WorldWideScience

Sample records for ear require prox1

  1. Prox1 Inhibits Proliferation and Is Required for Differentiation of the Oligodendrocyte Cell Lineage in the Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kato

    Full Text Available Central nervous system injury induces a regenerative response in ensheathing glial cells comprising cell proliferation, spontaneous axonal remyelination, and limited functional recovery, but the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In Drosophila, this involves the genes prospero and Notch controlling the balance between glial proliferation and differentiation, and manipulating their levels in glia can switch the response to injury from prevention to promotion of repair. In the mouse, Notch1 maintains NG2 oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs in a progenitor state, but what factor may enable oligodendrocyte (OL differentiation and functional remyelination is not understood. Here, we asked whether the mammalian homologue of prospero, Prox1, is involved. Our data show that Prox1 is distributed in NG2+ OPCs and in OLs in primary cultured cells, and in the mouse spinal cord in vivo. siRNA prox1 knockdown in primary OPCs increased cell proliferation, increased NG2+ OPC cell number and decreased CC1+ OL number. Prox1 conditional knockout in the OL cell lineage in mice increased NG2+ OPC cell number, and decreased CC1+ OL number. Lysolecithin-induced demyelination injury caused a reduction in CC1+ OLs in homozygous Prox1-/- conditional knockout mice compared to controls. Remarkably, Prox1-/- conditional knockout mice had smaller lesions than controls. Altogether, these data show that Prox1 is required to inhibit OPC proliferation and for OL differentiation, and could be a relevant component of the regenerative glial response. Therapeutic uses of glia and stem cells to promote regeneration and repair after central nervous system injury would benefit from manipulating Prox1.

  2. Prox 1 in eye degeneration and sensory organ compensation during development and evolution of the cavefish Astyanax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, W; Strickler, A; Guiney, S; Heyser, D; Tomarev, S

    2000-05-01

    We have investigated expression of the homeobox gene Prox 1 during eye degeneration and sensory organ compensation in cavefish embryos. The teleost Astyanax mexicanus consists of sighted surface-dwelling forms (surface fish) and several populations of blind cave-dwelling forms (cavefish), which have evolved independently. Eye formation is initiated during cavefish development, but the lens vesicle undergoes apoptosis, and the eye subsequently arrests and degenerates. The requirement of Prox 1 for lens fiber differentiation and gamma-crystallin expression in the mouse suggests that changes in the expression of this gene could be involved in cavefish eye degeneration. Surface fish and cavefish embryos stained with a Prox 1 antibody showed Prox 1 expression in the lens, neuroretina, myotomes, heart, hindbrain, and gut, as reported in other vertebrates. We found that Prox 1 expression is not altered during cavefish lens development. Prox 1 protein was detected in the lens vesicle as soon as it formed and persisted until the time of lens degeneration in each cavefish population. The cavefish lens vesicle was also shown to express a gamma-crystallin gene, suggesting that Prox 1 is functional in cavefish lens development. In addition to the tissues described above, Prox 1 is expressed in developing taste buds and neuromasts in cavefish, which are enhanced to compensate for blindness. It is concluded that the Prox 1 gene is not involved in lens degeneration, but that expansion of the Prox 1 expression domain occurs during taste bud and neuromast development in cavefish.

  3. Prox1 maintains muscle structure and growth in the developing heart

    OpenAIRE

    Risebro, C. A.; Searles, R. G.; Melville, A. A. D.; Ehler, E.; Jina, N; Shah, S; Pallas, J.; Hubank, M.; Dillard, M; Harvey, N L; Schwartz, R. J.; Chien, K R; Oliver, G; Riley, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    Impaired cardiac muscle growth and aberrant myocyte arrangement underlie congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathy. We show that cardiac-specific inactivation of the murine homeobox transcription factor Prox1 results in the disruption of expression and localisation of sarcomeric proteins, gross myofibril disarray and growth-retarded hearts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Prox1 is required for direct transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding the structural proteins alpha-actinin, N-...

  4. Opposing regulation of PROX1 by interleukin-3 receptor and NOTCH directs differential host cell fate reprogramming by Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyuk Yoo

    Full Text Available Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs are differentiated from blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs during embryogenesis and this physiological cell fate specification is controlled by PROX1, the master regulator for lymphatic development. When Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV infects host cells, it activates the otherwise silenced embryonic endothelial differentiation program and reprograms their cell fates. Interestingly, previous studies demonstrated that KSHV drives BECs to acquire a partial lymphatic phenotype by upregulating PROX1 (forward reprogramming, but stimulates LECs to regain some BEC-signature genes by downregulating PROX1 (reverse reprogramming. Despite the significance of this KSHV-induced bidirectional cell fate reprogramming in KS pathogenesis, its underlying molecular mechanism remains undefined. Here, we report that IL3 receptor alpha (IL3Rα and NOTCH play integral roles in the host cell type-specific regulation of PROX1 by KSHV. In BECs, KSHV upregulates IL3Rα and phosphorylates STAT5, which binds and activates the PROX1 promoter. In LECs, however, PROX1 was rather downregulated by KSHV-induced NOTCH signal via HEY1, which binds and represses the PROX1 promoter. Moreover, PROX1 was found to be required to maintain HEY1 expression in LECs, establishing a reciprocal regulation between PROX1 and HEY1. Upon co-activation of IL3Rα and NOTCH, PROX1 was upregulated in BECs, but downregulated in LECs. Together, our study provides the molecular mechanism underlying the cell type-specific endothelial fate reprogramming by KSHV.

  5. Prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1 at the crossroads of diverse pathways during adult neural fate specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios eStergiopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, adult neurogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS has emerged as a fundamental process underlying physiology and disease. Recent evidence indicates that the homeobox transcription factor Prox1 is a critical intrinsic regulator of neurogenesis in the embryonic CNS and adult dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus, acting in multiple ways and instructed by extrinsic cues and intrinsic factors. In the embryonic CNS, Prox1 is mechanistically involved in the regulation of proliferation versus differentiation decisions of NSCs, promoting cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation, while inhibits astrogliogenesis. During the complex differentiation events in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, Prox1 is required for maintenance of intermediate progenitors (IPs, differentiation and maturation of glutamatergic interneurons, as well as specification of DG cell identity over CA3 pyramidal fate. The mechanism by which Prox1 exerts multiple functions involves distinct signaling pathways currently not fully highlighted. In this mini-review, we thoroughly discuss the Prox1-dependent phenotypes and molecular pathways in adult neurogenesis in relation to different upstream signaling cues and cell fate determinants. In addition, we discuss the possibility that Prox1 may act as a cross-talk point between diverse signaling cascades to achieve specific outcomes during adult neurogenesis.

  6. Prox1 regulates the notch1-mediated inhibition of neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Kaltezioti

    Full Text Available Activation of Notch1 signaling in neural progenitor cells (NPCs induces self-renewal and inhibits neurogenesis. Upon neuronal differentiation, NPCs overcome this inhibition, express proneural genes to induce Notch ligands, and activate Notch1 in neighboring NPCs. The molecular mechanism that coordinates Notch1 inactivation with initiation of neurogenesis remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that Prox1, a transcription repressor and downstream target of proneural genes, counteracts Notch1 signaling via direct suppression of Notch1 gene expression. By expression studies in the developing spinal cord of chick and mouse embryo, we showed that Prox1 is limited to neuronal precursors residing between the Notch1+ NPCs and post-mitotic neurons. Physiological levels of Prox1 in this tissue are sufficient to allow binding at Notch1 promoter and they are critical for proper Notch1 transcriptional regulation in vivo. Gain-of-function studies in the chick neural tube and mouse NPCs suggest that Prox1-mediated suppression of Notch1 relieves its inhibition on neurogenesis and allows NPCs to exit the cell cycle and differentiate. Moreover, loss-of-function in the chick neural tube shows that Prox1 is necessary for suppression of Notch1 outside the ventricular zone, inhibition of active Notch signaling, down-regulation of NPC markers, and completion of neuronal differentiation program. Together these data suggest that Prox1 inhibits Notch1 gene expression to control the balance between NPC self-renewal and neuronal differentiation.

  7. Prox1 expression in the endolymphatic sac revealed by whole-mount fluorescent imaging of Prox1-GFP transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Hoshikawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2015-01-30

    This study describes a technical breakthrough in endolymphatic sac research, made possible by the use of the recently generated Prox1-GFP transgenic mouse model. Whole-mount imaging techniques through the decalcified temporal bone and three-dimensional observations of Prox1-GFP mouse tissue revealed the positive labeling of the endolymphatic sac in adult stage, and allowed, for the first time, the GFP-based identification of endolymphatic sac epithelial cells. Prox1 expression was observed in all parts of the endolymphatic sac epithelia. In intermediate portion of the endolymphatic sac, mitochondria-rich cells did not express Prox1, although ribosome-rich cells showed strong GFP labeling. The anatomical relationship between the endolymphatic sac and the surrounding vasculature was directly observed. In the endolymphatic sac, expression of Prox1 may suggest progenitor cell-like pluripotency or developmental similarity to systemic lymphatic vessels in other organs. This whole-mount imaging technique of the endolymphatic sac can be combined with other conventional histological, sectioning, and labeling techniques and will be very useful for future endolymphatic sac research.

  8. [Role of master transcriptional factor Prox-1 in lymphatic endothelial differentiation of Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Z Y; Yang, S J

    2017-03-08

    Objective: To analyze the clinical and pathological features of Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE), and to investigate the role of master transcriptional factor Prox-1 in the regulation of lymphatic differentiation. Methods: Nine cases of KHE (during the period from October 2009 to June 2016) were collected with clinical and pathological data. H&E stained section review and immunohistochemietry using the Dako EnVision method were performed. Results: There were 6 female and 3 male patients with age ranging from 2 months to 8 years (median 3 years and 4 months). The patients presented with either single subcutaneous soft tissue mass, or bone tumors, with the duration of disease onset ranging from 1 month to 1 year. The sites of involvement included the skins of neck (2 cases), nose root (1 case), inguinal (1 case), thigh root (1 case), humerus (2 cases), lumbar vertebrae(1 case), and mesentery (1 case). These tumors were histologically composed of nodules of densely packed spindle or ovoid cells and deformed small blood vessels in an invasive growth pattern. The tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for both blood vessels and lymphatic endothelial markers, including Prox-1, the master transcriptional factor, and VEGFR-3. With followed-up from 1 to 60 months (median 26 months), two patients died of the disease, while the remaining patients were alive without recurrence. Conclusions: KHE is a rare vascular tumor with at least partial lymphatic endothelial differentiation, in which Prox-1 may act as a master regulator for such differentiation. KHE is an aggressive tumor of intermediate malignant potential, with local invasion and recurrence tendency, and long term follow-up is required.

  9. Crucial role of zebrafish prox1 in hypothalamic catecholaminergic neurons development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Giacco Luca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prox1, the vertebrate homolog of prospero in Drosophila melanogaster, is a divergent homeogene that regulates cell proliferation, fate determination and differentiation during vertebrate embryonic development. Results Here we report that, in zebrafish, prox1 is widely expressed in several districts of the Central Nervous System (CNS. Specifically, we evidenced prox1 expression in a group of neurons, already positive for otp1, located in the hypothalamus at the level of the posterior tuberculum (PT. Prox1 knock-down determines the severe loss of hypothalamic catecholaminergic (CA neurons, identified by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression, and the synergistic prox1/otp1 overexpression induces the appearance of hypothalamic supernumerary TH-positive neurons and ectopic TH-positive cells on the yolk epitelium. Conclusion Our findings indicate that prox1 activity is crucial for the proper development of the otp1-positive hypothalamic neuronal precursors to their terminal CA phenotype.

  10. Prox1 Is a Marker for AII Amacrine Cells in the Mouse Retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pérez de Sevilla Müller

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Prox1 is expressed in multiple cells in the retina during eye development. This study has focused on neuronal Prox1 expression in the inner nuclear layer (INL of the adult mouse retina. Prox1 immunostaining was evaluated in vertical retinal sections and whole mount preparations using a specific antibody directed to the C-terminus of Prox1. Strong immunostaining was observed in numerous amacrine cell bodies and in all horizontal cell bodies in the proximal and distal INL, respectively. Some bipolar cells were also weakly immunostained. Prox1-immunoreactive amacrine cells expressed glycine, and they formed 35 ± 3% of all glycinergic amacrine cells. Intracellular Neurobiotin injections into AII amacrine cells showed that all gap junction-coupled AII amacrine cells express Prox1, and no other Prox1-immunostained amacrine cells were in the immediate area surrounding the injected AII amacrine cell. Prox1-immunoreactive amacrine cell bodies were distributed across the retina, with their highest density (3887 ± 160 cells/mm2 in the central retina, 0.5 mm from the optic nerve head, and their lowest density (3133 ± 350 cells/mm2 in the mid-peripheral retina, 2 mm from the optic nerve head. Prox1-immunoreactive amacrine cell bodies comprised ~9.8% of the total amacrine cell population, and they formed a non-random mosaic with a regularity index (RI of 3.4, similar to AII amacrine cells in the retinas of other mammals. Together, these findings indicate that AII amacrine cells are the predominant and likely only amacrine cell type strongly expressing Prox1 in the adult mouse retina, and establish Prox1 as a marker of AII amacrine cells.

  11. Rapamycin up-regulates triglycerides in hepatocytes by down-regulating Prox1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sora; Jeon, Ji-Sook; Kim, Su Bin; Hong, Young-Kwon; Ahn, Curie; Sung, Jung-Suk; Choi, Inho

    2016-02-27

    Although the prolonged use of rapamycin may cause unwanted side effects such as hyperlipidemia, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Prox1 is a transcription factor responsible for the development of several tissues including lymphatics and liver. There is growing evidences that Prox1 participates in metabolism in addition to embryogenesis. However, whether Prox1 is directly related to lipid metabolism is currently unknown. HepG2 human hepatoma cells were treated with rapamycin and total lipids were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The effect of rapamycin on the expression of Prox1 was determined by western blotting. To investigate the role of Prox1 in triglycerides regulation, siRNA and overexpression system were employed. Rapamycin was injected into mice for 2 weeks and total lipids and proteins in liver were measured by thin layer chromatography and western blot analysis, respectively. Rapamycin up-regulated the amount of triglyceride and down-regulated the expression of Prox1 in HepG2 cells by reducing protein half-life but did not affect its transcript. The loss-of-function of Prox1 was coincident with the increase of triglycerides in HepG2 cells treated with rapamycin. The up-regulation of triglycerides by rapamycin in HepG2 cells reverted to normal levels by the compensation of Prox1 using the overexpression system. Rapamycin also down-regulated Prox1 expression but increased triglycerides in mouse liver. This study suggests that rapamycin can increase the amount of triglycerides by down-regulating Prox1 expression in hepatocytes, which means that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is important for the regulation of triglycerides by maintaining Prox1 expression.

  12. Prox-1和PCNA在人脑胶质瘤中的表达及意义%Expression and Significance of Prox-1 and PCNA in Glioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王煜; 范益民

    2010-01-01

    目的 检测Prox-1和PCNA在胶质瘤细胞中的表达,探讨其与肿瘤恶性程度的关系.方法 应用s-p免疫组织化学的方法检测65例胶质瘤和13例正常脑组织中的Prox-1及PCNA的表达,对实验数据进行统计学分析.结果 Prox-1和PCNA在正常脑组织中无表达,在肿瘤组织中的表达均随肿瘤病理级别的升高而增高,相关性分析显示二者的表达存在正相关.结论 不同病理级别的胶质瘤中Prox-1、PCNA表达程度不同,高级别的胶质瘤中(Ⅲ、Ⅳ级)Prox-1、PCNA表达显著;而在低级别的胶质瘤中弱表达.Prox-1与PCNA的表达正相关.

  13. Vegfc Regulates Bipotential Precursor Division and Prox1 Expression to Promote Lymphatic Identity in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Koltowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic vessels arise chiefly from preexisting embryonic veins. Genetic regulators of lymphatic fate are known, but how dynamic cellular changes contribute during the acquisition of lymphatic identity is not understood. We report the visualization of zebrafish lymphatic precursor cell dynamics during fate restriction. In the cardinal vein, cellular commitment is linked with the division of bipotential Prox1-positive precursor cells, which occurs immediately prior to sprouting angiogenesis. Following precursor division, identities are established asymmetrically in daughter cells; one daughter cell becomes lymphatic and progressively upregulates Prox1, and the other downregulates Prox1 and remains in the vein. Vegfc drives cell division and Prox1 expression in lymphatic daughter cells, coupling signaling dynamics with daughter cell fate restriction and precursor division.

  14. Vegfc Regulates Bipotential Precursor Division and Prox1 Expression to Promote Lymphatic Identity in Zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koltowska, Katarzyna; Lagendijk, Anne Karine; Pichol-Thievend, Cathy;

    2015-01-01

    during fate restriction. In the cardinal vein, cellular commitment is linked with the division of bipotential Prox1-positive precursor cells, which occurs immediately prior to sprouting angiogenesis. Following precursor division, identities are established asymmetrically in daughter cells; one daughter...... cell becomes lymphatic and progressively upregulates Prox1, and the other downregulates Prox1 and remains in the vein. Vegfc drives cell division and Prox1 expression in lymphatic daughter cells, coupling signaling dynamics with daughter cell fate restriction and precursor division.......Lymphatic vessels arise chiefly from preexisting embryonic veins. Genetic regulators of lymphatic fate are known, but how dynamic cellular changes contribute during the acquisition of lymphatic identity is not understood. We report the visualization of zebrafish lymphatic precursor cell dynamics...

  15. PROX1 Promotes Metabolic Adaptation and Fuels Outgrowth of Wnthigh Metastatic Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ragusa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt pathway is abnormally activated in the majority of colorectal cancers, and significant knowledge has been gained in understanding its role in tumor initiation. However, the mechanisms of metastatic outgrowth in colorectal cancer remain a major challenge. We report that autophagy-dependent metabolic adaptation and survival of metastatic colorectal cancer cells is regulated by the target of oncogenic Wnt signaling, homeobox transcription factor PROX1, expressed by a subpopulation of colon cancer progenitor/stem cells. We identify direct PROX1 target genes and show that repression of a pro-apoptotic member of the BCL2 family, BCL2L15, is important for survival of PROX1+ cells under metabolic stress. PROX1 inactivation after the establishment of metastases prevented further growth of lesions. Furthermore, autophagy inhibition efficiently targeted metastatic PROX1+ cells, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach. These data identify PROX1 as a key regulator of the transcriptional network contributing to metastases outgrowth in colorectal cancer.

  16. PROX1 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation and sorafenib resistance by enhancing β-catenin expression and nuclear translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Ye, X; Zhang, J-B; Ouyang, H; Shen, Z; Wu, Y; Wang, W; Wu, J; Tao, S; Yang, X; Qiao, K; Zhang, J; Liu, J; Fu, Q; Xie, Y

    2015-10-29

    Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is frequent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and contributes to HCC initiation and progression. This abnormal activation may result from somatic mutations in the genes of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and/or dysregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The mechanism for the latter remains poorly understood. Prospero-related homeobox 1 (PROX1) is a downstream target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in human colorectal cancer and elevated PROX1 expression promotes malignant progression. However, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway does not regulate PROX1 expression in the liver and HCC cells. Here we report that PROX1 promotes HCC cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in HCC xenograft mice. PROX1 and β-catenin levels are positively correlated in tumor tissues as well as in cultured HCC cells. PROX1 can upregulate β-catenin transcription by stimulating the β-catenin promoter and enhance the nuclear translocation of β-catenin in HCC cells, which leads to the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Moreover, we show that increase in PROX1 expression renders HCC cells more resistant to sorafenib treatment, which is the standard therapy for advanced HCC. Overall, we have pinpointed PROX1 as a critical factor activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in HCC, which promotes HCC proliferation and sorafenib resistance.

  17. Prox1 identifies proliferating neuroblasts and nascent neurons during neurogenesis in sympathetic ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Julia; Hennchen, Melanie; Rohrer, Hermann

    2015-12-01

    Neurogenesis in embryonic sympathetic ganglia involves neuroblasts that resume proliferation following neuronal differentiation. As cell cycle exit is not associated with neuronal differentiation, the identity of proliferating neuroblasts is incompletely understood. Here, we use sympathetic ganglia of chick embryos to define the timing of neurogenesis and neuroblast identity focusing on the expression and function of the transcription factor Prox1. We show that a large fraction of neuroblasts has initially withdrawn from the cell cycle at embryonic day 3 (E3), which is reflected by a high proportion of p27(+)/Islet1(+) neuroblasts (63%) and low numbers of EdU(+)/Islet1(+) cells (12%). The proportion of proliferating Islet1(+) neuroblasts, identified by EdU pulse labeling and by the absence of the postmitotic marker p27 increases to reach maximal levels at E5, when virtually all neuroblasts are in the cell cycle (95%). Subsequently, the proportion of EdU-labeled and p27(-) neuroblasts is reduced to reach low levels at E11. Interestingly, the expression of the transcription factor Prox1 is restricted to the neuronal lineage, that is, Sox10(+)/Phox2b(+) neuron progenitors, proliferating p27(-)/Islet1(+) neuroblasts and nascent neurons but is rapidly lost in postmitotic neurons. In vitro and in vivo knockdown and overexpression experiments demonstrate effects of Prox1 in the support of neuroblast proliferation and survival. Taken together, these results define the neurogenesis period in the chick paravertebral sympathetic ganglia including an initial cell cycle withdrawal and identify Prox1 as a marker and regulator of proliferating sympathetic neuroblasts.

  18. Prox-1在结直肠癌组织中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周松涛; 高峰; 宋枫; 徐明; 任彦武

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨结肠癌中Prox-1的表达与临床意义.方法 选择2012年3月至2012年5月兰州军区兰州总医院肛肠科手术切除的结肠癌新鲜癌组织标本及癌旁正常组织标本41例,术前均未行放化疗,术后经病理证实,且有完整的临床、病理资料.采用RT-pCR法检测结肠癌患者肿瘤组织、正常组织中Prox-1的表达.结果 结直肠癌组织中Prox-1的表达水平显著高于正常组织(P<0.05).癌组织中Prox-1mRNA的表达水平与有无淋巴结转移组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).Prox-1在癌组织的表达与临床分期之间存在正相关,且有统计学意义(P<0.05).根据该结果可以认为临床分期越高,Prox-1表达越高.结论 结直肠癌组织中Prox-1的高表达与结肠癌的淋巴结转移有一定关系,检测该指标对于了解结直肠癌的淋巴管生成与淋巴结转移的关系及判定预后具有一定价值.

  19. 结肠癌Prox-1表达与淋巴管密度的关系及其临床意义%Expression of Prox-1 in colorectal carcinoma and its relationship with lymphatic vessel density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖世尧; 杨文斌; 杨恒

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore the expression of the transcription factor Prox-1 in colorectal carcinoma and its relationship with lymphatic vessel density, and clinical significance.MethodsFifty colorectal carcinoma patients were included in this study. RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of Prox-1in paracarcinoma tissues and normal colorectal tissues; immunohistochemical method (SP) was used to examine the lymphatic vessel density(LVD).ResultsThe expression of Prox-1 mRNA in paracarcinoma tissues was significantly higher than that in normal tissues (t=6.232,P<0.05) ; the LVD in paracarcinoma tissues was significantly higher than that in normal tissues(t=8.627,P<0.05). The expression of Prox-1 mRNA in paracarcinoma tissues had positively linear relation with LVD(r=0.621,P<0.05). The expression of Prox-1 of paracarcinoma tissues in dimension of invasion depth (t=3.310,P<0.05),TNM staging(t=3.341,P<0.05) and lymph node metastasis(t=2.689,P<0.05) showed significant difference.ConclusionThe overexpression of Prox-1 in paracarcinoma tissue is related to lymphatic metastasis, depth of invasion and TNM stage. The expression of Prox-1 can be one of important prognostic factors for colon cancer.%目的:观察分析原发性结肠癌中转录因子Prox-1的表达与淋巴管密度(lymphatic vessel density,LVD)的关系,探讨其临床意义。方法对我院收治的50例结肠癌患者的癌旁非癌组织和正常大肠组织,采用逆转录-聚合酶链反应法检测Prox-1表达情况,采用免疫组化SP法检测对应组织中LVD。结果癌旁非癌组织中Prox-1表达水平显著高于正常组织(t=6.232,P<0.05);癌旁非癌组织LVD显著高于正常组织(t=8.627,P<0.05);癌旁非癌组织Prox-1的表达水平与LVD呈正相关(r=0.621,P<0.05),在浸润深度(t=3.310,P<0.05)、TNM分期(t=3.341,P<0.05)及淋巴转移(t=2.689,P<0.05)上差异有统计学意义。结论结肠癌癌旁非癌组织中Prox

  20. 转录因子Prox-1对大肠癌中淋巴管生成的作用%Effects of Prox-1 on lymphangiogenesis in colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅仲学; 肖世尧; 王春毅; 张彦斌

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨大肠癌中转录因子Prox-1的表达及对淋巴管生成、淋巴结转移的作用.方法 采用RT-PCR检测大肠癌正常组织、癌交界组织、癌组织中Prox-1的表达;用免疫组织化学SP法测定淋巴管密度(1ymphatic vascular density,LVD).结果 大肠癌组织、癌交界组织中Prox-1的表达水平均显著高于正常组织(P<0.05).癌交界组织中Prox-1的表达水平在Dukes A+B期和C+D期、有无淋巴结转移之间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).正常组织与癌交界组织的LVD比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);癌交界组织中LVD在Dukes A+B期和C+D期、有无淋巴结转移之间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).癌交界组织中Prox-1 mRNA的表达水平与LVD呈正相关(r=0.54,P=0.018).结论 Prox-1的过度表达诱导淋巴管内皮细胞的分化、生成;Prox-1是预测肿瘤淋巴转移影响的有效因子之一,但不是独立因子;在进行预测时应选用癌交界组织.

  1. Expressions of LYVE-1 and PROX-1 in Breast Carcinoma and Their Clinical Significance%乳腺癌组织中LYVE-1和PROX-1的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏军成; 罗丹枫; 马丁

    2014-01-01

    目的:检测淋巴管内皮细胞透明质酸受体1(LYVE-1)和同源盒基因转录因子1(PROX-1)在人乳腺癌组织中的表达,探讨淋巴管密度在肿瘤淋巴结转移中的临床意义。方法收集80例乳腺浸润性导管癌和35例乳腺良性增生组织,采用免疫组织化学 SP法检测LYVE-1和PROX-1的表达。结果乳腺癌组织中LYVE-1和PROX-1各自标记的淋巴管密度均明显高于乳腺增生组织,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.01),且与肿瘤淋巴结转移密切相关,有淋巴结转移者均高于无淋巴结转移者(均P<0.01);PROX-1在癌细胞内的表达,不同的肿瘤病理学分级和临床分期之间差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.01)。结论乳腺浸润性导管癌组织中淋巴管生成增多,淋巴管密度与肿瘤淋巴结转移相关, PROX-1可能与乳腺癌发生、发展及淋巴结转移相关。%Objective To investigate the expressions of LYVE-1 and PROX-1 in human breast carcinoma and the clinical significance of lymphatic vessel density.Methods Immunohistochemistry (SP method)was used to detect the expressions of LYVE-1 and PROX-1 in 80 specimens of breast invasive ductal carcinoma and 35 specimens of breast hyperplasia.Results The density of lymphatic vessels positive for LYVE-1 or PROX-1 was significantly higher in breast carcinoma than in breast hyper-plasia (P<0.01).There was a significant correlation between lymphatic vessel density and lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). A negative correlation was noted between the PROX-1 expression in carcinoma cells and tumor grade (P<0.01)or TNM stage (P < 0.01 ).Conclusion Lymphangiogenesis is increased in breast carcinoma,which is associated with lymph node metastasis.PROX-1 may be involved in tumorigenesis,progression and lymphatic metastasis in breast cancer.

  2. PROX-1 and Ki-67 expressions in cholangiocarcinoma tissues and their significance%PROX-1与Ki-67在胆管癌中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕品; 蒋波; 王俊; 刘剑鸣; 谭永辉

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨PROX-1及Ki-67在胆管癌中表达及意义.方法:用免疫组化法检测46例肝门部胆管癌患者(伴淋巴结转移29例,无淋巴结转移17例)癌组织与23例胆管良性病变患者胆管组织中PROX-1及Ki-67的表达,分析PROX-1及Ki-67的表达与胆管癌淋巴转移及其他临床病理因素的关系.结果:PROX-1与Ki-67两者的阳性表达率在良性病变胆管组织、无淋巴结转移胆管癌组织、伴淋巴结转移胆管组织中依次增高,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);两者的阳性表达率均与胆管癌的分化程度有关(均P<0.05),而与患者的性别、年龄无关(P>0.05);胆管癌组织中PROX-1与Ki-67表达正相关(r=0.831,P<0.05).结论:PROX-1与Ki-67的高表达与胆管癌的恶性生物学行为密切相关,且两者表达量之间存在关联性.

  3. Prox1 Promotes Expansion of the Colorectal Cancer Stem Cell Population to Fuel Tumor Growth and Ischemia Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Wiener

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC initiation and growth is often attributed to stem cells, yet little is known about the regulation of these cells. We show here that a subpopulation of Prox1-transcription-factor-expressing cells have stem cell activity in intestinal adenomas, but not in the normal intestine. Using in vivo models and 3D ex vivo organoid cultures of mouse adenomas and human CRC, we found that Prox1 deletion reduced the number of stem cells and cell proliferation and decreased intestinal tumor growth via induction of annexin A1 and reduction of the actin-binding protein filamin A, which has been implicated as a prognostic marker in CRC. Loss of Prox1 also decreased autophagy and the survival of hypoxic tumor cells in tumor transplants. Thus, Prox1 is essential for the expansion of the stem cell pool in intestinal adenomas and CRC without being critical for the normal functions of the gut.

  4. Expression of LYVE-1 and Prox-1 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma%淋巴管生成因子LYVE-1及Prox-1在宫颈鳞癌组织的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 盛修贵; 张莉; 张师前; 张廷国

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨淋巴管生成因子LYVE-1及Prox-1的定量表达与宫颈癌淋巴结转移的相关性.方法:收集宫颈鳞癌手术标本24例,运用半定量RT-PCR技术对淋巴管生成因子LYVE-1和Prox-1进行分析,分别比较这两种因子在切除标本的肿瘤组织、癌旁组织中表达的差异.结果:Prox-1在肿瘤及癌旁组织表达分别为1.52±0.26和0.46±0.19,LYVE-1在肿瘤及癌旁正常组织的表达分别为1.37±0.21和0.56±0.12.Prox-1及LYVE-1在肿瘤组织的表达均高于癌旁组织(P均<0.01),与肿瘤的发生有关.并且它们的表达与淋巴结转移有相关性(P<0.01).结论:Prox-1及LYVE-1表达升高与宫颈癌发生及淋巴结转移有一定关系,检测该指标对了解宫颈癌的侵袭和转移具有一定价值.%Objective: To investigate the relevance between the expression of lymphangiogenesis factor and cervical lymph node metastasis. Method :This study has collected 24 cases of surgical specimens of cervical squamous cell carcinoma-with lymph node metastasis, using semi-quamitatie reverse transcription PCR technique to analyse the expression of lymphangiogenic factor LYVE-1 and Prox-1 , and compared the differential expression of these two factors in tumor and adjacent tissue respectively. Results: The relative expression of Prox-1 in tumor and tissue adjacent to the tumor were I . 52±0. 26 and 0. 46 ±0.19 ( P<0. 01 ) , of LYVE-1 were 1. 37±0. 21 and 0. 56±0. 12 ( P<0. 01 ). They had higher expression m cervical tissues than adjacent tissues,related with the developme.nt of cervical cancer and lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: Prox-1 and LYVE-1 were correlated with cervical cancer and lymph node metastasis,suggesting that detection of LYVE-1 and Prox-1 may be valuable in the evaluation of invasiveness and metastasis of cervical cancer.

  5. Correlations among Prox-1, lymphangiogenesis,and lymphatic metastasis of tumor%Prox-1与淋巴管新生和肿瘤转移的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雯君

    2010-01-01

    侵袭和转移是恶性肿瘤的重要生物学行为之一,淋巴道转移是恶性肿瘤难以根治以及高病死率的主要原因,也是判断患者预后的主要指标.果蝇prospero同源异形盒蛋白1(prospero homeobox protein 1,Prox-1)在胚胎时期淋巴管形成过程中具有重要作用,可以作为淋巴管内皮细胞标志物,显示肿瘤新生淋巴管,并与肿瘤淋巴道转移密切相关.尽管Prox-1促进胚胎淋巴管形成机制的研究较为深入,但是在肿瘤淋巴管新生和淋巴道转移的作用机制方面仍有待于进一步探讨,Prox-1可能作为抑制肿瘤淋巴管新生和治疗肿瘤的新靶点,用于阻断肿瘤转移和改善患者预后.现就Prox-1与胚胎淋巴管形成、肿瘤淋巴管新生以及与肿瘤淋巴道转移关系的相关研究现状综述如下.

  6. Fucoidan inhibits lymphangiogenesis by downregulating the expression of VEGFR3 and PROX1 in human lymphatic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yazong; Gao, Zixiang; Ma, Yanhong; Teng, Hongming; Liu, Zundong; Wei, Hengyun; Lu, Yanbing; Cheng, Xiaofang; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2016-06-21

    Lymphangiogenesis is one of the promoters of tumor lymphatic metastasis. Fucoidan which is a fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharide has effect on various pharmacological activities including anti-metastasis activity. However, the inhibitory effect of fucoidan on lymphangiogenesis remains unclear. Here, fucoidan extracted from U. pinnatifida sporophylls suppressed HLECs proliferation, migration and tube-like structure formation, and had inhibitory effect of tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis in vitro. Additionally, we found that fucoidan had a dose-dependent depressive effect on the expressions of PROX1, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3), NF-κB, phospho-PI3K and phospho-Akt in HLECs. Moreover, anti-lymphangiogenesis effect of fucoidan was assessed by using mouse tumor model. In summary, fucoidan inhibit tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis by suppressing the NF-κB/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway through reduced levels of PROX1 and VEGFR3.

  7. Prox1 directly interacts with LSD1 and recruits the LSD1/NuRD complex to epigenetically co-repress CYP7A1 transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Huafang; Qin, Yi; Liu, Yanfeng; Xie, Youhua; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the classical pathway of bile acids synthesis in liver and is crucial for maintaining lipid homeostasis. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) and α1-fetoprotein transcription factor (FTF) are two major transcription factors driving CYP7A1 promoter activity in hepatocytes. Previous researches have shown that Prospero-related homeobox (Prox1) directly interacts with both HNF4α and FTF and potently co-represses CYP7A1 transcription and bile acid synthesis through unidentified mechanisms. In this work, mechanisms involved in Prox1-mediated co-repression were explored by identifying Prox1-associated proteins using immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry (IP-MS) methodology. Multiple components of the epigenetically repressive lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1)/nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex, most notably LSD1 and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), were found to be associated with Prox1 and GST pulldown assay demonstrated that Prox1 directly interacts with LSD1. Sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that Prox1 co-localizes with HNF4α, LSD1 and HDAC2 on CYP7A1 promoter in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, by using ChIP assay on HepG2 cells with endogenous Prox1 knocked down by RNA interference, Prox1 was shown to recruit LSD1 and HDAC2 onto CYP7A1 promoter and cause increased H3K4 demethylation. Finally, bile acids treatment of HepG2 cells, which significantly repressed CYP7A1 transcription, resulted in increased Prox1 and LSD1/NuRD complex occupancy on CYP7A1 promoter with a concurrent increase in H3K4 demethylation and H3/H4 deacetylation. These results showed that Prox1 interacts with LSD1 to recruit the repressive LSD1/NuRD complex to CYP7A1 promoter and co-represses transcription through epigenetic mechanisms. In addition, such Prox1-mediated epigenetic repression is involved in the physiologically essential negative feedback

  8. Prox1 directly interacts with LSD1 and recruits the LSD1/NuRD complex to epigenetically co-repress CYP7A1 transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huafang Ouyang

    Full Text Available Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the classical pathway of bile acids synthesis in liver and is crucial for maintaining lipid homeostasis. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α and α1-fetoprotein transcription factor (FTF are two major transcription factors driving CYP7A1 promoter activity in hepatocytes. Previous researches have shown that Prospero-related homeobox (Prox1 directly interacts with both HNF4α and FTF and potently co-represses CYP7A1 transcription and bile acid synthesis through unidentified mechanisms. In this work, mechanisms involved in Prox1-mediated co-repression were explored by identifying Prox1-associated proteins using immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry (IP-MS methodology. Multiple components of the epigenetically repressive lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase (NuRD complex, most notably LSD1 and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2, were found to be associated with Prox1 and GST pulldown assay demonstrated that Prox1 directly interacts with LSD1. Sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays showed that Prox1 co-localizes with HNF4α, LSD1 and HDAC2 on CYP7A1 promoter in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, by using ChIP assay on HepG2 cells with endogenous Prox1 knocked down by RNA interference, Prox1 was shown to recruit LSD1 and HDAC2 onto CYP7A1 promoter and cause increased H3K4 demethylation. Finally, bile acids treatment of HepG2 cells, which significantly repressed CYP7A1 transcription, resulted in increased Prox1 and LSD1/NuRD complex occupancy on CYP7A1 promoter with a concurrent increase in H3K4 demethylation and H3/H4 deacetylation. These results showed that Prox1 interacts with LSD1 to recruit the repressive LSD1/NuRD complex to CYP7A1 promoter and co-represses transcription through epigenetic mechanisms. In addition, such Prox1-mediated epigenetic repression is involved in the physiologically essential negative

  9. 乳腺癌淋巴管LYVE-1和PROX-1表达程度与肿瘤淋巴转移的关联性分析%The Correlation Between Expression of LYVE-1 and PROX-1 in Breast Cancer Associated Lymphatic Vessel and Lymphatic Metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐睿; 赵春英

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察乳腺浸润性导管癌患者肿瘤组织中乳腺癌淋巴管LYVE-1和PROX-1的表达程度与肿瘤淋巴转移的关联性.方法 选择乳腺浸润性导管癌患者90例为实验组,以60例乳腺良性病变患者为对照组,检测实验组患者肿瘤组织LYVE-1和PROX-1的水平,与对照组患者组织的LYVE-1和PROX-1的水平进行比较;将实验组患者按转移、复发情况进行分类,观察LYVE-1和PROX-1表达与肿瘤淋巴转移的关系.结果 实验组患者肿瘤组织的LYVE-1和PROX-1阳性淋巴管密度(LVD)明显高于对照组,实验组患者中有淋巴转移患者的LYVE-1和PROX-1阳性LVD明显高于无淋巴转移患者,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05);LYVE-1和PROX-1阳性LVD之间无相关性;logistic回归分析,LYVE-1和PROX-1是肿瘤转移的相关因素,对LYVE-1、PROX-1与转移的关系绘制ROC曲线,AUC分别为0.716、0.672;按ROC曲线分析所得诊断临界值进行分组,随访观察一年,LYVE-1、PROX-1阳性LVD升高患者,淋巴转移率较高.结论 乳腺浸润性导管癌患者肿瘤组织LYVE-1和PROX-1表达与淋巴管生成有关,表达程度高的患者更易发生淋巴转移.

  10. Model establishment of cervical cancer lymphatic metastasis and clinical significance of Prox-1%宫颈癌淋巴道转移模型的建立及Prox-1临床意义初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰双; 胡丽娜

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立小鼠宫颈癌淋巴道转移模型,初步探讨Prox-1的临床意义.方法 将宫颈癌U27瘤株的单细胞悬液注入小鼠左爪垫,观察成瘤率、肿瘤生长及淋巴结转移情况.应用HE染色及CK免疫组化检测各级淋巴结中有无肿瘤转移;应用荧光定量PCR和Western blot检测肿瘤组织中VEGFR-3和Pmx-1在mRNA及蛋白水平的表达情况.结果 爪垫种植后成瘤率100%;淋巴结转移程度与接种时间显著相关;荧光定量PCR和Western blot结果显示,肿瘤组织中Prox-1 mRNA和蛋白在远处淋巴结转移组[(0.000 173±0.000 085),(0.108 7±0.049 9)]明显高于前哨淋巴结转移组[(0.000 058±0.000 022),(0.012 0±0.005 7)]及无淋巴结转移组[(0.000027±0.000 010),(0.003 8±0.001 4)],3组两两比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 小鼠爪垫皮下注射可成功建立宫颈癌淋巴道转移模型;Prox-1是预测肿瘤淋巴结转移及抗肿瘤淋巴转移的敏感指标.%Objective To establish the uterine cervical cancer model of lymphatic metastasis using Kun-ruing (Kin) mice and to explore the clinical significance of Prox-1. Methods The lymphatic metastasis model was estabhshed by injection of cervical cancer cells into the left natl pads of female Km mice. The tumor forma-tion rate, tumor growth and lymph node metastasis status were observed. At 5, 10, 15, and 20 d after inocula-tion, mice in one group were sacrificed for the specimens, including lymph nodes and tumors. Then HE dyeing and immunohistochemistry staining of cytokeratin were used for the detection of the occurrence of lymphatic me-tastasis or not, and fluorescent quantitation polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) and Western-blot were used for the detection of the expressions of VEGFR-3 and Prox-1. Results The tumor formation rate was 100%. The lymph node metastasis was closely correlated with the inoculation time. FQ-PCR and Western blot demon-strated that Prox-1 mRNA and protein expressions in distant lymphatic

  11. Hepatic maturation of human iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells by ATF5, c/EBPα, and PROX1 transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Daiki; Takayama, Kazuo; Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Mitani, Seiji; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-15

    Hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from human iPS cells (human iPS-HLCs) are expected to be utilized in drug development and research. However, recent hepatic characterization of human iPS-HLCs showed that these cells resemble fetal hepatocytes rather than adult hepatocytes. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to develop a method to enhance the hepatic function of human iPS-HLCs. Because the gene expression levels of the hepatic transcription factors (activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (c/EBPα), and prospero homeobox protein 1 (PROX1)) in adult liver were significantly higher than those in human iPS-HLCs and fetal liver, we expected that the hepatic functions of human iPS-HLCs could be enhanced by adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated ATF5, c/EBPα, and PROX1 transduction. The gene expression levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9, 2E1, alpha-1 antitrypsin, transthyretin, Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 and protein expression levels of CYP2C9 and CYP2E1 were upregulated by ATF5, c/EBPα, and PROX1 transduction. These results suggest that the hepatic functions of the human iPS-HLCs could be enhanced by ATF5, c/EBPα, and PROX1 transduction. Our findings would be useful for the hepatic maturation of human iPS-HLCs.

  12. 结肠癌Prox-1表达与淋巴管密度的关系及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖世尧; 杨文斌; 杨恒

    2015-01-01

    目的观察分析原发性结肠癌中转录因子Prox-1的表达与淋巴管密度(lymphatic vessel density,LVD)的关系,探讨其临床意义。方法对我院收治的50例结肠癌患者的癌旁非癌组织和正常大肠组织,采用逆转录-聚合酶链反应法检测Prox-1表达情况,采用免疫组化SP法检测对应组织中LVD。结果癌旁非癌组织中Prox-1表达水平显著高于正常组织(t=6.232,P〈0.05);癌旁非癌组织LVD显著高于正常组织(t=8.627,P〈0.05);癌旁非癌组织Prox-1的表达水平与LVD呈正相关(r=0.621,P〈0.05),在浸润深度(t=3.310,P〈0.05)、TNM分期(t=3.341,P〈0.05)及淋巴转移(t=2.689,P〈0.05)上差异有统计学意义。结论结肠癌癌旁非癌组织中Prox-1的表达水平较高,且与淋巴转移、浸润深度及TNM分期有关,可作为结肠癌预后判断的有效预测因子之一。

  13. Prox-1:一种与实体肿瘤淋巴结转移相关的细胞内标志

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董胜翔; 黄钢

    2007-01-01

    实体肿瘤淋巴结微转移是影响愈后的重要因素,Prox-1是胚胎发育中最早出现的淋巴标志,在淋巴囊、淋巴管形成过程中起决定性作用,是血管淋巴表型的关键基因程序,在成人机体组织中持续表达。近年来,国内外逐步开展了Prox-1与实体肿瘤淋巴结转移的研究。

  14. The Notch ligand JAG1 is required for sensory progenitor development in the mammalian inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Kiernan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, six separate sensory regions in the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance function. Each sensory region is made up of hair cells, which are the sensory cells, and their associated supporting cells, both arising from a common progenitor. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern the development of these sensory organs. Notch signaling plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of hair cells and supporting cells by mediating lateral inhibition via the ligands Delta-like 1 and Jagged (JAG 2. However, another Notch ligand, JAG1, is expressed early in the sensory patches prior to cell differentiation, indicating that there may be an earlier role for Notch signaling in sensory development in the ear. Here, using conditional gene targeting, we show that the Jag1 gene is required for the normal development of all six sensory organs within the inner ear. Cristae are completely lacking in Jag1-conditional knockout (cko mutant inner ears, whereas the cochlea and utricle show partial sensory development. The saccular macula is present but malformed. Using SOX2 and p27kip1 as molecular markers of the prosensory domain, we show that JAG1 is initially expressed in all the prosensory regions of the ear, but becomes down-regulated in the nascent organ of Corti by embryonic day 14.5, when the cells exit the cell cycle and differentiate. We also show that both SOX2 and p27kip1 are down-regulated in Jag1-cko inner ears. Taken together, these data demonstrate that JAG1 is expressed early in the prosensory domains of both the cochlear and vestibular regions, and is required to maintain the normal expression levels of both SOX2 and p27kip1. These data demonstrate that JAG1-mediated Notch signaling is essential during early development for establishing the prosensory regions of the inner ear.

  15. LYVE-1、Prox-1在非小细胞肺癌中的表达及其与淋巴转移的关系%Expression of LYVE-1 and Prox-1 in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and the Relationship with Lymph Node Metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常超; 王平; 杨慧; 李琳; 张利斌

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨淋巴管内皮透明质酸受体-1(LYVE-1)、同源异型盒转录因子(Prox-1)在非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)中的表达规律,与微淋巴管密度(MLVD)及淋巴转移之间的关系及其在NSCLC发生发展、预后中的意义.方法 以40例经病理确诊的NSCLC组织(分为肿瘤中心组织及肿瘤周边组织)为实验组,以11例肺良性病变组织为对照组,采用免疫组化法检测上述组织中LYVE-1、Prox-1及CD31蛋白的表达,光镜下计数MLVD及微血管密度.结果 ①NSCLC肿瘤中心组织中LYVE-1及Prox-1标记的MLVD分别为4.22±1.25、1.99±1.49,低于肺良性病变组织(P均为0.000).②NSCLC肿瘤周边组织中LYVE-1及Prox-1标记的MLVD分别为10.89±2.06、6.63±1.99,高于肿瘤中心部位及肺良性病变组织(P均为0.000).③肿瘤周边组织中LYVE-1及Prox-1标记的MLVD与NSCLC患者的性别、年龄、肿瘤的大小、组织学类型、分化程度无关,但在有无肿瘤的淋巴结转移(P=0.000)、PTNM分期的高低间(P=0.000)差异有统计学意义,且随着肿瘤的淋巴结转移、PTNM分期的升高,LYVE-1及Prox-1蛋白的表达量及MLVD增加.而CD31与肿瘤的淋巴结转移、PTNM分期无关.④LYVE-1与Prox-1标记的MLVD相关(r=0.529,P=0.000).LYVE-1、Prox-1标记的MLVD与CD31标记的微血管密度无关.结论 与肿瘤淋巴转移相关的有功能的淋巴管主要位于肿瘤周边部位,而非肿瘤中心部位;LYVE-1与Prox-1可能成为检测NSCLC淋巴转移和评估预后的重要分子指标.

  16. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear infection (middle ear) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff An ear infection (acute otitis media) is most often a bacterial or viral infection that affects the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that ...

  17. An overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusan, Maria; Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Ovesen, Therese

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to provide an extensive overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation. All 2,028 cases of acute infections admitted between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2006 were reviewed to assess the use of pre-admission antibiotics......, microbiological results, antibiotic and surgical management and length of hospitalisation. Infections of the oropharynx accounted for the vast majority of admissions, followed by ear infections, and cutaneous neck abscesses. Peritonsillar abscess was the most frequent diagnosis, accounting for over one third...... of admissions (39.8%, 808 out of 2,028). Complete microbiological data were available for 1,430 cultures, and were analysed for trends with respect to diagnosis, age, gender and use of pre-admission antibiotics. Forty-six percent (657 out of 1,430) of cultures yielded no growth or normal flora. This value...

  18. An overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusan, Maria; Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Ovesen, Therese

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to provide an extensive overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation. All 2,028 cases of acute infections admitted between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2006 were reviewed to assess the use of pre-admission antibiotics......, microbiological results, antibiotic and surgical management and length of hospitalisation. Infections of the oropharynx accounted for the vast majority of admissions, followed by ear infections, and cutaneous neck abscesses. Peritonsillar abscess was the most frequent diagnosis, accounting for over one third...... of admissions (39.8%, 808 out of 2,028). Complete microbiological data were available for 1,430 cultures, and were analysed for trends with respect to diagnosis, age, gender and use of pre-admission antibiotics. Forty-six percent (657 out of 1,430) of cultures yielded no growth or normal flora. This value...

  19. The boron efflux transporter ROTTEN EAR is required for maize inflorescence development and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Mithu; Tabi, Zara; Galli, Mary; Malcomber, Simon; Buck, Amy; Muszynski, Michael; Gallavotti, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Although boron has a relatively low natural abundance, it is an essential plant micronutrient. Boron deficiencies cause major crop losses in several areas of the world, affecting reproduction and yield in diverse plant species. Despite the importance of boron in crop productivity, surprisingly little is known about its effects on developing reproductive organs. We isolated a maize (Zea mays) mutant, called rotten ear (rte), that shows distinct defects in vegetative and reproductive development, eventually causing widespread sterility in its inflorescences, the tassel and the ear. Positional cloning revealed that rte encodes a membrane-localized boron efflux transporter, co-orthologous to the Arabidopsis thaliana BOR1 protein. Depending on the availability of boron in the soil, rte plants show a wide range of phenotypic defects that can be fully rescued by supplementing the soil with exogenous boric acid, indicating that rte is crucial for boron transport into aerial tissues. rte is expressed in cells surrounding the xylem in both vegetative and reproductive tissues and is required for meristem activity and organ development. We show that low boron supply to the inflorescences results in widespread defects in cell and cell wall integrity, highlighting the structural importance of boron in the formation of fully fertile reproductive organs.

  20. Gbx2 is required for the morphogenesis of the mouse inner ear: a downstream candidate of hindbrain signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhengshi; Cantos, Raquel; Patente, Maria; Wu, Doris K

    2005-05-01

    Gbx2 is a homeobox-containing transcription factor that is related to unplugged in Drosophila. In mice, Gbx2 and Otx2 negatively regulate each other to establish the mid-hindbrain boundary in the neural tube. Here, we show that Gbx2 is required for the development of the mouse inner ear. Absence of the endolymphatic duct and swelling of the membranous labyrinth are common features in Gbx2-/- inner ears. More severe mutant phenotypes include absence of the anterior and posterior semicircular canals, and a malformed saccule and cochlear duct. However, formation of the lateral semicircular canal and its ampulla is usually unaffected. These inner ear phenotypes are remarkably similar to those reported in kreisler mice, which have inner ear defects attributed to defects in the hindbrain. Based on gene expression analyses, we propose that activation of Gbx2 expression within the inner ear is an important pathway whereby signals from the hindbrain regulate inner ear development. In addition, our results suggest that Gbx2 normally promotes dorsal fates such as the endolymphatic duct and semicircular canals by positively regulating genes such as Wnt2b and Dlx5. However, Gbx2 promotes ventral fates such as the saccule and cochlear duct, possibly by restricting Otx2 expression.

  1. Histone deacetylase 1 is required for the development of the zebrafish inner ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingzi; Tang, Dongmei; Li, Wenyan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) has been reported to be important for multiple aspects of normal embryonic development, but little is known about its function in the development of mechanosensory organs. Here, we first confirmed that HDAC1 is expressed in the developing otic vesicles of zebrafish by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Knockdown of HDAC1 using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides in zebrafish embryos induced smaller otic vesicles, abnormal otoliths, malformed or absent semicircular canals, and fewer sensory hair cells. HDAC1 loss of function also caused attenuated expression of a subset of key genes required for otic vesicle formation during development. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of HDAC1 resulted in decreased expression of members of the Fgf family in the otic vesicles, suggesting that HDAC1 is involved in the development of the inner ear through regulation of Fgf signaling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that HDAC1 plays an important role in otic vesicle formation. PMID:26832938

  2. BARREN STALK FASTIGIATE1 is an AT-hook protein required for the formation of maize ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Malcomber, Simon; Gaines, Craig; Stanfield, Sharon; Whipple, Clinton; Kellogg, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Robert J

    2011-05-01

    Ears are the seed-bearing inflorescences of maize (Zea mays) plants and represent a crucial component of maize yield. The first step in the formation of ears is the initiation of axillary meristems in the axils of developing leaves. In the classic maize mutant barren stalk fastigiate1 (baf1), first discovered in the 1950s, ears either do not form or, if they do, are partially fused to the main stalk. We positionally cloned Baf1 and found that it encodes a transcriptional regulator containing an AT-hook DNA binding motif. Single coorthologs of Baf1 are found in syntenic regions of brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon), rice (Oryza sativa), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), suggesting that the gene is likely present in all cereal species. Protein-protein interaction assays suggest that BAF1 is capable of forming homodimers and heterodimers with other members of the AT-hook family. Another transcriptional regulator required for ear initiation is the basic helix-loop-helix protein BARREN STALK1 (BA1). Genetic and expression analyses suggest that Baf1 is required to reach a threshold level of Ba1 expression for the initiation of maize ears. We propose that Baf1 functions in the demarcation of a boundary region essential for the specification of a stem cell niche.

  3. BARREN STALK FASTIGIATE1 Is an AT-Hook Protein Required for the Formation of Maize Ears[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Malcomber, Simon; Gaines, Craig; Stanfield, Sharon; Whipple, Clinton; Kellogg, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Ears are the seed-bearing inflorescences of maize (Zea mays) plants and represent a crucial component of maize yield. The first step in the formation of ears is the initiation of axillary meristems in the axils of developing leaves. In the classic maize mutant barren stalk fastigiate1 (baf1), first discovered in the 1950s, ears either do not form or, if they do, are partially fused to the main stalk. We positionally cloned Baf1 and found that it encodes a transcriptional regulator containing an AT-hook DNA binding motif. Single coorthologs of Baf1 are found in syntenic regions of brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon), rice (Oryza sativa), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), suggesting that the gene is likely present in all cereal species. Protein–protein interaction assays suggest that BAF1 is capable of forming homodimers and heterodimers with other members of the AT-hook family. Another transcriptional regulator required for ear initiation is the basic helix-loop-helix protein BARREN STALK1 (BA1). Genetic and expression analyses suggest that Baf1 is required to reach a threshold level of Ba1 expression for the initiation of maize ears. We propose that Baf1 functions in the demarcation of a boundary region essential for the specification of a stem cell niche. PMID:21540434

  4. HCN channels are not required for mechanotransduction in sensory hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C Horwitz

    Full Text Available The molecular composition of the hair cell transduction channel has not been identified. Here we explore the novel hypothesis that hair cell transduction channels include HCN subunits. The HCN family of ion channels includes four members, HCN1-4. They were originally identified as the molecular correlates of the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels that carry currents known as If, IQ or Ih. However, based on recent evidence it has been suggested that HCN subunits may also be components of the elusive hair cell transduction channel. To investigate this hypothesis we examined expression of mRNA that encodes HCN1-4 in sensory epithelia of the mouse inner ear, immunolocalization of HCN subunits 1, 2 and 4, uptake of the transduction channel permeable dye, FM1-43 and electrophysiological measurement of mechanotransduction current. Dye uptake and transduction current were assayed in cochlear and vestibular hair cells of wildtype mice exposed to HCN channel blockers or a dominant-negative form of HCN2 that contained a pore mutation and in mutant mice that lacked HCN1, HCN2 or both. We found robust expression of HCNs 1, 2 and 4 but little evidence that localized HCN subunits in hair bundles, the site of mechanotransduction. Although high concentrations of the HCN antagonist, ZD7288, blocked 50-70% of the transduction current, we found no reduction of transduction current in either cochlear or vestibular hair cells of HCN1- or HCN2- deficient mice relative to wild-type mice. Furthermore, mice that lacked both HCN1 and HCN2 also had normal transduction currents. Lastly, we found that mice exposed to the dominant-negative mutant form of HCN2 had normal transduction currents as well. Taken together, the evidence suggests that HCN subunits are not required for mechanotransduction in hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

  5. [Current requirements for polymeric biomaterials in ear, nose and throat medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, K

    2009-05-01

    In recent years the ear, nose and throat medicine (ENT medicine) has been stimulated by numerous innovations in the field of implants which are based on new biomaterials and modern implant technologies. In this context, biomaterials integrated in living organisms have to allow for the technical requirements and the biological interactions between the implant and the tissue. With regard to their suitability, functional capability of the implant, which is complementary to the mechanical implant properties, sufficient stability against physiological media, as well as high biocompatibility are to be demanded. Another purpose of the use of biomaterials is the maintenance and the enhancement of biofunctionality over a long time period. These general requirements for biomaterials also have their validity in ENT medicine. Different materials are applied as biomaterials. Metals belong to the oldest biomaterials. In addition, alloys, ceramics, inorganic glasses and composites were tested. Furthermore, natural and synthetic polymers, which are primarily presented in this article regarding their properties and their applications as materials for cochlear implants, osteosynthesis implants, stents and novel scaffolds for tissue engineering, are increasingly applied. According to their use in permanent and temporary implants, polymers are to be differentiated between biostable and biodegradable polymers. The presented general and current requirements for biomaterials and biomaterial applications in ENT medicine demonstrate key aspects of the current biomaterial research in this field. They do as well document the high impact of the interdisciplinary collaboration of natural and medical scientists and engineers.

  6. Clinical and Demographic Profile of Cases Requiring Ear Lobe Repair in North Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeet K. Khilani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wearing various types of earrings is not only an age old custom but a fashion symbol also. This demographic and clinical profile study was done on ear lobe cleft cases attending ENT OPD of a tertiary care center of North Gujarat. Methodology: The size, number of ears involved, factors leading to ear lobe cleft such as weight of earring, duration of wearing heavy rings, pull leading to tear were noted in all cases. Surgical repair was done by scar excision and suturing. The procedure was completed in 15-20 minutes and minimal post surgical complications in the form of depressed linear scar and lower border notching are seen in 2 cases. Results: Prevalence of ear lobe cleft was 2.4% of all OPD cases. 192 cases (328 ears included 187 (97.3% females and 5 males. Both ears were involved in 136 (70.8% cases while 56 cases had unilateral involvement. A partial cleft of 6 to 10 mm size (range from 3-25 mm was most common reason in females to visit for repair and total cleft was observed in 122 (37.1% ears. 42% females (age 15-45 years had bilateral clefts whereas unilateral involvement was common at young age (1-15 years. Factors leading to cleft formation were earrings weight and prolonged use (44.4% tears were due to weight 15 grams or more. Conclusion: Ear lobe cleft can be repaired by simple surgical approximation. Prevention of recurrence can be done by simple advice of avoiding the scar site for re-piercing and use of light weight earrings. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 140-142

  7. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  8. Mechanotransduction in mouse inner ear hair cells requires transmembrane channel-like genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Geleoc, Gwenaelle S. G.; Kurima, Kiyoto; Labay, Valentina; Lelli, Andrea; Asai, Yukako; Makishima, Tomoko; Wu, Doris K.; Della Santina, Charles C.; Holt, Jeffrey R.; Griffith, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Inner ear hair cells convert the mechanical stimuli of sound, gravity, and head movement into electrical signals. This mechanotransduction process is initiated by opening of cation channels near the tips of hair cell stereocilia. Since the identity of these ion channels is unknown, and mutations in

  9. Prox-1 Automated Proximity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-13

    a workmanship review with staff from the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) to evaluate all solder joints on the flight boards. Afterwards...public release. Report Document - Text Analysis Report Document - Text Analysis Appendix Documents 2. Thank You E-mail user Jan 08, 2016 19:58:04

  10. Cauliflower Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? Print A A A Have you ever seen someone whose ear looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have ...

  11. Ear barotrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barotitis media; Barotrauma; Ear popping - barotrauma; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction - barotrauma ... The air pressure in the middle ear is most often the same as the air ... body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ...

  12. Swimmer's ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse when you pull on the outer ear Hearing loss Itching of the ear or ear canal ... reduce itching and inflammation Pain medicine, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) Vinegar (acetic acid) ...

  13. Ear wax

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, George GG

    2008-01-01

    Ear wax only becomes a problem if it causes a hearing impairment, or other ear-related symptoms. Ear wax is more likely to accumulate and cause a hearing impairment when normal extrusion is prevented — for example, by hearing aids, or by the use of cotton buds to clean the ears.Ear wax can visually obscure the ear drum, and may need to be removed for diagnostic purposes.

  14. Your Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross and useful. continue The Middle Ear: Good Vibrations After sound waves enter the outer ear, they travel through the ... ear's main job is to take those sound waves and turn them into vibrations that are delivered to the inner ear. To ...

  15. Ear Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  16. Ear trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Kylee; Fralich, Laura; Stevenson, J Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Understanding basic ear anatomy and function allows an examiner to quickly and accurately identify at-risk structures in patients with head and ear trauma. External ear trauma (ie, hematoma or laceration) should be promptly treated with appropriate injury-specific techniques. Tympanic membrane injuries have multiple mechanisms and can often be conservatively treated. Temporal bone fractures are a common cause of ear trauma and can be life threatening. Facial nerve injuries and hearing loss can occur in ear trauma.

  17. LKB1 Is Required for the Development and Maintenance of Stereocilia in Inner Ear Hair Cells in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqin Men

    Full Text Available The LKB1 gene, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase, was discovered to play crucial roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, and the establishment of cell polarity. In our study, LKB1 conditional knockout mice (Atoh1-LKB1-/- mice were generated to investigate LKB1 function in the inner ear. Tests of auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emissions revealed significant decreases in the hearing sensitivities of the Atoh1-LKB1-/- mice. In Atoh1-LKB1-/- mice, malformations of hair cell stereocilliary bundles were present as early as postnatal day 1 (P1, a time long before the maturation of the hair cell bundles. In addition, we also observed outer hair cell (OHC loss starting at P14. The impaired stereocilliary bundles occurred long before the presence of hair cell loss. Stereociliary cytoskeletal structure depends on the core actin-based cytoskeleton and several actin-binding proteins. By Western blot, we examined actin-binding proteins, specifically ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin proteins involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton of hair cell stereocilia. Our results revealed that the phosphorylation of ERM proteins (pERM was significantly decreased in mutant mice. Thus, we propose that the decreased pERM may be a key factor for the impaired stereocillia function, and the damaged stereocillia may induce hair cell loss and hearing impairments. Taken together, our data indicates that LKB1 is required for the development and maintenance of stereocilia in the inner ear.

  18. The Boron Efflux Transporter ROTTEN EAR Is Required for Maize Inflorescence Development and Fertility[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Mithu; Tabi, Zara; Galli, Mary; Malcomber, Simon; Buck, Amy; Muszynski, Michael; Gallavotti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Although boron has a relatively low natural abundance, it is an essential plant micronutrient. Boron deficiencies cause major crop losses in several areas of the world, affecting reproduction and yield in diverse plant species. Despite the importance of boron in crop productivity, surprisingly little is known about its effects on developing reproductive organs. We isolated a maize (Zea mays) mutant, called rotten ear (rte), that shows distinct defects in vegetative and reproductive development, eventually causing widespread sterility in its inflorescences, the tassel and the ear. Positional cloning revealed that rte encodes a membrane-localized boron efflux transporter, co-orthologous to the Arabidopsis thaliana BOR1 protein. Depending on the availability of boron in the soil, rte plants show a wide range of phenotypic defects that can be fully rescued by supplementing the soil with exogenous boric acid, indicating that rte is crucial for boron transport into aerial tissues. rte is expressed in cells surrounding the xylem in both vegetative and reproductive tissues and is required for meristem activity and organ development. We show that low boron supply to the inflorescences results in widespread defects in cell and cell wall integrity, highlighting the structural importance of boron in the formation of fully fertile reproductive organs. PMID:25035400

  19. Inner ear disturbances related to middle ear inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Michihiko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The inner and middle ear are connected mainly through round and oval windows, and inflammation in the middle ear cavity can spread into the inner ear, which might induce a disturbance. In cases with intractable otitis media, attention should also be paid to symptoms related to the inner ear. In this paper, middle ear inflammation and related inner ear disturbances are reviewed with a focus on representative middle ear diseases (such as acute otitis media, chronic otitis media, otitis media with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, eosinophilic otitis media, cholesteatoma with labyrinthine fistula, and reflux-related otitis media). Their clinical concerns are then discussed with reference to experimental studies. In these diseases, early diagnosis and adequate treatment are required to manage not only middle ear but also inner ear conditions.

  20. Ear Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written in everyday language. * This is ... the Ears, Nose, and Throat Additional Content Medical News Ear Tumors ... NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. DOCTORS: Click ...

  1. Ear Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You use all of them in hearing. Sound waves come in through your outer ear. They reach your middle ear, where they make your eardrum vibrate. The vibrations are transmitted through three tiny bones, called ossicles, ...

  2. Elephant ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Elephant ear URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002867.htm Elephant ear To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with very large, ...

  3. Combinatorial expression of Lef1, Lhx2, Lhx5, Lhx9, Lmo3, Lmo4, and Prox1 helps to identify comparable subdivisions in the developing hippocampal formation of mouse and chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eAbellán

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a study of the expression patterns of seven developmental regulatory genes (Lef1, Lhx2, Lhx9, Lhx5, Lmo3, Lmo4, and Prox1, in combination with topological position, to identify the medial pallial derivatives, define its major subdivisions, and compare them between mouse and chicken. In both species, the medial pallium is defined as a pallial sector adjacent to the cortical hem and roof plate/choroid tela, showing moderate to strong ventricular zone expression of Lef1, Lhx2 and Lhx9, but not Lhx5. Based on this, the hippocampal formation (indusium griseum, dentate gyrus, Ammon’s horn fields, and subiculum, the medial entorhinal cortex, and part of the amygdalo-hippocampal transition area of mouse appeared to derive from the medial pallium. In the chicken, based on the same position and gene expression profile, we propose that the hippocampus (including the V-shaped area, the parahippocampal area (including its caudolateral part, the entorhinal cortex, and the amygdalo-hippocampal transition area are medial pallial derivatives. Moreover, the combinatorial expression of Lef1, Prox1, Lmo4 and Lmo3 allowed the identification of dentate gyrus/CA3-like, CA1/subicular-like, and medial entorhinal-like comparable sectors in mouse and chicken, and point to the existence of mostly conserved molecular networks involved in hippocampal complex development. Notably, while the mouse medial entorhinal cortex derives from the medial pallium (similarly to the hippocampal formation, both being involved in spatial navigation and spatial memory, the lateral entorhinal cortex (involved in processing non-spatial, contextual information appears to derive from a distinct dorsolateral caudal pallial sector.

  4. Ear Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have cold or flu symptoms?YesNoDo you have tooth pain on the same side as the ear pain ... or 2 days, see your doctor.Start OverDiagnosisA tooth problem can radiate pain to the ear on the same side.Self ...

  5. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Pneumococcal Vaccine Additional Content Medical News External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) By Bradley W. Kesser, MD, Associate ... the Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis External otitis ...

  6. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is ... additional information about ear infections? What is an ear infection? An ear infection is an inflammation of ...

  7. Airplane Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe hearing loss Ringing in your ear (tinnitus) Spinning sensation (vertigo) Vomiting resulting from vertigo Bleeding from ... the back of the nasal cavity and the top of the throat meet (nasopharynx). When an airplane ...

  8. Ctip2-, Satb2-, Prox1-, and GAD65-Expressing Neurons in Rat Cultures: Preponderance of Single- and Double-Positive Cells, and Cell Type-Specific Expression of Neuron-Specific Gene Family Members, Nsg-1 (NEEP21) and Nsg-2 (P19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digilio, Laura; Yap, Chan Choo; Winckler, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    The brain consists of many distinct neuronal cell types, but which cell types are present in widely used primary cultures of embryonic rodent brain is often not known. We characterized how abundantly four cell type markers (Ctip2, Satb2, Prox1, GAD65) were represented in cultured rat neurons, how easily neurons expressing different markers can be transfected with commonly used plasmids, and whether neuronal-enriched endosomal proteins Nsg-1 (NEEP21) and Nsg-2 (P19) are ubiquitously expressed in all types of cultured neurons. We found that cultured neurons stably maintain cell type identities that are reflective of cell types in vivo. This includes neurons maintaining simultaneous expression of two transcription factors, such as Ctip2+/Satb2+ or Prox1+/Ctip2+ double-positive cells, which have also been described in vivo. Secondly, we established the superior efficiency of CAG promoters for both Lipofectamine-mediated transfection as well as for electroporation. Thirdly, we discovered that Nsg-1 and Nsg-2 were not expressed equally in all neurons: whereas high levels of both Nsg-1 and Nsg-2 were found in Satb2-, Ctip2-, and GAD65-positive neurons, Prox1-positive neurons in hippocampal cultures expressed low levels of both. Our findings thus highlight the importance of identifying neuronal cell types for doing cell biology in cultured neurons: Keeping track of neuronal cell type might uncover effects in assays that might otherwise be masked by the mixture of responsive and non-responsive neurons in the dish.

  9. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach your ear, ... heard a soft sound or a loud sound. The sound passes through the outer ear and is ...

  10. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  11. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Patient Health Information ... with a hearing loss. How Does the Healthy Ear Work? The ear has three main parts: the ...

  12. Better Ear Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Better Ear Health Better Ear Health Patient Health Information News ... often helpful to those with this condition. Swimmer’s Ear An infection of the outer ear structures caused ...

  13. How the Ear Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You How the Ear Works How the Ear Works Patient Health Information News media interested in ... public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . The ear has three main parts: the outer ear (including ...

  14. Cosmetic ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  15. A Conserved EAR Motif Is Required for Avirulence and Stability of the Ralstonia solanacearum Effector PopP2 In Planta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Segonzac

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of the devastating bacterial wilt disease in many high value Solanaceae crops. R. solanacearum secretes around 70 effectors into host cells in order to promote infection. Plants have, however, evolved specialized immune receptors that recognize corresponding effectors and confer qualitative disease resistance. In the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, the paired immune receptors RRS1 (resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum 1 and RPS4 (resistance to Pseudomonas syringae 4 cooperatively recognize the R. solanacearum effector PopP2 in the nuclei of infected cells. PopP2 is an acetyltransferase that binds to and acetylates the RRS1 WRKY DNA-binding domain resulting in reduced RRS1-DNA association thereby activating plant immunity. Here, we surveyed the naturally occurring variation in PopP2 sequence among the R. solanacearum strains isolated from diseased tomato and pepper fields across the Republic of Korea. Our analysis revealed high conservation of popP2 sequence with only three polymorphic alleles present amongst 17 strains. Only one variation (a premature stop codon caused the loss of RPS4/RRS1-dependent recognition in Arabidopsis. We also found that PopP2 harbors a putative eukaryotic transcriptional repressor motif (ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression or EAR, which is known to be involved in the recruitment of transcriptional co-repressors. Remarkably, mutation of the EAR motif disabled PopP2 avirulence function as measured by the development of hypersensitive response, electrolyte leakage, defense marker gene expression and bacterial growth in Arabidopsis. This lack of recognition was partially but significantly reverted by the C-terminal addition of a synthetic EAR motif. We show that the EAR motif-dependent gain of avirulence correlated with the stability of the PopP2 protein. Furthermore, we demonstrated the requirement of the PopP2 EAR motif for PTI

  16. β3-integrin is required for differentiation in OC-2 cells derived from mammalian embryonic inner ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunetta Ivan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian inner ear contains the organ of Corti which is responsible for the conversion of sound into neuronal signals. This specialised epithelial tissue is the product of a complex developmental process where a common precursor cell type differentiates into the sound transducing hair cells and the non-innervated supporting cells. We hypothesised that integrin proteins, which are involved in cell attachment to extracellular matrix proteins and cellular signalling, play a role in the differentiation process of the precursor inner ear epithelial cells. To test our hypothesis we have utilised a cell line (OC-2 derived from E13 embryonic immortomouse inner ears. In vitro, by switching the incubation temperature from 33°C to 39°C, the OC-2 cells can be induced to differentiate and express hair cells markers, such as Myosin VIIa. The OC-2 cells are thus a useful model system for testing mechanism of hair cells differentiation. Results We have identified 4 integrin subunits which are expressed in OC-2 cells: α6, αv, β1 and β3. Among these, the relative level of expression of the αv, β1 and β3 subunits increased in a time dependent manner when the cells were exposed to the differentiating temperature of 39°C, most notably so for β3 which was not detectable at 33°C. Treatment of fully differentiated OC-2 cells with siRNA against the four integrin subunits reduced the expression of not only the respective integrin proteins but also of the hair cell marker Myosin VIIa. Conversely over-expression of β3 was sufficient to induce the expression of Myosin VIIa at 33°C. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that modulation of integrin expression is associated with the differentiation process of the OC-2 cells. This suggests that the maturation of the organ of Corti, from where OC-2 cells are derived, may also depend on changes of gene expression associated with integrin expression.

  17. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteomas; Exostoses; Tumor - ear; Cysts - ear; Ear cysts; Ear tumors; Bony tumor of the ear canal ... bony tumors of the ear canal (exostoses and osteomas) are caused by excess growth of bone. Repeated ...

  18. Listening to the ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  19. Ctip2-, Satb2-, Prox1-, and GAD65-Expressing Neurons in Rat Cultures: Preponderance of Single- and Double-Positive Cells, and Cell Type-Specific Expression of Neuron-Specific Gene Family Members, Nsg-1 (NEEP21 and Nsg-2 (P19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Digilio

    Full Text Available The brain consists of many distinct neuronal cell types, but which cell types are present in widely used primary cultures of embryonic rodent brain is often not known. We characterized how abundantly four cell type markers (Ctip2, Satb2, Prox1, GAD65 were represented in cultured rat neurons, how easily neurons expressing different markers can be transfected with commonly used plasmids, and whether neuronal-enriched endosomal proteins Nsg-1 (NEEP21 and Nsg-2 (P19 are ubiquitously expressed in all types of cultured neurons. We found that cultured neurons stably maintain cell type identities that are reflective of cell types in vivo. This includes neurons maintaining simultaneous expression of two transcription factors, such as Ctip2+/Satb2+ or Prox1+/Ctip2+ double-positive cells, which have also been described in vivo. Secondly, we established the superior efficiency of CAG promoters for both Lipofectamine-mediated transfection as well as for electroporation. Thirdly, we discovered that Nsg-1 and Nsg-2 were not expressed equally in all neurons: whereas high levels of both Nsg-1 and Nsg-2 were found in Satb2-, Ctip2-, and GAD65-positive neurons, Prox1-positive neurons in hippocampal cultures expressed low levels of both. Our findings thus highlight the importance of identifying neuronal cell types for doing cell biology in cultured neurons: Keeping track of neuronal cell type might uncover effects in assays that might otherwise be masked by the mixture of responsive and non-responsive neurons in the dish.

  20. A simple ear splint for microtia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C J Venkata Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtia is a congenital anomaly of the ear can occur as an isolated birth defect or as part of a spectrum of anomalies or as a syndrome. Microtia is often associated with impaired hearing and or total loss of hearing. Such patients typically require treatment for surgical ear reconstruction and for hearing impairment. Maintenance of ear projection and post auricular sulcus in staged ear reconstruction in microtia is a trying problem. So also is the maintenance of the patency of the external auditory meatus following recanalization and meatoplasty.This case report describes a simple effective way of fabrication of ear splint prosthesis.

  1. A simple ear splint for microtia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, C J Venkata; Balaji, S M; Jain, Ashish R

    2015-01-01

    Microtia is a congenital anomaly of the ear can occur as an isolated birth defect or as part of a spectrum of anomalies or as a syndrome. Microtia is often associated with impaired hearing and or total loss of hearing. Such patients typically require treatment for surgical ear reconstruction and for hearing impairment. Maintenance of ear projection and post auricular sulcus in staged ear reconstruction in microtia is a trying problem. So also is the maintenance of the patency of the external auditory meatus following recanalization and meatoplasty.This case report describes a simple effective way of fabrication of ear splint prosthesis.

  2. Ear infection - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... up. When this happens, infection can occur. A chronic ear infection develops when fluid or an infection ...

  3. Travel Inside the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach ... are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which is filled with ...

  4. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Review Date 8/ ...

  5. Play it by Ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology.......The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology....

  6. Designing of a digital behind-the-ear hearing aid to meet the World Health Organization requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Penteado, Silvio Pires

    2010-06-01

    Hearing loss is a common health issue that affects nearly 10% of the world population as indicated by many international studies. The hearing impaired typically experience more frustration, anxiety, irritability, depression, and disorientation than those with normal hearing levels. The standard rehabilitation tool for hearing impairment is an electronic hearing aid whose main components are transducers (microphone and receiver) and a digital signal processor. These electronic components are manufactured by supply chain rather than by hearing aid manufacturers. Manufacturers can use custom-designed components or generic off-the-shelf components. These electronic components are available as application-specific or off-the-shelf products, with the former designed for a specific manufacturer and the latter for a generic approach. The choice of custom or generic components will affect the product specifications, pricing, manufacturing, life cycle, and marketing strategies of the product. The World Health Organization is interested in making available to developing countries hearing aids that are inexpensive to purchase and maintain. The hearing aid presented in this article was developed with these specifications in mind together with additional contemporary features such as four channels with wide dynamic range compression, an adjustable compression rate for each channel, four comfort programs, an adaptive feedback manager, and full volume control. This digital hearing aid is fitted using a personal computer with minimal hardware requirements in intuitive three-step fitting software. A trimmer-adjusted version can be developed where human and material resources are scarce.

  7. Coupled ears in lizards and crocodilians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Bierman, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Lizard ears are coupled across the pharynx, and are very directional. In consequence all auditory responses should be directional, without a requirement for computation of sound source location. Crocodilian ears are connected through sinuses, and thus less tightly coupled. Coupling may improve...

  8. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  9. Middle Ear Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Middle Ear Infections Page Content Article Body What are the ... illness. What if a child with a middle ear infection is in great pain and discomfort? The ...

  10. Ear surgery - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100016.htm Ear surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview This image demonstrates normal appearance of the ears in relation to the face. Review Date 10/ ...

  11. Otoplasty (Cosmetic Ear Surgery)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... By Mayo Clinic Staff Otoplasty — also known as cosmetic ear surgery — is a procedure to change the ... Society of Plastic Surgeons. http://www.plasticsurgery.org/Cosmetic-Procedures/Ear-Surgery.html. Accessed June 16, 2015. ...

  12. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Middle Ear Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections Print ... 3 years old. A Close Look at the Ear To understand how ear infections develop, let's review ...

  13. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... head, sports injuries, and even listening to loud music can cause ear damage, which can affect hearing and balance. That's because the ear not ... Hearing Loss or Balance Problems Ear injuries can affect kids differently. ... sounds or music notes hearing only certain or muffled sounds ringing ...

  14. Deletion of a conserved regulatory element required for Hmx1 expression in craniofacial mesenchyme in the dumbo rat: a newly identified cause of congenital ear malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lely A. Quina

    2012-11-01

    Hmx1 is a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the developing eye, peripheral ganglia, and branchial arches of avian and mammalian embryos. Recent studies have identified a loss-of-function allele at the HMX1 locus as the causative mutation in the oculo-auricular syndrome (OAS in humans, characterized by ear and eye malformations. The mouse dumbo (dmbo mutation, with similar effects on ear and eye development, also results from a loss-of-function mutation in the Hmx1 gene. A recessive dmbo mutation causing ear malformation in rats has been mapped to the chromosomal region containing the Hmx1 gene, but the nature of the causative allele is unknown. Here we show that dumbo rats and mice exhibit similar neonatal ear and eye phenotypes. In midgestation embryos, dumbo rats show a specific loss of Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived craniofacial mesenchyme (CM, whereas Hmx1 is expressed normally in retinal progenitors, sensory ganglia and in CM, which is derived from mesoderm. High-throughput resequencing of 1 Mb of rat chromosome 14 from dmbo/dmbo rats, encompassing the Hmx1 locus, reveals numerous divergences from the rat genomic reference sequence, but no coding changes in Hmx1. Fine genetic mapping narrows the dmbo critical region to an interval of ∼410 kb immediately downstream of the Hmx1 transcription unit. Further sequence analysis of this region reveals a 5777-bp deletion located ∼80 kb downstream in dmbo/dmbo rats that is not apparent in 137 other rat strains. The dmbo deletion region contains a highly conserved domain of ∼500 bp, which is a candidate distal enhancer and which exhibits a similar relationship to Hmx genes in all vertebrate species for which data are available. We conclude that the rat dumbo phenotype is likely to result from loss of function of an ultraconserved enhancer specifically regulating Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived CM. Dysregulation of Hmx1 expression is thus a candidate mechanism for congenital ear

  15. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Balance ... Committees Contact Us Get Involved You are here Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel ...

  16. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections, swimmer’s ear, and healthy swimming. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) What are the symptoms of swimmer's ear? ... Healthy page. Reference CDC. Estimated burden of acute otitis externa —United States, 2003–2007 . MMWR Morb Mortal ...

  17. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear (the space deep to the eardrum) and the ...

  18. Core collapse supernova remnants with ears

    CERN Document Server

    Grichener, Aldana

    2016-01-01

    We study the morphologies of core collapse supernova remnants (CCSNRs) and find that about third of CCSNRs have two opposite `ears' protruding from their main shell, and that the typical energy that is required to inflate these ears is about 10 percents of the explosion kinetic energy. We argue that these properties are most compatible with the expectation from the explosion jet feedback mechanism (JFM). Based on previous studies of ears in CCSNRs and the similarity of some ears to those found in planetary nebulae, we assume that the ears are inflated by jets that are launched during the explosion, or a short time after it. In the JFM explosion process the last jets' launching episode takes place just after the core has been ejected. These jets expand freely, interact with the exploding gas at some distance from the center, and form the ears. Under simple geometrical assumptions we find that the extra kinetic energy of the ears is in the range of 1 to 10 percents of the explosion energy. As not all of the kin...

  19. Ear Problems in Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear, otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

  20. Ear problems in swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Tyrone

    2005-08-01

    Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

  1. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to ... can drain into the ear canal through a hole in the eardrum and cause it. What Are ...

  2. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stirrup. These are the smallest bones in your body. Together they are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which ... organizations Related Topics ...

  3. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Search Search form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness ...

  4. Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) KidsHealth > For Parents > Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) Print A A A What's in ... result of taking the drugs. This is called ototoxicity or " ear poisoning ." Ototoxicity damages the inner ear — ...

  5. Sports injuries of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G A

    1972-07-01

    The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries.

  6. Flying and Your Child's Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Flying and Your Child's Ears KidsHealth > For Parents > Flying and Your Child's Ears Print A A A What's in this article? Flying's Effects on Ears Tips for Easing Ear Pain en español Como cuidar los oídos de su hijo(a) cuando vuele en avión Flying's Effects on ...

  7. Impact of Placement of In-the-Ear Antenna on Ear-to-Ear Path Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    An in-the-ear antenna is rotated in the concha. For the different placements the ear-to-ear path gain is simulated and measured. The simulations and measurements show that the ear-to-ear path gain varies with more than 15 dB even though it is the same antenna that occupies the same volume, which...... has only been rotated. This illustrates the importance of the correct placement of the antenna. The variation of the ear-to-ear path gain is compared with the far-field efficiency in order to explain part of the variation. The best and worst placements’ radiation patterns are analyzed....

  8. TOTAL EAR RECONSTRUCTION WITH MONOBLOCK CARTILAGE AND TEMPOROPARIETAL FASCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Microtia is a congenital ear deformity with incidence of 1:6000. Anotia can be of traumatic origin also. It is one of the greatest challenges to the plastic surgeon to the reconstruct the ear from autologus material . Various developments have occurred in the ear reconstruction from the era of Tanzer. It can be done in a single stage or multiple stages. Single stage ear reconstruction require technical precision, avoids multiple admission of the patient. MATERIAL AND M ETHOD : Between 2007 to 2013 six cases of total ear reconstruction was done in two stage method using autologus coastal cartilage in the department of M.K.C.G medical college by a single surgeon. In the first stage lobule rotation, fabrication of the cartil aginous framework and its implantation were performed. In the second stage elevation of the auricle and formation of tragus was done. All of them underwent stage 1 procedure among them 2 had not turned up for staged 2 procedure. RESULT S: 4 were females and 2 were male. 4 had congenital microtia and two were traumatic amputation of the ear. All had unilateral microtia. The follow up was done for up to 1 year. CONCLUSION: One patient had lost follow up.5 patient had unacceptable ear. Though it is impossible t o reconstruct ear that appear exactly the same as opposite ear , the new ears which were made of correct size and in normal position

  9. The Application of Virtual Reality Technology to Ear Microsurgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢叻; 戴培东; 张天宇; 周印; 魏安顺; 王克强; 金德才; 李树峰; 王正敏

    2004-01-01

    The broad application of virtual reality (VR) to medicine has been of great value. The virtual surgery is one of technically difficult applications. With the expansion of the increasingly fine and complicated ear microsurgery, new methods are required to train the doctors. It is necessary and of practical significance to apply VR to the ear micro-operation, which is a functional operation with high precision and great difficulties. In this article,medical VR applications were reviewed. The application of VR to the ear microsurgery was discussed and the virtual ear microsurgery system was designed.

  10. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies.

  11. Ear, Hearing and Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)......An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)...

  12. The Role of Prox1 during Mouse Pancreas Organogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Kilic Berkmen (Gamze)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe pancreas is a mixed (exocrine and endocrine) glandular organ that is important for food digestion and glucose homeostasis. Developmental anomalies or disorders that affect normal pancreas homeostasis may cause various life-threatening diseases such as pancreatitis, diabetes, cystic f

  13. The Role of Prox1 during Mouse Pancreas Organogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Kilic Berkmen (Gamze)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe pancreas is a mixed (exocrine and endocrine) glandular organ that is important for food digestion and glucose homeostasis. Developmental anomalies or disorders that affect normal pancreas homeostasis may cause various life-threatening diseases such as pancreatitis, diabetes, cystic f

  14. From Ear to Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  15. Seeing With the Ears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In recent talks, I mentioned how my artist friends often complain that their clients see with their ears. It recently dawned on me that nobody understood what I said, or—worse—got the wrong idea. The audience thinks of bionic devices (Proulx, Stoerig, Ludowig, & Knoll, 2008) or bat echo location (Mo

  16. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... conditions: Abnormal folds or location of the pinna Low-set ears No opening to the ear canal ...

  17. Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) problems are common ... What ENT Problems Are Common in Children With Down Syndrome? External Ear Canal Stenosis Stenotic ear canals (narrow ...

  18. The analysis of ear canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Gen

    In this thesis complex 3-D ear canal finite element models are simplified using transfer matrices to 1-D models. This simplification allows analysis on the sound propagation in the ear, which results in potentially using a non-invasive probe to determine the acoustical properties of the ear.

  19. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  20. 76 FR 76085 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Vehicles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Vehicles and Related Items That the President Determines No.... The license requirements and other EAR-specific controls for such items also described in this notice... Category VII would be controlled by the EAR and its CCL if the President determines that the articles...

  1. 78 FR 55664 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Unverified List (UVL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Unverified List (UVL) AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... amend the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by: requiring exporters to file an Automated Export System (AES) record for all exports subject to the EAR involving a party or parties to the...

  2. 76 FR 76072 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Gas Turbine Engines and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Gas Turbine Engines and Related Items the President Determines No... requirements of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), if and after the President determines that such... USML. The licensing policies and other EAR-specific controls for such items that are also described...

  3. The contralateral ear in cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Sady Selaimen; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Rosito, Letícia Petersen Schmidt

    2016-07-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma has been extensively studied. Theories of cholesteatoma pathogenesis involving previous tympanic membrane retraction are the most widely accepted, but the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma remains unstudied. This study aimed to investigate the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma, and to determine whether the characteristics of it differ according to patient age and cholesteatoma growth patterns. This study was cross sectional. We evaluated 356 patients with middle ear cholesteatoma in at least one ear, and no history of surgery, between August 2000 and March 2013. Otoendoscopy was conducted on both the affected and the contralateral ear. They were classified as normal, tympanic membrane perforation, moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction and cholesteatoma. The mean age of the patients was 32.77 years, and 53.1 % of the cohort were female. Only 34.8 % of the contralateral ears were normal. The most common abnormality was moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction (41.6 %). Cholesteatoma was identified in 16 %. Children exhibited a greater frequency of tympanic membrane retractions, whereas adults exhibited a greater frequency of cholesteatoma. All of the contralateral ears in the anterior epitympanic group were normal, but otherwise there were no differences in the contralateral ear when we compared the cholesteatoma growth patterns. We conclude that patients diagnosed with acquired cholesteatoma of one ear are significantly more likely to exhibit abnormalities of the contralateral ear.

  4. nEar 05

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S&C Labs

    2005-01-01

    Ego Systems简称ESI或Ego-Sys,这问韩国公司一向以制造低价格、高性能的专业音频产品闻名于专业音频制作领域。其产品涵盖了专业录音卡、监听音箱和USB声卡等。在大家的印象中,可能还记得MAYA录音卡、nEar 08监听音箱,以及MAYA EX系列USB声卡。其中,nEar08监听音箱曾在本刊2001年第18期报道过,那是它首次在国内媒体上亮相。经过四年多的市场检验,

  5. Classification and diagnosis of ear malformations

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel-Friedrich, Sylva; Wulke, Cornelia

    2008-01-01

    In the ENT region 50% of the malformations affect the ear. Malformations of the outer and middle ear are predominantly unilateral (ca. 70-90%) and mostly involve the right ear. Inner ear malformations can be unilateral or bilateral. The incidence of ear malformations is approximately 1 in 3800 newborns. Ear malformations may be genetic (associated with syndromes or not, with family history, spontaneous mutations) or acquired in nature. Malformations can affect the outer ear (pinna and externa...

  6. Ear Recognition Based on Gabor Features and KFDA

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yuan; Zhichun Mu

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the s...

  7. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...... waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...

  8. The ear: Diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignaud, J.; Jardin, C.; Rosen, L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an English translation of volume 17-1 of Traite de radiodiagnostic and represents a reasonably complete documentation of the diseases of the temporal bone that have imaging manifestations. The book begins with chapters on embryology, anatomy and radiography anatomy; it continues with blood supply and an overview of temporal bone pathology. Subsequent chapters cover malformations, trauma, infections, tumors, postoperative changes, glomus tumors, vertebasilar insufficiency, and facial nerve canal lesions. A final chapter demonstrates and discusses magnetic resonance images of the ear and cerebellopontine angle.

  9. MICROBIOLOGY OF ITCHY EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijin Ravindran Nambiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study microbiology of external auditory canal in patients with itchy ears and to also study susceptibility profiles of pathogenic organisms to aid in appropriate management. Materials & Methods: A total of hundred patients were selected. An external ear canal swab was taken. For recovery of bacteria, the samples were emulsified in a solution of BHI broth to study aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Fungal microbiology was studied by KOH mount and fungal culture. Culture and sensitivity was done for the pathogenic organisms. Results: Of the total hundred patients, 48% patients had no growth. There were no anaerobes isolated. Of the remaining 52% cases, 33% of the growth was aerobic bacteria and 19% of the growth was fungi. Of the aerobic bacteria, coagulase negative staphylococcus was isolated from 22 patients, staphylococcus aureus from 9 patients and pseudomonas aeruginosa from 2 patients. Of the fungal species, candida was isolated from 11 patients and aspergillus niger from 8 patients. Conclusion: Our study concluded that there need not be an underlying bacterial or fungal infection to cause itching as evidenced by a condition called asteatosis. Hence, asteatosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis for chronic and persistent itching when all other causes have been ruled out. We also found that topical ciprofloxacin drops is equally effective against the common bacterial pathogens.

  10. Injuries of the external ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, J; Renner, G J

    1990-10-01

    Ear injuries occur in people of all ages but predominate in active people such as wrestlers, boxers, and bike riders. The types and extent of injury are a function of the force causing the injury. Shearing forces of moderate intensity cause hematoma formation, whereas greater force causes lacerations or even amputation. Sharp objects cause lacerations determined by the force, direction, and point of impact. The high ratio of surface area to mass makes the auricle vulnerable to extremes of temperature. People participating in high-risk activities should wear protective headgear. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal contours while preventing infection. Hematoma results in disfigurement by organization or chondritis. Evacuation and pressure dressings using sterile technique correct the condition. Second-degree burns are treated by regular cleansing and application of topical antimicrobials. Deeper burns require debridement, biologic dressings, or burying the cartilage subcutaneously for later reconstruction. Simple lacerations are closed under aseptic technique using either skin-to-skin sutures only or sutures of the skin combined with intercartilage sutures. Extensive and complex lacerations require meticulous care to match all fragments and prevent infection or loss of tissue. Bare cartilage must be covered with vascularized tissue. The treatment of total amputation is controversial. Some advocate reattachment as a composite graft using intravenous low molecular weight dextrans and heparin as adjuvants. Mladick dermabrades the amputated pinna, reattaches it with sutures, and then slips it into a pocket of elevated postauricular skin for 2 weeks. Others urge microvascular reanastomosis of the small nutrient vessels. Brent and Byrd separate the cartilage from its overlying skin and envelope it first with vascularized temporoparietal fascia and then a split-thickness skin graft. Chondritis is the most feared complication of injury or surgery of the pinna. It

  11. Investigation of the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, J; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the head size on the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel as a part of a body-centric wireless network is examined. The channel quality is evaluated at 2:45 GHz in terms of path gain (∣S21∣) between two monopole antennas that are placed normal to the surface of the head. The investi......The effect of the head size on the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel as a part of a body-centric wireless network is examined. The channel quality is evaluated at 2:45 GHz in terms of path gain (∣S21∣) between two monopole antennas that are placed normal to the surface of the head...

  12. Human ear recognition by computer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanu, Bir; Chen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics deals with recognition of individuals based on their physiological or behavioral characteristics. The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. Unlike the fingerprint and iris, it can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject, although sometimes it may be hidden with hair, scarf and jewellery. Also, unlike a face, the ear is a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. ""Human Ear Recognition by Computer"" is the first book o

  13. Outcomes in Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiringoda, Ruwan; Kozin, Elliott D; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides several advantages compared with traditional binocular microscopy, including a wide-field view, improved resolution with high magnification, and visual access to hidden corridors of the middle ear. Although binocular microscopic-assisted surgical techniques remain the gold standard for most otologists, EES is slowly emerging as a viable alternative for performing otologic surgery at several centers in the United States and abroad. In this review, we evaluate the current body of literature regarding EES outcomes, summarize our EES outcomes at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, and compare these results with data for microscopic-assisted otologic surgery.

  14. Naturopathic treatment for ear pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrell, E Michael; Cohen, Herman Avner; Kahan, Ernesto

    2003-05-01

    . As it was widely reported in the medical literature, these herb, these herbal extracts have the potential to meet all of the requirements of appropriate medication that could be routinely used in the pediatric patient, namely in vitro bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal activity against common pathogens, immunostimulation ability, antioxidant activity, and anti-inflammatory effects. They are also well-absorbed with good penetration into the tissue surrounding the tympanic membrane. They have been found to enhance local immunologic activity. Finally, herbal extracts are well-tolerated (owing to their long elimination time), easy to administer, and less expensive than the new antibiotics. There are no documented side effects. On the basis of our findings that the group with the most significant treatment effects (NHED with topical anesthetic) explained only 7.3% of the total pain reduction, we propose that sometimes the general practitioner or pediatrician needs to give the human body a chance to repair itself. Nevertheless, if the physician believes that there is an indication for some treatment, especially if the parents are anxious, then a local treatment such as one used in our study might be adequate. This study suggests that in cases of ear pain caused by AOM in children in which active treatment, besides a simple 2- to 3-day waiting period, is needed, an herbal extract solution may be beneficial. Concomitant antibiotic treatment is apparently not contributory.

  15. 76 FR 80282 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Vessels of War and Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Regulations (EAR): Control of Vessels of War and Related Articles the President Determines No Longer Warrant... requirements of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), if and after the President determines that such... policies and other EAR-specific controls for such items that are also described in this proposed...

  16. Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, S. [University of Halle, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)], E-mail: sabrina.koesling@medizin.uni-halle.de; Omenzetter, M. [University of Halle, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Bartel-Friedrich, S. [University of Halle, Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Section of Phoniatrics and Pedaudiology (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    With the focus on imaging, this paper gives a summarized view of the present knowledge on fields, which are necessary to know for a profound understanding of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear. Typical and less typical combinations of malformed parts of the ear can be derived from the embryogenesis. Clinical signs and audiometric findings lead to diagnosis in congenital aural atresia. Isolated middle ear malformations can be clinically mixed up especially with otosclerosis and tympanosclerosis. Imaging is needed for exact morphological information. In malformations of the external and middle ear, CT is the imaging modality of choice. Requirements on CT-technique as well as radiological findings including classification and pre-surgical rating are described. Morphological CT-correlates of congenital malformations and their differential diagnoses are enlisted and illustrated. The impact of CT-results on therapy is explained and actual therapeutic concepts are briefly presented.

  17. [Reconstruction of the ear in the burns patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Córdova, Jorge Raúl; Jiménez Murat, Yusef; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando; Bracho-Olvera, Hazel; Carrillo Esper, Raúl

    2017-03-06

    Face burns are a singular pathology with great functional and psychological impact in the patients suffering them. The ears play a fundamental role in personal interactions and damage to this organ results in physical and emotional distress. The reconstructive treatment of the burned ear is a challenge. Multiple procedures have been described to achieve success in the reconstruction of the burned ear; immediate reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage, secondary reconstruction, alloplastic material reconstruction, tissue expansion, skin grafts and also microvascular flaps are some of the most common procedures used in this patients. All these techniques focus on giving a natural appearance to the patient. Burns to the ears affect 30% of the patients with facial burns, they require an excellent treatment given by a multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2017 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Global Ear. Werke 2001 - 2006

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Dresdenis muusikafestivalil "Global Ear" 23.3.03 esitusel Eesti heliloojate muusika: Helena Tulve "lumineux/opaque", Jaan Rääts "Meditation", Mirjam Tally "Aura", Mati Kuulberg "Sonate Nr.4", Mari Vihmand "Seitsmele"

  19. Global Ear. Werke 2001 - 2006

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Dresdenis muusikafestivalil "Global Ear" 23.3.03 esitusel Eesti heliloojate muusika: Helena Tulve "lumineux/opaque", Jaan Rääts "Meditation", Mirjam Tally "Aura", Mati Kuulberg "Sonate Nr.4", Mari Vihmand "Seitsmele"

  20. Multiple Osteomas in Middle Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of middle ear osteomas by Thomas in 1964, only few reports were published within the English literatures (Greinwalid et al., 1998; Shimizu et al., 2003; Cho et al., 2005; and Jang et al., 2009, and only one case of the multiple osteomas in middle ear was described by Kim et al., 2006, which arose from the promontory, lateral semicircular canal, and epitympanum. Here we describe a patient with multiple middle ear osteomas arising from the promontory, incus, Eustachian tube, and bony semicanal of tensor tympani muscle. This patient also contracted the chronic otitis media in the ipsilateral ear. The osteomas were successfully removed by performing type III tympanoplasty in one stage.

  1. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  2. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  3. Ear Disorders in Scuba Divers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Azizi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available History of underwater diving dates back to antiquity. Breath-hold technique in diving was known to the ancient nations. However, deep diving progressed only in the early decades of the 19th century as the result of advancements in efficient underwater technologies which subsequently led to invention of sophisticated sets of scuba diving in the 20th century. Currently, diving is performed for various purposes including commercial, recreational, military, underwater construction, oil industry, underwater archeology and scientific assessment of marine life. By increasing popularity of underwater diving, dive-related medical conditions gradually became more evident and created a new challenge for the health care professionals, so that eventually, a specialty the so-called “diving medicine” was established. Most of the diving-associated disorders appear in the head and neck. The most common of all occupational disorders associated with diving are otologic diseases. External otitis has been reported as the most common otolaryngologic problem in underwater divers. Exostosis of the external ear canal may be formed in divers as the result of prolonged diving in cold waters. Other disorders of the ear and paranasal sinuses in underwater divers are caused by barometric pressure change (i.e., barotraumas, and to a lesser extent by decompression sickness. Barotrauma of the middle ear is the most prevalent barotrauma in divers. The inner ear barotraumas, though important, is less common. The present paper is a brief overview of diving-related ear disorders particularly in scuba divers.

  4. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  5. 3D finite element model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing middle ear functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuelin; Gan, Rong Z

    2016-10-01

    Chinchilla is a commonly used animal model for research of sound transmission through the ear. Experimental measurements of the middle ear transfer function in chinchillas have shown that the middle ear cavity greatly affects the tympanic membrane (TM) and stapes footplate (FP) displacements. However, there is no finite element (FE) model of the chinchilla ear available in the literature to characterize the middle ear functions with the anatomical features of the chinchilla ear. This paper reports a recently completed 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear based on X-ray micro-computed tomography images of a chinchilla bulla. The model consisted of the ear canal, TM, middle ear ossicles and suspensory ligaments, and the middle ear cavity. Two boundary conditions of the middle ear cavity wall were simulated in the model as the rigid structure and the partially flexible surface, and the acoustic-mechanical coupled analysis was conducted with these two conditions to characterize the middle ear function. The model results were compared with experimental measurements reported in the literature including the TM and FP displacements and the middle ear input admittance in chinchilla ear. An application of this model was presented to identify the acoustic role of the middle ear septa-a unique feature of chinchilla middle ear cavity. This study provides the first 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing the middle ear functions through the acoustic-mechanical coupled FE analysis.

  6. Measuring attentional bias in children with prominent ears: A prospective eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Rebecca; Sobey, Stephanie; Chorney, Jill M; Bezuhly, Michael; Hong, Paul

    2015-12-01

    When observing new faces, most people focus their attention on the central triangle of the face containing the eyes, nose and mouth. When viewing faces with prominent ears, observers may divert their attention from the central triangle. The objective of this study was to determine whether there was an objective attentional bias to prominent ears in comparison to non-prominent ears. A total of 24 naïve participants (13 female; mean age 22.88 years) viewed 15 photographs of children with bilateral prominent ears, unilateral prominent ears and non-prominent ears. Both pre- and post-otoplasty photographs of two patients were included. The eye movements of participants were recorded using the EyeLink 1000, a table-mounted eye-tracking device. Overall, the participants spent more time looking at the ear regions for faces with prominent ears in comparison to faces without prominent ears (p = 0.007, Z = -2.688). The attentional bias to the ear region of the patient who underwent bilateral otoplasty was significantly reduced in the post-operative photograph (p = 0.011, Z = -2.534). The patient who underwent unilateral otoplasty had no significant change in fixation times towards the ear region (p = 0.594, Z = -0.533). This study presents objective data to support the notion that observers show attentional bias to the ear region when viewing faces of children with prominent ears. The scope of this finding requires further research in both extent and impact. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ovine ear model for fully endoscopic stapedectomy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, A; Benítez, S; Reyes, P; Vaca, M; Polo, R; Pérez, C; Alonso, A; Cobeta, I

    2015-09-01

    Endoscopic surgery of the middle ear is progressively gaining the interest of otologists, as technological advances have overcome some of its main drawbacks. The long learning curve required to master this technique, urges the search for models to practice it. After the validation of sheep's ear as a proper training model for microscopic stapedectomy, our objective is to demonstrate its adequacy for practicing stapes surgery but performed through a fully endoscopic approach. Endoscopic stapedectomy was performed by two surgeons in 40 sheep ears (20 specimens each). To analyze the effects of the learning curve on surgical success, complication rates and surgical time reduction, the sample was divided in two groups: group 1 being the first ten procedures of each surgeon, and group 2 the second set of stapedectomies. The impact of the operated side and the resection of the chordal spine were also studied. No statistically significant differences were found considering the operated side. A statistically significant improvement in some of the surgical steps was demonstrated comparing both groups and also after the resection of the chordal spine. Mean surgical time declined from 38 to 31.5 min (p sheep ear is an optimal model for endoscopic middle ear surgery, as it allows for the acquisition of the skills required to master this technique.

  8. Investigation of the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, J; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the head size on the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel as a part of a body-centric wireless network is examined. The channel quality is evaluated at 2:45 GHz in terms of path gain (∣S21∣) between two monopole antennas that are placed normal to the surface of the head. The investi......The effect of the head size on the ear-to-ear radio propagation channel as a part of a body-centric wireless network is examined. The channel quality is evaluated at 2:45 GHz in terms of path gain (∣S21∣) between two monopole antennas that are placed normal to the surface of the head....... The investigation is done by SAM head phantom measurements and HFSS simulations. The investigations include setups where some propagation paths are blocked by an absorbing material. It is found that the characteristics of the head may cause constructive or destructive interference that may result in up to 10 d...

  9. Classification and diagnosis of ear malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel-Friedrich, Sylva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ENT region 50% of the malformations affect the ear. Malformations of the outer and middle ear are predominantly unilateral (ca. 70-90% and mostly involve the right ear. Inner ear malformations can be unilateral or bilateral. The incidence of ear malformations is approximately 1 in 3800 newborns. Ear malformations may be genetic (associated with syndromes or not, with family history, spontaneous mutations or acquired in nature. Malformations can affect the outer ear (pinna and external auditory canal, EAC, middle ear and inner ear, not infrequently in combination. Formal classification is advisable in order to be able to predict the prognosis and compare treatment schedules. Various classifications have been proposed: pinna and EAC malformations according to Weerda [1], middle ear malformations according to Kösling [2], and inner ear malformations according to Jackler [3], [4], to Marangos [5] and to Sennaroglu [6]. Additionally, we describe Altmann’s classification of atresia auris congenita [7] and the Siegert-Mayer-Weerda score [8] for EAC and middle ear malformations, systems of great practicability that are in widespread clinical use. The diagnostic steps include clinical examination, audiological testing, genetic analysis and, especially, CT and MRI. These imaging methods are most usefully employed in combination. Precise description of the malformations by means of CT and MRI is indispensable for the planning and successful outcome of operative ear reconstruction and rehabilitation procedures, including cochlear implantation.

  10. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...

  11. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is ... which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked ...

  12. DESING OF CYLINDIRICAL EAR OF POLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar KARAGÖZ

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Plough is an agricultural tool which is used for preparing land to male it ready for sowing. The funotion of lough is to break the compact land into small pieces and to allow a suitable condition for living of culture plants. The ear is the most important part of active plough surface. The geometrical form of ear determines the form of active surface together with the front iron tip. Ploughs are divided into two categories which are European and American types. There are important differencies betucen the European and American tyges with respect to ?, ß and ? angles. Gorjatschkin described the ear form of European ploughs under four main groups which are: 1. Cylindirical ear type, 2. Culture-form ear type, 3. Semi-curled ear type, 4. Curled ear type. In this work, the designing of cylindirical ear was studied.

  13. Mechanics of the frog ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Pim; Mason, Matthew J.; Schoffelen, Richard L. M.; Narins, Peter M.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.

    2011-01-01

    The frog inner ear contains three regions that are sensitive to airborne sound and which are functionally distinct. (1) The responses of nerve fibres innervating the low-frequency, rostral part of the amphibian papilla (AP) are complex. Electrical tuning of hair cells presumably contributes to the f

  14. Proteomics and the Inner Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolde Thalmann

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The inner ear, one of the most complex organs, contains within its bony shell three sensory systems, the evolutionary oldest gravity receptor system, the three semicircular canals for the detection of angular acceleration, and the auditory system - unrivaled in sensitivity and frequency discrimination. All three systems are susceptible to a host of afflictions affecting the quality of life for all of us. In the first part of this review we present an introduction to the milestones of inner ear research to pave the way for understanding the complexities of a proteomics approach to the ear. Minute sensory structures, surrounded by large fluid spaces and a hard bony shell, pose extreme challenges to the ear researcher. In spite of these obstacles, a powerful preparatory technique was developed, whereby precisely defined microscopic tissue elements can be isolated and analyzed, while maintaining the biochemical state representative of the in vivo conditions. The second part consists of a discussion of proteomics as a tool in the elucidation of basic and pathologic mechanisms, diagnosis of disease, as well as treatment. Examples are the organ of Corti proteins OCP1 and OCP2, oncomodulin, a highly specific calcium-binding protein, and several disease entities, Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and perilymphatic fistula.

  15. COMMON INFECTIONS OF THE EAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    April 2004 Vol.22 No.4 CME. 193. KAREN COHEN. MB ChB ... the ear canal and they are usually in the 40 - 50-year age group. ... Treatment. The treatment of choice is intravenous antibiotics consisting of aminoglyco- side, piperacillin and ...

  16. Ear recognition based on Gabor features and KFDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Mu, Zhichun

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the same size. For its eminent characteristics in spatial local feature extraction and orientation selection, Gabor filter based ear feature extraction is presented in this paper. Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA) is then applied for dimension reduction of the high-dimensional Gabor features. Finally distance based classifier is applied for ear recognition. Experimental results of ear recognition on two datasets (USTB and UND datasets) and the performance of the ear authentication system show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Ear Recognition Based on Gabor Features and KFDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the same size. For its eminent characteristics in spatial local feature extraction and orientation selection, Gabor filter based ear feature extraction is presented in this paper. Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA is then applied for dimension reduction of the high-dimensional Gabor features. Finally distance based classifier is applied for ear recognition. Experimental results of ear recognition on two datasets (USTB and UND datasets and the performance of the ear authentication system show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Change of guinea pig inner ear pressure by square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, RA; Segenhout, JM; Albers, FWJ; Wit, HP

    The inner ear fluid pressure of guinea pigs was measured during square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation. Time constants were derived for the slopes of the inner ear pressure recovery curves after middle ear pressure change. A "single exponential" function did not fit well and therefore more

  19. Change of guinea pig inner ear pressure by square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, RA; Segenhout, JM; Albers, FWJ; Wit, HP

    2002-01-01

    The inner ear fluid pressure of guinea pigs was measured during square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation. Time constants were derived for the slopes of the inner ear pressure recovery curves after middle ear pressure change. A "single exponential" function did not fit well and therefore more

  20. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Too Short All About Puberty Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print A A A en ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  1. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  2. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? A A A en español ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  3. Statistical shape model with random walks for inner ear segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujadas, Esmeralda Ruiz; Kjer, Hans Martin; Piella, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear implants can restore hearing to completely or partially deaf patients. The intervention planning can be aided by providing a patient-specific model of the inner ear. Such a model has to be built from high resolution images with accurate segmentations. Thus, a precise segmentation...... is required. We propose a new framework for segmentation of micro-CT cochlear images using random walks combined with a statistical shape model (SSM). The SSM allows us to constrain the less contrasted areas and ensures valid inner ear shape outputs. Additionally, a topology preservation method is proposed...

  4. Standardized surgical approaches to ear surgery in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Li; Dalian Ding; Kelei Gao; Richard Salvi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To describe several approaches of ear surgeries for experimental studies in rats. Methods:Anesthetized rats were prepared for demonstration of various ear surgery approaches designed to optimize experimental outcomes in studies with specific goals and exposure requirements. The surgical approaches included the posterior tympanum, superior tympanum, inferior tympanum and occipital approaches. Results: The middle ear cavity and inner ear were successfully exposed from different angles via the mentioned surgical approaches. For example, electrode placement for recording of cochlear bioelectric responses was easily achieved through the posterior tympanum or inferior tympanum approach. Alternatively, drug delivery or gene transfection via round window membrane was most easily accomplished using the posterior tympanum approach. Cochlear perfusion of protective or ototoxic drugs was best performed using the inferior tympanum approach. Ossicular chain interruption to induce a prolonged conductive hearing loss was readily achieved using a superior tympanum approach. Lastly, surgical destruction of the endolymphatic sac to induce experimental endolymphatic hydrops was readily performed via an occipital surgical approach. Conclusion: These standardized surgical approaches can be applied in scientific studies of the ear with different purposes covering electro-physiology, conductive hearing loss, intra-cochlear drug perfusion and experimental studies relevant to Meniere's disease.

  5. Comparison of blackbodies for calibration of infrared ear thermometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pusnik, Igor; Clausen, Sønnik; Favreau, Jacques-Olivier

    2010-01-01

    The article will present the results of the EURAMET project no. 927 "Comparison of blackbodies for calibration of infrared ear thermometers (IRETs)". For the comparison MIRS/UL-FE LMK was chosen as the pilot laboratory. The objective of the comparison was to determine the agreement of blackbodies...... this is the standard EN 12470-5, which is a harmonised standard and supports the Medical Device Directive (MDD). Other standards are ASTM standard, Designation E 1965 – 98 and the draft of Japan Industrial Standard JIS T 4207, 2005: Japanese Industrial Standard: “infrared ear thermometers.”. The International...... is required to be at the most ±0,07 °C. An example of a blackbody is presented in Annex C of the standard EN 12470-5. Such a blackbody related to this standard, designed for the calibration of ear thermometers and immersed in a stirred water bath, was provided for the comparison by the pilot laboratory...

  6. LDV measurement of bird ear vibrations to determine inner ear impedance and middle ear power flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyshondt, Pieter G. G.; Pires, Felipe; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures in birds and mammals is affected by the fluids in the inner ear (IE) that are present behind the oval window. In this study, the aim was to gather knowledge of the acoustic impedance of the IE in the ostrich, to be able to determine the effect on vibrations and power flow in the single-ossicle bird middle ear for future studies. To determine the IE impedance, vibrations of the ossicle were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the acoustic regime, vibrations were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer and electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle. The impedance of the inner ear could be determined by means of a simple RLC model in series, which resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20.1012 Pa/m3, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652.106 Pa s2/m3, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57.109 Pa s/m. The measured impedance is found to be considerably smaller than what is found for the human IE.

  7. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  8. A Survey on Human Ear Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarnsing Bhable

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient ear recognition technique which derives benefits from the local features of the ear and attempt to handle the problems due to pose, poor contrast, change in illumination and lack of registration. Recognizing humans by their ear have recently received significant attention in the field of research. Ear is the rich in characteristics. This paper provides a detailed survey of research done in ear detection and recognition. This survey paper is very useful in the current state-of- art for those who are working in this area and also for those who might exploit this new approach.

  9. Human ear detection in the thermal infrared spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Ayman; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2012-06-01

    In this paper the problem of human ear detection in the thermal infrared (IR) spectrum is studied in order to illustrate the advantages and limitations of the most important steps of ear-based biometrics that can operate in day and night time environments. The main contributions of this work are two-fold: First, a dual-band database is assembled that consists of visible and thermal profile face images. The thermal data was collected using a high definition middle-wave infrared (3-5 microns) camera that is capable of acquiring thermal imprints of human skin. Second, a fully automated, thermal imaging based ear detection method is developed for real-time segmentation of human ears in either day or night time environments. The proposed method is based on Haar features forming a cascaded AdaBoost classifier (our modified version of the original Viola-Jones approach1 that was designed to be applied mainly in visible band images). The main advantage of the proposed method, applied on our profile face image data set collected in the thermal-band, is that it is designed to reduce the learning time required by the original Viola-Jones method from several weeks to several hours. Unlike other approaches reported in the literature, which have been tested but not designed to operate in the thermal band, our method yields a high detection accuracy that reaches ~ 91.5%. Further analysis on our data set yielded that: (a) photometric normalization techniques do not directly improve ear detection performance. However, when using a certain photometric normalization technique (CLAHE) on falsely detected images, the detection rate improved by ~ 4%; (b) the high detection accuracy of our method did not degrade when we lowered down the original spatial resolution of thermal ear images. For example, even after using one third of the original spatial resolution (i.e. ~ 20% of the original computational time) of the thermal profile face images, the high ear detection accuracy of our method

  10. Technique for correction of lop ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsahy, N I

    1990-04-01

    Various techniques of correction of lop ear have been described. Minor lop ear deformity can easily be corrected with simple excision of the overhanging auricular cartilage. Moderate and severe lop ear deformities, on the other hand, are more difficult to correct because there is actual reduction in size of the upper third of the ear in addition to the overhanging auricular cartilage. The purpose of this paper was to present a new technique used to correct the moderate lop ear deformity. In addition to excising the overhanging cartilage, I rotate a cartilage flap from the anthelix upward where the missing superior crus was supposed to be. This flap increases the vertical height of the ear and creates a new superior crus. I applied this technique on three cases of moderate lop ear deformities with good results.

  11. Inner Time and Inner Ear

    CERN Document Server

    Rvachov, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Sounds are information sequences that cannot exist outside of a time base and therefore cannot be analyzed inside an animal without an accurate internal clock. It is suggested that the clock may be hidden in the inner ear. It is shown that if a mechanism of counting of the electrical charge passing through the inner ear hair cells exists then the mechanism can be used both for the conversion of acceleration into velocity and as the inner clock, in the presence of a constant current. The causes of vertigo during rotation are discussed. It is shown that if a continuous inner time exists then sleeping is a mathematical necessity. It is indicated that both for visual and hearing inputs the recognition of an input signal is recognition of function(s) of two variables.

  12. Dominantly-inherited lop ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander K C; Kong, Albert Y F; Robson, W Lane M; McLeod, D Ross

    2007-10-01

    We describe a four-generation Chinese family that included five members who had an isolated bilateral lop ear anomaly. The presentation suggested a dominant mode of inheritance. The absence of male-to-male transmission does not exclude an X-linked dominant mode of inheritance. Since the phenotypic anomaly of the male proband was no more severe than the affected female members, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is most likely. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  13. Blastema Tissue Formed at Experimentally-Created Rabbit Ear Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity.   Materials and Methods: Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. Results: The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Conclusion: Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.

  14. The forced-response test does not discriminate ears with different otitis media expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Mandel, Ellen M; Seroky, James T; Swarts, J Douglas; Doyle, William J

    2014-11-01

    Test the hypothesis that the eustachian tube (ET) function measured using standard manometric test methods is different between groups of ears with tympanostomy tubes inserted for recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) and for chronic otitis media with effusion (COME). A cross-sectional study of ET function in populations of young children with different otitis media expressions. The results for forced-response testing of ET function were compared using a general linear model between 37 ears of 26 children and 34 ears of 26 children, aged 3 and 4 years, with ventilation tubes inserted for COME and RAOM, respectively. There were no significant between-group differences in either the active measure of ET opening function, dilatory efficiency, or in the passive measures reflecting the magnitude of the forces that tend to hold the ET lumen closed, the opening and closing pressures, and passive trans-ET conductance. The results do not support the hypothesis that ET closing forces are less in ears with RAOM when compared to ears with COME, and from the results of earlier studies, ears without disease. Both groups were characterized by a low ET opening efficiency (referenced to ears of adults with no disease history). Because both disease expressions present the same pattern of ET dysfunction, other factors are required to explain why a subset of ears with that type of dysfunction develop RAOM, as opposed to the default expression of COME. 2b © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Hearables: Multimodal physiological in-ear sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Goverdovsky, Valentin; Nakamura, Takashi; Looney, David; Sharp, David J; Papavassiliou, Christos; Morrell, Mary J; Mandic, Danilo P

    2016-01-01

    Future health systems require the means to assess and track the neural and physiological function of a user over long periods of time and in the community. Human body responses are manifested through multiple modalities, such as the mechanical, electrical and chemical; yet current physiological monitors (actigraphy, heart rate) largely lack in both the desired cross-modal and non-stigmatizing aspects. We address these challenges through an inconspicuous and comfortable earpiece, equipped with miniature multimodal sensors, which benefits from the relatively stable position of the ear canal with respect to vital organs to robustly measure the brain, cardiac and respiratory functions. Comprehensive experiments validate each modality within the proposed earpiece, while its potential in health monitoring is illustrated through case studies. We further demonstrate how combining data from multiple sensors within such an integrated wearable device improves both the accuracy of measurements and the ability to deal wit...

  16. Optical assessment of middle ear inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, David S.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of an optical device to assess the inflammatory state of the middle ear mucosa through the ear canal, after ventilation tube insertion in otitis media with effusion in children. An optical phantom of the middle ear was developed in order to allow repeatable experiments. The phantom consists of eardrum and mucosa while all other structures are neglected. The optical properties of the phantom were determined based on literature review and experiments on...

  17. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  18. Development and Integration of the Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jennifer C; Tucker, Abigail S

    2015-01-01

    The perception of our environment via sensory organs plays a crucial role in survival and evolution. Hearing, one of our most developed senses, depends on the proper function of the auditory system and plays a key role in social communication, integration, and learning ability. The ear is a composite structure, comprised of the external, middle, and inner ear. During development, the ear is formed from the integration of a number of tissues of different embryonic origin, which initiate in distinct areas of the embryo at different time points. Functional connections between the components of the hearing apparatus have to be established and maintained during development and adulthood to allow proper sound submission from the outer to the middle and inner ear. This highly organized and intimate connectivity depends on intricate spatiotemporal signaling between the various tissues that give rise to the structures of the ear. Any alterations in this chain of events can lead to the loss of integration, which can subsequently lead to conductive hearing loss, in case of outer and middle ear defects or sensorineural hearing loss, if inner ear structures are defective. This chapter aims to review the current knowledge concerning the development of the three ear compartments as well as mechanisms and signaling pathways that have been implicated in the coordination and integration process of the ear.

  19. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  20. Hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear surface inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2013-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus (A.flavus) and Aspergillus parasitiucus fungi that grow naturally in corn. Very serious health problems such as liver damage and lung cancer can result from exposure to high toxin levels in grain. Consequently, many countries have established strict guidelines for permissible levels in consumables. Conventional chemical-based analytical methods used to screen for aflatoxin such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are time consuming, expensive, and require the destruction of samples as well as proper training for data interpretation. Thus, it has been a continuing effort within the research community to find a way to rapidly and non-destructively detect and possibly quantify aflatoxin contamination in corn. One of the more recent developments in this area is the use of spectral technology. Specifically, fluorescence hyperspectral imaging offers a potential rapid, and non-invasive method for contamination detection in corn infected with toxigenic A.flavus spores. The current hyperspectral image system is designed for scanning flat surfaces, which is suitable for imaging single or a group of corn kernels. In the case of a whole corn cob, it is preferred to be able to scan the circumference of the corn ear, appropriate for whole ear inspection. This paper discusses the development of a hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear imaging. The new instrument is based on a hyperspectral line scanner using a rotational stage to turn the corn ear.

  1. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  2. Objective Audiometry using Ear-EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Kidmose, Preben

    life. Ear-EEG may therefore be an enabling technology for objective audiometry out of the clinic, allowing regularly fitting of the hearing aids to be made by the users in their everyday life environment. In this study we investigate the application of ear-EEG in objective audiometry....

  3. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  4. Microbiology of discharging ears in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Getachew Tesfaye; Daniel Asrat; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Messele Gizaw

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To isolate and identify the bacterial etiologic agents,including their antibiotic susceptibility pat-tern isolated from patients with discharging ear infections.Methods:Between September 2006 and February 2007,178 patients with discharging ear visiting ENT clinics of St.Paul and Tikur Anbessa University Hospi-tals Addis Ababa,Ethiopia were investigated.Results:Of the patients investigated,52.8% were males and 47.2% were females resulting in an overall male to female ratio of 1.1:1.Ear discharge was the commonest clinical finding followed by hearing problem (91.2%),otalgia (ear pain)(74.7%),fever (17.9%)and itching of external ear (5.1%).S.aureus accounted for 30.2% of the total isolates followed by Proteus ssp. (P.mirabilis,P.vulgaris )(25.4%),and P.aeruginosa (13.4%).Both gram positive and negative bac-teria isolated from ear infections showed low resistance rates to most antimicrobial agents tested.Overall ceftri-axone and ciprofloxacin were the most effective drugs when compared to other drugs tested against the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.Conclusion:Otitis media was the most common clinical finding in pa-tients with ear infection.With discharging ear,the gram-negative bacteria were the predominant isolates.The susceptibility pattern of isolates from the study showed that ceftriaxone,ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective drugs.It is recommended that treatment of ear infections should be based on culture and sensi-tivity at the study sites.Therefore,efforts should be directed towards early diagnosis and treatment of acute ear infection and continued re-evaluation of the resistant patterns of organisms to optimize treatments and reduce complications.

  5. Microbiomes of the normal middle ear and ears with chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Shujiro B; Mutai, Hideki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Horii, Arata; Oishi, Naoki; Wasano, Koichiro; Katsura, Motoyasu; Tanaka, Fujinobu; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Fujii, Masato; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to profile and compare the middle ear microbiomes of human subjects with and without chronic otitis media. Prospective multicenter cohort study. All consecutive patients undergoing tympanoplasty surgery for chronic otitis media or ear surgery for conditions other than otitis media were recruited. Sterile swab samples were collected from the middle ear mucosa during surgery. The variable region 4 of the 16S rRNA gene in each sample were amplified using region-specific primers adapted for the Illumina MiSeq sequencer (Illumina, CA, USA)). The sequences were subjected to local blast and classified using Metagenome@KIN (World Fusion, Tokyo, Japan). In total, 155 participants were recruited from seven medical centers. Of these, 88 and 67 had chronic otitis media and normal middle ears, respectively. The most abundant bacterial phyla on the mucosal surfaces of the normal middle ears were Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The children and adults with normal middle ears differed significantly in terms of middle ear microbiomes. Subjects with chronic otitis media without active inflammation (dry ear) had similar middle ear microbiomes as the normal middle ears group. Subjects with chronic otitis media with active inflammation (wet ear) had a lower prevalence of Proteobacteria and a higher prevalence of Firmicutes than the normal middle ears. The human middle ear is inhabited by more diverse microbial communities than was previously thought. Alteration of the middle ear microbiome may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media with active inflammation. 2b. Laryngoscope, 127:E371-E377, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Osteomas of the middle ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sente Marko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Osteomas of the middle ear are small, single, usually unilateral, peduncular growths, off-white in color, with smooth or multilobular surface, asymptomatic or causing functional disorders (progressive hearing loss, pathological appearance of the eardrum, vertigo and otorrhea, of unclear or unknown etiology. Fleury described three types of osteomas: massive, diffuse atticoantral and localized type. The therapy is surgical. Small and asymptomatic ones are followed-up. Cremers suggests surgical intervention in cases of progressive growth and increased hearing loss. Case description Discharge and pain in the left ear started twelve years ago, accompanied by impaired hearing and tinnitus. Four months ago the symptoms aggravated and discharge and pain increased. Otomicroscopic findings revealed: perforation in the posterior attic and a prominent polypous, clustered bright red formation. Schüller X-ray showed total absence of pneumocyte cells, with distinct sclerotic changes. Retroauricular access showed a biventricular bony formation in the cavum and partly in the antrum. A cholesteatoma extended from the cavum into the antrum, above the osteatoma. The bony formation was separated transmeatally from the grip in the posterior attic using a chisel, partially removing the bone wall of the exterior aural tube, removing it completely through the mastoid antrum. The removed bony mass, sized 5 x 8 x 8 mm, included also the incus. DISCUSSION Osteoma was discovered accidentally. Regarding clinical features, it belonged to the second group, due to progressive hearing loss, recurrent episodes of otorrhea, pain, biventricular shape and association with cholesteatoma. It was removed using a combined method. It was not possible to establish when the osteoma exactly started generating. It is possible that the initial complaints twelve years ago were the first signs of illness, and chronic otitis may have occurred as a consequence of the tumor.

  7. Novel in vivo imaging analysis of an inner ear drug delivery system: Drug availability in inner ear following different dose of systemic drug injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Sho; Watanabe, Kotaro; Fujioka, Masato; Shibata, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hirotaka James; Okano, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2015-12-01

    Systemic application of drugs is commonly used in clinical situations. Some of these drugs are ototoxic. Since there are few studies on in vivo monitoring of drug delivery dynamics, the time course or bioavailability of drugs in the inner ear of live animals following systemic drug application remains unknown. For instance, it is unknown whether the volume of a drug delivered systemically correlates with its inner ear pharmacokinetics. We previously established a new in vivo imaging system to monitor drug delivery in live mice. In the present study, we used this system to compare drug concentration in the inner ear over time after systemic drug injections. We used transgenic GFAP-Luc mice that harbor a firefly luciferase gene expression cassette regulated by 12 kb of murine GFAP promoter and human beta-globin intron 2. Luciferin delivered into the inner ear of these mice reacts with luciferase, and the resulting signals are detected in GFAP-expressing cells in the cochlear nerve. Thus, we assessed in the inner ear the intensity and duration of luciferin/luciferase signals after systemic injections of different volumes of luciferin. An IVIS(®) imaging system was used to observe signals, and these signals were compared to the drug dynamics of luciferin delivered through subcutaneous (sc) injections. The volume of sc-injected drug correlated significantly with photon counts measured in the inner ear. Photons were detected almost immediately after injection, peaking 20 min after injection. Drug concentration did not affect inner ear signals. Luciferin injected systemically appeared in the inner ear between highest and lowest concentration. Drug volume is an important parameter to know if the inner ear requires a higher level of the drug. We observed that it is the volume of a drug-not its concentration-that is the important factor. Indeed, the more volume of a drug injected systemically increased the concentration of that drug in the inner ear. This study provides a

  8. Imaging of the postoperative middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Marc T. [Department of Medical Imaging, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 25 rue Manin, 75940, Paris (France); Ayache, Denis [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Paris (France)

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (a) to present the principles and the indications of surgical treatment of middle ear pathologies; and (b) to review the imaging findings after middle ear surgery, including the normal postoperative aspects and imaging findings in patients presenting with unsatisfactory surgical results or with suspicion of postoperative complications. This review is intentionally restricted to the most common diseases involving the middle ear: chronic otitis media and otosclerosis. In these specific fields of interest, CT and MR imaging play a very important role in the postoperative follow-up and in the work-up of surgical failures and complications. (orig.)

  9. [Ear keloid and clinical research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guangyuan; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Keloid refers to the damaged skin due to excessive fibroblast proliferation. Ear is one predilection site. The pathogenesis of ear keloid is not very clear, and the treatment is also varied. Surgery, postoperative radiotherapy and laser treatment, steroid hormones, pressure therapy are the basic treatment methods. Integrated application of a variety of treatments, classification research and new materials using revealed the prospect for the treatment of the disease. This thesis reviews literature about ear keloid in recent 10 years, and introduces this disease and clinical research progress.

  10. Surgical Management of Ear Diseases in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csomos, Rebecca; Bosscher, Georgia; Mans, Christoph; Hardie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Otitis externa and media are frequently diagnosed disorders in rabbits and are particularly common in lop-eared breeds because of the specific anatomy of the ear canal. Medical management for otitis externa and media often provides only a temporary improvement in clinical signs. Surgery by means of partial or total ear canal ablation (PECA or TECA) combined with lateral bulla osteotomy (LBO) represents a feasible approach that is well tolerated and provides a good clinical outcome. Short-term complications associated with PECA/TECA-LBO include facial nerve paralysis and vestibular disease.

  11. Big Stimulus, Little Ears: Safety in Administering Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Megan L A; Fitzpatrick, Denis; McCreery, Ryan; Janky, Kristen L

    2017-05-01

    Cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) have become common clinical vestibular assessments. However, VEMP testing requires high intensity stimuli, raising concerns regarding safety with children, where sound pressure levels may be higher due to their smaller ear canal volumes. The purpose of this study was to estimate the range of peak-to-peak equivalent sound pressure levels (peSPLs) in child and adult ears in response to high intensity stimuli (i.e., 100 dB normal hearing level [nHL]) commonly used for VEMP testing and make a determination of whether acoustic stimuli levels with VEMP testing are safe for use in children. Prospective experimental. Ten children (4-6 years) and ten young adults (24-35 years) with normal hearing sensitivity and middle ear function participated in the study. Probe microphone peSPL measurements of clicks and 500 Hz tonebursts (TBs) were recorded in tubes of small, medium, and large diameter, and in a Brüel & Kjær Ear Simulator Type 4157 to assess for linearity of the stimulus at high levels. The different diameter tubes were used to approximate the range of cross-sectional areas in infant, child, and adult ears, respectively. Equivalent ear canal volume and peSPL measurements were then recorded in child and adult ears. Lower intensity levels were used in the participant's ears to limit exposure to high intensity sound. The peSPL measurements in participant ears were extrapolated using predictions from linear mixed models to determine if equivalent ear canal volume significantly contributed to overall peSPL and to estimate the mean and 95% confidence intervals of peSPLs in child and adult ears when high intensity stimulus levels (100 dB nHL) are used for VEMP testing without exposing subjects to high-intensity stimuli. Measurements from the coupler and tubes suggested: 1) each stimuli was linear, 2) there were no distortions or nonlinearities at high levels, and 3) peSPL increased with decreased tube diameter

  12. CAD-CAM generated ear cast by means of a laser scanner and rapid prototyping machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Scotti, Roberto

    2004-12-01

    Sculpting a wax ear cast for use when making a definitive prosthesis for a patient who has had auricle ablative surgery, is challenging. It requires a skilled anaplastologist along with complex instrumentation able to perform facial laser scans and reproduce anatomic details. The aim of this article is to present a technique to create a cast by laser scanning a stone cast of the existing ear. A 3D laser scanner develops an integrated 3D digital image of the unaffected ear, which is copied and then mirrored. A rapid prototyping machine collects the necessary data to manufacture the definitive resin ear. This procedure is time and cost effective only if the technology is free of charge.

  13. Removal of foreign bodies from children's ears: a nurse-led clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jo; Mirza, Adal; To, Kim; Tzifa, Konstance; McClelland, Lisha; Daniel, Mat

    This article presents an account of the rationale for and the introduction of a change in practice. The successful removal of foreign bodies from children's ears requires appropriate skills and experience. While traditionally a role for junior doctors, removal of foreign bodies from children's ears at the ear, nose and throat outpatient clinic at Birmingham Children's Hospital was associated with a low success rate. Therefore, it was proposed that an experienced advanced nurse practitioner would carry out this task in an attempt to improve patient outcomes. A database of outcomes was maintained and compared with those from a doctor-led clinic at Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust. The results highlight the benefits of nurse-led removal of foreign bodies from children's ears.

  14. Of mice, moles and guinea pigs: functional morphology of the middle ear in living mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew J

    2013-07-01

    The middle ear apparatus varies considerably among living mammals. Body size, phylogeny and acoustic environment all play roles in shaping ear structure and function, but experimental studies aimed ultimately at improving our understanding of human hearing can sometimes overlook these important species differences. This review focuses on three groups of mammals, bringing together anatomical, zoological and physiological information in order to highlight unusual features of their middle ears and attempt to interpret their function. "Microtype" ears, found in species such as mice and bats, are associated with high-frequency hearing. The orbicular apophysis, the focus of some recent developmental studies on mouse ears, is characteristic of microtype mallei but is not found in humans or other "freely mobile" species. The apophysis increases ossicular inertia about the anatomical axis of rotation: its adaptive purpose in a high-frequency ear is still not clear. Subterranean mammals have convergently evolved a "freely mobile" ossicular morphology which appears to favour lower-frequency sound transmission. More unusual features found in some of these animals include acoustically coupled middle ear cavities, the loss of middle ear muscles and hypertrophied ossicles which are believed to subserve a form of inertial bone conduction. Middle ears of the rodent group Ctenohystrica (which includes guinea pigs and chinchillas, important models in hearing research) show some striking characteristics which together comprise a unique type of auditory apparatus requiring a classification of its own, referred to here as the "Ctenohystrica type". These characteristics include a distinctive malleus morphology, fusion of the malleus and incus, reduction or loss of the stapedius muscle, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and, in chinchillas, enormously expanded middle ear cavities. These characteristics may be functionally linked and associated with the excellent low

  15. New Evaluation of the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR: Obtrusiveness, Compliance, and Participant Self-selection Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Manson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR is a method for collecting periodic brief audio snippets of participants’ daily lives using a portable recording device. The EAR can potentially intrude into people’s privacy, alter their natural behavior, and introduce self-selection biases greater than in other types of social science methods. Previous research (Mehl and Holleran, 2007, hereafter M&H has shown that participant non-compliance with, and perceived obtrusiveness of, an EAR protocol are both low. However, these questions have not been addressed in jurisdictions that require the consent of all parties to recording conversations. This EAR study required participants to wear a button bearing a microphone icon and the words “This conversation may be recorded” to comply with California’s all-party consent law. Results revealed self-reported obtrusiveness and non-compliance were actually lower in the present study than in the M&H study. Behaviorally assessed non-compliance did not differ between the two studies. Participants in the present study talked more about being in the study than participants in the M&H study, but such talk still comprised <2% of sampled conversations. Another potential problem with the EAR, participant self-selection bias, was addressed by comparing the EAR volunteers’ HEXACO personality dimensions to a non-volunteer sample drawn from the same student population. EAR volunteers were significantly and moderately higher in Conscientiousness, and lower in Emotionality, than non-volunteers. In conclusion, the EAR method can be successfully implemented in at least one all-party consent state (California. Interested researchers are encouraged to review this procedure with their own legal counsel.

  16. Evolution: Fossil Ears and Underwater Sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier

    2016-08-22

    A key innovation in the history of whales was the evolution of a sonar system together with high-frequency hearing. Fossils of an archaic toothed whale's inner ear bones provide clues for a stepwise emergence of underwater echolocation ability.

  17. Ear Infection Treatment: Do Alternative Therapies Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in books and magazines. They include chiropractic adjustments, homeopathy, herbal eardrops and others. Perhaps you're seeking ... infection treatments have been studied with mixed results. Homeopathy. A controversial treatment for ear infection, homeopathy involves ...

  18. Superglue accidentally used as ear drops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anusha, Bala; Purushotman, R; Lina, L C; Avatar, S

    2012-01-01

    Superglue in the ear as a foreign body is an uncommon presentation. We report the case of a lady who accidentally instilled superglue directly onto her tympanic membrane and presented five days later...

  19. Why do elephants flap their ears?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the elephant's ears serve as an important heat-regulating mechanism is not ... thermocouples; the cleaned vessel surface temperature was considered adequate .... The pathways for this transfer must be largely convective and evaporative.

  20. Inner ear malformations: a practical diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazón, M; Pont, E; Montoya-Filardi, A; Carreres-Polo, J; Más-Estellés, F

    Pediatric sensorineural hearing loss is a major cause of disability; although inner ear malformations account for only 20-40% of all cases, recognition and characterization will be vital for the proper management of these patients. In this article relevant anatomy and development of inner ear are surveyed. The role of neuroimaging in pediatric sensorineural hearing loss and cochlear preimplantation study are assessed. The need for a universal system of classification of inner ear malformations with therapeutic and prognostic implications is highlighted. And finally, the radiological findings of each type of malformation are concisely described and depicted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play a crucial role in the characterization of inner ear malformations and allow the assessment of the anatomical structures that enable the selection of appropriate treatment and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Female Climacteric Syndrome Treated by Ear Embedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤

    2003-01-01

    @@ Female climacteric syndrome is a common disease occurring before and after menopause. The author has treated the disease with ear embedding therapy, and achieved satisfactory therapeutic results. The following is a report of the clinical observation.

  2. Neonatal Ear Molding: Timing and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstadt, Erin Elizabeth; Johns, Dana Nicole; Kwok, Alvin Chi-Ming; Siddiqi, Faizi; Gociman, Barbu

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of auricular deformities is believed to be ∼11.5 per 10,000 births, excluding children with microtia. Although not life-threatening, auricular deformities can cause undue distress for patients and their families. Although surgical procedures have traditionally been used to reconstruct congenital auricular deformities, ear molding has been gaining acceptance as an efficacious, noninvasive alternative for the treatment of newborns with ear deformations. We present the successful correction of bilateral Stahl's ear deformity in a newborn through a straightforward, nonsurgical method implemented on the first day of life. The aim of this report is to make pediatric practitioners aware of an effective and simple molding technique appropriate for correction of congenital auricular anomalies. In addition, it stresses the importance of very early initiation of ear cartilage molding for achieving the desired outcome.

  3. Mozart ear: diagnosis, treatment, and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ken; Yotsuyanagi, Takatoshi; Saito, Tamotsu; Isogai, Noritaka; Mori, Hiromasa; Itani, Yoshihito

    2011-11-01

    Mozart ear is a congenital auricular deformity, which is mainly characterized by a bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle, a convexly protruded cavum conchae, and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus. It is said to be uncommon, and because no one has yet fully described neither the disease nor the treatment, the concept of Mozart ear has not been unified. This report describes a case of a 13-year-old girl presented with an unusual congenital deformity which showed the features of Mozart ear. It is an extremely rare deformity that only about 4 clinical cases have been reported in medical literature thereby a treatment method has not been fully discussed. For surgical correction of our cases, we excised deformed conchal cartilage, turned it over, regrafted, and maintained a cosmetically positive result. We also reviewed and described the origin, current concept, and treatment method of Mozart ear.

  4. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  7. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear...—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis media, mastoiditis, or cholesteatoma... of the substance 10 6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating...

  8. Commissioning of n_TOF EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    The construction of the second beam line and experiment area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility is currently ongoing and scheduled to be completed by July 2014. An extensive series of measurements is planned in order to determine the beam characteristics like the neutron flux, the spatial beam profile and the resolution function, as well as the response of several detectors considered for use in future measurements at EAR2. A rigorous study of backgrounds will be undertaken in various conditions.

  9. Osteoma of the middle ear: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa [College of Medicine, Inje University, Dongrae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Osteomas of the middle ear are exceedingly rare benign neoplasms. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature. They arise from the promontory, the pyramidal process and the ossicles, and they are usually asymptomatic or cause some conductive hearing loss. We report here the CT and pathologic findings in a 38-year-old woman with a benign osteoma of the middle ear along with chronic otitis media.

  10. Hearing impairment and ear pathology in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, P; Bridges, A; Guragain, R; Friedman, D; Prasad, R; Weir, N

    1993-05-01

    A stratified random cluster sample of 15,845 subjects was performed in two regions of Nepal to determine the prevalence and main causes of hearing impairment (the most common disability) and the prevalence of ear disease. Subjects reporting current ear pain, or ear discharge, or hearing impairment on direct questioning by a Nepali health worker (primary screening failed), had otoscopy and audiometry (using the Liverpool Field Audiometer) performed, and a questionnaire administered relating to past history. In every fifth house subjects who passed the primary screening (1,716 subjects) were examined to assess the false negative rate of screening. An estimated 16.6 per cent of the study population have hearing impairment (either ear worse than 30 dB hearing threshold level (HTL) 1.0-4.0 kHz, or 50 dB HTL 0.5 kHz), and 7.4 per cent ear drum pathology, equivalent to respectively 2.71 and 1.48 million people extrapolated to the whole of Nepal. Most hearing impairment in the school age group (55.2 per cent) is associated with otitis media or its sequelae. Probably at least 14 per cent of sensorineural deafness is preventable (7 per cent infectious disease, 3.9 per cent trauma, 0.8 per cent noise exposure, 1 per cent cretinism, and 1 per cent abnormal pregnancy or labour). Most individuals reporting current ear pathology (61 per cent) had never attended a health post, and of those receiving ear drop treatment, 84 per cent still had serious pathology. Of subjects who reported ear drop treatment at any time, 31 per cent still had serious pathology. The use of traditional remedies was prevalent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The inner ear produces a natriuretic hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1996-01-01

    Cytoplasmic granules have been demonstrated in epithelial cells from the endolymphatic sac, an extraosseus part of the inner ear located in the posterior cranial fossa. Intravenously infused extracts from endolymphatic sacs in anesthetized rats elicited a potent natriuresis and diuresis without...... be the sensory organ/mediator of "cerebral" natriuresis. Furthermore, this substance, tentatively named saccin, may influence the homeostasis of the inner ear fluids and accordingly play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Mèniére's disease....

  12. EARS : Repositioning data management near data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinquin, Jean-Marc; Sorribas, Jordi; Diviacco, Paolo; Vandenberghe, Thomas; Munoz, Raquel; Garcia, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    The EU FP7 Projects Eurofleets and Eurofleets2 are an European wide alliance of marine research centers that aim to share their research vessels, to improve information sharing on planned, current and completed cruises, on details of ocean-going research vessels and specialized equipment, and to durably improve cost-effectiveness of cruises. Within this context logging of information on how, when and where anything happens on board of the vessel is crucial information for data users in a later stage. This forms a primordial step in the process of data quality control as it could assist in the understanding of anomalies and unexpected trends recorded in the acquired data sets. In this way completeness of the metadata is improved as it is recorded accurately at the origin of the measurement. The collection of this crucial information has been done in very different ways, using different procedures, formats and pieces of software in the context of the European Research Fleet. At the time that the Eurofleets project started, every institution and country had adopted different strategies and approaches, which complicated the task of users that need to log general purpose information and events on-board whenever they access a different platform loosing the opportunity to produce this valuable metadata on-board. Among the many goals the Eurofleets project has, a very important task is the development of an "event log software" called EARS (Eurofleets Automatic Reporting System) that enables scientists and operators to record what happens during a survey. EARS will allow users to fill, in a standardized way, the gap existing at the moment in metadata description that only very seldom links data with its history. Events generated automatically by acquisition instruments will also be handled, enhancing the granularity and precision of the event annotation. The adoption of a common procedure to log survey events and a common terminology to describe them is crucial to provide

  13. Temporomandibular joint ankylosis consequent to ear suppuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Hota, Ashutosh; Sikka, Kapil; Thakar, Alok

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the complication of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis consequent to otitis media. The method applied is prospective case series and data collection done in tertiary referral centre from April 2012 to April 2013. Case description of three adolescent male patients with unilateral TMJ ankylosis consequent to ipsilateral chronic suppurative otitis media. Further literature review of TMJ ankylosis in relation to otitis media for evaluation for predisposing conditions. Surgical treatment by ipsilateral canal wall down mastoidectomy and concurrent TMJ gap arthroplasty. Surgical exposure confirmed ipsilateral bony ankylosis in all three. Two cases with long standing trismus had developed contralateral disuse fibrous ankylosis and required bilateral gap arthroplasty. Relief of trismus achieved in all three cases. Literature review indicated three similar cases secondary to otitis media. A universal feature among all previous case reports and the current case series was the age at onset of trismus, being at 10 years or less in all. TMJ ankylosis is a rare but potential complication of paediatric ear suppuration. Dehiscence along the tympanosquamosal fissure, tympanic plate and the foraminae of Huschke and Santorini in the paediatric population may predispose to extension of tympanic suppuration to the TMJ.

  14. Ear-to-Ear On-Body Channel Fading in the ISM-band for Tangentially-Polarized Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The ear-to-ear on-body channel fading has been studied in the ISM-band. The ear-to-ear path gain was measured on six persons in an indoor environment for a duration of 200 s. The channel fading has been characterized in terms of empirical cumulative distribution functions (CDF), average fade...

  15. [Correction of lop ear using minimally invasive approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, M García; Somoza, I; Lema, A; Molina, M E; Veiras, J Gómez; Tellado, M; Ríos, J; Dargallo, T; Pais, E; Vela, D

    2009-07-01

    Helix valgus or procident ears is a common problem that affects about 5% of the population. The folds of the antehelix and the overdevelopment of the concha are the most commonly found anatomic alterations of the ear pavilion. In children this pathology usually causes anxiety and an emotional trauma that may interfere in their normal development. There are a few tipes of techniques to correct helix valgus. We present the application of the technique in our service. We conduct the otoplastia with an outer puntiform technique which allows us to cut the cartilage partially from the outside. Next we fold from the rear the antehelix and hide the concha. We analysed 7 years of the application of this technique and we now present 87 otoplastias conducted to 44 children. The 97% of them were bilateral. No precocious complications have been observed after the surgery. All cases except for one of them have been bilateral. All the patients were satisfied with the aesthetic results. None of them showed relapse. In one case there was a hypertrophic scar that required cutting and in 2 of the cases there was a slight hypercorrection. Procident ears may occasion a psychological trauma in children. We believe that this technique, which is minimally invasive, provides very satisfactory aesthetic results, the puntiform scar being hardly noticed fifteen days before surgery. The patients need to stay in hospital for a short period, 24-48 hours, and complications are very rare, recidiva has not been described. We strongly recommend this technique for the correction of procident ears.

  16. Developmental evolutionary biology of the vertebrate ear: conserving mechanoelectric transduction and developmental pathways in diverging morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.; Bermingham, N. A.

    2000-01-01

    This brief overview shows that a start has been made to molecularly dissect vertebrate ear development and its evolutionary conservation to the development of the insect hearing organ. However, neither the patterning process of the ear nor the patterning process of insect sensory organs is sufficiently known at the moment to provide more than a first glimpse. Moreover, hardly anything is known about otocyst development of the cephalopod molluscs, another triploblast lineage that evolved complex 'ears'. We hope that the apparent conserved functional and cellular components present in the ciliated sensory neurons/hair cells will also be found in the genes required for vertebrate ear and insect sensory organ morphogenesis (Fig. 3). Likewise, we expect that homologous pre-patterning genes will soon be identified for the non-sensory cell development, which is more than a blocking of neuronal development through the Delta/Notch signaling system. Generation of the apparently unique ear could thus represent a multiplication of non-sensory cells by asymmetric and symmetric divisions as well as modification of existing patterning process by implementing novel developmental modules. In the final analysis, the vertebrate ear may come about by increasing the level of gene interactions in an already existing and highly conserved interactive cascade of bHLH genes. Since this was apparently achieved in all three lineages of triploblasts independently (Fig. 3), we now need to understand how much of the morphogenetic cascades are equally conserved across phyla to generate complex ears. The existing mutations in humans and mice may be able to point the direction of future research to understand the development of specific cell types and morphologies in the formation of complex arthropod, cephalopod, and vertebrate 'ears'.

  17. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat.

  18. Gain and maximum output of two electromagnetic middle ear implants: are real ear measurements helpful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snik, A.F.M.; Noten, J.F.P.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the output of two electronic middle ear implants: the Otologics MET device and the Vibrant Soundbridge device. Both devices were programmed in the linear amplification mode. Aided minus unaided sound pressure levels recorded in the ear canal (objective gain) were compared to unaided minu

  19. Prenatal evaluation of the middle ear and diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katorza, Eldad; Nahama-Allouche, Catherine; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Castaigne, Vanina [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Paris (France); Gonzales, Marie; Marlin, Sandrine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Genetique et Embryologie medicales, Paris (France); Galliani, Eva [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Chirurgie maxillo-faciale, Paris (France); Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Rosenblatt, Jonathan [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Centre pluridisciplinaire de diagnostic prenatal, Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Analysis of the middle ear with fetal MRI has not been previously reported. To show the contribution of fetal MRI to middle ear imaging. The tympanic cavity was evaluated in 108 fetal cerebral MRI examinations (facial and/or cerebral malformation excluded) and in two cases, one of Treacher Collins syndrome (case 1) and the other of oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OUV) spectrum (case 2) with middle ear hypoplasia identified by MRI at 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, respectively. In all 108 fetuses (mean gestational age 32.5 weeks), the tympanic cavity and T2 hypointensity related to the ossicles were well visualised on both sides. Case 1 had micro/retrognathia and bilateral external ear deformity and case 2 had retrognathism with a left low-set and deformed ear. MRI made it possible to recognize the marked hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity, which was bilateral in case 1 and unilateral in case 2. Both syndromes are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities including middle ear hypoplasia, which cannot be diagnosed with US. The middle ear cavity can be visualized with fetal MRI. We emphasize the use of this imaging modality in the diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia. (orig.)

  20. Ear Acupuncture in European Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction through stimulation of definite points on the ear. Rudimentary forms of acupuncture which probably arose during the Stone Age have survived in many parts of the world right down to present day. It was used in the ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece and all the Mediterranean area. It is a microacupuncture technique similar to reflexology, and was first described in France in 1950 by Paul Nogier who is considered the Father of modern ear acupuncture. It was speculated that the technique works because groups of pluripotent cells contain information from the whole organism and create regional organization centers representing different parts of the body. Nevertheless stimulation of a reflex point in the ear seems relieve symptoms of distant pathologies. Modern research is confirming the efficacy of ear acupuncture for analgesia and anxiety related disease, while tobacco dependence and other substance abuse still need confirmation. Actually main methodological problems with auricular acupuncture are that exist too many maps with little agreement regarding point location in the ear, and that the correspondence or reflex systems does not correlated with modern knowledge of anatomy and physiology.

  1. Passive and active middle ear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutner, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants.

  2. Carcinoid tumor of the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikanne, Elina; Kantola, Olli; Parviainen, Tapani

    2004-08-01

    Although carcinoid tumors are labeled as neuroendocrine tumors they can also originate in tissue lacking neuroendocrine cells, such as that in the middle ear. Symptoms of a carcinoid tumor in the middle ear are common ear symptoms such as fullness, pain and hearing loss. Carcinoid tumors have also been considered to be slow-growing. Both these aspects can easily lead to a relatively late diagnosis of carcinoid tumor of the middle ear. The diagnosis is made histologically, and the tumor is primarily treated surgically. In the follow-up of patients, octreotide scanning has proved to be a sensitive method in cases of both recurrence and metastasis. Our patient was a 34-year-old, otherwise healthy female with left-sided acute otitis media and facial palsy in her left ear. She had also suffered from the same symptoms 4 years earlier. She was treated with an operation, and the histologic diagnosis was a carcinoid tumor. In the follow-up of the patient we used octreotide scanning.

  3. CT of temporal bone - IV. inner ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Yoon; Sung, Kyu Bo; Youn, Eun Kyoung; Park, Youn Kyeung; Lee, Young Uk [Koryo general Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Temporal bone CT was done in 697 patients from April 1985 to October 1989. The abnormal findings were seen in 453 patients, which were chronic otitis media in 355 patients, fracture in 49 patients and congenital anomaly in 44 patients, etc. The abnormal findings of inner ear were observed on 46 patients. The results were summarized as follows : 1. The incidence of inner ear involvement by chronic otitis media was 7.3% (26/355 : labyrinthine fistula in 17 patients, labyrinthitis ossificans in 9 patients). Labyrinthine fistula was most commonly located on lateral semicircular canal (15/17, 88.2%). 2. Fusion of vestibule with lateral semicircular canal and formation of common cavity was demonstrated incidentally in 5 patients (0.7% of total number of temporal bone CT), and bilateral in 3 patients. 3. The incidence of inner ear anomaly in congenital ear anomaly was 11.4% (5/44). All cases were bilateral and three patients showed associated middle ear anomaly. 4. The incidence of involvement of bony labyrinth in temporal bone fracture was 10.2% (5/49). Labyrinthine fracture was seen all patients of transverse(3) and mixed fracture(1). In longitudinal fracture, labyrinthine fracture was seen in 2.2% (1/45). 5. Others were traumatic labyrinthitis ossificans(1), intracanalicular acoustic neuroma(3) and facial nerve neuroma(1)

  4. [Imaging and audiology analysis of the congenital inner ear malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bao; Lin, Shaolian; Lin, Youhui; Fang, Zheming; Ye, Shengnan; Zhang, Rong

    2015-11-01

    To investigate imaging and audiology features of temporal bone and analyze the classification and prevalence of inner ear abnormalities in children with sensorineural hearing loss. Children who were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss were examined by high resolution CT and the inner ear fluid of MRI. And each chart was retrospectively reviewed to determine the imaging and audiology features. There were 125 patients(232 ears) found with inner ear malformation in 590 children with SNHL. About 21.71% of the inner ear malformation occurred in severe and profound hearing loss ears, and 12.85% occurred in r moderate hearing loss ears. The inner ear malformation rate in normal hearing ears were 13.59%. CT and MRI examinations of temporal bone are important diagnostic tools to indentify inner ear malformations. Inner ear malformations are almost bilateral and hearing loss are profoud. Cochleo-vestibular malformations and large vestibular aqueduct are the 2 most frequent deformities. Among the children with SNHL, deformity rate in the severe and profound hearing loss ears is higher than that in moderate hearing loss ear. Inner ear malformations can exist in people with normal hearing.

  5. Micromechanical resonator array for an implantable bionic ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Mark; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Xu, Tao; Li, G-P

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report on a multi-resonant transducer that may be used to replace a traditional speech processor in cochlear implant applications. The transducer, made from an array of micro-machined polymer resonators, is capable of passively splitting sound into its frequency sub-bands without the need for analog-to-digital conversion and subsequent digital processing. Since all bands are mechanically filtered in parallel, there is low latency in the output signals. The simplicity of the device, high channel capability, low power requirements, and small form factor (less than 1 cm) make it a good candidate for a completely implantable bionic ear device.

  6. Anteverted concha: A new ear deformational anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Schönauer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most auricular deformities involve the helix and the antihelix (Stahl's bar, lop and prominent ear; an isolated conchal deformity is uncommon in an otherwise normal ear. When a convexity rather than a concavity of the concha is present, it can be defined as “anteverted concha”. The anteverted concha causes not only aesthetic but also functional problems. It may be so severe as to occlude the external auditory meatus. In a newborn ear amenable to moulding, anteverted concha can be treated non-surgically by splinting. If this time window has passed, then surgical excision of the conchal bulge can give good results in the adult. We present two such cases and their treatment.

  7. [Bone Conduction and Active Middle Ear Implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkenstein, S; Thomas, J P; Dazert, S

    2016-05-01

    The majority of patients with moderate to severe hearing loss can be supplied with conventional hearing aids depending on severity and cause for hearing loss in a satisfying way. However, some patients either do not benefit enough from conventional hearing aids or cannot wear them due to inflammatory reactions and chronic infections of the external auditory canal or due to anatomical reasons. For these patients there are fully- and semi-implantable middle ear and bone conduction implants available. These devices either directly stimulate the skull (bone conduction devices), middle ear structures (active middle ear implants) or the cochlea itself (direct acoustic stimulation). Patients who failed surgical hearing rehabilitation or do not benefit from conventional hearing aids may achieve a significant better speech understanding and tremendous improvement in quality of life by implantable hearing devices with careful attention to the audiological and anatomical indication criteria.

  8. Precise individualized armature for ear reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhouse, Raymond J.; Chen, Xiaoming

    1991-04-01

    The cosmetic result of an ear restored surgically or via prosthetics is dependent on the surgeon''s ability to carve a precise cartilage armature at the time of surgery or the prosthetist''s ability to sculpt in wax an exact duplicate of the patient''s " missing" ear. Introducing CAD/CAM technology into the process benefits the esthetic outcome of these procedures. By utilizing serial section information derived from CAT MRI or moulage techniques a mirrorimage of the patient''s " donor" ear is generated. The resulting earform data is then used for the design of a cartilage armature produced by multi-axis milling or to produce by stereolithography a model which serves as the basis for a prosthesis.

  9. The acoustical significance of age-dependent ear elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Elderly people, especially some old men, appear to have very large ears. This paper presents an investigation on the acoustic significance of the age dependent ear elongation. HRTFs and ear lengths were measured for two groups of young and old people. The older groups had larger ears on average......, corresponding to what is reported in the literature. For female ears, virtually no acoustical effect was found. For male ears directional dependent effects in the range up to 5 dB on average was found for certain directions and frequencies. Implications on age dependent hearing loss (presbycusis...

  10. [The tempestuous history of middle ear operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlejewski, Stanisław; Betlejewski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The paper is a review of primary and secondary historical and scientific literature concerning the surgical treatment of the middle ear diseases. The development of mastoid surgery can be traced through the past 4 centuries. Once used as a means of evacuating a postauricular abscess, it has evolved to become a method for gaining entry into the middle ear to control acute and chronic ear diseases, or for treatment of otogenic complications. Earlier works led the way to the postauricular "Wilde incision", which gave rise to Schwartze mastoidectomy. Oscar Wilde's ultimate demise from an otogenic meningitis appears all the more ironic when one considers the role his father, Sir William Wilde, played as one of the founding fathers of modern otology. The death of baron von Berger after mastoidectomy performed for treatment of tinnitus and hypacusis, stopped the further development of surgical procedures for about hundred years. The Joseph Toynbee's "Diseases of the ear" was the first work about ear diseases on a pathologic anatomical base, and fundamental for otology of the German speaking countries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Otology was emerging as a specific specialty. Von Tröltsch was the first surgeon, who proposed the antral opening through the external ear canal. When Schwartze and his assistant, Eysell, published their paper: "On the Artificial Opening of the Mastoid Air Cells," a century or so had passed since the few previous attempts to remove the tegmen of the mastoid had been reported. One of the greatest otologists of the 19th century was Adam Politzer, His influence on the 50 years of otology has never been equaled. It is in his honor that the International Society of Otology bears his name.

  11. The Frog Inner Ear: Picture Perfect?

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Matthew James; Segenhout, Johannes M.; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Quiñones, Patricia M.; van Dijk, Pim

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript of a paper published in the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology (2015) DOI: 10.1007/s10162-015-0506-z Many recent accounts of the frog peripheral auditory system have reproduced Wever’s (1973) schematic cross-section of the ear of a leopard frog. We sought to investigate to what extent this diagram is an accurate and representative depiction of the anuran inner ear, using three-dimensional reconstructions made from serial sections of Ra...

  12. up to one’s ears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    up to one’s ears可以解释成"很忙"的意思。如:Half the people in my office are home sick,so I’m up to my ears!我办公室里有一半的人有病请假,所以我简直忙得不得了。I’d like to help you paint the kitchen tonight,but I’m up to my ears in paper work I had to bring home from the office.我很愿意今晚帮你把厨房上油漆。可

  13. A Man With Two Burned Ears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范图雨

    2001-01-01

    Mr Smith was in troublethose days. He drove a car forMr Black, a rich business-man. He worked hard and theshopkeeper liked him. But hecouldn't work when he dranktoo much. And once he al-most fell into the river whenhe drove along the bridge. MrBlack became angry and wasgoing to send him away. Hehad a big family and wasafraid of that and promisedhe would stop drinking atonce. The man told him towait to be dealt with. OneMonday morning, Mr Smithcame into the office, with twobadly burned ears. “Whathappened to your ears?”asked Mr Black.

  14. High ear-piercing: an increasingly popular procedure with serious complications. Is good clinical practice exercised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Marie; Stephens, Joanna; Wasson, Joseph; DeZoysa, Nilantha; Vlastarakos, Petros V

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the current practice of performing high ear-piercing regarding consent protocols, and methods of practice using questionnaire-based survey in Hertfordshire and North London. Recommendations for good clinical practice are also made. 100 establishments performing ear piercing were identified. A 16-item questionnaire on techniques used, methods of high-ear piercing, methods of sterilization, consent issues and aftercare was completed. Seventy-six establishments agreed to participate. All practitioners prepared the skin before piercing. 58 (76%) used a needle for piercing, 11 (15%) used a spring-loaded gun and seven (9%) used both. 97% of the practitioners obtained written consent before proceeding. 9 (12%) had a lower age limit of 16 years and three (4%) of 18 years. 27 piercers (36%) provided an aftercare leaflet, 41 (54%) warned the patients about risks of infection, 16 (21%) warned about cosmetic deformity and 1 (1%) specifically mentioned cauliflower ear. Results indicated that high ear piercing is an invasive procedure with a significant risk of complications leading to cosmetic deformity. Establishments should be required to counsel patients properly about the risks and potential complications of the procedure. A code of practice should be drawn up with a minimum age for piercing, requirement for proper consent, excellent hygiene and good information for postoperative care.

  15. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing ... learning important speech and language skills. Types of hearing loss Conductive hearing loss is a form of hearing ...

  16. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric ... of self-esteem, and isolation from their peers. Pediatric obesity and otolaryngic problems Otolaryngologists, or ear, nose, ...

  17. Acoustics of the human middle-ear air space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Cara E; Voss, Susan E

    2005-08-01

    The impedance of the middle-ear air space was measured on three human cadaver ears with complete mastoid air-cell systems. Below 500 Hz, the impedance is approximately compliance-like, and at higher frequencies (500-6000 Hz) the impedance magnitude has several (five to nine) extrema. Mechanisms for these extrema are identified and described through circuit models of the middle-ear air space. The measurements demonstrate that the middle-ear air space impedance can affect the middle-ear impedance at the tympanic membrane by as much as 10 dB at frequencies greater than 1000 Hz. Thus, variations in the middle-ear air space impedance that result from variations in anatomy of the middle-ear air space can contribute to inter-ear variations in both impedance measurements and otoacoustic emissions, when measured at the tympanic membrane.

  18. Numerical analysis of ossicular chain lesion of human ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingxi Liu; Sheng Li; Xiuzhen Sun

    2009-01-01

    Lesion of ossicular chain is a common ear disease impairing the sense of hearing. A comprehensive numerical model of human ear can provide better understanding of sound transmission. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional finite element model of human ear that incorporates the canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular bones,middle ear suspensory ligaments/muscles, middle ear cavity and inner ear fluid. Numerical analysis is conducted and employed to predict the effects of middle ear cavity, malleus handle defect, hypoplasia of the long process of incus,and stapedial crus defect on sound transmission. The present finite element model is shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of human ear.

  19. Modeling Ear-Canal Acoustics, Incorporating Visco-Thermal Effects and the Influence of the Middle Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowdy, Lauren E.; Withnell, Robert H.

    2011-11-01

    The ear canal, below about 6 kHz, is well described by a uniform cylinder (sound propagates predominantly as plane waves) with the middle ear being a non-rigid termination. A non-rigid termination can be viewed as altering, as a function of frequency, the acoustic length and radius of the cylinder. It is generally assumed that sound transmission in the ear canal over this frequency range is lossless. This paper presents a method for calculating the influence of visco-thermal losses and the middle ear on ear canal acoustics. The acoustic input impedance was derived from sound pressure measurements in the ear canal and then a nonlinear least-square-fit to the data with a one-dimensional model incorporating visco-thermal losses generated length, radius, and middle ear impedance parameters. It was found that a rigid wall assumption for visco-thermal calculations was insufficient to account for damping in the ear canal. The properties of the ear canal wall (not being a rigid, low-friction surface), incorporated into visco-thermal losses as a scaling factor, provided a better fit to the data. Viscous and thermal losses were both found to affect sound propagation in the ear canal, viscous losses being more significant, altering the acoustic input impedance of the ear primarily in the region of the standing wave frequency. The model data suggests that the middle ear influences ear canal acoustics up to about 3 kHz.

  20. The first neutron beam hits EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    On 25 July 2014, about a year after construction work began, the Experimental Area 2 (EAR2) of CERN’s neutron facility n_TOF recorded its first beam. Unique in many aspects, EAR2 will start its rich programme of experimental physics this autumn.   The last part of the EAR2 beamline: the neutrons come from the underground target and reach the top of the beamline, where they hit the samples. Built about 20 metres above the neutron production target, EAR2 is in fact a bunker connected to the n_TOF underground facilities via a duct 80 cm in diameter, where the beamline is installed. The feet of the bunker support pillars are located on the concrete structure of the n_TOF tunnel and part of the structure lies above the old ISR building. A beam dump located on the roof of the building completes the structure. Neutrons are used by physicists to study neutron-induced reactions with applications in a number of fields, including nuclear waste transmutation, nuclear technology, nuclear astrop...

  1. Objective Audiometry using Ear-EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Kidmose, Preben

    therefore be an enabling technology for objective audiometry out of the clinic, allowing regularly fitting of the hearing aids to be made by the users in their everyday life environment. The objective of this study is to investigate the application of ear-EEG in objective audiometry....

  2. THE DISCHARGING EAR: A PRACTICAL APPROACH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    The substances that the ear may discharge include wax, pus, mucus, blood, cere- brospinal fluid (CSF) and ... ed with a history of trauma or skull base surgery, is likely to be CSF. Recurrent ... After assessing the patient's hearing with a tuning ...

  3. DNA isolation from rat tail or ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This protocol describes a rapid procedure for isolating DNA from rat tail or ear punches. The simplest version of the protocol can be scaled for use in 96-well (deep-well) plates. The quality of the DNA is sufficient for any polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping approach.

  4. Mechanics of the exceptional anuran ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelen, Richard L. M.; Segenhout, Johannes M.; van Dijk, Pim

    2008-01-01

    The anuran ear is frequently used for studying fundamental properties of vertebrate auditory systems. This is due to its unique anatomical features, most prominently the lack of a basilar membrane and the presence of two dedicated acoustic end organs, the basilar papilla and the amphibian papilla. O

  5. Infrared tympanic temperature and ear canal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the oesopha

  6. Analytical model of internally coupled ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vossen, Christine; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Leo van Hemmen, J

    2010-01-01

    , data demonstrating an asymmetrical spatial pattern of membrane vibration. As the analytical calculations show, the internally coupled ears increase the directional response, appearing in large directional internal amplitude differences (iAD) and in large internal time differences (iTD). Numerical...... simulations of the eigenfunctions in an exemplary, realistically reconstructed mouth cavity further estimate the effects of its complex geometry....

  7. DNA isolation from rat tail or ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This protocol describes a rapid procedure for isolating DNA from rat tail or ear punches. The simplest version of the protocol can be scaled for use in 96-well (deep-well) plates. The quality of the DNA is sufficient for any polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping approach.

  8. Diving injuries to the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J C

    1977-01-01

    Most of the previous literature concerning otologic problems in compressed gas environments has emphasized middle ear barotrauma. With recent increases in commercial, military, and sport diving to deeper depths, inner ear disturbances during these exposures have been noted more frequently. Studies of inner ear physiology and pathology during diving indicate that the causes and treatment of these problems differ depending upon the phase and type of diving. Humans exposed to simulated depths of up to 305 meters without barotrauma or decompression sickness develop transient, conductive hearing losses with no audiometric evidence of cochlear dysfunction. Transient vertigo and nystagmus during diving have been noted with caloric stimulation, resulting from the unequal entry of cold water into the external auditory canals, and with asymmetric middle ear pressure equilibration during ascent and descent (alternobaric vertigo). Equilibrium disturbances noted with nitrogen narcosis, oxygen toxicity, hypercarbia, or hypoxia appear primarily related to the effects of these conditions upon the central nervous system and not to specific vestibular end-organ dysfunction. Compression of humans in helium-oxygen at depths greater than 152.4 meters results in transient symptoms of tremor, dizziness, and nausea plus decrements in postural equilibrium and psychomotor performance, the high pressure nervous syndrome. Vestibular function studies during these conditions indicate that these problems are due to central dysfunction and not to vestibular end-organ dysfunction. Persistent inner ear injuries have been noted during several phases of diving: 1) Such injuries during compression (inner ear barotrauma) have been related to round window ruptures occurring with straining, or a Valsalva's maneuver during inadequate middle ear pressure equilibration. Divers who develop cochlear and/or vestibular symptoms during shallow diving in which decompression sickness is unlikely or during

  9. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  10. The Role of Immittance Audiometry in Detecting Middle Ear Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, John T.

    1981-01-01

    Immittance audiometry is an objective technique which evaluates middle ear function by three procedures: static immittance, tympanometry, and the measurement of acoustic reflex threshold sensitivity. This article discusses the technique's ability to identify middle ear effusion, the single leading ear disease in children.

  11. 15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Items subject to the EAR. 734.3... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.3 Items subject to the EAR. (a) Except for items excluded in paragraph (b) of this section, the following items are subject to the EAR: (1) All items in the...

  12. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what to ask your doctor ... Why does my child need ear tubes? Can we try other treatments? What are the risks of the surgery? Is it safe to wait before getting ear ...

  13. The use of a SQUID magnetometer for middle ear research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, W.L.C.; Peters, M.J.; Brenkman, C.J.; Mol, H.; Grote, J.J.; Marel, van der L.C.

    1982-01-01

    A new technique is described for the measurement of vibrations in the temporal bones of an isolated middle ear. The precise recording of vibrations in the middle ear is of importance for the construction and improvement of a middle ear prosthesis.1 The method of measurement is based on a transformat

  14. Erythema associated with pain and warmth on face and ears: a variant of erythermalgia or red ear syndrome?: Doc 602

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ming-Chun Chen; Qing-Fang Xu; Di-Qing Luo; Xiang Li; Ding-Yang He

    2014-01-01

    ..., face, ears and even the scrotum. We reported an 18-year-old woman who presented with 3 years history of sole involvement of attacking erythema, pain and warmth over her face and ears without any other associations...

  15. Erythema associated with pain and warmth on face and ears: a variant of erythermalgia or red ear syndrome?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Ming-Chun; Xu, Qing-Fang; Luo, Di-Qing; Li, Xiang; He, Ding-Yang

    2014-01-01

    ..., face, ears and even the scrotum. We reported an 18-year-old woman who presented with 3 years history of sole involvement of attacking erythema, pain and warmth over her face and ears without any other associations...

  16. Ear-Shaped Stable Auricular Cartilage Engineered from Extensively Expanded Chondrocytes in an Immunocompetent Experimental Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantseva, Irina; Bichara, David A; Tseng, Alan; Cronce, Michael J; Cervantes, Thomas M; Kimura, Anya M; Neville, Craig M; Roscioli, Nick; Vacanti, Joseph P; Randolph, Mark A; Sundback, Cathryn A

    2016-02-01

    Advancement of engineered ear in clinical practice is limited by several challenges. The complex, largely unsupported, three-dimensional auricular neocartilage structure is difficult to maintain. Neocartilage formation is challenging in an immunocompetent host due to active inflammatory and immunological responses. The large number of autologous chondrogenic cells required for engineering an adult human-sized ear presents an additional challenge because primary chondrocytes rapidly dedifferentiate during in vitro culture. The objective of this study was to engineer a stable, human ear-shaped cartilage in an immunocompetent animal model using expanded chondrocytes. The impact of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) supplementation on achieving clinically relevant expansion of primary sheep chondrocytes by in vitro culture was determined. Chondrocytes expanded in standard medium were either combined with cryopreserved, primary passage 0 chondrocytes at the time of scaffold seeding or used alone as control. Disk and human ear-shaped scaffolds were made from porous collagen; ear scaffolds had an embedded, supporting titanium wire framework. Autologous chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in sheep after 2 weeks of in vitro incubation. The quality of the resulting neocartilage and its stability and retention of the original ear size and shape were evaluated at 6, 12, and 20 weeks postimplantation. Neocartilage produced from chondrocytes that were expanded in the presence of bFGF was superior, and its quality improved with increased implantation time. In addition to characteristic morphological cartilage features, its glycosaminoglycan content was high and marked elastin fiber formation was present. The overall shape of engineered ears was preserved at 20 weeks postimplantation, and the dimensional changes did not exceed 10%. The wire frame within the engineered ear was able to withstand mechanical forces during wound healing and neocartilage

  17. Inner ear pressure changes following square wave intracranial or ear canal pressure manipulation in the same guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalen, E; Wit, H; Segenhout, H; Albers, F

    Inner ear pressure was measured in scala tympani with a micropipette during square wave pressure manipulation of the intracranial compartment and, subsequently, of the external ear canal (EEC) in the same guinea pig. As expected, the combination of the cochlear aqueduct and the inner ear behaves as

  18. Not All Inner Ears are the Same: Otolith Matrix Proteins in the Inner Ear of Sub-Adult Cichlid Fish, Oreochromis Mossambicus, Reveal Insights Into the Biomineralization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigele, Jochen; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Hilbig, Reinhard

    2016-02-01

    The fish ear stones (otoliths) consist mainly of calcium carbonate and have lower amounts of a proteinous matrix. This matrix consists of macromolecules, which directly control the biomineralization process. We analyzed the composition of this proteinous matrix by mass spectrometry in a shotgun approach. For this purpose, an enhanced protein purification technique was developed that excludes any potential contamination of proteins from body fluids. Using this method we identified eight proteins in the inner ear of Oreochromis mossambicus. These include the common otolith matrix proteins (OMP-1, otolin-1, neuroserpin, SPARC and otoconin), and three proteins (alpha tectorin, otogelin and transferrin) not previously localized to the otoliths. Moreover, we were able to exclude the occurrence of two matrix proteins (starmaker and pre-cerebellin-like protein) known from other fish species. In further analyses, we show that the absence of the OMP starmaker corresponds to calcitic otoliths and that pre-cerebellin-like protein is not present at any stage during the development of the otoliths of the inner ear. This study shows O. mossambicus does not have all of the known otolith proteins indicating that the matrix proteins in the inner ear of fish are not the same across species. Further functional studies of the novel proteins we identified during otolith development are required.

  19. Current strategies for drug delivery to the inner ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhuo Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, drug delivery to the inner ear has been a challenge to physicians in the treatment of inner ear disorders. In the past decade, the field of inner ear drug delivery has emerged with the development of new biomaterials and drug delivery technologies to improve the effectiveness of inner ear drug therapy. This paper reviews a number of inner ear drug delivery strategies including systemic, intratympanic, and intracochlear delivery. A focus of this review is the recent advances in intratympanic delivery of medications; approaches utilizing novel biomaterials as well as other recent developments are also discussed. Biotechnology-based approaches, such as gene and stem cell therapy methods are also reviewed. Among the various strategies, local drug delivery approaches including intratympanic and intracochlear drug delivery methods that limit systemic exposure are particularly promising. These inner ear drug delivery systems provide a new opportunity to improve the treatment of inner ear disorders.

  20. Mutations in KCTD1 cause scalp-ear-nipple syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marneros, Alexander G; Beck, Anita E; Turner, Emily H; McMillin, Margaret J; Edwards, Matthew J; Field, Michael; de Macena Sobreira, Nara Lygia; Perez, Ana Beatriz A; Fortes, Jose A R; Lampe, Anne K; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Gordon, Christopher T; Plessis, Ghislaine; Le Merrer, Martine; Amiel, Jeanne; Reichenberger, Ernst; Shively, Kathryn M; Cerrato, Felecia; Labow, Brian I; Tabor, Holly K; Smith, Joshua D; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J

    2013-04-04

    Scalp-ear-nipple (SEN) syndrome is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutis aplasia of the scalp; minor anomalies of the external ears, digits, and nails; and malformations of the breast. We used linkage analysis and exome sequencing of a multiplex family affected by SEN syndrome to identify potassium-channel tetramerization-domain-containing 1 (KCTD1) mutations that cause SEN syndrome. Evaluation of a total of ten families affected by SEN syndrome revealed KCTD1 missense mutations in each family tested. All of the mutations occurred in a KCTD1 region encoding a highly conserved bric-a-brac, tram track, and broad complex (BTB) domain that is required for transcriptional repressor activity. KCTD1 inhibits the transactivation of the transcription factor AP-2α (TFAP2A) via its BTB domain, and mutations in TFAP2A cause cutis aplasia in individuals with branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS), suggesting a potential overlap in the pathogenesis of SEN syndrome and BOFS. The identification of KCTD1 mutations in SEN syndrome reveals a role for this BTB-domain-containing transcriptional repressor during ectodermal development.

  1. Middle-Ear Microsurgery Simulation to Improve New Robotic Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmitcheff, Guillaume; Nguyen, Yann; Miroir, Mathieu; Péan, Fabien; Ferrary, Evelyne; Cotin, Stéphane; Sterkers, Olivier; Duriez, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Otological microsurgery is delicate and requires high dexterity in bad ergonomic conditions. To assist surgeons in these indications, a teleoperated system, called RobOtol, is developed. This robot enhances gesture accuracy and handiness and allows exploration of new procedures for middle ear surgery. To plan new procedures that exploit the capacities given by the robot, a surgical simulator is developed. The simulation reproduces with high fidelity the behavior of the anatomical structures and can also be used as a training tool for an easier control of the robot for surgeons. In the paper, we introduce the middle ear surgical simulation and then we perform virtually two challenging procedures with the robot. We show how interactive simulation can assist in analyzing the benefits of robotics in the case of complex manipulations or ergonomics studies and allow the development of innovative surgical procedures. New robot-based microsurgical procedures are investigated. The improvement offered by RobOtol is also evaluated and discussed. PMID:25157373

  2. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minovi, Amir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids.

  3. A Rare Case of Petrified Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E. Buikema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcification or ossification of the auricle, also referred to as petrified ear, is a rare diagnosis in dermatology. In medical literature, it has most often been attributed to trauma, hypothermia and frostbite, or hypercalcemia secondary to a metabolic or endocrine disorder, such as Addison's disease. Here, we report the clinical and radiologic findings of a 79-year-old African American male whose unilateral petrified auricle was an incidental finding. He had a preceding history of hyperparathyroidism and subsequent hypercalcemia treated with a subtotal parathyroidectomy three years prior to presentation. In addition to laboratory analysis, a history and physical examination was performed which revealed no other signs of hypercalcemia. Radiologic studies demonstrated partial ossification of the external auricular cartilage on the left side. The patient was diagnosed with the rare occurrence of a petrified ear. In light of this case, we provide a discussion concerning the possible etiologies of this diagnosis including appropriate patient evaluation and possible treatment recommendations.

  4. Mouse middle ear ion homeostasis channels and intercellular junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Morris

    Full Text Available HYPOTHESIS: The middle ear contains homeostatic mechanisms that control the movement of ions and fluids similar to those present in the inner ear, and are altered during inflammation. BACKGROUND: The normal middle ear cavity is fluid-free and air-filled to allow for effective sound transmission. Within the inner ear, the regulation of fluid and ion movement is essential for normal auditory and vestibular function. The same ion and fluid channels active in the inner ear may have similar roles with fluid regulation in the middle ear. METHODS: Middle and inner ears from BALB/c mice were processed for immunohistochemistry of 10 specific ion homeostasis factors to determine if similar transport and barrier mechanisms are present in the tympanic cavity. Examination also was made of BALB/c mice middle ears after transtympanic injection with heat-killed Haemophilus influenza to determine if these channels are impacted by inflammation. RESULTS: The most prominent ion channels in the middle ear included aquaporins 1, 4 and 5, claudin 3, ENaC and Na(+,K(+-ATPase. Moderate staining was found for GJB2, KCNJ10 and KCNQ1. The inflamed middle ear epithelium showed increased staining due to expected cellular hypertrophy. Localization of ion channels was preserved within the inflamed middle ear epithelium. CONCLUSIONS: The middle ear epithelium is a dynamic environment with intrinsic mechanisms for the control of ion and water transport to keep the middle ear clear of fluids. Compromise of these processes during middle ear disease may underlie the accumulation of effusions and suggests they may be a therapeutic target for effusion control.

  5. Why Do Elephants Flap Their Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Moise; Jiji, Latif; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that a 4200 kg elephant generates as much as 5.12 kW of heat. How the elephant dissipates its metabolic heat and regulates its body temperature has been investigated during the past seven decades. Findings and conclusions differ sharply. The high rate of metabolic heat coupled with low surface area to volume ratio and the absence of sweat glands eliminate surface convection as the primary mechanism for heat removal. Noting that the elephant ears have high surface area to volume ratio and an extensive vascular network, ear flapping is thought to be the principal thermoregulatory mechanism. A computational and experimental program is carried out to examine flow and heat transfer characteristics. The ear is modeled as a uniformly heated oscillating rectangular plate. Our computational work involves a three-dimensional time dependent CFD code with heat transfer capabilities to obtain predictions of the flow field and surface temperature distributions. This information was used to design an experimental setup with a uniformly heated plate of size 0.2m x 0.3m oscillating at 1.6 cycles per second. Results show that surface temperature increases and reaches a steady periodic oscillation after a period of transient oscillation. The role of the vortices shed off the plate in heat transfer enhancement will be discussed.

  6. Fetal development of the elastic-fiber-mediated enthesis in the human middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Shunichi; Katori, Yukio; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shinichi; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Kawase, Tetsuaki

    2013-10-01

    In the human middle ear, the annular ligament of the incudostapedial joint and the insertions of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles contain abundant elastic fibers; i.e., the elastic-fiber-mediated entheses. Hyaluronan also coexists with the elastic fibers. In the present study using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated the distribution of elastin not only in the incudostapedial joint but also in the other two joints of the middle ear in adults and fetuses. In adults, the expression of elastin did not extend out of the annular ligament composed of mature elastic fibers but clearly overlapped with it. Electron microscopic observations of the annular ligament demonstrated a few microfibrils along the elastic fibers. Thus, in contrast to the vocal cord, the middle ear entheses seemed not to contain elaunin and oxytalan fibers. In mid-term fetuses (at approximately 15-16 weeks of gestation) before opening of the external acoustic meatus, the incudostapedial joint showed abundant elastic fibers, but the incudomalleolar and stapediovestibular joints did not. At this stage, hyaluronan was not colocalized, but distributed diffusely in loose mesenchymal tissues surrounding the ear ossicles. Therefore, fetal development of elastin and elastic fibers in the middle ear entheses is unlikely to require acoustic oscillation. In late-stage fetuses (25-30 weeks), whose ear ossicles were almost the same size as those in adults, we observed bundling and branching of elastic fibers. However, hyaluronan expression was not as strong as in adults. Colocalization between elastic fibers and hyaluronan appeared to be a result of postnatal maturation of the entheses.

  7. The assessment and management of inner ear barotrauma in divers and recommendations for returning to diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Elizabeth J; Smart, David R

    2014-12-01

    Inner ear barotrauma (IEBt) constitutes a spectrum of pressure-related pathology in the inner ear, with antecedent middle ear barotrauma (MEBt) common. IEBt includes perilymph fistula, intralabyrinthine membrane tear, inner ear haemorrhage and other rarer pathologies. Following a literature search, the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of IEBt in divers and best-practice recommendations for returning to diving were reviewed. Sixty-nine papers/texts were identified and 54 accessed. Twenty-five case series (majority surgical) provided guidance on diagnostic pathways; nine solely reported divers. IEBt in divers may be difficult to distinguish from inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS), and requires dive-risk stratification and careful interrogation regarding diving-related ear events, clinical assessment, pure tone audiometry, a fistula test and electronystagmography (ENG). Once diagnosed, conservative management is the recommended first line therapy for IEBt. Recompression does not appear to cause harm if the diagnosis (IEBt vs IEDCS) is doubtful (limited case data). Exploratory surgery is indicated for severe or persisting vestibular symptoms or hearing loss, deterioration of symptoms, or lack of improvement over 10 days indicating significant pathology. Steroids are used, but without high-level evidence. It may be possible for divers to return to subaquatic activity after stakeholder risk acceptance and informed consent, provided: (1) sensorineural hearing loss is stable and not severe; (2) there is no vestibular involvement (via ENG); (3) high-resolution computed tomography has excluded anatomical predilection to IEBt and (4) education on equalising techniques is provided. There is a need for a prospective data registry and controlled trials to better evaluate diagnostic and treatment algorithms.

  8. Alterations in the Contra lateral Ear in Chronic Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Damghani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic otitis media (COM, a persistent and durable inflammation and infection of the middle ear, is a common disorder. Alterations in the contralateral ear in sufferers have been observed in recent years. Because only a few studies have been reported in this area, we performed this study in order to assess alterations in the contralateral ear of patients with COM.   Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive methods were used in 100 patients with COM who were selected for surgical treatment and admitted to hospital. An information form was completed for all patients including demographic data, medical history of otoscopy and paraclinical examinations such as pure tone audiometry (PTA, tympanometry, Schuller radiography, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT. All data were processed using SPSS (version 18 software and descriptive statistical tests.   Results: According to otoscopy, PTA, tympanometry and graphical analysis, 60% of patients experienced disorders of the contralateral ear. Otoscopy analysis showed 54% of patients had a disorder of the contralateral ear, with the most common disorder being perforation of the ear drum. PTA showed a 48% incidence of contralateral ear problems (85% conductive hearing impairment; 12.5% sensorineural hearing impairment; 1.2% mixed. A total of 73.2% of patients with conductive hearing loss had a problem across all frequencies, while half of the patients with sensorineural hearing impairment had problems at frequencies greater than 1000 Hz. According to tympanometry, 38% of patients had problem in the contralateral ear. HRCT and Schuller graphical analyses indicated 31.5% and 36% occurrence of contralateral ear disorders, respectively.   Conclusion:  More than 50% of patients with COM in one ear have a chance of also presenting with the disease in the other ear. Outcomes of this study and previous studies have shown that COM should not be perceived as a disease limited

  9. Some Remarks on Imaging of the Inner Ear: Options and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesemann, A; Hofmann, E

    2015-10-01

    The temporal bone has a highly complex anatomical structure, in which the sensory organs of the cochlea and the vestibular system are contained within a small space together with the sound-conducting system of the middle ear. Detailed imaging is thus required in this anatomical area. There are a great many clinical aims for which the highest-possible spatial resolution is required. These include the localization of cerebrospinal fluid fistulas, the detection of malformations of the middle and inner ear and the vestibulocochlear nerve, an aberrant course of the facial nerve and anomalies of the arterial and venous structures, the confirmation of dehiscence of the semicircular canals and finally, the verification of endolymphatic hydrops in cases of Ménière's disease. However, the term 'high resolution' is very time dependent. Two milestones in this respect have been (in 1991) the 3D visualization of the inner ear by means of maximum-intensity projection (MIP) of a T2-weighted constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence of a 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner (Tanioka et al., Radiology 178:141-144, 1991) and (in 1997) imaging of the vestibulocochlear nerve for the diagnosis of hypoplasia inside the internal auditory canal using the same sequence (Casselman et al., Radiology 202:773-781, 1997).The objective of this article is to highlight the options for, and the challenges of, contemporary imaging with regard to some clinical issues relating to the inner ear.

  10. Atrophic thyroid follicles and inner ear defects reminiscent of cochlear hypothyroidism in Slc26a4-related deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Amiel A; Lenz, Danielle R; Shivatzki, Shaked; Cohen, Keren; Ashur-Fabian, Osnat; Avraham, Karen B

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for inner ear development and is required for auditory system maturation. Human mutations in SLC26A4 lead to a syndromic form of deafness with enlargement of the thyroid gland (Pendred syndrome) and non-syndromic deafness (DFNB4). We describe mice with an Slc26a4 mutation, Slc26a4 (loop/loop) , which are profoundly deaf but show a normal sized thyroid gland, mimicking non-syndromic clinical signs. Histological analysis of the thyroid gland revealed defective morphology, with a majority of atrophic microfollicles, while measurable thyroid hormone in blood serum was within the normal range. Characterization of the inner ear showed a spectrum of morphological and molecular defects consistent with inner ear pathology, as seen in hypothyroidism or disrupted thyroid hormone action. The pathological inner ear hallmarks included thicker tectorial membrane with reduced β-tectorin protein expression, the absence of BK channel expression of inner hair cells, and reduced inner ear bone calcification. Our study demonstrates that deafness in Slc26a4 (loop/loop) mice correlates with thyroid pathology, postulating that sub-clinical thyroid morphological defects may be present in some DFNB4 individuals with a normal sized thyroid gland. We propose that insufficient availability of thyroid hormone during inner ear development plays an important role in the mechanism underlying deafness as a result of SLC26A4 mutations.

  11. Implants for reconstructive surgery of the nose and ears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berghaus, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Implants shorten reconstruction, reduce trauma for the patients, are, in principle, of unlimited availability and can be given definable qualities that outnumber those of biological transplants. Lots of sometimes exotic materials have already been suggested for facial surgery and most of them have turned out to be unsuitable in the short or long term, because they did not satisfactorily fulfil the requirements of a “perfect implant”. However, transplants obviously cannot be regarded as ideal either because they often involve the necessity of a second intervention for removal, they are only available to a limited extent and some are at risk of postoperative deflection, shrinkage and absorption. This article is concerned with current knowledge about implant materials for rhinoplasty and ear reconstruction. Autogenous transplants will also be briefly discussed. The repetition of known facts should be largely avoided. In relation to this reference will be made to earlier papers.

  12. Chinchilla middle-ear admittance and sound power: high-frequency estimates and effects of inner-ear modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravicz, Michael E; Rosowski, John J

    2012-10-01

    The middle-ear input admittance relates sound power into the middle ear (ME) and sound pressure at the tympanic membrane (TM). ME input admittance was measured in the chinchilla ear canal as part of a larger study of sound power transmission through the ME into the inner ear. The middle ear was open, and the inner ear was intact or modified with small sensors inserted into the vestibule near the cochlear base. A simple model of the chinchilla ear canal, based on ear canal sound pressure measurements at two points along the canal and an assumption of plane-wave propagation, enables reliable estimates of Y(TM,) the ME input admittance at the TM, from the admittance measured relatively far from the TM. Y(TM) appears valid at frequencies as high as 17 kHz, a much higher frequency than previously reported. The real part of Y(TM) decreases with frequency above 2 kHz. Effects of the inner-ear sensors (necessary for inner ear power computation) were small and generally limited to frequencies below 3 kHz. Computed power reflectance was ~0.1 below 3.5 kHz, lower than with an intact ME below 2.5 kHz, and nearly 1 above 16 kHz.

  13. Towards making HCS ear detection robust against rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pflug, Anika; Back, Philip Michael; Busch, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    In identity retrieval from crime scene images, the outer ear (auricle) has ever since been regarded as a valuable characteristic. Because of its unique and permanent shape, the auricle also attracted the attention of researches in the field of biometrics over the last years. Since then, numerous...... pattern recognition techniques have been applied to ear images but similarly to face recognition, rotation and pose still pose problems to ear recognition systems. One solution for this is 3D ear imaging. the segmentation of the ear, prior to the actual feature extraction step, however, remains...... an unsolved problem. In 2010 Zhou at al. have proposed a solution for ear detection in 3D images, which incorporates a nave classifier using Shape Index Histogram. Histograms of Categorized Shapes (HCS) is reported to be efficient and accurate, but has difficulties with rotations. In our work, we extend...

  14. Robust Multi biometric Recognition Using Face and Ear Images

    CERN Document Server

    Boodoo, Nazmeen Bibi

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the use of ear as a biometric for authentication and shows experimental results obtained on a newly created dataset of 420 images. Images are passed to a quality module in order to reduce False Rejection Rate. The Principal Component Analysis (eigen ear) approach was used, obtaining 90.7 percent recognition rate. Improvement in recognition results is obtained when ear biometric is fused with face biometric. The fusion is done at decision level, achieving a recognition rate of 96 percent.

  15. Otosclerosis associated with type B-1 inner ear malformation

    OpenAIRE

    De Stefano, A.; DISPENZA, F.; Aggarwal, N.; Russo, A.

    2010-01-01

    Malformations of bony inner ear are rare anomalies occurring in approximately 20% of patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss is usually associated with abnormalities of the external and middle ear. Recent reports of patients with lateral semicircular canal malformations indicate inner ear malformations to be associated with sensorineural or conductive hearing loss. Differential diagnosis of conductive hearing loss should include otosclerosis, isolated ossi...

  16. "COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH INNER EAR MALFORMATIONS"

    OpenAIRE

    P. Borghei S. Abdi; M. Motesaddi Zari; Khalessi MH

    2004-01-01

    Performing cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformation has always been a matter of dispute. This study was designed to analyze the operative findings,complications, and postoperative performance of patients with inner ear anomalies who underwent cochlear implantation. Six patients with inner ear malformations underwent implantation in our academic tertiary referral center from 1997 to 2002. The average follow-up period was 27 months. Malformations included one incomplete par...

  17. 5-year series of constricted (lop and cup) ear corrections: development of the mastoid hitch as an adjunctive technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlock, N; Grobbelaar, A O; Gault, D T

    1998-12-01

    Despite the multitude of corrective procedures described, adequate surgical correction of the congenital constricted ear remains a challenge. The maintenance of the shape and elevation of the reconstructed upper neohelix poses a particular problem. In the present series, experiences with lop ear correction utilizing standard techniques and the use of the mastoid hitch as a useful adjunct to these procedures are described. A total of 19 ears were reconstructed. There were three type 1, eight type 2a, seven type 2b, and one type 3 deformities (Tanzer classification). A graded sequence of procedures was adopted. Mild deformities were corrected by cartilage scoring techniques; a V-Y advancement of the helical root was added for moderate deformities. Cartilage expansion by a banner flap was required for more severe deformities. A mastoid hitch, whereby the refashioned upper neohelix is sutured to the mastoid fascia, should be used as an adjunct to these procedures to maintain helical elevation and prevent recurrence. Severe type 3 deformities may require autologous auricular reconstruction. Mean follow-up time was 1 year. There were six excellent, seven good, four fair, and two poor results. Two patients who had not had mastoid hitch procedures developed a recurrence of the lop deformity. Adequate surgical correction of constricted ear deformities requires a variety of surgical techniques. The mastoid hitch being used for constricted ear correction has not been described elsewhere. The mastoid hitch is a useful adjunctive procedure that may be used effectively in combination with other procedures.

  18. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease- A Clinical Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirala Khalessi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in medicine have given us a better insight into a group of disorders known as autoimmune diseases. In particular, advances have occurred in our understanding of the Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED. In this article, the authors review the different postulated theories in the pathogenesis of this disease. The clinical presentation, the available para-clinical diagnostic tools, and the important differential diagnoses will be summarized. The management methods, including steroid therapy, immunosuppressive medications, other biological agents and intra-tympanic injections, will be addressed. Cochlear implantation as a final solution to the advanced stages of the disease, causing total deafness, will also be discussed.

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of the mammalian inner ear

    CERN Document Server

    Szalai, Robert; Homer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A simple nonlinear transmission-line model of the cochlea with longitudinal coupling is introduced that can reproduce Basilar membrane response and neural tuning in the chinchilla. It is found that the middle ear has little effect on cochlear resonances, and hence conclude that the theory of coherent reflections is not applicable to the model. The model also provides an explanation of the emergence of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs). It is argued that SOAEs arise from Hopf bifurcations of the transmission-line model and not from localized instabilities. The paper shows that emissions can become chaotic, intermittent and fragile to perturbations.

  20. [Recurrent meningitis in inner ear malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claros, Pedro; Matusialk, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Authors present two cases of children with reccurent meningitis and unilateral deafness. Implemented diagnostics (CT, NMR, ABR) revealed one side inner ear congenital malformation in one case and anterior fossa bony defect accompanied by labirynthine deformation in the other case. The presence of perilymphatic fistulae in oval and round windows and cerebrospinal fluid leakage has been confirmed in both cases during surgery. Carefull obliteration of the Eustachian tube and both windows has been performed. Non- complicated postoperative course (2 months and 6 years - respectively) has prooved the effectiveness of applied treatment.

  1. Measuring directional characteristics of in-ear recording devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    With the availability of small in-ear headphones and miniature microphones it is possible to construct combined in-ear devices for binaural recording and playback. When mounting a microphone on the outside of an insert earphone the microphone position deviates from ideal positions in the ear canal....... The pinna and thereby also the natural sound transmission are altered by the inserted device. This paper presents a methodology for accurately measuring the directional dependent transfer functions of such in-ear devices. Pilot measurements on a commercial available device are presented and possibilities...

  2. In-the-Ear Spiral Monopole Antenna for Hearing Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A novel in-the-ear (ITE) antenna solution for hearing instruments that operates at 2.45 GHz is presented. The antenna consists of a quarter wave monopole and a ground plane that are placed in the ear. The simulated path gain | S 21 |is − 86 dB and the measured path gain is − 80 dB. Simulations...... and measurements show that the antenna covers the entire 2.40 – 2.48 GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. It is the first ever ITE-antenna solution that demonstrates the possibility of establishing an ear-to-ear link by using a standard Bluetooth chip...

  3. The cormorant ear – an adaptation to underwater hearing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    not know how sensitive their underwater hearing is or even if they respond to underwater sound. Consequently, we do not know if anthropogenic sound affects their hearing during dives. To help filling this gap we measured the audiograms of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and studied the ear...... rather poor in-air hearing compared to similar-sized birds. Their underwater hearing sensitivity, however, is higher than what would have been expected for purely air-adapted ears. A possible reason for the poor in-air sensitivity is the special ear anatomy with the central eardrum shaped as a rigid...... piston, which is reminiscent of the turtle ear....

  4. New probe microphone for investigating the acoustics of the ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Ole; Günthersen, Carsten

    1981-01-01

    A new probe microphone employing a soft tube and a compensation network for the tube response is described. Because of the soft tube, this microphone is especially suited for investigating the acoustics of the outer ear and the ear canal, and some such measurements are given.......A new probe microphone employing a soft tube and a compensation network for the tube response is described. Because of the soft tube, this microphone is especially suited for investigating the acoustics of the outer ear and the ear canal, and some such measurements are given....

  5. Concha headphones and their coupling to the ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Lola Justine Kydia Olivia; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to obtain a better understanding of concha headphone. Concha headphones are the small types of earpiece that are placed in the concha. They are not sealed to the ear and therefore, there is a leak between the earpiece and the ear. This leak is the reason why...... there is a significant lack of bass when using such headphones. This paper investigates the coupling between the headphone and the ear, by means of measurement in artificial ears and models. The influence of the back volume is taken into account....

  6. 3D ear identification based on sparse representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm.

  7. Otosclerosis associated with type B-1 inner ear malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, A; Dispenza, F; Aggarwal, N; Russo, A

    2010-06-01

    Malformations of bony inner ear are rare anomalies occurring in approximately 20% of patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss is usually associated with abnormalities of the external and middle ear. Recent reports of patients with lateral semicircular canal malformations indicate inner ear malformations to be associated with sensorineural or conductive hearing loss. Differential diagnosis of conductive hearing loss should include otosclerosis, isolated ossicular deformities, inner ear anomalies or a combination of these. In this report, a case is described with right vestibule-lateral semicircular canal dysplasia presenting at our centre with bilateral otosclerosis.

  8. Ear replanatation: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Božikov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total ear amputation is a rare accident. The most common causes are traffic accidents (33 %, followed by fights (28 %. In 1980, Pennington et al. reported the first successful microsurgical ear replantation in a 29-year old man.Methods: An English literature review of trauma cases of total ear amputation showed only 13 successful replantations with arterial and venous microanastomoses. We present a case report of successful total ear replantation with arterial and vein microanastomoses in a 17-year old boy.Results: Our ear replantation with both arterial and venous anastomoses performed was successful and we achieved an excellent aesthetic outcome.Conclusion: The reason for such a low number of successful ear replantations is technical challenge due to small vessel diameter, difficult vessel identification, vessel approach and concomitant avulsion injury. The best aesthetic result in ear reconstruction is achieved by microsurgical replantation. The surgical technique depends on the intraoperative findings. Since ear replantation is a very challenging procedure, a microsurgeon needs to discuss with the patient the risk of partial/total necrosis of the replanted ear and the possibilities of other reconstructive options.

  9. Prominent ears: Anthropometric study of the external ear of primary school children of Harare, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred Muteweye

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of prominent ear among black African children in the studied population is comparable to that of Caucasians. The study provides a set of biometric data of auricular dimensions for normal black African children aged 9–13 years.

  10. Ear-to-Ear On-Body Channel Model for Hearing Aid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    that the head is mod- eled more accurately, and the radiation pattern is sampled in more points. The model is able to take the on-body radiation pattern of the antenna, as well as arbitrary he ad contours into account. The model is validated by the use of measurements and Ansys HFSS simulations on the specific......The deterministic ear-to-ear on-body channel is modeled by the use of a number of elliptically shaped paths. The semi-major axes of the elliptica lly shaped paths are adjusted such that they trace the outline of the head. The path gain converges when the number of paths is increased, su ch...... anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) head. The model is used with a g enetic algorithm in order to synthesize a radiation pattern that is optimal for use with the ear-to-ear on-body channel. The radiation pattern is synthesized in terms of the spherical wave expansion coefficients of the hypothetical small antenna...

  11. Dissecting the frog inner ear with Gaussian noise .2. Temperature dependence of inner ear function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanDijk, P; Wit, HP; Segenhout, JM

    1997-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the response of single primary auditory nerve fibers (n = 31) was investigated in the European edible frog, Rana esculenta (seven ears). Nerve fiber responses were analyzed with Wiener kernel analysis and polynomial correlation. The responses were described with a casca

  12. Validated Smartphone-Based Apps for Ear and Hearing Assessments: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Tess; Pallawela, Danuk

    2016-12-23

    An estimated 360 million people have a disabling hearing impairment globally, the vast majority of whom live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Early identification through screening is important to negate the negative effects of untreated hearing impairment. Substantial barriers exist in screening for hearing impairment in LMICs, such as the requirement for skilled hearing health care professionals and prohibitively expensive specialist equipment to measure hearing. These challenges may be overcome through utilization of increasingly available smartphone app technologies for ear and hearing assessments that are easy to use by unskilled professionals. Our objective was to identify and compare available apps for ear and hearing assessments and consider the incorporation of such apps into hearing screening programs. In July 2015, the commercial app stores Google Play and Apple App Store were searched to identify apps for ear and hearing assessments. Thereafter, six databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, Global Health, Web of Science, CINAHL, and mHealth Evidence) were searched to assess which of the apps identified in the commercial review had been validated against gold standard measures. A comparison was made between validated apps. App store search queries returned 30 apps that could be used for ear and hearing assessments, the majority of which are for performing audiometry. The literature search identified 11 eligible validity studies that examined 6 different apps. uHear, an app for self-administered audiometry, was validated in the highest number of peer reviewed studies against gold standard pure tone audiometry (n=5). However, the accuracy of uHear varied across these studies. Very few of the available apps have been validated in peer-reviewed studies. Of the apps that have been validated, further independent research is required to fully understand their accuracy at detecting ear and hearing conditions.

  13. Influence of fossoriality on inner ear morphology: insights from caecilian amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddin, Hillary C; Sherratt, Emma

    2014-07-01

    It is widely accepted that a relationship exists between inner ear morphology and functional aspects of an animal's biology, such as locomotor behaviour. Animals that engage in agile and spatially complex behaviours possess semicircular canals that morphologically maximise sensitivity to correspondingly complex physical stimuli. Stemming from the prediction that fossorial tetrapods require a well-developed sense of spatial awareness, we investigate the hypothesis that fossoriality leads to inner ear morphology that is convergent with other spatially adept tetrapods. We apply morphometrics to otic capsule endocasts of 26 caecilian species to quantify aspects of inner ear shape, and compare these with a sample of frog and salamander species. Our results reveal caecilians (and also frogs) possess strongly curved canals, a feature in common with spatially adept species. However, significantly shorter canals in caecilians suggest reduced sensitivity, possibly associated with reduced reliance on vestibulo-ocular reflexes in this group of visually degenerate tetrapods. An elaboration of the sacculus of caecilians is interpreted as a unique adaptation among amphibians to increase sensitivity to substrate-borne vibrations transmitted through the head. This study represents the first quantitative analyses of inner ear morphology of limbless fossorial tetrapods, and identifies features within a new behavioural context that will contribute to our understanding of the biological consequences of physical stimuli on sensory function and associated morphological evolution.

  14. Effect of the middle ear reflex on sound transmission to the inner ear of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, P K; Ostwald, J; Kreiter, A; Schnitzler, H U

    1997-03-01

    The effect of the acoustic middle ear reflex (MER) was quantified using electrodes chronically implanted in the middle ears of rats. Cochlear microphonics (CM) and middle ear muscle EMG were measured under light Ketamin anesthesia after stimulation with tone pulses of 5-20 kHz ranging between 75 and 120 dB SPL. With increasing intensity, the CM measured before the onset of the MER increased to a maximum amplitude and then decreased with higher SPLs. At 10 kHz this maximum was reached at 95 dB SPL, for other stimulus frequencies at higher SPLs. After a latency of 10-20 ms, CM to 10 kHz stimuli of 80-95 dB SPL were decreased by the attenuating action of the MER. The lowest threshold of the MER was also measured at 10 kHz (77 dB SPL in the mean). To stimuli greater than 100 dB SPL after a latency of 6-10 ms, the CM amplitude was increased. That this CM increase to intense stimuli is caused by the action of the MER was confirmed by control experiments such as cutting the tendons of the middle ear muscles. The CM decrease to stimuli below 100 dB SPL, as well as the increase to very intense stimuli, can be explained by sound attenuation caused by the MER, together with the nonlinear dependence of CM amplitude on stimulus level. The observed shift of the maxima of the CM input-output function by the MER to higher stimulus levels probably indicates an increase of the dynamic range of the ear.

  15. Wearable ear EEG for brain interfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Eric D.; Walker, Nicholas; Danko, Amanda S.

    2017-02-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) measuring electrical activity via electroencephalogram (EEG) have evolved beyond clinical applications to become wireless consumer products. Typically marketed for meditation and neu- rotherapy, these devices are limited in scope and currently too obtrusive to be a ubiquitous wearable. Stemming from recent advancements made in hearing aid technology, wearables have been shrinking to the point that the necessary sensors, circuitry, and batteries can be fit into a small in-ear wearable device. In this work, an ear-EEG device is created with a novel system for artifact removal and signal interpretation. The small, compact, cost-effective, and discreet device is demonstrated against existing consumer electronics in this space for its signal quality, comfort, and usability. A custom mobile application is developed to process raw EEG from each device and display interpreted data to the user. Artifact removal and signal classification is accomplished via a combination of support matrix machines (SMMs) and soft thresholding of relevant statistical properties.

  16. [European Portuguese EARS test battery adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marisa; Ramos, Daniela; Oliveira, Graça; Alves, Helena; Anderson, Ilona; Magalhães, Isabel; Martins, Jorge H; Simões, Margarida; Ferreira, Raquel; Fonseca, Rita; Andrade, Susana; Silva, Luís; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A utilização de instrumentos de avaliação em saúde adequados é fundamental na gestão da prestação de cuidados. A escassez, em Portugal, de instrumentos específicos para a avaliação do desempenho de crianças utilizadoras de implantes cocleares motivou o trabalho de tradução e de adaptação da bateria de testes EARS (Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech) para o português europeu. Esta bateria de testes é hoje um dos instrumentos mais comummente utilizados por equipas de (re)habilitação de crianças surdas com implantes cocleares em todo o mundo. O objetivo a atingir com a validação do EARS foi fornecer às equipas de (re)habilitação um instrumento que permita: (i) monitorizar a evolução individual da reabilitação; (ii) gerir um programa de (re)habilitação de acordo com resultados objetivos, comparáveis entre diferentes equipas de (re)habilitação; (iii) obter dados comparáveis comequipas internacionais; e (iv) melhorar a adesão e a motivação da família e restantes profissionais no ambulatório.Material e Métodos: No processo de tradução e de adaptação da bateria de testes, os procedimentos adotados foram os seguintes: (i) tradução da versão inglesa para português europeu por um tradutor profissional; (ii) revisão dessa tradução realizada por um painel de especialistas constituído por otorrinolaringologistas, terapeutas da fala e técnicos de audiologia; (iii) adaptação dos estímulos de teste pela equipa de terapeutas da fala; e (iv) nova revisão por parte do painel de especialistas.Resultados: São apresentados, para cada um dos instrumentos que compõem a bateria EARS, as adaptações introduzidas, conciliando as características e os objetivos originais dos instrumentos com as particularidades linguísticas e culturais da população portuguesa.Discussão: São discutidas as dificuldades encontradas durante o processo de tradução e de adaptação e as soluções adotadas. São feitas

  17. Probing the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome for biological function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powers TuShun R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The senses of hearing and balance depend upon mechanoreception, a process that originates in the inner ear and shares features across species. Amphibians have been widely used for physiological studies of mechanotransduction by sensory hair cells. In contrast, much less is known of the genetic basis of auditory and vestibular function in this class of animals. Among amphibians, the genus Xenopus is a well-characterized genetic and developmental model that offers unique opportunities for inner ear research because of the amphibian capacity for tissue and organ regeneration. For these reasons, we implemented a functional genomics approach as a means to undertake a large-scale analysis of the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome through microarray analysis. Results Microarray analysis uncovered genes within the X. laevis inner ear transcriptome associated with inner ear function and impairment in other organisms, thereby supporting the inclusion of Xenopus in cross-species genetic studies of the inner ear. The use of gene categories (inner ear tissue; deafness; ion channels; ion transporters; transcription factors facilitated the assignment of functional significance to probe set identifiers. We enhanced the biological relevance of our microarray data by using a variety of curation approaches to increase the annotation of the Affymetrix GeneChip® Xenopus laevis Genome array. In addition, annotation analysis revealed the prevalence of inner ear transcripts represented by probe set identifiers that lack functional characterization. Conclusions We identified an abundance of targets for genetic analysis of auditory and vestibular function. The orthologues to human genes with known inner ear function and the highly expressed transcripts that lack annotation are particularly interesting candidates for future analyses. We used informatics approaches to impart biologically relevant information to the Xenopus inner ear transcriptome

  18. MEMS capacitive accelerometer-based middle ear microphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Darrin J; Zurcher, Mark A; Semaan, Maroun; Megerian, Cliff A; Ko, Wen H

    2012-12-01

    The design, implementation, and characterization of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive accelerometer-based middle ear microphone are presented in this paper. The microphone is intended for middle ear hearing aids as well as future fully implantable cochlear prosthesis. Human temporal bones acoustic response characterization results are used to derive the accelerometer design requirements. The prototype accelerometer is fabricated in a commercial silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MEMS process. The sensor occupies a sensing area of 1 mm × 1 mm with a chip area of 2 mm × 2.4 mm and is interfaced with a custom-designed low-noise electronic IC chip over a flexible substrate. The packaged sensor unit occupies an area of 2.5 mm × 6.2 mm with a weight of 25 mg. The sensor unit attached to umbo can detect a sound pressure level (SPL) of 60 dB at 500 Hz, 35 dB at 2 kHz, and 57 dB at 8 kHz. An improved sound detection limit of 34-dB SPL at 150 Hz and 24-dB SPL at 500 Hz can be expected by employing start-of-the-art MEMS fabrication technology, which results in an articulation index of approximately 0.76. Further micro/nanofabrication technology advancement is needed to enhance the microphone sensitivity for improved understanding of normal conversational speech.

  19. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  20. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject...

  1. Automated Human Identification Scheme using Ear Biometrics Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics identification methods have proved to be very efficient, more natural and easy for users than traditional methods of human identification. Biometrics methods truly identify humans, not keys and cards they posses or passwords they should remember. Ear on the other hand, has a more uniform distribution of color, so almost all information is conserved when converting the original image into gray scales. We propose the ear as a biometric and investigate it with both 2D and 3D data. The ICP-based algorithm also demonstrates good scalability with size of dataset. These results are encouraging in that they suggest a strong potential for 3D ear shape as a biometric. Multi-biometric 2D and 3D ear recognition are also explored. The proposed automatic ear detection method will integrate with the current system, and the performance will be evaluated with the original one. The investigation of ear recognition under less controlled conditions will focus on the robustness and variability of ear biometrics. Multi-modal biometrics using 3D ear images will be explored, and the performance will be compared to existing biometrics experimental results.

  2. Long-eared owls nesting in Badlands National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah D. Paulson; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1985-01-01

    Long-eared Owls nest at high densities locally over the Great Plains where suitable habitat is limited (Bent 1938), yet , according to Whitney et al. (1978), this species is rare to uncommon in South Dakota. Especially west of the Missouri River, few nesting records have been reported. This paper reports the occurrence of Long-eared Owls in the Badlands National Park...

  3. Ear length and kidney function decline after kidney donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavetin, Pisut; Watanatorn, Salin; Townamchai, Natavudh; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat

    2016-11-01

    The preservation of kidney function after kidney donation depends on the kidney reserve - the potential of the remaining kidney to boost their function after loss of the other kidney. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, size and shape of the external ears are examined to evaluate the person's kidney health. We hypothesized that ear size might be a practical yet overlooked marker of kidney reserve. Fifty kidney transplantation donors were participated in this study. The length and width of both ears of all participants were measured during one of the post-donation visits. Pre-donation serum creatinine and post-donation serum creatinine as well as other relevant parameters (age, sex, weight, height, etc.) of the participants were extracted from medical records. The estimated GFR was calculated from serum creatinine, age and sex using the CKD-EPI equation. Ear length negatively associated with %GFR decline after kidney donation. For every 1 cm increase in ear length, it was associated with 5.7% less GFR decline after kidney donation (95% Confidence Interval 0.2 to 11.3, P = 0.04). Ear width, as well as age, sex, body weight, height, body mass index, and pre-donation eGFR did not significantly associate with the GFR decline. Our findings support the notion of Traditional Chinese Medicine that ear morphology may be associated with kidney health and suggest that ear length might be a useful predictor of kidney function decline after kidney donation.

  4. The acoustical significance of age-dependent ear elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    , corresponding to what is reported in the literature. For female ears, virtually no acoustical effect was found. For male ears directional dependent effects in the range up to 5 dB on average was found for certain directions and frequencies. Implications on age dependent hearing loss (presbycusis...

  5. CAULIFLOWER EAR AND SKIN INFECTIONS AMONG WRESTLERS IN TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Kordi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to describe the magnitude of the selected sports medicine problems (i.e. cauliflower ear and skin infections among wrestlers in Tehran. A number of 411 wrestlers were randomly selected from wrestling clubs in Tehran employing cluster sample setting method. The participants were interviewed using a specially designed and validated questionnaire. Nearly half of the participants (44% had "cauliflower ears". Only 23% of these participants had received any kind of treatment for their acute ear haematomas that are known to result in "cauliflower ears". The prevalence of reported hearing loss among participants with cauliflower ears (11.5%, 95%CI: 6.9 to 16.2 was significantly more than this prevalence among those participants without cauliflower ears (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.1 to 3.5 (p < 0.05. More than half of the participants (52% had skin infection diagnosed by a physician during the previous year. This study has identified evidence of an increase in hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran. There has been an outbreak of ringworm and there is a significant potential for an outbreak of impetigo among wrestlers in Tehran

  6. [The progress of inner ear malformation in radiological research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dehua; Fu, Kuang; Zhao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Inner ear malformations are anomalies linking to development insults at different periods of embryogenesis,which are common causes of congenital sensorineural hearing loss. The evaluation of pediatric sensorineural hearing loss mostly depends on high-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which can excellently depict the temporal bones and inner ear malformations.

  7. Congenital inner ear malformations without sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Kumiko; Horiguchi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2008-03-01

    It has been reported that normal hearing is rare in patients with severe inner ear vestibular malformations [Kokai H, Oohashi M, Ishikawa K, Harada K, Hiratsuka H, Ogasawara M et al. Clinical review of inner ear malformation. J Otolaryngol Jpn 2003;106(10):1038-44; Schuknecht HF. Mondini dysplasia. A clinical pathological study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1980;89(Suppl. 65):1-23; Jackler RK, Luxford WM, House WF. Congenital malformations of the inner ear: a classification based on embryogenesis. Laryngoscope 1987;97:2-14; Phelps PD. Congenital lesions of the inner ear, demonstrated by tomography. Arch Otolaryngol 1974;100:11-8]. A 37-year-old woman had combined dysplasia of the posterior and lateral semicircular canals (PSCC, LSCC) with normal cochlear development and normal hearing in both ears. She had complained of dizziness for 8 months. High resolution computed tomography (CT) showed hypogenesis of the bony labyrinth in both ears. Bilateral PSCC and LSCC dysplasia and dilatation of the vestibule were detected. Magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) revealed that the deformity of the PSCC was more severe than the LSCC. Although the caloric test of the left ear elicited no nystagmus and there was reduced response in the right ear, the horizontal vestibulo-occular reflex (VOR) was present. Her dizzy sensation disappeared within 3 months without special treatment. The dizziness attack might have been caused by a temporary breakdown of her peripheral vestibular system.

  8. Inner ear contribution to bone conduction hearing in the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfelt, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Bone conduction (BC) hearing relies on sound vibration transmission in the skull bone. Several clinical findings indicate that in the human, the skull vibration of the inner ear dominates the response for BC sound. Two phenomena transform the vibrations of the skull surrounding the inner ear to an excitation of the basilar membrane, (1) inertia of the inner ear fluid and (2) compression and expansion of the inner ear space. The relative importance of these two contributors were investigated using an impedance lumped element model. By dividing the motion of the inner ear boundary in common and differential motion it was found that the common motion dominated at frequencies below 7 kHz but above this frequency differential motion was greatest. When these motions were used to excite the model it was found that for the normal ear, the fluid inertia response was up to 20 dB greater than the compression response. This changed in the pathological ear where, for example, otosclerosis of the stapes depressed the fluid inertia response and improved the compression response so that inner ear compression dominated BC hearing at frequencies above 400 Hz. The model was also able to predict experimental and clinical findings of BC sensitivity in the literature, for example the so called Carhart notch in otosclerosis, increased BC sensitivity in superior semicircular canal dehiscence, and altered BC sensitivity following a vestibular fenestration and RW atresia.

  9. Major evolutionary transitions and innovations: the tympanic middle ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    One of the most amazing transitions and innovations during the evolution of mammals was the formation of a novel jaw joint and the incorporation of the original jaw joint into the middle ear to create the unique mammalian three bone/ossicle ear. In this review, we look at the key steps that led to this change and other unusual features of the middle ear and how developmental biology has been providing an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This starts with an overview of the tympanic (air-filled) middle ear, and how the ear drum (tympanic membrane) and the cavity itself form during development in amniotes. This is followed by an investigation of how the ear is connected to the pharynx and the relationship of the ear to the bony bulla in which it sits. Finally, the novel mammalian jaw joint and versatile dentary bone will be discussed with respect to evolution of the mammalian middle ear. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity’. PMID:27994124

  10. Comparison of blackbodies for calibration of infrared ear thermometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pusnik, Igor; Clausen, Sønnik; Favreau, Jacques-Olivier

    2010-01-01

    used for the calibration of IRETs among European national laboratories. To verify the accuracy of an IRET a suitable blackbody is needed. An essential requirement is related to accuracy. There are several standards in the world, which describe requirements for IRETs and a blackbody. In the EU...... this is the standard EN 12470-5, which is a harmonised standard and supports the Medical Device Directive (MDD). Other standards are ASTM standard, Designation E 1965 – 98 and the draft of Japan Industrial Standard JIS T 4207, 2005: Japanese Industrial Standard: “infrared ear thermometers.”. The International...... Organization for Standardization (ISO) is developing a new standard for clinical thermometers, which will include also IRETs. The basic requirement for accuracy in EN 12470-5 is that the maximum permissible error of IRET is ±0,2 °C in the range from 35,5 °C to 42,0 °C, while the uncertainty of a blackbody...

  11. Segmentation algorithms for ear image data towards biomechanical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana; Gentil, Fernanda; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the segmentation, i.e. the identification, of ear structures in video-otoscopy, computerised tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) image data, has gained significant importance in the medical imaging area, particularly those in CT and MR imaging. Segmentation is the fundamental step of any automated technique for supporting the medical diagnosis and, in particular, in biomechanics studies, for building realistic geometric models of ear structures. In this paper, a review of the algorithms used in ear segmentation is presented. The review includes an introduction to the usually biomechanical modelling approaches and also to the common imaging modalities. Afterwards, several segmentation algorithms for ear image data are described, and their specificities and difficulties as well as their advantages and disadvantages are identified and analysed using experimental examples. Finally, the conclusions are presented as well as a discussion about possible trends for future research concerning the ear segmentation.

  12. Chronic discharging ear in a child: are we missing something?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mainak; Ghatak, Soumya; Biswas, Gautam

    2013-08-01

    Chronic discharging ear, mostly due to middle or external ear infection, is one of the leading causes for seeking healthcare among the paediatric population in a developing country. However, a long-standing forgotten middle ear foreign body forms a rare cause for such presentation demanding a high index of suspicion from the clinicians. Most of them are iatrogenic or accidental, and are removed by conventional permeatal approach; need for tympanotomy is rarely documented in the recent literature. We report the first case where a large stone was introduced into the middle ear through a pre-existing tympanic membrane perforation by the child himself, and only the second documentation of removal of a middle ear foreign body by tympanotomy in a child.

  13. Radiology of external ear: indications, normal anatomy, and pathological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazón, M; Pont, E; Montesinos, P; Carreres-Polo, J; Más-Estellés, F

    2016-01-01

    The external ear is accessible to direct examination; the clinical history and otoscopy are sufficient to diagnose and treat most diseases of the external ear. We aim to describe the normal anatomy of the external ear, specify the indications for imaging tests, and review the clinical and radiological manifestations of the most common diseases affecting the external ear. We classify these diseases according to their origin into congenital, inflammatory, infectious, or traumatic disease or benign bone tumors or malignant tumors. Imaging does not play an important role in diseases of the external ear, but in certain clinical scenarios it can be crucial for reaching a concrete diagnosis and establishing the best treatment. Computed tomography is the first-choice technique for most diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging complements computed tomography and makes it possible to differentiate among different tissue types and to evaluate the extension of disease accurately.

  14. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  15. Ear infection and hearing loss amongst headphone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, R; Saim, L; Thomas, A; Said, R; Liyab, B

    2002-07-01

    The use of headphone has been thought to cause infection in the ear canal and contribute to hearing loss. In this study, we examined 136 Customer Service Representative from Celcom (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. who use headphone throughout their working hours. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ear canal infection and other related diseases of the ear, nose and throat. Their hearing thresholds were also determined using the Amplaid 309 Clinical Audiometer. We found no incidence of infection of the external ear canal amongst the subjects. There were 4 cases of chronic middle ear infection and 4 cases of impacted wax. Hearing impairment was found in 25 subjects (21.2%). However, there was no significant association between hearing loss and the exposure to sound from headphone usage because the high frequencies were not predominantly affected. There was also no association between hearing loss and duration of service.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory lesions of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tono, Tetsuya; Saku, Kazuaki; Miyanaga, Satoshi; Kano, Kiyo; Morimitsu, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Yukiko.

    1988-05-01

    Eighteen patients with chronic otitis media, middle ear cholesteatoma, and postoperative inflammatory diseases of the middle ear underwent high resolution computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before surgical exploration of the middle ear. Results showed that CT provides higher detail resolution in middle ear structures, but provides limited density resolution in displaying inflammatory soft tissue lesions. By contrast, MRI differentiates among soft tissue lesions such as fluid-filled spaces, granulation tissues, and cholesteatomatous debris. Cholesterin granulomas show a particularly characteristic signal pattern with a very high intensity area in both T1 and T2 weighted images. It is concluded that MRI is useful in differentiating soft tissue density masses when used in conjunction with CT in middle ear inflammatory diseases.

  17. Hearing results of the total middle ear reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yuan-ping; XU An-ting; CHEN Ying

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the success of hearing results in total middle ear reconstruction with cartilage ossiculoplasty for the patients with old open- mastoidectomy cavities. Method: A retrospective review of 69 patients who underwent total middle ear reconstruction with cartilage ossiculoplasty was performed. Results: In this series, the successful hearing results were obtained in 61 % of the patients after operation, but 93% of the ears were dry. For patients with stapes, the successful rate was 65%; for patients without stapes,it was 58 %. The mean hearing gain was 10.7dB. Conclusion: Total middle ear reconstruction offers an effective treatment algorithia of hearing reconstruction for patients with old mastoidectomy cavities. 1. Stapes is important for hearing improvement; 2. Staged operation is good for hearing restoration; 3. For a large number of patients with a problematic cavitites, hearing restoration is possible by total middle ear reconstruction.

  18. Acoustic impedances of ear canals measured by impedance tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    During hearing sensitivity tests, the sound field is commonly generated by an earphone placed on a subject ear. One of the factors that can affect the sound transmission in the ear is the acoustic impedance of the ear canal. Its importance is related to the contribution of other elements involved...... in the transmission such as the earphone impedance. In order to determine the acoustic impedances of human ear canals, the standardized method for measurement of complex impedances used for the measurement of the audiometric earphone impedances is applied. It is based on the transfer function between two microphone...... locations in an impedance tube. The end of the tube representing the measurement plane is placed at the ear canal entrance. Thus, the impedance seen from the entrance inward is measured on 25 subjects. Most subjects participated in the previous measurement of the ratio between the pressures at the open...

  19. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry of the middle ear ossicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, G R; Huber, A; Goode, R L

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes measurements of the vibratory modes of the middle ear ossicles made with a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. Previous studies of the middle ear ossicles with single-point laser Doppler measurements have raised questions regarding the vibrational modes of the ossicular chain. Single-point analysis methods do not have the ability to measure multiple points on the ossicles and, consequently, have limited ability to simultaneously record relative phase information at these points. Using a Polytec Model PSV-100, detailed measurements of the ossicular chain have been completed in the human temporal bone model. This model, when driven with a middle ear transducer, provides detailed three-dimensional data of the vibrational patterns of the middle ear ossicles. Implications for middle ear implantable devices are discussed.

  20. Impedance matching, optimum velocity, and ideal middle ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, W T; Rosowski, J J

    1991-05-01

    One way to assess an ear's performance as a receiver of acoustic power is to consider impedance matching at the tympanic membrane. Assumptions about some of the impedances involved have lead to the idea of an optimum velocity magnitude (per unit pressure), which has been used as a test of middle-ear performance. We show that this approach is not a realistic way to assess effectiveness of power absorption at the tympanic membrane. More generally, we suggest that, if the performance of the combined external-and-middle ear in collecting acoustic power and delivering it to the inner ear is considered, the external- and middle-ear power-transfer efficiencies, as well as impedance matching, are involved in relating performance to an ideal.

  1. [Effects of noise on inner ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouccara, Didier; Ferrary, Evelyne; Sterkers, Olivier

    2006-11-01

    The effects of noise on health depend both on individual factors and characteristics of sound exposure. In case of acoustic trauma, reversible or irreversible lesions of inner ear components are possible. Most often there is immediately an acute tinnitus and hearing loss. Audiometric tests demonstrate hearing loss on the high frequency, generally focused on 4 kHz. Immediate treatment is recommended even there is no currently indicator of the ability to restore hearing. New perspectives on treatment are directed to local treatment and/or using new procedure as antioxidative treatment. Occupational and leisure are the two conditions in which chronic exposure to noise is found. Detection and prevention of noise-induced hearing loss is easier in case of industrial workers than in case of noise exposition for musicians and other sounds and stage technicians or concert managers, and of course non-professional with exposure to amplified music.

  2. Analysis of Earing in Deep Drawn Cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Holger; Aegerter, Johannes; Engler, Olaf

    2010-06-01

    The cup-drawing of a strongly anisotropic sheet metal is simulated using a commercial finite element software along with a user material subroutine. In order to accurately describe the plastic anisotropy of the material the well-known recent yield function `Yld2004-18p' is extended. Regarding the experimental characterization of the considered material the occurrence of dynamic strain aging lead to an oscillating signal of the width change of the tensile samples, which prevented a reliable determination of plastic strain ratios (r-values). Thus, an improved measurement concept was developed that leads to a very robust and reproducible determination of r-values. Furthermore, a novel plane-strain tensile test sample is presented which is used for the characterization of the plastic anisotropy in biaxial loading states. A quantitative comparison with measured earing profiles of deep drawn cups illustrates the predictive capabilities of the numerical simulation.

  3. Mozart Ear Deformity: a Rare Diagnosis in the Ear Reconstruction Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telich-Tarriba, Jose E; Victor-Baldin, Andre; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando

    2017-07-01

    Mozart ear is a rare auricular deformity; clinically the auricle is characterized by the bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle due to fusion of the crura of the antihelix, an inversion in the normal form of the cavum conchae resulting in its convexity and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus.A retrospective review of clinical and photographic records of patients attended at the ear reconstruction clinic of our hospital between June of 2010 and May 2016 was performed; out of 576 consecutive patients only 3 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with a prevalence of 0.5%. The authors present these patients.Surgical interventions mainly focus on the correction of the convex concha; however, the procedure should be tailored to the severity of the deformity and the wishes of the patient.

  4. "Play It by Ear"--Teachers' Responses to Ear-Playing Tasks during One-to-One Instrumental Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings from the Ear-Playing Project in relation to the teaching strategies that 15 instrumental teachers adopted during one-to-one instrumental lessons whilst helping their students to copy music by ear from a recording. Overall, the teachers used a variety of strategies including singing and humming along with or without the…

  5. "Play It by Ear"--Teachers' Responses to Ear-Playing Tasks during One-to-One Instrumental Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings from the Ear-Playing Project in relation to the teaching strategies that 15 instrumental teachers adopted during one-to-one instrumental lessons whilst helping their students to copy music by ear from a recording. Overall, the teachers used a variety of strategies including singing and humming along with or without the…

  6. Presbycusis: do we have a third ear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roque Reis

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Age-related hearing changes are the most frequent cause of sensorineural hearing loss in adults. In the literature no studies exist concerning the importance of speechreading in individuals with presbycusis. Equally, no such studies have been carried out with speakers of the Portuguese (Portugal language. Objectives: To evaluate whether the intelligibility of words in presbycusis is improved by speechreading, in such a way that looking at the interlocutor's face while he is talking functions like a “third ear”, and to determine the statistical relevance of the intelligibility improvement by speechreading. Methods: Eleven individuals (22 ears with bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss compatible with presbycusis were evaluated. The subjects were aged between 57 and 82 years, with an average of 70 ± 11.51 years and median of 69.5 years. A complete medical and audiological profile of each patient was created and all patients were submitted to a vocal audiogram, without and with observation of the audiologist's face. A descriptive and analytical statistical analysis was performed (Shapiro-Wilk and t pairs tests adopting the significance level of 0.05 (5%. Results: We noticed better performance in intelligibility with speechreading. The p-value was zero (p < 0.05, so we rejected the null hypothesis, showing that there was statistically significant difference with speechreading; the same conclusion was obtained by analysis of the confidence intervals. Conclusions: Individuals with presbycusis in this study, performed better on spoken word intelligibility when the hearing of those words was associated with speechreading. This phenomenon helps in such a way that observation of the interlocutor's face works like a "third ear".

  7. Stereo morphology of temporal bone and ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴朴; 刘阳; 姜泗长; 方耀云; 王今; 杨伟炎

    2004-01-01

    Background The temporal bone has the most complicated anatomic feature among the whole human body, which always challenges otolaryngologists. This study was to study three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the temporal bone and the ear by means of a computer image processing technique, for the purpose of providing a 3D image to help in pathological, diagnostic and surgical procedures. Methods Forty sets of temporal bone celloidin serial sections with reference points were prepared and the contours of selected structures and reference points were entered into a graphics programme. The technique of computer-aided 3D reconstruction was applied to obtain 3D images and parameters of the temporal bones and the ears. Stereo views of the ossicles (n=5), the facial nerves (n=11), the posterior tympanic sinuses (n=11), the posterior ampullary nerves (n=4), the endolymphatic ducts and sacs (n=5), and the bony and membranous labyrinth (n=1) were reconstructed. Results Three-dimensional images, including the cochlea, the ossicles, the nerves, the tendons and the endolymphatic fluid system in the temporal bone, were obtained. Stereo picture pairs and 3D parameters of spatial dimensions, angle and volume for these reconstructed structures were calculated. The arrangement of the ossicles, spatial relationship of the bony and membranous labyrinth, the whole course of the facial nerves, the endolymphatic sac and posterior tympanic cavity were clearly observable. Stereo picture pairs made the spatial relationships among the above-mentioned structures much clearer. The operation of the posterior ampullary nerve transection was designed and simulated on the graphic computer based on 3D anatomic investigations. Conclusion The technique of computer-aided 3D reconstruction provides a new tool to observe the morphology of the temporal bone and thus may allow design and study of new surgical approaches.

  8. [Middle ear salivary gland choristoma related to branchio-oto-renal syndrome diagnosed by array-CGH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, P; Sittel, C; Spaich, C; Kohlhase, J; Boppert, R; Kohlhof, P; Koitschev, A

    2014-05-01

    Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is characterized by ear malformations associated with sensorineural or mixed hearing loss. In addition, preauricular tags, preauricular pits, branchial cleft fistulas and cysts, as well as renal dysplasia are seen. A genetic mutation on chromosome 8, either autosomal dominantly inherited or occuring as a spontaneous mutation, is the cause in the majority of cases. Using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), it is possible to detect even the smallest genetic changes. Salivary gland choristoma in the middle ear is very rare. Surgical removal and histological clarification are required.

  9. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedeković Tomislav

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One of those methods is immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue is a routine technique in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle from ear notch tissue samples. However, such technique is inappropriate due to complicated tissue fixation process and it requires more days for preparation. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue was usually applied on organs from dead animals. In this paper, for the first time, the imunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples was described. Findings Seventeen ear notch tissue samples were obtained during the period 2008-2009 from persistently infected cattle. Samples were fixed in liquid nitrogen and stored on -20°C until testing. Ear notch tissue samples from all persistently infected cattle showed positive results with good section quality and possibility to determinate type of infected cells. Conclusions Although the number of samples was limited, this study indicated that immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be successfully replaced with immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle.

  10. The strange case of the ear and the heart: The auricular vagus nerve and its influence on cardiac control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aaron R; Atkinson, Lucy; Mahadi, Mohd K; Deuchars, Susan A; Deuchars, Jim

    2016-08-01

    The human ear seems an unlikely candidate for therapies aimed at improving cardiac function, but the ear and the heart share a common connection: the vagus nerve. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN), a unique cutaneous subdivision of the vagus distributed to the external ear. Non-invasive electrical stimulation of this nerve through the skin may offer a simple, cost-effective alternative to the established method of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), which requires a surgical procedure and has generated mixed results in a number of clinical trials for heart failure. This review discusses the available evidence in support of modulating cardiac activity using this strange auricular nerve.

  11. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN CHRONICALLY DISCHARGING EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is a disease of multiple aetiology and well known for its persis tence and recurrence inspite of treatment and are the bearbug of otologist, paediatrician and general practitioner. One of the reason s for the refractoriness to treatment and chronicity is coexist ing fungal infection of the ear. OBJECTIVES: Are to find out the prevalence of fungal infections in chronic discharging ears and to identify and isolate the type of fungus prevalent in these ears . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: Tertiary care hospital level descrip tive study was conducted in 50 cases of CSOM with actively discharging ears for a period of one year starting from February 2013. For all the cases aural swabs were collected from the diseased ear and were used for direct microscopic examination in potassi um hydroxide wet mount. Ear swab was cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plate for fungal cultures. The patient characteristics were prospectively recorded and results were analysed. CONCLUSION : There is high prevalence of coexisting fungal infection in actively discharging ears of CSOM patients

  12. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Mulay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Otitis media (OM, or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs at an air–liquid interface (ALI that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi, suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host–pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development.

  13. Surgical and Technical Modalities for Hearing Restoration in Ear Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazert, Stefan; Thomas, Jan Peter; Volkenstein, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Malformations of the external and middle ear often go along with an aesthetic and functional handicap. Independent of additional aesthetic procedures, a successful functional hearing restoration leads to a tremendous gain in quality of life for affected patients. The introduction of implantable hearing systems (bone conduction and middle ear devices) offers new therapeutic options in this field. We focus on functional rehabilitation of patients with malformations, either by surgical reconstruction or the use of different implantable hearing devices, depending on the disease itself and the severity of malformation as well as hearing impairment. Patients with an open ear canal and minor malformations are good candidates for surgical hearing restoration of middle ear structures with passive titanium or autologous implants. In cases with complete fibrous or bony atresia of the ear canal, the most promising functional outcome and gain in quality of life can be expected with an active middle ear implant or a bone conduction device combined with a surgical aesthetic rehabilitation in a single or multi-step procedure. Although the surgical procedure for bone conduction devices is straightforward and safe, more sophisticated operations for active middle ear implants (e.g., Vibrant Soundbridge, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) provide an improved speech discrimination in noise and the ability of sound localization compared with bone conduction devices where the stimulation reaches both cochleae.

  14. 3D Ear Shape Matching Using Joint α-Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Peng Sun; Si-Hui Li; Feng Han; Xiao-Peng Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the use of joint α-entropy for 3D ear matching by incorporating the local shape feature of 3D ears into the jointα-entropy. First, we extract a sufficient number of key points from the 3D ear point cloud, and fit the neighborhood of each key point to a single-value quadric surface on product parameter regions. Second, we define the local shape feature vector of each key point as the sampling depth set on the parametric node of the quadric surface. Third, for every pair of gallery ear and probe ear, we construct the minimum spanning tree (MST) on their matched key points. Finally, we minimize the total edge weight of MST to estimate its joint α-entropy — the smaller the entropy is, the more similar the ear pair is. We present several examples to demonstrate the advantages of our algorithm, including low time complexity, high recognition rate, and high robustness. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that, in computer graphics, the classical information theory of joint α-entropy is used to deal with 3D ear shape recognition.

  15. Comparison of Tympanoplasty Results in Dry and Wet Ears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikzad Shahidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tympanoplasty is the standard and well established procedure for closure of tympanic membrane perforations .This paper compares the results of tympanoplasty in terms of hearing improvement and graft incorporation in patients with chronic perforation of the tympanic membrane between two groups with and without active drainage at the time of surgery.  Materials and Methods: Sixty referring patients to specialty and subspecialty clinics between the age 15 to 60 years-old were selected. All patients suffered from Chronic Otitis Media and they were categorized into two groups: a those with wet ears and b those with dry ears. Tympanoplasty surgery was performed through the use of embedding technique of temporalis fascia graft and in medial position (Medial Graft Technique. Finally, the data about the level of hearing improvement and the repair of tympanic membrane were analyzed.  Results: Although there was hearing improvement in both groups - with wet or dry ear - no statistically significant difference was observed between two groups. Following the surgery, tympanic membrane in two patients with wet ear and one with dry ear was not repaired, however according to the statistical analysis this difference was not significant.  Conclusion:  The results of this study showed that in contrast to the common perception that tympanoplasty results in the patients with wet ear is poorer than those with dry ear, there was little difference in the results of the operations performed on two groups.

  16. THE IDENTIFICATION OF EAR PRINTS USING COMPLEX GABOR FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A S Gunawan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a method used to recognize humans based on one or a few characteristicsphysical or behavioral traits that are unique such as DNA, face, fingerprints, gait, iris, palm, retina,signature and sound. Although the facts that ear prints are found in 15% of crime scenes, ear printsresearch has been very limited since the success of fingerprints modality. The advantage of the useof ear prints, as forensic evidence, are it relatively unchanged due to increased age and have fewervariations than faces with expression variation and orientation. In this research, complex Gaborfilters is used to extract the ear prints feature based on texture segmentation. Principal componentanalysis (PCA is then used for dimensionality-reduction where variation in the dataset ispreserved. The classification is done in a lower dimension space defined by principal componentsbased on Euclidean distance. In experiments, it is used left and right ear prints of ten respondentsand in average, the successful recognition rate is 78%. Based on the experiment results, it isconcluded that ear prints is suitable as forensic evidence mainly when combined with otherbiometric modalities.Keywords: Biometrics; Ear prints; Complex Gabor filters; Principal component analysis;Euclidean distance

  17. 3D ear identification based on sparse representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm.

  18. Virus and bacteria enhance histamine production in middle ear fluids of children with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonmaitree, T; Patel, J A; Lett-Brown, M A; Uchida, T; Garofalo, R; Owen, M J; Howie, V M

    1994-06-01

    Histamine levels were measured in 677 middle ear fluid (MEF) samples from 248 children (aged 2 months to 7 years) with acute otitis media (AOM); of these, 116 (47%) had documented viral infection. Histamine content was higher in bacteria-positive than in bacteria-negative MEF samples (P = .007) and higher in samples from patients with viral infection than in those from patients with no viral infection (P = .002). Bacteria and viruses together had an additive effect on histamine content in MEF. Histamine concentration in the initial MEF sample tended to be higher in patients with persistent otitis than in those with good response to treatment (P = .14). Results suggest that viruses, bacteria, or both induce histamine production, which leads to increased inflammation in the middle ear. Antihistaminic drugs may be beneficial. Large, prospective, controlled trials of the effects of antihistamine as an adjunct therapy in bacterial and viral AOM are required before recommendations can be made.

  19. Red ear syndrome: literature review and a pediatric case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitri, Misha O; Banglawala, Sarfaraz M; Archibald, Jason

    2015-03-01

    Red ear syndrome (RES) is characterized by recurrent unilateral or bilateral painful attacks of the external ear, accompanied by ear redness, burning, or warmth. Proposed etiologies of this rare condition include dysregulation of sympathetic outflow, upper cervical pathology, glossopharyngeal and trigeminal neuralgia, TMJ dysfunction, thalamic syndrome, and primary headache syndromes. Idiopathic cases also exist in the literature. Pediatric cases are particularly rare and more commonly associated with migraine. Given the various potential etiologies, no single treatment is effective in all cases. This paper summarizes the current understanding and management of RES, and describes a case of idiopathic pediatric RES. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Van Gogh syndrome: A rare case of bilateral ear mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Goutham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-injury is the intentional and direct injury to self that include bite, burn, ulceration, and head banging. Repetitive self-mutilation is termed the van Gogh syndrome after Vincent van Gogh a renowned Dutch painter of late 19 th century, who during a bout of psychosis deliberately mutilated his ear. Self-mutilation of ears is a rare condition seen usually in patients with mental illness. An unusual case is presented of a psychotic young man who experienced command auditory hallucinations which directed him to amputate his own ears.

  1. [Lop ear - knife, tape, or nothing at all?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockars, Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    More than 200 different surgical techniques of correction of lop ear have been published. The operation is usually recommended to be performed at the age of six years or after. In addition, lop ear surgery involves risks, the most common complications being bleeding, infections, sensory alterations and scarring problems. Surgical preference and decision should always be based on realistic expectations of the patient or the parents, and prior to the decision they should have adequate information about the nature of the procedure and potential complications. Splint therapy of lop ear is possible for infants.

  2. Middle ear mucosal regeneration with three-dimensionally tissue-engineered autologous middle ear cell sheets in rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Daisuke; Yamato, Masayuki; Hama, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Hiromi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Okano, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    The likelihood of recurrent retraction and adhesion of newly formed tympanic membrane is high when middle ear mucosa is extensively lost during cholesteatoma and adhesive otitis media surgery. If rapid postoperative regeneration of the mucosa on the exposed bone surface can be achieved, prevention of recurrent eardrum adhesion and cholesteatoma formation, for which there has been no definitive treatment, can be expected. Suture-less transplantation of tissue-engineered mucosal cell sheets was examined immediately after the operation of otitis media surgery in order to quickly regenerate middle ear mucosa lost during surgery in a rabbit model. Transplantable middle ear mucosal cell sheets with a three-dimensional tissue architecture very similar to native middle ear mucosa were fabricated from middle ear mucosal tissue fragments obtained in an autologous manner from middle ear bulla on temperature-responsive culture surfaces. Immediately after the mucosa was resected from middle ear bone bulla inner cavity, mucosal cell sheets were grafted at the resected site. Both bone hyperplasia and granulation tissue formation were inhibited and early mucosal regeneration was observed in the cell sheet-grafted group, compared with the control group in which only mucosal removal was carried out and the bone surface exposed. This result indicates that tissue engineered mucosal cell sheets would be useful to minimize complications after the surgical operation on otitis media and future clinical application is expected.

  3. Blackbody for metrological control of ear thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-García, D.; Méndez-Lango, E.

    2013-09-01

    Body temperature is an important parameter in medical practice, and most of health diagnoses are made based upon measured temperature values. Non-contact measurements are attractive to both patients and physicians, and ear thermometers (ET) are part of the set of infrared thermometers for medical applications. ETs sense the tympanic membrane temperature which best represents body temperature. They take advantage of the natural high effective emissivity cavity that is formed as radiation source. To calibrate or to check the performance of ETs, we designed a high-emissivity spherical cavity as a blackbody source which can be placed in a dry block oven. Although the blackbody cavity can have any shape, we decided to build it spherical because its effective emissivity can be easily calculated in a closed form. The cavity is made of Aluminum to take advantage of its high thermal conductivity while its inner side is covered with a black paint to increase the cavity effective emissivity. Based on paint emissivity measurements and the geometrical shape, we calculated that the cavity has an effective emissivity higher than 0.999. Blackbody temperature is measured with a calibrated contact thermometer placed inside the bottom wall of the cavity. We present the design of the cavity, the experimental setup, and results of three commercial ETs compared with this cavity.

  4. Laser vibrometer measurements and middle ear prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, Stephen T.; Dornhoffer, John; Ferguson, Scott

    1997-05-01

    One of us has developed an improved partial ossicular replacement prosthesis that is easier to implant and, based on pilot clinical measurements, results in better high-frequency hearing as compared to patients receiving one of the alternative prostheses. It is hypothesized that the primary reason for this is because of the relatively light weight (about 25 mg) and low compliance of the prosthesis, which could conceivably result in better high frequency vibrational characteristics. The purpose of our initial work was to develop an instrument suitable for objectively testing the vibrational characteristics of prostheses. We have developed a laser based device suitable for measuring the vibrational characteristics of the oval window or other structures of the middle ear. We have tested this device using a piezoelectric transducer excited at audio frequencies, as well as on the oval window in human temporal bones harvested from cadavers. The results illustrate that it is possible to non-invasively monitor the vibrational characteristics of anatomic structures with a very inexpensive photonic device.

  5. Imaging of postoperative middle ear cholesteatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khemani, S.; Singh, A. [Department of Otolaryngology, Northwick Park and Central Middlesex Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Lingam, R.K., E-mail: raviklingam@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Radiology, Northwick Park and Central Middlesex Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Kalan, A. [Department of Otolaryngology, Northwick Park and Central Middlesex Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Cholesteatoma is often treated surgically using canal wall-preserving techniques. Clinical and otoscopic diagnosis of residual or recurrent disease after this form of surgery is unreliable and thus radiological imaging is often used prior to mandatory 'second-look' surgery. Imaging needs to be able to differentiate residual or recurrent disease from granulation tissue, inflammatory tissue or fluid within the middle ear cavity and mastoid cavity. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and delayed contrast MRI have all been used in detecting postoperative cholesteatoma. Although delayed contrast MRI performs better than HRCT and conventional MRI, the sensitivities and specificities of these different imaging methods are relatively poor. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI and, in particular, non-echo planar DWI) has been shown to have a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting recurrent cholesteatoma. In this review we provide examples of postoperative imaging appearances following cholesteatoma surgery and we review the relevant literature with an emphasis on studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of DWI.

  6. DIVERSITY OF EAR CHARACTERISTICS OF CROATIAN WHEAT GERMPLASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rukavina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of ear were used for estimation of genetic diversity in 50 varieties of hexaploid winter wheat originated from Croatian breeding programs. Field trials were set at two locations in two vegetation years (2008/09 and 2009/10. Observations in field trials and laboratory were done on 13 ear characteristics used in DUS testing. Genetic diversity research of Croatian wheat germplasm according to ear morphological characteristics, showed a high level of dissimilarity (0.625 among the tested varieties. Varieties Super Žitarka and AFZG Karla are pointed out with highest coefficient of dissimilarity (0.94. Application of UPGMA method showed that all varieties in different groups had significant genetic diversity. On the basis of data analysis the most distant varieties with the best morphological characteristics of ear were determined and it will be help in the selection of new parent combinations in future breeding programs.

  7. Effects of low humidity on the rat middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, H M; McGuirt, W F; Ayres, P H; Hayes, A W; Coggins, C R; Sagartz, J

    1994-09-01

    Secretory otitis media is common in the winter, and the possible risk factors are numerous. This study examines the effect of low humidity on the middle ear using a Sprague-Dawley rat model: 23 test rats housed for 5 days in a low-humidity environment (10% to 12% relative humidity) and 23 control rats housed at 50% to 55% relative humidity. Microscopic ear examinations were graded for otitis media with effusion (OME) before testing and on test days 3 and 5. The mucosa of the middle ears and eustachian tubes was examined histopathologically. Significantly more effusions were observed in the low-humidity group on test days 3 (P = .003) and 5 (P = .01), but no intergroup histopathologic differences were noted. We conclude that a low-humidity environment contributed to the development of OME in the test animals, and that low-humidity warrants further investigation as a contributing factor in childhood middle ear disease.

  8. Haemophilia: a rare cause of bleeding after ear surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lalee Varghese; Saud Ahmed; Rajiv C Michael; Rupa V

    2016-01-01

      Introduction : Excessive bleeding during ear surgery is a troublesome problem which could be related to inadequate infiltration, active infection, trauma to the dura or jugular bulb or sudden hypertension...

  9. A potential portal flow in the inner ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    . The endolymphatic sac has been implicated as a potential endocrine gland, which venules drain to the VVA. A reversal of the direction of flow in the VVA toward the inner ear could, through vestibular arteriovenous anastomosis, cause portal circulation in the inner ear. STUDY DESIGN: The authors conducted...... an experimental animal study using in vivo fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: Obstructing the distal part of the VVA just before it empties into the sigmoid sinus immediately reverses the flow of blood in the VVA toward the inner ear. CONCLUSIONS: After an obstruction of the VVA, the drained venous blood from...... the endolymphatic sac may enter a portal circulation in the inner ear, which could cause disturbances in the endolymph homeostasis and potentially symptoms as seen in Meniere disease....

  10. Fresh Clues about the Origin of Mammalian Middle Ear Revealed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jianlan

    2002-01-01

    @@ CAS paleontologists have identified a rod-like bone from two early Cretaceous mammals as ossified Meckel's cartilage (OMC). This clears some doubts on the controversial topic of the origin of definitive mannalian middle ear (DMME).

  11. Multi-resolution analysis for ear recognition using wavelet features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, M.; Basit, A.; Faye, I.

    2016-11-01

    Security is very important and in order to avoid any physical contact, identification of human when they are moving is necessary. Ear biometric is one of the methods by which a person can be identified using surveillance cameras. Various techniques have been proposed to increase the ear based recognition systems. In this work, a feature extraction method for human ear recognition based on wavelet transforms is proposed. The proposed features are approximation coefficients and specific details of level two after applying various types of wavelet transforms. Different wavelet transforms are applied to find the suitable wavelet. Minimum Euclidean distance is used as a matching criterion. Results achieved by the proposed method are promising and can be used in real time ear recognition system.

  12. The chronically draining ear. Notes on management in the office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, J L

    1966-07-01

    THERE ARE THREE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR PERSISTENCE OF DISCHARGE FROM A CHRONICALLY DRAINING EAR: Moisture, opportunistic bacteria, and debris and diseased tissue. In most cases, the discharge may be temporarily controlled or eliminated by office treatment:* Instruction of the patient in aural hygiene and impressing upon him the importance of avoiding getting water in the ear.* Thorough cleaning of the ear, by the physician initially, and by the patient as frequently as necessary to keep the ear free of discharge.* Antibiotics, used locally rather than systemically, and usually in the form of a powder applied by the patient daily at home.* Culture and sensitivity tests when the problem does not respond to routine office treatment as outlined.

  13. Revision Stapedectomy in a Female Patient with Inner Ear Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirth R. Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We describe an unusual case of surgical management of congenital mixed hearing loss in a female patient with inner ear malformation. This report outlines the role of temporal bone imaging and previous surgical history in evaluating a patient’s risk of perilymph gusher during stapes surgery. Methods. A 68-year-old female patient with a history of profound bilateral mixed hearing loss due to ossicular and cochlear malformation presented to our otology clinic. She had undergone multiple unsuccessful previous ear surgeries. Computed tomography revealed bilateral inner ear malformations. She elected to proceed with revision stapedectomy. Results. The patient received modest benefit to hearing, and no operative complications occurred. Conclusions. Although stapedectomy has been shown to improve hearing in patients with stapes fixation, there is risk of perilymph gusher in patients with inner ear abnormalities. Evaluation and counseling of the risk of gusher during stapes surgery should be done on a case-by-case basis.

  14. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  16. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  17. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  18. 15 CFR 732.2 - Steps regarding scope of the EAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid you in determining the scope of the EAR. A flow chart describing these steps is contained in...

  19. The ear region of Latimeria chalumnae: functional and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The anatomy of Latimeria chalumnae has figured prominently in discussions about tetrapod origins. While the gross anatomy of Latimeria is well documented, relatively little is known about its otic anatomy and ontogeny. To examine the inner ear and the otoccipital part of the cranium, a serial-sectioned juvenile coelacanth was studied in detail and a three-dimensional reconstruction was made. The ear of Latimeria shows a derived condition compared to other basal sarcopterygians in having a connection between left and right labyrinths. This canalis communicans is perilymphatic in nature and originates at the transition point of the saccule and the lagena deep in the inner ear, where a peculiar sense end organ can be found. In most gnathostomes the inner ears are clearly separated from each other. A connection occurs in some fishes, e.g. within the Ostariophysi. In the sarcopterygian lineage no connections between the inner ears are known except in the Actinistia. Some fossil actinistians show a posteriorly directed duct lying between the foramen magnum and the notochordal canal, similar to the condition in the ear of Latimeria, so this derived character complex probably developed early in actinistian history. Because some features of the inner ear of Latimeria have been described as having tetrapod affinities, the problem of hearing and the anatomy of the otical complex in the living coelacanth has been closely connected to the question of early tetrapod evolution. It was assumed in the past that the structure found in Latimeria could exemplify a transitional stage in otic evolution between the fishlike sarcopterygians and the first tetrapods in a functional or even phylogenetic way. Here the possibility is considered that the canalis communicans does not possess any auditory function but rather is involved in sensing pressure changes during movements involving the intracranial joint. Earlier hypotheses of a putative tympanic ear are refuted.

  20. Melanoacanthoma of external ear: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Patnayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoacanthoma is a rare lesion. Melanoacanthoma of external ear is still rarer . We present two cases of melanoacanthoma of external ear in adults which presented as pigmented growths and clinically were suspected as malignant lesions. Histopathology was diagnostic as it demonstrated the characteristic elevated lesion with abundant melanin pigment. No recurrence of the lesion was reported after four years of initial diagnosis. These cases have been presented because of their uncommon location, highlighting the differential diagnoses.

  1. Endostatin inhibits hypertrophic scarring in a rabbit ear model*

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Hai-Tao; Hu, Hang; LI, YUAN; Jiang, Hong-fei; Hu, Xin-lei; Han, Chun-mao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to use an in vivo rabbit ear scar model to investigate the efficacy of systemic administration of endostatin in inhibiting scar formation. Methods: Eight male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to two groups. Scar model was established by making six full skin defect wounds in each ear. For the intervention group, intraperitoneal injection of endostatin was performed each day after the wound healed (about 15 d post wounding). For the cont...

  2. Modification of closed tympanoplasty in middle ear cholesteatoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-gang; LIU Xiang; CHEN Sui-jun; CHEN Bin; ZHENG Yi-qing

    2010-01-01

    Background Classic mastoidectomy and modified mastoidectomy are traditional surgical procedures for middle ear cholesteatoma with goals of eradicating diseases, creating dry ears and preventing severe complications. However, the drawback of these procedures is the lack of hearing improvement. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the effects and safety of a modification of closed tympanoplasty for middle ear cholesteatoma.Methods Eighty-three patients were recruited in this study based on the following two criteria: each patient had middle ear cholesteatoma in one ear; the affected ears had a functional eustachian tube and had neither intracranial nor extracranial complications. All the patients received a modification of closed tympanoplasty which included ossicular reconstruction with total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP) or partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP) and membrane repair with conchal cartilage-perichondral complex.Results All the 83 cases had dry ears with membranes healed within 4-6 postoperative weeks. After 6 postoperative months, there were 3 cases with re-perforation at the tympanic membrane center and after 1.5 postoperative years, there were 5 cases with cholesteatoma recurrence (6.02%). Function tests after one postoperative year exhibited an improvement of pure tone audiometry (PTA) in 27 cases that was more than 30 dB, in 33 cases between 20-29 dB, 14 cases with improvement between 10-19 dB, and in 9 cases there was no improvement.Conclusions The modified closed tympanoplasty procedure for middle ear cholesteatoma in the present study has all the advantages of both close-cavity and open-cavity procedures. It has low recurrence rate and good hearing improvement.

  3. Eye dominance in the small-eared bushbaby, Otolemur garnettii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L J; Ward, J P; Stafford, D

    1994-02-01

    Eye-preference has been measured in the small-eared bushbaby, Otolemur garnettii, using two testing conditions, one requiring the subject to look through a grid and the other involving trained looking through a small hole. Monocular eye use was scored for viewing a variety of stimuli. The six subjects (four adult females and two babies) tested using the grid showed left-eye dominance for viewing the tester. Five subjects were tested for viewing food and all were similarly left-eye preferent. That is, there was indication of an eye preference at the group level. The eye preference did not correlate with handedness for food reaching or holding in the same individuals. When three of the subjects were tested viewing the more arousing stimulus of their babies held in the tester's hand, the eye-preference changed; there was either no preference or a weaker left-eye preference. One subject was tested with novel stimuli (a toy monkey, the tester wearing a mask and a rubber snake) and showed a significant shift to a right-eye preference for viewing two of these stimuli. Increased arousal, or fear, was apparent in the latter tests. Comparison is made to eye dominance data for humans.

  4. Minnesota wolf ear lengths as possible indicators of taxonomic differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Genetic findings suggest that 2 types of wolves, Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) and C. lycaon (Eastern Wolf), and/or their hybrids occupy Minnesota (MN), and this study examines adult wolf ear lengths as a possible distinguisher between these two. Photographic evidence suggested that the Eastern Wolf possesses proportionately longer ears than Gray Wolves. Ear lengths from 22 northwestern MN wolves from the early 1970s and 22 Alaskan wolves were used to represent Gray Wolves, and the greatest length of the sample (12.8 cm) was used as the least length to demarcate Eastern Wolf from Gray Wolf influence in the samples. Twenty-three percent of 112 adult wolves from Algonquin Park in eastern Ontario and 30% of 106 recent adult wolves in northeastern MN possessed ears >12.8 cm. The northeastern MN sample differed significantly from that of current and past northwestern MN wolves. Ear-lengths of wolves in the eastern half of the northeastern MN wolf population were significantly longer than those in the western half of that study area, even though the mean distance between the 2 areas was only 40 km, and the mean length of my 2004–2009 sample was significantly longer than that of 1999–2003. These findings support the hypothesis that Eastern Wolves tend to possess longer ears than do Gray Wolves and suggest a dynamic hybridization process is still underway in MN.

  5. Prevalence of middle ear disorders in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lempert, B.L.; Hopkinson, N.T.; Keith, R.W.; Motl, M.L.; Horine, J.

    1981-06-01

    Results are presented from a study of the prevalence of middle and external ear disorders in coal miners who work underground. The study followed from an earlier NIOSH report (1976) that indicated a possibly large number of otoscopic abnormalities in this population of workers. Otoscopic examinations, pure tone air- and bone-conduction audiometry tests, and impedance tests were administered to 350 underground miners and 150 industrial workers not associated with mining. The study was conducted completely within a hospital otolaryngology/audiology clinic setting. Results of the investigation showed a highly similar prevalence of middle ear and ear canal abnormalities in the miner group and the control group (19 percent). Middle ear abnormalities observed in the miners were judged by the examining otolaryngologists to have preceded their experience in the mines and were not related solely to underground noise exposure or coal dust. Nearly half of the subjects who had an air-bone gap had no middle ear abnormality observable by otoscopic examination. There was substantial agreement between the finding of abnormal otoscopy and abnormal tympanometry. By itself, acoustic reflex was not useful in identifying middle ear disorders, since this reflex may be absent for other reasons, including presence of severe sensorineural hearing loss.

  6. Indications and candidacy for active middle ear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F; Todt, I; Wagner, J; Ernst, A

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there are two active middle ear implants available commercially: the Vibrant Soundbridge system and the Carina system. A third active middle ear implant, the Esteem, is under clinical evaluation. All devices are indicated for patients with moderate-to-severe hearing loss. Because active middle ear implants are directly coupled to middle ear structures, many of the problems that patients with conventional hearing aids report, such as acoustic feedback, occlusion, and irritation of the outer ear canal, are avoided. In addition, AMEI patients perform well in background noise. However, indications for AMEIs are selective and candidates should be carefully evaluated before surgery. Before considering an AMEI, patients should be provided with conventional hearing aids. Only when benefit is insufficient and audiological selection criteria are met is further candidacy evaluation indicated. Since Colletti described coupling the Vibrant Soundbridge directly onto the round window membrane in 2006, the indications for the Vibrant Soundbridge have expanded and the VSB is implanted in patients with conductive and mixed hearing losses. Patients have often undergone middle ear surgery before. Especially mixed hearing loss cases with 30-60 dB HL sensorineural hearing impairment and 30-40 dB HL air-bone gaps may be helped by this new application.

  7. Inheritance of Ear Tip-Barrenness Trait in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Zhao-dong; ZHANG Fa-jun; DING Zhao-hua; SUN Qi; WANG Li-ming; GUO Qing-fa; WANG Hong-gang

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the inheritance pattern of ear tip-barrenness trait in maize (Zea mays L.). Ear tipbarrenness trait in maize can be classified into two types, tip-barren and tip-barrenless. Two inbred lines, Ix01-3 (tipbarrenless type), wx04-1 (tip-barren type), and their F1, F2, BC1, BC2 generations were analyzed on their ear tip-barrenness types. Results showed that F1 was tip-barren type; the ratio of tip-barren type versus tip-barrenless type followed a 12.78∶1 ratio in F2 segregation population and a 2.75∶1 ratio in BC1. χ2 test indicated that the trait of ear tip-barrenness type followed an inheritance pattern of 2 duplicate dominant genes. SPSS analysis indicated that the trait of ear tip-barrenness length is of abnormal distribution. Above results mean that: (1) The trait of maize ear tip-barrenness type is controlled by2 duplicate dominant genes; tip-barren type is dominant over tip-barrenless type; (2) the trait of tip-barrenness length is a quantitative character controlled by polygene with major genes expected.

  8. The ear in fetal MRI: what can we really see?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Nuno Canto [Neuroradiology Section C., Campos Costa, Fragosela, Viseu (Portugal); Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Teixeira, Joao [Department of Neuroradiology, Porto (Portugal); Raininko, Raili; Wikstrom, Johan [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to depict the components of the ear on brain-oriented fetal MRI studies. Retrospective evaluation of the ear in MRI studies was performed post-mortem in 16 fetuses ranging from 15 to 22 gestation weeks (GW), and in 122 examinations in vivo of fetuses ranging from 20 to 38 GW. The cochlea, vestibular apparatus, middle ear, and external auditory canal were separately graded according to the components that were delineated. The components of the inner and middle ear were fully delineated in 100% of the post-mortem examinations, but the external auditory canals were only seen in only 25%. In the in vivo group, the imaging detail was much lower. Cochlear turns could be identified in 75% of the fetuses, the vestibule and the lateral semicircular canals in 72% andossicles in 70%. Before 25 GW, the ability to identify these individual parts was 50%, 30%, and 33%, respectively, and above it was 89%, 93%, and 90%. In most cases, the external auditory canals could only be seen after 29 GW. In fetal MRI studies in vivo, it is possible to depict the components of the ear in the majority of the fetuses, in such a manner as to exclude major malformations. However, MRI might not provide enough detail to rule out pathology of the ear before 25 GW, this being a critical age for pregnancy management in many countries. (orig.)

  9. Lumped parametric model of the human ear for sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Gan, Rong Z

    2004-09-01

    A lumped parametric model of the human auditoria peripherals consisting of six masses suspended with six springs and ten dashpots was proposed. This model will provide the quantitative basis for the construction of a physical model of the human middle ear. The lumped model parameters were first identified using published anatomical data, and then determined through a parameter optimization process. The transfer function of the middle ear obtained from human temporal bone experiments with laser Doppler interferometers was used for creating the target function during the optimization process. It was found that, among 14 spring and dashpot parameters, there were five parameters which had pronounced effects on the dynamic behaviors of the model. The detailed discussion on the sensitivity of those parameters was provided with appropriate applications for sound transmission in the ear. We expect that the methods for characterizing the lumped model of the human ear and the model parameters will be useful for theoretical modeling of the ear function and construction of the ear physical model.

  10. Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose and Throat: An Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parajuli, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A foreign body (FB is an object or substance foreign to the location where it is found. FBs in the ear, nose, and throat are a common problem frequently encountered in both children and adults. Objective To analyze FBs in terms of type, site, age, and gender distribution and method of removal. Methods A retrospective study was performed in a tertiary care hospital in the central part of Nepal. The study period was from June 2013 to May 2014. The information was obtained from hospital record books. Results A total of 134 patients had FBs in the ear, nose, or throat; 94 were males and 40 were females. Of the 134 patients, 70 (52.23% had FB in the ear, 28 (20.89% in the nose, and 36 (26.86% in the throat. The FB was animate (living in 28 (40% patients with FB in the ear and 1 (3.5% patient with FB in the nose, but the FB was inanimate (nonliving in any patient with FB in the throat, in 42 (60% patients with FB in the ear FB, and in 27 (96.4% patients with FB of the nose. The FB was removed with or without local anaesthesia (LA in 98 (73.13% patients, and only 36 patients (26.86% required general anaesthesia (GA. The most common age group affected was <10 years. Conclusion FBs in the ear and nose were found more frequently in children, and the throat was the most common site of FB in adults and elderly people. Most of the FBs can be easily removed in emergency room or outpatient department.

  11. Erythema associated with pain and warmth on face and ears: a variant of erythermalgia or red ear syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Chun; Xu, Qing-Fang; Luo, Di-Qing; Li, Xiang; He, Ding-Yang

    2014-03-26

    Erythermalgia is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by attacking of erythema, pain and increased temperature, which primarily involves the extremities and may infrequently extend to the neck, face, ears and even the scrotum. We reported an 18-year-old woman who presented with 3 years history of sole involvement of attacking erythema, pain and warmth over her face and ears without any other associations. The frequency and severity of the flares progressed gradually during the course. Cutaneous examination revealed erythema, increased temperature and tenderness on the face and ears during the flare. The symptoms could be relieved rapidly by cooling. Dermatoscope showed that vessels inside the erythema were more dilated during the episode than after application of ice. The lesion is considered a rare variant of erythermalgia with sole involvement of face and ears. The symptoms had mild response to oral antihistamines, topical steroids and tacrolimus, but had excellent response to the combinative therapy of aspirin and paroxetins.

  12. Real ear unaided gain and its relation with the equivalent volume of the external and middle ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos, Bárbara Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Old age is associated with changes in the characteristics of the middle ear transmission system and in external ear resonance, and these carry implications for the hearing aid (HA verification process for which targets and measures of the real ear insertion gain (REIG are used. Aim: To compare the real ear unaided gain (REUG and the equivalent volumes of the external ear (VeqEE and the middle ear (VeqME between elderly and adult patients. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which the medical records of 28 elderly patients (aged between 61 and 102 years, average hearing thresholds between 38.75 and 85 dB HL and 23 adult patients (aged 20-59, mean hearing thresholds between 31.25 and 116.25 dB HL with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and no history of middle ear abnormalities were analyzed. Immittance measurements (VeqEE, VeqME, and pressure of the peak of maximum compliance and the REUG (frequency and amplitude of the primary peak were recovered for a total of 40 ears. These data were compared between elderly and adults as well as between men and women, using Student's t test. Correlations (Pearson between immittance and REUG data were also verified. Results: No statistically significant differences (p < 0.01 were found for immittance and REUG data between elderly and adults, or between men and women. A negative and weak but significant correlation was observed between the REUG primary peak and VeqEE. Conclusion: Hearing aid verification can be performed with target and measures of the REIG in the elderly population.

  13. Dramatic fluctuations in liver mass and metal content of eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) during autumnal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Jehl, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Adult eared grebes exhibit threefold fluctuation in body mass and up to a fivefold variation in liver weight during the course of their annual breeding and migratory cycle. Concentrations of 20 metals or metalloids were quantified in the liver from eared grebes obtained at three phases of their annual cycle: newly arrived migrants (July-August-September), staging (October-November), and immediate post-migration (December-January). Values for twelve elements (Al, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn) that were detected in more than one-half of the samples were low. Hepatic concentrations of elements known to be toxic to free-ranging birds (e.g., Cd, Hg, Pb, Se) were well below known effect thresholds. No differences in metal concentrations were observed between newly arrived migrants and staging birds despite the large increases in body and liver mass. However, in the immediate post-migration period after body and liver mass have rapidly declined, Al values decreased, whereas Se and Zn concentrations actually increased. Total liver burdens of elements tended to be greatest in staging grebes compared to other collection periods, and paralleled changes in body and liver mass. The need for temporally- and physiologically-matched reference birds, and at least knowledge of circannual organ mass fluctuations, appears to be a requirement for ecotoxicological exposure assessments in species such as the eared grebe. Generation of additional avian toxicity data from controlled dosing studies during potentially vulnerable phases of their annual cycle (e.g., molt, post-migration) seems warranted. Although it is commonly accepted that hepatic metal concentrations are principally affected by contaminant exposure, we have shown differential alterations related to the stage of the annual cycle. Our findings may be of broad significance, as well as of immediate importance in resolving the cause of the die-off of approximately 150,000 eared grebes (perhaps 7% of the North

  14. Extensively remodeled, fractured cetacean tympanic bullae show that whales can survive traumatic injury to the ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Maya; Khidas, Kamal; Pyenson, Nicholas D; Fordyce, R Ewan; Mead, James G

    2016-01-01

    Underwater human activities and anthropogenic noise in our oceans may be a major source of habitat degradation for marine life. This issue was highlighted by the opening of the United States Eastern Seaboard for seismic oil and gas exploration in 2014, which generated massive media coverage and widespread concern that seismic surveys could kill or deafen whales. We discovered 11 new specimens of fractured and healed cetacean ear bones, out of a survey of 2127 specimens housed in museum collections. This rare condition has been previously reported only in two specimens of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) from the early 1900s, summarized by Fraser & Purves (1953). All of our new specimens are represented by species for which this condition had never been reported previously, including both baleen and toothed whales. The baleen whale specimens (Balaenoptera physalus, Balaenoptera borealis, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were collected during Canadian commercial whaling operations in the Atlantic Ocean in the 1970s; the specimens include ear bones with well-healed fractures, demonstrating that baleen whales are capable of overcoming traumatic injury to the ears. The toothed whale specimens (Delphinus sp., Berardius bairdii) were found dead on beaches in 1972 and 2001, respectively, with less remodeled fractures. Thus, ear injuries may be more lethal to the echolocating toothed whales, which rely on hearing for navigation and foraging. We explore several hypotheses regarding how these injuries could have occurred, and conclude that the most parsimonious explanations appear to be both direct and indirect effects of lytic processes from disease or calcium depletion, or damage from external pressure waves. Although further research is required to confirm whether the fractures resulted from natural or human-induced events, this study underscores the importance of museum collections and the work of stranding networks in understanding the potential effects of modern human

  15. Specification of the acoustical input to the ear at high frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S M; Stinson, M R

    1985-02-01

    The sound fields that arise in the auditory canals of cats have been examined both experimentally and theoretically. Of particular interest was the spatial variation of sound pressure near the eardrum, where reference probes are typically located. Using a computer controlled data acquisition system, sound pressure was measured between 100 Hz and 33 kHz for constant driver input at 14 different locations in the ear canal of a cat, and the standing wave patterns formed. The shape of the patterns could be predicted quite well above 12 kHz using a theory that requires specification of only the geometry of the ear canal. This theory, an extension of the one-dimensional horn equation, applies to three-dimensional, rigid-walled tubes that have both variable cross section and curvature along their lengths. Large variations of sound pressure along the ear canal and over the surface of the eardrum are found above about 10 kHz. As a consequence it is not possible to define the acoustical input to the ear from sound pressure level measured at any single location. Even in comparative experiments, in which only the constancy of the acoustical input is important, any uncertainty in reference probe location would lead to an uncertainty in sound pressure level when different sets of measurements are compared. This error, calculated for various probe locations and frequencies, is especially large when the probe is near a minimum of the sound field. Spatial variations in pressure can also introduce anomalous features into the measured frequency response of other auditory quantities when eardrum sound pressure is used as a reference. This is illustrated with measurements of the round window cochlear microphonic.

  16. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicto de Campos Vidal

    Full Text Available Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1 after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1 overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue

  17. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Mello, Maria Luiza S

    2016-01-01

    Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs) with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1) after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1) overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder) at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue under

  18. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn E Mills

    Full Text Available Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1 assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2 determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3 owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810 were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task', found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392 provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410 is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  19. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katelyn E; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task'), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  20. Stimulus-dependent effects on right ear advantage in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smucny J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jason Smucny,1,3 Korey Wylie,3 Jason Tregellas1–31Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Research Science, Denver VA Medical, Center, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USABackground: When presented with different sounds in each ear (dichotic listening, healthy subjects typically show a preference for stimuli heard in the right ear, an effect termed "right ear advantage". Previous studies examining right ear advantage in schizophrenia have been inconsistent, showing either decreased or increased advantage relative to comparison subjects. Given evidence for enhanced semantic processing in schizophrenia, some of this inconsistency may be due to the type of stimuli presented (words or syllables. The present study examined right ear advantage in patients and controls using both words and syllables as stimuli.Methods: Right ear advantage was compared between 20 patients with schizophrenia and 17 healthy controls. Two versions of the task were used, ie, a consonant-vowel pairing task and a fused rhymed words task.Results: A significant group × task interaction was observed. Relative to healthy controls, patients showed a greater difference on the syllable-based task compared with the word-based task. The number of distractors marked during the syllable-based task was inversely correlated with score on the Global Assessment of Function Scale.Conclusion: The findings are consistent with a left hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia, but also suggest that differences may be stimulus-specific, with a relative sparing of the deficit in the context of word stimuli. Performance may be related to measures of social, occupational, and psychological function.Keywords: schizophrenia, right ear advantage, dichotic, distraction

  1. Tympanoplasty without use of gelfoam in the middle ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ghiasi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  In usual technique of tympanoplasty almost all of otologic surgeons use gelfoam in the middle ear for support of graft against margin of tympanic membrane perforation. In this study we use technique that we did not use gelfoam in the middle ear. We compared results of graft taking rate in two techniques. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial study during 2 years 181 patients with COM underwent tympanoplasty with underlay grafting. In 83 patients used gelfoam in the middle ear for tympanoplasty or tympanomastoidectomy (CCTM, OCTM. In 98 patients we did not use gelfoam in the middle ear. Results: In 83 patients with use of gelfoam, graft taking rate in 59 (71.1% cases with tympanoplasty and CCTM was 54 (91% and in 24 (28.9% cases with OCTM was 20 (83%. In 98 patients without use of gelfoam, graft taking rate in 61 (62.2% cases with tympanoplasty and CCTM was 54 (89% and in 37 (37.8% cases with OCTM were 31 (84%. Conclusion: In this study, results of graft taking rate were similar in 2 groups. On the other hand, gelfoam entirely reabsorbed during 45 to 54 days in the middle ear and immune system react by a round cell response. This sponge encourages the formation of the fibrous tissue at a higher rate than naturally occurs in the ear. In our technique we had not these problems. Another advantage of this technique is rapid improvement of patient hearing after removing of the external ear canal rosebud. We think this technique could be used in tympanoplasty and tympanomastoidectoy routinely. ‍‍‍

  2. The visible ear simulator: a public PC application for GPU-accelerated haptic 3D simulation of ear surgery based on the visible ear data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Mosegaard, Jesper; Trier, Peter

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing virtual simulators for middle ear surgery are based on 3-dimensional (3D) models from computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging data in which image quality is limited by the lack of detail (maximum, approximately 50 voxels/mm3), natural color, and texture of the sour...

  3. A new method for correcting type I and type II constricted (cup and lop) ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaogeng, Hu; Hongxing, Zhuang; Qinghua, Yang; Haiyue, Jiang; Yanyong, Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Tanzer suggested the term "constricted ear," denoting a spectrum of deformities limited to the superior third of the ear. Tanzer classified the constricted ear into three types. Type I ears have involvement of the helix, which usually is flattened. Type II ears show involvement of both the helix and the scapha. With type III ears, the auricle is rolled into a nearly tubular form that some authors regard as a form of microtia. The authors' new method for correcting the constricted ear varies in accordance with the diverse degree of deformity. The new method was used to correct constricted ears through a one-stage operation in eight type I cases. For the remaining six type 2 cases, the methods were combined with composite grafting. Most of the patients were satisfied with the final results. Therefore, the authors conclude that their approach is suitable for the treatment of type I and type II constricted ears.

  4. A STUDY OF CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS OF THE EXTERNAL EAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubi Saikia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Congenital external ear malformations like Microtia, Anotia, Preauricular skin tags, etc. cause severe psychological problems in children. If accompanied with atresia of the external auditory canal and the middle ear; hearing loss, developmental delays are also associated with such malformations. AIM The aim of the present study is to evaluate the commonly occurring congenital external ear defects in this part of India. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was undertaken in patients attending the Plastic Surgery OPD at Assam Medical College Hospital and Smile Train Centre at Srishti Hospitals and Research Centre at Dibrugarh, Assam, from July 2013 to July 2016. We did an analysis of 25 patients with visibly noticeable external ear deformities and recorded the findings as per proforma and took photographs. RESULTS Among the 25 cases, 9 (36% were males and 16 (64% were females. The most common congenital anomaly that we found was microtia 7 (28%. Of these, 1 (4% was isolated microtia and 6 (24% were associated with hemifacial microsomia. The second common finding was preauricular skin tags 5 (20%. 3 of the microtia cases also presented with external auditory canal atresia and hearing loss. CONCLUSION Congenital anomalies of the external ear can seriously change a child’s personality. Proper diagnosis and treatment of such cases will definitely reduce the possible psychological, physical and financial problems of the patient and family as most of them are surgically correctable.

  5. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G.; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  6. Innovative technique for correction of the congenital lop ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K; Boorer, C; Khan, U; Deva, A; Chang, L

    2006-01-01

    Congenital lop ear is a deformity affecting the upper third of the ear. It is characterised by varying degrees of lidding of the helix, reduction in the fossa triangularis, scapha compression, reduction or absence of the superior crus of the antihelix and an associated reduction in vertical height of the external ear. Reported strategies for the surgical correction of this deformity include simple excision of the excess overhanging cartilage, radial cartilage incisions of the helix to reverse its memory, various cartilage grafts from the surrounding ear or rib to strut or fill the defect, and mastoid hitching stitches to reinforce the repair. We present a novel technique using a reversed conchal cartilage graft to strut the deformed antihelix. The memory of the reversed conchal cartilage is used to correct lidding of the superior helix and obviates the need for intrinsic cartilage modification or excision. We have found a good aesthetic and structural result in a patient with bilateral congenital lop ear with 12 months follow up.

  7. Shape and Deformation Analysis of the Human Ear Canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune

    This thesis presents work on the analysis of the dynamic behavior of the human ear canal. The work is based on two studies designed during the project, a pilot study with 30 normal hearing subjects and a main study with 42 hearing impaired subjects, all hearing-aid users. The main focus is on the......This thesis presents work on the analysis of the dynamic behavior of the human ear canal. The work is based on two studies designed during the project, a pilot study with 30 normal hearing subjects and a main study with 42 hearing impaired subjects, all hearing-aid users. The main focus...... is on the extraction and analysis of the shape and deformation of the ear canal due to movements of the mandible, leaning over, and turning of the head. Methods for surface registration with focus on non-rigid registration are presented, as well as a wide range of statistical methods used for analyzing the shapes...... and deformation fields. The results show that the ear canal changes shape significantly in all subjects and that the deformation is more complicated than previously described in the literature. It is shown that the deformation at specific locations in the ear is significantly correlated to comfort issues reported...

  8. Convergence vs. Specialization in the ear region of moles (Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpton, Nick; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Asher, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    We investigated if and how the inner ear region undergoes similar adaptations in small, fossorial, insectivoran-grade mammals, and found a variety of inner ear phenotypes. In our sample, afrotherian moles (Chrysochloridae) and the marsupial Notoryctes differ from most other burrowing mammals in their relatively short radii of semicircular canal curvature; chrysochlorids and fossorial talpids share a relatively long interampullar width. Chrysochlorids are unique in showing a highly coiled cochlea with nearly four turns. Extensive cochlear coiling may reflect their greater ecological dependence on low frequency auditory cues compared to talpids, tenrecids, and the marsupial Notoryctes. Correspondingly, the lack of such extensive coiling in the inner ear of other fossorial species may indicate a greater reliance on other senses to enable their fossorial lifestyle, such as tactile sensation from vibrissae and Eimer's organs. The reliance of chrysochlorids on sound is evident in the high degree of coiling and in the diversity of its mallear types, and may help explain the lack of any semiaquatic members of that group. The simplest mallear types among chrysochlorids are not present in the basal-most members of that clade, but all extant chrysochlorids investigated to date exhibit extensive cochlear coiling. The chrysochlorid ear region thus exhibits mosaic evolution; our data suggest that extensive coiling evolved in chrysochlorids prior to and independently of diversification in middle ear ossicle size and shape.

  9. Driver drowsiness detection using the in-ear EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeho Hwang; Miyoung Kim; Seunghyeok Hong; Kwang Suk Park

    2016-08-01

    Driver drowsiness monitoring is one of the most demanded technologies for active prevention of severe road accidents. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and several peripheral signals have been suggested for the drowsiness monitoring. However, each type of signal has partial limitations in terms of either convenience or accuracy. Recent emerged concept of in-ear EEG raises expectations due to reduced obtrusiveness. It is yet unclear whether the in-ear EEG is effective enough for drowsiness detection in comparison with on-scalp EEG or peripheral signals. In this work, we evaluated performance of the in-ear EEG in drivers' alertness-drowsiness classification for the first time. Simultaneously, we also tested three peripheral signals including electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), and galvanic skin response (GSR) which have advantage in convenience of measurement. The classification analysis using the in-ear EEG resulted in high classification accuracy comparable to that of the individual on-scalp EEG channels. The ECG, PPG and GSR showed competitive performance but only when used together in pairwise combinations. Our results suggest that the in-ear EEG would be viable alternative to the single channel EEG or the individual peripheral signals for the drowsiness monitoring.

  10. Assessing cisplatin-induced ototoxicity and otoprotection in whole organ culture of the mouse inner ear in simulated microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropitzsch, Anke; Arnold, Heinz; Bassiouni, Mohamed; Müller, Andrea; Eckhard, Andreas; Müller, Marcus; Löwenheim, Hubert

    2014-06-16

    Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. Ototoxicity is a major dose-limiting side-effect. A reproducible mammalian in-vitro model of cisplatin ototoxicity is required to screen and validate otoprotective drug candidates. We utilized a whole organ culture system of the postnatal mouse inner ear in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor under "simulated microgravity" culture conditions. As previously described this system allows whole organ culture of the inner ear and quantitative assessment of ototoxic effects of aminoglycoside induced hair cell loss. Here we demonstrate that this model is also applicable to the assessment of cisplatin induced ototoxicity. In this model cisplatin induced hair cell loss was dose and time dependent. Increasing exposure time of cisplatin led to decreasing EC50 concentrations. Outer hair cells were more susceptible than inner hair cells, and hair cells in the cochlear base were more susceptible than hair cells in the cochlear apex. Initial cisplatin dose determined the final extent of hair cell loss irrespective if the drug was withdrawn or continued. Dose dependant otoprotection was demonstrated by co-administration of the antioxidant agent N-acetyl l-cysteine. The results support the use of this inner ear organ culture system as an in vitro assay and validation platform for inner ear toxicology and the search for otoprotective compounds. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. A rare complication due to button battery cell in ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Hernot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 7-year-old male child who presented to ENT emergency with 24 h history of excessive pain and blackish otorrhea from right ear after accidentally inserting button battery in the ear while playing. Otoscopic examination revealed a shiny and round foreign body with excessive blackening of the surrounding skin. Chest and abdominal examination and routine investigations were normal. X-ray bilateral mastoid (Schuller's view was done which revealed a radiopaque double-contoured foreign body in the right ear. It was removed under general anesthesia and was confirmed as a button battery. A few days later, biopsy from granulation tissue and surrounding bone was taken which revealed acute suppurative osteomyelitis on histopathological examination.

  12. A Ubiquitous Blood Pressure Sensor Worn at the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Junichi; Uenishi, Yuji; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement and BP control are important for the prevention of lifestyle diseases, especially hypertension, which can lead to more serious conditions, such as cardiac infarction and cerebral apoplexy. The purpose of our study is to develop a ubiquitous blood pressure sensor that is more comfortable and less disruptive of users' daily activities than conventional blood pressure sensors. Our developed sensor is worn at an ear orifice and measures blood pressure at the tragus. This paper describes the concept, configuration, and the optical and electronic details of the developed ear-worn blood pressure sensor and presents preliminary evaluation results. The developed sensor causes almost no discomfort and produces signals whose quality is high enough for detecting BP at an ear, making it suitable for ubiquitous usage.

  13. Multimodal recognition based on face and ear using local feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruyin; Mu, Zhichun; Chen, Long; Fan, Tingyu

    2017-06-01

    The pose issue which may cause loss of useful information has always been a bottleneck in face and ear recognition. To address this problem, we propose a multimodal recognition approach based on face and ear using local feature, which is robust to large facial pose variations in the unconstrained scene. Deep learning method is used for facial pose estimation, and the method of a well-trained Faster R-CNN is used to detect and segment the region of face and ear. Then we propose a weighted region-based recognition method to deal with the local feature. The proposed method has achieved state-of-the-art recognition performance especially when the images are affected by pose variations and random occlusion in unconstrained scene.

  14. Characteristics of CI children with complicated middle ear infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoberg, Søren; Danstrup, Christian; Laursen, Bjarke

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cases of complicated middle ear infections in children with cochlear implants (CI), i.e., episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) and acute mastoiditis (AM), resulting in hospitalization. METHODS: A total of 206 children under 16 years (300 implantations) were implanted between...... months, respectively. Children younger than 2 years were at highest risk of AOM and/or AM. All had antibiotics prescribed before admittance, and two- thirds of infected ears had already ventilation tubes inserted. Bacteria could not be detected in more than half of cases. The most frequently isolated...... of ventilation tubes is still much debated and more research in this field is needed. CONCLUSION: AOM and/or AM were seen in Danish children with CI as often as in other western countries. Treatment of complicated middle ear infections was sufficient with IV cephalosporin and ventilation tube insertion. Special...

  15. [Cochlear implant for malformations of the inner ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschendorff, A; Laszig, R; Maier, W; Beck, R; Schild, C; Birkenhäger, R; Wesarg, T; Kröger, S; Arndt, S

    2009-06-01

    The radiologic evaluation of the temporal bone in cochlear implant candidates can detect malformations of the inner ear in up to 20% of cases. The aim of our study was to analyze and classify malformations of the inner ear in patients with cochlear implants carried out from 2001 to 2009. Malformations of the inner ear, including malformations of the internal auditory canal were detected in 12.7% of children and 3.4% of adults. Mondini dysplasia was most common and occurred in 45% of cases. The surgical procedure had to be adapted according to the individual malformation. Modification of surgical access, management of intraoperative CSF gusher, choice of electrode array, intraoperative imaging and the use of navigation were the most important factors. Rehabilitation results were generally very positive and corresponded to the expectation depending on the duration of deafness, if no additional handicaps were present.

  16. A RARE FOREIGN BODY IN THE EAR: REMOVED BY CANALOPLASTY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Getting an object impact in the ear canal is a relatively common problem in children, the majority of items are lodged in the external auditory canal which is the small channel that ends at the ear drum. The children often place these items in their ears out of curiosity. Common objects found in ear include beads, toys, food material, insects and seeds etc. usually foreign body ear are removed by syringing or with Hartmann’s forceps, we are here presenting a case of foreign body in the middle ear removed by canaloplasty through post - aural approach.

  17. Analysis of chick (Gallus gallus middle ear columella formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Kathryn J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chick middle ear bone, the columella, provides an accessible model in which to study the tissue and molecular interactions necessary for induction and patterning of the columella, as well as associated multiple aspects of endochondral ossification. These include mesenchymal condensation, chondrogenesis, ossification of the medial footplate and shaft, and joint formation between the persistent cartilage of the extracolumella and ossified columella. Middle and external ear defects are responsible for approximately 10% of congenital hearing defects. Thus, understanding the morphogenesis and the molecular mechanisms of the formation of the middle ear is important to understanding normal and abnormal development of this essential component of the hearing apparatus. Results The columella, which arises from proximal ectomesenchyme of the second pharyngeal arch, is induced and patterned in a dynamic multi-step process. From the footplate, which inserts into the inner ear oval window, the shaft spans the pneumatic middle ear cavity, and the extracolumella inserts into the tympanic membrane. Through marker gene and immunolabeling analysis, we have determined the onset of each stage in the columella's development, from condensation to ossification. Significantly, a single condensation with the putative shaft and extracolumella arms already distinguishable is observed shortly before initiation of five separate chondrogenic centers within these structures. Ossification begins later, with periosteum formation in the shaft and, unexpectedly, a separate periosteum in the footplate. Conclusions The data presented in this study document the spatiotemporal events leading to morphogenesis of the columella and middle ear structures and provide the first gene expression data for this region. These data identify candidate genes and facilitate future functional studies and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of columella formation.

  18. EAR Protocol-Towards Fair Optimistic Non-Repudiation Exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-yan; WANG Ru-chuan

    2005-01-01

    Fairness is of crucial importance for the exchange protocols via Internet. Non-repudiation therefore becomes one of the vital premises, which are essential in the exchange of sensitive and important messages. This paper is to propose a new exchange protocol, termed "EAR" Exchange Protocol as it consists of three sub-protocols: Exchange sub-protocol, Abort sub-protocol and Recovery sub-protocol. It is to be argued that the incorporation of these three sub-protocols may effectively enables EAR to assure non-repudiation, strong fairness, timeliness, confidentiality and the minimized involvement of the Trusted Third Party (TTP).

  19. Vibrant soundbridge middle ear implant in otosclerosis: technique - indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumon, Thibaud

    2007-01-01

    With our growing experience with the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) middle ear implant, the question emerged of its indication in mixed hearing loss due to advanced otosclerosis. We describe the VSB implantation technique in primary otosclerosis performed together with a stapedotomy piston procedure. Hearing results under headphone and free-field conditions show that the stapedotomy piston procedure closes the air-bone gap as expected and that the VSB provides comparable gain to that usually recorded for pure sensorineural hearing loss. The gains of the two procedures add up. These results open the field of mixed hearing loss to the VSB middle ear implant.

  20. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Boisen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin.

  1. Congenital inner ear malformations without sensorineural hearing loss in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Michio; Kato, Zenichiro; Sasai, Hideo; Kubota, Kazuo; Funato, Michinori; Orii, Kenji; Kaneko, Hideo; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Naomi

    2009-10-01

    Inner ear malformations are frequently found in patients with congenital hearing loss. It has been reported that normal hearing is rare in patients with severe inner ear vestibular malformations. A 9-year-old boy had had complained of recurrent dizziness and disequilibrium for 2 months. Clinical and neuro-otological examinations showed peripheral involvement of the vestibular system, while audiological investigation was normal. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, with three-dimensional reconstruction, showed dysplasia of the bilateral lateral semicircular canals (LSCCs). Isolated vestibular malformation might not be as rare as previously thought, and should be examined by imaging of the temporal bone.

  2. Primary T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Liu, Shixi; Yang, Hui; Wang, Weiya

    2016-03-01

    T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) is a highly aggressive lymphoma characterized by precursor T-cell malignancy and lymphadenopathy or mediastinal involvement. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with a diagnosis of middle ear T-LBL, which manifested as a headache, hearing loss and peripheral facial paralysis. The child was given intensive chemotherapy and had a complete response. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature of T-LBL originating in the middle ear. This case aims to help clinicians to be vigilant about the possibility of primary lesions at atypical sites in some special diseases.

  3. Inner ear supporting cells: rethinking the silent majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Guoqiang; Corfas, Gabriel; Stone, Jennifer S

    2013-05-01

    Sensory epithelia of the inner ear contain two major cell types: hair cells and supporting cells. It has been clear for a long time that hair cells play critical roles in mechanoreception and synaptic transmission. In contrast, until recently the more abundant supporting cells were viewed as serving primarily structural and homeostatic functions. In this review, we discuss the growing information about the roles that supporting cells play in the development, function and maintenance of the inner ear, their activities in pathological states, their potential for hair cell regeneration, and the mechanisms underlying these processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anatomical Atlas of the Quail's Ear (Coturnix coturnix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsmann, A; Stoffel, M H; Burkhart, M; Hatt, J-M

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to enhance the anatomical knowledge of the ear of the adult quail (Coturnix coturnix) through the creation of a scaled 3D model utilizing data from micro-CT images. In addition, 17 annotated histological sections of the quail's ear are aligned to their 3D position in the model. The resulting anatomical atlas provides an intuitive insight into the 3D anatomy and can be used for medical education. The model also allows measuring anatomical structures and can thus serve as reference for the quail's auricular anatomy and as a basis to evaluate clinical diagnostic imaging results. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Blastema from rabbit ear contains progenitor cells comparable to marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits have the capacity to regenerate holes in their ears by forming a blastema, a tissue that is made up of a group of undifferentiated cells. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and characterize blastema progenitor cells and compare them with marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. A 2-mm hole was created in the animal ears. After 4 days, the blastema ring formed in the periphery of the hole was removed and cultivated. The cells were expanded through several subcultures and compared with the MSCs derived from the marrow of same animal in terms of in vitro differentiation capacity, growth kinetics and culture requirements for optimal proliferation. The primary cultures from both cells tended to be heterogeneous. Fibroblastic cells became progressively dominant with advancing passages. Similar to MSCs blastema passaged-3 cells succeeded to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose cell lineages. Even lineage specific genes tended to express in higher level in blastema cells compared to MSCs (p < 0.05. Moreover blastema cells appeared more proliferative; producing more colonies (p < 0.05. While blastema cells showed extensive proliferation in 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS, MSCs displayed higher expansion rate at 10% FBS. In conclusion, blastema from rabbit ear contains a population of fibroblastic cells much similar in characteristic to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the two cells were different in the level of lineage-specific gene expression, the growth curve characteristics and the culture requirements.

  6. Orpheus 0 G or ear In microgravity to establish symptoms concomitant of inner and middle ear and osteoporosis in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatis, Alfred; Talbi, Louisa; Vervoort, Jozef; Fromenteau, Joel; De Voigt, Martin; Van Deun, Jozef

    2005-08-01

    The goal of the proposed work is to collect data on the responses of the vestibular system to long-term conditions of weightlessness and to evaluate the benefits of a program of Electronic Ear(1) designed to act preventively to lessen symptoms due to weightlessness and to readapt the vestibular system after return to normal gravity.Data in the form of listening tests and brain maps tests(2) and observations(3) will be collected during pre- and post-flight simulation.We have to identify if the preservation process of astronauts against weightlessness effects is located in the ear. The long- term objective of the study is to create a blueprint of an Electronic Ear to be used on board should the outcome be positive.

  7. In vivo laser cartilage reshaping with carbon dioxide spray cooling in a rabbit ear model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Edward C; Hamamoto, Ashley A; Sun, Victor; Nguyen, Tony; Manuel, Cyrus T; Protsenko, Dmitry E; Wong, Brian J F; Nelson, J Stuart; Jia, Wangcun

    2014-12-01

    Similar to conventional cryogen spray cooling, carbon dioxide (CO2) spray may be used in combination with laser cartilage reshaping (LCR) to produce cartilage shape change while minimizing cutaneous thermal injury. Recent ex vivo evaluation of LCR with CO2 cooling in a rabbit model has identified a promising initial parameter space for in vivo safety and efficacy evaluation. This pilot study aimed to evaluate shape change and cutaneous injury following LCR with CO2 cooling in 5 live rabbits. The midportion of live rabbit ears were irradiated with a 1.45 µm wavelength diode laser (12 J/cm(2)) with simultaneous CO2 spray cooling (85 millisecond duration, 4 alternating heating/cooling cycles per site, 5 to 6 irradiation sites per row for 3 rows per ear). Experimental and control ears (no LCR) were splinted in the flexed position for 30 days following exposure. A total of 5 ears each were allocated to the experimental and control groups. Shape change was observed in all irradiated ears (mean 70 ± 3°), which was statistically different from control (mean 37 ± 11°, P = 0.009). No significant thermal cutaneous injury was observed, with preservation of the full thickness of skin, microvasculature, and adnexal structures. Confocal microscopy and histology demonstrated an intact and viable chondrocyte population surrounding irradiated sites. LCR with CO2 spray cooling can produce clinically significant shape change in the rabbit auricle while minimizing thermal cutaneous and cartilaginous injury and frostbite. This pilot study lends support for the potential use of CO2 spray as an adjunct to existing thermal-based cartilage reshaping modalities. An in vivo systematic evaluation of optimal laser dosimetry and cooling parameters is required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Conformal orbit sparing radiation therapy: a treatment option for advanced skin cancer of the parotid and ear region

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Heath; Hopley, Shane; Brown, Elizabeth; Bernard, Anne; Foote, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction New surgical methods have enabled resection of previously in‐operable tumours in the region of the parotid gland and ear. This has translated to deeper target volumes being treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. Due to the limitations of existing conformal techniques, alternative planning approaches are required to cover the target volume with appropriate sparing of adjacent critical structures. Although intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may be able to achieve th...

  9. How the cross-sectional discontinuity between ear canal and probe affects the ear canal length estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebian, Makram; Hensel, Johannes; Fedtke, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Many ear canal probes both deliver and measure sound via narrow tubes. This study investigates the effect of the cross-sectional discontinuity at the interface between ear canal models and the connecting tubes of a commercially available otoacoustic emission probe on the "acoustically" estimated cavity lengths. Rigid cavities having the same length but different diameters were produced, and modeled by the finite element method. Cavities with a diameter larger than 8 mm had acoustic lengths that considerably overestimated the real geometry. A length correction was derived, which, in most applications, compensates for the measurement errors emerging from the discontinuity effects.

  10. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask Your Hearing Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your ... Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your ...

  11. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the inner ear and middle ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Zhao, Pengfei; Maeda, Yukihide; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Significant expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its receptor (CD74) was observed in both the middle ear and inner ear in experimental otitis media in mice. Modulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its signaling pathway might be useful in the management of inner ear inflammation due to otitis media. Inner ear dysfunction secondary to otitis media has been reported. However, the specific mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the middle ear and inner ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media. BALB/c mice received a transtympanic injection of either lipopolysaccharide or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The mice were sacrificed 24 h after injection, and temporal bones were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, histologic examination, and immunohistochemistry. PCR examination revealed that the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice showed a significant up-regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in both the middle ear and inner ear as compared with the PBS-injected control mice. The immunohistochemical study showed positive reactions for macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in infiltrating inflammatory cells, middle ear mucosa, and inner ear in the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice.

  12. A refractory case of erythromelalgia involving the ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Claudia C; Kirsner, Robert S

    2004-01-01

    Erythromelalgia is a rare syndrome that is characterized by episodic attacks of burning pain, erythema, and increased temperature usually affecting the extremities, which is aggravated by warmth or exercise. We describe a patient with a 3-year history of refractory burning pain and red ears. A review of clinical features, disease classification, associated diseases, and treatment of this disease is presented.

  13. Middle ear adenoma. A tumor displaying mucinous and neuroendocrine differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, M; Kanavaros, P; Polivka, M; Nemeth, J; Monteil, J P; Frachet, B; Tran Ba Huy, P

    1989-10-01

    Middle ear adenoma (MEA) is a distinctive, rare entity that appears to be derived from the lining epithelium of the middle ear mucosa. We report four cases of MEA displaying the typical histologic growth pattern. Two distinct tumor cell immunophenotypes were identified in all cases; the first type exhibited positivity with anti-epithelial membrane antigen and anti-keratin antibodies, and the second type showed immunoreactivity with anti-keratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-neuron-specific enolase antibodies. Ultrastructural studies revealed bidirectional mucinous and neuroendocrine differentiation, demonstrated by the presence of two distinct cell types containing apically located mucous granules and basally concentrated neuroendocrine granules, respectively. The presence of neuroendocrine differentiation was supported by the immunohistochemical detection of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the tumor cells in one case and neuron-specific enolase in three cases. These findings suggest that the potential for mixed mucinous/neuroendocrine differentiation described in other endodermally derived tumors also exists in middle ear mucosa. We also believe that the rare lesions diagnosed as primary carcinoid tumors of the middle ear might in fact be MEA with predominant or only neuroendocrine differentiation. The clinical course of our four cases and our review of the pertinent literature confirm the benign nature of MEA and indicate that these tumors should be treated by complete local excision without additional therapy.

  14. A dog with squamous cell carcinoma in the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroto; Mayer, Monique N; Linn, Kathleen A; Dickinson, Ryan M; Carr, Anthony P

    2008-09-01

    An 8-year-old, castrated male golden retriever was referred for lethargy and inappetance. Severe pain was elicited on palpation of the left temporomandibular joint region. Computed tomography revealed aggressive bone destruction of the left bulla. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed. Malignant tumor in the canine middle ear is rare.

  15. A dog with squamous cell carcinoma in the middle ear

    OpenAIRE

    YOSHIKAWA, Hiroto; Mayer, Monique N.; Linn, Kathleen A.; Dickinson, Ryan M.; Carr, Anthony P.

    2008-01-01

    An 8-year-old, castrated male golden retriever was referred for lethargy and inappetance. Severe pain was elicited on palpation of the left temporomandibular joint region. Computed tomography revealed aggressive bone destruction of the left bulla. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed. Malignant tumor in the canine middle ear is rare.

  16. Round worm in the ear: A clinical rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Bhushan Rangappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body in otolaryngology practice is a common scenario. There have been very few documentations of a worm entering the ear through the Eustachian tube. We hereby report a very interesting such case and also discuss the possible cause postulated for such events.

  17. MicroRNAs in sensorineural diseases of the ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy eUshakov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding microRNAs have a fundamental role in gene regulation and expression in almost every multicellular organism. Only discovered in the last decade, microRNAs are already known to play a leading role in many aspects of disease. In the vertebrate inner ear, microRNAs are essential for controlling development and survival of hair cells. Moreover, dysregulation of microRNAs has been implicated in sensorineural hearing impairment, as well as in other ear diseases such as cholesteatomas, vestibular schwannomas and otitis media. Due to the inaccessibility of the ear in humans, animal models have provided the optimal tools to study microRNA expression and function, in particular mice and zebrafish. A major focus of current research has been to discover the targets of the microRNAs expressed in the inner ear, in order to determine the regulatory pathways of the auditory and vestibular systems. The potential for microRNA manipulation in development of therapeutic tools for hearing impairment is as yet unexplored, paving the way for future work in the field.

  18. Comparison of Blackbodies for Calibration of Infrared Ear Thermometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pušnik, Igor; Clausen, Sønnik; Favreau, Jacques-Olivier

    2011-01-01

    . To verify the accuracy of an IRET, a suitable blackbody (BB) is needed. Such a blackbody related to the EN standard, designed for the calibration of ear thermometers and immersed in a stirred water bath, was provided for the comparison by the pilot laboratory. The pilot provided also the transfer IRET...

  19. Protecting short-term intravascular ear catheters in healthy rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Francesca; Orchard, Rekha N; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J; Hamilton, Donald L

    2012-01-20

    Researchers may place a catheter in the ear vessel of a rabbit for a short period of time in order to collect repeated blood samples without extensive restraint of the animal. Maintaining such a catheter in a healthy rabbit can be challenging, as the animal may scratch at the ear, removing the catheter or forming a large hematoma that might impede blood sampling. The authors developed a technique for protecting the indwelling catheter by cutting a section of moleskin to the same shape as the ear and gluing it to the surface of the ear and the catheter. They applied this technique to collect multiple blood samples during 12-h periods from nine rabbits in a pharmacokinetics study. Catheters remained patent in five rabbits for 12 h, in two rabbits for 8 h, in one rabbit for 6 h and in one rabbit for 4 h. This technique allowed for collection of repeated blood samples and prevented the rabbits from interfering with the catheter while allowing them to move freely during the sampling period.

  20. Cisplatin Ototoxicity Blocks Sensory Regeneration in the Avian Inner Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Eric L.; Warchol, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that is widely-used in the treatment of solid tumors. Ototoxicity is a common side effect of cisplatin therapy, and often leads to permanent hearing loss. The sensory organs of the avian ear are able to regenerate hair cells after aminoglycoside ototoxicity. This regenerative response is mediated by supporting cells, which serve as precursors to replacement hair cells. Given the antimitotic properties of cisplatin, we examined whether the avian ear was also capable of regeneration after cisplatin ototoxicity. Using cell and organ cultures of the chick cochlea and utricle, we found that cisplatin treatment caused apoptosis of both auditory and vestibular hair cells. Hair cell death in the cochlea occurred in a unique pattern, progressing from the low frequency (distal) region toward the high frequency (proximal) region. We also found that cisplatin caused a dose-dependent reduction in the proliferation of cultured supporting cells as well as increased apoptosis in those cells. As a result, we observed no recovery of hair cells after ototoxic injury caused by cisplatin. Finally, we explored the potential for nonmitotic hair cell recovery via activation of Notch pathway signaling. Treatment with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT failed to promote the direct transdifferentiation of supporting cells into hair cells in cisplatin-treated utricles. Taken together, our data show that cisplatin treatment causes maintained changes to inner ear supporting cells and severely impairs the ability of the avian ear to regenerate either via proliferation or by direct transdifferentiation. PMID:20203207

  1. Usefulness of CT in preoperative examinations for middle ear surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Okitsu, Takuji; Sakurai, Tokio; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Taniguchi, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Kusakari, Jun

    1985-02-01

    The usefulness of CT in preoperative examinations for middle ear surgery was evaluated on the basis of whether or not it can provide a surgon with useful information not available from the other preoperative examinations, such as microscopic examination, pure tone audiometry, impedance audiometry, equilibrium tests, conventional X-ray films, etc. The findings of CT were compared with those obatained during operations and the following conclusions were reached: CT is especially useful for the three purposes indicated below. (1) to determine the patency of the attic air route to the mastoid antrum. (2) to make differential diagnoses of middle ear diseases in the presence of obstructive pathology of the external auditory meatus. (3) to make a rough estimate of the extent of cholesteatoma growth in the middle ear cleft, and to diagnose labyrinthine fistulae. CT proved less effective or useless for the following three purposes. (1) to secure detailed information on the status of the ossicular chain. (2) to determine the precise extent of the growth of cholesteatoma. (3) to evaluate the postoperative status of the ear. (author).

  2. Delayed, bilateral, non-microvascular ear replantation after violent amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Murray, E; Adán-Rivas, O; Salcido-Calzadilla, H

    2009-06-01

    Amputation of any body part is undoubtedly a traumatic experience leaving a terrible deformity, especially when the part or parts involved are visible and constitute an essential component of someone's facial whole. Bilateral ear amputation and successful subsequent replantation has been reported historically, but not in the modern surgical literature. We report the case of a 27-year-old female who was abducted and suffered a bilateral ear amputation at the hands of one of her captors to speed delivery of ransom money; the severed parts were sent to the parents approximately 2 hours after the amputation had taken place, and the girl was released some 48 hours after the ears were delivered. Microvascular replantation was attempted immediately after admission to the hospital some 2 hours after her release, but failed, and so a non-microvascular replantation was performed and was successful, after approximately 54 hours of ischaemia time. We consider this the first report of a complete bilateral, delayed, non-microvascular, successful ear replantation in a human being in the modern literature.

  3. Dumbbell-shaped neurofibroma over the external ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Shirol

    2015-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever case to be reported of a dumbbell-shaped neurofibroma over the external ear and only the fourth case of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 to be associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  4. A test of Darwin's 'lop-eared' rabbit hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, G A; Berns, C M

    2016-11-01

    Integration of evolutionary and developmental biology has stimulated novel insights on the origins and maintenance of phenotypic variation. For instance, phenotypic accommodation predicts that trait covariance originates via a novel developmental input caused by genetic change in one trait, but not the other. Darwin provided a striking example of this process in the 'lop-eared' rabbit by demonstrating that artificial selection for long external ears induced variation in the external auditory meatus. Although this intriguing pattern has been interpreted as evidence of phenotypic accommodation, it is unclear whether it exists and, if it does, whether it is selectively maintained in nature. To address this concern, we examined trait covariance in natural woodrat populations that have likely undergone selection for long ears. We demonstrated a remarkably similar covariance pattern as in the 'lop-eared' rabbit, which was associated with climatic variables along a steep arid-to-moist longitudinal gradient. Thus, our results suggest that trait covariance is likely a correlated response to selection. We relate these findings to potential origins of trait covariance owing to altered developmental interactions, such as in phenotypic accommodation. Additional evidence is needed to clarify how phenotypic accommodation and correlated selection promote and maintain trait covariance in natural populations. Nonetheless, our study is the first to support a classic Darwinian example concerning domestication and natural selection. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Statistical Surface Recovery: A Study on Ear Canals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Olesen, Oline Vinter; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    that are Procrustes aligned. The average shape and point covariances can be estimated from this set. It is shown how missing data in a new given shape can be predicted using the learned statistics. The method is evaluated on a data set of 29 scans of ear canal impressions. By using a leave-one-out approach we...

  6. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the pigeon inner ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.; Segenhout, J. M.; Wit, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional reconstructions of the inner ear of the pigeon (Columba livia domestica), from two-dimensional images, obtained with (conventional) light microscopy or orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning (OPFOS), are presented. The results are compared with available information on th

  7. Imaging evaluation of middle ear cholesteatoma: iconographic essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Ana Flavia Assis de; Aburjeli, Bruna de Oliveira Melim; Moreira, Wanderval; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira, E-mail: fauassis@hotmail.com [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is a relevant and relatively common disease that may have severe consequences. In the present pictorial essay, the authors have selected illustrative examples of multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging depicting the main presentations of cholesteatomas, and describing their characteristics, locations, and major complications. (author)

  8. Research Project on Ear Infections Dramatizes Challenge of Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Colleen

    1993-01-01

    An unusual conflict-of-interest case involving the federal government, a university researcher on ear infections, and the pharmaceutical industry has renewed the debate over what constitutes unacceptable conflict of interest, federal review of medical treatment, government protection against research bias, and disclosure of research project…

  9. Endoscopic transcanal approach to the middle ear for management of pediatric cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadersohi, Saied; Carter, John M; Hoff, Stephen R

    2017-05-23

    To describe outcomes for endoscopic ear surgery (EES) for pediatric cholesteatoma at a tertiary pediatric hospital. Retrospective case series of 65 pediatric cholesteatoma cases in 38 ears. Subgrouping based on cholesteatoma type and EES type. Surgical findings, outcomes, and demographic data were evaluated. Endoscopes were used in 65 pediatric cholesteatoma cases in 38 primary ears (34 patients), followed for an average of 2.6 years (9 months to 4.6 years). The endoscope was used as the primary visualization tool in 31 (81.6%) ears (EES 2 or 3), and as an adjunct to the microscope in seven ears (EES 1). Twenty-two (57.9%) ears and 35 (53.4%) cases were transcanal endoscopic ear surgery (EES 3 or TEES). Overall, there was recurrence in five (13.2%) ears and residual in four (10.5%) ears. Cholesteatoma was acquired in 27 ears, with average age 10.9 years; and congenital in 11 ears, with average age 3.8 years. Surgical time was longer for acquired cases (226 vs. 154 minutes). Hearing outcomes were comparable for both cholesteatoma types. Residual disease was seen in three (11.1%) acquired ears and one (9.1%) congenital ear. Overall, the lowest rates of recurrent and residual disease were seen in EES 3 cases, and relatively low rates in EES 2 and 3 ears, including four (12.9%) recurrences and two (6.5%) ears with residual disease. The endoscopes are a viable tool for resection of pediatric cholesteatoma and provide excellent visualization of the middle ear and associated recesses. 4. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Middle ear osteoma causing progressive facial nerve weakness: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kate; Bance, Manohar; Carter, Michael; Hong, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Facial nerve weakness is most commonly due to Bell’s palsy or cerebrovascular accidents. Rarely, middle ear tumor presents with facial nerve dysfunction. Case presentation We report a very unusual case of middle ear osteoma in a 49-year-old Caucasian woman causing progressive facial nerve deficit. A subtle middle ear lesion was observed on otoscopy and computed tomographic images demonstrated an osseous middle ear tumor. Complete surgical excision resulted in the partial recovery...

  11. Does improved hearing result in altered inner ear morphology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Schulz-Mirbach

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of hearing plays an important role for fishes to obtain information about their (acoustic environment (e.g. Popper 2011, Fay 2011. In numerous taxa, ancillary auditory structures like swimbladder modifications evolved, leading to an improved audition (Braun and Grande 2008. Despite a profound knowledge of inner ear diversity and ancillary auditory structures (for an overview see Schulz-Mirbach and Ladich 2015, Ladich 2015, the relationship between the morphology of these structures and hearing abilities remains to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that swimbladder modifications coincide with differences in inner ear morphology, using cichlids as a model because they show considerable intrafamilial diversity in swimbladder morphology and hearing capabilities (Schulz-Mirbach et al. 2012, 2014. We compared Steatocranus tinanti (vestigial swimbladder, Hemichromis guttatus (large swimbladder without extensions, and Etroplus maculatus (intimate connection between swimbladder and inner ears by applying immunostaining together with confocal imaging for the investigation of sensory epithelia, and high-resolution, contrast enhanced microCT imaging for characterizing inner ears in 3D. Compared to S. tinanti and H. guttatus, inner ears of E. maculatus showed an enlargement of all three maculae, and a particularly large lacinia of the macula utriculi. While our analysis of orientation patterns of ciliary bundles on the three macula types using artificially flattened maculae uncovered rather similar orientation patterns of ciliary bundles, interspecific differences became apparent when illustrating the orientation patterns on the 3D models of the maculae: differences in the shape and curvature of the lacinia of the macula utriculi, and the anterior arm of the macula lagenae resulted in an altered arrangement of ciliary bundles. Our results imply that improved hearing in E. maculatus is associated not only with swimbladder modifications but

  12. AN ANNUAL AUDIT OF THE EAR FOREIGN BODIES IN HOSPITAL UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Yaroko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies or objects in the ear are one of the most common problems encountered by otorhinolaryngologist (ORL with attendant complications, removal of which requires expertise. Patients with this problem who sought treatment in the otorhinolaryngology clinic of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM were studied for duration of one year from January 2010 to December 2010. Specifically, the clinical presentation, type of foreign body and management outcome were analysed. 72 patients were reviewed - 44 (61.1% males and 28 (38.9% females. The age range was one year to 75 years with 59.8% being children below 10 years old. Ear pain (56.9% was recorded as the most common and persistent symptom and insects (54% were the commonest foreign body encountered. 95% (69 of the foreign bodies were removed under clinic setting with only three (4.2% cases requiring general anaesthesia. Post-removal complications were noted in only one patient (1.4%. Repeated attempts by untrained personnel should be avoided and timely referral is vital to avoid undesirable complications.

  13. Protein Requirements during Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Courtney-Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein recommendations for elderly, both men and women, are based on nitrogen balance studies. They are set at 0.66 and 0.8 g/kg/day as the estimated average requirement (EAR and recommended dietary allowance (RDA, respectively, similar to young adults. This recommendation is based on single linear regression of available nitrogen balance data obtained at test protein intakes close to or below zero balance. Using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO method, we estimated the protein requirement in young adults and in both elderly men and women to be 0.9 and 1.2 g/kg/day as the EAR and RDA, respectively. This suggests that there is no difference in requirement on a gender basis or on a per kg body weight basis between younger and older adults. The requirement estimates however are ~40% higher than the current protein recommendations on a body weight basis. They are also 40% higher than our estimates in young men when calculated on the basis of fat free mass. Thus, current recommendations may need to be re-assessed. Potential rationale for this difference includes a decreased sensitivity to dietary amino acids and increased insulin resistance in the elderly compared with younger individuals.

  14. Ear surgery techniques results on hearing threshold improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Mokhtarinejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone conduction (BC threshold depression is not always by means of sensory neural hearing loss and sometimes it is an artifact caused by middle ear pathologies and ossicular chain problems. In this research, the influences of ear surgeries on bone conduction were evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial study. The ear surgery performed on 83 patients classified in four categories: Stapedectomy, tympanomastoid surgery and ossicular reconstruction partially or totally; Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (PORP and Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (TORP. Bone conduction thresholds assessed in frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz pre and post the surgery. Results: In stapedectomy group, the average of BC threshold in all frequencies improved approximately 6 dB in frequency of 2000 Hz. In tympanomastoid group, BC threshold in the frequency of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz changed 4 dB (P-value < 0.05. Moreover, In the PORP group, 5 dB enhancement was seen in 1000 and 2000 Hz. In TORP group, the results confirmed that BC threshold improved in all frequencies especially at 4000 Hz about 6.5 dB. Conclusion: In according to results of this study, BC threshold shift was seen after several ear surgeries such as stapedectomy, tympanoplasty, PORP and TORP. The average of BC improvement was approximately 5 dB. It must be considered that BC depression might happen because of ossicular chain problems. Therefore; by resolving middle ear pathologies, the better BC threshold was obtained, the less hearing problems would be faced.

  15. Poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections: any relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3-12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was determined by using Simplified Oral Hygiene Index of Greene and Vermillion. The scores of 0-1 were classified as low, and of 2-3 as high oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The low OHI-S was taken as the control group (30 patients). The high OHI-S was taken as the study group (29 patients). The effusion scores, the compliance values and the middle ear pressure values in the two groups were compared. The difference between the effusion score values of the control and study groups was found to be statistically meaningful (p = 0.338, and the χ(2) = 2.167). The compliance values of the control and study groups did not differ meaningfully statistically (p = 0.671). However, there was a statistically meaningful low middle ear pressure (p = 0.044, χ(2) = 4.069) in the control group. Since this finding is expected in the study group, instead of the control group, we did not make an issue of this result. We conclude from these clinical results that there is no statistically meaningful relation between the oral hygiene index and the middle ear.

  16. Salvage of Ear Framework Exposure in Total Auricular Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Soo; Yun, In Sik; Chung, Seum

    2017-02-01

    One of the most common complications of total auricular reconstruction is delayed wound healing, which results in skin necrosis and exposure of the ear framework. Various options exist for salvage of the exposed ear framework. From January 2009 to May 2014, 149 patients underwent total auricular reconstruction using an autogenous cartilage framework or porous polyethylene framework (Medpor; Stryker, USA). An autogenous cartilage framework was used in 48 patients, and a Medpor framework was used in 101 cases. Three cases of framework exposure (3/48, 6.3%) were observed among the patients treated with an autogenous cartilage framework. In contrast, framework exposure took place in 11 patients who were treated with a Medpor framework (11/101, 10.9%). Depending on the method of total ear reconstruction and the location of exposure, the authors used local skin flaps, temporoparietal fascia flaps, deep temporal fascia (DTF) flaps, or mastoid fascia (MF) flaps with skin grafting. Among the 11 patients who experienced framework exposure after being treated with a Medpor framework, a DTF flap with skin grafting was used in 6 patients and an MF flap with skin grafting in 6 patients; 1 patient was treated with both a DTF flap and an MF flap. All 3 cases of cartilage framework exposure were salvaged using a temporoparietal fascia flap with skin grafting, and a local skin flap was used in 1 case. In all 3 cases, the exposed framework was completely covered with the flap, and the reconstructed ears showed well-defined convolutions. Salvage of framework exposure remains a challenging issue in total auricular reconstruction. However, appropriate wound management using various flaps allows the reconstructed ear to be safely preserved.

  17. "COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH INNER EAR MALFORMATIONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Borghei S. Abdi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Performing cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformation has always been a matter of dispute. This study was designed to analyze the operative findings,complications, and postoperative performance of patients with inner ear anomalies who underwent cochlear implantation. Six patients with inner ear malformations underwent implantation in our academic tertiary referral center from 1997 to 2002. The average follow-up period was 27 months. Malformations included one incomplete partition, one common cavity, one narrow internal acoustic canal (IAC in a patient with Riley-Day syndrome and 3 cases of large vestibular aqueduct. All received multi-channel implants either Nucleus 22 or Clarion device. Facial nerve was anomalous in 2 cases. CSF gusher occurred in 4 patients, which was controlled with packing the cochleostomy site. In all cases, the full length of electrode array was inserted, except one with Mondini's dysplasia where insertion failed in the first operation and was referred to another center for a successful surgery on the opposite ear. No other surgical complications were encountered. In 4 cases, all the 22 electrodes could be activated. All patients showed improved hearing performance after implantation. Four showed open-set speech recognition. The one with narrow IAC showed improved awareness to environmental sounds. In the other case (common cavity, the perception tests could not be performed because of very young age. Cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformations is a successful way of rehabilitation, although complications should be expected and auditory responses may be highly variable and relatively moderate.

  18. The middle ear immune defense changes with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Winther, Ole; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media is a common disease in childhood. In adults, the disease is relatively rare, but more frequently associated with complications. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are age-related differences in pathogen exposure, anatomy of the Eustachian tube and immune system. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between age and the mucosal immune system in the middle ear. It is hypothesized that genes involved in the middle ear immune system will change with age. A comprehensive assessment of these genetic differences using the techniques of complementary DNA has not been performed. Complementary DNA microarray technology was used to identify immune-related genes differentially expressed between the normal middle ear mucosa of young (10 days old) and adult rats (80 days old). Data were analyzed using tools of bioinformatics. A total of 260 age-related genes were identified, of which 51 genes were involved in the middle ear mucosal immune system. Genes related to the innate immune system, including alpha-defensin, calcium-binding proteins S100A9 and S100A8, were upregulated in young rats, whereas genes related to the adaptive immune system, including CD3 molecules, zeta-chain T-cell receptor-associated protein kinase and linker of activated T-cells, were upregulated in the adult. This study concludes that the normal middle ear immune system changes with age. Genes related to the innate immune system are upregulated in young rats, whereas genes related to the adaptive immune system are upregulated in adults.

  19. A Model for the representation of Speech Signals in Normal and Impaired Ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    A model of human auditory periphery, ranging from the outer ear to the auditory nerve, was developed. The model consists of the following components: outer ear transfer function, middle ear transfer function, basilar membrane velocity, inner hair cell receptor potential, inner hair cell probabili...

  20. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  2. Testing for Gender Related Size and Shape Differences of the Human Ear canal using Statistical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    2002-01-01

    This work deals with the analysis of the shape of the human ear canal. It is described how a dense surface point distribution model of the human ear canal is built based on a training set of laser scanned ear impressions and a sparse set of anatomical landmarks placed by an expert. The dense...

  3. Building and Testing a Statistical Shape Model of the Human Ear Canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus; Laugesen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Today the design of custom in-the-ear hearing aids is based on personal experience and skills and not on a systematic description of the variation of the shape of the ear canal. In this paper it is described how a dense surface point distribution model of the human ear canal is built based on a t...

  4. Monitoring inner ear pressure changes in normal guinea pigs induced by the Meniett (R) 20

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, RA; Segenhout, JM; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    2000-01-01

    The inner ear fluid pressure of guinea pigs was measured during a series of complex escalating middle ear pressure changes induced by the Meniett(R)20 (Pascal Medical, Sweden), a possible therapeutic pressure generator to be used by patients with Meniere's disease. Middle ear pressure changes were t

  5. Monitoring inner ear pressure changes in normal guinea pigs induced by the Meniett (R) 20

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, RA; Segenhout, JM; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    2000-01-01

    The inner ear fluid pressure of guinea pigs was measured during a series of complex escalating middle ear pressure changes induced by the Meniett(R)20 (Pascal Medical, Sweden), a possible therapeutic pressure generator to be used by patients with Meniere's disease. Middle ear pressure changes were

  6. Abnormal absorption and scattering effect of human ear model for electromagnetic waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Min; PEI Changxing; LI Jiandong; MA Chen; YANG Zhen

    2005-01-01

    @@ To explore the effect of human ear outline structure for electromagnetic waves, two human ear's models, a big one (model 1) and a small one (model 2), were made in proportion as real human ears (Fig. 1). The installation picture is shown in Fig. 2, and its geometry structure and size are shown in Figs. 3 and 4, respectively.

  7. 32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE... DISCLOSURE § 250.7 Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD personnel in determining the...

  8. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  9. Modeling of the incudo-malleolar joint within a biomechanical model of the human ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihrle, Sebastian; Eiber, Albrecht; Eberhard, Peter, E-mail: peter.eberhard@itm.uni-stuttgart.de [University of Stuttgart, Institute of Engineering and Computational Mechanics (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Under large quasi-static loads, the incudo-malleolar joint (IM joint), connecting the malleus and the incus, is highly mobile. It can be classified as a mechanical filter decoupling large quasi-static motions while transferring small dynamic excitations. To investigate the influence of the behavior of the IM joint, a detailed simulation model of the IM-complex is created. Mathematical modeling of the IM joint behavior under quasi-static excitation requires adequate modeling of the mechanics of the diarthrodial joint. Therefore, the geometry of the articular surfaces, the ligaments, as well as their viscoelastic properties have to be included in the model. The contact of the articular surfaces is implemented using a penalty based contact formulation utilizing the geometric information obtained from micro computer tomography (micro-CT) scans. The ligaments of the joint capsule are modeled by distributing force elements along the joint capsule, with the position and orientation derived from the micro-CT scans. It is shown that the effects which were observed in measurements on human temporal bones are described adequately by the model, if the contact of the articular surfaces and the preload of the viscoelastic fibers are taken into account in the simulation model. In the following, the detailed model is implemented in an elastic multibody system of the entire ear. The model allows the study of different quasi-static load cases of the ossicles, such as it occurs in the reconstruction of the middle ear and form the basis for future simulative studies of sound transmission in natural or reconstructed ears.

  10. Sulfur mustard induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Svoboda, Kathy K. [Texas A and M University, Baylor College of Dentistry, Center for Craniofacial Research 3302 Gaston Ave, Dallas, Texas 75246 (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, 425 Volker Boulevard, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gordon, Marion K. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a cell survival pathway upregulated when cells are under severe stress. Severely damaged mouse ear skin exposed to the vesicant, sulfur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, SM), resulted in increased expression of ER chaperone proteins that accompany misfolded and incorrectly made proteins targeted for degradation. Time course studies with SM using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) showed progressive histopathologic changes including edema, separation of the epidermis from the dermis, persistent inflammation, upregulation of laminin γ2 (one of the chains of laminin-332, a heterotrimeric skin glycoprotein required for wound repair), and delayed wound healing from 24 h to 168 h post exposure. This was associated with time related increased expression of the cell survival ER stress marker, GRP78/BiP, and the ER stress apoptosis marker, GADD153/CHOP, suggesting simultaneous activation of both cell survival and non-mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Dual immunofluorescence labeling of a keratinocyte migration promoting protein, laminin γ2 and GRP78/BIP, showed colocalization of the two molecules 72 h post exposure indicating that the laminin γ2 was misfolded after SM exposure and trapped within the ER. Taken together, these data show that ER stress is induced in mouse skin within 24 h of vesicant exposure in a defensive response to promote cell survival; however, it appears that this response is rapidly overwhelmed by the apoptotic pathway as a consequence of severe SM-induced injury. - Highlights: ► We demonstrated ER stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model. ► We described the asymmetrical nature of wound repair in the MEVM. ► We identified the distribution of various ER stress markers in the MEVM.

  11. Evidence for a Right-Ear Advantage in Newborn Hearing Screening Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari-Even Roth, Daphne; Hildesheimer, Minka; Roziner, Ilan; Henkin, Yael

    2016-12-06

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ear asymmetry, order of testing, and gender on transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) pass rates and response levels in newborn hearing screening. The screening results of 879 newborns, of whom 387 (study group) passed screening successfully in only one ear in the first TEOAE screening, but passed screening successfully in both ears thereafter, and 492 (control group) who passed screening successfully in both ears in the first TEOAE, were retrospectively examined for pass rates and TEOAE characteristics. Results indicated a right-ear advantage, as manifested by significantly higher pass rates in the right ear (61% and 39% for right and left ears, respectively) in the study group, and in 1.75 dB greater TEOAE response amplitudes in the control group. The right-ear advantage was enhanced when the first tested ear was the right ear (76%). When the left ear was tested first, pass rates were comparable in both ears. The right-ear advantage in pass rates was similar in females versus males, but manifested in 1.5 dB higher response amplitudes in females compared with males, regardless of the tested ear and order of testing in both study and control groups. The study provides further evidence for the functional lateralization of the auditory system at the cochlear level already apparent soon after birth in both males and females. While order of testing plays a significant role in the asymmetry in pass rates, the innate right-ear advantage seems to be a more dominant contributor. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Imaging Finding of Malignant Melanoma of Eustachian Tube with Extension to Middle Ear Cavity: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Km Hong Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Han Won [Daekyung Radiologic Clinics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hui Joong [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    We report a case of malignant melanoma of Eustachian tube with extension to the middle ear cavity and nasopharynx in a 51-year-old woman who presented with right ear fullness. Computed tomography showed a soft tissue mass in the middle ear cavity and caused the widening and eroding of the bony eustachian tube. Magnetic resonance imaging showed well enhancing mass in eustachian tube extending nasopharynx to middle ear cavity. A biopsy of the middle ear cavity mass revealed a malignant amelanotic melanoma.

  13. Imaging Finding of Malignant Melanoma of Eustachian Tube with Extension to Middle Ear Cavity: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Chul; Jang, Han Won

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of malignant melanoma of Eustachian tube with extension to the middle ear cavity and nasopharynx in a 51-year-old woman who presented with right ear fullness. Computed tomography showed a soft tissue mass in the middle ear cavity and causedthe widening and eroding of the bony eustachian tube. Magnetic resonance imaging showed well enhancing mass in eustachian tube extending nasopharynx to middle ear cavity. A biopsy of the middle ear cavity mass revealed a malignant amelanotic melanoma. PMID:23118582

  14. Dexmedetomidine infusion during middle ear surgery under general anaesthesia to provide oligaemic surgical field: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Middle ear surgery requires bloodless surgical field for better operating conditions, deep level of anaesthesia and rapid emergence. Recent studies suggest that α2 agonists could provide desired surgical field, sedation and analgesia. The present study was aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of dexmedetomidine infusion as anaesthetic adjuvant during middle ear surgery using operating microscope. Methods: Sixty four adult patients aged 18-58 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists Grades I and II, of both gender were randomised into two comparable equal groups of 32 patients each for middle ear surgery under general anaesthesia with standard anaesthetic technique. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients of Group I were given dexmedetomidine infusion of 0.5 μg/kg/h and patients of Group II were given placebo infusion of normal saline. Isoflurane concentration was titrated to achieve a systolic blood pressure 30% below the baseline value. All patients were assessed intra-operatively for bleeding at surgical field, haemodynamic changes, awakening time and post-operative recovery. Results: Statistically significant reduction was observed in the required percentage of isoflurane (0.8 ± 0.6% to maintain the systolic blood pressure 30% below the baseline values in patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion when compared to those receiving placebo infusion (1.6 ± 0.7%. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion had statistically significant lesser bleeding at surgical field (P < 0.05. The mean awakening time and recovery from anaesthesia did not show any significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine infusion can be safely used to provide oligaemic surgical field for better visualization using operating microscope for middle ear surgery.

  15. High Intensity Pressure Noise Transmission in Human Ear: A Three Dimensional Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawa, Takumi; Gan, Rong; Leckness, Kegan

    2015-03-01

    High intensity pressure noise generated by explosions and jet engines causes auditory damage and hearing loss of the military service personals, which are the most common disabilities in the veterans. Authors have investigated the high intensity pressure noise transmission from the ear canal to middle ear cavity. A fluid-structure interaction with a viscoelastic model for the tympanic membrane (TM) as well as the ossicular chain has been considered in the study. For the high intensity pressure simulation the geometry of the ear was based on a 3D finite element (FE) model of the human ear reported by Gan et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 2004). The model consists of the ear canal, TM, ossicular chain, and the middle ear cavity. The numerical approach includes two steps: 1) FE based finite-volume method simulation to compute pressure distributions in the ear canal and the middle ear cavity using CFX; and 2) FE modeling of TM and middle ear ossicles in response to high intensity sound using multi-physics analysis in ANSYS. The simulations provide the displacement of the TM/ossicular chain and the pressure fields in the ear canal and the middle ear cavity. These results are compared with human temporal bone experimental data obtained in our group. This work was supported by DOD W81XWH-14-1-0228.

  16. The relationship between auditory sensitivity and ear asymmetry on a dichotic listening task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, D S; Harris, J; Brown, W S; Springer, S P

    1988-01-01

    Using an adaptive forced-choice procedure, the average absolute sensitivity of the right ears of a group of right-handed males was found to be slightly greater than that of their left ears. There was no ear difference in performance on a monaural syllable-identification task using easily detectable stimuli, however. The magnitude of the ear difference in absolute sensitivity was significantly correlated with performance on a dichotic-listening task. In a second experiment, the adaptive forced-choice procedure was used to assess differences in absolute sensitivity in a group of left-handed males. The right ears of those left-handers showing a right-ear advantage on the dichotic-listening task were slightly more sensitive than their left ears. The left ears of those left-handers showing a dichotic left-ear advantage were slightly, but not significantly, more sensitive than their right ears. The correlation of the ear differences in absolute sensitivity with performance on the dichotic-listening task for the left-handers was not significantly different from zero. Results of both experiments are discussed in terms of their implications for the nature of hemispheric asymmetry of function, and the interpretation of dichotic and monaural asymmetries.

  17. Influence of middle ear mucosal condition on post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chan Il; Hong, Hye Ran; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the association between the middle ear mucosal condition and post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcome was investigated in patients with chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma. One hundred and forty-three patients with chronic otitis media were collected in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at Asan Medical Center between January, 2009 and December, 2011. In the course of tympanoplasty, the status of the middle ear mucosa was divided into normal or abnormal by one surgeon. Pure tone audiometry was performed preoperatively and postoperatively, and post-tympanoplasty tympanogram was also conducted to estimate the condition of middle ear cavity. Of the 143 patients, there were 73 patients with normal middle ear mucosa and 70 patients with abnormal middle ear mucosa around Eustachian tube opening. The mean ABG of subjects with normal middle ear mucosa was 20.1 dB preoperatively, and 9.7 dB postoperatively (p ear mucosa group (p = 0.137). Postoperative ABGs for 500 and 1000 Hz (7.1, 7.7 dB) in normal middle ear mucosa patients were significantly lower than those (17.2, 19.4 dB) in abnormal middle ear mucosa patients (p ear mucosa status and post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcomes. The better condition of middle ear ventilation, the better postoperative hearing thresholds revealed after tympanoplasty.

  18. Modeling Analysis of Biomechanical Changes of Middle Ear and Cochlea in Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Rong Z.; Zhang, Xiangming; Guan, Xiying

    2011-11-01

    A comprehensive finite element (FE) model of the human ear including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was developed using histological sections of human temporal bone. The cochlea was modeled with three chambers separated by the basilar membrane and Reissner's membrane and filled with perilymphatic fluid. The viscoelastic material behavior was applied to middle ear soft tissues based on dynamic measurements of tissues in our lab. The model was validated using the experimental data obtained in human temporal bones and then used to simulate various stages of otitis media (OM) including the changes of morphology, mechanical properties, pressure, and fluid level in the middle ear. Function alterations of the middle ear and cochlea in OM were derived from the model and compared with the measurements from temporal bones. This study indicates that OM can be simulated in the FE model to predict the hearing loss induced by biomechanical changes of the middle ear and cochlea.

  19. SIFT-based Ear Recognition by Fusion of Detected Keypoints from Color Similarity Slice Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Gupta, Phalguni; Sing, Jamuna Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Ear biometric is considered as one of the most reliable and invariant biometrics characteristics in line with iris and fingerprint characteristics. In many cases, ear biometrics can be compared with face biometrics regarding many physiological and texture characteristics. In this paper, a robust and efficient ear recognition system is presented, which uses Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) as feature descriptor for structural representation of ear images. In order to make it more robust to user authentication, only the regions having color probabilities in a certain ranges are considered for invariant SIFT feature extraction, where the K-L divergence is used for keeping color consistency. Ear skin color model is formed by Gaussian mixture model and clustering the ear color pattern using vector quantization. Finally, K-L divergence is applied to the GMM framework for recording the color similarity in the specified ranges by comparing color similarity between a pair of reference model and probe ear image...

  20. Do helmets worn for hurling fail to protect the ear? Identification of an emerging injury pattern.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin-Smith, James D

    2012-12-01

    Hurling is an Irish national game of stick and ball known for its ferocity, played by 190 000 players. Facial injuries were common but have been significantly reduced by legislation enforcing compulsory helmet wearing. Current standard helmets worn by hurlers do not offer protection to the external ear. Here we describe an emerging pattern of ear injuries and demonstrate the risk of external ear injuries in hurlers complying with current helmet safety standards. A 6-month retrospective analysis was carried out of patients attending Cork University Hospital (CUH) with ear lacerations sustained while hurling. Patient notes were reviewed and helmet manufacturers were interviewed. Seven patients were identified, all of whom sustained complex through ear lacerations while wearing helmets complying with current safety standards. Current helmet design fails to protect the external ear placing it at an increased risk of injury, a potential solution is to include ear protection in the helmet design.

  1. Short communication: QTL mapping for ear tip-barrenness in maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, J.; Ma, J.; Chen, J.; Ai, T.; Li, Z.; Tian, Z.; Wu, S.; Chen, W.; Wu, J.

    2016-11-01

    Barren tip on corn ear is an important agronomic trait in maize, which is highly associated with grain yield. Understanding the genetic basis of tip-barrenness may help to reduce the ear tip-barrenness in breeding programs. In this study, ear tip-barrenness was evaluated in two environments in a F2:3 population, and it showed significant genotypic variation for ear tip-barrenness in both environments. Using mixed-model composite interval mapping method, three additive effects quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ear tip-barrenness were mapped on chromosomes 2, 3 and 6, respectively. They explained 16.6% of the phenotypic variation, and no significant QTL × Environment interactions and digenic interactions were detected. The results indicated that additive effect was the main genetic basis for ear tip-barrenness in maize. This is the first report of QTL mapped for ear tip-barrenness in maize. (Author)

  2. Inner ear barriers to nanomedicine-augmented drug delivery and imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are several challenges to inner ear drug delivery and imaging due to the existence of tight biological barriers to the target structure and the dense bone surrounding it. Advances in imaging and nanomedicine may provide knowledge for overcoming the existing limitations to both the diagnosis and treatment of inner ear diseases. Novel techniques have improved the efficacy of drug delivery and targeting to the inner ear, as well as the quality and accuracy of imaging this structure. In this review, we will describe the pathways and biological barriers of the inner ear regarding drug delivery, the beneficial applications and limitations of the imaging techniques available for inner ear research, the behavior of engineered nanomaterials in inner ear applications, and future perspectives for nanomedicine-based inner ear imaging.

  3. A COMPARISON OF POSTOPERATIVE HEARING GAIN IN DRY AND WET EAR TYMPANOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To compare hearing gain in dry and wet tympanoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 ears were included in the study. Two groups were created with 50 ears in each group. All patients had mucosal chronic otitis media. One group had dry ear, another had wet ear at the time of surgery. Type 1 tympanoplasty was done in all the cases by a single surgeon. Hearing gain was calculated 3 months after surgery for both groups and compared. RESULTS Hearing improvement seen in 35 (70% cases in dry ear group and 38 (76% cases in wet ear group. Statistically, both comparisons were insignificant. CONCLUSION The success of tympanoplasty was not adversely affected by the presence of discharge at time of surgery and outcomes were comparable to those of the operation done for dry ear.

  4. Measurements of normal inner ear on computed tomography in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ming-Ying; Shiao, Jiun-Yih; Ho, Ching-Yin; Hung, Hao-Chun

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study is to use standardized measurements of the inner ear to see whether there are subtle bony malformations in children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) whose temporal bone computed tomography (CT) are grossly normal. The study includes 45 ears with congenital SNHL and grossly normal temporal bone CT scans and 45 ears with normal inner ear structures and normal hearing. Standardized measurements of the inner ear structures were made on axial temporal bone CT scans. Student's t test was performed to compare the measurements of the two groups. There were significant differences in the measurements of the bony island width of the superior semicircular canal, bony island width of the lateral semicircular canal and maximal height of cochlea between two groups (P inner ear on temporal bone CT can identify subtle abnormalities of inner ear in patients with congenital SNHL having grossly normal radiological images.

  5. Inflammatory responses to Hydroxyapatite implants in middle ear in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; JIANG Yi; WANG Xiao-yan; ZHENG Ke-fei

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study local inflammatory response after implantation of hydroxyapatite synthetic ossicular prosthesis. Methods Hydroxyapatite gantries were implanted in the bulla in 32 rats. Sham surgical procedures were performed in 10 rats as the control. Animals were sacrificed at 1 to 300 days after surgery. Bulla sections, stained with HE and Mallory's azan, were examined for numbers and percentages of various inflammatory cell types. Results Slightly more inflammatory reaction was seen in animals with the implant than in the controls, mostly during the early stage following the implantation procedure. Few inflammatory cells were observed at later times. There were satisfactory fibrosis in both implanted and control ears. Conclusion The results indicate that hydroxyapatite synthetic prosthesis is a biocompatible implantation material in the middle ear. Nonetheless, the presence of inflammatory reaction immediately following implantation implies that control of infection is important in the early times after the implantation procedure.

  6. Congenital cholesteatoma of the middle ear - uncommon clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukurov Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Congenital cholesteatoma of the middle ear is un uncommon and yet not well-defined disease. Only few cases of cholesteatoma in the fossa ovalis with unusual clinical presentation have been reported in medical literature. Case report. We reported a 16-year-old girl with congenital cholesteatoma in the fossa ovalis with minimal clinical presentation. A small mass was found occluding the fossa ovalis and mimicking otosclerotic process within tympanic cavity. The operation started as stapedotomy, and when the process was confirmed it converted to mastoidectomy via the retroauricular approach. Conclusion. The diagnosis of congenital cholesteatoma in children should always be considered, even if the clinical symptoms imitate other ear disorders, in our case otosclerosis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179055: Cochlear implantation impact on education of deaf and hearing-impaired

  7. Tick in the outer ear canal: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özalkan Özkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serious systemic diseases such as Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Lyme Disease, tularemia, typhus and Q fever can be transmitted by ticks. An 8-year-old boy and a 34-year-old woman were brought to our clinic with ear pains. No symptoms such as fever, headache or lethargy to suggest CCHF were present. The patients both lived in rural areas and were engaged in farming. Full blood count, liver and kidney function tests and serum electrolytes were within normal limits at laboratory tests. Prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time and INR were normal. The tick was grasped with alligator forceps and removed from the outer ear in one piece with the help of 0-degree rigid otoendoscopy.

  8. Tick in the outer ear canal:Two case reports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    zalkanzkan; Fatih Bingl; Ali Budak

    2013-01-01

    Serious systemic diseases such asCrimeanCongoHemorrhagicFever,LymeDisease, tularemia, typhus andQ fever can be transmitted by ticks.An8-year-old boy and a34-year-old woman were brought to our clinic with ear pains.No symptoms such as fever, headache or lethargy to suggestCCHF were present.The patients both lived in rural areas and were engaged in farming. Full blood count, liver and kidney function tests and serum electrolytes were within normal limits at laboratory tests.Prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time andINR were normal.The tick was grasped with alligator forceps and removed from the outer ear in one piece with the help of 0-degree rigid otoendoscopy.

  9. New onset of idiopathic bilateral ear tics in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Shrestha, Rabin

    2009-04-01

    Tic disorders are commonly considered to be childhood syndromes. Newly presenting tic disorders during adulthood are uncommon and mostly described in relation to an acquired brain lesion or as incidental tics, particularly in context with other neurological or psychiatric diseases. Tic disorder involving the ears is extremely uncommon with only few studies in English literature. In the present case, we describe an adult patient with new-onset idiopathic tics disorder involving both ears, causing social embarrassment. In addition, our patient had recent onset of the tics without any childhood or family history of tic disorders. The single most important component of management is an accurate diagnosis. At the same time, tics should be differentiated from other movement disorders such as chorea, stereotypy, and dystonias.

  10. Rheologic studies on middle ear effusions and their mucus glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, J E; Green, G G; Birchall, J P; Pearson, J P

    1989-04-01

    The properties of pooled thick and thin middle ear effusions, from children with otitis media with effusion, were studied by viscometry. Mucus glycoproteins were responsible for effusion viscosity. Their percentage by weight in thick and thin effusions was 25% and 8.2%, respectively. N-acetylcysteine and 0.2 mol/L of mercaptoethanol caused a 39% viscosity drop in a 5-mg/mL glycoprotein solution, whereas S-carboxymethylcysteine had no effect. Treatment of thick effusions with 0.2 mol/L of mercaptoethanol initially caused a viscosity decrease followed by a gradual increase. Higher reducing agent concentrations (0.5 mol/L) caused a more rapid decrease followed by a rapid increase, presumably by causing nonspecific aggregation of reduced protein molecules. These results suggest that the concentration of and the time that a mucolytic is in the middle ear would be of prime importance in achieving the desired decrease in viscosity.

  11. The middle ear immune defense changes with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    , of which 51 genes were involved in the middle ear mucosal immune system. Genes related to the innate immune system, including alpha-defensin, calcium-binding proteins S100A9 and S100A8, were upregulated in young rats, whereas genes related to the adaptive immune system, including CD3 molecules, zeta......-chain T-cell receptor-associated protein kinase and linker of activated T-cells, were upregulated in the adult. This study concludes that the normal middle ear immune system changes with age. Genes related to the innate immune system are upregulated in young rats, whereas genes related to the adaptive......Otitis media is a common disease in childhood. In adults, the disease is relatively rare, but more frequently associated with complications. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are age-related differences in pathogen exposure, anatomy of the Eustachian tube and immune system. The objective...

  12. Evaluation of embryological sequences of ear anomalies and its radiological relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Amarnath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To correlate the sequence of embryological development of ear with radiological imaging. Materials and Methods: The study enrolled 23 patients of age group 11 months to 27 years with malformed external ear/microtia and hearing loss. The children with postoperative changes, acute hearing loss (such as infection, trauma were excluded from the study. We used high-resolution computed tomography, with axial and coronal sections to examine the temporal bones of patients. Results: Of the 23 cases, 12 cases had external ear anomaly and 11 cases had cochlear anomaly. In patients with the external ear anomaly, seven cases had associated middle ear malformations, one patient had associated middle and inner ear anomaly, one had anomalous course of facial nerve, and three cases had isolated external ear anomalies. In patients with inner ear anomalies, one patient had complete labyrinthine aplasia, one had cochlear dysplasia with incomplete cochlear turns, four had common cavity malformations, one had cystic featureless cochlea with dilated and cystic vestibule, two patients had small cochlea with the middle and apical turns coalescing to form a cystic apex, one patient had small rudimentary cochlea, and the other one had dilated vestibule and enlarged endolymphatic duct and sac with cochlear dysmorphism. Conclusion: Most of the children with malformed pinna had external auditory canal atresia with associated middle ear anomalies. Though the inner ear development is independent of external and middle ear development, we insist on the fact that insult during the 1 st month of embryogenesis can result in associated abnormalities involving external, middle, and inner ear. Developmental arrest at various stages of inner ear development results in various types of cochlear anomalies with associated vestibular, semicircular canal abnormalities, and rarely associated with middle and external ear anomalies. Hence, clear knowledge about embryology will help to

  13. Ear wound regeneration in the African spiny mouse Acomys cahirinus

    OpenAIRE

    Matias Santos, Dino; Rita, Ana Martins; Casanellas, Ignasi; Brito Ova, Adélia; Araújo, Inês Maria; Power, Deborah; Tiscornia, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract While regeneration occurs in a number of taxonomic groups across the Metazoa, there are very few reports of regeneration in mammals, which generally respond to wounding with fibrotic scarring rather than regeneration. A recent report described skin shedding, skin regeneration and extensive ear punch closure in two rodent species, Acomys kempi and Acomys percivali. We examined these striking results by testing the capacity for regeneration of a third species, Acomys cahirinus, and fou...

  14. Ear Acupuncture for Acute Sore Throat: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ear acupuncture for acute sore throat. A randomized controlled trial...Auncular Acupuncture is a low risk option for acute pain control •Battlefield acupuncture (BFA) IS a specific auncular acupuncture technique •BFA IS...Strengths: Prospect1ve RCT •Weaknesses Small sample stze. no sham acupuncture performed, patients not blinded to treatment •Th1s study represents an

  15. [Vertigo induced by noise or pressure to the left ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, D U; Dülks, A; Remmert, S

    2011-06-01

    A 49-year-old male patient presented with recently acquired vertigo induced by noise or pressure to the left ear. With appropriate stimulation, oscillopsia with a rotatory component could be reproduced in videooculography. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) showed increased amplitudes and a lowered threshold on the left side. CT of the petrous bone showed a bony dehiscence of the left superior semicircular canal. Conservative therapy was initiated as a first step.

  16. "Petrified ears" with idiopathic adult-onset pituitary insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal Gogate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available "Petrified ears" or calcification of auricular cartilage is an uncommonly reported condition. The most common causes of this phenomenon are local trauma, frost bite, and inflammation. Adrenal insufficiency is the most frequent systemic disease associated with auricular calcification. We present a case of idiopathic adult-onset pituitary insufficiency with hypocortisolism and bilateral auricular calcification. Recognition of the association between auricular calcification and adrenal insufficiency can be an important step toward the identification of a life-threatening cortisol deficiency.

  17. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear molds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days) performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localization, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear molds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualized spectral cues. The work with ear molds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving audio-motor feedback (5-10 days) significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide spatial cues but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis.

  18. Ear trauma caused by a yucca plant leaf spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi, Yoav P; Wolf, Michael; Migirov, Lela; Kronenberg, Jona

    2009-06-01

    Three uncommon cases of ear trauma caused by a yucca plant leaf spine are presented. One patient presented with tympanic perforation and the second with mixed hearing loss after spontaneous closure. The third patient probably had a perilymphatic fistula with subsequent labyrinthitis and hearing loss. Although the yucca is a ubiquitous plant, to the best of our knowledge, such incidents have not been previously reported.

  19. Asymptomatic mucormycosis of middle ear: An incidental finding during tympanoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Biniyam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a fungal infection, commonly affecting the paranasal sinuses. An aggressive invasive form of infection is common in people with uncontrolled diabetes and in immunocompromised people. Mucormycosis affecting temporal bone is a rare entity, most of the reported cases are of invasive disease in diabetic people. We report a case of mucormycosis of middle ear cavity which was found incidentally in a healthy nondiabetic woman while performing revision tympanoplasty for chronic suppurative otitis media.

  20. Middle ear microsurgery in india: a retrospective audit study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Mangal; Rai, Ashutosh; Bandyopadhyay, Sarmishtha

    2006-01-01

    Around 2000 ENT Surgeons perform about 120000 middle ear microsurgery operations annually in India while the burden of otitis media is 50 million cases. A comprehensive questionnaire consisting of personal details of surgeons, his infrastructure, results, and complications was sent to 2000 ENT Surgeons from the latest AOI Directory. 400 Surgeons responded back from all over the country and the data collected was fed into a computer program and was analysed. Most of the responses were from wes...

  1. Revision Stapedectomy in a Female Patient with Inner Ear Malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Tirth R.; Moberly, Aaron C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We describe an unusual case of surgical management of congenital mixed hearing loss in a female patient with inner ear malformation. This report outlines the role of temporal bone imaging and previous surgical history in evaluating a patient’s risk of perilymph gusher during stapes surgery. Methods. A 68-year-old female patient with a history of profound bilateral mixed hearing loss due to ossicular and cochlear malformation presented to our otology clinic. She had undergone multi...

  2. Prevalence of inner ear anomalies among cochlear implant candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Aldhafeeri, Ahmad M.; Alsanosi, Abdulrahman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of inner ear anomalies and the frequency of different anomaly types among cochlear implant recipients. Methods: This study included a retrospective chart review of all patients who received cochlear implants between January 2009 and January 2013 in King Abdulaziz University Hospital cochlear implant program in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All subjects underwent thin-cut CT of the temporal bone and MRI. The collected data included age, gender, and CT and MRI fi...

  3. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eCarlile

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear moulds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localisation, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear moulds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualised spectral cues. The work with ear moulds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving sensory-motor feedback (5 – 10 days significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide a spatial code but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis.

  4. Hair cell bundles: flexoelectric motors of the inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn D Breneman

    Full Text Available Microvilli (stereocilia projecting from the apex of hair cells in the inner ear are actively motile structures that feed energy into the vibration of the inner ear and enhance sensitivity to sound. The biophysical mechanism underlying the hair bundle motor is unknown. In this study, we examined a membrane flexoelectric origin for active movements in stereocilia and conclude that it is likely to be an important contributor to mechanical power output by hair bundles. We formulated a realistic biophysical model of stereocilia incorporating stereocilia dimensions, the known flexoelectric coefficient of lipid membranes, mechanical compliance, and fluid drag. Electrical power enters the stereocilia through displacement sensitive ion channels and, due to the small diameter of stereocilia, is converted to useful mechanical power output by flexoelectricity. This motor augments molecular motors associated with the mechanosensitive apparatus itself that have been described previously. The model reveals stereocilia to be highly efficient and fast flexoelectric motors that capture the energy in the extracellular electro-chemical potential of the inner ear to generate mechanical power output. The power analysis provides an explanation for the correlation between stereocilia height and the tonotopic organization of hearing organs. Further, results suggest that flexoelectricity may be essential to the exquisite sensitivity and frequency selectivity of non-mammalian hearing organs at high auditory frequencies, and may contribute to the "cochlear amplifier" in mammals.

  5. Inner ear of the coelacanth fish Latimeria has tetrapod affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, B

    Auditory reception in elasmobranchs, teleosts and amphibians may be mediated by various inner-ear sensory epithelia 1–3, including the basilar papilla, which seems to be the precursor of the cochlea in mammals. The origin of the basilar papilla remains a major unsolved problem for understanding the evolution of hearing in terrestrial vertebrates4–6. Study of living species indicates that the basilar papilla is a unique feature of tetrapods 6,7, but palaeonto-logical data indicate that this epithelium as well as a middle ear, is already present in crossopterygian fish 8–10. However, no basilar papilla has been found in the only living crossopterygian species, the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae 11. I have re-examined the inner ear of adult and embryonic Latimeria and find a membranous specialization which resembles in structure, position and innerva-tion pattern the basilar papilla of tetrapods, in particular amniotes. No epithelium comparable to the basilar papilla was found in lungfish. I suggest that the basilar papillae of Latimeria and tetrapods are homologous and evolved only once in their common ancestor.

  6. Effects of motherwort alkaloids on rat ear acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Mingsan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the effects of motherwort alkaloids on rat ear acne. The rats that were administered high, medium, and low doses of motherwort alkaloids, tanshinone capsules, a model and a control group. Each group of rats was subjected to gavage once daily for 14 consecutive days. On the first day of testing, the control and model groups were administered an intradermal auricle injection of sterilized saline solution and the remaining groups were administered an intradermal auricle injection of Staphylococcus epidermidis in addition to the gavage. The thicknesses of the rats’ auricles were measured for five consecutive days following the injections. Anticoagulated blood was used for erythrocyte rheology index measurement. In addition, the entire ear of each rat was removed for morphological examination. Compared to the model group, the group administered motherwort alkaloids exhibited significantly reduced swelling, improved localized auricle proliferation, and reduced blood viscosity. This result suggests motherwort alkaloids are effective in rat ear acne.

  7. A simple method of applying ear dressing in microtia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Puri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous splints and ear guards have been described for dressing in microtia patients but each has its own merit and demerit. We have devised a simple method of applying such dressings on the operating table. Materials and Methods: A rectangular piece of lubricated dressing material like paraffin gauze or antibiotic impregnated dressing is cut. The dressing material is than split partially into one thirds in a staggered manner. The dressing material is then applied to the retroauricular sulcus. The fans of the dressing material are then turned onto themselves over the projecting ear which makes the dressing stable in its position. Results: The authors have been regularly using this dressing for reconstruction in all cases of microtia. The dressing stays firmly in place in the peri-operative period and is subsequently replaced by stents. Conclusion: It is a low cost, readily available, simple, fast and effective method of ear dressing in the peri-operative period for microtia cases.

  8. Shaping magnetic fields to direct therapy to ears and eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B; Kulkarni, S; Nacev, A; Sarwar, A; Preciado, D; Depireux, D A

    2014-07-11

    Magnetic fields have the potential to noninvasively direct and focus therapy to disease targets. External magnets can apply forces on drug-coated magnetic nanoparticles, or on living cells that contain particles, and can be used to manipulate them in vivo. Significant progress has been made in developing and testing safe and therapeutic magnetic constructs that can be manipulated by magnetic fields. However, we do not yet have the magnet systems that can then direct those constructs to the right places, in vivo, over human patient distances. We do not yet know where to put the external magnets, how to shape them, or when to turn them on and off to direct particles or magnetized cells-in blood, through tissue, and across barriers-to disease locations. In this article, we consider ear and eye disease targets. Ear and eye targets are too deep and complex to be targeted by a single external magnet, but they are shallow enough that a combination of magnets may be able to direct therapy to them. We focus on how magnetic fields should be shaped (in space and time) to direct magnetic constructs to ear and eye targets.

  9. Age effects in the human middle ear: Wideband acoustical measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, M. Patrick; Sanford, Chris A.

    2004-12-01

    Studies that have examined age effects in the human middle ear using either admittance measures at 220 or 660 Hz or multifrequency tympanometry from 200 to 2000 Hz have had conflicting results. Several studies have suggested an increase in admittance with age, while several others have suggested a decrease in admittance with age. A third group of studies found no significant age effect. This study examined 226 Hz tympanometry and wideband energy reflectance and impedance at ambient pressure in a group of 40 young adults and a group of 30 adults with age >=60 years. The groups did not differ in admittance measures of the middle ear at 226 Hz. However, significant age effects were found in wideband energy reflectance and impedance. In particular, in older adults there was a comparative decrease in reflectance from 800 to 2000 Hz but an increase near 4000 Hz. The results suggest a decrease in middle-ear stiffness with age. The findings of this study hold relevance for understanding the aging process in the auditory system, for the establishment of normative data for wideband energy reflectance, for the possibility of a conductive component to presbycusis, and for the interpretation of otoacoustic emission measurements. .

  10. Ear wound regeneration in the African spiny mouse Acomys cahirinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias Santos, Dino; Rita, Ana Martins; Casanellas, Ignasi; Brito Ova, Adélia; Araújo, Inês Maria; Power, Deborah; Tiscornia, Gustavo

    2016-02-01

    While regeneration occurs in a number of taxonomic groups across the Metazoa, there are very few reports of regeneration in mammals, which generally respond to wounding with fibrotic scarring rather than regeneration. A recent report described skin shedding, skin regeneration and extensive ear punch closure in two rodent species, Acomys kempi and Acomys percivali. We examined these striking results by testing the capacity for regeneration of a third species, Acomys cahirinus, and found a remarkable capacity to repair full thickness circular punches in the ear pinna. Four-millimeter-diameter wounds closed completely in 2 months in 100% of ear punches tested. Histology showed extensive formation of elastic cartilage, adipose tissue, dermis, epidermis and abundant hair follicles in the repaired region. Furthermore, we demonstrated abundant angiogenesis and unequivocal presence of both muscle and nerve fibers in the reconstituted region; in contrast, similar wounds in C57BL/6 mice simply healed the borders of the cut by fibrotic scarring. Our results confirm the regenerative capabilities of Acomys, and suggest this model merits further attention.

  11. Design of a dynamic sensor inspired by bat ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rolf; Pannala, Mittu; Reddy, O. Praveen K.; Meymand, Sajjad Z.

    2012-09-01

    In bats, the outer ear shapes act as beamforming baffles that create a spatial sensitivity pattern for the reception of the biosonar signals. Whereas technical receivers for wave-based signals usually have rigid geometries, the outer ears of some bat species, such as horseshoe bats, can undergo non-rigid deformations as a result of muscular actuation. It is hypothesized that these deformations provide the animals with a mechanism to adapt their spatial hearing sensitivity on short, sub-second time scales. This biological approach could be of interest to engineering as an inspiration for the design of beamforming devices that combine flexibility with parsimonious implementation. To explore this possibility, a biomimetic dynamic baffle was designed based on a simple shape overall geometry based on an average bat ear. This shape was augmented with three different biomimetic local shape features, a ridge on its exposed surface as well as a flap and an incision along its rim. Dynamic non-rigid deformations of the shape were accomplished through a simple actuation mechanism based on linear actuation inserted at a single point. Despite its simplicity, the prototype device was able to reproduce the dynamic functional characteristics that have been predicted for its biological paragon in a qualitative fashion.

  12. Anatomic Considerations on the Middle Ear in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Berghes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to explain some aspects of middle ear anatomy in dog. The study was conducted on five dog skulls (different ages from common, large size dogs. The skulls were processed by maceration and submitted to a treatment of mechanical cleaning with perhydrol. The temporal bone was collected first; the external wall was opened carefully to study the tympanic cavity. The ossicles were collected separately and subsequently described. From research carried promontory appears as an elongated projection that separates the oval window and round window. Vestibular window is oval or slightly ovoid shape of a hole, located dorso-medially to the promontory, which communicates with the middle ear vestibule. Cochlearia window appears as a round or circular hole located caudo-lateral to the promontory . it is blocked by a membrane called the tympanum secondary, cavity separating the ramp of the snail. In the ventro-oral cavity openings ductus faringo tympanicum. The osicules sound represented by hammer, anvil and stirrup are articulated with each other and form a chain as a link between the eardrum and vestibular window. Bones are driven by two muscles: the tensor muscle and muscle stirrup eardrum is very thin. osicules ear are relatively large and resemble those of humans. Lenticular bone is the lenticular process of the long arm of anvile.

  13. Multimodal biometrics system based on face profile and ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Iman S.; Abaza, Ayman A.; Rasmy, Mohamed E.; Badawi, Ahmed M.

    2014-05-01

    Face recognition from a side profile view, has recently received significant attention in the literature. Even though current face recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity at angles up to 30 degrees, their success is still limited with side profile angles. This paper presents an efficient technique for the fusion of face profile and ear biometrics. We propose to use a Block-based Local Binary Pattern (LBP) to generate the features for recognition from face profile images and ear images. These feature distributions are then fused at the score level using simple mean rule. Experimental results show that the proposed multimodal system can achieve 97:98% recognition performance, compared to unimodal biometrics of face profile 96.76%, and unimodal biometrics of ear 96.95%, details in the Experimental Results Section. Comparisons with other multimodal systems used in the literature, like Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Full-space Linear Discriminant Analysis (FSLDA) and Kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (KFDA), are presented in the Experimental Results Section.

  14. Radiation effect on the middle ear of the guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Hirofumi; Nishizawa, Shinji; Hiraide, Fumihisa; Inoue, Tetsuzo

    1984-08-01

    It is known that radiation therapy of the head and neck causes otitis media with effusion. Otitis media with effusion was induced in guinea pigs by cobalt-60 irradiation. Twenty guinea pigs with intact drum and normal Preyer reflex were used. The animals were irradiated with doses of 2,000 rad, 4,000 rad, and 6,000 rad. They were sacrificed seven days after the irradiation. Other animals were irradiated with doses of 4,000 rad and sacrificed one day, three days, seven days, and fourteen days after the irradiation. Vascular permeability of the middle ear mucosa was observed by Majno's vascular labelling technique. Pathological change of the middle ear was examined under the light microscope. Vascular permeability increased in three days after 4,000 rad irradiation and small vessels were labelled with carbon particles. Seven days after irradiation, carbon labelling of small vessels was more extensive and extravascular blackening was present in the adjacent tissues. Edematous change of the middle ear mucosa and metaplasia of the epithelial cells were also observed. New bone formation of the tympanic bulla was increased by repeated irradiations. (author).

  15. Sparse coding joint decision rule for ear print recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guermoui, Mawloud; Melaab, Djamel; Mekhalfi, Mohamed Lamine

    2016-09-01

    Human ear recognition has been promoted as a profitable biometric over the past few years. With respect to other modalities, such as the face and iris, that have undergone a significant investigation in the literature, ear pattern is relatively still uncommon. We put forth a sparse coding-induced decision-making for ear recognition. It jointly involves the reconstruction residuals and the respective reconstruction coefficients pertaining to the input features (co-occurrence of adjacent local binary patterns) for a further fusion. We particularly show that combining both components (i.e., the residuals as well as the coefficients) yields better outcomes than the case when either of them is deemed singly. The proposed method has been evaluated on two benchmark datasets, namely IITD1 (125 subject) and IITD2 (221 subjects). The recognition rates of the suggested scheme amount for 99.5% and 98.95% for both datasets, respectively, which suggest that our method decently stands out against reference state-of-the-art methodologies. Furthermore, experiments conclude that the presented scheme manifests a promising robustness under large-scale occlusion scenarios.

  16. Fgf19 expression patterns in the developing chick inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Calderón, Hortensia; Francisco-Morcillo, Javier; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Hidalgo-Sánchez, Matías

    2007-01-01

    The inner ear is a complex sensorial structure with hearing and balance functions. A key aim of developmental biology is to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the induction, patterning and innervation of the vertebrate inner ear. These developmental events could be mediated by the expression of regulating genes, such as the members of the family of Fibroblast Growth Factors (Fgfs). This work reports the detailed spatial and temporal patterns of Fgf19 expression in the developing inner ear from otic cup (stage 14) to 8 embryonic days (stage 34). In the earliest stages, Fgf19 and Fgf8 expressions determine two subdomains within the Fgf10-positive proneural-sensory territory. We show that, from the earliest stages, the Fgf19 expression was detected in the acoustic-vestibular ganglion and the macula utriculi. The Fgf19 gene was also strongly, but transiently, expressed in the macula lagena, whereas the macula neglecta never expressed this gene in the period analysed. The Fgf19 expression was also clearly observed in some borders of various sensory elements. These results could be useful from further investigations into the role of FGF19 in otic patterning.

  17. Early and late surgical site infections in ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastier, P L; Leroyer, C; Lashéras, A; Rogues, A-M; Darrouzet, V; Franco-Vidal, V

    2016-04-01

    A retroauricular approach is routinely used for treating chronic otitis media. The incidence of surgical site infections after ear surgery is around 10% in contaminated or dirty procedures. This observational prospective study describes surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery with the retroauricular approach and investigated their potential predictive factors. This observational prospective study included patients suffering from chronic otitis media and eligible for therapeutic surgery with a retroauricular approach. During follow-up, surgical site infections were defined as "early" if occurring within 30 days after surgery or as "late" if occurring thereafter. The data of 102 patients were analysed. Concerning early surgical site infections, four cases were diagnosed (3.9%) and a significant association was found with preoperative antibiotic therapy, wet ear at pre-operative examination, class III (contaminated) in the surgical wound classification, NNIS (National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance) index > 1, and oral post-operative antibiotic use. Seven late surgical site infections were diagnosed (7.1%) between 90 and 160 days after surgery and were significantly correlated to otorrhoea during the 6 months before surgery, surgery duration ≤60 minutes, canal wall down technique and use of fibrin glue. Surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery seem to be associated with factors related to the inflammatory state of the middle ear at the time of surgery in early infections and with chronic inflammation in late infections. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  18. Ear Authentication and Template Protection using Bio-key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Annapurani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric authentication is gaining popularity in the current scenario. Biometric based authentication is the science of using physical or behavioral characteristic for ensuring that the person is the claimed identity. Biometric authentication system is also vulnerable to attacks in various phases. The biometric data stored in the template has to be protected, since variety of attacks like circumvent, covert acquisition affects the normal functioning of the system. An attacker may create new biometric data or steal the template or modify the template. Once the biometric template is compromised then the entire system is lost. So securing biometric template is an important aspect in biometric authentication system. In this study ear biometric template is secured by a new method of generating bio key from the ear fused template. Here the transformed template is stored in the database. During verification phase, for the new biometric sample a bio key is generated. Using this bio key the person is authenticated if the transformed feature generated is matched with the stored one. Hence the template is protected with the bio key. The authenticated person alone can access the system, since the key to decrypt the encrypted template is obtained from the ear trait of the authenticated person. FAR and FRR are used to evaluate the system performance.

  19. Idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss in the only hearing ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrettini, S; De Vito, A; Bruschini, L; Fortunato, S; Forli, F

    2016-04-01

    A retrospective chart review was used for 31 patients with sudden, progressive or fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss (SHL) in the only hearing ear who had been consecutively evaluated at the ENT, Audiology and Phoniatrics Unit of the University of Pisa. The group of patients was evaluated with a complete history review, clinical evaluation, imaging exam (MRI, CT), audiologic tests (tone and speech audiometry, tympanometry, study of stapedial reflexes, ABR and otoacoustic emission) evaluation. In order to exclude genetic causes, patients were screened for CX 26 and CX30 mutations and for mitochondrial DNA mutation A1555G. Patients with sudden or rapidly progressive SHL in the only hearing ear were treated with osmotic diuretics and corticosteroids. In patients who did not respond to intravenous therapy we performed intratympanic injections of corticosteroid. Hearing aids were fitted when indicated and patients who developed severe to profound SHL were scheduled for cochlear implant surgery. The aim of this study is to report and discuss the epidemiology, aetiopathogenesis, therapy and clinical characteristic of patients affected by SHL in the only hearing hear and to discuss the issues related to the cochlear implant procedure in some of these patients, with regard to indications, choice of the ear to implant and results.

  20. Reproducibility of ear cytology in dogs with otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, G; Louis, C Sauter; Mueller, R S

    2010-07-03

    Eighty-three dogs with clinical signs of otitis externa and with ear cytology revealing microbial organisms were studied. Samples were collected from both ears of each dog by inserting two swabs successively into each ear canal, rotating each once through 360 degrees and then rolling it out in a line on to a glass slide. For each animal, four single parallel smears (SPS) were made on one slide, which was then appropriately labelled to identify the animal as well as the order of the samples. The slides, one representing each animal, were subsequently stained with modified Wright's stain. Six high-power fields of every SPS were counted. Golden retrievers and West Highland white terriers were found to be predisposed to developing otitis externa (P=0.0006 and P=0.0123, respectively). Otitis externa occurred significantly more frequently in dogs with pendulous pinnae than in dogs with erect pinnae (P=0.0009). There was no significant difference between the first and the second samples with respect to the number of microorganisms found (P>0.1 for cocci and P>0.5 for rods and yeasts), and there was a substantial agreement between the results of the two successive swabs for the presence of cocci (kappa=0.765) and rods (kappa=0.705). For yeasts, the agreement was only moderate (kappa=0.581).