be in model projections of future climate? It stands to reason that a realistic simulation of the present climate is at least a necessary (but likely not sufficient) requirement for a model's ability to realistically simulate the climate of the future. Here, I present the results of three studies that evaluate the 20th century performance of global climate models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  7. Connections: can the 20th century coronary heart disease epidemic reveal something about the 1918 influenza lethality?

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    M.I Azambuja

    Full Text Available This essay proposes that the ecologic association shown between the 20th century coronary heart disease epidemic and the 1918 influenza pandemic could shed light on the mechanism associated with the high lethality of the latter. It suggests that an autoimmune interference at the apoB-LDL interface could explain both hypercholesterolemia and inflammation (through interference with the cellular metabolism of arachidonic acid. Autoimmune inflammation, then, would explain the 1950s-60s acute coronary events (coronary thrombosis upon influenza re-infection and the respiratory failure seen among young adults in 1918. This hypothesis also argues that the lethality of the 1918 pandemic may have not depended so much on the 1918 virus as on an immune vulnerability to it, possibly resulting from an earlier priming of cohorts born around 1890 by the 1890 influenza pandemic virus.

  8. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brett A; Johnson, W Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2013-09-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946-1975; 1976-2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

  9. A reversal of the socioeconomic gradient of nuptiality during the Swedish mid-20th-century baby boom

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    Glenn Sandström

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research into the causes of the mid-20th-century baby boom has concluded that the main proximate cause of the fertility increase during the 1940s was earlier and more universal marriage in the cohorts born after 1910, and that this association between nuptiality trends and fertility was particularly strong in Sweden. Objective: However, we do not know whether this was a general trend or if certain socioeconomic groups spearheaded the change toward earlier marriage. Methods: The present study uses event history analysis to investigate the marital histories of approximately 100,000 men and women in Sweden, born 1880-1934, to determine how socioeconomic differentials in nuptiality developed during the period 1900-1960. Conclusions: The analysis shows that the sharp increase in nuptiality was not driven uniformly across different social strata, but rather took the form of earlier and more universal marriage among men in the mid and upper social strata and among economically active women, while male unskilled workers and women outside the labor market did not participate in the nuptiality boom during the peak baby boom years and even showed some signs of decreased marriage probabilities compared to earlier cohorts. Contribution: The results indicate that sector-specific economic growth after the depression and the breakthrough of the Swedish welfare state benefitted couples who could aspire to a middle-class identity, and that pronatalist policies made female economic activity more compatible with marriage. The results show that the shift toward a positive female socioeconomic gradient of marriage and family formation that can be observed in contemporary Sweden had its beginnings already with the cohorts that participated in the mid-20th-century baby boom.

  10. The Idea of Modernity in Italian Literature at the Turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries

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    Anastasia V. Golubtsova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes various concepts of modernity in Italian literature at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Modernity is considered a key category of the literary process of the period: different views of modernity reveal philosophical, historical, and aesthetic ideas of the major authors and literary currents. The term modernity in its relation to Italy at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries may be understood in two different ways: as a specific time period after the unification of Italy and as an aesthetic ideal, both reachable and unreachable. Modernity as a historical period is inseparable from the sense of disappointment and awareness of Italian backwardness and provincialism. The Scapigliati manifest their socio-critical position as a Romantic conflict between individual and society, Verism represents the same idea as a tragic clash of traditional peasant world and modernity that is destroying it. Luigi Pirandello belongs to the same socio-critical tradition. The sense of weariness and decadence is one of the aspects of modern worldview: Gabriele D’Annunzio expresses it in the form of decadent aestheticism; the Crepusculars reject modernity and replace it with the idea of everyday life; Luigi Pirandello puts a special emphasis on the state of perplexity and confusion experienced by a modern man. From the aesthetic point of view, modernity in Italy begins as a struggle against Romanticism; however, here we encounter the controversial nature of the concept again. Giosue Carducci and the Scapigliati reject Italian Romanticism but turn to European Romanticism trying to overcome Italian cultural backwardness. A Verist writer Luigi Capuana elaborates a positivist ideal of modern literature and yet abandons it later. D’Annunzio sees the ideal of modern art in restoring cultural continuity. Futurists, on the contrary, understand modernity as breaking with tradition. Thus, all aesthetic interpretations of modernity in Italy focus

  11. Ideology and Social Improvement in Bolivia during the 20th Century

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    Brian Norris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay relates improvements in social indicators in Bolivia during the Twentieth Century to ideological changes during the same period. During the Twentieth Century, most social indicators improved dramatically in Bolivia. Separately, scholars have vigorously debated ideologies, such as neoliberalism and its macroeconomic competitors, and the potential social impact of these ideologies. Despite the separate emphases on ideas and social outcomes, no systematic attempt has been made by scholars of Bolivia to link long–term ideological change to long–term social improvement in the country. This essay argues that it is probable that such a relationship exists, but it is important to consider mass ideology, which affects the whole of Bolivian society, in addition to elite ideology, which affects a much more limited portion of society.Este ensayo relaciona las mejoras en indicadores sociales en Bolivia durante el siglo XX con cambios ideológicos registrados durante el mismo periodo. Durante el siglo XX la mayoría de los indicadores sociales mejoraron dramáticamente en Bolivia. Los especialistas han debatido vigorosamente  la relación de estas mejoras con ideologías tales como el neoliberalismo y sus competidores macroeconómicos, discutiendo su potencial impacto social. Sin embargo, pese al énfasis otorgado a la relación de las ideas con los resultados sociales, no ha habido ninguna tentativa sistemática por parte de los especialistas de  relacionar el cambio ideológico de largo plazo con las mejoras sociales de largo plazo en el país. Este ensayo sostiene que es probable que tal relación exista, pero para visibilizarla es importante considerar la ideología de masas, que afecta al conjunto de la sociedad boliviana, además de la ideología de la élite, que afecta a una porción mucho más limitada de la sociedad. 

  12. The danish vocational education and training system in the 19th and 20th century

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    Ida JUUL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the development of Vocational Education and Training (VET in Denmark. It traces the characteristics of the Danish VET system of today back to the late 19th century. It was during this period that the control of the guilds over apprentices was replaced by a free market model and later by legislative regulations. Parallel to this development, the masters began to engage in the liberal education of their apprentices. Later, this involvement was institutionalized by giving the social partners a central role, alongside the Ministry of Education, in the management of the VET system. With the introduction of new VET legislation in 1956, the dual system was introduced, combining workplace training with practical and theoretical school-based training. Although workplace training today comprises 2/3 of vocational education and training, the introduction of daytime school-based training signaled the beginning of a process in which the VET system became more and more integrated in the general educational policy of the country. The article illustrates how this has forced the VET system to adapt to changing political strategies in ways which do not necessarily reflect problems inherent to the VET system itself. The strategy of education for all is considered as an example.

  13. Article Commentary: What was Glaucoma Called before the 20th Century?

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    Christopher T. Leffler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena , or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray and viriditate oculi. Angle closure, with palpable hardness of the eye, mydriasis, and anterior prominence of the lens, was described in greater detail in the 18th and 19th centuries. The introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850 permitted the visualization of the excavated optic neuropathy in eyes with a normal or with a dilated greenish-gray pupil. Physicians developed a better appreciation of the role of intraocular pressure in both conditions, which became subsumed under the rubric “glaucoma”.

  14. Social valuation of institutional office furniture during the first of the 20th century

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    Aguiló-Alonso, María Paz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The documentation of cabinetwork in Madrid at the turn-of-the-century has allowed for the study of the social conditions implied in the development of institutional office furniture in public buildings. It can been seen as representative of the different levels existing especially on the ministerial plane, the evolution of which will establish the guidelines for systems of modern furnishings. This study has been carried out using the documentary and graphic materials preserved in the Spanish Treasury Department (Ministerio de Hacienda, on three coordinated actions in the local offices of this Department, thereby allowing for the registration of a full list of commercial firms and workshops active between 1900 and 1936.

    Documentar la labor de ebanistería en el Madrid finisecular ha permitido estudiar las condiciones sociales que en los edificios públicos implicaron el desarrollo del despacho, como elemento representativo de los distintos estadios existentes, sobre todo a nivel ministerial y cuya evolución marcará la pauta de los sistemas de amueblamiento modernos. Este estudio se realiza sobre la base documental y gráfica conservada en el Ministerio de Hacienda, sobre tres acciones coordinadas en todas las Delegaciones de Hacienda, permitiendo registrar una amplia lista de casas comerciales y talleres activos entre 1900 y 1936.

  15. The Pattern of Islamic Moderate Movement in Java under Political Fluctuations in Early 20th Century

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    Nostalgiawan Wahyudhi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The previous studies of Islamization in Java follow a clear distinction of Priyayi-Abangan-Santri thesis, which was gradually developed and incompatible to capture the changing of political preferences of Javanese Muslims. This paper examines what kind of patterns formed on the dynamics of the Islamization process in Java under the influence of socio-political changes. The output of this paper is to show the pattern of Islamization process in Java under the political dynamic changes of Indonesian politics in the early twentieth century. The pattern of Islamization in Java was influenced by ethical policy, the transmission of Middle East Islam, and caused by the politization of Islam by the Colonial government. The ethical policy encouraged the creation of a public space for political contestations that determined the new identity of Indonesian elite. The transmission of Middle Eastern Islam triggered the polarization of Javanese Muslims into two patterns: the modernist Muslim strengthened the pattern of Priyayi-Santri in urban communities with Islamization through modern institutions. In this, the traditionalist Muslim also developed an intellectual genealogy through Pesantren networks scattered in the rural areas created the pattern of Santri-Abangan. Meanwhile the politization of Islam by Colonial government created a benefit to the unification of Islamic institutions.

  16. The Moderate Patterns of Islamization in Java Under Political Fluctuations in Early 20th Century

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    Nostalgiawan Wahyudhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The previous studies of islamization in Java follow a clear distinction of priyayi-abangan-santri thesis, which was in its development gradually incompatible to capture the changing of political preferences of Javanese Muslims. This paper examines what kind of patterns formed on the dynamics of the process of Islamization in Java under the influence of socio-political changes. The output of this paper perhaps shows the pattern of islamization in Java under the dynamic changes of Indonesian politics in the early twentieth century. The pattern of islamization in Java was influenced, firstly, by ethical policy, secondly, the transmission of Middle East Islam, and, thirdly, politization of Islam by colonial government. The ethical policy encouraged the creation of a public space for political contestations that determined the new identity of Indonesian elite. The transmission of Middle Eastern Islam triggered the polarization of Javanese Muslims into two patterns: the modernist Muslim strengthened the pattern of priyayi-santri in urban communities with Islamization through modern institutions. The traditionalist Muslim developed an intellectual genealogy through pesantren networks scattered in the rural areas created the pattern of santriabangan. Meanwhile the politization of Islam by colonial government created a benefit to the unification of Islamic institutions.

  17. Sex determination from the calcaneus in a 20th century Greek population using discriminant function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, Tanya R; Orr, Kayla; Meek, Susan; Manolis, Sotiris K

    2015-12-01

    The skull and post-cranium have been used for the determination of sex for unknown human remains. However, in forensic cases where skeletal remains often exhibit postmortem damage and taphonomic changes the calcaneus may be used for the determination of sex as it is a preservationally favored bone. The goal of the present research was to derive discriminant function equations from the calcaneus for estimation of sex from a contemporary Greek population. Nine parameters were measured on 198 individuals (103 males and 95 females), ranging in age from 20 to 99 years old, from the University of Athens Human Skeletal Reference Collection. The statistical analyses showed that all variables were sexually dimorphic. Discriminant function score equations were generated for use in sex determination. The average accuracy of sex classification ranged from 70% to 90% for the univariate analysis, 82.9% to 87.5% for the direct method, and 86.2% for the stepwise method. Comparisons to other populations were made. Overall, the cross-validated accuracies ranged from 48.6% to 56.1% with males most often identified correctly and females most often misidentified. The calcaneus was shown to be useful for sex determination in the twentieth century Greek population. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Real Style: Riegl and Early 20th Century Central European Art

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    Kimberly A. Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Originally published in Centropa: Journal of Central European Art and Architecture 5, n. 1 (January 2005: 16-25. Kimberly A. Smith discusses the ways in which the understanding of style was articulated by intellectuals working in the late nineteenth century, primarily in Germany and Austria, and the epistemological repercussions of this shift in thinking for both the theory and practice of central European art in the years before World War I. Smith focuses in particular on the writings of Alois Riegl, in which this approach to thinking about style came to its most influential fruition, and proposes that Riegl’s conception of form had implications for artistic practice. Riegl’s methodological understanding of artistic form drew connections between morphological types and perceptions of reality, thereby altering the ways in which artists could conceive of aesthetic authenticity. Style itself could be seen as the harbinger of truth, opening up the possibility that any style might offer a genuine revelation of the real. Yet as Smith shows, the Rieglian theory of meaningful form may have encouraged an artistic pluralism that subverted the very Kunstwollen theory of historically unified style from which it sprung.

  19. Slovenian facsimile in the19th and in the first half of the 20th century:pre-modern facsimile

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    Mihael Glavan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Printers on Slovenian territory did not attempt to print facsimiles until the beginning of the 20th century and neither did they publish anything relevant in this expert field. The development of Slovenian facsimile nevertheless started (outside Slovenia almost a whole century earlier. Its course is outlined against European parallels, providing achievements in the pre-modern era (18129-1959. The analysis focuses on earlier Slovenian facsimiles which have not been well known or had been especially scientifically unexplored. A surprisingly high expert level, both in terms of technology and editing, is revealed by our first facsimiles of the 19th century which were mostly initiated by Jernej Kopitar. In this period medieval materials give way to modern ones (Prešeren’s Poezije, which prevail afterwards. According to the fundamental criteria, upon which the definition of a modern facsimile is based, 12 units have been identified as facsimiles, 4 of them recognised as complete facsimiles meeting all the required criteria of that period.

  20. Let the dead teach the living: the rise of body bequeathal in 20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garment, Ann; Lederer, Susan; Rogers, Naomi; Boult, Lisa

    2007-10-01

    America's medical schools have long used human cadavers to teach anatomy, but acquiring adequate numbers of bodies for dissection has always been a challenge. Physicians and medical students of the 18th and 19th centuries often resorted to robbing graves, and this history has been extensively examined. Less studied, however, is the history of body acquisition in the 20th century, and this article evaluates the factors that coalesced to transition American society from body theft to body donation. First, it describes the legislation that released the unclaimed bodies of those dying in public institutions to medical schools for dissection, thereby effectively ending grave robbery. Then it discusses midcentury journalistic exposés of excesses in the funeral industry-works that were instrumental in bringing alternatives, including the previously unpopular option of body donation, to public consciousness. Finally, it examines the rise of body transplantation, the Uniform Anatomical Gifts Act of 1968, and the subsequent state of willed-body programs at the turn of the 21st century. Body-donation programs have gradually stabilized since and currently provide most of the bodies used for dissection in American medical schools. Relying as they do on public trust, however, these programs remain potentially precarious and threatened by public scandals. Whether American medical schools will receive enough bodies to properly educate students in the future remains to be seen.

  1. Post-Keynesianism: Evolution of Keynesian Macroeconomics in the 20th Century

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    Lyubov N. Artamonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of J.M. Keynes's theory in the second half of the twentieth century due to the works within the new direction of economical science - Post-Keynesianism. It is shown that in free-market economy Keynesian school based of the original Keynesian methodology requires additional studies of state regulation principles and take into account the qualitative changes in the market mechanisms. It is shown that post-Keynesianism has had a significant impact on the subject of research and has taken into account the principles of free enterprise, market pricing, level of price dynamics. All this principles allow realizing the principle of self-regulation of the market mechanism. New approaches to the post-Keynesians role of the state and state regulation combined with the freedom of entrepreneurship are analyzed. Taking into account real changes and economic crises it is necessary to analyze the main directions of development of the Keynesian model of economic regulation with a view to their effective use in shaping economic policy. There are considered the basic directions of development of post-Keynesianism such as Neo-Ricardian theory of value and prices of goods based on direct costs of production in the framework of macroeconomic model by P. Sraffa, information theory of "fundamental" uncertainty of the future by R. Klauder and the theory of financial instability hypothesis by H. Minsky. Their differences within the framework of post-Keynesianism under the subject specialization are considered. It is noted that the development of PostKeynesianism allows to present the latest research in modern Keynesian school within an interdisciplinary approach to economical problems.

  2. The mysterious trend in American heights in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlos, John; Lauderdale, Benjamin E

    2007-01-01

    The secular trend in the height of the US population has been almost neglected in a comparative perspective, despite its being a useful indicator of early-life biological conditions. The study estimated the height of the US population and compared it to Western European trends after World War II. The complete set of NHES and NHANES data were analyzed, collected between 1959 and 2004 by the National Center for Health Statistics, in order to construct trends of the physical stature of US-born men and women limited to non-Hispanic blacks and whites. Also analyzed was the trend in the height of US military personnel whose parents were also born in the USA. The trends and levels were compared with those of several European populations. The increase in the physical stature of US adults slowed down by mid-century concurrent with a substantial acceleration in height attainment in Western and Northern Europe. Military data corroborate this finding in the main. After being the tallest population in the world ever since colonial times, Americans are now shorter than most Western and Northern Europeans and as much as 4.7-5.7 cm shorter than the Dutch, who are the tallest in world today. Given the well-established relationship between adult stature and early-life biological welfare, it was hypothesized that either American diets are sub-optimal or that the universal health care systems and social safety net of the European welfare states are providing a more favorable early-life health environment than does the American health care system.

  3. Carbon and water balance of European croplands throughout the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervois, SéBastien; Ciais, Philippe; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Brisson, Nadine; Vuichard, Nicolas; Viovy, Nicolas

    2008-06-01

    We assessed the effects of rising atmospheric CO2, changing climate, and farmers' practice on the carbon and water balance of European croplands during the past century (1901-2000). The coupled vegetation-crop model ORCHIDEE-STICS is applied over western Europe for C3 crops (winter wheat) and for maize, with prescribed historical agricultural practice changes. Not surprisingly, the enormous crop yield increase observed in all European regions, 300-400% between 1950 and 2000, is found to be dominantly explained by improved practice and varieties selection, rather than by rising CO2 (explaining a ˜11% uniform increase in yield) and changing climate (no further change in yield on average, but causing a decrease of ˜19% in the southern Iberian Peninsula). Agricultural soil carbon stocks in Europe are modeled to have decreased between 1950 and 1970, and since then to have increased again. Thus, the current stocks only differ by 1 ± 6 tC ha-1 from their 1900 value. Compensating effects of increasing yields on the one hand (increasing stocks) and of higher harvest index values and ploughing on the other hand (decreasing stocks) occur. Each of these processes taken individually has the potential to strongly alter the croplands soil carbon balance in the model. Consequently, large uncertainties are associated to the estimated change in carbon stocks between 1901 and 2001, roughly ±6 tC ha-1 a-1. In our most realistic simulation, the current cropland carbon balance is a net sink of 0.16 ± 0.15 tC ha-1 a-1. The annual water balance of cropland soils is influenced by increasing crop water use efficiency, one third of which is caused by rising CO2. However, increasing water use efficiency occurred mainly in spring and winter, when water is not limiting for plant growth, whereas no strong savings of soil water are achieved in summer through elevated CO2. Overall, trends in cultivation practices have caused a 3 times larger increase of water use efficiency than rising CO2.

  4. Representations of epilepsy on the stage: From the Greeks to the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Michael; Hesdorffer, Dale C

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy is a disorder that has been used by dramatists in various ways over the ages and therefore highlights the views of the disorder as people saw it at the time the plays were written and performed. In the 6th century BC, links between tragedy and epilepsy were developed by Greek playwrights, especially Euripides, in Iphigenia among the Taureans and Heracles where epilepsy and madness associated with extreme violence occur together. Both Heracles and Orestes have episodes after a long period of physical exhaustion and nutritional deprivation. During the Renaissance, Shakespeare wrote plays featuring different neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Epilepsy plays a crucial part in the stories of Julius Caesar and Othello. Julius Caesar is a play about politics, and Caesar's epilepsy is used to illustrate his weakness and vulnerability which stigmatizes him and leads to his assassination. Othello is a play about jealousy, and Othello, an outsider, is stigmatized by his color, his weakness, and his 'seizures' as a form of demonic possession. In modern times, Night Mother portrays the hard life of Jessie, who lives with her mother. Jessie has no friends, her father has abandoned the family, and she has no privacy and is ashamed. Stigma and social pressures lead her to commit suicide. Henry James' novella, The Turn of the Screw, portrays a governess with dream-like states, déjà vu, and loss of temporal awareness who has been sent to the country to look after two small children and ends up killing one. This novella was turned into an opera by Benjamin Britten. Most recently, performance art has been portraying epilepsy as the reality of a personally provoked seizure. Both Allan Sutherland and Rita Marcalo have purposely provoked themselves to have a seizure in front of an audience. They do this to show that seizures are just one disability. Whether this provokes stigma in audiences is unknown. Whether the performance artists understand the potential for

  5. Naturalism, novel and society in 19-20th century transition Spain

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    Ortíz, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the nineteenth century in Spain was a period characterized by a strong presence of social science, which even came to permeate the masses. Evolutionary theories and some figures such as Charles Darwin himself were present in areas far from the scientific activity proper. The use of concepts and laws of biological origin for the diagnosis and political practice against certain problematic social realities, such as crime or poverty, gave rise to theories and intellectual schools that asserted the value of evolutionary principles for the analysis of complex realities of socio-cultural inequality. The attraction for difference and the scientific method, with the possibility of observation of poverty and social inequality that industrial development and modernity put forward to the writers, added to the naturalist and biological interest a literary curiosity for the degeneration, both physical and cultural, of that unfortunate part of humanity.

    La segunda mitad del siglo XIX es un periodo caracterizado por una muy importante presencia social de la ciencia, que incluso llega a permear las clases populares. Las teorías evolucionistas y algunas figuras como la del propio Darwin aparecen así en ámbitos en principio alejados de los de la creación científica. La utilización de conceptos y leyes de origen biológico para el diagnóstico y la práctica política frente a determinadas realidades sociales problemáticas, como la delincuencia o la pobreza, dio lugar al surgimiento de teorías y escuelas intelectuales que hicieron valer los principios evolucionistas de aplicación biológica al análisis de complejas realidades de desigualdad sociocultural. La atracción por la diferencia y por el método científico, junto a la posibilidad de observación de situaciones de pobreza y desigualdad social que el desarrollo industrial y la modernidad ponían delante de los escritores, provocaron un interés literario por la degeneraci

  6. Development of the Structure of Lithuanian Gardens and Parks from the 16th to the 20th Centuries

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    Albinas Mocevičius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The historical development of Lithuanian parks cannot be separated from the historical evolution of our cities and towns and formation of their urbanistic structure. The beginnings of creating garden art in Lithuania, the same as in West Europe, are mentioned in medieval castles and monasteries. A strong influence on the developement of the history of Renaissance gardens was exerted by new models of garden theory, which were formed and formulated by famous European architects, artists, scientists, philosophers. The traditions of antique art were revived, new scientific inventions had an influence on garden art. During the 17th–18th centuries a lot of residences and manors were built, and they played an important role in the urbanisation of the country. In the 17th–18th centuries the tendencies in the Italian art of garden parks in West Europe were taken over by French baroque. In the junction of the 18th and 19th centuries the planning of cities and towns and urbanistic development in the territories of Lithuania and East Europe took place due to bizarre and geometralised influence of the baroque epoch. In the 19th century scenery parks were created next to mansions in Lithuanian towns by famous scenery specialists of that time from West Europe. In the junction of 19th and 20th centuries important geopolitical processes in Lithuania and Europe took place not only in the urbanisation of cities, but also in the planning of parks and their art tendencies. Due to the growth of cities, their urbanised territories and strengthening of social attitude towards a surrounding environment, the boundaries of park art spread into the public areas of cities. At the end of the paper there is a scheme which summarises the development and influence of park structure on city development and formation .Article in Lithuanian

  7. Permafrost dynamics in 20th and 21st centuries along the east-Siberian and Alaskan transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonova, Tatiana Sergeevna

    High latitude ecosystems where the mean annual ground surface temperature is around or below 0°C are highly sensitive to global warming. This is largely because these regions contain vast areas of permafrost, which will begin to degrade when the mean annual ground temperatures will rise above 0°C. The Alaskan and East Siberian transects, centered on the 155° WL and 135° EL, were chosen for evaluation of permafrost---atmosphere interactions. The analysis of measured data shows a significant increase in air and ground temperatures that started from the late 1960s within both these transects and the magnitude of this increase is from 0.2 to 0.5°C per decade. This trend is comparable to trends predicted by majority of global warming scenarios. A simple and accurate model for evaluating the permafrost dynamics was developed in Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab (GIPL). The GIPL model is a fusion of the modified Kudryavtsev's approach, which is a set of analytical formulas for active layer thickness (ALT) and mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) calculations, with the Geographic Information System (GIS). The evaluation of the GIPL performance showed that when applied to long-term (decadal or longer time scale) averages, this model achieves an accuracy of +/-0.2--0.4°C for the mean annual ground temperatures and +0.1--0.3 m for the active layer thickness calculations. The GIPL model was used for the hindcast of the permafrost dynamics in the 20th century, using a combination of observationally-based and simulated monthly grids of surface air temperature. The results showed that during the 20th century there were a number of relatively cold and warm periods. These climatic variations produced 1 to 3°C changes in MAGT and up to 1 m in the ALT. The forecast for the period of 2000--2100 was performed using climatic parameters from six Global Climate Models provided by Arctic Climate Impact Assessment program. The results showed that by the end of 21st century mean

  8. The distribution of an illustrated timeline wall chart and teacher's guide of 20th century physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2000-12-26

    The American Physical Society's part of its centennial celebration in March of 1999 decided to develop a timeline wall chart on the history of 20th century physics. This resulted in eleven consecutive posters, which when mounted side by side, create a 23-foot mural. The timeline exhibits and describes the millstones of physics in images and words. The timeline functions as a chronology, a work of art, a permanent open textbook, and a gigantic photo album covering a hundred years in the life of the community of physicists and the existence of the American Physical Society. Each of the eleven posters begins with a brief essay that places a major scientific achievement of the decade in its historical context. Large portraits of the essays' subjects include youthful photographs of Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman among others, to help put a face on science. Below the essays, a total of over 130 individual discoveries and inventions, explained in dated text boxes with accompanying images, form the backbone of the timeline. For ease of comprehension, this wealth of material is organized into five color-coded story lines the stretch horizontally across the hundred years of the 20th century. The five story lines are: Cosmic Scale, relate the story of astrophysics and cosmology; Human Scale, refers to the physics of the more familiar distances from the global to the microscopic; Atomic Scale, focuses on the submicroscopic world of atoms, nuclei and quarks; Living World, chronicles the interaction of physics with biology and medicine; Technology, traces the applications of physic to everyday living. Woven into the bottom border of the timeline are period images of significant works of art, architecture, and technological artifacts such as telephones, automobiles, aircraft, computers, and appliances. The last poster, covering the years since 1995, differs from the others. Its essay concerns the prospect for physics into the next century, and is

  9. Geopolitical perspectives in Spain: from the Iberismo of the 19th century to the Hispanoamericanismo of the 20th

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    José Antonio Rodríguez-Esteban

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes which took place in the balance of power in Europe in the last thirty years of the 19th century, together with the process of colonial expansion and partition, led Spanish geographers to see the need to combine the territorial projects and interests of Spain and Portugal with the aim of defending what remained of their colonial empires, coveted by English-speaking countries. This gave new life to a school of thought known as "Iberismo", which now extended to include France in the formula of a "triple alliance of the South" based on the common interests of Latin countries. The failure of both attempts at rapprochement gave rise to these ideas being transferred, by the beginning of the 20th century, to the Spanish-speaking countries of America. Iberismo was to become "Hispano-Americanismo", and the defence of strategic and material interests was to begin with a reaffirmation of the moral and spiritual qualities of peoples sharing common roots and a common language. Ideas and arguments along these lines were then developed on both sides of the Atlantic, crossing boundaries into other spheres of intellectual activity.

  10. Demographic amplification of climate change experienced by the contiguous United States population during the 20(th century.

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    Jason Samson

    Full Text Available Better understanding of the changing relationship between human populations and climate is a global research priority. The 20(th century in the contiguous United States offers a particularly well-documented example of human demographic expansion during a period of radical socioeconomic and environmental change. One would expect that as human society has been transformed by technology, we would become increasingly decoupled from climate and more dependent on social infrastructure. Here we use spatially-explicit models to evaluate climatic, socio-economic and biophysical correlates of demographic change in the contiguous United States between 1900 and 2000. Climate-correlated variation in population growth has caused the U.S. population to shift its realized climate niche from cool, seasonal climates to warm, aseasonal climates. As a result, the average annual temperature experienced by U.S. citizens between 1920 and 2000 has increased by more than 1.5°C and the temperature seasonality has decreased by 1.1°C during a century when climate change accounted for only a 0.24°C increase in average annual temperature and a 0.15°C decrease in temperature seasonality. Thus, despite advancing technology, climate-correlated demographics continue to be a major feature of contemporary U.S. society. Unfortunately, these demographic patterns are contributing to a substantial warming of the climate niche during a period of rapid environmental warming, making an already bad situation worse.

  11. Demographic amplification of climate change experienced by the contiguous United States population during the 20(th) century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jason; Berteaux, Dominique; McGill, Brian J; Humphries, Murray M

    2012-01-01

    Better understanding of the changing relationship between human populations and climate is a global research priority. The 20(th) century in the contiguous United States offers a particularly well-documented example of human demographic expansion during a period of radical socioeconomic and environmental change. One would expect that as human society has been transformed by technology, we would become increasingly decoupled from climate and more dependent on social infrastructure. Here we use spatially-explicit models to evaluate climatic, socio-economic and biophysical correlates of demographic change in the contiguous United States between 1900 and 2000. Climate-correlated variation in population growth has caused the U.S. population to shift its realized climate niche from cool, seasonal climates to warm, aseasonal climates. As a result, the average annual temperature experienced by U.S. citizens between 1920 and 2000 has increased by more than 1.5°C and the temperature seasonality has decreased by 1.1°C during a century when climate change accounted for only a 0.24°C increase in average annual temperature and a 0.15°C decrease in temperature seasonality. Thus, despite advancing technology, climate-correlated demographics continue to be a major feature of contemporary U.S. society. Unfortunately, these demographic patterns are contributing to a substantial warming of the climate niche during a period of rapid environmental warming, making an already bad situation worse.

  12. Defense Industry of the Russian Federation at the End of 20th-Beginning of the 21st Century

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    Leonovich Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the developed countries claiming for global leadership permanent military and industrial complexes were formed. These complexes produce high-tech products and play the key system-forming role in the economies of their states. Country’s position in world economy as well as its position at the weapons and military equipment market depends on the military and industrial complexes development. At the end of the 20th century, there had been great changes in the military and industrial complex of the Russian Federation. Drastic remission and demerger accompanied these changes unlike those in the Unites States and Western Europe. These processes were determined by inconsiderate defense conversion, reduction of expenses and the loss of weapons and military equipment production. At the beginning of the 21st century, Russian Federation government has changed its attitude towards the military and industrial complex. Main directions of surmounting the crisis were found through creation of military and industrial corporations, increase of state defense order in the favor of national Armed Forces. Development of state-owned corporations and significant increase in financial allocations for state defense order promoted the growth of military and industrial companies’ activity and rise in weapons and military equipment export. All above-listed processes of Russian military and industrial complexes predetermined the scientific and pragmatic interest for this research.

  13. Views of Europe among Serbian political and cultural elite in late 20th and early 21st century

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    Jakšić Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of his own previous research the author examines views of Europe held by the Serbian political and cultural elite in the late 20th and early 21st century. Unable to meet the challenges of the historical moment, this elite has brought Serbia into open conflict with its closest neighbors and exposed its citizens to international sanctions. War-mongering propaganda of the major state-controlled media was developing feelings of xenophobia and frustration among citizens. The collusion between authoritarian government and war profiteers was systematically destroying the lives of Serbian citizens, bringing them to the brink of material impoverishment and spiritual misery. The process of dissolution of the common Yugoslav state is coming to its end in the first decade of this century. Just as it lacked wisdom political will or strength to prevent armed conflicts and crimes, the Serbian elite today is unable to condemn war crimes, to face disastrous consequences of its own policies, and to help Serbian citizens find their way to prosperity.

  14. Reconstructing 20th century global hydrography: a contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network- Hydrology (GTN-H

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    D. Wisser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new reconstruction of the 20th century global hydrography using fully coupled water balance and transport model in a flexible modeling framework. The modeling framework allows a high level of configurability both in terms of input forcings and model structure. Spatial and temporal trends in hydrological cycle components are assessed under "pre-industrial" conditions (without modern-day human activities and contemporary conditions (incorporating the effects of irrigation and reservoir operations. The two sets of simulations allow the isolation of the trends arising from variations in the climate input driver alone and from human interventions. The sensitivity of the results to variations in input data was tested by using three global gridded datasets of precipitation.

    Our findings confirm that the expansion of irrigation and the construction of reservoirs has significantly and gradually impacted hydrological components in individual river basins. Variations in the volume of water entering the oceans annually, however, are governed primarily by variations in the climate signal alone with human activities playing a minor role. Globally, we do not find a significant trend in the terrestrial discharge over the last century.

    The largest impact of human intervention on the hydrological cycle arises from the operation of reservoirs that drastically changes the seasonal pattern of horizontal water transport in the river system and thereby directly and indirectly affects a number of processes such as ability to decompose organic matter or the cycling of nutrients in the river system.

  15. Migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century

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    Đorđević-Crnobrnja Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will analyze economic and political migration in the Gora region at the end of the 20th and in the first decade of the 21st century. It is my intent to consider and explain their cause and their intensity and scope. In short, I view the socioeconomic and political dimension of these migrations from an ethnological and anthropological point of view. The economic and political migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century represent the continuation of earlier migrations, albeit more intensive and larger in scope (whole families are migrating. There migrations can be viewed as the effects of political changes in Kosovo, as well as the socioeconomic crisis of the 1990’s. There are no fixed boundaries between these types of migrations, and the only truly stand out examples are the cases in which people migrated for safety reasons. A certain type of migration can be identified based on the terminology used by the interlocutors. I have encountered the terms “banishment” and “displacement” in the narrative discourse of my interlocutors. These terms are used to describe the migrations from Gora during the 1999 war, as well as immediately after. The differences between economic and political migrants can be gouged from other factors such as going to Gora during vacations and holidays as well as investing money into real-estate in the region. Individuals who emigrated from Gora because they feared for their and the loves of their families go to Gora rarely (to attend funerals for example and are not currently thinking of investing unlike those who had left Gora as economic migrants. There are no differences when it comes to where people migrate to for different reasons. Places of migration can, however, be indicative of the form of migration in the sense of whether people migrated to a foreign country or not. One can turn into the other due to the changing of state borders. Thus

  16. Forms and subannual variability of nitrogen and phosphorus loading to global river networks over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Mogollón, José M.; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Bouwman, Alexander F.

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) play a major role in the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic systems. N and P transfer to surface freshwaters has amplified during the 20th century, which has led to widespread eutrophication problems. The contribution of different sources, natural and anthropogenic, to total N and P loading to river networks has recently been estimated yearly using the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment - Global Nutrient Model (IMAGE-GNM). However, eutrophic events generally result from a combination of physicochemical conditions governed by hydrological dynamics and the availability of specific nutrient forms that vary at subyearly timescales. In the present study, we define for each simulated nutrient source: i) its speciation, and ii) its subannual temporal pattern. Thereby, we simulate the monthly loads of different N (ammonium, nitrate + nitrite, and organic N) and P forms (dissolved and particulate inorganic P, and organic P) to global river networks over the whole 20th century at a half-degree spatial resolution. Results indicate that, together with an increase in the delivery of all nutrient forms to global rivers, the proportion of inorganic forms in total N and P inputs has risen from 30 to 43% and from 56 to 65%, respectively. The high loads originating from fertilized agricultural lands and the increasing proportion of sewage inputs have led to a greater proportion of DIN forms (ammonium and nitrate), that are usually more bioavailable. Soil loss from agricultural lands, which delivers large amounts of particle-bound inorganic P to surface freshwaters, has become the dominant P source, which is likely to lead to an increased accumulation of legacy P in slow flowing areas (e.g., lakes and reservoirs). While the TN:TP ratio of the loads has remained quite stable, the DIN:DIP molar ratio, which is likely to affect algal development the most, has increased from 18 to 27 globally. Human activities have also affected the

  17. Old Believers in Tuva at the beginning of the 20th century and under People’s Republic of Tuva

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    Margarita P. Tatarinseva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the specifics of culture and everyday life of the Old Believers’ (staroobryadtsy community in Tuva at the beginning of the 20th century, as well as under the People’s Republic of Tuva (1921-1944. Our study was based on research in the general history and culture of Old Belief in Russian and Siberia, as well as on the documents from the research archive of Tuva Institute for Humanities and Applied Socioeconomic Studies.   Old Believers who settled in Tuva (Uryankhaisky Krai in late 19th – early 20th century accounted for about a third of all Russian settlers. For the first two decades, their situation in the region was relatively favorable. For them, Tuva was a faraway region that suited well their isolationist lifestyle. It was the Promised Land, the Belovodye which ‘Antichrist’s henchmen’ (Russian government officials could not reach. In the natural abundance of Tuva they saw a country where every hard-working Christian could become master of his own household. Although settling in the new land with its often adverse conditions for farming could prove difficult, Old Believers managed to adapt to the new climate and build good relations with the local powers which rarely intervened into their lives. Alongside with farming and cattle breeding, Old Believers were involved in hunting, fishing, crafts and trade. Their situation, however, worsened when the People’s Republic of Tuva (PRT in the 1930s accelerated the Socialist reforms and implemented an anti-religious policy. Those Old Believers who refused to change their lifestyle due to religious considerations (i.e., evaded military conscription, etc., as well as clergy and monks, were given prison sentences that they had to serve outside Tuva. Old Believers protested against censuses, introduction of mandatory passports, universal education (at schools where atheism was an official policy, etc. Many families tried to find ’salvation’ by fleeing deep

  18. Reconciling past changes in Earth’s rotation with 20th century global sea-level rise: Resolving Munk’s enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Hay, Carling C.; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E.; Dumberry, Mathieu; Stanley, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In 2002, Munk defined an important enigma of 20th century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise that has yet to be resolved. First, he listed three canonical observations related to Earth’s rotation [(i) the slowing of Earth’s rotation rate over the last three millennia inferred from ancient eclipse observations, and changes in the (ii) amplitude and (iii) orientation of Earth’s rotation vector over the last century estimated from geodetic and astronomic measurements] and argued that they could all be fit by a model of ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) associated with the last ice age. Second, he demonstrated that prevailing estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (~1.5 to 2.0 mm/year), after correction for the maximum signal from ocean thermal expansion, implied mass flux from ice sheets and glaciers at a level that would grossly misfit the residual GIA-corrected observations of Earth’s rotation. We demonstrate that the combination of lower estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (up to 1990) improved modeling of the GIA process and that the correction of the eclipse record for a signal due to angular momentum exchange between the fluid outer core and the mantle reconciles all three Earth rotation observations. This resolution adds confidence to recent estimates of individual contributions to 20th century sea-level change and to projections of GMSL rise to the end of the 21st century based on them. PMID:26824058

  19. Greenland's 20th Century retreat illuminated - great spatial variability with strong connections to subglacial topography and fjord bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, A. A.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Boeckel, M. V.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Fenty, I. G.; Khan, S. A.; Mouginot, J.; Morlighem, M.; Rignot, E. J.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Kjaer, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Mass loss acceleration from the Greenland Ice Sheet is a dominant contributor in recent global sea-level rise, and has been for several decades. While ice sheet wide mass loss has recently been documented from the end of the Little Ice Age (c. 1900 CE) to the 1980s, the detailed changes during this period remain poorly known. In this study, we map glacier margins of Greenland's 310 largest outlet glaciers in order to get the full picture of the 20th Century mass loss. We take advantage of the rich history of aerial photography over Greenland and combine photos from archives in Denmark, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States. We supplement the historical aerial photographs with declassified US spy satellite imagery and recent satellite imagery to document glacial retreat and advance on a decadal scale. With recent advances in bathymetry mapping and subglacial topography mapping, we are able to show that spatial differences in retreat throughout the last 100 years are largely controlled by the underlying topography. Our study further highlights hotspots of past rapid mass loss in Greenland, and discusses implications for periods of regional stability and advance.

  20. The scars of time: the disappearance of peptic ulcer-related pyloric stenosis through the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R; Royston, C; Bardhan, K D

    2014-01-01

    The changing pattern of haemorrhage and perforation from peptic ulcer disease is well documented but little is known about pyloric stenosis, the third complication of the disease. We reviewed records relating to definitive operations (with intent to cure) for peptic ulcer disease carried out in York, UK from 1929-1997. We categorised the patients as pyloric stenosis and no pyloric stenosis based on findings at operation and examined the change in total number of cases with pyloric stenosis and proportion of cases with pyloric stenosis, by year of operation and by decade of birth. To place our results in perspective, we reviewed world literature to examine rates of pyloric stenosis as a percentage of operative cases reported in other case series in the 20th century. 4178 patients were included in the analysis; 3697 without pyloric stenosis and 481 with pyloric stenosis (11.5%). Analysis by birth cohort showed that the proportion found to have pyloric stenosis at surgery fell from 17% in the first cohort (birth 1880-89) to only 2.9% in the last cohort (birth 1950-59; pulcer cases showing pyloric stenosis at operation. The reduction in pyloric stenosis over the last several decades is disproportionately greater than the change seen in peptic ulcer disease requiring surgery. Our findings suggest that this reduction in pyloric stenosis is largely the result of the changing natural history of the disease rather than due to the introduction of acid-suppressing medication.

  1. The world's road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M; Guillaume, J H A; de Moel, H; Eisner, S; Flörke, M; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Veldkamp, T I E; Ward, P J

    2016-12-09

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20 th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges.

  2. Yakutia and International Scientific Cooperation on Arctic Studies. The End of 20th – Beginning of 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleymanov Aleksandr Albertovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of participation of Yakutia in the international scientific cooperation in the Arctic during the last decade of the 20th and the first years of the 21st century. The author describes the history of realization of the international initiatives for studying social and cultural transformations and challenges of life of Arctic Indigenous Peoples, studying natural phenomena and processes, as well as environmental protection in the Yakutia’s Arctic and their main results on the basis of a set of archival documents, English- and Frenchlanguage materials. The author called the most important factors that determine the extent of joint research of Russian scientists and their foreign colleagues, identified the key participants (scientists from Great Britain, Germany, Canada, Russia, Finland, France and Japan, forms (collection of field data, its processing and laboratory analysis; provision of academic institutions of Yakutia, their research base, provision of special equipment for foreign partners; coordination of research and the exchange of the data obtained; organization of conferences and workshops; organization of protected areas; publication of research results, and mechanisms (organization of special structures to intensify and coordinate research; association of research through a unified methodology; elaboration of international programs and projects, taking into account the potential of the involved parties – financing, tools and staff of international scientific cooperation development.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Local Stormwater Infrastructure Use and Stormwater Management Paradigms over the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Hale

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater management has significant consequences for urban hydrology, water quality, and flood risk, and has changed substantially over history, but it is unknown how these paradigm shifts play out at the local scale and whether local changes in stormwater infrastructure use follow similar trajectories across cities. This research addressed: (1 How does current infrastructure use and past infrastructure transitions vary across three cities with similar biophysical and climatic contexts but different development histories? and (2 How did stormwater and flood management paradigms change from early urbanization to current day in a single city? The use of storm sewers, detention basins, and canals for stormwater management was quantified for three cities in Utah, USA, over the 20th century. Stormwater management paradigms were quantified using media content analysis of newspaper articles from historic and recent periods in Salt Lake City. Results suggest that stormwater infrastructure development is decoupled from imperviousness across cities, and that newer and smaller cities follow different trajectories of stormwater management over time. This research highlights that there is no single model of urban hydrology and that heterogeneity in urban water management over time and space reflects shifting priorities and social learning.

  4. Raman analysis of complex pigment mixtures in 20th century metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Clara Bratt; Sanyova, Jana; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-11-05

    The pigment composition of six painted metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant dating from the second half of the 20th century belonging to the Danish royal collection were studied using Raman microscopy. By focusing a 785 nm laser with a 50× objective on particles in paint cross sections, it was possible to identify the following 20 compounds: hematite, goethite, chrome red/orange, chrome yellow, zinc chrome yellow, carbon black, toluidine red PR3, chlorinated para red PR4, dinitroaniline orange PO5, phthalocyanine blue PB15, indanthrone blue PB60, ultramarine, Prussian blue, lead white, anatase, rutile, calcium carbonate, barium sulphate, gypsum and dolomite. The components were frequently present in complex pigment mixtures. Additional information was obtained by elemental analysis with scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) to identify cobalt blue, zinc white and cadmium red, as well as to indicate the presence of zinc white in some pigment mixtures. The study allowed a comparison between the industrially applied preparation layers and the artistic paint layers applied by the heraldic painter. Differences in the choice of paint and pigment types were observed on the earliest knight shields, demonstrating a general delay of industrial materials into artist paints. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Time with or without death: Researching death in Serbian ethnology during the second half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Topics of ethnological research, as well as scientific discourse in general often represent the mirror of social reality. This paper researches the ways in which dealing with death and current ethnological approaches in Serbian ethnology during the second half of the 20th century, reflect the Zeitgeist. The intensity and the quality of interests for this important anthropological theme varied during the researched period, wherefore it is possible to differentiate two types of works and authors: those who write about funeral rituals, and those who 'read' them. From 1980s until nowadays there are three subgroups of contributions to this theme that reflect critical moments of the contemporary Serbian history. The issues raised in this paper are the following: The way in which state/society regards death the way in which it structures death, the way in which it gives meaning to death, as well as the usage of death for political purpose and the constant effort of civilization to repress it into oblivion.

  6. Heinz Werner: His Life, Ideas, and Contributions to Developmental Psychology in the First Half of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The author provides an overview of Heinz Werner's life and contributions to the field of developmental psychology during the first half of the 20th century. She focuses on his early work in Vienna and Munich as well as his tenure at the Psychological Institute in Hamburg, up through the time when he became a named Professor in Psychology at Clark University. Recognized as one of the founders of developmental psychology, Heinz Werner worked in the areas of perceptual development, comparative psychology, and symbol formation. Versatile in rigorous experimental methodologies, and in observational and phenomenological methodologies, Werner's approach to development stood in contrast to other approaches of development, both past and current. For Werner, development was a heuristic, a way of looking at processes in a variety of domains, including ontogeny, phylogeny, microgenesis, biology, developmental psychopathology, neuropsychology, and comparative psychology. Werner viewed development as proceeding from a state of relative globality and lack of differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation, articulation, and hierarchical integration, but he also stressed that individuals can function at different developmental levels under different times and conditions. Werner's holistic, organismic, comparative, and contextual approach to development transcended interdisciplinary boundaries, allowing him to study the interrelatedness between thought, language, feeling, perception, and culture.

  7. Sante De Sanctis (1862-1935), a forerunner of the 20th century research on sleep and dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Renato; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Morgese, Giorgia

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to reconstruct the elements of continuity and/or discontinuity in Sante De Sanctis' (1862-1935) contributions in the scientific understanding of sleep and dreaming as compared to the scientific research of his time. An Italian psychologist and psychiatrist, De Sanctis, in his work conducted between the 19th and 20th centuries, has framed the study of dreams using multi-methodology. In addition, De Sanctis experimentally established the correspondence between the deep and desynchronization phases of sleep with respect to dreaming. In this context, De Sanctis' subjects described the periodicity of sleep and consciousness, influencing the explanations of the themes that modern sleep research has, after decades, systematically studied. We demonstrate that De Sanctis' work has been underestimated, and in our opinion, deserves to be reconsidered as a source of the psychophysiological explanation of dreams and sleep. Finally, we present a graphical representation of De Sanctis' psycho- and neurophysiological model of dreaming. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Composition of `Marbrite Fauquez' 20th-century opalescent glass: results of historical study and laboratory analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeyser, L.; Wouters, H. J. M.; Ligovich, G.; Verdonck, A.; De Clercq, H.

    Belgian Marbrite Fauquez opalescent glass is an innovative material developed at the take-off of the 20th century. S.A. Verreries de Fauquez produced this from 1922 onwards. Low maintenance requirements and appropriate properties in terms of hygienic aspects make these mass coloured glass plates popular as finishes for bathrooms, kitchens, hospitals, store fronts, decorative façade cladding,... Since production of Marbrite stopped in the 1960s, replacement of its applications in the framework of restoration procedures is almost impossible. Limited knowledge of the composition and production results in the lack of a proper conservation strategy. In order to improve the existing knowledge a historical research was conducted. Archive records including patents, literature, building specifications, plans, journals, advertisements, interviews with former directors of the glassworks, etc. were considered and evaluated. Onsite lifted samples of Marbrite glass were submitted to a laboratory investigation using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed crucial information about the original formula and components. This paper discusses the composition of Marbrite, a peculiar Belgian opalescent glass. This interdisciplinary research - a cooperation between the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage - aims to improve the knowledge of Marbrite glass in order to develop repair and renovation techniques.

  9. The world’s road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; de Moel, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Ward, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges. PMID:27934888

  10. Changes in the social class gradient of cirrhosis mortality in England and Wales across the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, Iain K; Precious, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    To explore the nature of the social class gradient of cirrhosis mortality in England and Wales across the 20th century. Data on male cirrhosis mortality by social class were obtained from the Registrar General's Decennial Supplements for the years 1921-1991. Data for 1941 were not collected because of the second World War. In 1921, cirrhosis mortality was substantially higher among the professional and managerial classes (I and II) than among the other social classes (III-V). This marked social class difference persisted until 1961 when the differences between the social classes were inconsistent. By 1991, the gradient had reversed and the lower social classes (IV and V) had the higher mortality. The excess mortality was greatest for social class V. The change in the mortality gradient is stark: in 1921social classes I and II had a cirrhosis mortality at least twice that of social classes IV and V, but by 1991 this ratio had reversed. The reversal in the social class gradient of cirrhosis mortality indicates a major change in risk factor distribution across social classes. Differential changes in alcohol consumption are a possible explanation for this change, although the 1991 social class gradient in cirrhosis is inconsistent with alcohol consumption data from national surveys. Further research is required to clarify the explanation for the observed gradient, so that appropriate preventive measures can be put into place.

  11. Lack of cool, not warm, extremes distinguishes late 20th Century climate in 979-year Tasmanian summer temperature reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K. J.; Cook, E. R.; Evans, R.; Francey, R.; Buckley, B. M.; Palmer, J. G.; Peterson, M. J.; Baker, P. J.

    2018-03-01

    Very few annually resolved millennial-length temperature reconstructions exist for the Southern Hemisphere. Here we present four 979-year reconstructions for southeastern Australia for the austral summer months of December-February. Two of the reconstructions are based on the Australian Water Availability Project dataset and two on the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature dataset. For each climate data set, one reconstruction is based solely on Lagarostrobos franklinii (restricted reconstructions) while the other is based on multiple Tasmanian conifer species (unrestricted reconstructions). Each reconstruction calibrates ~50-60% of the variance in the temperature datasets depending on the number of tree-ring records available for the reconstruction. We found little difference in the temporal variability of the reconstructions, although extremes are amplified in the restricted reconstructions relative to the unrestricted reconstructions. The reconstructions highlight the occurrence of numerous individual years, especially in the 15th-17th Centuries, for which temperatures were comparable with those of the late 20th Century. The 1950-1999 period, however, stands out as the warmest 50-year period on average for the past 979 years, with a sustained shift away from relatively low mean temperatures, the length of which is unique in the 979-year record. The reconstructions are strongly and positively related to temperatures across the southeast of the Australian continent, negatively related to temperatures in the north and northeast of the continent, and uncorrelated with temperatures in the west. The lack of a strong relationship with temperatures across the continent highlights the necessity of a sub-regional focus for Australasian temperature reconstructions.

  12. Stevens’ forgotten crossroads: The divergent measurement traditions in the physical and psychological sciences from the mid-20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A McGrane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The late 19th and early 20th Centuries saw the consolidation in physics of the three main traditions that predominate in discussions of measurement theory. These are: (i the systematic tradition pioneered by Maxwell; (ii the representational tradition pioneered by Campbell; and (iii the operational tradition pioneered by Bridgman (1927. These divergent approaches created uncertainty about the nature of measurement in the physical sciences and provided Stevens (1946 with an opportunity and rationale to, in effect, reinvent the definition of scientific measurement. Stevens appropriated the representational and operational traditions as the sole basis for his definition of measurement, excluding any place for the systematic approach. In committing to Stevens’ path, the psychological sciences were blinded to the advances made in metrology, the establishment of the International System (SI and the standard units contained within this system. These advances were only possible due to the deep conceptual and instrumental connections between the system of physical units and the body of physical theory and laws developed over the preceding centuries. It is argued that if the psychological sciences are to ever achieve equivalent methodological advances, they must bridge this ‘metrological gap’ created by Stevens’ measurement crossroads and understand the ways in which the systematic approach advanced measurement. This means that psychological measurement needs to be de-abstracted, rid of operational rules for numerical assignment and set upon a foundation of quantitative theory, definition and law. In the absence of such theoretical foundations, claims of measurement in the psychological sciences remain a methodological chimera.

  13. Long-term changes in nitrate conditions over the 20th century in two Midwestern Corn Belt streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Valerie J.; Stets, Edward G.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term changes in nitrate concentration and flux between the middle of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century were estimated for the Des Moines River and the Middle Illinois River, two Midwestern Corn Belt streams, using a novel weighted regression approach that is able to detect subtle changes in solute transport behavior over time. The results show that the largest changes in flow-normalized concentration and flux occurred between 1960 and 1980 in both streams, with smaller or negligible changes between 1980 and 2004. Contrasting patterns were observed between (1) nitrate export linked to non-point sources, explicitly runoff of synthetic fertilizer or other surface sources and (2) nitrate export presumably associated with point sources such as urban wastewater or confined livestock feeding facilities, with each of these modes of transport important under different domains of streamflow. Surface runoff was estimated to be consistently most important under high-flow conditions during the spring in both rivers. Nitrate export may also have been considerable in the Des Moines River even under some conditions during the winter when flows are generally lower, suggesting the influence of point sources during this time. Similar results were shown for the Middle Illinois River, which is subject to significant influence of wastewater from the Chicago area, where elevated nitrate concentrations were associated with at the lowest flows during the winter and fall. By modeling concentration directly, this study highlights the complex relationship between concentration and streamflow that has evolved in these two basins over the last 50 years. This approach provides insights about changing conditions that only become observable when stationarity in the relationship between concentration and streamflow is not assumed.

  14. 20th century trends and budget implications of chloroform and related tri-and dihalomethanes inferred from firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Worton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four trihalomethane (THM; CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 and two dihalomethane (DHM; CH2BrCl and CH2Br2 trace gases have been measured in air extracted from polar firn collected at the North Greenland Icecore Project (NGRIP site. CHCl3 was also measured in firn air from Devon Island (DI, Canada, Dronning Maud Land (DML, Antarctica and Dome Concordia (Dome C, Antarctica. All of these species are believed to be almost entirely of natural origin except for CHCl3 where anthropogenic sources have been reported to contribute ~10% to the global burden. A 2-D atmospheric model was run for CHCl3 using reported emission estimates to produce historical atmospheric trends at the firn sites, which were then input into a firn diffusion model to produce concentration depth profiles that were compared against the measurements. The anthropogenic emissions were modified in order to give the best model fit to the firn data at NGRIP, Dome C and DML. As a result, the contribution of CHCl3 from anthropogenic sources, mainly from pulp and paper manufacture, to the total chloroform budget appears to have been considerably underestimated and was likely to have been close to ~50% at the maximum in atmospheric CHCl3 concentrations around 1990, declining to ~29% at the beginning of the 21st century. We also show that the atmospheric burden of the brominated THM's in the Northern Hemisphere have increased over the 20th century while CH2Br2 has remained constant over time implying that it is entirely of natural origin.

  15. 20th century human pressures drive reductions in deepwater oxygen leading to losses of benthic methane-based food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Simon; Millet, Laurent; Verneaux, Valérie; Lami, Andrea; David, Etienne; Murgia, Laurie; Parent, Claire; Musazzi, Simona; Gauthier, Emilie; Bichet, Vincent; Magny, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Freshwater lakes play a key role in the global carbon cycle as sinks (organic carbon sequestration) and sources (greenhouse gas emissions). Understanding the carbon cycle response to environmental changes is becoming a crucial challenge in the context of global warming and the preponderance of human pressures. We reconstructed the long-term (1500 years) evolution of trophic functioning of the benthic food web, based on methanotrophic ancient DNA and chironomid isotope analyses). In addition, human land use is also reconstructed in three different lakes (eastern France, Jura Mountains). Our findings confirm that the benthic food web can be highly dependent on methane-derived carbon (up to 50% of the chironomid biomass) and reveal that the activation of this process can correspond to a natural functioning or be a consequence of anthropic perturbation. The studied lakes also showed a similar temporal evolution over the last century with the disappearance of the profundal aquatic insects (Chironomidae, Diptera), considered as keystone for the whole lake food web (e.g., coupling benthic-pelagic), inducing a potential collapse in the transfer of methane to top consumers. This functional state, also called the dead zone expansion, was caused by the change in human land-use occurring at the beginning of the 20th century. The strong modification of agro-pastoral practices (e.g., fertilization practices, intensive grazing, and sewage effluent) modified the influx of nutrients (by diffuse and/or point-source inputs) and induced a significant increase in the trophic status and organic matter sedimentation to reach unprecedented values. Further studies should be planned to assess dead zone expansion and, according to the regime shift theory, to provide environmental tipping points for sustainable resource management.

  16. History of mouth-to-mouth ventilation. Part 3: the 19th to mid-20th centuries and "rediscovery".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubuhovich, Ronald V

    2007-06-01

    The start of the 19th century saw the enthusiasm of the previous one for mouth-to-mouth ventilation (MMV) dissipated. To inflate the lungs of the asphyxiated, the Royal Humane Society in the United Kingdom had recommended bellows since 1782. Principal determinants for change were aesthetic distaste for mouth-to-mouth contact and the perceived danger of using expired air, although MMV survived in the practice of some midwives. Following the 1826-9 investigations of Jean-Jacques Leroy d'Etiolles then François Magendie, all positive pressure ventilation methods were generally abandoned, after 1829 in France, and 1832 in the UK; but not chest compressions. During the next quarter century, rescuers lost understanding of the primary need for "artificial respiration", apart from researchers such as John Snow and John Erichsen, until Marshall Hall's "Ready Method" heralded the second half-century's various methods of negative pressure ventilation. Some of those methods continued in use until the 1940s. Sporadic anecdotal cases of MMV rescues were documented throughout. In the 20th century, inadequate mechanical inhalators were also tried from 1908, while obstetricians devised indirect methods of expired air ventilation (EAV). Anaesthetists in the 1940s, such as Ralph Waters, Robert Dripps, and the pair, Robert Macintosh and William Mushin, described the usefulness of MMV, and James Elam was "re-discovering" it. Following World War II, "Cold War" concerns stimulated research at the Edgewood Medical Laboratories in Maryland in the United States into the possibilities of MMV, and Elam et al confirmed and expanded on brief experiments at Oxford (United Kingdom) on the efficacy of mouth-to-tube EAV. Studies, 1957-9, by Archer Gordon, Elam and especially Peter Safar resulted in the resolution of previous airway problems, established the primacy of MMV, and incorporated it into an integrated system for basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ready adoption of MMV in the US was

  17. The Importance of British Teaching Experience (Late 20th-Early 21st Century) for Modern Training of Ukrainian Primary School Teachers in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berladyn, Olha

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with peculiarities of primary schools teachers' professional training in the UK (late 20th-early 21st century) in terms of European integration, analyses development priorities, substantiates the possibilities to use the ideas of the British experience in the training of local primary schools teachers in rural areas. The ideas…

  18. Effect of vaccination programmes on mortality burden among children and young adults in the Netherlands during the 20th century : a historical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijhe, Maarten; McDonald, Scott A; de Melker, Hester E; Postma, Maarten J; Wallinga, Jacco

    Background In the 20th century, childhood mortality decreased rapidly, and vaccination programmes are frequently suggested as a contributing factor. However, quantification of this contribution is subject to debate or absent. We present historical data from the Netherlands that allow us to quantify

  19. Development of Formal Agricultural Education in Canada (Based on the Analysis of Scientific Periodicals of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrylenko, Kateryna

    2016-01-01

    The article states that one of the world leaders in agricultural sector training is Canada, which has gained a great scientific and practical experience. The paper examines the role of periodicals of the 19th-early 20th centuries, preserved in the Canadian book funds for the establishment and development of formal agricultural education of this…

  20. History at the Mercy of Politicians and Ideologies: Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschut, Arie H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares developments in history teaching in Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th centuries. The development of history teaching in the three countries shows striking similarities. National politics have always used history education for purposes which did not necessarily tally with distanced critical…

  1. Guild traditions, economic development and the formation of national political economies in Germany, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands in the 19th and early 20th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, M.J.M.; Kissane, C.; Prak, M.R.; Wallis, P.; Minns, C.

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades historians, sociologists and political scientists have attempted to explain why in the late 19th and early 20th centuries some Western countries adopted national corporatist structures while others transformed into liberal market economies. One of the explanatory factors often

  2. Changes in Vascular Plant Biodiversity in the Netherlands in the 20th Century Explained by their Climatic and other Environmental Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamis, W.L.M.; Van der Meijden, R.; Udo de Haes, H.A. [Nationaal Herbarium Nederland/Leiden University Branch, P.O. Box 9514, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Van ' t Zelfde, M. [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2005-09-01

    In the Netherlands nation-wide databases are available with about 10 million records of occurrences of vascular plant species in the 20th century on a scale of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. These data were analysed with a view to identifying relationships between changes in botanical biodiversity and climatic and other environmental factors. Prior to analysis the data were corrected for several major forms of survey bias. The records were broken down into three periods: 1902-1949, 1975-1984 and 1985-1999. Using multiple regression analysis, differences between successive periods were related to plant functional characteristics as explanatory variables. Between the periods 1902-1949 and 1975-1984 there were small but significant increases in the presence of both thermophilic ('warm') and psychrophilic ('cold') species. However, in the final decades of the 20th century there was a marked increase in thermophilic species only, coinciding with the marked increase in ambient temperature observed during this period, evidence at least of a rapid response of Dutch flora to climate change. Urbanisation was also examined as an alternative explanation for the increase in thermophilic plant species and was found to explain only 50% of the increased presence of such species in the final decades of the 20th century. Besides temperature-related effects, the most important change during the 20th century was a strong decline in oligotrophic and a marked increase in eutrophic plant species.

  3. Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn

    This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

  4. Lessons learned and present day challenges of addressing 20th century radiation legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengel, M.T.; Kristofzski, J.G.; Schubert, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly enriched uranium and defense plutonium as well as processing of high-level wastes are among the most challenging issues of addressing radiation legacy of the 20th century. USA and Russia are the two primary countries that have to deal with the challenge and where most of the fissile materials to be processed are concentrated, nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are stored, and multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities are located. In the US, CH2M HILL is managing two of the most important nuclear projects being conducted by the US Department of Energy at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at the DOE Hanford Site (177 underground tanks at this site contain 60 percent of the United States' high-level radioactive wastes). Within the framework of the Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' works were carried out on the Karachai lake covering with soil, highly active radwaste vitrification and fractionation at the 'Mayak' combine. Currently there is a discussion of launching joint Russian-American initiatives including comparative studies of environmental and public health impacts from high-level waste vitrification and plutonium stabilization processes in Russia and high-level waste removal from tanks in the USA and of continuing comprehensive research with the RADSITE project (USA, European Union, Japan, China and India) using coordinated approaches in 2000-2003. This paper presents comparative studies, technical approaches, and regulatory strategies to address the challenges of managing and closing highly enriched uranium, plutonium, and high level waste sites. (author)

  5. Modeling Regional Climate Responses to 17th-20th Century Land Use Change over the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, J. R.; Hostetler, S. W.; Reker, R. R.; Loveland, T. R.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Thompson, R.; Sundquist, E. T.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Regional climate change is the combined response to global and regional radiative forcing, circulation and interactions between the atmosphere and Earth surface. A potentially key component of regional climate change derives from natural and human-caused land use and land-use change (LULC) and related atmosphere-surface feedbacks. In the first step of disentangling and quantifying the effect of LULC over the southeastern United States, we conducted a series of simulations with the RegCM4 regional climate model which includes the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) surface physics package. Land use and vegetation types determine the specified values of a number of biophysical and physical parameters in BATS such as albedo, roughness length, stomatal resistance, and rooting depth. We ran four simulations in which we specified BATS land use types derived from harmonized reconstructions for 1650, 1850, 1920 and Landsat-based observations for 1992 (Steyaert and Knox, 2008). The simulations were run over a model domain comprising a 20 km × 20 km horizontal grid and 23 atmospheric levels for the period 1990-2000. The boundary conditions for the simulations were derived from the NCAR-NCEP Reanalysis and the NOAA Optimum Interpolated Sea Surface Temperature global data sets. Depending on the time periods considered, the simulations indicate regionally coherent patterns of April-September changes in surface radiation, warming and cooling of up to 2 °C or more, substantial changes in soil moisture and atmospheric humidity associated with conversion of native vegetation to agriculture and agriculture back to forest, draining of wetlands and marshes, and urbanization. Extensive draining of wetlands in the lower Mississippi Valley during the 20th century induced a robust feedback with the atmosphere which suppressed convective summertime precipitation. Our joint analysis of LULC classes and the model simulations suggests a need to be able to disaggregate land use to a

  6. The Continuity and Discontinuity. The Question of Territorialism and Double Identity from the Perspective of 20th Century Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Sujecka

    2015-07-01

    The sense of territorial identity gains force whenever political means of solving the Macedonian Question, a repugnant legacy of the Eastern issue, become scarce. This attitude is reflected in the articles published by the representatives of the Macedonian diaspora in journals of its different centres. Due to space constraints I decided to present only (and at least the views of Krste Misirkov, a very complex figure indeed, who in contemporary Macedonia belongs to the undisputable national pantheon. His opinions on the Macedonian Question were far from explicit and his statements delivered at different stages of his life do not fit into a cohesive whole as the national purists would want it. However, it is difficult to imagine a better mirror for “Macedonian matters” in the 20th century and a more comprehensive picture of the twisted paths that the Macedonian Slavs took to reach the concept of ‘Macedonian’ understood as an ethnos, not only in its territorial aspect. A bond with the territory has never disappeared from Macedonian self-perception. Only the constant presence of territorial identity explains the assimilation of the ancient heritage, which is in fact heritage of a territory, into the Macedonian national canon. It is further confirmed by the most recent Macedonian history textbooks for high school students where the ancient tradition is treated as a part of their own heritage. While the bond with the territory is still an integral part of the Macedonian elite’s consciousness, the question of double identity remains less obvious. In Misirkov’s time double identity, expressed through various ethnic configurations, on the one hand shaped Macedonian self-identity and on the other proved the distinctiveness of a ‘Macedonian’ at that time (i.e. in the first half of the 20th century from a ‘Serb’ in Serbia proper and a ‘Bulgarian’ in Bulgaria proper, thus creating favourable conditions for the emergence of separatist understanding of

  7. Multi-annual modes in the 20th century temperature variability in reanalyses and CMIP5 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Järvinen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A performance expectation is that Earth system models simulate well the climate mean state and the climate variability. To test this expectation, we decompose two 20th century reanalysis data sets and 12 CMIP5 model simulations for the years 1901–2005 of the monthly mean near-surface air temperature using randomised multi-channel singular spectrum analysis (RMSSA. Due to the relatively short time span, we concentrate on the representation of multi-annual variability which the RMSSA method effectively captures as separate and mutually orthogonal spatio-temporal components. This decomposition is a unique way to separate statistically significant quasi-periodic oscillations from one another in high-dimensional data sets.The main results are as follows. First, the total spectra for the two reanalysis data sets are remarkably similar in all timescales, except that the spectral power in ERA-20C is systematically slightly higher than in 20CR. Apart from the slow components related to multi-decadal periodicities, ENSO oscillations with approximately 3.5- and 5-year periods are the most prominent forms of variability in both reanalyses. In 20CR, these are relatively slightly more pronounced than in ERA-20C. Since about the 1970s, the amplitudes of the 3.5- and 5-year oscillations have increased, presumably due to some combination of forced climate change, intrinsic low-frequency climate variability, or change in global observing network. Second, none of the 12 coupled climate models closely reproduce all aspects of the reanalysis spectra, although some models represent many aspects well. For instance, the GFDL-ESM2M model has two nicely separated ENSO periods although they are relatively too prominent as compared with the reanalyses. There is an extensive Supplement and YouTube videos to illustrate the multi-annual variability of the data sets.

  8. Hospital admissions for peptic ulcer and indigestion in London and New York in the 19th and early 20th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J H; Sonnenberg, A

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of peptic ulcer increased rapidly in all Western countries from the 19th to the 20th century, attributed to a possible epidemic of Helicobacter pylori, a new pathogenic strain, or a change in host susceptibility. The early trends in hospital admissions for peptic ulcer and dyspepsia in London and New York during the 19th century are reviewed to test these hypotheses. PMID:11889081

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung using three-dimensional ultrasound: Comparison between the 20th and 21st centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Fen Tsai

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: The advancement of 3-D US has remarkable advantages in adding novel visual depiction of a 3-D lesion of a 3-D fetus in 3-D US after reconstruction, and thus assists substantially in the prenatal diagnosis and genetic consultation of CCAML. Furthermore, the trend analysis in this series showed a significantly earlier gestational age at prenatal diagnosis of CCAML in the 21st century than that in the 20th century.

  10. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual’s mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State’s commitment to measure t...

  11. World Population Growth and Fertility Patterns, 1960-2000. A Simple Model Explaining the Evolution of World's Fertility During the Second Half of the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Enriqueta Camps

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to describe the general reasons behind the world population explosion in the 20th century. The size of the population at the end of the century in question, deemed excessive by some, was a consequence of a dramatic improvement in life expectancies, attributable, in turn, to scientific innovation, the circulation of information and economic growth. Nevertheless, fertility is a variable that plays a crucial role in differences in demographic growth. We identify infant m...

  12. Estuarine Evidence Of Postseismic Transients In 17th-century Hokkaido And 20th-century Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Y.; Kamataki, T.; Nasu, H.; Satake, K.; Shishikura, M.

    2004-12-01

    We studied postseismic transient of two giant interplate earthquakes; one is a 17th-century earthquake along the southern Kuril trench, eastern Hokkaido, and the other is the 1960 Chilean earthquake. The 17th-century earthquake along the southern Kuril trench induced postseismic uplift that probably lasted for decades, as judged from stratigraphy and paleoecology at two estuaries along the Pacific coast of eastern Hokkaido. The estuaries, at Mochirippu and Kiritappu, were invaded by an unusually large tsunami before their tidal flats emerged and became lowland forests. The tsunami is marked by a sand sheet mainly 2-5 cm thick. The sand is both underlain and overlain by tidal-flat mud. However, the mud above the sand grades upward into peat that contains volcanic ash layers from late in the 17th century. The upward sequence of mud, sand, mud, and peat implies that an earthquake (marked by the tsunami deposits) predates gradual coastal uplift (marked by the transition from mud to peat). We quantified the land-level history by means of fossil diatom assemblages in the mud and peat. The reconstructed land-levels show several decimeters of preseismic subsidence, no coseismic change, and at least 1 m of postseismic uplift. The volcanic ash layers, erupted from southwest Hokkaido and dated with the local historical records, show that the uplift started before 1667 and ended by 1694. Postseismic uplift of the 1960 Chilean earthquake provided stratigraphic and paleoecological evidence. The delta of the Rio Coihuin is in middle along the 1960 rupture zone and 10 km east of Puerto Montt, which was at the inland limit of the coseismic downwarp in 1960. The delta contains three terraces, each underlain by a different stratigraphic sequence. The_@highest terrace, now above all tides, is underlain by lahar-runout sand_@and silt derived from Mt. Calbuco, 20 km to the northeast. Inset into_@this terrace are at least lower ones that form tidal marshes. The marshes_@are underlain by

  13. Conservation of 19th and early 20th century oil paintings - in situ studies using the environmental scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.; Phillips, M.; Wuhrer, R.; Thomas, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Most 19th and early 20th century oil paintings suffer from fading, discolouration, pitting, cracking swelling or the loss of material due to the embrittlement or the extreme friability of the paint layers. As a consequence of this deterioration, they require special care by experienced conservators to ensure their continued preservation. These aging processes are a consequence of (i) chemical interactions between pigments, oils and binders used by the artist and (ii) the action of air, water and ultra-violet irradiation on these materials. The influence of chemical interactions is pertinent for paintings of this era as the industrial revolution brought forth new colourful chemicals that were quickly adopted as pigments with varying success. The conservation of oil paintings requires an understanding of the individual structure of each work of art and what mechanisms underlie its deterioration. This generally involves the need for (i) correct identification of the pigments used by the artist, (ii) a detailed knowledge of the chemical interaction between these pigments, (iii) an understanding of the artist's method of mixing colours and laying paint on the canvas and (iv) a detailed knowledge of the role of the atmosphere, moisture and UV irradiation on painting deterioration. In addition to dealing with the deterioration that occurs within the painting, conservators spend a large portion of their time correcting earlier failed conservation attempts. Most oil paintings from this era are valuable from an artistic or historic perspective and only an extremely small sample may be excised from the work, hence microscopy is an indispensable technique in art preservation. Optical microscopy is the core analysis technique used, however, in recent years a limited number of conservators have begun to use Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) technology to examine paint layers to take advantage of the accurate and rapid identification of elements present

  14. From 20th century metabolic wall charts to 21st century systems biology: database of mammalian metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Callan C; Grady, Cameron R; Pisitkun, Trairak; Parulekar, Jaya; Knepper, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    The organization of the mammalian genome into gene subsets corresponding to specific functional classes has provided key tools for systems biology research. Here, we have created a web-accessible resource called the Mammalian Metabolic Enzyme Database ( https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/MetabolicEnzymes/MetabolicEnzymeDatabase.html) keyed to the biochemical reactions represented on iconic metabolic pathway wall charts created in the previous century. Overall, we have mapped 1,647 genes to these pathways, representing ~7 percent of the protein-coding genome. To illustrate the use of the database, we apply it to the area of kidney physiology. In so doing, we have created an additional database ( Database of Metabolic Enzymes in Kidney Tubule Segments: https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/MetabolicEnzymes/), mapping mRNA abundance measurements (mined from RNA-Seq studies) for all metabolic enzymes to each of 14 renal tubule segments. We carry out bioinformatics analysis of the enzyme expression pattern among renal tubule segments and mine various data sources to identify vasopressin-regulated metabolic enzymes in the renal collecting duct. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands inferred from 19th and 20th century landscape paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Wevers, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity is the natural and cultural range of geological, geomorphological and soil features. We analysed the large database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis and Buunk (www.Simonis-Buunk.com) to track changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands since pre-photographic times. Peat dominated in two of the eight main landscapes of the Netherlands: the Lowland peats in the Holocene west and the Highland peats in the sandy Pleistocene eastern parts. Painters were mainly attracted by the lowland peats. Since more than thousand years, peat plays a major role in Dutch military security, economy, ecology and cultural life. Natural variety and cultural use resulted in a geodiversity that is unique in Europe. There are more than 100 place names with 'veen' (= peat), and surnames with 'veen' are common. Proof of the exploitation of peat for salt and fuel exists from the Roman times onwards. In the 9th century, peatlands were drained and reclaimed for growing wheat. Already in the 11th century, it was necessary to build dikes to prevent flooding, to control waterlevels to avoid further oxidation, and to convert landuse to grassland. But subsidence continued, and in the 14th century windmills were needed to drain the lands and pump the water out. In the 16th century industrial peat exploitation fuelled the rise of industries and cities. All this draining and digging caused the peat surface to shrink. The few remaining living peats are conserved by nature organisations. Geodiversity and landscape paintings In the peat landscapes, popular painting motives were high water levels, the grasslands of the 'Green Heart', the winding streams and remaining lakes. The paintings of landscapes where peat had been removed, show watermanagement adaptations: wind mills, different water levels, canals made for the transport of fuel, bridges, tow paths and the 'plassen', i.e. the lakes left after peat exploitation. The droogmakerijen (reclaimed lakes), now 2 to 5 m below

  16. European and Asian Countries through the Eyes of Foreigners (in 19th — beginning of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Ushakov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the study of a various publications and archive materials that were left in the 19th — beginning of 20th century by representatives of several generations of Russians going out of Russia for a long periods of time to Europe an and Asian contrives, or by Europeans who had been visiting and exploring the Russian Empire. Such materials come in sight of the article’s authors in the process of random selection. These materials varied in form, size and content; they were created in different conditions and for different purposes. They were written by people of different professional, social background, interests, character and life experience. Despite these factors the authors managed to study features of formation and development of the Russia’s image in social thinking of Western Europe on the basis of publications of authors from France and Netherland. Examples of Italian lands descriptions were used for consideration of Russian observers’ approaches to interpretation of the life of Europeans. And the perception of the Asian countries’ life (China and Japan and of their inhabitants that had formed by the beginning of the 19th century was described in the notes and memories of Russians — the participants of the Russian — Japan war. Such different sources served as well as some common and very inportant functions, and the authors of this article identified then. First of all, it was an informational-educational mission. Such functions as goal setting and recording were also important, when authors of the materials identified the most important events, processes and recorded them. The critical approach and function of criticism were also incidental to the authors of many sources. Again, the materials presented in the article showed other provisions of the problem “us vs. them” (“us vs. otters” that is currently being considered in the modern science, and which in general lead to generation of both the

  17. Agricultural advertising in periodicals of the late 19th - early 20th centuries from the collection of NMHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Serjant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the stage of development, advertising as a historical phenomenon was expanding its sphere of influence penetrating more and more in various spheres of human activity. Agriculture, which is an important branch of the national economy closely related to the trade, always needs advertising. The absence of serfdom and the agrarian reforms have contributed to the integration of Bessarabian agriculture into the system of market relations. Local farmers needed promotion and marketing of agricultural products. For this they applied to various means of advertising. Agricultural advertisings can be found in the pages of the Bessarabian press from the late 19th - early 20th centuries. Most often, they were printed in publications of agricultural profile. An example is the magazine "Bessarabskoe sel'skoe khozyaistvo" ("Bessarabian Agriculture", the publication of Agronomic Section of the Bessarabian Naturalists' Society and the Chişinău Department of the Imperial Russian Society for Horticulture. The magazine was published from 1908 to 1917. In the collection of MNHM there are 28 issues of this magazine (in all there were 240 issues. The years of publication: 1909, 1910, 1912 and 1916. They are the main source of research on the topic. The aim of this work is to determine the themes of agricultural advertisements and their contribution to the im- provement of agricultural management in Tsarist Bessarabia. All issues of the journal had the ads section. Regular customers of the journal were both local and foreign manufac- turers. Among the local: Fruit an Grape Nurseries "EKO" (Soroca; Bucovăţ Fruit and Grape Nurseries; Baron A. Stuart's Fruit Nursery (Chişinău; Cocorozeni Agricultural School; E.P. Melega-Kuzminskaia's estate of Temeleuţi and F.F. Köppen's estate of Voinovo-Ikel; Horticulture, Viticulture and Winemaking Bureau and Storage of Agricultural Machinery of N.G. Kavsan (Chişinău, etc. The ads offered planting material tested

  18. Impacts of 20th century aerosol emissions on the South Asian monsoon in the CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Turner, A. G.; Highwood, E. J.

    2015-06-01

    Comparison of single-forcing varieties of 20th century historical experiments in a subset of models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) reveals that South Asian summer monsoon rainfall increases towards the present day in Greenhouse Gas (GHG)-only experiments with respect to pre-industrial levels, while it decreases in anthropogenic aerosol-only experiments. Comparison of these single-forcing experiments with the all-forcings historical experiment suggests aerosol emissions have dominated South Asian monsoon rainfall trends in recent decades, especially during the 1950s to 1970s. The variations in South Asian monsoon rainfall in these experiments follows approximately the time evolution of inter-hemispheric temperature gradient over the same period, suggesting a contribution from the large-scale background state relating to the asymmetric distribution of aerosol emissions about the equator. By examining the 24 available all-forcings historical experiments, we show that models including aerosol indirect effects dominate the negative rainfall trend. Indeed, models including only the direct radiative effect of aerosol show an increase in monsoon rainfall, consistent with the dominance of increasing greenhouse gas emissions and planetary warming on monsoon rainfall in those models. For South Asia, reduced rainfall in the models with indirect effects is related to decreased evaporation at the land surface rather than from anomalies in horizontal moisture flux, suggesting the impact of indirect effects on local aerosol emissions. This is confirmed by examination of aerosol loading and cloud droplet number trends over the South Asia region. Thus, while remote aerosols and their asymmetric distribution about the equator play a role in setting the inter-hemispheric temperature distribution on which the South Asian monsoon, as one of the global monsoons, operates, the addition of indirect aerosol effects acting on very local aerosol emissions also

  19. The Cooperation of Turkey and Azerbaijan in Military Sphere at the Turn of 20th-21st Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parubochaya Elena Fedorovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an urgent problem dealing with the cooperation of the Turkish Republic and Azerbaijan Republic in the military sphere at the end of 20th – the beginning of 21st century. For Azerbaijan’ s leaders Turkey has always been a special partner. This statement has an explanation. Ankara was the first state, which recognized the independence of Azerbaijan Republic. Moreover, Turkish government made great efforts to strengthen new state in different spheres. Military ties were one of the most important for both sides. The cooperation between two states in the military sphere can be subdivided into several periods. The article gives the detailed analysis of normative documents concluded by the Republics’ governments. The first period of military contacts (1990s was the time of Turkish educational support. Ankara provided training assistance to the military forces of Azerbaijan. Military staff was restrained by Turkish instructors. Special uniform, armament and other equipment to make transformation was given to Baku by Turkish partners. Step by step, Azerbaijan’ s military sphere was moving to Western standards. The year 1999 has become an important period for the military relations of Ankara and Baku. Since this year the military cooperation has extended and intensified, it is possible to name it as a new period of states’ military collaboration. Turkish government gave financial aid to Ministry of Defense of Republic of Azerbaijan, provided the material and technical support to Baku for improving long-term military cooperation. In 2010 the Turkey-Azerbaijan Strategic Partnership Agreement was signed. It should be noticed that Baku refused to sign the agreement of Azerbaijan’s participation in Collective security treaty organization, leaving the block of CSTO states headed by the Russian Federation. It’s possible to say about the strengthening of the Baku-Ankara alliance. This action may lead to complication of Baku

  20. Stephen S. Wise and the Urban Frontier: American Jewish Life in New York and the Pacific Northwest at the Dawn of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Raider

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The case of Stephen S. Wise provides a lens through which to examine American Jewry’s transformation at the dawn of the 20th century. Not only were New York City and Portland, Oregon – places Wise called home – two geographic poles of America’s urban frontier, they also highlight a spectrum of possibilities available to the New World’s fledgling Jewish community. Viewed in tandem, they illustrate American society’s raw, open, and pliable terrain as it emerged from a rural pre-industrial past. Moreover, by placing Wise in the context of the metropolitan growth that reshaped the Atlantic and Pacific frontiers in the late 19th century, we gain a better understanding of the relationship between the country’s dynamic environmental conditions and the phenomenon of Jewish immigrant absorption, acculturation, and Americanization.In withdrawing to the wilderness, Wise exposed himself to new possibilities for thinking about the place of Jews in American society and the future of American Judaism. He also honed the role of which he was to become a superlative exemplar – a 20th-century American rabbi at home in the worlds of religion and politics. Furthermore, his synthesis of liberal Judaism, American pluralism, Zionism, and Progressive-era notions of social justice anticipated the rise of a new American Jewish sensibility that would become normative in the 20th century.

  1. The world's road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummu, M.; Guillaume, J.H.A.; de Moel, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Veldkamp, T.I.E.; Ward, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20th

  2. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century…

  3. AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Baillargeon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records and advertising publications of three rural foundries over the 1900 to 1914 period provides a clearer picture of the production and of the clientele of those rural foundries. Analysis of these sources suggests that the strategic business model of rural foundries was much more elaborate than the existing literature posits. Rural owner-managers of the early 20th century were sophisticated strategists, marketers, and operators.

  4. Peculiarities of the ethnic component of immigration in the USA in the late 20th and the early 21st centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bureiko Nadiya Mykolaivna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzes the ethnic component of immigration to the USA that is characterized with the particular intensive growth in the late 20th and the early 21st centuries. The changes in the scope and structure of immigration were caused by the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act that became the basis for the US immigration policy liberalization. The article studies the immigration flows depending on the region of their origin.

  5. Peculiarities of the ethnic component of immigration in the USA in the late 20th and the early 21st centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Bureiko Nadiya Mykolaivna

    2014-01-01

    The research analyzes the ethnic component of immigration to the USA that is characterized with the particular intensive growth in the late 20th and the early 21st centuries. The changes in the scope and structure of immigration were caused by the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act that became the basis for the US immigration policy liberalization. The article studies the immigration flows depending on the region of their origin.

  6. Murman Coast of the Barents Sea at the Second Half of the 19th and the Begining 20th Century. Russian or European Colonization?

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel V. Fedorov

    2014-01-01

    This article is dedicated to analysing the historical background of the process of colonization Murman coast of the Barents Sea at the second half of the 19th and the begining 20th century. It consider two different interpretations of the history of colonization. One of them is the process of checking the Murman coast as a result of Russia imposed Western European initiatives. Another interpretation associates colonization with traditional process of the Russian presence on Murman.

  7. The interest in the landscape in the Spanish tourism policy for the second half of the 20th century (1951-1978)

    OpenAIRE

    Dolores Brandis García

    2017-01-01

    The Spanish tourism policy, aiming at exploiting the territories with better resources (landscape included) for a growing number of visitors, was implemented across the country as a whole since the second half of the 20th century until the establishment of the State of Autonomies. This paper intends to assess the relation between the role of landscape in this national tourism policy and the current degradation of the Spanish coastline compared to the inland. Data sources were official docum...

  8. New Venture, Survival, Growth : Continuance, Termination and Growth of Business Firms and Business Populations in Sweden During the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Box, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the formation, growth and discontinuance of business populations and firms in Sweden during the 20th century. It addresses some key issues in the domain of economic and social sciences, and in particular entrepreneurship and small business research: if and when firms grow, stagnate and decline, as well as how long firms survive and when they are likely to disband. Previous research has primarily analyzed these questions from a short time frame. Further, an individ...

  9. Hydrologic drought of water year 2011 compared to four major drought periods of the 20th century in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Molly J.; Andrews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Water year 2011 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) was a year of hydrologic drought (based on streamflow) in Oklahoma and the second-driest year to date (based on precipitation) since 1925. Drought conditions worsened substantially in the summer, with the highest monthly average temperature record for all States being broken by Oklahoma in July (89.1 degrees Fahrenheit), June being the second hottest and August being the hottest on record for those months for the State since 1895. Drought conditions continued into the fall, with all of the State continuing to be in severe to exceptional drought through the end of September. In addition to effects on streamflow and reservoirs, the 2011 drought increased damage from wildfires, led to declarations of states of emergency, water-use restrictions, and outdoor burning bans; caused at least $2 billion of losses in the agricultural sector and higher prices for food and other agricultural products; caused losses of tourism and wildlife; reduced hydropower generation; and lowered groundwater levels in State aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an investigation to compare the severity of the 2011 drought with four previous major hydrologic drought periods during the 20th century – water years 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The period of water years 1925–2011 was selected as the period of record because few continuous record streamflow-gaging stations existed before 1925, and gaps in time existed where no streamflow-gaging stations were operated before 1925. In water year 2011, statewide annual precipitation was the 2d lowest, statewide annual streamflow was 16th lowest, and statewide annual runoff was 42d lowest of those 87 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service climate divisions from water year 2011 were compared to those during four previous major hydrologic drought

  10. The decline of winter monsoon velocity in the South China Sea through the 20th century: Evidence from the Sr/Ca records in corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajing; Peng, Z.; Chen, T.; Wei, G.; Sun, W.; Sun, R.; He, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Zartman, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    A modern massive Porites coral was collected from the Longwan Bay (19??20???N, 110??39???E) on the east coast of the Hainan Island, China. The coral was sectioned vertical to the growth axis into discs of double density-bands representing annual growth. The samples were analyzed for the Sr/Ca ratio by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The history of winter sea-surface temperature (SST) is reconstructed using the Sr/Ca ratio in winter bands of corals. The winter SST at Xisha in the middle of the South China Sea (SCS) is weakly correlated with the instrument-measured winter monsoon velocity (WMV) with a correlation coefficient of 0.19. The winter SST data from corals at Longwan Bay, Hainan, in the northern SCS are moderately correlated with the WMV (r = 0.40). Interestingly we found that the difference of winter SSTs between the two sites (Xisha and Longwan Bay, Hainan) (the X-H index) is significantly negatively correlated with the WMV (r = - 0.73). This negative correlation may be related to the intrusion of the warm Kuroshio Current into the SCS through the Luzon Strait promoted by the strong northeastern monsoon winds in the winter. Using the relationship between our coralline data and observed WMV, the calculated winter monsoon velocity (WMVc) was obtained for 87??years. This data set in combination with the instrument-measured data between 1993 and 1998 generate a record of WMVc for a period of 93??years from 1906 to 1998. The WMVc in the 20th century shows significant interannual and decadal variability with a trend of persistent decline in the whole 20th century at the rate of decrease of - 0.02 (m/s)/a. The lowest wind velocity occurred during the last two decades of the 20th century. The WMVc has decreased significantly by about 30% from the early to the late of 20th century. The 20th century decline of winter monsoon velocity evidenced from the SCS coral records is consistent with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models

  11. [Eugenics and Discrimination in Colombia: the Role of Medicine and Psychiatry in Immigration Policy at the Beginning of the 20th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Jaime Carrizosa

    2014-03-01

    With the Theory of Evolution, eugenics had its beginnings during the last decades of the 19th century. Academics discussed the results obtained from their observations, and progressively had influence on the promulgation of laws and norms related to ethnic hygiene and improvement of race. Such principles were the fundamentals to order eugenic and discriminatory laws. Colombia was not outside that discussion and developed immigration laws congruent to that thinking during the first half of the 20th century. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Jerusalem in Art From the 2nd to the 20th Century: Ideal Jerusalem Representations in Jewish, Christian and Islamic Arts

    OpenAIRE

    EKŞİOĞLU, Reyhan

    2014-01-01

    In this article the city Jerusalem will be approached from a different viewpoint i.e. instead of “Art in Jerusalem”, “Jerusalem in Art” will be dealt with. The image of Jerusalem will be searched through from the aspects of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Starting as early as the second century and coming up to the 20th century representations of the image of Jerusalem have been revealed under the following headings: Early Jewish Art, Early Christian Art, Middle Ages Western European Art, Gr...

  13. AMERICAN MULTI-DWELLING ARCHITECTURE OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY AND FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Nađ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, the evolution of American multiple-dwelling architecture was marked by the passage from the standard construction of single-family standalone homes and row houses to a new housing typology which corresponded to all of the new urban planning rules and requirements of the contemporary way of life in cities. New York was the first American city to face the problem of dense settlement in limited spaces. The »U, E, H« ground plan designs were developed and were most commonly used during the period when the Building Zone Resolution adopted in 1916 by New York City was in force. The Building Zone Resolution introduced another novelty into New York town planning, i.e. the setting back of exterior walls above a determined height. Consequently, this gave rise to buildings with stepped profiles and many more storeys. The solutions developed by the New York residential architecture were adopted by other cities and further developed in line with specific local influences. Chicago is the most interesting of these cities; between 1924 and 1929 several quality housing complexes were built there which strongly deviated from the then housing construction in New York by the consistent ground plan designs of structures and apartment designs.

  14. The Ukrainian community of Western Siberia: specific features of formation and development in the 2nd half of the 19th – early 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian crisis in the European part of the Russian Empire in the middle of the 20th century seriously impeded agricultural progress. Agrarian overpopulation and peasants deprived of land in the course of the peasant reform of 1861 further aggravated the negative situation in the governorates of Central Russia, Belarus, and left-bank Ukraine. These factors provided fertile soil for migratory sentiments among peasants. It was resettlement in vacant lands in the Asiatic Russia and North Caucasus, which allowed most of them to preserve their homesteads. In the 2nd half of the 19th – early 20th century, Ukrainian peasants were actively engaged in the migration movement which was supported by the state. One of the main placement areas became Western Siberia where a large Ukrainian peasant community was formed. The history of research on the Ukrainian community in Western Siberia is fragmentary, as many aspects remain unstudied. Hence, the article focuses on the following questions: causes of the Ukrainian migration to the border lands of the Russian Empire; stages in the migration; main areas where Ukrainians resided in Siberia; population dynamics of the Ukrainian community; adaptation patterns specific for Ukrainian migrants in their new places of residence; their role in the economic life of Siberia in the early 20th century. This article utilizes primary data from the All-Russian Agricultural and Land Census of 1917, which have been introduced for scientific use for the first time. As the methodological basis, the study draws on the system approach combining regional, neo-imperial and comparative principles.

  15. 20th Century Groundwater in the Northeast United States: A case study quantifying the impact of groundwater policies in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, P. S.; Arrigo, J. S.; Thomas, B.; Vogel, R. M.; Hoover, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource throughout the Northeast corridor and is an important water source for domestic, industrial and irrigation purposes. During the 20th century, suburban groundwater withdrawals intensified with increasing population growth, the advent of rural electrification and sophisticated pumping technologies, thus, the need for effective groundwater management becomes increasingly important in the region. Data from the Unites States Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program documents this concentrated use of groundwater in suburban areas, and is particularly prominent across the majority of New Jersey. Focusing on New Jersey as an area of significant groundwater use and increasing demand, this project investigates total groundwater withdrawals in conjunction with a policy-based framework, facilitating an awareness of groundwater impacts as informed through existing policy during the 20th century. The objectives of this study are to identify the relevant federal, statewide and municipal policies that evolved in the state of New Jersey during the 20th century, and examine the groundwater withdrawal trends for the state of New Jersey between 1950 - 2005. Preliminary results revealed that increased restrictions on groundwater policy between 1982 and 1997 had an observable affect on reducing total groundwater withdrawals. Multivariate regression analyses using indicator variables, i.e. mixed effects model, will be used to explore relationships between county specific withdrawals and significant policy that may have influenced groundwater usage. It is anticipated to observe a strong correlation between groundwater withdrawals and the effectiveness of the implemented groundwater policies. Future collaborative work will further investigate the effectiveness of policy as hydrologically evidenced by alterations in baseflow contribution to streamflow, and groundwater persistence.

  16. French school of neurology in the 19 th and first half of the 20th century, and its influence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available French medicine was of the utmost importance for the birth of modern medicine and neurology in the 19 th century. Innovative approaches, such as examination at the bedside, the use of the stethoscope, techniques of auscultation, palpation, and close patient examination, besides emphasis on anatomical-clinical correlation and observation of the outcome of the disease, were put into practice. French medicine offered professional training and incentives for the beginnings of Brazilian neurology and psychiatry. Returning from France, many Brazilian physicians implemented what they had learned, mainly in Paris. The most important pupils of the French neurology schools in Brazil during the 19 th century and first half of the 20 th century include names like Antonio Austregesilo, Aloysio de Castro, Enjolras Vampré, and Deolindo Couto, founders of the leading Brazilian neurological schools, directly influenced by Dejerine, Pierre Marie, Guillain and Babinski.

  17. Optical observations of the Phoenicid meteor shower in 2014 and activity of comet 289P/Blanpain in the early 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yasunori; Nakamura, Takuji; Uehara, Satoshi; Sagayama, Toru; Toda, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    Optical observations of the Phoenicid meteor shower were made in North Carolina, USA, with seven video cameras and two digital cameras over a period of about 5 hr between 22:30 UT on 2014 December 1 and 04:00 UT on December 2. Activity of the Phoenicids was confirmed during this period, including the predicted maximum around 00 h UT on December 2. The activity level was not high, considering that 29 Phoenicid meteors and 109 non-Phoenicid meteors were detected. A gentle peak in the activity was recognized between 01:00 UT and 03:00 UT on December 2. The compact radiant of the Phoenicids agreed well with what was predicted. A comparison of the observed and predicted peak times, radiant position, bright meteors' dominance, and radiants' spread revealed that the observed meteors originated from the dust trails formed by comet 289P/Blanpain at the perihelion passage in the early 20th century. This indicates that the parent body of the Phoenicids, comet 289P/Blanpain, was still active as a comet in the early 20th century and provided meteoroids, although its activity level was significantly weaker than that at the beginning of the 19th century.

  18. The relationship between the traditional and contemporary elements in the church architecture of the Western Christian countries in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Božidar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Church architecture has been developing continually within Western Christianity since the 4th century, It gradually becomes less important from the end of the Middle Ages, especially with the advent of the ideas of Reformation and Enlightment, going almost out of the focus of contemporary architecture with the advent of modernism in the 20th century. The most important factors for the development of this building type in the 20th century, were the emergence of modernism in architecture and strengthening of the movements of liturgical renewal. It was a time in which the diametrically opposed concepts - radically modernizing and conservatively traditional - were expressed to the extreme, with many transitional forms, Striving to active participation of believers can lead to completely different results - strengthening the liturgical assembly, on one hand, and radical desacralisation of worship, on the other. There is a large number of architectural solutions, some of which share common characteristics concerning spatial organization and the distribution of laity and clergy, but with a great diversity of other architectural characteristics and different relations of traditional and contemporary elements. The experiences of Western Christian countries can be of use, to some extent, in the research of contemporary Orthodox church architecture.

  19. Mapping the refugee’s settlements in Thessaloniki during the first thirty years of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvaidis, P.

    2013-01-01

    During the Balkan wars and particularly after the national disaster of Asia Minor, Thessaloniki had to lodge many tenths of thousands of refugees. Then the town authorities created settlements for their hosting. These settlements were rapidly transformed to urban quarters of the town leading to an extension of the town to any direction, particularly to the NW and SE directions without any urban planning. These settlements and later on urban quarters were mapped in different Charts of the town during the 20th Century. The study of these maps is the subject of this paper.(in Greeks)

  20. Potentially dangerous 24-hour rainfall in the Provadiyska vally system at the end of the 20th and early 21st Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladev, Dimitar

    2018-03-01

    Extreme rainfalls are of paramount importance for the formation of river springs and, consequently, the occurrence of spills and floods. The article presents the results of a case study of the potentially dangerous 24-hour eruptions in the Provadiyska valley system from the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. Particular attention is paid to the morphometric parameters and the configuration of the river-valley supply network of the Provadiyska river. On this basis, there are defined areas in which there are favorable conditions for forming high river waves.

  1. Applied geology in the research of Karol Bohdanowicz and his Polish graduates in Siberia at the turn of the 20th century (in Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej J. Wójcik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of applied geology (geology of deposits, engineering geology, hydrogeology at the turn of the 20th century in Siberia, was conducted by the graduates of the Institute of Mining led by Karol Bohdanowicz. The team included, among others, Stefan Czarnocki and Stanisław Doktorowicz-Hrebnicki. Their activity in Siberia became a proof that the so-called “Bohdanowicz’s school” existed and the results of their research have earned their place in the science and have become the basis for developing the mining of mineral resources.

  2. Specifics of the implicit expression of the author’s gender identity in 19th and 20th century German-language female memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler L.A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available this article covers the expression of implicit gender identity of the subject of speech activity in the 19th and 20th century women's memories. The study revealed that implicit gender aspects associated with linguistic ascertainment of gender stereotypes presented in female linguistic material form the lexico-semantic category of “Character”. Within this category, the lexico-semantic sub-categories “Emotionality”, “Fearfulness and diffidence” and “Dreaminess” play a significant role, representing the corresponding stereotypes.

  3. Studying in-between spaces of the Danish primary and secondary school as spaces of and in transition in the late 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    and lower secondary school in the late 20th century, closely linked to the overall transformation of school life and its displaced material and discursive becoming as it is. The analysis is inspired by works of Karen Barad (2003, 2007) and Nigel Thrift (2006) and shows how the notion of the in......-between spaces has taken shape in complex material-discursive intra-actions related to shifting concerns about the vulnerable and yet potential child as well as through available building materials, architectural designs and the number and organization of pupils’ bodies. By using this approach and working...

  4. [Russland an der Ostsee - Russia on the Baltic. Imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) - Imperial Strategies of Power and Cultural Patterns od Perception (16th - 20th Centuries)] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Wien [etc.] : Böhlau, 2012

  5. [A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius, Darius Staliūnas] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius und Darius Staliūnas. Verlag CEU Press. Budapest und New York, 2011

  6. Bookseller’s Classification: Classification Examples and Criteria of Croatian Booksellers in Sales Catalogs and Book Lists from the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Topić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to conduct research on the topic of ways of bookstore (sales classification of Croatian bookstores from the beginning of the 20th century. By content analysis of the 17 sales lists/catalogs of books from Dubrovnik, Split, Zadar, Karlovac, Zagreb and Osijek, the classification structure has been reconstructed, and the criteria according to which the booksellers offerings have been classified in the early 20th century have been determined. Conducting of the analysis established the following criteria of the bookstore classification: topic/content, form/type of work, type of corpus, genre, language, purpose, publishing series, publisher, time of publication, (new edition, time of publication/purchase, customer's specific interests, number, letter and author. Order of enumeration within specific categories is mostly alphabetic, numeric or according to order of publication. Unlike the library classification and classification systems in general, the problematics of bookstore classification is not very present in the current existing sources. Research studies that focus on the history of bookselling, even if they reveal ways of classification of booksellers offers remain on a descriptive level without any deeper analysis of the criteria or possible reasons of such classification. Therefore, the contribution of the paper is a detailed analysis of a larger pattern of bookstore sales catalogs, and also an attempt of illuminating the criteria and reasons of creating a system of bookstore classification in the defined historical, spatial and time context.

  7. The Clinical Features of Paranoia in the 20th Century and Their Representation in Diagnostic Criteria From DSM-III Through DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This review traces, through psychiatric textbooks, the history of the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia in the 20th century and then relates the common reported symptoms and signs to the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder in DSM-III through DSM-5. Clinical descriptions of paranoia appearing in 10 textbooks, published 1899 to 1970, revealed 11 prominent symptoms and signs reported by 5 or more authors. Three symptoms (systematized delusions, minimal hallucinations, and prominent ideas of reference) and 2 signs (chronic course and minimal affective deterioration) were reported by 8 or 9 of the authors. Four textbook authors rejected the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia. A weak relationship was seen between the frequency with which the clinical features were reported and the likelihood of their inclusion in modern DSM manuals. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder shifted substantially from DSM-III to DSM-5. The modern operationalized criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder do not well reflect the symptoms and signs frequently reported by historical experts. In contrast to results of similar reviews for depression, schizophrenia and mania, the clinical construct of paranoia/delusional disorder has been somewhat unstable in Western Psychiatry since the turn of the 20th century as reflected in both textbooks and the DSM editions. PMID:28003468

  8. The Clinical Features of Paranoia in the 20th Century and Their Representation in Diagnostic Criteria From DSM-III Through DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2017-03-01

    This review traces, through psychiatric textbooks, the history of the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia in the 20th century and then relates the common reported symptoms and signs to the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder in DSM-III through DSM-5. Clinical descriptions of paranoia appearing in 10 textbooks, published 1899 to 1970, revealed 11 prominent symptoms and signs reported by 5 or more authors. Three symptoms (systematized delusions, minimal hallucinations, and prominent ideas of reference) and 2 signs (chronic course and minimal affective deterioration) were reported by 8 or 9 of the authors. Four textbook authors rejected the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia. A weak relationship was seen between the frequency with which the clinical features were reported and the likelihood of their inclusion in modern DSM manuals. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder shifted substantially from DSM-III to DSM-5. The modern operationalized criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder do not well reflect the symptoms and signs frequently reported by historical experts. In contrast to results of similar reviews for depression, schizophrenia and mania, the clinical construct of paranoia/delusional disorder has been somewhat unstable in Western Psychiatry since the turn of the 20th century as reflected in both textbooks and the DSM editions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m asl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Correia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16º 37' S, 67º 46' W, 6350 m asl was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g-1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years

  10. On the Relative Influences of Different Ocean Basin Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies on Southern African Rainfall in 20th and 21st Century GCM Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickley, M.; Solomon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Southern Africa rainfall (SAR) is generally projected to decrease during the 21st century as a result of climate change, though there is some disagreement regarding the location and magnitude of this reduction in General Circulation Models (GCMs). Here we examine the robustness of the rainfall response to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Previous work argues that warmer SSTs in the Indian Ocean suppress SAR. Other studies argue that El Niños lead to suppressed SAR. We examine the SAR response to SST anomalies in the Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and ENSO 3.4 region both in observations and in two large ensembles of GCMs run over the 20th and 21st century. We find that ENSO SSTs are most correlated with SAR, while correlations between SAR and the Indian Ocean are dominated by their respective responses to ENSO. This relationship appears to persist under a warming background state.

  11. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajus, Julia; Kraikovski, Alexei; Lajus, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th) centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th) century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th) century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th) century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  12. Income distribution dynamics in the Netherlands in the 20th century: long-run developments and cyclical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afman, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes to the evidence on the distribution of income in the Netherlands by constructing decile and quintile income shares for gross- and for disposable income covering almost the entire twentieth century. It suggests some interpretations of the general trends, while the cyclical

  13. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  14. Achievements of Polish doctors in gastrodiaphanoscopy at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Kierzek, Andrzej; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Pozowski, Andrzej; Kuciel-Lewandowska, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Diaphanoscopy/transillumination, the method of shining a bright light through tissues, was devised in the mid-19th century and developed after the invention of the light bulb by T.A. Edison. Benjamin Milliot was the first to examine the stomach by means of an incandescent platinum wire. The experiments conducted by Max Einhorn using a device consisting of a Nelaton catheter with an inserted light bulb, were valuable. In Poland the method of gastrodiaphanoscopy was popularized by Teodor Heryng...

  15. Assured pasts or gambled futures : contrasting approaches to context in selected 20th century Mexican and Argentine art practices

    OpenAIRE

    Cereijido, Fabian Pablo

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores four Argentine and Mexican twentieth century art practices that mobilized the profile of the Latin American avant-garde at home and abroad by inscribing context, regionality, objectivity and the future in innovative and sharply contrasting ways : Diego Rivera and Gabriel Orozco in Mexico, and Tucumán Arde and Guillermo Kuitca in Argentina. Building on recent Latin American scholarship that has recovered aspects of the local avant-garde formerly relegated to canonic ...

  16. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-08-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual's mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State's commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context--a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  17. The Influence of Canadian Intellectuals’ Ideological Views on the Political Culture in Canada at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOKOV I.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the political views of Canadian intellectuals which had influence on the formation of Canadian political culture at the turn of the 20th century. The author confirms that the Canadian intellectual thought was the main ideological factor in the conditions of the formation of Canadian statehood, undeveloped party and political system, the lack of deep traditions of the parliamentary system, insufficient political practice and the lack of distinct ideology of basic political parties in the process of forming the Canadian nation. On the basis of studied Canadian sources, the author makes conclusion that the most of Canadian intellectuals did not participate directly in the political process and they considered themselves its bystanders. Besides, the Canadian intellectuals promoted the British political culture of the Victorian epoch. Although all of them were familiar wih the British socialistic thought – Fabianism, they insisted that the social transformation in the Canadian society is possible only through the improvement of moral system, the education of lower social classes and the maintenance of elite monarch traditions. The American influence on Canadian political culture was peripheral at the beginning of the 20th century. The ideas of the Chicago Sociological School and the European continental thought were not used. The Victorian intellectuals understood their time as the social crisis and their political discussions were often devoted to the problems of imperialism, religion, education and feminism. They undoubtedly influenced the Canadian political elite in the matter of further development of the Canadian nation and state, but they expressed their own unique views on the contemporary society in academic press and in elite clubs discussions. They did not share the opinion of publicity about contemporary social processes, because their position was far from the direct party policy. Though some of them participated as

  18. Impact of fire on global land carbon, water, and energy budgets and climate during the 20th century through changing ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Lawrence, D. M.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Levis, S.

    2016-12-01

    Fire is an integral Earth system process and the primary form of terrestrial ecosystem disturbance on a global scale. Here we provide the first quantitative assessment and understanding on fire's impact on global land carbon, water, and energy budgets and climate through changing ecosystems. This is done by quantifying the difference between 20th century fire-on and fire-off simulations using the Community Earth System Model (CESM1.2). Results show that fire decreases the net carbon gain of global terrestrial ecosystems by 1.0 Pg C/yr averaged across the 20th century, as a result of biomass and peat burning (1.9 Pg C/yr) partly offset by changing gross primary productivity, respiration, and land-use carbon loss (-0.9 Pg C/yr). In addition, fire's effect on global carbon budget intensifies with time. Fire significantly reduces land evapotranspiration (ET) by 600 km3/yr and increases runoff, but has limited impact on precipitation. The impact on ET and runoff is most clearly seen in the tropical savannas, African rainforest, and some boreal and Southern Asian forests mainly due to fire-induced reduction in the vegetation canopy. It also weakens both the significant upward trend in global land ET prior to the 1950s and the downward trend from 1950 to 1985 by 35%. Fire-induced changes in land ecosystems affects global energy budgets by significantly reducing latent heating and surface net radiation. Fire changes surface radiative budget dominantly by raising surface upward longwave radiation and net longwave radiation. It also increases the global land average surface air temperature (Tas) by 0.04°C, and significantly increases wind speed and decreases surface relative humidity. The fire-induced change in wind speed, Tas, and relative humidity implies a positive feedback loop between fire and climate. Moreover, fire-induced changes in land ecosystems contribute 20% of strong global land warming during 1910-1940, which provides a new mechanism for the early 20th

  19. Structural change in a system of urban places: the 20th-century evolution of Hungary's urban settlement network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovanyi, G

    1986-02-01

    A review of urban change in Hungary in the twentieth century is presented. Both the traditional approach to studying urban change, involving changes in the percentage of those residing in urban areas, and the newly developed approach, focusing on regional aspects of urbanization, are used in the analysis. "In sharp contrast to most European countries Hungary is shown to evidence continued centralization of urban development, but the recent experience of Budapest and other indicators are said to portend future decentralization." (summary in FRE, GER) excerpt

  20. Under a Starry Vault. Warburg, Jung and the Renaissance of Ancient Paganisms at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Pallotto Strickland

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles the controversial question of the affinities between the work of Aby Warburg and Carl Gustav Jung. Instead of focussing her interest exclusively on the concepts of collective memory and primordial images, though, the author critically compares the different ways Warburg and Jung looked at the renaissance of ancient practices of Paganism at the beginning of the Twentieth century, and questions the extent to which the cultural crisis heralded by Modernity, and the challenges brought about by secularisation influenced their reading of the revivals.

  1. Chronicles of rice, mosquitoes and malaria in Spain: the case of the province of Valencia (18th-20th centuries

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    Rubén Bueno Marí

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the situation of the rice fields in the Valencia province (Eastern Spain during the centuries XVIII-XX. This area, together with the region of Campo Arañuelo (Western Spain, is one of the territories with highest malaria prevalence during the Spain's Modern History. Medical, demographic, social, economic and legal issues related with the problematic of the rice during this epoch are also discussed. Furthermore, this article provides information about the supposed transmission mechanisms of the disease, as well as the fight against it through chemotherapeutic and environmental sanitation techniques.

  2. Emergence of a utopian vision of modernist and futuristic houses and cities in early 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan

    2017-04-01

    Throughout the development of literature on urban design theories, utopian thinking has played a crucial role as utopians were among the first designers. Many unrealized utopian projects such as The Radiant City, have presented a research laboratory and positive attempts for all architects, urban designers and theorists. In this essay, a utopian vision following under More’s and Jameson’s definitions is discussed, examining how the utopian vision of modernist and futuristic houses and cities emerged in the early twentieth century in response to several factors, what urban utopia aimed to represent, and how such version was represented in the built form and the urban landscapes.

  3. [German psychiatry in the 20th century. Life course of the psychiatrist Johannes Suckow (1896-1994)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienert, M

    2000-01-01

    Johannes Suckow's biography reflects the history of German psychiatry in the first two thirds of the twentieth century in an exemplary way. Above all, he became distinctly influenced by Emil Kraepelin and Karl Bonhoeffer. During World War II he worked for a short time under Carl Schneider at a research department concerned with the "Euthanasia program". Eventually he built up the Department of Psychiatry and Neurology at the Dresden Medical School to run it for eight years. We examine Suckow's social background and motives and show why he failed to stand up for his humanistic convictions under the Nazi regime.

  4. The anthropometric history of Argentina, Brazil and Peru during the 19th and early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Joerg; Pelger, Ines; Twrdek, Linda

    2009-12-01

    This anthropometric study focuses on the histories of three important Latin American countries - Brazil, Peru, and Argentina - during the 19th century, and tests hypotheses concerning their welfare trends. While non-farm Brazil and Lima, Peru, started at relatively low height levels, Brazil made substantial progress in nutritional levels from the 1860s to the 1880s. In contrast, Lima remained at low levels. Argentinean men were tall to begin with, but heights stagnated until 1910. The only exception were farmers and landowners, who benefited from the export boom.

  5. Dynamics of the Greenland Ice Sheet and Icelandic Glaciers in the 20th Century Using Geodetic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    used to map the glacial imprint on the landscape in order to geometrically reconstruct the mass changes between the Little Ice Age (LIA) (~1900) to 1978-1987. Thus, the observational record is extended more than a decade (DEM), to around a century (geomorphological mapping). In order to provide a basis...... for analysis, these results are combined with modern laser altimetry, climate data, and a variety of other geophysical data. The results presented in this thesis, show that the margins respond rapidly and highly dynamic to external climatic forcing, followed by deceleration and stabilization controlled...

  6. Influence of socioeconomic situation on the outlook of peasants of Ukraine (19th – beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Babicheva

    2014-12-01

     As it usual to, the peasantry considered agriculture work as a source of well­being and wellness. The alternative ways of work such as manufacturing, commercial and intermediary activity, trade, intellectual job, social­political activity, which at the beginning of the XX Th century have already stated about their financial effectiveness, the peasantry haven’t considered as equality to agriculture work. It is understood that peasants was waiting positive changes in their lives, but their «inner voice» was saying, that long waited changes should com outside.

  7. War, Peace and Security in the 20th Century. A Contemporary Reading of the Just War Theory

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    Roxana Alexandra Costinescu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available War, in its various forms, still represents even in the XXI century a common manner for states as well as for ethnic, political and religious groups to settle disputes. The geopolitical context, marked by the al Qaeda attacks on the USA, and the multiple world events they determined lead to major changes for the armed violence character and simultaneously for its moral implications. Therefore, the present analysis subjects the relevance of the just war theory for the new international realities, the degree to which the theory needs a revision of its classical categories ius ad bellum and ius in bello or, on the contrary, an abandonment.

  8. Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance for the 20th and 21st centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Results from a regional climate simulation (1970–2006 over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS reveals that more than 97% of the interannual variability of the modelled Surface Mass Balance (SMB can be explained by the GrIS summer temperature anomaly and the GrIS annual precipitation anomaly. This multiple regression is then used to empirically estimate the GrIS SMB since 1900 from climatological time series. The projected SMB changes in the 21st century are investigated with the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4. These estimates show that the high surface mass loss rates of recent years are not unprecedented in the GrIS history of the last hundred years. The minimum SMB rate seems to have occurred earlier in the 1930s and corresponds to a zero SMB rate. The AOGCMs project that the SMB rate of the 1930s would be common at the end of 2100. The temperature would be higher than in the 1930s but the increase of accumulation in the 21st century would partly offset the acceleration of surface melt due to the temperature increase. However, these assumptions are based on an empirical multiple regression only validated for recent/current climatic conditions, and the accuracy and time homogeneity of the data sets and AOGCM results used in these estimations constitute a large uncertainty.

  9. The Welfare Culture. Poetics of Comfort in Architecture of the 19th and 20th-centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Prieto González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractArchitectural history of the last two centuries shows that welfare, far from being a purely technical issue – a balance between weather and the physiological human constants – is a culturally constructed idea concerning diverse factors, such as the relationship between space and human body or the ways of conceiving nature in architecture. However, the notion of comfort has not received the historiographical attention it deserves, hence the need for a new perspective, aesthetic and multidisciplinary in nature. Such a view is discussed in this article through a brief and partial history of comfort that addresses the different meanings assigned to the concept over the past two centuries, in accordance with a kind of 'poetics': the longstanding poetics of fire, linked the regenerative comfort; the poetics of hygiene and habitat, developed during modernity as a scientifistic dogma and as an aesthetic alibi, and, finally, the poetics of atmospheres, which accounts for contemporary concerns about perception, memory and sociability. From this historical review we can conclude that welfare is not an objectifiable concept, nor an idea synthesized in the technician or scientist test tubes, but a complex notion consisting of several intertwined layers: physiological, constructive, aesthetic, existential, social. The history of comfort is, thus, a sort of small version of the history of culture.Key wordscomfort, architecture, hygiene, habitat, atmosphere

  10. Interpretations of the Chinese Boxer Rebellion in the Slovenian Press at the Beginning of the 20th Century

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    Uroš LIPUŠČEK

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay deals with the Slovene reaction to the military intervention of eight coalition forces in China during the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900. To Slovenes, China was then seen as a faraway land that had been visited by some Slovene missionaries, noblemen and travellers throughout the past centuries. Nevertheless, much interest was expressed by the Slovene public and press in the events surrounding the Boxer Rebellion. Despite the fact that the Austro-Hungarian military was part of the international coalition that intervened in Chinese internal affairs, the leading Slovene newspapers of the period supported the right of the Chinese people to defend their country against the big powers of the time, who tried to dismember China and enforce the regime of capitulation.

  11. In the laboratory of the Ghost-Baron: parapsychology in Germany in the early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffram, Heather

    2009-12-01

    During the early twentieth century the Munich-based psychiatrist Albert von Schrenck-Notzing constructed a parapsychological laboratory in his Karolinenplatz home. Furnished with a range of apparatus derived from the physical and behavioural sciences, the Baron's intention was to mimic both the outward form and disciplinary trajectory of contemporary experimental psychology, thereby legitimating the nascent field of parapsychology. Experimentation with mediums, those labile subjects who produced ectoplasm, materialisation and telekinesis, however, necessitated not only the inclusion of a range of spiritualist props, but the lackadaisical application of those checks and controls intended to prevent simulation and fraud. Thus Schrenck-Notzing's parapsychological laboratory with its stereoscopic cameras, galvanometers and medium cabinets was a strange coalescence of both the séance room and the lab, a hybrid space that was symbolic of the irresolvable epistemological and methodological problems at the heart of this aspiring science.

  12. From Subsistence to Commercial Hunting: Technical Shift in Cynegetic Practices Among Southern Cameroon Forest Dwellers During the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond Dounias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rainforest dwellers, who are currently engaged in bushmeat trade, used to track game for their own subsistence. We investigate the technical evolution over the past century of bushmeat procurement by the Fang, a group of southern Cameroon forest dwellers who are renowned for their extensive cynegetic expertise. This investigation consists of a diachronic approach to assess Fang hunting and trapping technology by comparing firsthand data on bushmeat procurement collected in the early 1990s with detailed descriptions recorded in the early 1900s among the same populations by the German anthropologist Günter Tessmann. Other archive sources bequeathed by explorers in the twilight of the 19th century are also exploited. The comparison conveys a more dynamic view of hunting practices following the greater involvement of the Fang hunters in the bushmeat trade. Historical sources remind us that projectile weapons were initially destined for warfare and that trapping, mobilizing a vast panel of modalities, was the prominent means to catch game for domestic consumption. Net hunting and crossbow hunting, which used to be typical Fang activities, are now exclusively conducted by Pygmies; spear hunting with hounds has become anecdotal. If a large range of trap mechanisms is still functional, effort is now focused on snares, elicited by the banalization of twisted wire cable. The legacy of other remaining models is left to children who carry out a didactic form of garden trapping. The major detrimental change is the use of firearms, which were initially adopted as a warfare prestige attribute before becoming the backbone instrument of bushmeat depletion. Revisiting the past provides useful lessons for improving current hunting management, through the promotion of garden hunting and wildlife farming, and the revitalization of a collective and cultural art of hunting as an alternative to indiscriminate overhunting by neophyte and increasingly

  13. Between verses and controversies: Jônatas Batista and the literary criticism in Teresina at the beginning of the 20th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronyere Ferreira da Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article consists of the analysis of the literary controversies that occurred in Teresina, at the beginning of the 20th century, privileging, above all, the participation of the writer Jônatas Batista in these events. It seeks to identify the causes of these controversies and the uses made of them in the process of self-affirmation of young intellectuals. We used as sources the newspapers circulating in the city during the period, especially literary critiques, replicas and cheerleaders, as well as small notes that inform about the social movement. Among the authors we dialogue with are Queiroz (1998, Magalhães (2016, Botelho (2011, De Luca (2011 and Ventura (1991.

  14. In memory of Professor Leonor Michaelis in Nagoya: great contributions to biochemistry in Japan in the first half of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsu, Toshiharu Toshi

    2013-09-02

    Leonor Michaelis spent the years of 1922-1926 as Professor of Biochemistry of the Aichi Medical College (now Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University) in Nagoya, Japan. Michaelis succeeded in gathering many bright young biochemists from all over Japan into his laboratory, and made tremendous contributions to the promotion of biochemistry in Japan. Michaelis was invited to many places in Japan to present lectures over those years. Kunio Yagi, who was Professor of Biochemistry at Nagoya University in the second half of the 20th century, succeeded in crystallizing the "Michaelis" enzyme-substrate complex. Historically, Michelis has had an enormous impact on biochemistry in Japan. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mobility and the Modern Intellectual: Translated Images from Early 20th-Century Literary Works in Spanish by Carmen Lyra and Luisa Luisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kanost

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay juxtaposes original translations of contrasting images from the novel En una silla de ruedas [In a Wheelchair] by Costa Rican writer Carmen Lyra and Poemas de la inmovilidad [Poems of Immobility] by Uruguayan writer Luisa Luisi to reveal how representations of intellectuals who are paralyzed might complicate discourses of the artist, social hygiene, and eugenics in early 20th-century Spanish America. Lyra portrays her protagonist's paralysis as a tragedy, but his disability is also the source of social mobility that allows the novel to depict marginalized members of Costa Rican society. Luisi contests modernista aesthetics of perfect forms, countering with a multifaceted exploration of inner space enabled by physical stillness. Through their depictions of hospitals, asylums, and sanitariums, both writers bear witness to bodies the modernizing project would prefer to hide, and imagine alternative forms of progress.

  16. Preconditions and Reasons of Religions Educational and Missionary Activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena D. Mikhailova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to studying the reasons and preconditions for religions, educational and missionary activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Basing on the archive records, the author shows that most important preconditions for enhancing religions – educational activities were the following: the destruction of traditional patriarchal life of the masses, which was based on religions values, the need to overcome “religions ignorance” of a significant part of Orthodox population, the rapid religions dissent in the Russian Empire. Analysis of reasons for their wide spread shows that it wasn’t the cause of foreign influence or any kind of social protest. Studying contemporary opinions as well as specific facts of provincial parish life led to the conclusion that there existed a wide complex of preconditions that influenced the growth of “protest” forms of religion.

  17. “Dahomey!, Dahomey!”: the reception of Dahomean art in France in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kelly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the ways in which a series of royal sculptures from the African kingdom of Dahomey, acquired by the Trocadero Ethnographic Museum in Paris, were discussed in terms of both their artistic and anthropological interest in France in the 1890s. It sets this reception in the wider context of the French colonial conquest of Dahomey in this period, and of the increasing valorisation of African art by European artists and writers in the early 20th century. Dahomean art, however, did not play a significant role in this moment of modernist ‘primitivist’ appropriation. This essay also suggests that the large-scale figuration of the royal portraits, as well as their representation of a living culture with a well-established history set them at odds with a developing European preference for anonymous and ‘timeless’ African artefacts.

  18. [Elements for an history of the therapeutic community in Western psychiatry of the 2nd half of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussinger, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Based on a critique of the traditional ruling of mental hospital, therapeutic community is an innovative model elaborated in Great Britain during World War II. According to this approach, all the relationships at work inside the institution have a big impact on the patients' state. One of the favoured tools of the therapeutic community lies in regular meetings common to patients and staff, but also reserved to professionals. During these sessions small and big problems are intended to be discussed and resolved collectively. The constitution of this approach as a model and its diffusion in continental European psychiatry during the second half of the 20th century is described in this paper. Four stages are distinguished: the genesis, the constitution of a distinct approach and diffusion in Continental Europe, the radicalisation and criticism by the antipsychiatric movement, the institutionalisation and decline.

  19. Role of the modernisation factor in commercial development of Tobolsk province settlements at the turn of the 19th and the 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valitov Alexander Alexandrovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Trade is a kind of practical exponent of effective economic development and reflection of its performance. On the basis of changes in the turnover, export and import, financial institutions, the number of wholesale and retail locations and some other indicators one can judge the rise or fall of agricultural and industrial characteristics and also assess the level of population welfare. This article attempted to review trading and market conditions in Tobolsk province at the turn of the 19th and the 20th centuries. This period is characterized by adoption of the modernization stage of social development that gave impetus to the economic development of both the whole country and its separate regions. Overall, the obtained results allow judging the nationwide impact of industrial growth on the development of the retail industry in the region under study in the investigated time frame.

  20. Geochemical response of a closed-lake basin to 20th century recurring droughts/wet intervals in the subtropical Pampean Plains of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ARIZTEGUI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Laguna Mar Chiquita is a highly variable closed saline lake located in the Pampean Plains of central Argentina. Presently is the largest saline lake in South America (∼ 6,000 km2 and also one of the largest in the world. During the 20th century the hydrological balance of the region was characterized by contrasting scenarios. Well-defined wet or dry climatic phases had ruled the lake level fluctuations and the rivers discharge, mainly controlling the geochemical composition of sediments. Sediments accumulated during positive hydrological balances (i.e., high lake level are mainly composed of allogenic mineral due to higher riverine inputs into the lake. This fluvial-dominated lake phases are recorded as sediments enriched in Al2O3, SiO2, K2O, Fe2O3 and TiO2 and in trace elements such as Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sc, Hf, Ta, Th as well as rare earth elements (REE. Sediments accumulated during dry phases (i.e., low lake levels and high salinity are evaporite mineral-rich with elevated concentrations of CaO, MnO, MgO, and P2O5. High contents of As and U are probably due to a co-precitation during high evaporative phases. The calibration of the sediment chemical composition of Laguna Mar Chiquita to well-defined water-level fluctuations of the 20th century shows that elemental geochemistry can be a useful proxy to study former lake-water fluctuations. It may further provide a comparative model to evaluate past environmental conditions in other saline lacustrine basins.

  1. Multi-Scale Influences of Climate, Spatial Pattern, and Positive Feedback on 20th Century Tree Establishment at Upper Treeline in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    The influences of 20th century climate, spatial pattern of tree establishment, and positive feedback were assessed to gain a more holistic understanding of how broad scale abiotic and local scale biotic components interact to govern upper treeline ecotonal dynamics along a latitudinal gradient (ca. 35°N-45°N) in the Rocky Mountains. Study sites (n = 22) were in the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, Front Range, and Sangre de Cristo mountain ranges. Dendroecological techniques were used for a broad scale analysis of climate at treeline. Five-year age-structure classes were compared with identical five-year bins of 20th century climate data using Spearman’s rank correlation and regime shift analysis. Local scale biotic interactions capable of ameliorating broad scale climate inputs through positive feedback were examined by using Ripley’s K to determine the spatial patterns of tree establishment above timberline. Significant correlations (p Medicine Bow and Sangre de Cristo Mountains primarily contain clustered spatial patterns of trees above timberline, which indicates a strong reliance on the amelioration of abiotic conditions through positive feedback with nearby vegetation. Although clustered spatial patterns likely originate in response to harsh abiotic conditions such as drought or constant strong winds, the local scale biotic interactions within a clustered formation of trees appears to override the immediate influence of broad scale climate. This is evidenced both by a lack of significant correlations between tree establishment and climate in these mountain ranges, as well as the considerable lag times between initial climate regime shifts and corresponding shifts in tree age structure. Taken together, this research suggests that the influence of broad scale climate on upper treeline ecotonal dynamics is contingent on the local scale spatial patterns of tree establishment and related influences of positive feedback. These findings have global implications for our

  2. Changes in the relationships between climate and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) growth during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aprile, F.; Tapper, N.; Baker, P.; Bartolozzi, L.; Bottacci, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the Tuscan Apennine Alps, recent research has shown that similarity in trends of monthly climate variables (i.e., temperature and rainfall) is non-stationary amongst sites during the 20th century even between sites that differ little in elevation and at a relatively short distance from each other (D'Aprile et al., 2010; D'Aprile et al., 2011). Moreover, the level of correlation between series of monthly climate variables varies irregularly from highly positive to negative over time. We hypothesised that those changing climate conditions, even at the local level, could cause different tree-ring growth responses in silver fir amongst sites. The hypothesis was tested by dendroclimatological analysis, which was applied to study stands in silver fir forests close to the meteorological stations where climate analysis has been made. Results show that the influences of both monthly mean temperature and monthly rainfall on silver fir growth vary greatly during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps, and the ways that they change differ with month and amongst sites. Within sites, differences in the relationships between climate variables and silver fir tree-ring growth appear small in spite of different elevation of the study stands. These results contribute a changing point in forest planning and management especially in consideration of the need to adapt forest management and interventions to changing climate conditions and mitigate the impacts on silver fir forests. Moreover, they introduce climate variability as a key parameter in sustainable forest management for biodiversity conservation, socially responsible uses, nature conservation, and survival of the only conifer tree species typical of mountain mixed forest ecosystems in the Apennine Alps.

  3. Potential Predictability of the Sea-Surface Temperature Forced Equatorial East Africa Short Rains Interannual Variability in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaga, T. K.; Gizaw, G.; Kucharski, F.; Diro, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    In this article, the predictability of the 20th century sea-surface temperature (SST) forced East African short rains variability is analyzed using observational data and ensembles of long atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations. To our knowledge, such an analysis for the whole 20th century using a series of AGCM ensemble simulations is carried out here for the first time. The physical mechanisms that govern the influence of SST on East African short rains in the model are also investigated. It is found that there is substantial skill in reproducing the East African short rains variability, given that the SSTs are known. Consistent with previous recent studies, it is found that the Indian Ocean and in particular the western pole of the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) play a dominant role for the prediction skill, whereas SSTs outside the Indian Ocean play a minor role. The physical mechanism for the influence of the western Indian Ocean on East African rainfall in the model is consistent with previous findings and consists of a gill-type response to a warm (cold) anomaly that induces a westerly(easterly) low-level flow anomaly over equatorial Africa and leads to moisture flux convergence (divergence) over East Africa. On the other hand, a positive El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) anomaly leads to a spatially non-coherent reducing effect over parts of East Africa, but the relationship is not strong enough to provide any predictive skill in our model. The East African short rains prediction skill is also analyzed within a model-derived potential predictability framework and it is shown that the actual prediction skill is broadly consistent with the model potential prediction skill. Low-frequency variations of the prediction skill are mostly related to SSTs outside the Indian Ocean region and are likely due to an increased interference of ENSO with the Indian Ocean influence on East African short rains after the mid-1970s climate shift.

  4. How to sit on Two Sides of the Table? Swedish and Norwegian Unions’ Approaches to Representative Worker Participation during the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Sass

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To this day, participation rights in Sweden have been reserved for union members both on the company level and on the board level, while all employees in companies, which are covered by respective agreements and laws, have voting rights in Norway. The aim of this article is twofold: First of all, it traces this difference back in time, using historical evidence from relevant periods of the 20th century to illuminate how approaches of Swedish and Norwegian unions to representative worker participation evolved. Through the method of comparison, not only similarities and differences between the two countries but also continuities within the two union movements become apparent. It becomes clear that unions of both countries were worried about “double loyalties”, but participation was more closely and deliberately linked with membership in Sweden. This in turn points to the second aim of the article, namely to identify possible reasons for this particular difference. Why were Swedish unions apparently more worried about “free riders”? While a final explanation will not be attempted here, one possible explaining factor is that private capital concentration was higher in Sweden and that Swedish employer organizations were more powerful. Swedish unions thus might have used membership requirements with regard to participation to avoid internal splits and to protect their comparatively high unity and density. This might have helped them to confront their, in comparison with Norway, better organized adversaries. The main aim of the article, however, is the first one, namely to give a synthetical, comparative account of Swedish and Norwegian unions’ approaches to representative worker participation during the 20th century, with a main focus on voting rights.

  5. ENSO variability in the western tropical Pacific during the 20th and 14th centuries: preliminary results from a ~700 year coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, M. K.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Shen, C.; Maupin, C. R.; Wu, C.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability prior to anthropogenic influence is crucial to understanding natural climate variability and to informing predictions of future climate change. Coral-based climate records from ENSO-sensitive regions provide unique high-resolution archives of past ENSO variability. However, the massive coral most commonly used in climate studies, Porites spp., rarely provide climate record lengths in excess of 200 years. This presents a challenge because recent work suggests that proxy records of ENSO variability need to exceed 500 years in length in order to capture the full range of natural variability of the ENSO system. Here we present preliminary oxygen isotope (δ18O) data from a slower growing, ~700 year long Diploastrea heliopora coral from Lambumbu Bay, Vanuatu (LBV; 16.19°S, 167.39°E), located at the southern edge of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Coral-based climate records from this region have been shown to be reliable recorders of ENSO-related variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The LBV coral was drilled live in 2010 and the bottom of the coral has a U-Th date of 1228 ± 10 CE. Our initial focus is to characterize and compare the geochemical variability recorded in the oldest (14th century) and youngest (20th century) sections of the coral. We observe a δ18O anomaly during the 14th century similar in magnitude to the δ18O anomaly associated with the 1997-1998 ENSO warm-phase event. We also observe that coral δ18O values in the 14th century are enriched by ~ 0.9‰, relative to modern coral δ18O values, which likely reflects salinity differences. Finally, 20th century coral δ18O variability agrees well with a previously published δ18O record from a Porites lutea coral (Sabine Bank, Vanuatu, ~130 km away) providing us with confidence in using Diploastrea heliopora corals for multicentury, continuous coral-based paleoclimate reconstructions.

  6. Northern Hemisphere extratropical winter cyclones variability over the 20th century derived from ERA-20C reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varino, Filipa; Arbogast, Philippe; Joly, Bruno; Riviere, Gwendal; Fandeur, Marie-Laure; Bovy, Henry; Granier, Jean-Baptiste

    2018-03-01

    The multi-decadal variations of wintertime extra-tropical cyclones during the last century are studied using a vorticity-based tracking algorithm applied to the long-term ERA-20C reanalysis from ECMWF. The variability of moderate-to-deep extra-tropical winter cyclones in ERA-20C show three distinct periods. Two at the beginning and at the end of the century (1900-1935 and 1980-2010) present weak or no significant trends in the Northern Hemisphere as a whole and only some regional trends. The period in between (1935-1980) is marked by a significant increase in Northern Hemisphere moderate-to-deep cyclones frequency. During the latter period, polar regions underwent a significant cooling over the whole troposphere that increased and shifted poleward the mid-latitude meridional temperature gradient and the baroclinicity. This is linked to positive-to-negative shifts of the PDO between 1935 and 1957 and of the AMO between 1957 and 1980 which mainly reinforced the storm-track eddy generation in the North Pacific and North Atlantic regions respectively, as seen from baroclinic conversion from mean to eddy potential energy. As a result, both the North Pacific and North Atlantic extra-tropical storms increase in frequency during the two subperiods (1935-1957 and 1957-1980), together with other storm-track quantities such as the high-frequency eddy kinetic energy. In contrast, the first and third periods are characterized by a warming of the polar temperatures. However, as the stronger warming is confined to the lower troposphere, the baroclinicity do not uniformly increase in the whole troposphere. This may explain why the recent rapid increase in polar temperatures has not affected the behaviour of extratropical cyclones very much. Finally, the large magnitude of the positive trend found in moderate-to-deep cyclone frequency during the second period is still questioned as the period is marked by an important increase in the number of assimilated observations. However, the

  7. The Formation of the Indian Entrepreneurial Community in Japan in the End of 19th – Early 20th Centuries

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    Firsova Varvara Sergeevna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is based on Western, Japanese and field-work materials of the author who describes the main stages of formation of the Indian entrepreneurial diaspora in Japan in the period from the late 19th century until the beginning of the World War II. Indian entrepreneurs, being the representatives of trade and usury communities, Sindhis and Parsis in particular, started to arrive here in 1870s under British protection. Their main occupation was the export of Japanese textile which was the main export item of Japan in the mentioned period. Indians maintained the export of the textile goods, silk and cotton, in different countries all over the world through their strong entrepreneurial networks. The majority of Indian firms in Japan were Sindhis firms, and Sindhis network was especially prominent. Indian firms especially prospered in 1920-1930s, when their share of Japanese textile export constituted about 70 %. Thanks to strong ethnic loyalties, Indians in Japan could not only prosper but also successfully adapt to closed Japanese society. The article considers the pattern of settlement of Indians in Japan, and emphasizes two stages of Indian community formation in the pre-War period. The first one lasted from 1870s till 1923 year, when the community was formed basically in Yokohama. And the second stage after Great Kanto Earthquake lasted from 1923 till 1939, when it was constituted mainly in Kobe, which in present days remains the centre of Indian entrepreneurial community in Japan.

  8. ROMANIAN CHORAL CREATION OF FOLK ESSENCE FROM THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20th CENTURY: DIRECTIONS AND PERSPECTIVES

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    MORARU EMILIA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to identifying ways of development of Romanian choral music from the fi rst half of the twentieth century. In this regard, the author highlights the composition directions of this period, representative composers, the genre and thematic spectrum, and the ways of capitalizing authentic folk music. Th us, the author’s aim is to underline the achievements of composers, such as Dumitru G. Kiriac, Gheorghe Cucu (who cultivated the choral genre in miniature forms and of composers Ioan D. Chirescu, Dimitrie Cuclin, Sabin Drăgoi, Mihail Jora, Paul Constantinescu, Marţian Negrea (who conceived a varied choral creation by using modern harmonic methods: polyrhythm, colour modes, harmonization based on seconds, stacked fourths. Although strongly infl uenced by artistic currents „in vogue” of universal music, the Romanian composers of this period got more and more affi liated to those followers who created „in the style” or „in popular character”.

  9. ≪Socialism≫ as the Ideal of Priest Sergiy Bulgakov in the First Decade of the 20th Century?

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    Horie Khiroiuki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The author aims to analyze the correctness of the widespread definition of the socioeconomic worldview of Sergey Nikolaevich Bulgakov (1871–1944 as «socialistic». With this purpose, the author outlines Bulgakov’s socio-economic theory of the fi rst decade of the twentieth century — the period of his most evident «socialistic» statements. The author analyzes both his economic and political views in connection with socialist teachings as well as his sociological understanding of the roles of state and society. The study shows that during this period, Bulgakov, mainly working from the idea of civil society as an active counterweight to the state, establishes his notion of «Christian community» or «Church community», functioning as a religiously and personally motivated open space for the formation of public opinion, as the sociological concept of civil society. Special attention is given to an analysis of Bulgakov’s hierarchical theory of values which, from the philosophical and theoretical points of view, ensures openness and non-dogmatism in the «Church community» as the place of nurture of social ideals, in the author’s opinion. As a result, it is concluded that Bulgakov’s socio-economic theory of the period went beyond the paradigm of socialism especially in its sociopolitical aspects and retains its relevance to the present day.

  10. Analysing Post-Earthquake Housing Practices in Istanbul and Its Surroundings Between 16th and 20th Centuries

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    Şerife ÖZATA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Istanbul and its immediate surroundings have witnessed many earthquakes from the 16th century to the present, the most severe of which were as follows: 10th September, 1509; 25th May, 1719; 22nd May, 1766; 10th July, 1894 and 17th August, 1999, the last of which is also known as the Marmara Earthquake. Chosen as the focus of this study were those earthquakes which, in light of their limitation of place, amplitude (magnitude and time, led to the constitution of new post-earthquake housing practices. As a first step, general information about the 1509, 1719, 1766, 1894, 1999 earthquakes was appraised. Then, with the aim of providing holistic data for different disciplines that research this issue, the study examines the housing units constructed during the emergency relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction stages in the the aftermath of the earthquakes. For the five earthquakes, the resulting data of post-earthquake housing practices are set out in such a way as to explain the historical process of the practices involved.

  11. Modelling the temperature evolution of permafrost and seasonal frost in southern Norway during the 20th and 21st century

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    Hipp, T.; Etzelmüller, B.; Farbrot, H.; Schuler, T. V.

    2011-03-01

    A heat flow model was used to simulate both past and future ground temperatures of mountain permafrost in Southern Norway. A reconstructed air temperature series back to 1860 was used to evaluate the permafrost evolution since the end of the Little Ice Age in the region. The impact of a changing climate on discontinuous mountain permafrost until 2100 is predicted by using downscaled temperatures from an ensemble of downscaled climate models for the A1B scenario. From 13 borehole locations two consecutive years of ground temperature, air temperature and snow cover data are available for model calibration and validation. The boreholes are located at different elevations and in substrates having different thermal properties. With an increase of air temperature of ~+1.5 °C over 1860-2010 and an additional warming of +2.8 °C towards 2100 in air temperature, we simulate the evolution of ground temperatures for the borehole locations. According to model results, the active-layer thickness has increased since 1860 by about 0.5-5 m and >10 m for the sites Juvvass and Tron, respectively. The simulations also suggest that at an elevation of about 1900 m a.s.l. permafrost will degrade until the end of this century with a likelihood of 55-75% given the chosen A1B scenario.

  12. The teaching of evolution in Portugal in the early 20th century through the programs and textbooks of Zoology

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    Bento CAVADAS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of evolution in the Portuguese secondary schools is not yet fully understood. This research aimed to contribute to this clarification, in the framework of the history of the curriculum and the biology subject, by showing the expressions of the evolutionism teaching in the first three decades of the twentieth century. To this end we analyzed the programs of Zoology of 1905 and 1919, as well as two textbooks, entitled «Lições de Zoologia» and written by Bernardo Aires in accordance with these programs. This analysis showed that the study of evolution, eliminated from the program in 1905, was again recognized in the program in 1919. In textbooks, the exposure of evolution focused on the subject of evolution, in the grounds of competition and natural selection, adaptation, the biogenetic law and the essential differences between Lamarckism and Darwinism. The comparative study of these textbooks showed that the text which addresses the evolution is essentially Darwinian. However, neoLamarckians sections have been identified that show the influence of the «eclipse of Darwinism» on the teaching of evolutionism.

  13. Achievements of Polish doctors in gastrodiaphanoscopy at the turn of the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries.

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    Kierzek, Andrzej; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Pozowski, Andrzej; Kuciel-Lewandowska, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Diaphanoscopy/transillumination, the method of shining a bright light through tissues, was devised in the mid-19(th) century and developed after the invention of the light bulb by T.A. Edison. Benjamin Milliot was the first to examine the stomach by means of an incandescent platinum wire. The experiments conducted by Max Einhorn using a device consisting of a Nelaton catheter with an inserted light bulb, were valuable. In Poland the method of gastrodiaphanoscopy was popularized by Teodor Heryng, Mikołaj Rejchman and by Warsaw doctors. They used a diaphanoscope consisting of a gutta-percha probe distally equipped with a metal attachment with a light bulb hidden in it and with a so-called cooling device. The examination would usually be conducted in the standing position after the stomach had been filled with water. Light patches corresponding to the stomach's lower and side boundaries would be obtained. Rejchman's observation, that such a contractile and flexible organ as the stomach, changing its volume and position, is bound to change its light image, was correct. Heryng's and Rejchman's research inspired the foreign researchers Renvier, Leopold Kuttner and John Jacobson. Extensive research was subsequently conducted by C.A. Meltzing and Wilhelm Schwartz. Diaphanoscopy would also be performed by Walery Jaworski, the pioneer of gastrology. He was particularly interested in transillumination of the stomach, peritoneum and omentum tumours. Eugeniusz Kozierowski, a practicing physician from Gorlice, diagnosed neoplastic pylorostenosisusing this method. Gastrodiaphanoscopy is a historical method, now of no value against gastroendoscopy and the state-of-the-art methods of image diagnostics.

  14. Mean relative sea level rise along the coasts of the China Seas from mid-20th to 21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan; Han, Guoqi; Yang, Jingsong

    2018-01-01

    Mean relative sea level (MRSL) rise has caused more frequent flooding in many parts of the world. The MRSL rise varies substantially from place to place. Here we use tide-gauge data and satellite measurements to examine past MRSL trends for the coasts of the China Seas. We then combine climate model output and satellite observations to provide MRSL projections in the 21st century. The MRSL trend based on tide-gauge data shows substantial regional variations, from 1 to 5 mm/yr. The vertical land motion (VLM) based on altimetry and tide-gauge (ATG) data indicates large land subsidence at some tide-gauge locations, consistent with the Global Positioning Systems (GPS)-based VLM but different significantly from small uplift estimated by a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model, which suggests other important factors causing the VLM instead of the GIA process. When GPS- or ATG-based VLM estimates are used, the projected MRSL rise between 1986-2005 and 2081-2100 at tide-gauge sites varies from 60 to 130 cm under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Our projections are significantly larger than those of IPCC and other literature, as a result of accounting for the land subsidence derived from observations. Steric and dynamic ocean effects and land-ice melt effects are comparable (about 30 cm each) and do not vary much over the tide-gauge locations. The VLM effect varies from -10 to 60 cm. The projections between 1986-2005 and 2081-2100 under RCP4.5 show a similar spatial distribution to that under RCP8.5, with a smaller amount of rise by 18 cm on average for this region.

  15. Modelling borehole temperatures in Southern Norway - insights into permafrost dynamics during the 20th and 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, T.; Etzelmüller, B.; Farbrot, H.; Schuler, T. V.; Westermann, S.

    2012-05-01

    This study aims at quantifying the thermal response of mountain permafrost in southern Norway to changes in climate since 1860 and until 2100. A transient one-dimensional heat flow model was used to simulate ground temperatures and associated active layer thicknesses for nine borehole locations, which are located at different elevations and in substrates with different thermal properties. The model was forced by reconstructed air temperatures starting from 1860, which approximately coincides with the end of the Little Ice Age in the region. The impact of climate warming on mountain permafrost to 2100 is assessed by using downscaled air temperatures from a multi-model ensemble for the A1B scenario. Borehole records over three consecutive years of ground temperatures, air temperatures and snow cover data served for model calibration and validation. With an increase of air temperature of ~1.5 °C over 1860-2010 and an additional warming of ~2.8 °C until 2100, we simulate the evolution of ground temperatures for each borehole location. In 1860 the lower limit of permafrost was estimated to be ca. 200 m lower than observed today. According to the model, since the approximate end of the Little Ice Age, the active-layer thickness has increased by 0.5-5 m and >10 m for the sites Juvvasshøe and Tron, respectively. The most pronounced increases in active layer thickness were modelled for the last two decades since 1990 with increase rates of +2 cm yr-1 to +87 cm yr-1 (20-430%). According to the A1B climate scenario, degradation of mountain permafrost is suggested to occur throughout the 21st century at most of the sites below ca. 1800 m a.s.l. At the highest locations at 1900 m a.s.l., permafrost degradation is likely to occur with a probability of 55-75% by 2100. This implies that mountain permafrost in southern Norway is likely to be confined to the highest peaks in the western part of the country.

  16. Modelling borehole temperatures in Southern Norway – insights into permafrost dynamics during the 20th and 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hipp

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at quantifying the thermal response of mountain permafrost in southern Norway to changes in climate since 1860 and until 2100. A transient one-dimensional heat flow model was used to simulate ground temperatures and associated active layer thicknesses for nine borehole locations, which are located at different elevations and in substrates with different thermal properties. The model was forced by reconstructed air temperatures starting from 1860, which approximately coincides with the end of the Little Ice Age in the region. The impact of climate warming on mountain permafrost to 2100 is assessed by using downscaled air temperatures from a multi-model ensemble for the A1B scenario. Borehole records over three consecutive years of ground temperatures, air temperatures and snow cover data served for model calibration and validation. With an increase of air temperature of ~1.5 °C over 1860–2010 and an additional warming of ~2.8 °C until 2100, we simulate the evolution of ground temperatures for each borehole location. In 1860 the lower limit of permafrost was estimated to be ca. 200 m lower than observed today. According to the model, since the approximate end of the Little Ice Age, the active-layer thickness has increased by 0.5–5 m and >10 m for the sites Juvvasshøe and Tron, respectively. The most pronounced increases in active layer thickness were modelled for the last two decades since 1990 with increase rates of +2 cm yr−1 to +87 cm yr−1 (20–430%. According to the A1B climate scenario, degradation of mountain permafrost is suggested to occur throughout the 21st century at most of the sites below ca. 1800 m a.s.l. At the highest locations at 1900 m a.s.l., permafrost degradation is likely to occur with a probability of 55–75% by 2100. This implies that mountain permafrost in southern Norway is likely to be confined to the highest peaks in the western part of the country.

  17. Influence of winter NAO pattern on variable renewable energies potential in Europe over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Baptiste; Raynaud, Damien; Hingray, Benoit; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2017-04-01

    Integration of Variable Renewable Energy (VRE) sources in the electricity system is a challenge because of temporal and spatial fluctuations of their power generation resulting from their driving weather variables (i.e. solar radiation wind speed, precipitation, and temperature). Very few attention was paid to low frequency variability (i.e. from annual to decades) even though it may have significant impact on energy system and energy market Following the current increase in electricity supplied by VRE generation, one could ask the question about the risk of ending up in a situation in which the level of production of one or more VRE is exceptionally low or exceptionally high for a long period of time and/or over a large area. What would be the risk for an investor if the return on investment has been calculated on a high energy production period? What would be the cost in term of carbon emission whether the system manager needs to turn on coal power plant to satisfy the demand? Such dramatic events would definitely impact future stakeholder decision to invest in a particular energy source or another. Weather low frequency variability is mainly governed by large-scale teleconnection patterns impacting the climate at global scale such as El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropics and in North America or the North Atlantic Oscillation (hereafter, NAO) in North America and Europe. Teleconnection pattern's influence on weather variability cascades to VRE variability and ends up by impacting electricity system. The aim of this study is to analysis the impact of the NAO on VRE generation in Europe during the winter season. The analysis is carried out over the twentieth century (i.e. from 1900 to 2010), in order to take into account climate low frequency variability, and for a set of 12 regions covering a large range of climates in Europe. Weather variable time series are obtained by using the ERA20C reanalysis and the SCAMP model (Sequential Constructive

  18. Global riverine N and P transport to ocean increased during the 20th century despite increased retention along the aquatic continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Bouwman, Alexander F.; Van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Mogollón, José M.; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2016-04-01

    Various human activities - including agriculture, water consumption, river damming, and aquaculture - have intensified over the last century. This has had a major impact on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling in global continental waters. In this study, we use a coupled nutrient-input-hydrology-in-stream nutrient retention model to quantitatively track the changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th century. Our results suggest that, during this period, the global nutrient delivery to streams increased from 34 to 64 Tg N yr-1 and from 5 to 9 Tg P yr-1. Furthermore, in-stream retention and removal grew from 14 to 27 Tg N yr-1 and 3 to 5 Tg P yr-1. One of the major causes of increased retention is the growing number of reservoirs, which now account for 24 and 22 % of global N and P retention/removal in freshwater systems, respectively. This increase in nutrient retention could not balance the increase in nutrient delivery to rivers with the consequence that river nutrient transport to the ocean increased from 19 to 37 Tg N yr-1 and from 2 to 4 Tg P yr-1. Human activities have also led to a global increase in the molar N : P ratio in freshwater bodies.

  19. Changes in mercury and cadmium concentrations and the feeding behaviour of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) near Somerset Island, Canada, during the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outridge, P.M.; Hobson, K.A.; Savelle, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) continues to be an important food species for Arctic communities, despite concerns about its high mercury (Hg) content. We investigated whether Hg and cadmium (Cd) concentrations had changed during the 20th century in beluga near Somerset Island in the central Canadian Arctic, using well-preserved teeth collected from historical sites (dating to the late 19th century and 1926-1947) and during subsistence hunts in the late 1990s. Mercury concentrations in both historical and modern teeth were correlated with animal age, but 1990s beluga exhibited a significantly more rapid accumulation with age than late 19th century animals, indicating that Hg concentrations or bioavailability in their food chain had increased during the last century. The geometric mean tooth Hg concentration in modern 30 year old animals was 7.7 times higher than in the late 19th century, which corresponds to threefold higher concentrations in muktuk and muscle. Teeth from 1926 to 1947 were similar in Hg content to the late 19th century, suggesting that the increase had occurred sometime after the 1940s. In contrast, tooth Cd was not correlated with animal age and decreased during the last 100 years, indicating that anthropogenic Cd was negligible in this population. Late 19th century beluga displayed a greater range of prey selection (tooth δ 15 N values: 15.6-20.5%o) than modern animals (δ 15 N: 17.2-21.1%o). To prevent this difference from confounding the temporal Hg comparison, the Hg-age relationships discussed above were based on historical animals, which overlapped isotopically with the modern group. Tooth δ 13 C also changed to isotopically more depleted values in modern animals, with the most likely explanation being a significant shift to more pelagic-based feeding. Industrial Hg pollution is a plausible explanation for the recent Hg increase. However, without further investigation of the relationship between the range exploitation of modern beluga and

  20. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  1. The Making and Development of Economic Forms of the Industry of Turkestan Krai in the late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

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    Tulebaev Turganzhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The period of the late 20th and the early 21st centuries is characterized for many post-socialist countries by profound social/economic transformations. They are going through a tough transition from the implementation of market reform to the formation of a market economy oriented towards innovation development. The historical past of these countries attests that, in a sense, they have already been going through a similar process – back in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. The history of the industry of Turkestan Krai during that period is a vivid example of the process of the making and development of capitalist relations. This proves once again the relevance and timeliness of the study of the characteristics of the evolution of the region’s industry and determination of its prevalent forms. The author examines the initial forms of the region’s industry. Only the penetration of commodity production on the capitalist basis and the resettlement of peasants, the settling down of Kazakhs on the land, the development of old and emergence of new towns and villages, and the construction of railroads would lay the foundation for social division of labor. This spurred the development of old and emergence of new sectors in the industry of Turkestan Krai. During the period under examination, the prevalent form of industry was petty commodity capitalist production. But the transition from craft production and its workshop form to capitalist petty commodity production in Turkestan Krai was a long and not always straightforward process. The author investigates the issue of the making of the factory/plant form of industry. The emergence of particular factories and plants was a consequence of the wide development of Russian capitalism, a result of adopting Central Russia’s accumulated experience in the way of applying production techniques and technology in Turkestan Krai. Based on the author’s study of facts relating to industrial production in

  2. Between modern and postmodern: problem of the «political identity» concept in the scientific discourse of the 20th century

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    L. Y. Uhryn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The sociopolitical and intellectual preconditions of the «political identity» concept’s categorical construction in the 20th century, as well as its historic and political origins have been defined in the article. It has been proved by the author that the «political identity» concept had replaced certain concepts, traditional for the Western classic philosophy discourse, such as «oneness», «selfness» and «self-awareness». Moreover, it was actualized by the cultural and sociopolitical context of late Modern and by the situation of transition from traditional society towards the post-traditional one, which was characterized by the increasing complexity of the social structure and expansion of political participation’s possibilities for citizens and groups. More relevant reflection of the social and communication dimensions of identity were provided, grounded by the psychoanalytical and sociological traditions of its interpretations and were further developed by the representatives of the symbolic interactionism and social constructivism. The conceptualization of the political identity began in the first half of the 20th century within the electoral studies, during which it was equated with party, ideological and class identification. Its broader interpretation was developed within the theories of modernization, transitology, new social movements, social and political systems, which emphasized the institutional and behavioral dimensions of political identity, as well as its integrative functions. It has been established in the study that the division into individual and collective (social identities facilitated the differentiation of the identity research in political and social sphere and its subject identification. As a result, the collective identities most fully integrated into the subject field of political science, as they were interpreted as a reflection of common expectations, goals being as a factor of collective action

  3. Russia and Mexico in the 19th – Beginning of the 20th Century: on the Crimean War’s Influence on Russia-Mexico Relations

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    Olga Yu. Redkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the prerequisites and establishment of the first Russia-Mexico contacts, which took place after the Crimean War (1853-1856. It was revealed that Mexico’s interest in the collaboration with Russia began to reveal in a higher degree after the Crimean War. The factors, which had led to the diplomatic rapprochement of the two states, include the Mexico’s search for allies in the contradiction to increased aggression of European states and the USA in the Central American region, and the increase of Russian intellectuals’ emigration, resettlement of religious groups of the Old Russian sectarians to the region. At the turn of 19th – 20th centuries many Russian travelers and writers, such as S.D. Protopopov and K.D. Balmont, visited Mexico for the purpose of studying the culture of ancients Indians, who lived in Central America during many centuries before the Spanish colonization. Besides of the impressions on ancient Indian culture, these travelers described the life of ordinary Mexican people of that time. They mentioned their poverty and hopelessness in the years of Porfirio Dias’s dictatorship. Nevertheless, political and cultural contacts had begun to established in the late 19th century between the Russian Empire and Mexico, because after the Crimean War the Mexico’s interest to Russians increased. In addition, Russia tried to strengthen its position in Central American region. In total, these factors had led to the strengthening of political, social and cultural contacts between Russia and Mexico.

  4. Risk communication and the transformations in the meta narrative of the nuclear field in the 20th and 21st centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Tariana B.

    2015-01-01

    The meta narrative of the nuclear field was influenced in the beginning by the perspectives of economic prosperity and the possibility of diversifying to alternative sources of power. However, it has been transformed throughout the 20 th and the early 21 st centuries by the collective memory and micro narratives of the nuclear bombs during the II World War and the nuclear or radiologic incidents of Three Mile Island, in 1979, Chernobyl, 1986, Goiania, 1987, and Fukushima, 2011. The most recent occurrence made countries like France and Germany, which depend a great deal on nuclear power supply, to suspend their nuclear programs, although having to retake them afterwards due to the impossibility of getting new sources of energy in a short period of time. All that attracted negative attention to the field and severely impacted the perception of risk by the society. This paper observes the future of the meta narrative in such area will be based in the influence of other national and supranational risk communication narratives around security, pollution, environment and economy. The discussion is based on theories by researchers such as Andreas Huyssen, Carlo Ginzburg, Lorenzo Negri, Maurice Halbwachs, Max Weber, Pedro Fernando Bendassolli, Peter Sandman, Roland Barthes, Ulrick Beck and Walter Benjamin. (author)

  5. Quantitative assessment of the scope of content of selected topographic maps of Polish lands from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panecki Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents an overview of the scope of content of selected topographic maps of Polish lands from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century in its quantitative aspect. 19 maps were analysed and a common conceptual model linked to the Database of Topographic Objects (DBTO10k was developed on the basis of catalogues of object types. Quantitative statistics were also prepared for the object types from maps before and after harmonization. Differences between their numbers within the same maps reflect the conceptual variety of said maps. The number of types of objects (before and after harmonization was then juxtaposed with selected thematic layers: water network, transport network, land cover, buildings, structures, and equipment, land use complexes, localities and other objects. Such factors as scales, publication dates and topographic services which created analysed maps were also taken into consideration. Additionally, the analysed maps demonstrate uneven levels of generalization. Inclusion of objects typical for large-scale cartography on topographic and general maps is one of the distinctive features.

  6. Review: SERUYA, Teresa; D´HULST, Lieven; ASSIS ROSA, Alexandra; LIN MONIZ, Maria. Translation in Anthologies and Collections (19th and 20th Centuries. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Pappen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n3p351 Translation in Anthologies and Collections (19th and 20th Centuries, como outros livros que abordam a questão, é produto de um evento organizado em 2010. Ao todo, são 16 artigos no volume, agrupados em três tópicos: “Discursive practices and scholarly agency”; “National and international canonization processes”; e “Selection and censorship”, em uma obra inteiramente redigida em inglês (menos o texto do espanhol Sabio Pinilla e publicada pela John Benjamins, bom indicador do público ao qual se dirige. Uma operação acertada parece ser a que guia a escolha do título, que ao invés de tentar antecipar uma definição de “antologias traduzidas”, ou “antologias de literatura traduzida”, propõe o guarda-chuva mais abarcador da “tradução em antologias e coleções”. Ou seja, o interesse passa a ser localizar a mediação tradutiva nessas obras.

  7. I. SHMELEV AND V. KOROLENKO: THE IMAGE OF A SCIENTIST IN LITERATURE OF THE TURN OF THE 19th—20th CENTURIE

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    Oksana A. Sosnovskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Th e development of  belles-lettres at  the turn of the 19th—20th centuries is characterized by a persistent search for new spiritual and moral foundations and artistic images required for revealing the world perception typical of the epoch. One of those was the image of a scientist, that appeared in literature of that period as an artistic whole. Th e present work is an attempt to explore this image based on the writings of two authors — the story “Toward a new life” by I. S. Shmelev and the story “On both sides” by V. Korolenko. Th e works selected for analysis call to one another at diff erent artistic levels. What they have in common is a real prototype of the image of the scientist, that was a famous botanist Timiryazev. In both works the main character is a scientist and mentor of young heroes, helping them to fi nd their path of  life. Th e heroes-scientists of Shmelev and Korolenko represent a  new vision of  the image of a man of science in literature.

  8. Church of St. Elijah in the town of Teleneşti (from the time of foundation until the beginning of 20th century

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    Alexandru Furtună

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The first information about the Church of the Holy Prophet Elijah in the town of Teleneşti is contained in the cen- sus of the Bessarabian churches, which was made during 1812-1813. The church was made of wood, with walls of interwoven twigs daubed with clay from the inside and the outside covered with fir planks. It had the shingle roof and was surrounded by the stockade. The belfry was built on four pillars and stood apart from the church. Over time, the old wooden church began to crumble; besides, it was not spacious enough. Therefore, in 1833 they start to build a stone church, which was opened in 1842. The new church was plastered, painted and covered with sheet iron. In 1899 and 1901 it was renovated. The church was built and maintained at the expense of landlord Feodosiu and his family, as well as due the contributions of residents of the town of Teleneşti. During the 19th and early 20th centuries in the Church of the Holy Prophet Elijah there served the following priests: Constantin Vasilovici, Teodor Băluţă, Ignatie Băluţă, Teodor Sechezliu, Vasile Băluţă, Pavel Coşleacov, Ioan Ioniţă, Andrei Timoşevschi, Constantin Băluţă, Ioan Chirilov, Iacob Samsonov, etc.

  9. FROM “PEASANT” TO “FARMER” IN GREEK MODERNITY: CONSTRUCTING FARMER IDENTITIES IN 19th - AND 20th - CENTURY GREECE

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    NIKOS KABERIS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Constructing the farmer in the 19th -and-20th political discourses in Greece pertains to a passage from the peasant to the farmer/farm worker and farmer/patriot, on to the professional farmer; this passage ought to be studied in terms of a specific model which is characterized by small-size family farm units. The above model was mainly promoted by bourgeois forces which led the modernization process in Greek society, and it was the model which the rival socialist movements consented to after their defeat in the Civil War. In the postwar period the acceleration of agricultural development, particularly following the country’s integration in the European Community, imposed a certain consensus in seeking a unitary model of agriculture, whereby the dominant role was assigned to the small farmer-landowner-entrepreneur. At the dawn of the new century, the European agricultural policy reforms entail new vicissitudes for the small landowner, who is now finding him/herself seeking new roles in order to be integrated into a post-industrial developmental model for the countryside. He/she is constituted, once more, a subject of new ontological ventures, such as, for instance, the much-discussed symbolisms of the “warden of the countryside”, and “protector of the environment” and/or the “national cultural heritage”.

  10. Pluralism in the regional political process (by the example of the legislatures elections in Western Siberia. The late 20th - beginning of the 21st centuries

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    Sharaev Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pluralism in a democratic society is a key principle of providing active political members. Its introduction into the Russian political process, of both federal and regional levels, began during a period of radical change in the system of state power and the mechanism of its formation (the 90s of the 20th century. Legislatures of the subjects of the Russian Federation became the first government, created on the basis of alternative democratic elections (1994. They presented the variety of parties, public associations and movements, which, thanks to the principle of pluralism declared their political interests. However, the modern list of political members - bearers of different ideologies - is much inferior in diversity. The study of political experience of legislatures in Western Siberia in historical retrospective reveals the role of pluralism as a condition of the transition from an emerging system to its sustainable development. The findings reflect the specifics of the Russian multi-party system within the boundaries of regional political process.

  11. History of health in the Indian Ocean: care, prevention, teaching, and research from the 17(th) to the mid-20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, P; Gaüzère, B-A

    2016-05-01

    In 1498, the Portuguese crossed the Cape of Good Hope. It was not until the period of 1633 and 1666, dates of the founding, respectively, of the Compagnie de l'Orient and the Compagnie des Indes orientales, that the way was definitively opened for trade between France and India. Because so many sailors developed scurvy after voyages that lasted 4 to 5 months, the French settled on Bourbon Island (Réunion) and Ile de France (Mauritius), to provide them with medical care. Created in 1689 by Louis XIV, the Navy Health Service was responsible for health in the colonies until it was replaced in 1890 by the Colonial Health Service. European medicine began its slow diffusion around the Indian Ocean in Pondicherry (India). The naval doctors reported their experiences in the Archives de médecine navale (1864-1889), and the colonial doctors afterwards in the Archives de médecine navale et coloniale (1890-1896). The health system in Madagascar developed strongly during 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, and the subsequent development of health care in the other Indian Ocean islands became closely linked to that of Madagascar. On Bourbon, the two navy hospitals in Saint-Paul and Saint-Denis treated only naval and military personnel. The colony had no hospital providing care for civilians and poor people until three civilian doctors opened a maison de santé (health house) in 1846.

  12. Russia’s Regional Governance at the Change of Epochs: Administrative Reform Drafts in the Late 19th-Early 20th Centuries

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    Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the long and complex process of Russia’s government working out draft reforms aimed at transforming the country’s regional governance system in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. Aware of the unsatisfactory state of affairs in the area of the organization and operation of the governorate administration, the supreme state authorities initiated the development of relevant reform, looking to not only engage representatives of the local bureaucratic elite in the process but take account of public opinion in respect of the principles of the set-up and activity of the regional administration. This article demonstrates that drafts developed during the late imperial period, which persistently sought to promote the idea of strengthening the governor’s authority and uniting the major governorate collegia into a single institution, fell short of being realized. This circumstance had a negative effect on the operation of the governor’s authority, which was clearly manifested in the extremely hard conditions of the February Revolution of 1917. The weakness of governorate rulers in combination with widespread “anti-governor” sentiment locally, expressed in the form of mass arrests of functionaries by the uprisen people, forced the Provisional Government to fully renounce the existing regional governance system by revoking the governor posts and handing authority over to the chairmen of the county councils.

  13. Energy feedbacks of northern high-latitude ecosystems to the climate system due to reduced snow cover during 20th century warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, A.D.; Chapin, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    The warming associated with changes in snow cover in northern high-latitude terrestrial regions represents an important energy feedback to the climate system. Here, we simulate snow cover-climate feedbacks (i.e. changes in snow cover on atmospheric heating) across the Pan-arctic over two distinct warming periods during the 20th century, 1910-1940 and 1970-2000. We offer evidence that increases in snow cover-climate feedbacks during 1970-2000 were nearly three times larger than during 1910-1940 because the recent snow-cover change occurred in spring, when radiation load is highest, rather than in autumn. Based on linear regression analysis, we also detected a greater sensitivity of snow cover-climate feedbacks to temperature trends during the more recent time period. Pan-arctic vegetation types differed substantially in snow cover-climate feedbacks. Those with a high seasonal contrast in albedo, such as tundra, showed much larger changes in atmospheric heating than did those with a low seasonal contrast in albedo, such as forests, even if the changes in snow-cover duration were similar across the vegetation types. These changes in energy exchange warrant careful consideration in studies of climate change, particularly with respect to associated shifts in vegetation between forests, grasslands, and tundra. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. [Insanity, life crises and longing for a "real life". On the discussion of deviant behavior and mental disorders in psychiatry of the 19th and 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanis-Seyfried, Uta

    On insanity, life crises and the longing for a "right life". A contribution to the discussion on the deviant behavior and mental disorders in the psychiatry of the 19th and 20th centuries using the example of patient stories. History of psychiatry, understood as social and cultural history, provides the framework for this micro-historical article. Using the example of three patients treated in Wuerttemberg or Baden psychiatric asylums between 1875 and 1912, the article focuses on the critical analysis of types of asylums, their practices of admissions, therapies and power relations between patients and staff. Ways of thinking and acting, subjective experiences and emotions are exemplified by patient records, personal testimonials and contemporary publications again by patients and staff. The article examines options of patients to influence the institutional daily asylum routine against the background of its complexity and dynamics. Borders, manipulations, malingering and querulous paranoia are at stake here. Furthermore, the article reflects various forms of social interaction with the power regulating therapeutic and disciplinary aspects against the backdrop of the "canons of rules" of the asylum as well as the contemporary political and legal framework.

  15. [Rural medical practice at the beginning of the 20th century. Martínez Saldise (1855-1937), honorary member of Paediatric Society of Madrid in 1927].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra Anta, Miguel Ángel; Flores Martín, Carlos; Ponte Hernando, Fernando Julio; Gil García, Andrés; Gómez López, Ana; Fernández Durán, Carla

    2016-01-01

    On the centenary of the foundation of the Paediatrics Society of Madrid, a tribute is presented to rural medical practice of that time, although there are few documents on the history of rural medicine. The main objective is to describe the context of the rural medical practice in the late 19th and beginning 20th century, while presenting a historical biographical review of Manuel Martínez Saldise, who was medical specialist from Cazalegas (Toledo). He was appointed an Honorary Member by the Paediatrics Society of Madrid in 1927. A search was carried out in repositories of digitized media, web portals of history of medicine, PubMed, IME files of local councils and medical colleges. The family archives were reviewed with the collaboration of his descendants. The hiring of rural doctors was carried out by the municipalities, and the salary largely depended on private practice as well as "retainers". Specialist physicians took part in epidemics, legal medicine, and in hygiene measures. They also had disputes with mayors, chiefs, with colleagues and with protectionism. A summary of the biography and occupational activity of Manuel Martínez Saldise is presented. Rural doctors were subjected to the society of their time, with the issues that arose, denouncing the shortcomings of the local administrations, dedicated efforts to their family and the most disadvantaged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolution of high-rise construction in Leningrad - Saint Petersburg in the middle of the 20th - Early 21st centuries: projects and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaytens, Andrey; Rusanov, Gennadiy; Skryabin, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    One of the most important issues in national urban planning is arrangement of high-rise buildings in the largest cities of Russia. This issue becomes especially acute in such cities as Saint Petersburg, which has unique architectural and urban-planning heritage preserved to a great extent. In this regard, it seems important to trace the evolution of high-rise construction development and arrangement in Leningrad - Saint Petersburg in the middle of the 20th — early 21st centuries. The goal of the article is to consider high-rise construction development regarding both public and residential buildings in comparison of project ideas and results of their implementation in the 1940s-2000s. Prerequisites and issues of high-rise construction of that period are considered. Particular attention is paid to changes in the official urban-planning policy, regulatory framework and attitude of city authorities to high-rise construction. The study was carried out with the consideration of the following historic periods differing in their urban-planning policy: the late 1940s-1950s; 1960s; 1970-1980s; 1990s; 2000s-2010s. Economical prerequisites of high-rise construction and their influence on the modern urban-planning policy during the post-Soviet period are considered. In conclusion, an attempt is made to determine tendencies of high-rise construction development in Saint Petersburg.

  17. Schoolchildren’s folkloric notebooks of remembrances at the end of 20th century - at the begining of the 21st century : the change of the genre in social point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Dapšauskaitė, Živilė

    2015-01-01

    Šiame straipsnyje analizuojama moksleivių „rašytinio / elektroninio" bendravimo kaita XX a. pab. – XXI a. pr. ir iš to sekanti komunikacijos kiekybė / kokybė. Daugiausia dėmesio skiriama folklorinių atminimų sąsiuvinių pildymo tradicijai ir jos raidai atsiradus kitoms komunikacijos priemonėms bei iš to sekantiems santykių pokyčiams. The article analyzes the change of written/electronic communication of high school students in the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st centur...

  18. [Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Hrsg. von Kartsen Br

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laur, Mati, 1955-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). (Quellen und Studien zur Baltischen Geschichte, 22). Hrsg. von Kartsen Brüggemann und Bradley Woodworth. Böhlau Verlag. Wien u.a. 2012.

  19. Letter "To the Yakut Intelligentsia" by A. E. Kulakovsky: Setting and Features of the Problem of Survival of Indigenous Peoples of the North in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivtseva-Maksimova, Praskovia Vasilevna

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is determined by the increasing interest in the new interpretations of social issues of living in the early 20th century, and from this perspective, in the scientific heritage of A. E. Kulakovsky (1877-1926) as an original thinker, who worried about the fate of the indigenous people inhabiting a large territory of the…

  20. The visual difficulties of selected artists and limitations of ophthalmological care during the 19th and early 20th centuries (an AOS thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, James G

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effects of eye diseases on several important artists who have been given little attention from a medical-historical viewpoint. The examples chosen demonstrate problems artists have had to face from different types of eye disease, including cataract, glaucoma, and retinal diseases. The ophthalmological care provided is described in terms of scientific knowledge at the time. Investigation of primary and secondary source material. Discussion with art historians and ophthalmic historians. Examination of work by the artists. Artists can be markedly affected by ocular diseases that change their ability to see the world. The individuals described here worked during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Homer Martin suffered from cataracts, and his works reveal changes in details and color as he aged. Henri Harpignies, who had an extremely long career, undoubtedly had cataracts and may also have had macular degeneration. Angle-closure glaucoma blinded Jules Chéret. Auguste Ravier suffered from neovascular glaucoma in one eye and was able to work with his remaining eye, which developed a cataract. Louis Valtat suffered from what was in all likelihood open-angle glaucoma, but specific changes due to this disease are not apparent in his work. Roger Bissière developed glaucoma and did well following filtration surgery. George Du Maurier lost one eye from what was probably a retinal detachment and later suffered from a central retinal problem in the other eye. Diseases of the eye may profoundly influence artists by altering their perception of the world. The specific effects may vary, depending on the disease, its severity, and the psychology of the artist. Cataracts typically affect an artist's ability to depict color and detail. The effect of glaucoma generally depends on whether central vision is preserved. Disease that affects the center of the retina has a substantial effect on an artist's ability to depict fine details. Ophthalmological

  1. Geodiversity and biodiversity interactions in the sand landscapes of the Netherlands on 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter; van den Ancker, Hanneke

    2014-05-01

    Sand landscapes occupy about half of the territory of the Netherlands. Apart from an insignificant amount of Tertiary deposits, these sands are of Pleistocene and Holocene age. They include Saalian push moraines, Weichselian cover sands and Holocene drift sands. To these geological landscapes, cultural variants should be added such as the essen, i.e. a landscape with plaggen soils, and reclaimed lands (e.g. former moors). Not included are the coastal sands, which we dealt with in an earlier EGU contribution (van den Ancker & Jungerius 2012). Nature and man created a wide variety of sceneries that inspired painters in the 19th and early 20th century (Jungerius et al. 2012). Painter communities on the sandy soils flourished in Oosterbeek/Wolfheze, Laren/Blaricum, Nijkerk, Nunspeet/Elspeet, Hattem and Heeze. Many of the landscape paintings are found in the database of Simonis en Buunk that can be freely consulted on line (http//www.simonis&buunk.com). For this presentation we selected specimens that show geodiversity-biodiversity relationships, some of which have changed since. Painters of push moraines were attracted by the rolling terrain, the dry valleys and occasionally the colourful podzol soil profiles. Popular themes in the cover sands were the undulating relief and heathlands with herds of sheep, sandy footpaths and country roads with erosion phenomena. The dynamics of erosion captivated the painters of Holocene drift sand scenery, as did the bare fields of cultivated lands. Their paintings show the rural areas that since the beginning of the 20th century lost their traditional charm in large-scale re-allotment schemes and artificial nature-building project, that changed geodiversity-biodiversity relationships. Changes in the sandy terrains that can be inferred from the paintings are on a landscape scale, the scale of the landform and vegetation type, and are illustrated by changes in colour, pattern, structure and texture. Examples are: · active drift sands

  2. Material support of churches in the 19th – early 20th centuries as exemplified by churches in Volokolamsk deanery of Moscow diocese

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    Iyliia Belonogova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with material support of churches and with problems of church land ownership exemplifi ed by Volokolamsk uyezd in the 19th — early 20th centuries. Material support of the clergy was one of the most discussed issues in the last fi fty years of the Synodal period; all contemporary researchers of parish clergy have to deal with this subject. Land was a secure means of support for parish churches and the clergy. But in practice, the implementation of rights to land property encountered the long-established tradition of land ownership, and the problem was not solved. Having considered Orthodox parishes in one of the districts of Moscow diocese, one can attempt to reconstruct the picture of church land ownership and of the position of the clergy in more details. Volokolamsk district is rather typical of Moscow diocese; therefore it is highly appropriate for analysis. In absolute fi gures, parish clergy were provided with land better than the average peasant. However, landowners in the diocese did not seek to transfer the land to churches preferring to pay the allowance. This land was distributed unevenly between the clerk and the priest. The clergy themselves could not cultivate land as actively as peasants because children of priests, as a rule, studied at theological seminaries and could not help in agricultural work. In addition, the necessity to give children education did not require less money than to keep them at home, even when the cost of education and/or the accompanying expenses were covered by the state.

  3. Lake surface area variations in the North-Eastern sector of Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal at the end of the 20th Century by comparison of historical maps

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    Gabriele BRUCCOLERI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to investigate variations in the surface areas of lakes in the north-east sector of Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal at the end of the 20th century, through comparison of the Mount Everest maps based on a survey done in the early 1980s, and the official Map of Nepal based on a survey done at the beginning of the 1990s. The analysis of the changes occurring between the 1980s and the 1990s in the surface areas and distribution of lakes in the north-east sector of SNP reveals that lake areas substantially increased, by 15.4 (-5.5; +5.7% (median 12.5%, within hydrographic basins that included a certain amount of glacial cover. In fact, 96% of the lakes whose surface area increased are located in glacial basins. Conversely, the majority of the lakes without glacial cover in their catchment showed a reduction in surface area, and in many cases disappeared (83% of the lakes that disappeared were situated in basins without glaciers. This different behaviour of these two types of lakes, though observed over a short time span, would appear to be consistent with the consequences of temperature increases recorded from the beginning of 1980s on a global and local scale. The digital tool produced (Limnological Information System, LIS as part of this work is intended to provide a useful platform for extending the analysis to entire area of SNP, as well as for subsequent comparisons based on earlier maps or more recent satellite images.

  4. Selected pioneering works on humus in soils and sediments during the 20th century: A retrospective look from the International Humic Substances Society view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Christian; Brossard, Michel; Chen, Yona; Landa, Edward R.; Trichet, Jean

    Organic matter in general, and humic substances (HS) in particular, are involved in many processes in soils, sediments, rocks and natural waters. These include rock weathering, plant nutrition, pH buffering, trace metal mobility and toxicity, bioavailability, degradation and transport of hydrophobic organic chemicals, formation of disinfection by-products during water treatment, heterotrophic production in blackwater ecosystems and, more generally, the global carbon cycle. Before the 1970s, natural organic matter of different ecosystem pools ( i.e., soils, sediments, and natural waters) was often studied in isolation, although many similarities exist between them. This is particularly so for HS. In this historical context, a need appeared at the international level for bringing together environmental chemists, soil scientists, hydrologists, and geologists who were interested in HS to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas, to standardize analytical procedures and agree on definitions of HS. The International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) was founded in Denver, Colorado (USA) in 1981 with several objectives among them “to bring together scientists in the coal, soil, and water sciences with interests in humic substances” (home page of the IHSS web site: http://ihss.gatech.edu/ihss2/index.html). This paper presents selected pioneering works on humus in soils and sediments during the 20th century with a special focus on the links between the studies of soil HS and the formation, during early diagenesis, of the precursors of kerogens. Temporal coverage includes key contributions preceding the founding of the IHSS, and a brief history of the organization is presented.

  5. Multi-decadal modulations in the Aleutian-Icelandic Low seesaw and the axial symmetry of the Arctic Oscillation signature, as revealed in the 20th century reanalysis

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    Ning Shi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seesaw relationship in intensity between the surface Aleutian and Icelandic Lows (AIS is a manifestation of atmospheric teleconnection that bridges the interannual variability over the Pacific and Atlantic in particular winter months. Analysis of the 20th Century Reanalysis data reveals that the strength and timing of AIS have undergone multi-decadal modulations in conjunction with those in structure of the Arctic Oscillation (AO signature, extracted in the leading mode of interannual sea-level pressure (SLP variability over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, events of what may be called ‘pure AO’, in which SLP anomalies exhibit a high degree of axial symmetry in association with in-phase SLP variability between the midlatitude Atlantic and Pacific, tended to occur during multi-decadal periods in which the inter-basin teleconnection through AIS was active under the enhanced interannual variability of the Aleutian Low. In contrast, the axial symmetry of the AO pattern was apparently reduced during a multi-decadal period in which the AIS teleconnection was inactive under the weakened interannual variability of the Aleutian Low. In this period, the leading mode of interannual SLP variability represented a meridional seesaw between the Atlantic and Arctic, which resembles SLP anomaly pattern associated with the cold-ocean/warm-land (COWL temperature pattern. These multi-decadal modulations in interannual AIS signal and the axial symmetry of the interannual AO pattern occurred under multi-decadal changes in the background state that also represented the polarity changes of the COWL-like anomaly pattern.

  6. Construction and Operation of Railway Bridges and Ferries in the Lower Volga Streamflow (End of 19th – First Half of 20th Century

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    OPALEV M.N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of operation of Russia’s first railway ferry and the process of bridge construction across the lower Volga streamflows at Ryazan-Ural (now Volga railway line in Saratov, Stalingrad (Volgograd and Astrakhan. River railway ferries “Saratovskaya pereprava” and “Saratovsky ledokol” were built in 1894 in England and water crafts “Vtoraya pereprava” (1909 and “Stalin” (1926 were floated out in Volga in Nizhny Novgorod, from the Sormov plant. As a rule, the organization of transportations by means of steam locomotives and waggons through Volga during the first half of the 20th century preceded the construction of capital metal railway bridges, such as Astrakhan (1909 and Saratov (1935, and also a combined railway-automobile bridge through the Volga (Stalingrad Hydro-Electric Power Station (1961. The article is devoted not only to the technical features of ferries, bridges, but their efficient use in peace time and war time. So, the carrying capacity of the Saratov railway ferry increased in more than three times from 1907 to 1916. The Ryazan-Ural railway ferries were actively used by new Bolshevist regime. After the railroad construction on the left bank of Volga in autumn and winter of 1941, railway ferries “Stalin” and “Saratovskaya pereprava” were used for the carriage of military trains and population evacuation from the western bank of Volga. The author describes one of the most heroic and tragic facts in the history of Stalingrad battle using the example of the special operation railway ferry flooding and its consequent reconstruction.

  7. Theological Responses to the Challenges of European Utopian Tradition: Some Teological Programmes of the First Half of the 20th Century

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    Mikhailov Petr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Author supposes that the major social-politic events in European history of the fi rst half of the 20th century have as their root an eschatological utopian tradition that subdues the fact of world Redemption to progressive logic of history. The circle of theologians from Dominican and Jesuit’s Orders associated with Saulchoir (Tournai, Belgium and Fourvière (Lyon, France has proposed some theological responses for such kind of opposition to the Christian testimony in the world. They have evident correlation with each other in their general principals and common convictions in the inner structure of theology (cf. M. Blondel and M.-D. Chenu. The theological system has an experience of faith and obedience to the Church as its root, historical research (cf. «théologie de ressourcement», «positive théologie» or historical theology as its foundation. Two great representatives of Catholic theology — Yves Congar and Henri de Lubac — followed that direction in their scientific works. Congar succeeded in his project of theology of unity that had to resolve two great schisms: 1 between faith and life, 2 between the Church and the world. He developed his ideas in two vectors of ecclesiology: historical ecclesiology (nature and theology of the Church and practical ecclesiology (position of the Church in dialogue with the other confessions and external world. Henri de Lubac saw the beginning of the crisis of the world Christianity in the actual condition of contemporary theology as a result of inner opposition between reason and faith. His activity was directed at its overcoming. He edifies the structure of theology from the phenomenon of faith understood as a supernatural gift of God. Further lines were identified as a unity in social, historical and transcendent dimensions.

  8. Surface and thickness variations of Brenva Glacier tongue (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) in the second half of the 20th century by historical maps and aerial photogrammetry comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    D Agata, C.; Zanutta, A.; Muzzu Martis, D.; Mancini, F.; Smiraglia, C.

    2003-04-01

    Aim of this contribution is the evaluation of volumetric and surface variations of Brenva Glacier (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) during the second half of the 20th century, by GIS-based processing of maps and aerial photogrammetry technique. Brenva Glacier is a typical debris covered glacier, located in a valley on the S-E side of the Mont Blanc. The glacier covers a surface of 7 kmq and shows a length of 7,6 km at maximum. The glacier snout reaches 1415 m a.s.l., which is the lowest glacier terminus of the Italian Alps. To evaluate glacier variations different historical maps were used: 1) The 1959 Map, at the scale 1:5.000, by EIRA (Ente Italiano Rilievi Aerofotogrammetrici, Firenze), from terrestrial photogrammetric survey, published in the Bollettino del Comitato Glaciologico Italiano, 2, n. 19, 1971. 2) The 1971 Map, at the scale 1:5.000, from aerial photogrammetry (Alifoto, Torino) published in the Bollettino del Comitato Glaciologico Italiano, 2, n. 20, 1972. 3) The 1988 Map, at the scale 1:10.000, (Region Aosta Valley, Regional Technical Map) from 1983 aerial photogrammetric survey. 4) The 1999 Map, at the scale 1:10.000, (Region Aosta Valley, Regional Technical Map) from 1991 aerial photogrammetry survey. For the same purpose the following aereal photographs were used: 1) The 1975 image, CGR (Italian General Company aerial Surveys) flight RAVDA (Administrative Autonomous Region Aosta Valley), at the scale 1:17.000. 2) The 1991 image, CGR (Italian General Company aerial Surveys) flight RAVDA (Administrative Autonomous Region Aosta Valley), at the scale 1:17.000. Aerial imageries have been acquired over a long period from 1975 to 1991. The black and white images were scanned at suitable resolution if compared with the imagery scale and several models, representing the glacier tongue area, oriented using the inner and outer orientation parameters delivered with the images, were produced. The digital photogrammetric system, after orientation and matching, produces

  9. 20th century changes in carbon isotopes and water-use efficiency: tree-ring-based evaluation of the CLM4.5 and LPX-Bern models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kathrin M.; Lienert, Sebastian; Bozbiyik, Anil; Stocker, Thomas F.; Churakova (Sidorova), Olga V.; Frank, David C.; Klesse, Stefan; Koven, Charles D.; Leuenberger, Markus; Riley, William J.; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Weigt, Rosemarie B.; Joos, Fortunat

    2017-05-01

    Measurements of the stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) on annual tree rings offer new opportunities to evaluate mechanisms of variations in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance under changing CO2 and climate conditions, especially in conjunction with process-based biogeochemical model simulations. The isotopic discrimination is indicative of the ratio between the CO2 partial pressure in the intercellular cavities and the atmosphere (ci/ca) and of the ratio of assimilation to stomatal conductance, termed intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE). We performed isotope-enabled simulations over the industrial period with the land biosphere module (CLM4.5) of the Community Earth System Model and the Land Surface Processes and Exchanges (LPX-Bern) dynamic global vegetation model. Results for C3 tree species show good agreement with a global compilation of δ13C measurements on leaves, though modeled 13C discrimination by C3 trees is smaller in arid regions than measured. A compilation of 76 tree-ring records, mainly from Europe, boreal Asia, and western North America, suggests on average small 20th century changes in isotopic discrimination and in ci/ca and an increase in iWUE of about 27 % since 1900. LPX-Bern results match these century-scale reconstructions, supporting the idea that the physiology of stomata has evolved to optimize trade-offs between carbon gain by assimilation and water loss by transpiration. In contrast, CLM4.5 simulates an increase in discrimination and in turn a change in iWUE that is almost twice as large as that revealed by the tree-ring data. Factorial simulations show that these changes are mainly in response to rising atmospheric CO2. The results suggest that the downregulation of ci/ca and of photosynthesis by nitrogen limitation is possibly too strong in the standard setup of CLM4.5 or that there may be problems associated with the implementation of conductance, assimilation, and related adjustment processes on long-term environmental

  10. [Education on medical anthropology and intercultural health in Mexico: from the 20th century cultural indigenism to the 21st century interculturality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Navarro, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    The study of the health/disease/healthcare process from the socio-medical aspect is the field of the medical anthropology. In Mexico, this medical specialty had its origins at the end of the 19th century. Since then, many educational reforms occurred associated to the political processes and the recognition and better understanding of Mexican pluricultural society; allowing expansion, diversification and consolidation of medical anthropology as an specialty. This review presents the historical evolution of the academic courses on this field, the educators that influenced its consolidation, and the current situation of the available academic programs on medical anthropology. The diversity of specialties from those health sciences that are associated to medical anthropology is emphasized.

  11. On the Wave of Spiritual Tension (Late 60s of the 20th Century -the Beginning of the 21th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. FILIPPOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Here the author continues to consider the cyclic-wave character of religious (spiritual life. During the last third of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first century, a global phenomenon emerged which can be described (by sociologists, researchers of religions and political scientists as «de-secularization», «religious revival» or «spiritual awakening». The author made an attempt to structure this phenomenon, to show stages of its development (the rise, the highest point and the recession as well as its main features and characteristics. As the beginning of the wave the author considers the mass exodus of hippies into sects in the late 60’s — early 70’s and the formation of the Catholic «base communities» in Latin America. The first signs of change in the attitudes of the young toward religion were perceived by Soviet sociologists in 1969. At an individual level, a new religious wave in the European countries (including the USSR began when people started to study and practice Eastern spiritual practices and ardently search for ways of spiritual perfection. This new religious revival was largely «interdenominational and non-institutional». This is evidenced by the rapid growth of new religious movements (NRM, especially the charismatic movement. The new religion was not connected with any religious education or with elementary theological literacy. This wave chronologically coincided with the emergence of the new worldwide information and communication medium — the Internet, which has become «the most organic medium channel for religious organizations». By the beginning of the second decade of the XXI century the religious tension has exhausted itself.

  12. A review of major influences on current public health policy in developed countries in the second half of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Linda; Elliott, Lawrie; Wallace, Hilary; Crombie, Iain K

    2006-03-01

    Public health policy underwent substantial transformation during the latter half of the 20th century. The landmark statement was the 1948 World Health Organization (WHO) constitution, which identified good health as a fundamental right and gave the responsibility to governments to achieve it for all their people. However, following World War II, developed countries made substantial investment in health care with less attention paid to public health. The importance of public health was slowly recognised over the period from 1970 to 2000 with the publication of several reports from different organisations. The first authoritative policy statement that the important determinants of health lay outside health care was in the Lalonde Report from Canada. These ideas were subsequently expressed in the WHO Alma-Ata declaration and were emphasised a year later by the US Surgeon General. The idea of setting goals for health improvement also began in the 1970s. The Lalonde Report and the United Kingdom Black Report recommended that targets be used, but the first explicitly stated health targets were set by the US in 1979. WHO also identified the need for such targets at this time, but did not introduce them until 1984. Since then health targets have become a central feature of public health policy in developed countries. The Ottawa Conference on Health Promotion in 1986 championed the view that health promotion was central to achieving health goals internationally. It helped clarify the types of actions needed: that individuals need to be provided with the supportive environment and economic resources to be able to lead healthy lives. In a further development, the Healthy Cities Project was launched with the specific aim of involving political decision-makers in building a strong lobby for public health at the local level. The Healthy Cities Project illustrates how to provide means and opportunity for interventions to be implemented in communities. Concerns with inequalities

  13. Migration in the Swiss Alps and Swiss Jura from the Middle Ages to the mid-20th century: a brief review

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    Anne-Lise Head-König

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at retracing the important phases of migrations in the alpine regions and the Jura from the Middle Ages up to the middle of the 20th century. Migration has always functioned as a necessary complement to the resources of the inhabitants of the upland regions and it increases when the economic disparity with the lowlands becomes more marked. A striking characteristic of such migration is the great diversity that can be observed, since not only the destinations of the migrants varied from community to community, but also different forms of mobility coexisted within the same territory. Migration might be seasonal, pluriannual, lifelong or even definitive. It is also notable that the various types of migration can be observed to be part of a plurisecular tradition, apart from some significant exceptions, such as the emigration of the Walser, enforced migrations and the new types of migration as from the second half of the nineteenth century. The mobility of part of the population was also a consequence of modifications deriving from changes in the prevalent type of production (animal husbandry instead of the cultivation of cereals, as well as from demographic factors. In addition to these factors one can observe the role played by political institutions throughout the period under study: seigneurial power in the Middle Ages, the communal and cantonal instances until the second half of the nineteenth century, and afterwards the federal authorities.Cette contribution vise à montrer les grandes phases des mouvements migratoires du Moyen Age au milieu du XXe siècle dans les mondes alpin et jurassien suisses. La migration a toujours été une complémentarité nécessaire aux ressources de la montagne, et elle s'amplifie lorsque les disparités économiques avec le plat pays s'accroissent. Elle se caractérise par une forte diversité, puisque non seulement les destinations et les aires d'établissement des migrants peuvent varier

  14. Modern Medicine Environment and Adaptation of Korean Trader for Medicinal Herbs From the Late 19th Century to the Early 20th Century

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    YANG Jeongpil

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a

  15. Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberola, Armando; Barriendos, Mariano; Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Pérez-Morales, Alfredo; Balasch, Carles; Castelltort, Xavier; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Tuset, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources Armando Alberola, Barriendos, M., Gil-Guirado, S., Pérez Morales, A., Balasch, C., Castelltort, X., Mazón, J., Pino, D., Ruiz-Bellet, J.L., Tuset, J. Historical flood events in eastern spanish coast have been studied by different research groups and projects. Complexity of flood processes, involving atmospheric, surface and human factors, is not easily understandable when long time series are required. Present analysis from PREDIFLOOD Project Consortium defines a new step of flood event databases: Improved access to primary (documentary) and secondary (bibliographical) sources, data collection for all possible locations where floods are detected, and improved system of classification (Barriendos et al., 2014). A first analysis is applied to 8 selected flood series. Long chronologies from PREDIFLOOD Project for Catalonia region (Girona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, Tortosa). In addition, to cover all sector of spanish mediterranean coast, we introduce Valencia city in Turia River basin. South Eastern sector is cover with Murcia and Caravaca cities, Segura River basin. Extension of area under study required contributions of research teams experienced in work of documentary primary sources (Alberola, 2006; Gil-Guirado, 2013). Flood frequency analysis for long scale periods show natural climatic oscillations into so-called Little Ice Age. There are general patterns, affecting most of basins, but also some local anomalies or singularities. To explain these differences and analogies it is not enough to use purely climatic factors. In this way, we analyze human factors that have been able to influence the variability of floods along last 6 centuries (demography, hydraulic infrastructures, urban development...). This approach improves strongly understanding of mechanisms producing

  16. Historical and psychological characteristics of formation of the Polish population commitment to the socialist forms of social relations in the 20-30th years of the 20th century (on the example of the Marchlewski Polish National Region

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    Staniszewski Mirosław

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines historical facts and psychological mechanisms that influenced the mentality and history of the Polish national community on the territory of Ukraine in 20-30th years of the 20th century. Historical facts exemplify considered methods of activists and leaders of the Soviet power, their psychological influence on the population of the Marchlewski Polish National Region with the center in the settlement of Dovbysh in Zhitomir region of Ukraine.

  17. The Question of the Economic Structure of the Rusins of Bessarabia in the 19th – beginning of the 20th Century

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    Sergey G. Sulyak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic activity of the Rusins of Bessarabia in the 19th – beginning of the 20th C. is analyzed in the article. Since the Middle Ages the main aspect of the economic activity of the Rusins, who lived in the Carpatho-Dniestrovian Lands, was animal husbandry (herding. In 1812 part of the Moldavian Principality, the Pruth-Dniestrovian Lands, was united to Russia and received the name Bessarabia. In Bessarabia at the beginning of the 20th C. there were over 270 000 Rusins (Rusnaks who comprised more than 1/8 of the population of the province. The majority of the Rusins lived in the Khotin district. In the19th and beginning of the 20th C. the main occupation of the Rusins of Bessarabia was agriculture, market gardening and horticulture. A number of subsidiary folk crafts became widespread. Because of the shortage of land, the role of cattle breeding and herding was lost, which earlier had a significant role in the life of the Rusins.

  18. [Problems arising from the professionalization of nursing in the German Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century compared to the USA. A contribution to the current discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähner-Rombach, Sylvelyn

    2012-01-01

    The process of professionalization in Germany was hindered by several factors: the tradition of denominational nursing, the increasing segregation in the field of nursing, the resistance against nurses' professionalization, the late and sporadic institutionalization of nursing schools, and the classification of nursing as "ärztlicher Heilhilfsberuf". On the basis of these five influencing factors this paper will discuss the development in Germany in comparison to the USA at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The aim is to explain the differences in the process of professionalization in the German Reich and the USA which are rooted in that period.

  19. Ammunition production in the USSR in 20-30 years of 20th century and efficiency of the Red Army in the eve and during of the Great Patriotic War

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    Андрей Николаевич Балыш

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of Ammunition Industry in connection with action variation at the first part of 20th century is analyzed in the present paper. It is studied how the New Economic Policy (NEP influenced onto the development of ammunition industry and respective branches of heavy industry. For the first time several manufacturing peculiarities of ammunition main elements (by example of ammunition bodies in the eve of the Great Patriotic War are analyzed on the base of archival documents and the role of these peculiarities in fighting efficiency of the Soviet forces during the Second World War is studied.

  20. THE SONATA FOR CLARINET AND PIANO BY FRANCIS POULENC FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE GENRE EVOLUTION OF THE 20th CENTURY SONATA

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    ROJNOVEANU ANGELA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of the Sonata for clarinet and piano by Francis Poulenc that still presents great interest nowadays. This is a masterpiece of twenty century music – an original composition considered from the point of view of its stylistic structure in the context of the experiments carried out in the composition techniques of last century. The author ap­proaches problems of opus themes and architectonics as well as some aspects of musical language.

  1. Biographical Uncertainties Around the Turn of the 20th and 21st Centuries and How They Were Overcome—A Comparative Historical Analysis Based on the Example of Artists

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    Helga Pelizäus-Hoffmeister

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many social scientists have concluded that people in contemporary society feel exposed to increasing biographical uncertainties and therefore find it more and more difficult to predict, estimate, and plan the course of their lives. The same view prevails in public discourse. I ask myself, has not "modern" people always had to deal with biographical uncertainties? Does not permanent change, which is the main characteristic of modern society, constantly create new uncertainties that inevitably affect the course of individuals' lives? Biographies dating back to the beginning of the 20th century therefore reveal startling similarities with modern-day biographies. Whether we can really talk of an increase in perceived uncertainties regarding the course of individuals' lives is a matter that has to date remained unclarified in empirically oriented biography research. And so my aim is to infer change tendencies by comparing the biographical uncertainty perceptions of two sample groups from different periods of time. A qualitative analysis of two different groups of artists from around the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries revealed which biographical uncertainties the artists experienced and how they overcame these uncertainties. It was revealed that changes took place in the course of time. The results are not only exemplary but also provide clues as to the nature of more general transformation tendencies. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801358

  2. Noor-Eesti enesekoloniseerimisprojekt. Teine osa Olulised kirjandusmõtteviisid . The Self-Colonization Project of Young Estonia. Part II. Modes of Literary Thinking and Relations with Colonialism in Estonian Literature of the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiit Hennoste

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this article is the literary discourse of Young Estonia; its relations with other important Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, and its relations with colonial cultural discourse. First, I give an overview of the basic positions of the Young Estonians’ literary discourse, the main shapers of which were Friedebert Tuglas, Gustav Suits, later on Johannes Semper as well. Next, I present the basic principles of three Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, which were also important to the Young Estonians: nationalist-naturalistic (close-to-life; socialist/ class-based, and 20th century modernist. The Young Estonians began as nationalists and/or socialists. During the formation of Young Estonia’s discourse at the end of the first and beginning of the second decade of the 20th century, 20th century modernism began, which the Young Estonians regarded first and foremost with irony. The Young Estonians’ literary discourse is a mixture of aestheticism, decadence, symbolism, romanticism, and classicism. The point of departure for the Young Estonian approach to literature was eurocentrism. They took a superior and negative view of existing Estonian literature, which they regarded as having fallen drastically behind Europe. Since it was unable to build on its own foundation, it had to borrow from Europe. The discourse’s understandings of cultural values – theory, reading, knowledge, ready-made culture, derive from the centrality of the dynamic of borrowing. New culture could be created freely, without the support of previous local tradition; it was to be an elite culture, while the writer remained an individualist. Literature was to follow the principle of art for art’s sake; aesthetics and the form of the work of art were basic criteria. The formal ideals of the work of art were classicist: unity, integrity (wholeness, harmony, order, logic, etc. Thirdly, I outline the

  3. International Musicological Conference Young Musicology Prague: Czech and European Avant-garde Music of the Early 20th Century, Kabinet hudební historie Etnologického ústavu AV ČR, Praha 5.–8. září 2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2017), s. 236-237 ISSN 0018-7003. [International Music ological Conference Young Music ology Prague: Czech and European Avant-garde Music of the Early 20th Century. Prague, 05.10.2016-08.10.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : 20th Century * Young Music ology * Conference Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Performing arts studies ( Music ology, Theater science, Dramaturgy)

  4. Plyler, Prof. Earle Keith

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1962 Honorary. Plyler, Prof. Earle Keith. Date of birth: 26 April 1897. Date of death: 8 May 1976. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the ...

  5. History, legislation and offense: deprivation of liberty and socio-educational measures aimed at children and adolescents in the 20th century

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    Camila Serafim Daminelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century the Brazilian State sought to reeducate the minors offenders by their insertion in centers built for this purpose. First based on Minor’s Rights [Direito do Menor] (1927, then through the Doctrine of the Irregular Situation [Doutrina da Situação Irregular] (1979, the offenders were priority subject for internment, because of their noticeable public disorder potential and as adult crime demand. Since the enactment of the Child and Teenager Statute [Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente] (1990, educational measures in open regime was established aiming the reintegration of the offender to social life, presenting the shelter as a last option to be used. It is proposed to analyze the measures provided by law for accountability of child and youth people throughout the twentieth century, in Brazil and make some considerations about educational measures prescribed by actual law

  6. [Physical anthropology and human "zoos": the exhibition of natives as a scientific popularization practice on the threshold of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Juanma Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    All along the nineteenth century different anthropological exhibitions were held in many countries, in which people from a number of indigenous communities, especially transported from their homeland for the occasion, were exhibited publicly, both for citizenship's instruction and for specialists's "in vivo" studies on human biology. This paper presents a brief description of some of these scientific shows, and tries to relate them to contemporary human biology theories.

  7. From Research on the Musical “Trans-avant-garde”: A Contribution to the Discussion on the Terminology Concerning the Historiography of 20th Century Polish Music

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    Monika Karwaszewska

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The research article discusses the concept of “the trans-avant-garde” (a term coined by the Italian art critic Achille Bonito Oliva to describe certain phenomena in visual arts, especially painting, which have appeared since the end of the 1970s and attempts to adapt it for a discussion of twentieth century Polish music. The trans-avant-garde (Italian la transavanguardia is an Italian form of expressionism in art (neo-expressionism, originating as a rejection of modernism, formalism, innovation, originality, and stylistic coherence, which began to treat tradition in a new way, extensively referring to 16th century mannerisms, ambiguity, stylistic pluralism and polysemy. While, on the one hand, trans-avant-garde artists are fully aware of the crisis of the avantgarde experiment, on the other, they aim to create content-packed works of deeply expressive and romantic character. The trans-avant-garde is widely considered to be an early stage of postmodernism, or simply its synonym. There is a difference, though, between the trans-avant-garde and the postmodern. Oliva speaks of a journey from America to Europe and back. My article discusses these differences, systematizes the most important stylistic aspects and aesthetic ideas, and applies these observations to the study of music—a discipline Oliva did not take into consideration. A key issue in the description of the trans-avant-garde in Polish music is analysis of the trends that precede it, are synchronous with it, and follow it in history. It is also important to trace borrowings and differences along this time axis. In order to offer an insight of this kind, I first present the different concepts of “modernity” and “postmodernity” that have appeared in music (and art of the twentieth century, and I then juxtapose those with the Italian original idea of la transavanguardia.

  8. The 20th century. Looking back at the ambiance of aging from the perspective of age-specific journals and periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holkup, P A

    2001-06-01

    The word "aging" is fraught with nuance, both positive and negative. The purpose of this article is to describe the results of a preliminary exploration of the ambiance of the concept of aging in the United States as seen from the perspective of periodical literature from the past century. A convenience sample of professional journals and lay periodicals concerned with aging and the issues of aging was selected as the focus for this investigation. Specifically, volume one, number one of the selected journals was examined with regard to the date of the first publication, the table of contents, and the first issue editorial or articles in the first volume describing the motivation for the introduction of the journal. Findings indicated that as the century progressed and the study of aging took form, the focus shifted from how to manage the problems of aging to: (a) how to promote healthier young adult lifestyles to increase the chances of a healthy old age, (b) how to continue to maintain older adults' health and therefore, increase the life expectancy for those people older than age 65, and (c) how older adults contribute to the well-being of society. The longevity of the human species, as well as the increasing size of the aging population is a new phenomenon, the ramifications of which are difficult to predict. However, as the emotional tone of the journals in the latter quarter of the century gradually became more positive, it was apparent that consideration was being given to the idea that this phenomenon could be a positive force in the collective growth of humanity.

  9. Las maestras parvularias a inicios del Siglo XX en Chile. Infant school teachers at the beginning of the 20th century in Chile

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    Estela Socías Muñoz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available (ES El artículo nos describe la evolución de la enseñanza parvularia en Chile. Podemos ver cómo ya en el periodo precolombino existía una atención en los primeros años del niño. A mediados del XIX existían los llamados “grupos de juego” y también algunos kindergarten. La influencia fröebeliana se hace cada vez más patente. A principios del siglo XX la necesidad de trabajar de las madres chilenas hace surgir la idea de una educación preescolar mantenida por el estado. Se forma la Asociación de Maestras de Kindergarten. A mediados de este siglo se funda la Escuela de Educadoras de Párvulos. Desde aquella década la educación de párvulo fue desarrollándose de manera más profesional y con una serie de cambios que fueron generando mejores condiciones para su implementación permanente. (EN The article describes the development of preschool education in Chile. We can see how as fas as in the pre-Columbian period there was a focus on the early years of the child. At the middle of the nineteenth century, we found what were called "play groups" and some kindergarten. The fröebeliana influence is increasingly apparent. In the early twentieth century, the need for work of Chilean mothers raises the idea of a preschool education maintained by the state. The Kindergarten Teachers Association is formed. At the middle of the twentieth century, a School for Infant Teachers is founded. From that decade, infant education was developed more professionally and with a number of changes that generated better conditions for a permanent deployment.

  10. Changes in precipitation intensity over East Asia during the 20th and 21st centuries simulated by a global atmospheric model with a 60 km grid size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Shoji; Mizuta, Ryo

    2013-10-01

    We conducted three-member ensemble simulations using a global atmospheric model with a high horizontal resolution of a 60 km grid size for the period 1872-2099 (228 years). Between 1872 and 2005, the model was forced with observed historical sea surface temperatures (SST), while between 2006 and 2099, the boundary SST data were estimated using the multimodel ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 models and assuming A1B emission scenario. Annual mean precipitation (PAVE), the Simple Daily Precipitation Intensity Index (SDII), and the maximum 5 day precipitation total (R5d) averaged over East Asia increase almost monotonically through the 21st century. The statistically significant area of precipitation intensity increase is larger for 2080-2099 than for 2046-2065. In particular, intense rainfall will increase over northern and southern China during 2080-2099. The conversion rate from water vapor to precipitation per 1°C rise in surface air temperature for SDII and R5D is much larger than that for PAVE during the 21st century. This suggests that extreme rainfall events will occur more frequently than moderate rainfall events even if the amount of temperature rise is same. Future changes in the horizontal transport of water vapor also lead to more intense precipitation over East Asia. In particular, the increase in clockwise water vapor transport due to intensification of the subtropical high contributes to increased intense precipitation over southern China.

  11. Sleeping with the Political Enemy: Woman’s Place in Discourses of Race and Class Struggle in 20th Century Central Europe

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    Dániel Bolgár

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I shall argue that the convergence of ideologies operating through the creation of enemies like racism and Bolshevism with discourses regulating gender relations in the Central Europe of the twentieth century had the grave consequence of questioning women’s position in the political community. In short, I shall argue that in the context of racist and Bolshevik discourses, the very fact of being female was in itself a political threat to women. To demonstrate my point, I shall discuss two recent publications. First, I shall analyze the context of the convergence of racist and misogynist discourses in turn-of-the-century Vienna through discussing András Gerő’s book, Neither Woman Nor Jew. Second, I shall explore how the discourse of class struggle affected the political status of Hungarian women in the Stalinist era through discussing Eszter Zsófia Tóth’s book, Kádár’s Daughters.

  12. Tree ring proxies show physiological responses of eastern red cedar to increased CO2 and SO4 concentrations over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. B.; Spal, S.; Maxwell, S.; Nippert, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    We examined the relationships between tree growth during the past century and the ratio of internal carbon dioxide concentration to atmospheric CO2 concentration (ci/ca) and instantaneous water-use efficiency (iWUE) by analyzing δ13C in tree rings of Juniperus virginiana growing on a limestone outcrop in West Virginia, US. Tree rings from years 1909 to 2008 from five Juniperus virginiana trees that ranged from 116 years to over 300 years in age were measured for basal area growth and used for isotopic analysis. Instantaneous WUE increased from approximately 75 to 112μmol mmol-1 over the past century, representing a 49% increase. In addition, we found a positive relationship between iWUE and the basal area increase over this time period, suggesting the increase in WUE translated into greater growth of the Juniperus trees. Typically, we might expect that increased growth of these trees reflects increased photosynthetic rates and decreased stomatal conductance rates resulting from increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, this area of the central Appalachian Mountains has historically received some of the highest rates of acid deposition in the nation resulting from being downwind from an abundance of coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River valley. Our results show that ci/ca declined 14% between 1909 and 1980, but increased 9.6% between 1980 and 2009. We hypothesize that the directional change in ci/ca that occurred around 1980 was due to a reduction in sulfur emissions imposed by the Clean Air Act, environmental legislation enacted in 1970 and amended in 1990. Sulfur deposition measured by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) in West Virginia near our Juniperus site shows a 53% decline between 1979 and 2009 and these NADP data show a highly significant negative correlation with ci/ca of Juniperus over this time period. Previously, experimental studies have shown that acidic sulfur mist leaches calcium from leaves causing a reduction in

  13. [Health promotion from the 20th to the 21th century. The Valais Ligue for fighting tuberculosis--a visionary model started in 1951].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Jean-Marie; Moix, Jean-Bernard; Dupuis, Georges

    2011-09-21

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, tuberculosis was really a plague. Many people had been mobilised to successfully fight against this infectious disease. Valais, a Swiss alpine canton developped then an original concept of health promotion by involving all the health partners including a specialised hospital under the auspices of the local Health Departement. Such a model named then Ligue pulmonaire contre la tuberculose, celebrates his 60th anniversary. Its present name is Valais Health Promotion, i.e., a proactive health network very unique in Switzerland. It assumes many tasks of public health in clinical as well as in preventive medicine. These two components strongly facilitate the insertion of this organisation into the reality of this population to fulfil many challenging tasks with efficacy.

  14. 19th and early 20th century trade cards about Oceania as tools of information, education and propaganda for European colonial powers

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    Mückler, Hermann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From the mid-19th century on, trade cards became a significant medium not only for advertising consumer products, but also for promoting and distributing political messages such as the idea of colonization. With regard to the Pacific Islands, the article highlights the role of trade cards as a channel to create a specific image of the Pacific Islands as a region worthy to be colonized, missionized and exploited. A core symbol of this idea figured in the South Seas stereotype which was widely used to merge visions of unspoiled, peaceful island societies and dreams of a paradise on earth, with goals of establishing political control over the islands in the context of the race for colonies of the Western powers in the age of imperialism.

  15. Rockefeller and the internationalization of mathematics between the two world wars document and studies for the social history of mathematics in the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Siegmund-Schultze, Reinhard

    2001-01-01

    Philanthropies funded by the Rockefeller family have been prominent in the social history of the twentieth century for their involvement in medicine and applied science. This book provides the first detailed study of their relatively brief but nonetheless influential foray into the field of mathematics. The careers of a generation of pathbreakers in modern mathematics, such as S.Banach, B.L.van der Waerden and André Weil, were decisively affected by their becoming fellows of the Rockefeller-funded International Education Board in the 1920s. To help promote cooperation between physics and mathematics Rockefeller funds supported the erection of the new Mathematical Institute in Göttingen between 1926 and 1929, while the rise of probability and mathematical statistics owes much to the creation of the Institut Henri Poincaré in Paris by American philanthropy at about the same time. This account draws upon the documented evaluation processes behind these personal and institutional involvements of philanthropies...

  16. AHP 37: A Bibliographic Note and Table on Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century Western Travelogues and Research Reports on Gansu and Qinghai

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    Bianca Horrleman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the late nineteenth century, northwest China, Eastern Turkestan (modern Xinjiang, and eastern Tibet became increasingly attractive destinations for foreign travelers and explorers. There was a veritable 'run' on the region, which was deemed one of the last blank spots on world maps. In addition, northwest China, Tibet, and Eastern Turkestan received special attention because of competition between the British and Russian empires as part of what is known as the Great Game in Central Asia. This caused other European countries such as France, Belgium, and Germany to fear that they would miss out on new geographic and scientific discoveries. Apart from Geo-political, economic, and archaeological incentives, Tibetan Buddhism also attracted considerable interest, although mostly on a 'touristic', rather than an academic, level. ...

  17. Influence of Springtime Snow over the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau on the Onset of the Indian Summer Monsoon in the NOAA/CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis during the post-1950s period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senan, Retish; Orsolini, Yvan

    2014-05-01

    The springtime snowpack over the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau (HTP) region and Eurasia has been suggested to be an influential factor in the seasonal predictability of the Indian Summer Monsoon. However, many observational and modelling studies remained inconclusive as to the reliability and the stationarity of this snow-monsoon relationship, and the nature of the spatio-temporal teleconnection patterns involved. Here, we re-visit the snow-monsoon relationship using the NOAA/CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis, which are the longest global reanalysis dataset available and covers the period 1871-2010. We use data for the post-1950s period to show that heavy snow in spring over HTP can delay the onset of the monsoon over the Indian sub-continent by about 6 days and therefore can constitute an important component of the inter-annual variability of the monsoon.

  18. The symphonic music of the national schools in 20th century Europe in the repertoire of the Philharmonic of Cluj (1955-1989. Creative perspectives of C. Silvestri’s Chants Nostalgiques op. 27 no. 1

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    Simona Spiridon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on the national cultures of the early 20th century in several European countries, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Spain, Russia and Romania. Since my PhD thesis analyses the evolution of the Philharmonic “Transilvania”of Cluj between 1955-1989, there will be a thorough statistic of the concerts which were held during that period in which the orchestra performed musical pieces of the composers mentioned in this essay. For some concerts, there will also be stated the date when the concert took place, as well as the conductor who was invited to Cluj. There will also be an analysis of a piano work of the Romanian composer Constantin Silvestri (Chants Nostalgiques op. 27 no. 1 which I personally played a few years ago. The study will contain a musical bibliography, as well as several footnotes stating the documents found in the archives of the Philharmonic of Cluj.

  19. American archivists on oral history – review of the subject of texts published in the second half of the 20th century in pages of „The American Archivist”

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    Magdalena Wiśniewska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In its first part, the article consists of a detailed discussion on eighteen texts on oral history published in the second half of the 20th century in the leading American archival journal „The American Archivist”. The second part are conclusions concerning the presence of the subject of oral history in archival discourse in the United States in the latter half of the 20th century. In the analyzed texts a lot of space has been given to the character of oral history interviews as historical sources. Especially, the question of reliability of oral history has been raised, as well as ways of guaranteeing it (e.g. through a proper description. Moreover, in many cases these texts attempt to persuade their readers to use oral history in their research. Also, it may be noticed, that at some point the understanding of oral history as historical source changes – an audio or video recording of the interview becomes a source itself, and not notes made while carrying it out or its transcription. Also relations between oral history and traditional (paper records are an important issue in discussions of the American authors. The analysis of the articles also indicates that the authors were interested more in issues of the historical nature, than of the archival one. Those latter are mostly providing access to oral history materials. But also the question of the role of archives and archivists in recording oral history is touched. Discussion on the issue of storing oral history is not present at all.

  20. In the Age of Changes: Rebellion, Insurrection and Revolution in the 17th – Early 20th Centuries in the Russian Province: All-Russian Conference to the 100th Anniversary of 1917 Revolutionary Events

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    Denis A. Lyapin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author points out the importance of studying social conflicts in the history of Russia. Over the past years, this problem has been in the core of scholars’ attention. The study of social conflicts and crisis periods allows revealing important features of development of the Russian state. In this regard, the conference “In the age of changes: rebellion, insurrection and revolution in the 17th – early 20th centuries in the Russian province” that took place on September 21–23, 2017 at the Elets State University named after I.A. Bunin was characterized by utmost relevance. The conference was held with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Department of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Administration of the Lipetsk Region. The scholars from 14 regions of Russia took part in the conference, more than half of them were represented by doctors of sciences. The reports of the conference participants aroused debates and focused on the social conflicts taking place in the Russian province in the 17th – first quarter of the 20th century. The reports were published in a special issue of the journal History: Facts and Symbols. The conference served as the discussion platform for major Russian scholars, and allowed to put forward new ideas, which together can be embodied in new events of this kind. The author considers several problematic reports and notes that the conference showed the importance of such events that determine and guide the development of rebellion studies in historical science.

  1. Impact of the Little Ice Age cooling and 20th century climate change on peatland vegetation dynamics in central and northern Alberta using a multi-proxy approach and high-resolution peat chronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Gabriel; van Bellen, Simon; Davies, Lauren; Froese, Duane; Garneau, Michelle; Mullan-Boudreau, Gillian; Zaccone, Claudio; Shotyk, William

    2018-04-01

    Northern boreal peatlands are major terrestrial sinks of organic carbon and these ecosystems, which are highly sensitive to human activities and climate change, act as sensitive archives of past environmental change at various timescales. This study aims at understanding how the climate changes of the last 1000 years have affected peatland vegetation dynamics in the boreal region of Alberta in western Canada. Peat cores were collected from five bogs in the Fort McMurray region (56-57° N), at the southern limit of sporadic permafrost, and two in central Alberta (53° N and 55° N) outside the present-day limit of permafrost peatlands. The past changes in vegetation communities were reconstructed using detailed plant macrofossil analyses combined with high-resolution peat chronologies (14C, atmospheric bomb-pulse 14C, 210Pb and cryptotephras). Peat humification proxies (C/N, H/C, bulk density) and records of pH and ash content were also used to improve the interpretation of climate-related vegetation changes. Our study shows important changes in peatland vegetation and physical and chemical peat properties during the Little Ice Age (LIA) cooling period mainly from around 1700 CE and the subsequent climate warming of the 20th century. In some bogs, the plant macrofossils have recorded periods of permafrost aggradation during the LIA with drier surface conditions, increased peat humification and high abundance of ericaceous shrubs and black spruce (Picea mariana). The subsequent permafrost thaw was characterized by a short-term shift towards wetter conditions (Sphagnum sect. Cuspidata) and a decline in Picea mariana. Finally, a shift to a dominance of Sphagnum sect. Acutifolia (mainly Sphagnum fuscum) occurred in all the bogs during the second half of the 20th century, indicating the establishment of dry ombrotrophic conditions under the recent warmer and drier climate conditions.

  2. Organization of training and educational process in the church school of Transbaikalia at the end of 19 th - early 20 th century

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    Volnina Natal'ia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The articledeals with the problemsof the educationalandupbringing process inparochial schoolsin Transbaikalia in the late XIX - earlyXXcenturies.This type ofschoolswasthe most widespread on the territory ofthe Transbikalregion.Parochial schoolsplayed an importantrole in the culturaldevelopment of the regionin thelate XIX - earlyXX centuries, they became an integralpart of thehistorical andcultural process.The history of their formation, analysis of their activitiesareof great scientifi c andpractical interestfor the history of culture, education, religious studies.The author concludesthat theeducational processinparochial schoolswas organized in the form of unifiededucational system, aimedat religiousand moral education ofcomprehensively developed personality. According to “Regulations on the parochial schools” (1884, the main purpose of-such a school is“to approvethe orthodox doctrineof the Christianfaith and morals among people, andto transfer the initialuseful knowledge”.Therefore,the most important componentof the educational systemof church-maintained schoolswas the subjects ofpurely religious education, but comprehensiveeducational componentof church-maintained schoolswas notso narrow too, as evidenced bythe schools’ schedule. In addition tothe Law of God, Church Slavonic languageandchurch musicstudents learnedreading, writing, arithmetic, history, geography, calligraphy, Russianlanguage, drawing. In some schoolsvocational classesand societies of crafts, drawing, choral singing were created. Educational process wasbuildingon the basisof main requirementsof the educational programs, the content of whichwassaturatedand to some extend included detailedlesson plans. Eachsection of the programwas provided by the list ofmanuals andguidelines for teachers. The church-maintained schools were run by parish priest, trustees. Schoolswere often locatedin the homes ofclergymen, but many priestsnoted thatonly havingits own building, the

  3. Historia de la salud publica en México: siglos XIX y XX History of public health in Mexico: 19th and 20th centuries

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    Ana Cecilia Rodríguez de Romo

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A evolução da saúde pública mexicana foi gradual. Nos séculos XIX e XX desenvolveu-se paralelamente às mudanças políticas e sociais do país. Na primeira metade do século XIX o cuidado com os doentes dependia parcialmente da caridade religiosa. Depois, instituiu-se a beneficiência pública, consolidada pelo presidente Benito Juárez (1856, forma de atendimento continuada por Porfirio Díaz (1880-1910. A partir da Revolução (1910-1917 surgiu o princípio de assistência pública como obrigação do Estado para com a sociedade. Atualmente, a assistência à saúde, e a seguridade social conjugam-se em um conceito de medicina institucional que compreende a investigação, o ensino e os serviços prestados à sociedade. Este trabalho é uma análise do desenvolvimento da saúde pública mexicana nos dois últimos séculos. Faz referência às doenças e seu controle, ao aparecimento das instituições e à evolução do conceito de saúde pública na história mexicana.During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, its growth accompanied the country’s political and social changes. In the early half of the nineteenth century, care for the sick depended in part on religious charity. So-called public beneficial care was later introduced and consolidated under president Benito Juárez (1856 and then continued under Porfirio Díaz (1880-1910. The Mexican Revolution (1910-1917 brought the notion that public-health assistance is the State’s social responsibility. Health care and social security are now both part of so-called "institutional medicine," which also encompasses research and teaching on public health. This analysis of public-health care in Mexico examines the question of diseases and their control, the emergence of institutions, and the development of the concept of public health.

  4. Religious and political leadership in Brazil at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries – the case of Father Cícero

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    Renata Agnieszka Siuda-Ambroziak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a very interesting place for academic research regarding religious and political leadership. It does not happen only due to the continuous supply of religious leaders, but also owing to their social and political influence. One of good examples of such leaders at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries is certainly Father Cicero, who, in spite of the problems connected with the disapproval of his activity on the part of the Vatican, is still regarded as a perfect example of both an outstanding politician and a non-canonized popular saint with the place of his earthly religious and political activity turned long ago into destination of pilgrimages and important popular religiosity shrines. Using the biographical method and coming out of the Weberian concepts of charismatic leadership, the author tries to explain the reasons behind his tremendous popularity and a conflict with the Catholic hierarchy, as well as to comment on the background of his cult in the context of social, economic and political changes taking place in Brazil during his lifetime.

  5. Angelic iconographies of the 19th and 20th centuries in the Cimitero Acattolico of Rome: psychopomps, triumphants, mourners and seducers

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    María Victoria Álvarez Rodríguez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally it has been considered that the dual nature of angels, halfway between divinity and humanity, made them the most appropriate iconographic representations within the funerary context. Heirs of the marble sculptures that adorned the graves from the Renaissance, in the 19th century these effigies experienced a series of changes in their physical appearance that were closer and closer to the image that today we associate with contemporary cemeteries. This new iconography had a wide range of possibilities: psychopomps angels, triumphants angels, mourners angels... In this study we intend to draw an overview of the iconography present in the Cimitero Acattolico of Rome, one of the most unique places in the Eternal City due to the coexistence that was in it between the traditions of the various Protestant societies and the Catholic substrate in which they were immersed. The angels that adorn those graves also accuse this double influence, and serve as a perfect example of syncretism not only between religions but also between mentalities.

  6. The development of Shevchenko’s studies in the PRC in the 20th – at the beginning of the 21st century

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    Diachenko, O. V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of Shevchenko’s Studies in China from the early twentieth century to the present day. The author established that the first publication of Ukrainian poet’s poems in China were done in the 1920s. Originally poems by Taras Shevchenko were published in Ukrainian editions of our emigration in Harbin and Shanghai. Publications by Kobzar’s poems in Chinese began in the late 1920s – early 1930s. First article about Ukrainian writer and his poem «Oh, three wide ways» was published by a Chinese writer and literary critic Zhou Tszozhen. Overall, this article is devoted to works in the field of Shevchenko’s Studies by Chinese literary critics, including Lu Xun, Xiao Sanya Chen Yuan, Sun Wei, Meng Hai, Zhang Tesyan and others. The most prominent Chinese expert in Shevchenko’s Studies today is a connoisseur of Slavic literature, translator, literary critic Professor Ge Baotsyuan, who first translated the poems by Shevchenko from to Ukrainian Chinese (his precursors carried translations of Kobzar’s poems mainly from Russian, German and English. It is also found that studying of life and works of Taras Shevchenko in China is included into many university courses in foreign literature, «Testament» is studied in Chinese schools. In 2008 the monument to Kobzar was opened. A collection of Kobzar’s poems in Chinese which contains 139 texts was published in 2016.

  7. Can uncertainties in sea ice albedo reconcile patterns of data-model discord for the Pliocene and 20th/21st centuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Fergus W.; Haywood, Alan M.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Francis, Jane E; Hill, Daniel J.; Pickering, Steven J.; Pope, James O.; Salzmann, Ulrich; Wade, Bidget S

    2014-01-01

    General Circulation Model simulations of the mid-Pliocene warm period (mPWP, 3.264 to 3.025 Myr ago) currently underestimate the level of warming that proxy data suggest existed at high latitudes, with discrepancies of up to 11°C for sea surface temperature estimates and 17°C for surface air temperature estimates. Sea ice has a strong influence on high-latitude climates, partly due to the albedo feedback. We present results demonstrating the effects of reductions in minimum sea ice albedo limits in general circulation model simulations of the mPWP. While mean annual surface air temperature increases of up to 6°C are observed in the Arctic, the maximum decrease in model-data discrepancies is just 0.81°C. Mean annual sea surface temperatures increase by up to 2°C, with a maximum model-data discrepancy improvement of 1.31°C. It is also suggested that the simulation of observed 21st century sea ice decline could be influenced by the adjustment of the sea ice albedo parameterization.

  8. TURKESTAN MUSLIMS’ “HOLY PLACES” AS CENTRES OF ANTIRUSSIAN ACTIVITIES OF TURKISH SECRET SERVICE (SECOND HALF OF 19TH - EARLY 20TH CENTURIES

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    Владимир Петрович Литвинов

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the aspects of the history of the Russian-Turkish relations in the period under consideration. The evidence suggests there was a high level of tension in the Russian-Turkish relations throughout its development. They often escalated into open military conflicts. The Russian penetration into Turkestan in the second half of the 19th century angered the Ottoman Empire’s ruling circles and forced them to send their agents to the Caspian region. Russia’s annexation of Central Asia by the 1860-1870s strengthened Turkey’s anti-Russian policy. As a result, the number of Turkish agents increased in Russian Turkestan. The Ottoman Empire’s intelligence service actively used the “holy places” of Islam in Turkestan as the centres of the largest concentration of Muslims of the region with the view of anti-Russian propaganda. Virtually all anti-Russian uprisings in the region began at the graves of Islamic "righteous." Despite serious countermeasures the tsarist authorities did not manage to eradicate the Turkish agents from the state and political life of the region and completely destroy all its subversive activities.

  9. Dynamics of Water Yield From China's Terrestrial Ecosystems in the 20th Century: Impact of Climate Change, Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Tropospheric Ozone, and Land- Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Tian, H.; Zhang, C.; Ren, W.; Liu, J.

    2006-05-01

    The availability of freshwater resources is critical to China's economic development and human's health. Water yield, the runoff from the drainage basin, is one important index of ecosystem service that directly controls the total freshwater availability and rain erosity. The monsoon climate system and the complexity of natural geography in China lead to substantially spatial and temporal variability in water resources. It has been argued that intensively human activity and air pollution have altered the terrestrial water cycle in the last century. However, little is known about the magnitude and historical trend of water yield across China as well as underlying mechanisms. This study used a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) to address the effects of multiple stressors on water yield nationwide during 1900 to 2000. These multiple stressors include changes in climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, tropospheric ozone, and land-use (including cropland expansion, cropland abandonment, urbanization, and irrigation). By using optimal fingerprinting statistical techniques and factorial simulation experiments, we determined the relative contribution of these multiple stressors to water yield for the study period. The simulated results were evaluated against river's runoff records and watershed observations. Our simulated results suggest that the land-use change and precipitation appear to be two primary factors controlling water yield in China.

  10. The Impact of New Media on 20th-Century Astronomy: From Individual Records to Catalogs, Data Centers, Information Hubs and so-called `Virtual Observatories'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, André

    Astronomy is largely a virtual science. Most of our knowledge of the universe is derived from photons reaching us from the outer space. And because of the finite speed of light, we do not observe the objects the way they are, but the way they were when the photons we are collecting actually left them. What we have thus in our data files is nothing other than a huge and complex virtuality of prior stages, differenciated as a function of the distance in space and time of the various sources. Thus the job of astronomers is to work on that space-time mosaicked virtual universe in order to figure out what is exactly the real universe and to understand the place and rôle of man in it. As a result of the huge amount of data accumulated, but also by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have been pioneering the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This talk will offer a few comments on the impact and changing sociology of astronomy information handling over the past century, drifting from individual measurements or records to catalogs and data centers, and moving now from information hubs to those advanced digital research facilities called `virtual observatories'.

  11. Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century

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    Krista Mits

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations

  12. Urban land for a growing city at the banks of a moving river: Vienna's spread into the Danube island Unterer Werd from the late 17th to the beginning of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidvogl, Gertrud; Guthyne-Horvath, Marianna; Gierlinger, Sylvia; Hohensinner, Severin; Sonnlechner, Christoph

    In the relation between urban development and the Viennese Danube different periods can be identified from the late 17th to the early 20th century. These periods were strongly intertwined with both the history of the river and the history of the city. Urban expansion into the floodplains is demonstrated in this paper by investigating the island Unterer Werd, next to the city centre. In the late 17th century the fluvial dynamic still hampered urban development on the island. First measures to stabilise the river banks and to protect buildings from floods were taken soon thereafter, but the majority of practices aimed at mitigating the risks and impacts of the frequent floods: inundation was a part of the arrangement and the main target was to minimise the potential impacts. This practice also prevailed after the 1830s, when urban expansion began to move into the north and northwest of the island and the Danube floodplains were considered an important land resource for the growing city. In connection with new technologies and available means to channelise the river, the relationship between Vienna and the Danube changed fundamentally. Urban development in the riverine landscape gained new momentum. This process was initiated before the Great Danube Regulation from 1870 to 1875 was completed, the rate of growth accelerated after 1875. The last decades of the 19th century mark a turning point in the urban development of Vienna, with expanding urban areas becoming dependent upon a well functioning and maintained flood protection system.

  13. Scientific psychology in Brazil in the 20th century: the dialogue with European researchers, a look at Brazilian culture and a successful process of professionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Regina Helena de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    The first laboratories of psychology established in Brazil were organized in the early twentieth century by professionals trained in medical schools or in education. These laboratories, linked to mental health hospitals or to normal schools, followed guidelines suggested by Edouard Claparède, from the Laboratory of Psychology of the University of Geneva, and by Alfred Binet, from the Laboratory of Psychology of the University of Paris (Sorbonne). Besides replicating experimental studies done in Europe, their purpose was to study the psychological characteristics of the population attended by the mental health or educational systems. The themes explored by the researchers were the comparison of psychological processes in normal and mentally troubled individuals, or the study of the mental development of school-age children. The meaning of the word "laboratory" became associated with applied psychology, and with the adaptation to the Brazilian population of mental tests elaborated in other countries (mainly in France). Around the 1940s and 1950s, with the establishment of the teaching of psychology in higher learning institutions, research in the area expanded. Two authors are mainly responsible for this expansion: Lourenço Filho (1897-1970), and Helena Antipoff (1892-1974). Their work, still inspired by Claparède and Binet, contributed to the development of important lines of research in psychology in Brazil, with a lasting influence on subsequent generations of psychologists. From the 1960s onwards, with the regulation of the profession of psychologist, formal university programs increased strongly, and, in the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive system of graduate programs in psychology was established, contributing to the professionalization of research in the field.

  14. The long-term determinants of marital fertility in the developed world (19th and 20th centuries: The role of welfare policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sánchez-Barricarte

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demographic transition theory was shattered dramatically as a result of the research carried out in the course of the Princeton European Fertility Project. There is still no consensus among demographers as to the causes underlying the fertility transition. Objective: We set out to test the explanatory capacity of certain variables which have traditionally been used to interpret the historical decline in fertility (mortality, level of education, economic development, urbanization as well as the role played by the rise of the welfare state. Methods: We collected information on different kinds of socioeconomic variables in 25 developed countries over a very long period of time. We carried out panel cointegrating regressions and country panel fixed and time effects generalized least squares. Results: We show that the decline in mortality, the increase in educational level, and economic factors all played a leading role in the historical decline in fertility. We found that the present welfare system places a remarkable burden on those who decide to have a family. Conclusions: A new kind of public social transfer model needs to be designed which will minimize the damaging consequences that our current welfare states have had with regard to fertility. Contribution: 1 The emphasis on the causal impact of the emergence and maturation of the social welfare system using Lindert's data on social transfers since the late 19th century to 1990. 2 The enormous amount of historical data compiled, as documented in the Appendix. 3 The modern panel cointegration techniques used to analyze the long- and short-term impacts of the different determinants of fertility.

  15. A few questions concerning exterior migrations of Yugoslav population during the second half of the 20th century: A time for reconsideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Aleksandra B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The territory of the former Yugoslavia (within all of its structures and forms during the second half of the 20Č century - from FPRY, SFRY, FRY, to Serbia and Montenegro was the subject of more or less intensive external and internal migrations. The first larger wave of emigration occurred immediately after the end of World War II, mostly due to the political events in the country that concerned ideological orientation of national-liberation war winners. In most cases, the furthest destinations of these emigrants were overseas countries. The remoteness of the new "homelands", among other reasons, made these relocations permanent. In the beginning of 1960's a new wave of mass immigrations occurred due to the "liberation" of Yugoslavia's economy and politics, and the need of labor force in the countries of Western Europe. These were the economic, so-called labor-migrations that were supposed to have a temporary character. During the period of 1964-1973, Yugoslav citizens living in Western European countries numbered approximately one million and one hundred thousand, out of which two-fifths were Serbs. In the mid 1970's, a migration trend seemed to slightly decline, only to increase again in the 1980's, and especially during the 1990's, however with the new socio-economic-political background and different characteristics than the preceding ones. It could be argued though, that these new migrations of Yugoslav citizens sum up all the characteristics of the preceding ones, being, at the same time, very dramatic in nature considering that the migrations were most of the time the only available option for emigrants. In general, these migrations are characterized by relocation of whole families, absence of a long-term plan considering the future (duration of stay, return to the home country, money investment in the home country, and relatively high although diverse educational level. Actually, based on comparison between censuses in 1981 and 1991, it

  16. Dynamics of soil carbon stocks due to large-scale land use changes across the former Soviet Union during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurganova, Irina; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schierhorn, Florian; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Müller, Daniel; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    territory or about 7% of global C loss due to land-use change. However, recent recultivation of abandoned croplands in Russia and Kazakhstan can lead to release more labile forms of SOC stored on abandoned lands during last two decades. Since 2001, about 80 Mt of new sequestered SOC has been lost due to current programs on agricultural development in Russia and Kazakhstan. Our results demonstrate the large effects of land-use policies and institutional changes for the national and global C budgets during the last century.

  17. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggett, N.V. (ed.)

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  18. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume

  19. Sociolinguistic Aspects of the Ashkenazim Language Situation in the Russian Empire at the Turn of the 19th and in the Early 20th Centuries (On the Base of Sholom Aleichem's Writings

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    Igor V. Boichuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the sociolinguistic situation of the Ashkenazi Jews in the Russian Empire at the end of the 19th century and in the early 20th century. The research is based on the works of a leading Yiddish author and playwright - Sholom (Sholem Aleichem. His writings, besides their highest artistic value, have been found to be a relevant source of sociolinguistic information. A sociolinguistic analysis of the Ashkenazim language situation has been carried out. The main languages spoken by the Ashkenazim in the Pale of Settlement have been singled out. Their interrelation has been established. Each language played a special role in the life of the Ashkenazim at the period: Hebrew enjoyed high social prestige and alongside with Aramaic was mainly the language of religion. Yiddish was the vernacular of the Ashkenazim in the Pale of Settlement, and it had to struggle for achieving its status as a literary language. Russian, Ukrainian and Moldavian were mainly used for communication with the surrounding Gentiles. Polish remained as a fading vestige of former Polish presence in the area. German and French were the most common foreign languages.

  20. HSV-1/HSV-2 Infection-Related Cancers in Bantu Populations Driving HIV-1 Prevalence in Africa: Tracking the Origin of AIDS at the Onset of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goaster, Jacqueline; Bouree, Patrice; El Sissy, Franck N; Phuong Bui, Florence; Pokossy Epee, Johanna; Rollin, Paul; Tangy, Frédéric; Haenni, Anne-Lise

    2016-01-01

    At the onset of the 20th century, ancient clinical observations of cancer epidemics in Bantu populations of Sub-Saharan Africa were discovered. They were reported from 1914 to 1960, but remained unexplained. In 1983, in San Francisco, Calif., USA, cancer epidemics were related to infections by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) known as AIDS disease. Yet since 1996, it is known that HIV-1 strains are not the only ones involved. In Sub-Saharan Africa, recurrent orobuccal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and genital recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) appeared many times prior to infection by HIV-1. Data on these ancient medical observations regarding African cancer epidemics can today be referred to as the relationship between the unfortunate immune deficiency of herpes in Bantu populations and HIV-1 viral strains. For centuries, the Bantu populations dispersed in forests were living in close proximity to chimpanzees infected by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and were exposed to SIV contamination which became HIV-1 in human beings. Presently, these unexplained Bantu cancer epidemics can be linked to the viral partnership of HSV-1/HSV-2 to HIV-1 strains. The key issue is now to prevent HSV-1/HSV-2 diseases related to HIV-1. An anti-herpes treatment administered early during childhood to Bantu populations will offer a mean of preventing herpes diseases related to HIV-1 infection and hence avoid cancer epidemics.

  1. HSV-1/HSV-2 Infection-Related Cancers in Bantu Populations Driving HIV-1 Prevalence in Africa: Tracking the Origin of AIDS at the Onset of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Le Goaster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At the onset of the 20th century, ancient clinical observations of cancer epidemics in Bantu populations of Sub-Saharan Africa were discovered. They were reported from 1914 to 1960, but remained unexplained. In 1983, in San Francisco, Calif., USA, cancer epidemics were related to infections by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 known as AIDS disease. Yet since 1996, it is known that HIV-1 strains are not the only ones involved. In Sub-Saharan Africa, recurrent orobuccal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and genital recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 appeared many times prior to infection by HIV-1. Case Reports: Data on these ancient medical observations regarding African cancer epidemics can today be referred to as the relationship between the unfortunate immune deficiency of herpes in Bantu populations and HIV-1 viral strains. For centuries, the Bantu populations dispersed in forests were living in close proximity to chimpanzees infected by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV and were exposed to SIV contamination which became HIV-1 in human beings. Presently, these unexplained Bantu cancer epidemics can be linked to the viral partnership of HSV-1/HSV-2 to HIV-1 strains. Conclusion: The key issue is now to prevent HSV-1/HSV-2 diseases related to HIV-1. An anti-herpes treatment administered early during childhood to Bantu populations will offer a mean of preventing herpes diseases related to HIV-1 infection and hence avoid cancer epidemics.

  2. Albert Einstein and 20th century's physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac, R.

    1979-01-01

    Albert Einstein's teaching and his three fundamental works are discussed dealing with the molecular theory of heat applied to the motion of suspended particles in liquids at rest, the photoelectric effect, and the theory of relativity. Albert Einstein's impact on contemporary physics is evaluated. (J.P.)

  3. Danish Capitalism in the 20th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    how the corporate strategies shaped and was shaped by the changing nature of Danish capitalism. Such a work as this is important as it bears testimony to the changing nature of market institutions. A descriptive and analytic exercise such as proposed here have only to a limited extent been carried out...

  4. The Gifts of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    This article describes critical events that have shaped gifted education, including: intelligence testing, the concept of intelligence, the construct of creativity, greater understanding of brain functions, the work of John Dewey, Jerome Bruner, and Leta Hollingworth, school reform, world change, and the shift from identification to meeting…

  5. Antimatter and 20th Century Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the history of antimatter from the concept first introduced in 1898 up to the present day and is intended to complement the article "Antihydrogen on Tap" on page 229 [of this issue of "Physics Education"]. It is hoped that it will provide enough historical background material along with interesting snippets of…

  6. Modeling games from the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    A scientific framework is described in which scientists are cast as problem-solvers, and problems as solved when data are mapped to models. This endeavor is limited by finite attentional capacity which keeps depth of understanding complementary to breadth of vision; and which distinguishes the process of science from its products, scientists from scholars. All four aspects of explanation described by Aristotle trigger, function, substrate, and model are required for comprehension. Various modeling languages are described, ranging from set theory to calculus of variations, along with exemplary applications in behavior analysis. PMID:11369459

  7. A higienização da escola primária portuguesa no amanhecer do século 20 - The portuguese elementary school hygiene at the turn of the 20th century

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    Maria Manuela Pereira Figueiredo Rodrigues, Portugal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto procura refletir sobre as preocupações higienizantes que, a partir dos finais do século 19, passaram a atuar no espaço escolar. De um modo mais específico, procurar-se-á acompanhar a transposição didática dos normativos legais ao território espacial das escolas primárias do concelho do Barreiro, num período temporal que se estende até aos anos de 1920.Palavras-chave: higiene, escola primária, cultura escolar. THE PORTUGUESE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL HYGIENE AT THE TURN OF THE 20TH CENTURYAbstractThis paper seeks to reflect on the new hygiene concerns that from the late 19th century, act in school. In particular, it will try to follow the didactic transposition of the legal norms to the elementary schools spatial territory fromBarreiro, in a time period that extends until the twenties of the 20th century.Key-words: hygiene, elementary school, school culture. LA HIGIENIZAÇÃO DE LA ESCUELA PRIMARIA PORTUGUESA EN EL AMANECER DEL SIGLO 20ResumenEl presente texto pretende reflejar sobre las nuevas preocupaciones higienizantes que, a partir de los finales del siglo 19, actúan en el espacio escolar. De un modo más específico, se buscará acompañar la transposición didáctica de los normativos legais al territorio espacial de las escuelas primarias del municipio de Barreiro, en un período de tiempo que se extiende hasta los años 1920.Palabras-clave: higiene, escuela primaria, cultura escolar. L'HYGIÈNE DANS L’ ÉCOLE PRIMAIRE PORTUGAISE AU DÉBUT DU 20E SIÈCLERésuméCe text vise à réfléchir sur les nouvelles préoccupations d’hygiène qui, dès la fin du 19e siècle, ont commence à agir dans l'espace de l’école. Plus spécifiquement, nous voulons accompagner la transposition didactique des normes juridiques au territoire des écoles primaires du comté de Barreiro, dans une période de temps qui s'étend jusqu'aux années vingt du 20e siècle.Mots-clé: hygiène, école primaire, culture scolaire.

  8. Ethnic Entrepreneurship in the Russian Empire in the Era of Economic Modernization in the Second Half of the 19th – Early 20th Century (as Illustrated in the Example of Siberia

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    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the 19th century brought about the modernization reforms in the Russian political system, which accelerated the development of the country's capitalist economy. The abolition of segregationist regulations contributed to the development of bourgeois relations in industry and agriculture. The pace of economic modernization was faster in European Russia, while the country’s frontier regions in the Asiatic part of the Russian Empire seriously lagged behind the center. The role of agents for capitalist change in industry and agriculture was accepted by the members of non-Russian ethnic groups, such as Jews, Germans, Poles and others. They became new bourgeois who were former government officials who had required connections to establish factories, and traders, who accumulated significant capital. In the 2nd half of the 19th century, a major role was performed by individual entrepreneurship inside ethnic communities. Its scope comprised the sectors which generated no economic interest among Russians living in Siberia, and which required large capital investments (distilling, shipping companies. In the early 20th century the social composition of communities was blurry thanks to peasants who formed a key component in migratory flows to Siberia. This shifted emphasis to small and medium-sized enterprises in the agricultural sector. The purpose of the paper is to use specific examples to show how ethnic entrepreneurship depended on a community's social composition, and determine its place in the regional economy in the conditions of ongoing political modernization and initial steps to industrialization. The foundation for the study is built on the archival documents, statistical digests and current research. The work is based on comparativism.

  9. Giovanni Cingolani pittore e restauratore fra l'Italia, il Vaticano e l'Argentina tra Ottocento e Novecento / Giovanni Cingolani painter and restorer between Italy, Vatican and Argentina in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Coltrinari

    2015-02-01

    The life of Giovanni Cingolani (Montecassiano, 1859 – Santa Fe, 1932 takes place between Italy and Argentina at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Cingolani redeems his humble origins with a successful career as a painter and restorer in Rome between 1880 and 1908. Thanks to the relations with prelates and painters of Perugia, close to Pope Leo XIII, the artist fits himself in the papal circles, devoting himself to painting religious and to the portrait. Came into contact with Ludovico Seitz, director of the Vatican Museums, participates in the major restorations in the Borgia apartment, in the chapel Niccolina, in the Vatican Stanze and in the Sistine Chapel. In 1909 he emigrated to Santa Fe, where he worked as a church decorator and portrait painter, devoting himself intensely to teaching: thanks to unpublished documents, especially the correspondence between Cingolani, his daughter Leonilde and the director of the library of Macerata, Giovanni Spadoni, you can learn many details about his life and the Italian and Argentines artistic milieus he frequented. The paper wants to disclose this almost unknown artist, “migrant” between Italy and Argentina, highlighting his role of disseminator of European academic tradition in Latin America.

  10. High-Altitude Aggressions and Physiological Degeneration? The Biography of “Climate” as an Object of Scientific Inquiry in Colombia During the 19th and the Early 20th Centuries

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    Stefan Pohl-Valero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to show the role played by experimental physiology in the way of understanding the effects of high-altitude climates on the functioning of the human body and the possibilities of progress of the Colombian nation throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. Content: the transformation of the concept of climate as an object of scientific inquiry is explored over the studied period. This is done by analyzing investigations on respiratory capacity, nutrition and metabolism, blood chemistry and heart function in people of the eastern range of the Colombian Andes. Conclusions: beyond an institutional or disciplinary history of physiology, this article shows that some practices of experimental physiology played a role in the process of represent­ing the Colombian nation, territory, and population. The inhabitants of the Andean highlands were understood not only in terms of race and innate abilities, but also in terms of social classes and organic transformations. The idea that there was a supposed process of “physiological de­generation”, decreasing the efficiency of high-altitude workers, was tried to compensate through a “rational diet”.

  11. Similarities in mortality patterns from influenza in the first half of the 20th century and the rise and fall of ischemic heart disease in the United States: a new hypothesis concerning the coronary heart disease epidemic

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    Azambuja Maria Inês Reinert

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic risk factors for developing coronary heart disease (CHD explain less than 50% of the decrease in mortality observed since 1950. The transition currently under way, from the degenerative to the infectious-inflammatory paradigm, requires a new causal interpretation of temporal trends. The following is an ecological study based on data from the United States showing that in men and women an association between the age distribution of mortality due to influenza and pneumonia (I&P associated with the influenza pandemic in 1918-1919 in the 10-49-year age bracket and the distribution of CHD mortality from 1920 to 1985 in survivors from the corresponding birth cohorts. It further shows a significant negative correlation (r = -0.68, p = 0.042 between excess mortality from I&P accumulated in epidemics from 1931 to 1940 (used as indicator for persistent circulation of H1N1 virus combined with vulnerability to infection and the order of the beginning in the decline in CHD mortality in nine geographic divisions in the United States. In light of current biological knowledge, the data suggest that the 1918 influenza pandemic and the subsequent epidemics up to 1957 might have played a determinant role in the epidemic of CHD mortality registered in the 20th century.

  12. Contribution of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela to the development of the spanish scientific research in the first third of the 20th century (1900-1936

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    Brasa Arias, Beatriz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela was founded in 1857, but research activities did not start until the beginning of the 20th century. The new Spanish regulations promoting the experimentation at universities and the stages of professors and recently graduated students outside Spain contributed to generate a remarkable research group in a provincial university. The excessive university centralism at that time in Spain and the characteristics of the headquarters of the faculty —a 16th century Renaissance palace— hindered, in general, the research development. However, the scientific spirit of professors and students, and their work were imposed and they achieved an estimable status in pharmacy research in Galicia. The facilities were the staff's highest priority and it raised more than a protest. A remarkable investment in apparatuses and laboratory materials was carried out and researchers started to publish original research papers in local journals, such as the «Revista de farmacia», published by their own University. In the previous years to the Spanish Civil War (1936 the research status in drug development and the background of the staff and students were important, allowing them to join the military laboratory that Franco’s army created at the faculty of pharmacy. The research work continued in a small scale and was specially focused on the production of «copy drugs» copying European specific drugs which were scarce at that time. The first third of the 20th century was the germ of the great research prestige that the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela enjoys at present.

    La Facultad de Farmacia de Santiago de Compostela se fundó en 1857, pero no fue hasta comienzos del siglo XX cuando comenzó a desarrollar una labor de investigación en medicamentos. Las nuevas reglamentaciones que fomentaban la experimentación en los laboratorios universitarios y la formación de profesores y reci

  13. Book Review: Russia-Germany. Milestones of the Joint History in the Collective Memory. 20th Century / ed. by H. Muller, A. O. Chubaryan ; by the Decision of the Joint Commission on Studying the Modern History of the Russian-German Relations

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    Vashkau Nina Emilyevna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of a Russian-German textbook that describes the events of the 20th century. The book has been created by the Common Board for Research on the History of the Russian-German Relationships and can be used as learning material in schools and universities of both countries.

  14. Drought and Fire in the Western United States: Contrasting the Causes, Distributions, and Effects of Drought in the 20th and 21st Centuries with a Multiyear Moisture Deficit Drought Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, J.; Westerling, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    The current drought in California is considered to be most severe drought event of the 20th and 21st century. Climate models forecast increasing temperatures in the Western United States but are less certain regarding precipitation patterns. Here we impose a novel index based on sustained, multiyear moisture deficit anomalies onto a 1/8° grid of the Western United States to investigate 1) whether California's drought is irregular in the recent history of the Western States; 2) how temperature and precipitation affected the development of large drought events; and 3) what impact did drought events have on burn area and severity of fires. Fire records were compiled from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity database and compared to drought events since 1984. Results indicate that drought events similar in size and duration to the current drought have occurred in the West since 1918, though previous drought events were not as severe nor centered on California. Six drought events of similar size to the 2012 - 2014 drought were compared: while they were characterized by negative precipitation anomalies, only the 2012 - 2014 event exhibited temperature anomalies that increased over the drought's duration. In addition, we found that large fires ( > 1000 acres) within drought areas had greater total area burned as well as area burned at medium and high severities compared to fires in non-drought areas. Our results suggest that though uncertainty of future precipitation patterns exists, increasing temperatures will exacerbate drought severity when events do occur. In addition, understanding the relationships between droughts and fire can guide land managers to more effective fire management during drought events.

  15. A bicicleta, o ciclismo e as mulheres na transição dos séculos XIX e XX Bicycle, cycling and women in the 19th to 20th centuries' transition

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    Victor Andrade de Melo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir as relações entre a nova configuração da presença social das mulheres (e nesse cenário as posições de líderes dos movimentos por direitos civis femininos, a nova dinâmica social marcada pela valorização das atividades públicas de lazer (da qual o ciclismo é um exemplo privilegiado e um novo invento (a bicicleta na transição dos séculos XIX e XX. Inicialmente abordaremos os casos específicos da Europa (com destaque para a França e dos Estados Unidos, buscando recuperar as pioneiras discussões e ocorrências acerca do envolvimento de mulheres com o ciclismo. Posteriormente, discutiremos o caso específico do Rio de Janeiro, a maior cidade e a capital do país à época, cujos dirigentes tinham aspirações de constituí-la na metrópole moderna brasileira.This article aims to discuss the relationships between the new configuration of the women social presence (and, in this scenario, the positions of leaders of feminine civil rights' movements, the new social dynamics marked by the valorization of public leisure activities (of which cycling is a remarkable example and a new invention (the bicycle in the 19th to 20th centuries' transition. Initially, we discuss specific cases of Europe (mainly those of France and United States, searching to recover the pioneer discussions and occurrences concerning the involvement of women with cycling. Later, we discuss the specific case of Rio de Janeiro, the biggest city and capital of the country at that time, whose leaders had aspirations to constitute in the Brazilian modern metropolis.

  16. [Józef Koliński, physician and philanthropist, co-organizator of medical and hygienic movement in Lódź at the turn of 19th and 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2004-01-01

    The subject of this study is the activity of physician and philantropist Józef Kolliński MD (1852-1933). He completed his medical studies at Medical and Surgical Military Academy in St. Petersburg. After obtaining specialization in ophthalmology, he presented his doctor theses at Warsaw University and afterwards he was closely connected with Lódź. At the turn of 19th and 20th century Lódź was considered to be one of the most neglected cities of manufacturing industry in Russian sector of partitioned Poland. Initially, Józef Koliński was appointed in Lódź to the post of military physician. After that he worked in private practice and philantropy was a passion with him. Józef Koliński founded or he was a co-founder of the Medical Society of Lódź (1886) as well as the Lódź Division of the Warsaw Hygienic Society (1902), which appeared vital to the activities for public health. Medical care for children from poor workers families, the fight for Polish culture in schools of Lódź and taking part in establishing ophtalmology wards in local hospitals as well as journalism and research were also of great significance in Józef Koliński's work. In the last years of his life, afterwards Poland regained its independence in 1918, despite him being an elderly man, he was still professionally active. He enjoyed respect and trust from citizens of Lódź, whom he treated and for whom he was active in medical and social societies. He was still remembered in severeal years fellowing his death.

  17. The role of church history and Byzantine studies in the history of historical sciences, religious and secular education in Ukraine in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

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    I. Y. Medovkina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical retrospective of formation of the non­religious phenomenon «new Christianity» in the conteThe article examines the impact of the educational and scientific activities of famous church historians on the expansion of knowledge in the history of church, development of historical studies, religious and secular education in Ukrainian territories in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The analysis of the biographies, activities and scientific papers of such well­known scientists as Aleksey Dmitriyevskiy, Ivan Sokolov, Kostiantyn Kharlampovych, Vasyl Bidnov and Oleksandr Lototskyi shows that the scholars made a great contribution to the expansion of historical knowledge in the history of church and Byzantine studies. They achieved it by finding and publishing new sources, studying new topics that had not been covered earlier, applying the historical comparative method and analysing the local history within the context of general history of humankind. Furthermore, just by reviewing the list of offices held by the above scholars, subjects they taught, and scientific journals where they worked as authors and editors and understanding what role they played in preserving church antiques during the period when objects of historical importance were expropriated and used for other purposes, you can appreciate not only their contribution to fostering a great number of well­educated broad­minded and scientifically oriented researchers and clergy members, but also the importance of the position they took on social issues. Because of the social principles they defended the scholars were often persecuted by the Bolsheviks, which caused their premature death or forced emigration.

  18. Población, actividad y paro en la segunda mitad del siglo XX en Extremadura / Population, activity and unemployment in the second half of the 20th century in Extremadura

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    Ana Mª Hernández Carretero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: A lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XX se han producido las más profundas transformaciones de la historia regional, impulsadas tanto por factores exógenos como endógenos de toda índole. Se ha pasado de una economía agraria de subsistencia a una economía competitiva de los servicios y del conocimiento, lo que ha supuesto enormes excedentes de mano de obra agraria hasta el final de siglo. Excedentes que fueron engrosando la intensa sangría emigratoria de los sesenta y setenta, que arrastró al 40% de la población regional. Sin embargo, desde comienzos de los ochenta, la población ha tendido a estabilizarse. Pero la emigración ya había provocado un estrangulamiento irreparable en las edades activas y de procreación, un fuerte descenso de la natalidad acentuado por la caída de la fecundidad posteriormente y un profundo envejecimiento. Por otra parte, la retención de los efectivos jóvenes y adultos en sus lugares de origen, junto a otros factores, incrementaron el paro hasta niveles desconocidos, si bien es un fenómeno que se ha conseguido paliar en buena medida en los últimos años del siglo. El futuro se presenta incierto, pues aunque no existe ningún núcleo abandonado, el envejecimiento, la baja natalidad y el paro están hipotecando el desarrollo endógeno de los núcleos rurales de la región.Summary: Along the second half of the 20th century the deepest transformations of the regional history have been produced so much by factors exogenous as endogenous of every kind. It has passed of an agrarian economy of subsistence to a competitive economy of the services and of the knowledge, what has supposed enormous excesses of agrarian unemployment to the end of century. Surplus that enlarged the great volume of emigrant population of the sixties and seventy that supposed the 40% of the regional population. Nevertheless, from beginnings of the eighty, the population is being stabilized. But the emigration already had

  19. A reversão do hiato de gênero na educação brasileira no século XX Reversal of the gender gap in Brazilian education in the 20th century

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    Kaizô Iwakami Beltrão

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A redução do hiato de gênero e o maior acesso das mulheres à educação são objetivos explícitos da IV Conferência da Mulher (1995, do Fórum Mundial de Educação (2000 e da Cúpula do Milênio (2000. As conferências internacionais promovidas pela Organização das Nações Unidas recomendam ações para eliminar as discriminações contra o sexo feminino em todos os campos de atividade, especialmente na educação. O hiato de gênero e o déficit educacional das mulheres sempre fizeram parte da realidade brasileira. Contudo, as mulheres conseguiram eliminar e reverter esse hiato ao longo do século XX. Este artigo tem como objetivo principal analisar quando se deu a reversão do hiato de gênero na educação no Brasil. Para isso, apresentaremos as informações educacionais dos censos demográficos de 1960 a 2000, segundo níveis de escolaridade, desagregadas por sexo e por coortes de nascimento. Essa metodologia nos permitirá acompanhar a evolução do hiato de gênero das coortes nascidas após 1890 até o ano 1995.The reduction of the gender gap and the improvement in female access to education were explicit objectives of the IV Conference on Women (1995, of the World Education Forum (2000 and of the Millennium Summit (2000. All International Conferences promoted by the United Nations Organization (UN recommend actions to eradicate discrimination against women in all fields of activity, especially education. The gender gap and the education deficit among women have always been part of the Brazilian reality. However, women have been able to eliminate and reverse this gap throughout the 20th century. The main purpose of this article is to analyze when the reversion of the gender gap in Brazilian education occurred. In order to do so, we will present information obtained from demographic censuses from 1960 to 2000, based on schooling levels disaggregated by gender and birth cohorts. This methodology will allow us to track the

  20. Comprehensive global amino acid sequence analysis of PB1F2 protein of influenza A H5N1 viruses and the influenza A virus subtypes responsible for the 20th-century pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Gunisha; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Chakrabarti, Alok K

    2013-07-01

    PB1F2 is the 11th protein of influenza A virus translated from +1 alternate reading frame of PB1 gene. Since the discovery, varying sizes and functions of the PB1F2 protein of influenza A viruses have been reported. Selection of PB1 gene segment in the pandemics, variable size and pleiotropic effect of PB1F2 intrigued us to analyze amino acid sequences of this protein in various influenza A viruses. Amino acid sequences for PB1F2 protein of influenza A H5N1, H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 subtypes were obtained from Influenza Research Database. Multiple sequence alignments of the PB1F2 protein sequences of the aforementioned subtypes were used to determine the size, variable and conserved domains and to perform mutational analysis. Analysis showed that 96·4% of the H5N1 influenza viruses harbored full-length PB1F2 protein. Except for the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, all the subtypes of the 20th-century pandemic influenza viruses contained full-length PB1F2 protein. Through the years, PB1F2 protein of the H1N1 and H3N2 viruses has undergone much variation. PB1F2 protein sequences of H5N1 viruses showed both human- and avian host-specific conserved domains. Global database of PB1F2 protein revealed that N66S mutation was present only in 3·8% of the H5N1 strains. We found a novel mutation, N84S in the PB1F2 protein of 9·35% of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 influenza viruses. Varying sizes and mutations of the PB1F2 protein in different influenza A virus subtypes with pandemic potential were obtained. There was genetic divergence of the protein in various hosts which highlighted the host-specific evolution of the virus. However, studies are required to correlate this sequence variability with the virulence and pathogenicity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. FLIP celebrates 20th anniversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    During the past 20 years, vessels have often diverted their courses to aid what appeared to be a sinking ship. What they found as they steamed closer, though, was—and still is—an exceptionally stable ocean-going research vessel. Its ability to tip from the conventional horizontal position to a vertical one makes the ship both a stable research platform and a startling sight.The Floating Instrument Platform, better known as FLIP, is the result of a quest during the late 1950's for a ship that would enable oceanographers to perform accurate underwater acoustic experiments. The motion of conventional research ships rolling with the ocean's movements makes such work difficult. Allyn Vine of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution suggested a vessel that has the stability of a long, narrow, buoyant object that floats with the long dimension vertical, as does a spar buoy. Under the direction of Fred Spiess, with the support of the Office of Naval Research, the Marine Physical Laboratory (MPL) at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography adapted the spar buoy design idea to the floating platform. Frederick H. Fisher, then a research physicist at MPL and now a research oceanographer and associate director, was the project officer. He, with the assistance of Spiess, the now late Philip Rudnick, and Charles ‘Bud’ Mundy, was largely responsible for developing the shape, size, and capabilities of the vessel. After final design, engineering, and construction, FLIP was launched on June 22, 1962. A ceremony at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography marked its 20th anniversary.

  2. The Earl Lee Street Art Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubba

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a catchy phrase with more to its meaning than first view. A slogan "All the girls love Earl Lee," appears in street art around the world. Earl Lee is a lovable, handsome man who owns the fictitious Earl Lube industries. Originally intended to bring a smile to people's faces at a time when there wasn't much to smile…

  3. [Richard Freiherr v. Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freud--discourse on the "normality" and "perversion" of human sexuality at the close of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality has been defined a central feature of personal identity since the epoch of enlightenment and has gradually become a decisive issue also in societal and political terms. A major transfer from religion and religious institutions to medicine and medical experts and later on to neuropsychiatrists has to be underlined in the primary position to assess "normal" and "deviant" manifestations of sexuality. Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freund play an eminent role in this "discourse on sexuality" (M. Foucault) during the nineteenth and beginning twentieth century on the way to modern sexology. Within this overarching context Krafft-Ebing's and Freud's theoretical conceptualizations of sexuality and perversion will be sketched and basic clinical and societal implications there out will be discussed.

  4. Contribution of pharmacists to the Development of Healthcare culture in Vranje by the end of the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Healthcare enlightenment and healthcare culture in Vranje and its region were under Turkish influence until the liberation in 1878, when the organization of education, schooling and healthcare were initiated in the Vranje region Objective. The aims of this study were to shed light on the beginning of the development of pharmaceutical personnel, and their contribution to healthcare culture development in Vranje and its region, with a focus on healthcare legislation and its impact on pharmaceutical service availability, and the analysis of pharmaceutical personnel development within the healthcare services. Methods. We used the methods of documentation analysis and the desk analysis of the secondary information. Results. At the beginning of the 19th century healthcare services in Vranje were still inexistent. After the liberation from the Turks, Naum’s medical office with pharmacy was opened in Vranje. Although it did not comply with regulations, it presented the only formal source of supply of medications and sanitary material, and as such it gave its contribution to healhcare service at that time in Vranje. Mr ph. Stevan Varjacic, 1st class pharmacy assistant, worked at a temporary hospital from 1880 until January 1881, suppling with medications soldiers and residents of Vranje. The development of pharmaceutical schooling began in 1883, when a pharmacy was opened by the pharmacist Velimir Karic according to the Law on Healthcare Organization and People’s Healthcare Maintenance. By the end of the 1930s there were ten civilian healthcare institutions in Vranje, even three of which were pharmacies. By the end of 1948, they were nationalized, and were renamed the City National Pharmacy of Vranje. Conclusion. By the end of the 10th century, passing of the legislation on the regulations of pharmaceutical industry within healthcare services had an impact on Vranje that resulted in opening pharmacies with educated pharmaceutical

  5. Conformando uma Argentina leitora: educação pública, bibliotecas e mercado editorial entre fins do século XIX e meados do século XX Building a reading Argentina: state schools, libraries and the publishing market in late -19th century and in the first half of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pellegrino Soares

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende lançar luz sobre políticas públicas de promoção da leitura que tiveram lugar na Argentina de fins do século XIX e primeira metade do XX, e sobre a forma como essas interagiram com o mercado editorial em desenvolvimento no país. A preocupação em cultivar e orientar desde cedo nos cidadãos a prática da leitura fez das crianças alvo privilegiado de iniciativas educacionais e editoriais, às quais dedicarei particular atenção.This article aims at shedding light on public policies of reading practices’ promotion, that took place in Argentina in late 19th century and in the first half of 20th century, and on the way they affected the country’s developing publishing market. The purpose of motivating reading practices since the citizens’ early years turned children into an important goal of educational and publishing initiatives, which shall here receive special focus.

  6. Renovación Pedagógica en la provincia de Ciudad Real en el primer tercio del siglo XX. Principios, escuelas y figuras representativas. Pedagogical renovation in the province of Ciudad Real in the first third of the 20th century. Principles, schools and representative figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez Mediano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available (ES La Renovación Pedagógica que fue de la mano del regeneracionismo español de principios del siglo XX es un referente en la educación de todo el siglo, reflejado incluso en la educación actual y a pesar de haber vivido momentos de claro estancamiento. Como en muchas otras “pequeñas” provincias, en Ciudad Real los efectos de esta transformación no se vieron de la misma manera que en los grandes núcleos urbanos como Valencia, Barcelona o Madrid, sin embargo, podemos encontrar ejemplos de ello, en algunas ocasiones intentos, que muestran la tendencia hacia la mo-dernidad que venía promoviéndose en España al inicio del siglo. (EN The Pedagogic Renovation was part of the Spanish regenerationism at the beginning of 20th cen-tury and it has been a model for education throughout the entire century, although there were less active periods. Like it happened in other small provinces, the transformation results in Ciudad Real were different from those in bigger urban areas like Valencia, Barcelona or Madrid. However, we can find examples or attempts of Renovation in Ciudad Real that show a tendency to modernity developing at the beginning of the 20th century.

  7. Minu nimi on Earl / Kaido Soorsk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soorsk, Kaido, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Ameerika autodisainerist Harley Earl'ist (1893-1969) ja tema tähtsamatest töödest: Buick Y-Job (1938), LeSabre (1951), Chevrolet Corvette (1953). Harley Earl juhtis General Motorsi Art and Color Section'it, mis 1937. a. nimetati ümber Style Section'iks

  8. Razvojni put modne ilustracije 20. i 21. veka – likovno predstavljanje mode (u slikarstvu, modnim tablama i modnim ilustracijama / Development of Fashion Illustration during the 20th and 21st Century: Pictorial Representation of Fashion (in Painting, Fashion Plates and Fashion Illustrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Kosanić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this study is pictorial representation of costume and fashion in painting, fashion plates and fashion illustrations. Fashion illustration of the 20th century, specific in terms of freedom of interpretation that is given to the artists when representing fashion trends, has kept those elements of painting that are almost lost in contemporary art movements (for instance figuration. Through several specific examples in art history I will try to demonstrate the artist’s approach to the representation of costume. In this study I will also try to define the role of painting when it comes to the fashion, the role of fashion plates and then the role of fashion illustration created in the early 20th century. Finally, I will take a look at the fashion photography that in the beginning has found its role-models precisely in the fashion illustration and today is returning to the visual characteristics of renaissance art, and to the painting in general, from which everything has begun.

  9. 20th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Even in difficult economic times, colleges and universities continue to invest in residence hall construction projects as a way to attract new students and keep existing ones on campus. According to data from "American School & University"'s 20th annual Residence Hall Construction Report, the median new project completed in 2008 was…

  10. Happy 20th Birthday, World Wide Web!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 13 March CERN celebrated the 20th anniversary of the World Wide Web. Check out the video interview with Web creator Tim Berners-Lee and find out more about the both the history and future of the Web. To celebrate CERN also launched a brand new website, CERNland, for kids.

  11. Wisdom as Sophia: An Analysis of the Sophiologies of Three 19th-20th Century Russian Philosopher-Theologians--Vladimir Solovyov, Pavel Florensky, and Sergius Bulgakov--Implications for Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giragosian, James G.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the concept of "wisdom" from the perspective of "sophiology"--a current in late nineteenth and early twentieth century Russian religious philosophy--particularly as it was used in the writings of Vladimir Solovyov, Pavel Florensky, and Sergius Bulgakov. The purpose of the study was to examine how the…

  12. Theoretical and Methodological Basis of Inclusive Education in the Researches of Russian Scientists in the First Quarter of 20th Century (P. P. Blonsky, L. S. Vygotsky, v. P. Kaschenko, S. T. Shatsky)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetova, Daniya Z.; Chelnokova, Tatyana A.; Morozova, Ilona G.

    2017-01-01

    Article is devoted to the scientific heritage of educators and psychologists of Russia in the first quarter of the twentieth century. The aim of the research is the identification of the most significant ideas of P. P. Blonsky, L. S. Vygotsky, V. P. Kacshenko, S. T Shatsky which based the theoretical and methodological basis of inclusive…

  13. #digital_disruption @amnesty international: from digital to networked to hybrid activism - A case study of the meaning and adoption of digital activism in changing 20th century civil society organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Özkula, Suay Melisa

    2017-01-01

    Like many organisations in the 21st century, longstanding civil society organisations are facing new challenges in adapting to the digital age. This thesis addresses those concerns through an exploration of the social meaning and contextualised effects of digital activism at case study Amnesty International. It provides a socio-cultural account of AI and a conceptual perspective on digital activism as part of Amnesty's digitalisation processes. It explores existing concerns around the tension...

  14. TOURISM EXCURSION ACTIVITIES AS A MEANS OF IDEOLOGICAL EDUCATION OF UKRAINE’S POPULATION IN 70s-80s OF THE 20th CENTURY: FORMATION OF INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE AND TASKS.

    OpenAIRE

    Котенко, Р.М.

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the analysisof political documents and other source materialsthe article studies processes of formationof institutional structure and tasks oftourist-excursion activity in Ukraine in the70-80s of the XXth century as an importantmeans of ideological and political educationof the population in the past.The role of trade unions, komsomol andother public organizations in the given processis defined. The process of formation oforganization and management structure ispresented.The r...

  15. Polish families in the face of challenges and threats posed by the first half of the 20th century (in the light of „Szkoła” [Rodziny polskie wobec wyzwań i zagrożeń pierwszej połowy XX wieku (w świetle „Szkoły”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka WAŁĘGA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For Polish people and Polish families the first half of the 20th century was a difficult time. It was the final period of the Partitions, with intensified repression, especially Russification and Germanization, the time of World War I, and twenty years of the rebuilding of Polish statehood which ended in another worldwide armed conflict in 1939. The dynamic political changes which led to the outbreak of WWI and WWII and to the regaining of independence by Poland in 1918 were accompanied by significant transformations of social structure and new tendencies in the development of culture and education. The change of women’s social position and their political and educational emancipation forced new models of family relations to appear, and a uniform school system reconstructed after 123 years of bondage, together with the introduction of compulsory school attendance and the development of forms of pre-schooling education were significant challenges for many parents and their children. During the entire period the Polish family played a very important part in educational ideologies binding in Polish lands at that time – national and state education. Because of that it was the subject of interest of many pedagogic magazines. The aim of the paper is to indicate the main areas of tasks given to Polish families in the first half of the 20th century in the light of one of the oldest Polish periodicals of this type – „Szkoła”. Apart from the topics brought up in the pages of this magazine in the second half of the 19th century such as the cooperation of home and school, some new problems appeared then, including: the duties of a family in the difficult war and post-war period, concern for child’s health at home, or the significance of parents’ shaping of characteristics propagated by the supporters of national education.

  16. Durand, Guadet e Wagner. L'evoluzione del metodo compositivo tra XIX e XX secolo / Durand, Guadet and Wagner. The evolution of the compositive method between 19th and 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Caballero Lobera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Il XIX secolo fu un’epoca convulsa per quanto riguarda l’evoluzione del pensiero architettonico. In quanto apice del pensiero illuminista del secolo precedente, tale epoca si manifestò nelle forme dell’architettura storica e allo stesso tempo divenne l’immagine della modernità, stabilendo le basi di quel razionalismo, che avrebbe costruito, ai margini della storia, la sua idea di forma. Tre dei maggiori protagonisti di questo sviluppo, sia per quanto riguarda il loro lavoro di architetti, che come insegnanti, furono Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand, Julien Guadet e Otto Wagner / The 19th century was a time of upheaval in the development of architectonic thinking. As culmination of the enlightened thinking of the previous century it expressed itself through historical form, and as a reflection of modernity, it established the bases for a rationalist-based architecture that would construct its wish for form outside the margins of history. We highlight the teaching work of three professors and architects in the construction of that thinking: Durand, Guadet and Wagner.

  17. Josep Goday e o mobiliário escolar espanhol na primeira metade do século 20 - Josep Goday and spanish school furniture during the first half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauri dos Santos Sá, Brasil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo estão sistematizadas reflexões sobre a história do mobiliário escolar espanhol, com foco nas propostas do arquiteto Josep Goday i Casals. Inserido no campo de estudo do patrimônio educativo, busca-se enxergar o mobiliário escolar como autêntica fonte de investigação da cultura material escolar. A base metodológica da análise situa-se no campo da pesquisa exploratória e o procedimento assume a forma de pesquisa bibliográfica. A coleta de dados realizou-se no acervo do Centro de Educação Infantil e Primária Ramon Llull e na obra Josep Goday Casals: arquitectura escolar a Barcelona dela Mancomunitata la república (2008. Nas conclusões, enfatiza-se o papel desempenhado pelo arquiteto como protagonista na configuração de um mobiliário que procura dignificar a sala aula para além dos aspectos arquitetônicos e estéticos.Palavras-chave: cultura material escolar, arquitetura escolar, mobiliário escolar.JOSEP GODAY AND SPANISH SCHOOL FURNITURE DURING THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY AbstractThe present paper presents some systematic reflections on the history of Spanish school furniture, focusing on the proposals idealized by architect Josep Goday i Casals. Inserted in the field of study of educational patrimony, it seeks to see school furniture as an authentic source to investigate the material culture of the school. The methodological basis of the analysis is situated in the field of exploratory research, and is done in the form of research on literature. Data is obtained from the collection of the Ramon Llull Center of Infant and Elementary Education (Centro de Educação Infantil e Primária Ramon Llull and in the work Josep Goday Casals: arquitectura escolar a Barcelona dela Mancomunitata la república (2008. In the conclusions the role played by architect Goday is emphasized, as a protagonist in the configuration of furniture that tries to dignify the classroom, besides the architectural and esthetic aspects

  18. On the Glyadenovo culture dwellings and certain aspects of the ancient permians adaptation to natural conditions and economic activity peculiarities (BACK TO THE MID-20TH-CENTURY STUDIES BY V.F. GENING

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    Chernykh Elizaveta M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Typical features of Upper-Kama dwellings characteristic of the final stage of the Early Iron Age, which have become a “calling card” of the Glyadenovo cultural community (the so-called Fedotovo type, are analyzed in the article. In the past half-century, the data on dwellings investigated by V.F. Gening at the Fedotovo fortified settlement have been substantially completed by materials from the newly-excavated settlements. It is suggested that the differences in dwelling construction technology on different Glyadenovo culture sites cannot be invariably regarded as cultural and chronological features but often bear an adaptive character, i.e. depend on the natural environment. The version of the Fedotovo dwellings reconstruction proposed in the early works by V.F. Gening also needs some correction, which is offered by the author in accordance with a number of features.

  19. Egidio Calzini (1857-1928 e gli studi di storia dell'arte in Romagna e nelle Marche tra XIX e XX secolo / Egidio Calzini (1857-1928 and the studies of art history in Romagna and Marche regions between the 19th and the 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco De Carolis

    2016-06-01

    The paper aims to discover the career and the critical profile of Egidio Calzini, an art historian who actively contributed to the study of the artistic heritage in Romagna and Marches between 19th and