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Sample records for e3640 decommissioning aberdeen

  1. Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-08-01

    Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill

  2. Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging

  3. Interim progress report -- geophysics: Decommissioning of Buildings E5974 and E5978, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-11-01

    Buildings E5974 and E5978, located near the mouth of Canal Creek, were among 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Westwood and Canal Creek areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeters of the buildings to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The magnetic anomalies and the electrically conductive areas around these buildings have a spatial relationship similar to that observed in low-lying sites in the Canal Creek area; they are probably associated with construction fill. Electrically conductive terrain is dominant on the eastern side of the site, and resistive terrain predominates on the west. The smaller magnetic anomalies are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. The high resistivities in the northwest quadrant are believed to be caused by a natural sand lens. The causes of three magnetic anomalies in the high-resistivity area are unidentified, but they are probably anthropogenic

  4. Environmental geophysics: Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489 decommissioning - the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, L.D.; Thompson, M.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1994-06-01

    Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489, referred to informally as the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, are potentially contaminated sites in the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, EM-31, EM-61, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted to assist a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling of the buildings. The buildings are located on a marginal wetland bordering the west branch of Canal Creek. The dominant geophysical signature in the open-quotes Ghost Town close quotes complex is a pattern of northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast anomalies that appear to be associated with a trench/pipe/sewer system, documented by the presence of a manhole. Combinations of anomalies suggest that line sources include nonmetallic and ferromagnetic materials in trenches. On the basis of anomaly associations, the sewer lines probably rest in a trench, back-filled with conductive, amphibolitic, crushed rock. Where the sewer lines connect manholes or junctions with other lines, ferromagnetic materials are present. Isolated, unidentified magnetic anomalies litter the area around Building E5487, particularly to the north. Three small magnetic sources are located east of Building E5487

  5. Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained

  6. 21 CFR 890.3640 - Arm sling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... arm sling is a device intended for medical purposes to immobilize the arm, by means of a fabric band... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arm sling. 890.3640 Section 890.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3640 - Endosseous dental implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant. 872.3640 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3640 Endosseous dental implant. (a) Identification. An endosseous dental implant is a device made of a material such as titanium or titanium alloy, that...

  8. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  9. Decommissioning handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manion, W.J.; LaGuardia, T.S.

    1980-11-01

    This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained.

  10. Decommissioning handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manion, W.J.; LaGuardia, T.S.

    1980-11-01

    This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained

  11. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niel, J.Ch.; Rieu, J.; Lareynie, O.; Delrive, L.; Vallet, J.; Girard, A.; Duthe, M.; Lecomte, C.; Rozain, J.P.; Nokhamzon, J.G.; Davoust, M.; Eyraud, J.L.; Bernet, Ph.; Velon, M.; Gay, A.; Charles, Th.; Leschaeva, M.; Dutzer, M.; Maocec, Ch.; Gillet, G.; Brut, F.; Dieulot, M.; Thuillier, D.; Tournebize, F.; Fontaine, V.; Goursaud, V.; Birot, M.; Le Bourdonnec, Th.; Batandjieva, B.; Theis, St.; Walker, St.; Rosett, M.; Cameron, C.; Boyd, A.; Aguilar, M.; Brownell, H.; Manson, P.; Walthery, R.; Wan Laer, W.; Lewandowski, P.; Dorms, B.; Reusen, N.; Bardelay, J.; Damette, G.; Francois, P.; Eimer, M.; Tadjeddine, A.; Sene, M.; Sene, R.

    2008-01-01

    This file includes five parts: the first part is devoted to the strategies of the different operators and includes the following files: the decommissioning of nuclear facilities Asn point of view, decommissioning of secret nuclear facilities, decommissioning at the civil Cea strategy and programs, EDF de-construction strategy, Areva strategy for decommissioning of nuclear facilities; the second one concerns the stakes of dismantling and includes the articles as follow: complete cleanup of buildings structures in nuclear facilities, decommissioning of nuclear facilities and safety assessment, decommissioning wastes management issues, securing the financing of long-term decommissioning and waste management costs, organizational and human factors in decommissioning projects, training for the decommissioning professions: the example of the Grenoble University master degree; the third part is devoted to the management of dismantling work sites and includes the different articles as follow: decommissioning progress at S.I.C.N. plant, example of decommissioning work site in Cea Grenoble: Siloette reactor decommissioning, matters related to decommissioning sites, decommissioning of french nuclear installations: the viewpoint of a specialist company, specificities of inspections during decommissioning: the Asn inspector point of view; the fourth part is in relation with the international approach and includes as follow: IAEA role in establishing a global safety regime on decommissioning, towards harmonization of nuclear safety practices in Europe: W.E.N.R.A. and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, EPA superfund program policy for decontamination and decommissioning, progress with remediation at Sellafield, progress and experiences from the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Belgium, activities of I.R.S.N. and its daughter company Risk-audit I.r.s.n./G.r.s. international in the field of decommissioning of nuclear facilities in eastern countries

  12. Contamination source review for Building E2370, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Reilly, D.P.; Glennon, M.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E2370. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  13. Contamination source review for Building E3236, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Smits, M.P.; Draugelis, A.K.; Glennon, M.A.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from the review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with each building. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E3236. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot- scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  14. Financial aspects of decommissioning (key aspects of decommissioning costing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danska, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation the following aspects of NPPs decommissioning are discussed: Requirements and purpose of decommissioning costing; Decommissioning costing methodologies; Standardised decommissioning cost structure; Input data for cost estimate process; Waste management in cost estimate process; Grading aspects in cost estimating; Cost control in decommissioning projects; Summary of the cost estimation process; Conclusions and recommendations.

  15. Planning and management for reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiko

    2001-01-01

    This report describes decommissioning strategy, planning process, regulation, management and organization, radiological characterization and safety. Planning is used to identify, define and organize the requirements for decommissioning including decommissioning options, items to be accomplished (objective, scope), to solve problems of how it is to be accomplished (methods, means and procedures), questions of who will execute it (resources, organization and responsibilities, interfacing), and time when it will be executed (schedule for meeting the objectives). A plan is highly dependent on the quality of the management team assembled to carry it out. Radiological characterization involves a survey of existing data, calculation, in situ measurements and/or sampling and analyses. Using this databases decommissioning planner may assess options, considering: decontamination processes, dismantling procedures, tools required, radiological protection of workers and public/environment, waste classification, and resulting costs. Comparison and optimization of these factors will lead to selection of a decommissioning strategy, i.e. typically, immediate or deferred dismantling. The planning and implementation of decommissioning for nuclear reactors should be referred both recent dismantling techniques and many decommissioning experiences. The technical lessons learned from many projects will help in the planning for future decommissioning projects. And systematic planning and management are essential to successful completion of a decommissioning project. (author)

  16. JAEA involvement in Education and Training for Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    Education and Training for Decommissioning in Japan: E&T for decommissioning in Japan is: prioritized to decommissioning of TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi NPS; mostly government-funded: - Ministry Of Education, Culture, Sports, Science And Technology; -Ministry Of Economy, Trade And Industry; performed through collaborative R&D activities between research institutes, university/college, and academic societies. JAEA is involved in the E&T through: - University summer schools on robotics, decommissioning robot competition; - Participation in and/or invitation to JAEA’s international Fukushima Research Conferences, and to cooperative courses with scientific institutions; - Lectures at universities/colleges; - Hot facility construction/operation for engineers, characterization of radioactive wastes and fuel debris for radiochemists and technicians

  17. Decommissioning Work Modeling System for Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. K.; Cho, W. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Moon, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    During the decommissioning activities of the KRR-1 and 2 (Korea Research Reactor 1 and 2) and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), all information and data, which generated from the decommissioning project, were record, input and managed at the DECOMMIS (DECOMMissioning Information management System). This system was developed for the inputting and management of the data and information of the man-power consumption, operation time of the dismantling equipment, the activities of the radiation control, dismantled waste management and Q/A activities. When a decommissioning is planed for a nuclear facility, an investigation into the characterization of the nuclear facility is first required. The results of such an investigation are used for calculating the quantities of dismantled waste volume and estimating the cost of the decommissioning project. That is why, the DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System) was established for the management of the facility characterization data. The DEWOCS (DEcommissioning WOrk-unit productivity Calculation System) was developed for the calculation of the workability on the decommissioning activities. The work-unit productivities are calculated through this system using the data from the two systems, DECOMMIS and DEFACS. This result, the factors of the decommissioning work-unit productivities, will be useful for the other nuclear facility decommissioning planning and engineering. For this, to set up the items and plan for the decommissioning of the new objective facility, the DEMOS (DEcommissioning work Modeling System) was developed. This system is for the evaluation the cost, man-power consumption of workers and project staffs and technology application time. The factor of the work-unit productivities from the DEWOCS and governmental labor cost DB and equipment rental fee DB were used for the calculation the result of the DEMOS. And also, for the total system, DES (Decommissioning Engineering System), which is now

  18. Workshop on decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broden, K.

    2005-12-01

    A Nordic workshop on decommissioning of nuclear facilities was held at Risoe in Denmark September 13-15, 2005. The workshop was arranged by NKS in cooperation with the company Danish Decommissioning, DD, responsible for decommissioning of nuclear facilities at Risoe. Oral presentations were made within the following areas: International and national recommendations and requirements concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities Authority experiences of decommissioning cases Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Denmark Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Sweden Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Norway Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Finland Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in German and the UK Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the former Soviet Union Results from research and development A list with proposals for future work within NKS has been prepared based on results from group-work and discussions. The list contains strategic, economical and political issues, technical issues and issues regarding competence and communication. (au)

  19. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist.

  20. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon

    2014-01-01

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist

  1. Decommissioning plan - decommissioning project for KRR 1 and 2 (revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K. J.; Paik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Lee, B. J

    2000-10-01

    This report is the revised Decommissioning Plan for the license of TRIGA research reactor decommissioning project according to Atomic Energy Act No. 31 and No. 36. The decommissioning plan includes the TRIGA reactor facilities, project management, decommissioning method, decontamination and dismantling activity, treatment, packaging, transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. the report also explained the radiation protection plan and radiation safety management during the decommissioning period, and expressed the quality assurance system during the period and the site restoration after decommissioning. The first decommissioning plan was made by Hyundai Engineering Co, who is the design service company, was submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology, and then was reviewed by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety. The first decommissioning plan was revised including answers for the questions arising from review process.

  2. Decommissioning plan - decommissioning project for KRR 1 and 2 (revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K. J.; Paik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Lee, B. J.

    2000-10-01

    This report is the revised Decommissioning Plan for the license of TRIGA research reactor decommissioning project according to Atomic Energy Act No. 31 and No. 36. The decommissioning plan includes the TRIGA reactor facilities, project management, decommissioning method, decontamination and dismantling activity, treatment, packaging, transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. the report also explained the radiation protection plan and radiation safety management during the decommissioning period, and expressed the quality assurance system during the period and the site restoration after decommissioning. The first decommissioning plan was made by Hyundai Engineering Co, who is the design service company, was submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology, and then was reviewed by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety. The first decommissioning plan was revised including answers for the questions arising from review process

  3. Efeitos das condições de amadurecimento sobre a suscetibilidade de bananas 'SH 3640' ao despencamento natural Effects of ripening conditions on susceptibility of 'SH 3640' banana to finger drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Martins Maia

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar os efeitos das condições de amadurecimento sobre o despencamento natural de bananas 'SH 3640', foi instalado um experimento segundo delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos: T1 - amadurecimento em temperatura ambiente (24,6 ± 1,7ºC; T2 - pré-condicionamento dos frutos a 5ºC por 6 horas, seguido de amadurecimento em temperatura ambiente; T3 - pré-condicionamento dos frutos a 5ºC por 12 horas, seguido de amadurecimento em temperatura ambiente; T4 - amadurecimento dos frutos em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade a 18ºC. Foram utilizadas 6 repetições para as observações anatômicas e 4 repetições para as avaliações de resistência ao despencamento, consistência da polpa do fruto maduro e do tempo entre a colheita e o amadurecimento, sendo cada repetição constituída de um fruto. Os frutos dos tratamentos T2 e T4 apresentaram maior resistência ao despencamento natural, o que é justificado pelo aumento da espessura e pela maior deposição de lignina nas paredes celulares. Os frutos do tratamento T4 tiveram o amadurecimento retardado em relação aos demais. Os frutos dos diversos tratamentos não diferiram quanto à consistência da polpa.Aiming to verify the effects of the ripening conditions on the finger drop of bananas 'SH 3640', this experiment was set up on an entirely randomized design, with four treatments: T1 - ripening under environmental temperature (24.6 ± 1.7ºC; T2 - preconditioning of the fruits at 5ºC for 6 hours, following the ripening under environmental temperature; T3 - preconditioning of the fruits at 5ºC for 12 hours, following the ripening under environmental temperature; and T4 - ripening of the fruits in low-density polyethylene bags at 18ºC. Six replicates were used for the anatomical observations, and 4 replicates for evaluating the resistance to finger drop, pulp consistence of the ripe fruit and the number of days from harvest to ripening

  4. The impact of oil on the Scottish economy with particular reference to the Aberdeen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, M.G.; Newlands, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The establishment of the North Sea oil industry over the last 20 years has had far reaching and dramatic effects upon the whole Scottish economy but especially upon those areas where oil related activity is geographically concentrated. This chapter discusses the impact of oil on the Scottish economy with particular reference to developments in the Aberdeen area. It is comprised of five main sections. The first outlines the way in which the oil industry has developed in Britain, noting that, despite rapid growth, there have been many lost opportunities. The impact of oil related developments in Scotland is discussed next before the focus narrows to the Aberdeen economy. The third section describes the familiar benefits of oil developments in Aberdeen while the fourth section analyses some of the less familiar costs. Finally, there is some discussion of the way in which the gains and losses of oil developments in Aberdeen have been distributed. (author)

  5. Decommissioning Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusack, J.G.; Dalfonso, P.H.; Lenyk, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Decommissioning Handbook provides technical guidance on conducting decommissioning projects. Information presented ranges from planning logic, regulations affecting decommissioning, technology discussion, health and safety requirements, an developing a cost estimate. The major focus of the handbook are the technologies -- decontamination technologies, waste treatment, dismantling/segmenting/demolition, and remote operations. Over 90 technologies are discussed in the handbook providing descriptions, applications, and advantages/disadvantages. The handbook was prepared to provide a compendium of available or potentially available technologies in order to aid the planner in meeting the specific needs of each decommissioning project. Other subjects presented in the Decommissioning Handbook include the decommissioning plan, characterization, final project configuration based planning, environmental protection, and packaging/transportation. These discussions are presented to complement the technologies presented in the handbook

  6. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes

  7. Safety in decommissioning of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Guide covers the technical and administrative considerations relevant to the nuclear aspects of safety in the decommissioning of reactors, as they apply to the reactor and the reactor site. While the treatment, transport and disposal of radioactive wastes arising from decommissioning are important considerations, these aspects are not specifically covered in this Guide. Likewise, other possible issues in decommissioning (e.g. land use and other environmental issues, industrial safety, financial assurance) which are not directly related to radiological safety are also not considered. Generally, decommissioning will be undertaken after planned final shutdown of the reactor. In some cases a reactor may have to be decommissioned following an unplanned or unexpected event of a series or damaging nature occurring during operation. In these cases special procedures for decommissioning may need to be developed, peculiar to the particular circumstances. This Guide could be used as a basis for the development of these procedures although specific consideration of the circumstances which create the need for them is beyond its scope

  8. Aberdeen City Garden : Beyond Landscape or Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauslin, D.

    2012-01-01

    A team around the New York based Architects Diller, Scofidio & Renfro DS+R won a competition for the Aberdeen City Garden in January 2012 together with OLIN and Keppie Design. The proposal supported by a private deed to the city passed a public referendum in the Scottish costal town in March 2012

  9. Decommissioning Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Decommissioning Handbook is a technical guide for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the removal of the radioactive and, for practical reasons, hazardous materials to enable the facility to be released and not represent a further risk to human health and the environment. This handbook identifies and technologies and techniques that will accomplish these objectives. The emphasis in this handbook is on characterization; waste treatment; decontamination; dismantling, segmenting, demolition; and remote technologies. Other aspects that are discussed in some detail include the regulations governing decommissioning, worker and environmental protection, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials. The handbook describes in general terms the overall decommissioning project, including planning, cost estimating, and operating practices that would ease preparation of the Decommissioning Plan and the decommissioning itself. The reader is referred to other documents for more detailed information. This Decommissioning Handbook has been prepared by Enserch Environmental Corporation for the US Department of Energy and is a complete restructuring of the original handbook developed in 1980 by Nuclear Energy Services. The significant changes between the two documents are the addition of current and the deletion of obsolete technologies and the addition of chapters on project planning and the Decommissioning Plan, regulatory requirements, characterization, remote technology, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials.

  10. Decommissioning of the CANDU-PHW reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, G.N.

    1977-04-01

    This report contains the results of a study of various aspects of decommissioning of reactors. The study places in perspective the size of the job, the hazards involved, the cost and the environmental impact. The three internationally agreed ''stages'' of decommissioning, namely, mothballing, entombment, and dismantling are defined and discussed. The single unit 600 MW(e) CANDU is chosen as the type of reactor on which the discussion is focussed but the conclusions reached will provide a basis for judgement of the costs and problems associated with decommissioning reactors of other sizes and types. (author)

  11. Germany: Management of decommissioning waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrmann, F.; Brennecke, P.; Koch, W.; Kugel, K.; Steyer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, Germany has gained a substantial amount of experience in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities of different types and sizes. Many research reactors and all prototype nuclear power plants, as well as a few larger nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities, are currently at varying stages of decommissioning. Several facilities have been fully dismantled and the sites have been cleared for reuse. The decommissioning projects comprise 18 power and prototype reactors, 33 research reactors and 11 fuel cycle facilities which are being or have been decommissioned. In the future, further nuclear power plants will be shut down and decommissioned in accordance with Germany?s energy policy to phase out the use of nuclear power for commercial electricity generation as given in the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. Radioactive waste, from operations as well as from decommissioning activities, is to be conditioned in such a way as to comply with the waste acceptance requirements of a repository. In Germany, all types of radioactive waste (i.e., short-lived and long-lived) are to be disposed of in deep geological formations. A distinction is being made for heat generating waste (i.e., high level waste) and waste with negligible heat generation (i.e., low level and intermediate level waste). Radioactive decommissioning waste is waste with negligible heat generation. Waste acceptance requirements of a repository are of particular importance for the conditioning of radioactive waste, including decommissioning waste. The waste acceptance requirements, as they resulted from the Konrad licensing procedure, are being applied by the waste generators for the conditioning of decommissioning waste. Compliance with these requirements must be demonstrated through the waste package quality control, even if the waste will be disposed of in the future. In 2002 the Konrad repository was licensed for the disposal of all types of waste with negligible

  12. Carcass characteristics of small and medium-frame Aberdeen Angus young steers=Características da carcaça de novilhos super jovens Aberdeen Angus de biótipos pequeno e médio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Braido Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcass characteristics of small and medium-frame Aberdeen Angus young steers, finished in feedlot and slaughtered with similar subcutaneous fat thickness are evaluated. The average age and live weight at the start of feedlot were respectively 298 days and 202 kg. The steers were confined during 158 days, and slaughtered with average subcutaneous fat thickness of 6.4 mm. The feed consisted of sorghum silage and concentrate at 60:40 ratio of dry matter during the first 63 days and 50:50 afterward. The frame was calculated by formula F =-11.548 + (0.4878xh - (0.0289xID + (0.0000146xID²+(0.0000759xIDxh, where h is the height and ID the age, in days. Steers with medium frame showed superiority in important marketing aspects such as warm (p Avaliaram-se as características da carcaça de novilhos Aberdeen Angus super jovens de biótipos pequeno e médio, terminados em confinamento e abatidos com semelhante espessura de gordura subcutânea. A idade e o peso vivo médio de ingresso no confinamento foram de 298 dias e 202 kg. Os animais foram confinados durante 158 dias, abatidos com espessura de gordura subcutânea média de 6,4 mm. A alimentação foi composta por silagem de sorgo e concentrado, na razão volumoso:concentrado de 60:40 na matéria seca, nos primeiros 63 dias e após, 50:50 até o abate. O biótipo foi calculado utilizando a fórmula B=-11,548 + (0,4878xh - (0,0289xID + (0,0000146xID² + (0,0000759xhxID, em que h representou a altura e o ID idade em dias. Novilhos com biótipo médio apresentaram superioridade nos aspectos importantes de comercialização, como o peso de carcaça quente (p < 0,0001 e fria (p < 0,0001. As medidas de musculosidade da carcaça como a área de longissimus dorsi em relação ao peso de carcaça fria (p = 0,0477 e de corpo vazio (0,0419 foram menores nos novilhos de biótipo médio. A conformação da carcaça, área de longissimus dorsi em cm² e espessura de coxão foram semelhantes entre os biótipos. Os

  13. Qualidade do sêmen de touros das raças Aberdeen Angus e Brangus-Ibagé em frente à degeneração testicular experimental induzida por dexametasona

    OpenAIRE

    Horn,Marilise Mesquita; Moraes,José Carlos Ferrugem; Galina,Carlos Salvador

    1999-01-01

    Foi administrada dexametasona para indução de degeneração testicular experimental em touros de uma raça taurina pura (Aberdeen Angus) e de sua sintética derivada (Brangus-Ibagé). O objetivo deste estudo foi o de averiguar a diferença de sensibilidade na função gametogênica em frente à degeneração experimental. Para tal, foram avaliados os aspectos físicos e morfológicos do sêmen. Os dados obtidos foram analisados considerando o dia de coleta e genótipo. Os resultados revelaram que os dois gru...

  14. Platform decommissioning: Socio-economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheelhaase, Janina D.

    1998-01-01

    The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs

  15. Decommissioning of naval nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-10-01

    During the next decade the two major nuclear powers will each have to decommission more than 100 naval nuclear vessels, in particular submarines. The problems connected with this task is considered in this report. Firstly the size of the task is considered, i.e. the number of nuclear vessels that has to be decommissioned. Secondly the reactors of these vessels, their fuel elements, their power level, the number of reactors per vessel and the amount of radioactivity to be handled are discussed. Thirdly the decommissioning procedures, i.e. The removal of fuel from the vessels, the temporary storage of the reactor fuel near the base, and the cleaning and disposal of the reactor and the primary circuit components are reviewed. Finally alternative uses of the newer submarines are briefly considered. It should be emphasizes that much of the detailed information on which this report is based, may be of dubious nature, and that may to some extent affect the validity of the conclusions of the report. (au)

  16. Decommissioning of Brennilis NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baize, Jean-Marc

    1998-01-01

    This EDF press communique give information related to the decommissioning of the Brennilis NPP. The following five items are developed in this report: 1. the level-2 decommissioning operations at the Brennilis NPP; 2. the Brennilis NPP, a pilot operation from the commissioning up to the decommissioning; 3. history of the Brennilis NPP decommissioning; 4. the types of radioactive wastes generated by the Brennilis NPP decommissioning; 5. the Brennilis NPP - a yard management as a function of the wastes. The document contains also seven appendices addressing the following subjects: 1. the share of decommissioning assigned to EDF and the decommissioning steps; 2. the EDF installations in course of decommissioning; 3. the CEA decommissioned installations or in course of decommissioning; 4. regulations; 5. costs; 6. waste management - principles; 7. data on the decommissioning yard

  17. Progress in Decommissioning the Humboldt Bay Power Plant - 13604

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rod, Kerry [PG and E Utility, Humboldt Bay Power Plant, 1000 King Salmon Ave. Eureka, CA 95503 (United States); Shelanskey, Steven K. [Anata Management Solutions, 5180 South Commerce Dr,, Suite F Murray, UT 84107 (United States); Kristofzski, John [CH2MHILL, 295 Bradley Blvd. Suite 300, Richland WA 99353 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning of the Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company Humboldt Bay Power Plant (HBPP) Unit 3 nuclear facility has now, after more than three decades of SAFSTOR and initial decommissioning work, transitioned to full-scale decommissioning. Decommissioning activities to date have been well orchestrated and executed in spite of an extremely small work site with space constricted even more by other concurrent on-site major construction projects including the demolition of four fossil units, construction of a new generating station and 60 KV switchyard upgrade. Full-scale decommissioning activities - now transitioning from Plant Systems Removal (PG and E self-perform) to Civil Works Projects (contractor performed) - are proceeding in a safe, timely, and cost effective manner. As a result of the successful decommissioning work to date (approximately fifty percent completed) and the intense planning and preparations for the remaining work, there is a high level of confidence for completion of all HBPP Unit 3 decommissions activities in 2018. Strategic planning and preparations to transition into full-scale decommissioning was carried out in 2008 by a small, highly focused project team. This planning was conducted concurrent with other critical planning requirements such as the loading of spent nuclear fuel into dry storage at the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) finishing December 2008. Over the past four years, 2009 through 2012, the majority of decommissioning work has been installation of site infrastructure and removal of systems and components, known as the Plant System Removal Phase, where work scope was dynamic with significant uncertainty, and it was self-performed by PG and E. As HBPP Decommissioning transitions from the Plant System Removal Phase to the Civil Works Projects Phase, where work scope is well defined, a contracting plan similar to that used for Fossil Decommissioning will be implemented. Award of five major work scopes

  18. Progress in Decommissioning the Humboldt Bay Power Plant - 13604

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rod, Kerry; Shelanskey, Steven K.; Kristofzski, John

    2013-01-01

    Decommissioning of the Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company Humboldt Bay Power Plant (HBPP) Unit 3 nuclear facility has now, after more than three decades of SAFSTOR and initial decommissioning work, transitioned to full-scale decommissioning. Decommissioning activities to date have been well orchestrated and executed in spite of an extremely small work site with space constricted even more by other concurrent on-site major construction projects including the demolition of four fossil units, construction of a new generating station and 60 KV switchyard upgrade. Full-scale decommissioning activities - now transitioning from Plant Systems Removal (PG and E self-perform) to Civil Works Projects (contractor performed) - are proceeding in a safe, timely, and cost effective manner. As a result of the successful decommissioning work to date (approximately fifty percent completed) and the intense planning and preparations for the remaining work, there is a high level of confidence for completion of all HBPP Unit 3 decommissions activities in 2018. Strategic planning and preparations to transition into full-scale decommissioning was carried out in 2008 by a small, highly focused project team. This planning was conducted concurrent with other critical planning requirements such as the loading of spent nuclear fuel into dry storage at the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) finishing December 2008. Over the past four years, 2009 through 2012, the majority of decommissioning work has been installation of site infrastructure and removal of systems and components, known as the Plant System Removal Phase, where work scope was dynamic with significant uncertainty, and it was self-performed by PG and E. As HBPP Decommissioning transitions from the Plant System Removal Phase to the Civil Works Projects Phase, where work scope is well defined, a contracting plan similar to that used for Fossil Decommissioning will be implemented. Award of five major work scopes

  19. Measuring and reporting on decommissioning progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the challenges facing AECL, as well as other organizations charged with the responsibility of decommissioning nuclear facilities, is the means by which to measure and report on decommissioning progress to various audiences which, in some cases, may only have a peripheral knowledge or understanding of the complexities associated with the decommissioning process. The reporting and measurement of decommissioning progress is important for a number of reasons, i.e., It provides a vehicle by which to effectively communicate the nature of the decommissioning process; It ensures that stakeholders and shareholders are provided with a transparent and understandable means for assessing value for money; It provides a means by which to integrate the planning, measurement, and operational aspects of decommissioning One underlying reason behind the challenge of reporting decommissioning progress lies in the fact that decommissioning programs are generally executed over periods of time that far exceed those generally associated with typical design and build projects. For example, a decommissioning program could take decades to complete in which case progress on the order of a few percent in any one year might be typical. However, such progress may appear low compared to that seen with more typical projects that can be completed in a matter of years. As a consequence, AECL undertook to develop a system by which to measure decommissioning progress in a straightforward, meaningful, and understandable fashion. The system is not rigorously objective, and there are subjective aspects that are necessitated by the need to keep the system readily understandable. It is also important to note that while the system is simple in concept, there is, nonetheless, significant effort involved in generating and updating the parameters used as input, and in the actual calculations. (author)

  20. Qualidade do sêmen de touros das raças Aberdeen Angus e Brangus-Ibagé em frente à degeneração testicular experimental induzida por dexametasona Bulls semen quality of Aberdeen Angus and Brangus-Ibagé breeds after experimental testicular degeneration induced by dexamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilise Mesquita Horn

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi administrada dexametasona para indução de degeneração testicular experimental em touros de uma raça taurina pura (Aberdeen Angus e de sua sintética derivada (Brangus-Ibagé. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de averiguar a diferença de sensibilidade na função gametogênica em frente à degeneração experimental. Para tal, foram avaliados os aspectos físicos e morfológicos do sêmen. Os dados obtidos foram analisados considerando o dia de coleta e genótipo. Os resultados revelaram que os dois grupos raciais comportaram-se semelhantemente ao longo das coletas. A despeito do número de animais empregados, o uso da degeneração testicular experimental possibilitou evidenciar que não há diferença entre as duas raças quanto à intensidade da degeneração e tempo necessário para o restabelecimento do quadro espermático normal.Testicular degeneration was induced by dexamethasone injection in bulls from a European breed Aberdeen Angus and a derived synthetic crossbreed (Brangus-Ibagé. Aiming to investigate differential sensibility on gametogenic function in these genotypes, physical and morphological semen characteristics were evaluated. The data analysed considered the day of the semen samples and the breed. Our results reveal that both breeds behave similarly during the experimental period. Even considering the number of bulls used in this experiment, the employed methodology gives no evidence of any difference between breeds, intensity of degeneration or time required to the reestablishment of normal sperm frequencies after experimental induction of testicular degeneration.

  1. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project Start of Physical Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crimi, F. P.

    1987-01-01

    The Shippingport Atomic Power Station consists of the nuclear steam supply system and associated radioactive waste processing systems, which are owned by the United States Department of Energy, and the turbine-generator and balance of plant, which is owned by the Duquesne Light Company. The station is located at Shippingport, Pennsylvania on seven acres of land leased by DOE from Duquesne Light Company. The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project is being performed under contract to the DOE by the General Electric Company and its integrated subcontractor, Morrison-Knudsen Company. as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This paper describes the current status of the physical decommissioning work, which started September 1985. The preparations required to start a major decommissioning work effort in a safe and cost effective manner are discussed including the development and implementation of a cost/schedule control system. The detailed plan required to ensure that people, property, and procedures are ready in sufficient time to support the start of physical decommissioning is also discussed. The total estimated cost of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project should be $98.3 M, with the Project scheduled for completion in April 1990. As the decommissioning of the first commercial-scale nuclear power plant, the Shippingport Project is expected to set the standard for safe, cost-effective demolition of nuclear plants

  2. Applicability of EPRI Decommissioning Pre-Planning Manual to International Decommissioning Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, Leo; Kay, Jim; Lefrancois, Donald; Furr, Richard; Lucas, Matthieu; Schauer, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Industry models for planning the efficient decommissioning of a nuclear power plant continue to evolve. Effective planning is a key to cost control, a critical aspect of decommissioning. In 2001, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) published the 'Decommissioning Pre-Planning Manual', referred to as the 'Manual'. The goal of the Manual was to develop a framework for use in pre-planning the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. The original research was based on information collected during the active decommissioning of power reactors in New England, and the ongoing decommissioning planning of another reactor still in operation. The research team identified thirty-two (32) major Decommissioning Tasks that support the strategic and tactical planning that can be conducted in advance of plant shutdown. The Decommissioning Tasks were organized in a logical sequence of execution, and sorted in common discipline groupings. Owners of U.S. nuclear plants that have shut down prematurely during the past 5 years have found the EPRI Decommissioning Pre-Planning Manual useful in developing their transition plans from an operating to shutdown facility. Concurrently, during the past 15 years, the IAEA has published numerous technical and safety reports on nuclear reactor decommissioning planning and execution. IAEA's goal is to provide its global members with useful and timely guidance for the planning and execution of nuclear decommissioning projects. This information has been used extensively by international nuclear plant operators. One of the key objectives will be to develop a road-map linking the 32 EPRI Decommissioning Tasks with the comparable (or equivalent) topics covered in the IAEA library of decommissioning knowledge. The logical and convenient structure of the Manual will be cross-referenced to the IAEA topics to aid in organizing the development of decommissioning plans. The road-map will serve to provide a basis for improved

  3. Assessment of foreign decommissioning technology with potential application to US decommissioning needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Konzek, G.J.; Schneider, K.J.; Smith, R.I.

    1987-09-01

    This study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and technically assess foreign decommissioning technology developments that may represent significant improvements over decommissioning technology currently available or under development in the United States. Technology need areas for nuclear power reactor decommissioning operations were identified and prioritized using the results of past light water reactor (LWR) decommissioning studies to quantitatively evaluate the potential for reducing cost and decommissioning worker radiation dose for each major decommissioning activity. Based on these identified needs, current foreign decommissioning technologies of potential interest to the US were identified through personal contacts and the collection and review of an extensive body of decommissioning literature. These technologies were then assessed qualitatively to evaluate their uniqueness, potential for a significant reduction in decommissioning costs and/or worker radiation dose, development status, and other factors affecting their value and applicability to US needs

  4. Study on decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This project consists of researches on (1) establishment of review plan on application of decommissioning, (2) establishment of specific method to confirm decommissioning completion, of decommissioning and (3) establishment of radioactive waste management guideline during dismantling and (4) development of the regulatory system on decommissioning in response to Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. About researches on establishment of review plan on application of decommissioning. 'Planning of the Commercial Power Reactor Decommissioning:2001' which was published by Atomic Energy Society of Japan, was evaluated whether it suited the requirement for the decommissioning stipulated in the law, and the draft evaluation report was prepared. About researches on establishment of specific method to confirm decommissioning completion, technical information of practical procedures on the confirmation in U.S.A. were organized based on MARSSIM (Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual, NUREG-1575) and applicability of MARSSIM on the confirmation in Japan was examined. Exposed doses for public during decommissioning period were estimated to study dose criterion of the confirmation. Radioactive concentrations in the soil of Tokai and Hamaoka NPP caused by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident were also investigated. About researches on establishment of radioactive waste management guideline during dismantling, one concrete core was sampled in biological shield of the Tokai NPP and radioactive concentrations were investigated. About researches on development of the regulatory system on decommissioning in response to Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, present status of Three Mile Island Unit 2 and Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 were investigated. Present status of regulatory systems for decommissioning in foreign countries taken in consideration of the accident was also researched. (author)

  5. Training for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietzold, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plants entering decommissioning face many challenges One of the most important is the challenge of training for decommissioning This is important because: The facility operators and management have spent many years successfully operating the facility; The facility management arrangements are geared to operation; Decommissioning will include non-nuclear specialists and other stakeholders; Other skills are needed to decommission successfully. UKAEA has decommissioned many facilities at its sites in Dounreay, Windscale, Harwell and Winfrith in the UK. We have faced all of the challenges previously described and have developed many training methods for ensuring the challenges are met safely and effectively. We have developed courses for specialised skills such as safety cases which can be deployed to support any decommissioning. (author)

  6. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Feasibility, needs and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Reactor decommissioning activities generally are considered to begin after operations have ceased and the fuel has been removed from the reactor, although in some countries the activities may be started while the fuel is still at the reactor site. The three principal alternatives for decommissioning are described. The factors to be considered in selecting the decommissioning strategy, i.e. a stage or a combination of stages that comprise the total decommissioning programme, are reviewed. One presents a discussion of the feasibility of decommissioning techniques available for use on the larger reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The numbers and types of facilities to be decommissioned and the resultant waste volumes generated for disposal will then be projected. Finally, the costs of decommissioning these facilities, the effect of these costs on electricity generating costs, and alternative methods of financing decommissioning are discussed. The discussion of decommissioning draws on various countries' studies and experience in this area. Specific details about current activities and policies in NEA Member Countries are given in the short country specific Annexes. The nuclear facilities that are addressed in this study include reactors, fuel fabrication facilities, reprocessing facilities, associated radioactive waste storage facilities, enrichment facilities and other directly related fuel cycle support facilities. The present study focuses on the technical feasibility, needs, and costs of decommissioning the larger commercial facilities in the OECD member countries that are coming into service up to the year 2000. It is intended to inform the public and to assist in planning for the decommissioning of these facilities

  7. Utility planning for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts

  8. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunning, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Collaborative studies are in progress in the U.K. between the U.K.A.E.A., the Generating Boards and other outside bodies, to identify the development issues and practical aspects of decommissioning redundant nuclear facilities. The various types of U.K.A.E.A. experimental reactors (D.F.R., W.A.G.R , S.G.H.W.R.) in support of the nuclear power development programme, together with the currently operating commercial 26 Magnox reactors in 11 stations, totalling some 5 GW will be retired before the end of the century and attention is focussed on these. The actual timing of withdrawal from service will be dictated by development programme requirements in the case of experimental reactors and by commercial and technical considerations in the case of electricity production reactors. Decommissioning studies have so far been confined to technical appraisals including the sequence logic of achieving specific objectives and are based on the generally accepted three stage progression. Stage 1, which is essentially a defuelling and coolant removal operation, is an interim phase. Stage 2 is a storage situation, the duration of which will be influenced by environmental pressures or economic factors including the re-use of existing sites. Stage 3, which implies removal of all active and non-active waste material and returning the site to general use, must be the ultimate objective. The engineering features and the radioactive inventory of the system must be assessed in detail to avoid personnel or environmental hazards during Stage 2. These factors will also influence decisions on the degree of Stage 2 decommissioning and its duration, bearing in mind that for Stage 3 activation may govern the waste disposal route and the associated radiation man-rem exposure during dismantling. Ideally, planning for decommissioning should be considered at the design stage of the facility. An objective of present studies is to identify features which would assist decommissioning of future systems

  9. Technical and economic aspects of nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glauberman, H.; Manion, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plants may be decommissioned by one of three primary methods - mothballing, entombing, or dismantling, or by using combinations such as mothballing or entombing for a period of time followed by dismantling. Mothballing or entombing both result in an end-product which requires surveillance and maintenance for a significant period to ensure protection of public health and safety. This paper discusses costs for each of the decommissioning methods, including factors that will influence the method selected as well as the total costs. Decommissioning costs have been estimated for an 1100-MW(e) light-water reactor within one year after shutdown following forty years of operation. The basic economic parameters for each decommissioning method were developed using unit cost factors based on known costs of previously decommissioned reactors. Decommissioning cost estimates range from less than four million dollars for mothballing to about forty million dollars for complete dismantling. Estimated cost of entombment is about ten million dollars. Subsequent annual cost of surveillance and maintenance for a reactor facility using the mothballing or entombment method could be as high as US $200,000. Although some tooling development will be needed for removing highly activated reactor vessel segments and internals, technology is currently available and has been demonstrated on prior decommissionings, e.g. the BONUS and HALLUM reactor entombments and the Elk River Reactor complete dismantling. Costs associated with decommissioning are significant; however, allowance for them either as a one-time construction period sinking fund, or annual depreciation type operating allowance, will have little effect on construction or on operating costs. (author)

  10. European Learning Initiatives for Nuclear Decommissioning and Environmental Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abousahl, Said; )

    2017-01-01

    Situation nuclear decommissioning in the EU: - Demonstration of decommissioning at an industrial scale, as a 'last but feasible step' of the nuclear life-cycle, is essential for the credibility of the nuclear energy option; - Decommissioning market is in expansion, particularly in Europe; - Currently, an industrial experience exist, however... further attention is necessary for: - Development of the most suitable techniques, with respect to safety, efficiency and waste limitation; - Standardisation and harmonisation (incl. cost estimation); - Offering and promoting dedicated education and training opportunities; - Sharing knowledge and experiences. Offering and promoting dedicated Education and Training (E&T) opportunities: JRC organised jointly with the University of Birmingham in April 2015 a seminar on Education and Training in Nuclear Decommissioning, in an attempt to answer to the questions: •What are the E&T needs ? •What are the opportunities, what does already exist ? •How can we attract young talent ? Outcome of the seminar is published in a joint report with orientations on the way forward to support Education and Training in Nuclear Decommissioning in the EU

  11. Decommissioning and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadoumont, J.; Cantrel, E.; Valenduc, P.; Noynaert, L.

    2009-01-01

    The SCK-CEN has built a large know-how in decommissioning and decontamination, thanks to its BR3 decommissioning project. In 2007, the decommissioning activities at BR3 have been continued according to the strategy. This article discusses main realisations the following domains: decommissioning of the neutron shield tank and installation of new ventilation for the controlled area, dismantling of the former one and characterization of the stack

  12. 77 FR 67689 - Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ...] Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.; Notice of Application November 6, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and... arrangements (``Prior Order'').\\1\\ \\1\\ Colchester Street Trust, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos... Trust, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos. 23787 (Apr. 15, 1999) (notice) and 23831 (May 11...

  13. NPP A-1 decommissioning - Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstenik, A.; Blazek, J.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power plant A-1 with output 150 MW e , with metallic natural uranium fuelled, CO 2 cooled and heavy water moderated reactor had been prematurely finally shut down in 1977. It is necessary to mention that neither operator nor regulatory and other authorities have been prepared for the solution of such situation. During next two consecutive years after shutdown main effort of operator focused on technical and administrative activities which are described in the previous paper together with approach, condition and constraints for NPP A-1 decommissioning as well as the work and research carried out up to the development and approval of the Project for NPP A-1 decommissioning - I. phase. Subject of this paper is description of: (1) An approach to NPP A -1 decommissioning; (2) An approach to development of the project for NPP A-1 decommissioning; (3) Project - tasks, scope, objectives; (4) Mode of the Project realisation; (5) Progress achieved up to the 1999 year. (authors)

  14. Decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, K.M.; Jenkins, C.E.; Waite, D.A.; Brooksbank, R.E.; Lunis, B.C.; Nemec, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes the currently accepted alternatives for decommissioning retired light water reactor fuel cycle facilities and the current state of decommissioning technology. Three alternatives are recognized: Protective Storage; Entombment; and Dismantling. Application of these alternatives to the following types of facilities is briefly described: light water reactors; fuel reprocessing plants, and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants. Brief descriptions are given of decommissioning operations and results at a number of sites, and recent studies of the future decommissioning of prototype fuel cycle facilities are reviewed. An overview is provided of the types of operations performed and tools used in common decontamination and decommissioning techniques and needs for improved technology are suggested. Planning for decommissioning a nuclear facility is dependent upon the maximum permitted levels of residual radioactive contamination. Proposed guides and recently developed methodology for development of site release criteria are reviewed. 21 fig, 32 references

  15. Management of the decommissioning of the Thetis reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooms, Luc; Maris, Patrick; Noynaert, Luc [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    The Thetis research reactor on the site of the Nuclear Sciences Institute of the Ghent University has been in operation from 1967 until December 2003. This light-water moderated graphite-reflected low-enriched uranium pool-type reactor has been used for various purposes e.g. the production of radioisotopes and activation analyses. During the first years its core power was 15 kW. In the early '70, a core enlargement allowed for operation at typically 150 kW, while the maximum was allowed to be 250 kW In September 2007, Ghent University entrusted to SCK-CEN the management of the back-end of the spent fuel and the decommissioning of the reactor. In 2010, the spent fuel was removed from the reactor and transported to Belgoprocess for cementation in 400 l drums and interim storage awaiting final disposal. This activity allows tackling the decommissioning of the reactor. The objective is to complete its decommissioning by the end of 2014. In the framework of the decommissioning of the Thetis reactor, SCK-CEN set-up the final decommissioning plan and the decommissioning licensing file. These documents include among others a radiological inventory of the reactor. The graphite moderator blocks, the control and the safety pates, the liner of the pool were modeled to assess the activation products (isotopic vector and intensity). At the end of the unloading of the reactor in 2010 a brief mapping of the equipment's and internals of the reactor pool was performed. In 2012, we realized a more detailed mapping. These results confirmed those performed earlier and allowed to confirm the assumptions made in the final decommissioning plan. We set-up the terms of reference for the first decommissioning phase of the reactor namely the dismantling of the reactor i.e. reactor pool, circuits and rabbit system, equipment's and ventilation ducts. The removal of asbestos is also included into this phase. We conducted the selection process and the awarding of this

  16. Technical and economic aspects of nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glauberman, H.; Manion, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plants may be decommissioned by one of three primary methods, namely, mothballing, entombing, or dismantling or by using combinations such as mothballing or entombing for a period of time followed by dismantling. Mothballing or entombing both result in an end-product which require surveillance and maintenance for a significant period of time to ensure protection of public health and safety. This paper discusses costs for each of the decommissioning methods, including factors that will influence the method selected as well as the total costs. Decommissioning costs have been estimated for a 1100 MW(e) light water reactor within one year after shutdown following forty years of operation. The basic economic parameters for each decommissioning method were developed using unit cost factors based on known costs of previously decommissioned reactors. Decommissioning cost estimates range from less than four million dollars for mothballing to about forty million dollars for complete dismantling. Estimated cost of entombment is about ten million dollars. Subsequent annual cost of surveillance and maintenance for a reactor facility using the mothballing or entombment method could be as high as $200,000. Although some tooling development will be needed for the removal of the highly activated reactor vessel segments and internals, technology is currently available and has been demonstrated on prior decommissionings, e.g., the BONUS and HALLUM reactor entombments and the Elk River Reactor complete dismantling. Costs associated with decommissioning are significant; however, allowance for them either as a one-time construction period sinking fund or annual depreciation type operating allowance will have little impact on either construction or operating costs

  17. Meeting on Solute/Solvent Interactions Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on May 29-30, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    the magnitudes of the nuclear charges and therefore cannot be assumed to indicate relative reactivities toward nucleophiles. There is accordingly no...APPENDIX 3 ORGANIZATIONS OF AUTHORS IN THESE PROCEEDINGS Central Michigan University 49 Instituto de Quimica Fisica 33 La Sierra University, Riverside 71...Aberdeen Proving Gd, MD Joxe-Luis Abbud Christopher Cramer Instituto de Quimica Fisica SMCCR-RSP-C "Rocasolano" U.S. Army Chemical RD&E Center Conajo

  18. Basic Research about Calculation of the Decommissioning Unit Cost based on The KRR-2 Decommissioning Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Ha, Jea-Hyun; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the data of decommissioning activity experience through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). Some country such as Japan and The United States have the information for decommissioning experience of the NPP and publish reports on decommissioning cost analysis. These reports as valuable data be used to compare with the decommissioning unit cost. In particular, need a method to estimate the decommissioning cost of the NPP because there is no decommissioning experience of NPP in case of Korea. makes possible to predict the more precise prediction about the decommissioning unit cost. But still, there are many differences on calculation for the decommissioning unit cost in domestic and foreign country. Typically, it is difficult to compare with data because published not detailed reports. Therefore, field of estimation for decommissioning cost have to use a unified framework in order to the decommissioning cost be provided to exact of the decommissioning cost.

  19. Basic Research about Calculation of the Decommissioning Unit Cost based on The KRR-2 Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Ha, Jea-Hyun; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook

    2015-01-01

    The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the data of decommissioning activity experience through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). Some country such as Japan and The United States have the information for decommissioning experience of the NPP and publish reports on decommissioning cost analysis. These reports as valuable data be used to compare with the decommissioning unit cost. In particular, need a method to estimate the decommissioning cost of the NPP because there is no decommissioning experience of NPP in case of Korea. makes possible to predict the more precise prediction about the decommissioning unit cost. But still, there are many differences on calculation for the decommissioning unit cost in domestic and foreign country. Typically, it is difficult to compare with data because published not detailed reports. Therefore, field of estimation for decommissioning cost have to use a unified framework in order to the decommissioning cost be provided to exact of the decommissioning cost

  20. Demonstration of safety of decommissioning of facilities using radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, Borislava; O'Donnell, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    at national and regional level (e.g. Europe); (4) the international projects such as DeSa (Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety during Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities) and its planned follow-up, R 2 D 2 P and Iraq project; as well as (5) through training and education of specialists working in the field of decommissioning and (6) facilitation of the exchange of knowledge and experience between all Member States (e.g. Athens conference in 2006, International decommissioning forum, Annual forum for operators and regulators in decommissioning). The ongoing cooperation with Member States shows that the areas of specific interest for the Member States remain the following: the relevant safety criteria and safety assessment methodology to be applied to decommissioning; application of the graded approach in the development and review of safety assessments or decommissioning plans; evolution of the decommissioning plan and the supporting arguments through the decommissioning project. This paper presents a summary of the recent IAEA activities and projects on demonstration of safety during decommissioning and the lessons learned to date. (author)

  1. Feasibility studies for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladky, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with planning of decommission of the NPPs A1, V1 and V2 Bohunice and Mochovce. It was concluded that: Used model for decommissioning parameters assessment has been suitable for elaboration of initial decommissioning plans (feasibility studies); Basic assessment of main decommissioning parameters and basic comparison of various decommissioning options have been possible; Improvement of the model and corresponding software is desirable and works on software improvement began one year ago; V1-NPP initial decommissioning plan should be actualized, because initial decommissioning plan does not correspond by its content and structure to requirements of Act No. 130/98 and Nuclear Regulatory Authority Degree No. 246/99; Strategy of radioactive wastes treatment and conditioning together with technical provisions at Jaslovske Bohunice site was changed in comparison with the assumptions in 1991-92; Considered V1 NPP decommissioning options are necessary to be re-evaluated in accordance with latest development of knowledge and approaches to NPP decommissioning in the world; Specific unit costs are substantially and differentially changed in comparison with the assumptions in 1991-92; Necessity to take into account technical changes resulted from V1 NPP reconstruction. (author)

  2. NPP Krsko decommissioning concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novsak, M.; Fink, K.; Spiler, J.

    1996-01-01

    At the end of the operational lifetime of a nuclear power plant (NPP) it is necessary to take measures for the decommissioning as stated in different international regulations and also in the national Slovenian law. Based on these requirements Slovenian authorities requested the development of a site specific decommissioning plan for the NPP Krsko. In September 1995, the Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) developed a site specific scope and content for a decommissioning plan including the assumptions for determination of the decommissioning costs. The NEK Decommissioning Plan contains sufficient information to fulfill the decommissioning requirements identified by NRC, IAEA and OECD - NEA regulations. In this paper the activities and results of development of NEK Decommissioning Plan consisting of the development of three decommissioning strategies for the NPP Krsko and selection of the most suitable strategy based on site specific, social, technical, radiological and economic aspects, cost estimates for the strategies including the costs for construction of final disposal facilities for fuel/high level waste (fuel/HLW) and low/intermediate level waste (LLW/ILW) and scheduling of all activities necessary for the decommissioning of the NPP Krsko are presented. (author)

  3. NPP Krsko decommissioning concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novsak, M.; Fink, K.; Spiler, J.

    1996-01-01

    At the end of the operational lifetime of a nuclear power plant (NPP) it is necessary to take measures for the decommissioning as stated in different international regulations and also in the national Slovenian law. Based on these requirements Slovenian authorities requested the development of a site specific decommissioning plan for the NPP KRSKO. In September 1995, the Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) developed a site specific scope and content for decommissioning plan including the assumptions for determination of the decommissioning costs. The NEK Decommissioning Plan contains sufficient information to fulfill decommissioning requirements identified by NRC, IAEA and OECD - NEA regulations. In this paper the activities and the results of development of NEK Decommissioning Plan consisting of the development of three decommissioning strategies for the NPP Krsko and selection of the most suitable strategy based on site specific, social, technical, radiological and economical aspects, cost estimates for the strategies including the costs for construction of final disposal facilities for fuel/high level waste (fuel/HLW) and low/intermediate level waste (LLW/ILW) and scheduling all activities necessary for the decommissioning of the NPP KRSKO are presented. (author)

  4. Eficiência produtiva em vacas primíparas das raças Aberdeen Angus e Charolês Productive efficiency of Angus and Charolais primiparous cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luis de Azambuja Ribeiro

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo de vacas de corte. Foram utilizadas 30 vacas da raça Aberdeen Angus e 32 da raça Charolês primíparas, prenhes no início do experimento, com bezerros puros ou mestiços Nelore. As vacas foram submetidas a diferentes tratamentos alimentares durante o inverno e a primavera: T1 - pastagem natural, T2 - pastagem cultivada por 60 dias (24 horas/dia, do início de setembro ao início de novembro, T3 - acesso à pastagem cultivada por duas horas diárias, por um período de 60 dias (de início de julho ao início de setembro, T4 - acesso à pastagem cultivada por duas horas diárias, por um período de 60 dias (de início de julho ao início de setembro, e mais 60 dias (24 horas/dia de pastagem cultivada do início de setembro ao início de novembro. As medidas de eficiência produtiva foram: EPPARTO = (P205/PVP*100; EPDESMAME = (P205/PVD*100; EPMBPARTO = (P205/PVP0,75; EPMBDESMAME = (P205/PVD0,75; e EPNDT = NDTTOTAL/P205, em que P205 é o peso ao desmame dos bezerros; PVP e PVD, os pesos das vacas ao parto e ao desmame, respectivamente; e NDTTOTAL, a exigência em energia para manutenção e produção de leite das vacas. As vacas Aberdeen Angus, com bezerros machos e aquelas com bezerros mestiços, foram mais eficientes. Vacas que utilizaram a pastagem cultivada por um período de tempo maior (T4 tiveram melhor desempenho do que aquelas que permaneceram apenas em pastagem natural(T1; as vacas dos outros tratamentos tiveram desempenhos intermediários.The objective of this work was to evaluate the productive efficiency of beef cows. Thirty Angus and 32 Charolais primiparous cows, pregnant at the beginning of the experiment with straightbred or crossbred calves, were evaluated. The cows were submitted to different feeding management during winter and spring: T1 -- Native pasture, T2 -- Cultivated pasture for 60 days (24 hours/day, from early September to early November, T3

  5. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friske, A.; Thiele, D.

    1988-01-01

    The IAEA classification of decommissioning stages is outlined. The international development hitherto observed in decommissioning of nuclear reactors and nuclear power stations is presented. The dismantling, cutting and decontamination methods used in the decommissioning process are mentioned. The radioactive wastes from decommissioning are characterized, the state of the art of their treatment and disposal is given. The radiation burdens and the decommissioning cost in a decommissioning process are estimated. Finally, some evaluation of the trends in the decommissioning process of nuclear power plants is given. 54 refs. (author)

  6. Economic aspects of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenne, C.

    1988-01-01

    Two viewpoints on decommissioning are quoted; the first suggests that decommissioning can be viewed as a technical detail that is of limited relevance whereas the second suggests that decommissioning is a key financial issue. Both are specifically relevant to United Kingdom nuclear power stations. This paper attempts to reconcile the two views. It suggests that decommissioning does raise some important issues for regulation and financing of a privatised industry but, despite this, the economics of nuclear do remain insensitive. The paper begins by examining the significance of decommissioning costs in a number of contexts, including nuclear unit generating costs and financing requirements. It then addresses the degree of uncertainty in the decommissioning cost estimates. With privatisation on the horizon, the paper considers the significance of decommissioning and the associated uncertainty for the investor; this last section considers regulatory issues raised in relation to funding, accounting policy and electricity pricing. (author)

  7. Decommissioning engineering systems for nuclear facilities and knowledge inheritance for decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Information on construction, operation and maintenance of a nuclear facility is essential in order to plan and implement the decommissioning of the nuclear facility. A decommissioning engineering system collects these information efficiently, retrieves necessary information rapidly, and support to plan the reasonable decommissioning as well as the systematic implementation of dismantling activities. Then, knowledge of workers involved facility operation and dismantling activities is important because decommissioning of nuclear facility will be carried out for a long period. Knowledge inheritance for decommissioning has been carried out in various organizations. This report describes an outline of and experiences in applying decommissioning engineering systems in JAEA and activities related to knowledge inheritance for decommissioning in some organizations. (author)

  8. 1982 international decommissioning symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickelson, S.

    1982-01-01

    Sixty-four papers were presented at the following sessions: policy, regulations, and standards; management of decommissioning wastes; decommissioning experience; decommissioning tooling and techniques; radiological concerns; and planning and engineering

  9. Decommissioning of multiple-reactor stations: facilitation by sequential decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, E.B.; Smith, R.I.; Wittenbrock, N.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reductions in cost and radiation dose can be achieved for decommissionings at multiple reactor stations because of factors not necessarily present at a single reactor station: reactors of similar design, the opportunity for sequential decommissioning, a site dedicated to nuclear power generation, and the option of either interim or permanent low-level radioactive waste storage facilities onsite. The cost and radiation dose reductions occur because comprehensive decommissioning planning need only be done once, because the labor force is stable and need only be trained once, because there is less handling of radioactive wastes, and because central stores, equipment, and facilities may be used. The cost and radiation dose reductions are sensitive to the number and types of reactors on the site, and to the alternatives selected for decommissioning. 3 tables

  10. Lessons Learned for Decommissioning Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Wook; Kim, Young-gook; Kim, Hee-keun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the U.S. nuclear industrial's some key lessons learned especially for decommissioning planning based on which well informed decommissioning planning can be carried out. For a successful decommissioning, it is crucial to carry out a well-organized decommissioning planning before the decommissioning starts. This paper discussed four key factors which should be decided or considered carefully during the decommissioning planning period with introduction of related decommissioning lessons learned of U.S. nuclear industry. Those factors which have been discussed in this paper include the end state of a site, the overall decommissioning strategy, the management of the spent fuels, and the spent fuel pool island. Among them, the end state of a site should be decided first as it directs the whole decommissioning processes. Then, decisions on the overall decommissioning strategy (DECON vs. SAFSTOR) and the management of the spent fuels (wet vs. dry) should follow. Finally, the spent fuel pool island should be given due consideration because its implementation will result in much cost saving. Hopefully, the results of this paper would provide useful inputs to performing the decommissioning planing for the Kori unit 1

  11. Decommissioning of Ukrainian NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skripov, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    The decision about the development of 'Decommissioning Concept of Ukrainian NPPs' being on commercial operational stage was approved by NAEK 'Energoatom' Board of Administration by way of the decommissioning activity effective planning. The Concept will be the branch document, containing common approaches formulations on problem decisions according to the units decommissioning with generated resources, and RAW and SNF management strategy during decommissioning

  12. Decommissioning experience at UKAEA Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Winfrith Site was used for development of nuclear reactors, particularly the 100 MW(e) Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) and the 30 MW gas-cooled DRAGON reactor. Following the closure of the SGHWR reactor in 1990 the site has run down nuclear operations by removing from site most of the high level hazards from both reactors and then commencing the decommissioning of major items of plant and other site facilities. After the SGHWR was shut down, UKAEA prepared a decommissioning programme for this plant comprising a multistage process, each to be subjected to a competitive tendering operation. The recently completed Stage 1 decommissioning contract, awarded to Nuvia in 2005, involved decommissioning and removal of all the ancillary plant and equipment in the secondary containment and non-containment areas of the plant. The decommissioning processes involved with these large and heavy plant items will be described with some emphasis of the establishment of multiple work-fronts for the production, recovery, treatment and disposal of mainly tritium contaminated waste arising from its contact with the direct cycle reactor coolant. The means of size reduction of a variety of large, heavy and complex items of plant made from a range of materials will also be described with some emphasis on the control of fumes during hot cutting operations. Over the past 18 years Nuvia has gained vast experience with decommissioning operations on redundant nuclear plant and facilities on the Winfrith Site and has been extremely successful in meeting its contractual obligations in a safe and efficient manner. The final section of the paper will dwell upon the key issues that have made a difference in achieving these objectives for the benefit of others involved in similar operations. (author)

  13. Guidelines of Decommissioning Schedule Establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Yun, Taesik; Kim, Younggook; Kim, Hee-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Decommissioning has recently become an issue highlighted in Korea due to the Permanent Shutdown (PS) of Kori-1 plant. Since Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) Company decided the PS of Kori-1 instead of further continued operation, Kori-1 will be the first decommissioning plant of the commercial reactors in Korea. Korean regulatory authority demands Initial Decommissioning Plan (IDP) for all the plants in operation and under construction. In addition, decommissioning should be considered for the completion of the life cycle of NPPs. To date, Korea has no experience regarding decommissioning of the commercial reactor and a lot of uncertainties will be expected due to its site-specific factors. However, optimized decommissioning process schedule must be indispensable in the safety and economic efficiency of the project. Differed from USA, Korea has no experience and know-hows of the operation and site management for decommissioning. Hence, in Korea, establishment of decommissioning schedule has to give more weight to safety than precedent cases. More economical and rational schedule will be composed by collecting and analyzing the experience data and site-specific data and information as the decommissioning progresses. In a long-range outlook, KHNP having capability of NPP decommissioning will try to decommissioning business in Korea and foreign countries.

  14. A nationwide modelling approach to decommissioning - 16182

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Bernard; Lowe, Andy; Mort, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a proposed UK national approach to modelling decommissioning. For the first time, we shall have an insight into optimizing the safety and efficiency of a national decommissioning strategy. To do this we use the General Case Integrated Waste Algorithm (GIA), a universal model of decommissioning nuclear plant, power plant, waste arisings and the associated knowledge capture. The model scales from individual items of plant through cells, groups of cells, buildings, whole sites and then on up to a national scale. We describe the national vision for GIA which can be broken down into three levels: 1) the capture of the chronological order of activities that an experienced decommissioner would use to decommission any nuclear facility anywhere in the world - this is Level 1 of GIA; 2) the construction of an Operational Research (OR) model based on Level 1 to allow rapid what if scenarios to be tested quickly (Level 2); 3) the construction of a state of the art knowledge capture capability that allows future generations to learn from our current decommissioning experience (Level 3). We show the progress to date in developing GIA in levels 1 and 2. As part of level 1, GIA has assisted in the development of an IMechE professional decommissioning qualification. Furthermore, we describe GIA as the basis of a UK-Owned database of decommissioning norms for such things as costs, productivity, durations etc. From level 2, we report on a pilot study that has successfully tested the basic principles for the OR numerical simulation of the algorithm. We then highlight the advantages of applying the OR modelling approach nationally. In essence, a series of 'what if...' scenarios can be tested that will improve the safety and efficiency of decommissioning. (authors)

  15. Optimization of costs versus radiation exposures in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konzek, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    The estimated worth of decommissioning optimization planning during each phase of the reactor's life cycle is dependent on many variables. The major variables are tabulated and relatively ranked. For each phase, optimization qualitative values (i.e., cost, safety, maintainability, ALARA, and decommissioning considerations) are estimated and ranked according to their short-term and long-term potential benefits. These estimates depend on the quality of the input data, interpretation of that data, and engineering judgment. Once identified and ranked, these considerations form an integral part of the information data base from which estimates, decisions, and alternatives are derived. The optimization of costs and the amount of occupational radiation exposure reductions are strongly interrelated during decommissioning. Realizing that building the necessary infrastructure for decommissioning will take time is an important first step in any decommissioning plan. In addition, the following conclusions are established to achieve optimization of costs and reduced occupational radiation exposures: the assignment of cost versus man-rem is item-specific and sensitive to the expertise of many interrelated disciplines; a commitment to long-term decommissioning planning by management will provide the conditions needed to achieve optimization; and, to be most effective, costs and exposure reduction are sensitive to the nearness of the decommissioning operation. For a new plant, it is best to start at the beginning of the cycle, update continually, consider innovations, and realize full potential and benefits of this concept. For an older plant, the life cycle methodology permits a comprehensive review of the plant history and the formulation of an orderly decommissioning program based on planning, organization, and effort

  16. Desempenho de bovinos jovens das raças Aberdeen Angus e Hereford, confinados e alimentados com dois níveis de energia Feedlot performance of young Aberdeen Angus and Hereford steers fed with two energy levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Luiz Brondani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o desempenho de bovinos machos não-castrados das raças Aberdeen Angus (AA e Hereford (HE em confinamento, submetidos a dois níveis de energia, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2, sendo o menor nível com 3,07 e o maior com 3,18 Mcal/kg de energia digestível (12 e 32% de concentrado na dieta, respectivamente. Foram utilizados oito animais da raça AA e oito HE, com idade inicial de nove meses e peso médio inicial de 220,31 kg, que permaneceram confinados até que o peso da carcaça atingiu o mínimo de 190 kg (estimativa. Os animais da raça AA apresentaram maior consumo de MS, em % PV (2,27 vs 2,10% e em g/kg0,75 (91,4 vs 86,4 g. Os animais que consumiram o maior nível de energia na dieta apresentaram maiores consumos de MS/dia (6,31 vs 5,71 kg, em PV (2,26 vs 2,11% e em g/kg0,75 (92,28 vs 85,44 g, de energia digestível (ED, em Mcal/dia (20,58 vs 18,13 Mcal, e de PB, em kg/dia (0,845 vs 0,759 kg, além de maior ganho médio diário de peso (1,409 vs 1,250 kg. Os animais que consumiram o menor nível apresentaram maiores consumos de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, em kg/dia (2,23 vs 2,07 kg, e de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, em kg/dia (1,13 vs 1,01 kg. Os consumos de MS/dia, de FDN e de FDA, nos animais que consumiram o menor nível de energia, tiveram comportamento linear e, naqueles que receberam o maior nível, comportamento quadrático, frente aos períodos de confinamento. Para as características consumo de MS, em %PV e em g/kg0,75, nos tratamentos com menor nível de energia, o comportamento foi de forma cúbica e naqueles de maior nível, de forma quadrática. O consumo de ED apresentou, nos períodos, comportamento linear para o menor nível energético e cúbico para o maior nível.The feedlot performance of Aberdeen Angus (AA and Hereford (HE steers submitted to two energy levels, in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme, being the lower level of 3.07 (12% of concentrate in the diet and the higher of 3.18 Mcal of digestible energy

  17. Basic Research on Selecting ISDC Activity for Decommissioning Costing in KRR-2 Decommissioning Project Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    KAERI is performing research for calculation of expected time of a decommissioning work and evaluation of decommissioning cost and this research calculate a decommissioning work unit productivity based on the experience data of decommissioning activity for KRR-2. The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the experience data from the decommissioning activity through the Decommissioning Information Management System (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), and Decommissioning Work-unit Productivity Calculation System (DEWOCS). In this paper, the methodology was presented how select the ISDC activities in dismantling work procedures of a 'removal of radioactive concrete'. The reason to select the 'removal of radioactive concrete' is main key activity and generates the amount of radioactive waste. This data will take advantage of the cost estimation after the code for the selected items derived ISDC. There are various efforts for decommissioning costing in each country. In particular, OECD/NEA recommends decommissioning cost estimation using the ISDC and IAEA provides for Cost Estimation for Research Reactors in Excel (CERREX) program that anyone is easy to use the cost evaluation from a limited decommissioning experience in domestic. In the future, for the decommissioning cost evaluation, the ISDC will be used more widely in a strong position. This paper has described a method for selecting the ISDC item from the actual dismantling work procedures.

  18. In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrato, Michael G.; Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    government and private industry decommissioning applications. SRS offers critical services based upon the SRS experience in decommissioning and reactor entombment technology (e.g., grout formulations for varying conditions, structural and material sciences). The SRS ISD approach follows a systems engineering framework to achieve a regulatory acceptable end state based on established protocols, attains the final end state with minimal long stewardship requirements, protects industrial workers, and protects groundwater and the environment. The ISD systems engineering framework addresses key areas of the remedial process planning, technology development and deployment, and assessment to attain the ultimate goal of natural resource stewardship and protecting the public. The development and deployment of the SRS ISD approach has established a path for ISD of other large nuclear facilities in the United States and around the globe as an acceptable remedial alternative for decommissioning nuclear facilities. (authors)

  19. In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, Michael G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    international government and private industry decommissioning applications. SRS offers critical services based upon the SRS experience in decommissioning and reactor entombment technology (e.g., grout formulations for varying conditions, structural and material sciences). The SRS ISD approach follows a systems engineering framework to achieve a regulatory acceptable end state based on established protocols, attains the final end state with minimal long stewardship requirements, protects industrial workers, and protects groundwater and the environment. The ISD systems engineering framework addresses key areas of the remedial process planning, technology development and deployment, and assessment to attain the ultimate goal of natural resource stewardship and protecting the public. The development and deployment of the SRS ISD approach has established a path for ISD of other large nuclear facilities in the United States and around the globe as an acceptable remedial alternative for decommissioning nuclear facilities. (authors)

  20. Report on the Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) of the Vehicular- Mounted Mine Detection (VMMD) Systems at Aberdeen, Maryland, and Socorro, New Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rotondo, Frank

    1998-01-01

    .... The advanced technology demonstration took place at the Aberdeen Test Center, Aberdeen, Maryland, on June 8-19, 1998, and the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center, Socorro, New Mexico, on July 13-24, 1998...

  1. Workshop on decommissioning; Seminarium om avveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. (ed.)

    2005-12-15

    A Nordic workshop on decommissioning of nuclear facilities was held at Risoe in Denmark September 13-15, 2005. The workshop was arranged by NKS in cooperation with the company Danish Decommissioning, DD, responsible for decommissioning of nuclear facilities at Risoe. Oral presentations were made within the following areas: International and national recommendations and requirements concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities Authority experiences of decommissioning cases Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Denmark Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Sweden Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Norway Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Finland Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in German and the UK Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the former Soviet Union Results from research and development A list with proposals for future work within NKS has been prepared based on results from group-work and discussions. The list contains strategic, economical and political issues, technical issues and issues regarding competence and communication. (au)

  2. Safety Assessment for Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    In the past few decades, international guidance has been developed on methods for assessing the safety of predisposal and disposal facilities for radioactive waste. More recently, it has been recognized that there is also a need for specific guidance on safety assessment in the context of decommissioning nuclear facilities. The importance of safety during decommissioning was highlighted at the International Conference on Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities held in Berlin in 2002 and at the First Review Meeting of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management in 2003. At its June 2004 meeting, the Board of Governors of the IAEA approved the International Action Plan on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (GOV/2004/40), which called on the IAEA to: ''establish a forum for the sharing and exchange of national information and experience on the application of safety assessment in the context of decommissioning and provide a means to convey this information to other interested parties, also drawing on the work of other international organizations in this area''. In response, in November 2004, the IAEA launched the international project Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety for Decommissioning of Facilities Using Radioactive Material (DeSa) with the following objectives: -To develop a harmonized approach to safety assessment and to define the elements of safety assessment for decommissioning, including the application of a graded approach; -To investigate the practical applicability of the methodology and performance of safety assessments for the decommissioning of various types of facility through a selected number of test cases; -To investigate approaches for the review of safety assessments for decommissioning activities and the development of a regulatory approach for reviewing safety assessments for decommissioning activities and as a basis for regulatory decision making; -To provide a forum

  3. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  4. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for

  5. The Reuse of Decommissioned Facilities and Sites as an Emerging Means to Alleviate the Decommissioning Burden and its Potential Applications within IAEA's International Decommissioning Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraia, M.

    2009-01-01

    Around the world, but particularly in developing Member States, there are disused nuclear facilities or those approaching the end of their useful lives, for which appropriate decommissioning steps have not been taken, primarily due to limited technical and financial resources or competing priorities. One way of alleviating the financial and social burden associated with the final shutdown and decommissioning of nuclear facilities is the redevelopment of decommissioned facilities and sites for new, productive uses, either nuclear or non-nuclear. Sustainable development implies economic development with maintenance of social and community integrity. This objective can best be served by the sensitive redevelopment of sites to provide continuity of employment and new productive activity. Finally, experience to date with redevelopment both inside and outside the nuclear field suggests that successful engagement of the stakeholders can be a key success factor in promoting outcomes which are both profitable for the operator and recognised as responsible and worthwhile by the wider community. Following a generic discussion on factors and issues inherent to the re-development of decommissioned sites, this paper expands on several examples. It is noted that experience from the non-nuclear industrial sector is much more extensive than from the nuclear sector, and lessons from this sector should not be neglected. Many of world's nuclear facilities are small and widely distributed geographically, e.g. ∼300 aging or shut-down research reactors. Requests for assistance to address this issue from Member States exceed the capability of IAEA (and others) to deliver. However, integrating individual initiative into a designed-for-purpose network may compensate for these limitations. A new IAEA initiative amongst organizations from both potential 'donor' and 'recipient' Member States has taken the form of an 'International Decommissioning Network (IDN)'. The objectives of the IDN are

  6. Comparison of standardised decommissioning costing tools on pilot Vienna TRIGA MARK-II research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornacek, M.; Kristofova, K.; Slugen, V.; Zachar, M.; Stummer, T.

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to compare decommissioning costing code CERREX (Cost Estimation for Research Reactors in Excel) with advanced calculation methodology applied in eOMEGA-RR code. CERREX code was developed in line with the IAEA recommendations for decommissioning costing of research facilities and fully implements the ISDC (International Structure for Decommissioning Costing of Nuclear Installations) structure and costing methodology. In comparison with CERREX, usually applied in preliminary costing, the code eOMEGA-RR incorporates the realistic activity and material flow during decommissioning process (e.g. decontamination, dismantling and waste management). This advanced approach enables to carry out the decommissioning planning and costing more effectively. Moreover, the user-friendly interface helps to perform wide range of sensitivity analyses. In order to meet the above mentioned objectives, the model calculation costing case for TRIGA MARK-II research reactor in Vienna was developed in both calculation codes. The whole process covered four step-by-step procedures to be implemented. At first, inventory database taking into account physical as well as radiological parameters (e.g.: contamination, dose rates, nuclide vectors, limits and conditions) was developed. At second, advanced decommissioning costing case using CERREX and eOMEGA-RR code was created. At third, sensitivity analyses to estimate the impact of changing input parameters on calculated results were performed. Finally, costing results obtained from both cost calculation codes are compared and discussed. (authors)

  7. Guideline to Estimate Decommissioning Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Taesik; Kim, Younggook; Oh, Jaeyoung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The primary objective of this work is to provide guidelines to estimate the decommissioning cost as well as the stakeholders with plausible information to understand the decommissioning activities in a reasonable manner, which eventually contribute to acquiring the public acceptance for the nuclear power industry. Although several cases of the decommissioning cost estimate have been made for a few commercial nuclear power plants, the different technical, site-specific and economic assumptions used make it difficult to interpret those cost estimates and compare them with that of a relevant plant. Trustworthy cost estimates are crucial to plan a safe and economic decommissioning project. The typical approach is to break down the decommissioning project into a series of discrete and measurable work activities. Although plant specific differences derived from the economic and technical assumptions make a licensee difficult to estimate reliable decommissioning costs, estimating decommissioning costs is the most crucial processes since it encompasses all the spectrum of activities from the planning to the final evaluation on whether a decommissioning project has successfully been preceded from the perspective of safety and economic points. Hence, it is clear that tenacious efforts should be needed to successfully perform the decommissioning project.

  8. Radiological characterization and challenges at decommissioning sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Scott Moore described the dose-based radiological characterisation process used in the USA, and four current characterisation issues faced there. His paper emphasized the importance of characterisation to control decommissioning hazards and costs: The License Termination Rule (LTR), Subpart E to 10 CFR Part 20, provides the dose-based criteria that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) uses as the basis for regulating cleanup at material and reactor sites. The LTR permits the release of sites for unrestricted use, if the radioactivity that is distinguishable from background results in a total effective dose equivalent to an average member of a critical group that does not exceed 0.25 milli-Sievert per year (mSv/yr) (25 milli-rem/year) and the residual radioactivity has been reduced to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Additionally, the LTR establishes criteria for license termination with restrictions on future land use, which allow for a dose to the critical group of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 milli-rem/year) with restrictions in place, and 1 mSv/yr (100 milli-rem/year) if the restrictions fail. In certain circumstances as outlined in Subpart E, a dose as high as 5 mSv/yr (500 milli-rem/year) is permitted if restrictions fail. Following issuance of the dose-based LTR in 1997, NRC staff developed the Standard Review Plan for Decommissioning Plans (NUREG-1727). NUREG-1727 is a guidance document that describes the methods that NRC has determined are acceptable for implementing the LTR and other decommissioning regulations. While NUREG-1727 is focused on the review of decommissioning plans for nuclear material sites, it provides general guidance that in many cases is applicable to reactor sites (e.g., review criteria for dose-modeling and radiological surveys). In addition to NUREG-1727, staff developed the Standard Review Plan for Evaluating Nuclear Power Reactor License Termination Plans (NUREG-1700) as specific guidance for reactor decommissioning. NUREG

  9. Bulls semen quality of Aberdeen Angus and Brangus-Ibagé breeds after experimental testicular degeneration induced by dexamethasone

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Marilise Mesquita; Moraes, José Carlos Ferrugem; Galina, Carlos Salvador

    1999-01-01

    Foi administrada dexametasona para indução de degeneração testicular experimental em touros de uma raça taurina pura (Aberdeen Angus) e de sua sintética derivada (Brangus-Ibagé). O objetivo deste estudo foi o de averiguar a diferença de sensibilidade na função gametogênica em frente à degeneração experimental. Para tal, foram avaliados os aspectos físicos e morfológicos do sêmen. Os dados obtidos foram analisados considerando o dia de coleta e genótipo. Os resultados revelaram que os dois gru...

  10. Technical meeting on decommissioning of fast reactors after sodium draining. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the technical meeting was to provide a forum for in-depth scientific and technical exchange on topics related to the decommissioning experience with fast reactors, in particular with regard to the decommissioning of components after sodium draining. Accordingly, the scope of the meeting covers the review and analyses of the experience gained from the decommissioning of both active sodium loops and sodium cooled fast reactors (e.g., KNK II, Superphenix, RAPSODIE, EBR-II, FERMI, BN-350, BR-10). It is expected that the outcome of the meeting will contribute to the Agency initiative to preserve fast reactor data and knowledge. The main focus of the technical meeting was given on the decommissioning of both active loop and reactor components (e.g., the primary vessel of a sodium-cooled reactor) that have been drained of sodium, but that still conserve some residual amounts of sodium (e.g., films covering the entire surface of the component, or particular sodium heels that cannot be drained)

  11. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities; Le demantelement des installations nucleaires de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niel, J.Ch.; Rieu, J.; Lareynie, O.; Delrive, L.; Vallet, J.; Girard, A.; Duthe, M.; Lecomte, C.; Rozain, J.P.; Nokhamzon, J.G.; Davoust, M.; Eyraud, J.L.; Bernet, Ph.; Velon, M.; Gay, A.; Charles, Th.; Leschaeva, M.; Dutzer, M.; Maocec, Ch.; Gillet, G.; Brut, F.; Dieulot, M.; Thuillier, D.; Tournebize, F.; Fontaine, V.; Goursaud, V.; Birot, M.; Le Bourdonnec, Th.; Batandjieva, B.; Theis, St.; Walker, St.; Rosett, M.; Cameron, C.; Boyd, A.; Aguilar, M.; Brownell, H.; Manson, P.; Walthery, R.; Wan Laer, W.; Lewandowski, P.; Dorms, B.; Reusen, N.; Bardelay, J.; Damette, G.; Francois, P.; Eimer, M.; Tadjeddine, A.; Sene, M.; Sene, R

    2008-11-15

    This file includes five parts: the first part is devoted to the strategies of the different operators and includes the following files: the decommissioning of nuclear facilities Asn point of view, decommissioning of secret nuclear facilities, decommissioning at the civil Cea strategy and programs, EDF de-construction strategy, Areva strategy for decommissioning of nuclear facilities; the second one concerns the stakes of dismantling and includes the articles as follow: complete cleanup of buildings structures in nuclear facilities, decommissioning of nuclear facilities and safety assessment, decommissioning wastes management issues, securing the financing of long-term decommissioning and waste management costs, organizational and human factors in decommissioning projects, training for the decommissioning professions: the example of the Grenoble University master degree; the third part is devoted to the management of dismantling work sites and includes the different articles as follow: decommissioning progress at S.I.C.N. plant, example of decommissioning work site in Cea Grenoble: Siloette reactor decommissioning, matters related to decommissioning sites, decommissioning of french nuclear installations: the viewpoint of a specialist company, specificities of inspections during decommissioning: the Asn inspector point of view; the fourth part is in relation with the international approach and includes as follow: IAEA role in establishing a global safety regime on decommissioning, towards harmonization of nuclear safety practices in Europe: W.E.N.R.A. and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, EPA superfund program policy for decontamination and decommissioning, progress with remediation at Sellafield, progress and experiences from the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Belgium, activities of I.R.S.N. and its daughter company Risk-audit I.r.s.n./G.r.s. international in the field of decommissioning of nuclear facilities in eastern countries

  12. The Dynamics of the Regional Innovation around the Oil and Gas Industries: Cases of Stavanger and Aberdeen

    OpenAIRE

    Gjelsvik, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the IRIS and MIT comparative study of the two oil capitals in Europe: Aberdeen and Stavanger, in order to analyze two successful oil and gas clusters. The Norwegian innovation system would be presented in detail. The article also examines the intrinsic role between the universities and the industrial context in the regional innovation system. Este artículo presenta el estudio comparativo entre las dos capitales petroleras de Europa, Aberdeen y Stavanger, realizado por I...

  13. State of decommissioning process in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciuculescu, C.

    2002-01-01

    In Romania, there are several installations that arrived at the decommissioning stage. These installations are: VVR-S research reactor, Sub critical Assembly HELEN, and Zero Power Reactor (RP-0). In this paper, the methods the Romanian Regulatory Body is developing the legal framework for decommissioning process of nuclear installations are described. There is a draft of decommissioning norms for research reactors. This regulation provides each stage of decommissioning and requirements for decommissioning plan. Also, CNCAN has evaluated and made requirements for completion of a VVR-S research reactor decommissioning plan submitted by IFIN-HH. Further, the reasons for which the decommissioning plan was rejected and requirements that the owner of VVR-S research reactor must fulfil in order to receive decommissioning licence are presented. (author)

  14. Preliminary decommissioning plan of the reactor IPEN-MB01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivas, Ary de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, many nuclear plants were built and need to be turned off at a certain time because they are close to their recommended time of use is approximately 50 years. So the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), seeks to guide and recommend a set of guidelines for the conduct of activities of nuclear facilities, with special attention to countries that do not have a framework regulatory Legal that sustain the activities of decommissioning. Brazil, so far, does not have a specific standard to guide the steps of the guidelines regarding decommissioning research reactors. However, in March 2011 a study committee was formed with the main task facing the issues of decommissioning of nuclear installations in Brazil, culminating in Resolution 133 of November 8, 2012, a standard project that treat about the Decommissioning of nucleoelectric plants. O Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has two research reactors one being the reactor IPEN/MB-01. The purpose of this master dissertation is to develop a preliminary plan for decommissioning this research reactor, considering the technical documentation of the facility (RAS-Safety Analysis Report), the existing standards of CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission), as well as IAEA recommendations. In terms of procedures for decommissioning research reactors, this work was based on what is most modern in experiences, strategies and lessons learned performed and documented in IAEA publications covering techniques and technologies for decommissioning. Considering these technical knowledge and due to the peculiarities of the facility, was selected to immediate dismantling strategy, which corresponds to the start of decommissioning activities once the installation is switched off, dividing it into work sectors. As a resource for monitoring and project management of reactor decommissioning and maintenance of records, we developed a database using Microsoft Access 2007, which contain all the items and

  15. Current status of Chernobyl NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Strategy of Chernobyl NPP decommissioning with the decommissioning license 2002-2064 is presented. The main activities at the stage of ChNPP units shutdown (2002 - 2012) are: units maintenance in safe state; decommissioning infrastructure construction; unloading of SNF – main activity determining the stage duration; systems and elements final shutdown; decommissioning life-support systems reconstruction; Comprehensive engineering and radiation survey (CERS); dismantling of the reactor facilities external equipment; removal of RAW from units; decommissioning documentation development. The decommissioning activities main results are presented

  16. Research in decommissioning techniques for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in JNC. 7. JWTF decommissioning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru

    1999-02-01

    Decommissioning techniques such as radiation measuring and monitoring, decontamination, dismantling and remote handling in the world were surveyed to upgrading technical know-how database for decommissioning of Joyo Waste Treatment Facility (JWTF). As the result, five literatures for measuring and monitoring techniques, 14 for decontamination and 22 for dismantling feasible for JWTF decommissioning were obtained and were summarized in tables. On the basis of the research, practical applicability of those techniques to decommissioning of JWTF was evaluated. This report contains brief surveyed summaries related to JWTF decommissioning. (H. Itami)

  17. New projects related to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benbow, R.

    2008-01-01

    The PMU has been established in support of the KNPP Decommissioning Department. All of the Infrastructure Projects associated with Decommissioning have been identified and are being managed through the EBRD Procurement Process. The status of the following projects is presented: Evaluation of the Radiological Inventory for Units 1 to 4; Supply of Size Reduction and Decontamination Workshops; Dismantling Tools and Equipment; Heat Generation Plant; Environmental Assessment for Decommissioning; Decay Storage Site for Transitional RAW ; Information Centres for Decommissioning; Storage Site for Conventional Waste from Decommissioning; Inventory, Treatment an Conditioning of Contaminated Soil; Concrete Core Sampling Analysis; Asbestos Removal Equipment; Demolition Equipment

  18. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on nuclear decommissioning was presented by Dr H. Lawton to a meeting of the British Nuclear Energy Society and Institution of Nuclear Engineers, 1986. The decommissioning work currently being undertaken on the Windscale advanced gas cooled reactor (WAGR) is briefly described, along with projects in other countries, development work associated with the WAGR operation and costs. (U.K.)

  19. Decommissioning in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundqvist, K.

    1999-12-01

    This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe and waterproof conditions for a longer period of

  20. Money Related Decommissioning and Funding Decision Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, Lynne S.

    2008-01-01

    'Money makes the world go round', as the song says. It definitely influences decommissioning decision-making and financial assurance for future decommissioning. This paper will address two money-related decommissioning topics. The first is the evaluation of whether to continue or to halt decommissioning activities at Fermi 1. The second is maintaining adequacy of financial assurance for future decommissioning of operating plants. Decommissioning costs considerable money and costs are often higher than originally estimated. If costs increase significantly and decommissioning is not well funded, decommissioning activities may be deferred. Several decommissioning projects have been deferred when decision-makers determined future spending is preferable than current spending, or when costs have risen significantly. Decommissioning activity timing is being reevaluated for the Fermi 1 project. Assumptions for waste cost-escalation significantly impact the decision being made this year on the Fermi 1 decommissioning project. They also have a major impact on the estimated costs for decommissioning currently operating plants. Adequately funding full decommissioning during plant operation will ensure that the users who receive the benefit pay the full price of the nuclear-generated electricity. Funding throughout operation also will better ensure that money is available following shutdown to allow decommissioning to be conducted without need for additional funds

  1. The History and Evolution of the IAEA Technical Assistance Programme on Decommissioning and the International Decommissioning Network as its Highest Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraia, M.

    2009-01-01

    Around the world, but particularly in developing Member States, there are disused nuclear facilities or those approaching the end of their useful lives, for which appropriate decommissioning steps have not been taken, primarily due to limited technical and financial resources or competing priorities. In line with its mission to encourage safe and peaceful applications of nuclear energy, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) systematically covers the technical, regulatory, radiation protection, planning, management, and economic aspects related to the decommissioning of nuclear installations. The IAEA's overall objective of the decommissioning programme is to assist its Member States in developing the required expertise, equipment, and programmes so that they can decommission their nuclear facilities in a safe, timely, and cost-effective manner. Technical Cooperation (TC) with Member States having limited resources is commonly provided in the form of workshops, expert missions, equipment design and procurement, training courses, fellowships and scientific visits. Key examples are provided in this paper to illustrate the start, evolution and current status of TC activities and typical mechanisms by which such activities are implemented. Many of world's nuclear facilities are small and widely distributed geographically, e.g. ∼300 aging or shut-down research reactors. Requests for assistance to address this issue from Member States exceed the capability of IAEA (and others) to deliver. However, integrating individual initiative into a designed-for-purpose network may compensate for these limitations. A new IAEA initiative amongst organizations from both potential 'donor' and 'recipient' Member States has taken the form of an 'International Decommissioning Network (IDN)'. The objectives of the IDN are to improve the flow of knowledge and experience amongst those engaged in decommissioning, and specifically to enhance the 'user-oriented' focus for all IAEA

  2. Decommissioning of NPP A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation the Operation history of A1 NPP, Project 'Decommissioning of A1 NPP' - I stage, Project 'Decommissioning of A1 NPP ' - II stage and Next stages of Project 'Decommissioning of A1 NPP ' are discussed.

  3. Fort St. Vrain decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.

    1998-01-01

    Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), owner of the Fort St. Vrain nuclear generating station, achieved its final decommissioning goal on August 5, 1997 when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission terminated the Part 50 reactor license. PSCo pioneered and completed the world's first successful decommissioning of a commercial nuclear power plant after many years of operation. In August 1989, PSCo decided to permanently shutdown the reactor and proceed with its decommissioning. The decision to proceed with early dismantlement as the appropriate decommissioning method proved wise for all stake holders - present and future - by mitigating potential environmental impacts and reducing financial risks to company shareholders, customers, employees, neighboring communities and regulators. We believe that PSCo's decommissioning process set an exemplary standard for the world's nuclear industry and provided leadership, innovation, advancement and distinguished contributions to other decommissioning efforts throughout the world. (author)

  4. Information management for decommissioning projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeClair, A.N.; Lemire, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the importance of records and information management for decommissioning projects. Key decommissioning information and elements of a sound information management strategy are identified. Various knowledge management strategies and tools are discussed as opportunities for leveraging decommissioning information. The paper also examines the implementation of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) strategy for the long term preservation of decommissioning information, and its initiatives in leveraging of information with the application of several knowledge management strategies and tools. The implementation of AECL's strategy illustrates common as well as unique information and knowledge management challenges and opportunities for decommissioning projects. (author)

  5. Publishing at "the request of friends": Alexander Ross and James Beattie’s Authorial Networks in Eighteenth-Century Aberdeen

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Knezevich

    2016-01-01

    Authorship in eighteenth-century Aberdeen often functioned differently than in London and Edinburgh. The Aberdeen model of authorship relied heavily on an intricate network of booksellers, patrons, readers, and critics involved in preparing a text to be consumed by the reading public; yet the prevailing narrative of the author as rising to “inspired genius” disallows for this network. The authorial career of poet Alexander Ross and his friend/mentorship with philosopher James Beattie offers a...

  6. Development of decommissioning system engineering technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. W.; Kim, S. K.; Seo, B. K.

    2012-02-01

    In the decommissioning planning stage, it is important to select the optimized decommissioning process considering the cost and safety. Especially the selection of the optimized decommissioning process is necessary because it affects to improve worker's safety and decommissioning work efficiency. The decommissioning process evaluation technology can provide the optimized decommissioning process as constructing various decommissioning scenarios and it can help to prevent the potential accidents as delivering the exact work procedures to workers and to help workers to perform decommissioning work skillfully. It's necessary to measure the radioactive contamination in the highly contaminated facilities such as hot-cells or glove-boxes to be decommissioned for decommissioning planning. These facilities are very high radiation level, so it is difficult to approach. In this case the detector system is preferable to separate the sensor and electronics, which have to locate in the facility outside to avoid the electric noise and worker's radiation exposure. In this project, we developed the remote detection system for radiation measurement and signal transmission in the high radiation area. In order to minimize worker's exposure when decommissioning highly activated nuclear facilities, it is necessary to develop the remote handling tool to perform the dismantling work remotely. Especially, since cutting, measuring, and decontamination works should be performed remotely in the highly activated area, the remote handling tool for conducting these works should be developed. Therefore, the multi-purpose dismantling machine that can measuring dose, facility cutting, and remote handling for maintenance and decommissioning of highly activated facility should be needed

  7. Decommissioning Combustible Waste Treatment using Oxygen-Enriched Incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byungyoun; Lee, Yoonji; Yun, Gyoungsu; Lee, Kiwon; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of the paper is current status of treatment for the decommissioning combustible waste in KAERI and for the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning combustible wastes generated by the decommissioning projects. The incineration technology has been selected for the treatment of combustible wastes. About 34 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. Temperature, pressure of major components, stack gas concentration, i. e., SOx, NOx, CO, CO{sub 2} and HCl, and the residual oxygen were measured. Measured major parameters during normal operation were sustained on a stable status within a criteria operation condition. Oxygen enriched air, 22vol. % (dry basis) was used for stable incineration. The volume reduction ratio has achieved about 1/117. The incineration with decommissioning radioactive combustible waste is possible with moderate oxygen enrichment of 22 vol.% (dry basis) into the supply air. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas. The pressure, off-gas flow and temperature of major components remained constant within the range specified. The measures gases and particulate materials in stack were considerably below the regulatory limits. The achieved volume reduction ratio through incineration is about 1/117.

  8. Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, Emilio; French, Amanda; Urso, Maria Elena; Deffrennes, Marc; Rothwell, Geoffrey; ); Rehak, Ivan; Weber, Inge; ); Carroll, Simon; Daniska, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    While refurbishments for the long-term operation of nuclear power plants and for the lifetime extension of such plants have been widely pursued in recent years, the number of plants to be decommissioned is nonetheless expected to increase in future, particularly in the United States and Europe. It is thus important to understand the costs of decommissioning so as to develop coherent and cost-effective strategies, realistic cost estimates based on decommissioning plans from the outset of operations and mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered. This study presents the results of an NEA review of the costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants and of overall funding practices adopted across NEA member countries. The study is based on the results of this NEA questionnaire, on actual decommissioning costs or estimates, and on plans for the establishment and management of decommissioning funds. Case studies are included to provide insight into decommissioning practices in a number of countries. (authors)

  9. Comparison of composition and quality traits of meat from young finishing bulls from Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, C; Clinquart, A; Hocquette, J F; Cabaraux, J F; Dufrasne, I; Istasse, L; Hornick, J L

    2006-11-01

    Thirty-six young finishing bulls from three breeds (Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus) were fattened over five months with finishing diets based either on sugar-beet pulp or on cereals. Nutritional quality traits of meat - fat content and fatty acid composition with emphasis on the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - along with some organoleptic quality traits were measured. The Belgian Blue bulls had the lowest intramuscular fat content associated with lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content did not differ to a large extent between the breeds, the Aberdeen Angus bulls showing slightly higher values. Relative to energy intake, the overall contribution of meat to the n-3 fatty acid recommended intake was small, whatever the breed. By contrast, the contribution of meat to daily fat intake was of greater importance, especially for the Aberdeen Angus bulls. The quality traits of meat varied also according to the breed: compared to the Aberdeen Angus, the Belgian Blue bull meat had the stablest colour, the highest drip and the lowest cooking losses. The meat of Limousin bulls had intermediate characteristics for all the parameters.

  10. Decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, S.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear facilities present a number of problems at the end of their working lives. They require dismantling and removal but public and environmental protection remain a priority. The principles and strategies are outlined. Experience of decommissioning in France and the U.K. had touched every major stage of the fuel cycle by the early 1990's. Decommissioning projects attempt to restrict waste production and proliferation as waste treatment and disposal are costly. It is concluded that technical means exist to deal with present civil plant and costs are now predictable. Strategies for decommissioning and future financial provisions are important. (UK)

  11. Decommissioning strategy selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.

    2005-01-01

    At the end of their useful life nuclear facilities have to be decommissioned. The strategy selection on how to decommission a facility is a highly important decision at the very beginning of decommissioning planning. Basically, a facility may be subject to (a) immediate dismantling; (b) deferred dismantling after a period of ''safe enclosure'' or (c) entombment where a facility is turned into a near surface disposal facility. The first two strategies are normally applied. The third one may be accepted in countries without significant nuclear activities and hence without disposal facilities for radioactive waste. A large number of factors has to be taken into account when a decision on the decommissioning strategy is being made. Many of the factors cannot be quantified. They may be qualitative or subject to public opinion which may change with time. At present, a trend can be observed towards immediate dismantling of nuclear facilities, mainly because it is associated with less uncertainty, less local impact, a better public acceptance, and the availability of operational expertise and know how. A detailed evaluation of the various factors relevant to strategy selection and a few examples showing the situation regarding decommissioning strategy in a number of selected countries are presented in the following article. (orig.)

  12. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    The Symposium was jointly sponsored by OECD/NEA and IAEA and was attended by more than 225 participants from 26 countries. Forty one papers were presented in eight sessions which covered the following topics: national and international policies and planning; engineering considerations relevant to decommissioning; radiological release considerations and waste classifications; decommissioning experience; and decontamination and remote operations. In addition, a panel of decommissioning experts discussed questions from the participants

  13. Financing the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Decommissioning of both commercial and R and D nuclear facilities is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, and the largest of such industrial decommissioning projects could command considerable budgets. It is important to understand the costs of decommissioning projects in order to develop realistic cost estimates as early as possible based on preliminary decommissioning plans, but also to develop funding mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered. Sound financial provisions need to be accumulated early on to reduce the potential risk for residual, unfunded liabilities and the burden on future generations, while ensuring environmental protection. Decommissioning planning can be subject to considerable uncertainties, particularly in relation to potential changes in financial markets, in energy policies or in the conditions and requirements for decommissioning individual nuclear installations, and such uncertainties need to be reflected in regularly updated cost estimates. This booklet offers a useful overview of the relevant aspects of financing the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It provides information on cost estimation for decommissioning, as well as details about funding mechanisms and the management of funds based on current practice in NEA member countries. (authors)

  14. Nuclear Decommissioning R and D: a successful history that goes on. Evolution of R and D for nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraia, Michele; )

    2017-01-01

    Research and Development (R and D) in Nuclear Decommissioning date back to the 1980's and 1990's. At that time, decommissioning was a relatively new, sporadic activity; technologies were mostly imported from the non-nuclear field and adapted to nuclear uses (a trend that continues to this day and should not be looked down). R and D were first applied to a laboratory scale, and later on expanded to prototype and pilot installations. The European Commission launched a series of multi-year R and D programmes, ultimately covering the full-scale decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other large installations. Certain installations (especially the BR-3 reactor at Mol, Belgium), were used to test and compare different technologies and assign a ranking based on various factors. In parallel, the US Department of Energy was active in a number of R and D activities, culminating in a number of topical publications until around the year 2000 and the explosive growth of the decommissioning market. In Japan in early 1990's the decommissioning of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) was used to test almost all dismantling techniques being available at that time: the spin-offs of JPDR work were still flowing into the nuclear community until recently. It has to be also highlighted that the Chernobyl accident boosted a spate of decommissioning R and D aimed at solving practical problems in the aftermath of that severe accident. Although R and D in this field peaked around the year 2000, R and D efforts have continued to this day. While decommissioning is not 'rocket science' and it can be safely stated that this industry has reached maturity, there are areas (e.g. management of secondary waste, access, characterization and dismantling in 'difficult' environments) that require further efforts to optimize processes and reduce the still high costs. The IAEA has contributed to these advances in various ways. For example, some 50 topical reports on the decommissioning of

  15. Decommissioning funding: ethics, implementation, uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This status report on Decommissioning Funding: Ethics, Implementation, Uncertainties also draws on the experience of the NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD). The report offers, in a concise form, an overview of relevant considerations on decommissioning funding mechanisms with regard to ethics, implementation and uncertainties. Underlying ethical principles found in international agreements are identified, and factors influencing the accumulation and management of funds for decommissioning nuclear facilities are discussed together with the main sources of uncertainties of funding systems. (authors)

  16. Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. K.; Ji, Y. H.; Park, J. H.; Chung, U. S.

    2010-01-01

    Basically, when a decommissioning is planed for a nuclear facility, an investigation into the characterization of the nuclear facility is first required. The results of such an investigation are used for calculating the quantities of dismantled waste and estimating the cost of the decommissioning project. In this paper, it is presented a computer system for the characterization of nuclear facilities, called DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System). This system consists of four main parts: a management coding system for grouping items, a data input system, a data processing system and a data output system. All data is processed in a simplified and formatted manner in order to provide useful information to the decommissioning planner. For the hardware, PC grade computers running Oracle software on Microsoft Windows OS were selected. The characterization data results for the nuclear facility under decommissioning will be utilized for the work-unit productivity calculation system and decommissioning engineering system as basic sources of information

  17. Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. K.; Ji, Y. H.; Park, J. H.; Chung, U. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Basically, when a decommissioning is planed for a nuclear facility, an investigation into the characterization of the nuclear facility is first required. The results of such an investigation are used for calculating the quantities of dismantled waste and estimating the cost of the decommissioning project. In this paper, it is presented a computer system for the characterization of nuclear facilities, called DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System). This system consists of four main parts: a management coding system for grouping items, a data input system, a data processing system and a data output system. All data is processed in a simplified and formatted manner in order to provide useful information to the decommissioning planner. For the hardware, PC grade computers running Oracle software on Microsoft Windows OS were selected. The characterization data results for the nuclear facility under decommissioning will be utilized for the work-unit productivity calculation system and decommissioning engineering system as basic sources of information

  18. Survey of decontamination and decommissioning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusler, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reports and articles on decommissioning have been reviewed to determine the current technology status and also attempt to identify potential decommissioning problem areas. It is concluded that technological road blocks, which limited decommissioning facilities in the past have been removed. In general, techniques developed by maintenance in maintaining the facility have been used to decommission facilities. Some of the more promising development underway which will further simplify decommissioning activities are: electrolytic decontamination which simplifies some decontaminating operations; arc saw and vacuum furnace which reduce the volume of metallic contaminated material by a factor of 10; remotely operated plasma torch which reduces personnel exposure; and shaped charges, water cannon and rock splitters which simplify concrete removal. Areas in which published data are limited are detailed costs identifying various components included in the total cost and also the quantity of waste generated during the decommissioning activities. With the increased awareness of decommissioning requirements as specified by licensing requirements, design criteria for new facilities are taking into consideration final decommissioning of buildings. Specific building design features will evolve as designs are evaluated and implemented

  19. Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects (ENFDP) program is to provide the NRC licensing staff with data which will allow an assessment of radiation exposure during decommissioning and the implementation of ALARA techniques. The data will also provide information to determine the funding level necessary to ensure timely and safe decommissioning operations. Actual decommissioning costs, methods and radiation exposures are compared with those estimated by the Battelle-PNL and ORNL NUREGs on decommissioning. Exposure reduction techniques applied to decommissioning activities to meet ALARA objectives are described. The lessons learned concerning various decommissioning methods are evaluated

  20. Project No. 8 - Final decommissioning plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Ignalina NPP should prepare the final Ignalina NPP unit 1 decommissioning plan by march 31, 2002. This plan should include the following : description of Ignalina NPP and the Ignalina NPP boundary that could be influenced by decommissioning process; decommissioning strategy selected and a logical substantiation for this selection; description of the decommissioning actions suggested and a time schedule for the actions to be performed; conceptual safety and environmental impact assessment covering ionizing radiation and other man and environment impact; description of the environmental monitoring program proposed during decommissioning process; description of the waste management proposed; assessment of decommissioning expenses including waste management, accumulated funds and other sources. Estimated project cost - 0.75 M EURO

  1. Recordkeeping in the decommissioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boing, L. E.

    2000-01-01

    In the US, there are two sets of key decommissioning records clearly identified -- those that are essential for planning the D and D of a facility and then those that are the result of the decommissioning process itself. In some cases, the regulatory authorities require and in others advise the licensees of the records that may be useful or which are required to be kept from the decommissioning. In the remainder of the paper, the author attempts to highlight some important aspects of decommissioning recordkeeping

  2. Decommissioning project management unit started its activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeliene, D.

    2002-01-01

    The Decommissioning Project Management Unit team comprises western experts as well as experts from INPP Decommissioning Service who all work as a single team. The DPMU will develop the Final Decommissioning Plan and a more detailed Decommissioning Project, which will describe how the plant will be removed from service and safely decommissioned

  3. Decommissioning Funding: Ethics, Implementation, Uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This status report on decommissioning funding: ethics, implementation, uncertainties is based on a review of recent literature and materials presented at NEA meetings in 2003 and 2004, and particularly at a topical session organised in November 2004 on funding issues associated with the decommissioning of nuclear power facilities. The report also draws on the experience of the NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD). This report offers, in a concise form, an overview of relevant considerations on decommissioning funding mechanisms with regard to ethics, implementation and uncertainties. Underlying ethical principles found in international agreements are identified, and factors influencing the accumulation and management of funds for decommissioning nuclear facilities are discussed together with the main sources of uncertainties of funding systems

  4. Safety problems in decommissioning nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auler, I.; Bardtenschlager, R.; Gasch, A.; Majohr, N.

    1975-12-01

    The safety problems at decommissioning are illustrated by the example of a LWR with 1300 MW electric power after 40 years of specified normal operation. For such a facility the radioactivity in the form of activation and contamination one year after being finally taken out of service is in the order of magnitude of 10 7 Ci, not counting the fuel assemblies. The dose rates occurring during work on the reactor vessel at nozzle level may amount to some 10 4 rem/h. After a rough estimation the accumulated dose for the decommissioning personnel during total dismantling will be about 1200 rem. During performance of the decommissioning activities the problems are mainly caused by direct radiation of the active components and systems and by the release of radioactive particles, aerosols and liquids if these components are crushed. The extent of later dismantling problems may be reduced by selecting appropriate materials as well as considering the requirements for dismantling in design and arrangement of the components already in the design stage of new facilities. Apart from plant design also the concept for the disposal of the radioactive waste from decommissioning will provide important boundary conditions. E.g. the maximum size of the pieces to be stored in the ultimate storage place will very much influence the dose expenditure for handling these parts. For complete dismantling of nuclear power plants an ultimate store must be available where large amounts of bulky decommissioning waste, containing relatively low activity, can be stored. The problems and also the cost for decommissioning may be considerably reduced by delaying complete disposal of the radioactive material >= 40 years and during this period, keeping the radioactivity enclosed within the plant in the form of a safe containment. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Improvising innovation in UK urban district heating: The convergence of social and environmental agendas in Aberdeen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Janette

    2015-01-01

    Research on district heating has focused on technical-economic appraisal of its contribution to energy and carbon saving in urban centres. There is however lack of analysis of political and social processes which govern its actual take up. This paper examines these processes through a case study of Aberdeen, Scotland. Interviews and documentary analysis are used to examine the 2002 development of Aberdeen Heat and Power (AHP), an independent energy services company (ESCo). Technical-economic feasibility was a necessary component of appraisal, but not sufficient to govern decision-making. In the UK centralised energy market, DH investment is unattractive to commercial investors, and local authorities lack capacity and expertise in energy provision. In Aberdeen, the politics of fuel poverty converged with climate politics, creating an a-typical willingness to innovate through improvisation. The welfare priority resulted in creation of a non-profit locally-owned ESCo, using cost- rather than market-based heat tariffs. AHP has developed three combined heat and power energy centres and heat networks, supplying 34 MWh/pa of heat. Carbon savings are estimated to be 45% in comparison with electric heating, and heating costs are reduced by a similar amount. The conclusion outlines potential policy improvements. - Highlights: • UK policy proposes district heating for urban low carbon heat. • Technical and economic feasibility are insufficient to drive take-up. • In Aberdeen convergence of social and environmental goals gave impetus to improvisation. • The resulting non-profit ESCo has three CHP and district heat networks, supplying 34 MWh of heat pa. • Carbon and cost savings are 45% in comparison with electric heating

  6. European Decommissioning Academy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V. S.; Hornacek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Experiences from the first run of the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) are reported in details. EDA was created at the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava Slovakia, based on discussion and expressed needs declared at many international meetings including ECED2013. The first run successfully passed 15 participants during 7–26 June 2015. Academy was focused on decommissioning issues via lessons, practical exercises in laboratories, on-site training prepared at NPP V-1 in Jaslovské Bohunice, Slovakia as well as four day technical tour to other European decommissioning facilities in Switzerland and Italy. Detailed information can be found at http://kome.snus.sk/inpe/. (author

  7. Dose control during decommissioning stage 1.2 of decommissioning SGHWR facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, M.J. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Dose control during decommissioning stage 1.2 of the SGHWR facility, i.e preparation for an extended period of care and maintenance, is discussed. The method of control of dose uptake is described and also the systems of dose uptake review, the use of dose restraint objections and other tools for limitation of dose uptake. Dose uptake data are presented for periods of maintenance shutdowns. Finally the option of chemical clearing of the circuit following shutdown is considered. (UK).

  8. Methodology to collect data on decommissioning costs and occupational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrasch, P.; Roger, J.

    1993-01-01

    Decommissioning data collection has been, up to now, almost a national matter. The present joint study performed by NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Hanau, and the Commissariat a l'energie atomique, Unite de declassement d'installations nucleaires, and coordinated by the Commission of the European Communities, is intended to identify a methodology allowing the collection of data which are useful to manage a decommissioning project, e.g. data on dismantling costs, occupational radiation exposure and waste arisings. A common structure for decommissioning tasks (called working packages) derived from those already in use at the abovementioned organizations has been established and the corresponding first series of data-collection sheets defined in order to cover data from LWRs, GCRs (UNGGs) and nuclear fuel cycle installations. Work focused on the cost of decommissioning tasks. The study is intended to be a first step towards an EC-wide usable data-base for data generated in the various ongoing and future decommissioning projects

  9. IAEA Assistance on Decommissioning of Small Facilities with Limited Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.; Warnecke, E.

    2008-01-01

    The number of facilities reaching their lifetime is increasing and drawing the attention of operators, regulators, public and other interested parties (potential users of the site after decommissioning) on the importance of adequate planning, funding and implementation of decommissioning activities in compliance with regulatory requirements and criteria. Specific attention is required for small facilities that have been used for research purposes and in most cases state owned by and dependent on state funding. With the current tendency for expansion of the nuclear industry such small facilities could become less of importance for the operators which can increase the probability that these facilities become abandoned, hazardous and imposing undue burden to future generations. This concern is more related to countries with limited human and financial resources at the operating organizations and the regulatory body. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working on the; (i) establishment of internationally recognized safety standards on decommissioning and (ii) providing Member States with assistance on the application of these standards. The recent international conference on Lessons Learned from the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities and the Safe Termination of Practices (Athens, Greece, 2006) has demonstrated that the set of IAEA standards is almost complete and that the International Action Plan on Decommissioning (2004), that is addressing decommissioning of small facilities, is being successfully implemented. However the need for further assistance on decommissioning of small facilities in countries with limited resources was also recognized and the Agency is planning its future work in this field. The IAEA also addresses the needs of small nuclear countries that have only a limited number of nuclear facilities, e.g. a research reactor, in its R esearch Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R 2 D 2 P. The Philippine Research Reactor

  10. Researches Regarding the Results of the Fattening and the Quality of the Crossbreeds, Between the Aberdeen Angus and the F1 Crossbreeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    radu moldovan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper has been kept track of the capacities of crossbreeding local breeds, to increase the beef production, which can assure the improvement of the carcass quality, according to the EU standards, as well as knowing the possibilities to enhance the production value of the beef obtained by crossbreeding, according to the EU standards and ragulations. The biological material that has been studied, is represented by a 22 young cattle, obtained from the crossbreeding of Aberdeen Angus with F1 crossbred cows, resulting from local breeds, that were crossbred with Aberdeen Angus and raised in the S.C. Aberdeen Angus farm. By analysing the average values regarding the weight of the crossbreeds at the age of 14 months, we can establish, that most of the individuals have exceeded 600 kg, some of them even 700 kg, with an average daily weight of 1478 g. Overall, the crossbreeds Aberdeen Angus X F1, have beef production qualities, that are oprimally correlated, developing remarkable quantitative and qualitative abilities.

  11. Optimized determination of the radiological inventory during different phases of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillberg, Matthias; Beltz, Detlef; Karschnick, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities comprises a lot of activities such as decontamination, dismantling and demolition of equipment and structures. For these activities the aspects of health and safety of the operational personnel and of the general public as well as the minimization of radioactive waste have to be taken into account. An optimized, comprehensible and verifiable determination of the radiological inventory is essential for the decommissioning management with respect to safety, time, and costs. For example: right from the start of the post operational phase, the radiological characterization has to enable the decision whether to perform a system decontamination or not. Furthermore it is necessary, e.g. to determine the relevant nuclides and their composition (nuclide vector) for the release of material and for sustaining the radiological health and safety at work (e. g. minimizing the risk of incorporation). Our contribution will focus on the optimization of the radiological characterization with respect to the requisite extent and the best instant of time during the decommissioning process. For example: which additional information, besides the history of operation, is essential for an adequate amount of sampling and measurements needed in order to determine the relevant nuclides and their compositions? Furthermore, the characterization of buildings requires a kind of a graded approach during the decommissioning process. At the beginning of decommissioning, only a rough estimate of the expected radioactive waste due to the necessary decontamination of the building structures is sufficient. With ongoing decommissioning, a more precise radiological characterization of buildings is needed in order to guarantee an optimized, comprehensible and verifiable decontamination, dismantling and trouble-free clearance. These and other examples will be discussed on the background of and with reference to different decommissioning projects involving direct

  12. Investigations on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertz, R.; Bastek, H.; Doerge, W.; Kruschel, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    The study discusses and evaluates safety and licensing related aspects associated with the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Important decommissioning projects and experiences with relevance to decommissioning are analyzed. Recent developments in the field of decommissioning techniques with the potential of reducing the occupational dose to decommissioning workers are described and their range of application is discussed. The radiological consequences of the recycling of scrap metal arising during decommissioning are assessed. The results may be used to evaluate present licensing practices and may be useful for future licensing procedures. Finally the environmental impact of radionuclide release via air and water pathways associated with decommissioning activities is estimated. (orig.) [de

  13. Nuclear decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-02-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the UK, good progress has been made with the WAGR and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level.

  14. Decommissioning: a problem or a challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mele Irena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ageing of nuclear facilities or the reduced interest in their further operation, a new set of problems, related to the decommissioning of these facilities, has come into forefront. In many cases it turns out that the preparations for decommissioning have come too late, and that financial resources for covering decommissioning activities have not been provided. To avoid such problems, future liailities should be thoroughly estimated in drawing up the decommissioning and waste management programme for each nuclear facility in time, and financial provisions for implementing such programme should be provided. In this paper a presentation of current decommissioning experience in Slovenia is given. The main problems and difficulties in decommissioning of the Žirovski Vrh Uranium Mine are exposed and the lesson learned from this case is presented. The preparation of the decommissioning programme for the Nuclear Power Plant Krško is also described, and the situation at the TRIGA research reactor is briefly discussed.

  15. A Comparative Perspective on Reactor Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Zelmer, R.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative perspective on decommissioning, based on facts and figures as well as the national policies, is useful in identifying mutually beneficial 'lessons learned' from various decommissioning programs. In this paper we provide such a perspective on the US and European approaches based on a review of the programmatic experience and the decommissioning projects. The European countries selected for comparison, UK, France, and Germany, have nuclear power programs comparable in size and vintage to the US program but have distinctly different policies at the federal level. The national decommissioning scene has a lot to do with how national nuclear energy policies are shaped. Substantial experience exists in all decommissioning programs and the technology is in a mature state. Substantial cost savings can result from sharing of decommissioning information, technologies and approaches among various programs. However, the Achilles' heel for the decommissioning industry remains the lack of appropriate disposal facilities for the nuclear wastes. (authors)

  16. The decommissioning information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Kook; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), the Korea Research Reactor (KRR-2) and one uranium conversion plant (UCP) were decommissioned. A project was launched in 1997, for the decommissioning of KRR-2 reactor with the goal of completion by 2008. Another project for the decommissioning of the UCP was launched in 2001. The physical dismantling works were started in August 2003 and the entire project was completed by the end of 2010. KAERI has developed a computer information system, named DECOMMIS, for an information management with an increased effectiveness for decommissioning projects and for record keeping for the future decommissioning projects. This decommissioning information system consists of three sub-systems; code management system, data input system (DDIS) and data processing and output system (DDPS). Through the DDIS, the data can be directly inputted at sites to minimize the time gap between the dismantling activities and the evaluation of the data by the project staff. The DDPS provides useful information to the staff for more effective project management and this information includes several fields, such as project progress management, man power management, waste management, and radiation dose control of workers and so on. The DECOMMIS was applied to the decommissioning projects of the KRR-2 and the UCP, and was utilized to give information to the staff for making decisions regarding the progress of projects. It is also to prepare the reference data for the R and D program which is for the development of the decommissioning engineering system tools and to maintain the decommissioning data for the next projects. In this paper, the overall system will be explained and the several examples of its utilization, focused on waste management and manpower control, will be introduced. (author)

  17. Preparation for Ignalina NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeliene, D.

    2004-01-01

    Latest developments of atomic energy in Lithuania, works done to prepare Ignalina NPP for final shutdown and decommissioning are described. Information on decommissioning program for Ignalina NPP unit 1, decommissioning method, stages and funding is presented. Other topics: radiation protection, radioactive waste management and disposal. Key facts related to nuclear energy in Lithuania are listed

  18. Decommissioning challenges - an industrial reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, H.; Mort, P.; Hutton, E.

    2008-01-01

    Sellafield Limited has undergone many transformations in previous years. The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has managed the site from April 2005, and a new Parent Body Organisation (PBO) is soon to be announced. In addition, it is an exciting time for the nuclear industry following the announcement of the UK government support new reactor builds. Should the site be selected for new build, the impact on Sellafield, its decommissioning program and economic impact on the local area can only be speculated at the current time. Every past, present and future decommissioning project at the Sellafield Limited site offers complex challenges, as each facility is unique. Specialist skills and experience must be engaged at pre-planned phases to result in a safe, efficient and successful decommissioning project. This paper provides an overview of a small selection of decommissioning projects, including examples of stakeholder engagement, plant and equipment dismantling using remote handling equipment and the application of innovative techniques and technologies. In addition, the final section provides a summary upon how future technologies required by the decommissioning projects are being assessed and developed. (authors)

  19. Standard Guide for Preparing Characterization Plans for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This standard guide applies to developing nuclear facility characterization plans to define the type, magnitude, location, and extent of radiological and chemical contamination within the facility to allow decommissioning planning. This guide amplifies guidance regarding facility characterization indicated in ASTM Standard E 1281 on Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Plans. This guide does not address the methodology necessary to release a facility or site for unconditional use. This guide specifically addresses: 1.1.1 the data quality objective for characterization as an initial step in decommissioning planning. 1.1.2 sampling methods, 1.1.3 the logic involved (statistical design) to ensure adequate characterization for decommissioning purposes; and 1.1.4 essential documentation of the characterization information. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate saf...

  20. Sedimentology of the Teekloof formation to the east of Aberdeen (C.P.) with reference to uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmonds, A.L.E.

    1982-01-01

    An area to the immediate east of Aberdeen (C.P.), banded in the north by the Rooiberge and to the east by the Sundays River, has been sedimentologically studied. A notable feature of the sediments investigated, is the presence of linear zones of increased sandstone. Some of the sediments also showed an exessive volume of argillaceous rocks. The sandstones cropping out in the Aberdeen District may be classified as lithic arkoses. Due to the manner in which the detrital grains appear to 'float' in calcite, an expansive growth mechanism is envisaged. This implies early crystallization of calcite, and emplacement of uranium

  1. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Present concepts on stages of, designing for and costs of decommissioning, together with criteria for site release, are described. Recent operations and studies and assessments in progress are summarized. Wastes from decommissioning are characterized

  2. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opelka, J.H.; Mundis, R.L.; Marmer, G.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Siskind, B.; Kikta, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

  3. Costing for decommissioning: Continuing NEA engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillogly, Mari; Weber, Inge; ); Siemann, Michael; )

    2017-01-01

    On 20-21 September 2016, the International Conference on Financing of Decommissioning of nuclear power plants was held in Stockholm, Sweden. The conference focused on the exchange and sharing of information on current and emerging issues in the financing of nuclear power plant decommissioning and the underlying costs of decommissioning. It aimed at providing a good picture of the variety of financing systems in place to cover the costs of decommissioning of nuclear facilities. As an increasing number of nuclear reactors are expected to be permanently shut-down and enter into the decommissioning phase, the conference highlighted challenges for financing and delivering these decommissioning activities and explored the ways in which they were being addressed. This also included consideration of the implications of potentially under-funded or uncertain decommissioning liabilities. The insights gained in the course of the conference informed future development of work on these issues. The conference addressed a variety of issues from a range of perspectives under three main themes: financing systems - the variety of financing systems in place to provide the financial resources needed for decommissioning, including the arrangements for collecting and developing financial resources during operation and drawing down the assets during decommissioning activities, as well as oversight and reporting issues; decommissioning costing - understanding the cost estimates, quality and interpretation issues in decommissioning costing, the challenges of assurance, comparisons of estimates and actual costs, exploring ways to remedy the current lack of comparable actual cost data, possible benchmarking, etc.; [financial] risk management - effective management of financial assets, risk management strategies, the changing of markets and investment strategies for financial assets, balancing the rates of return and the reduction of risk, implications of the major changes in the energy and

  4. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station: Technical support for decommissioning matters related to preparation of the final decommissioning rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.

    1988-07-01

    Preparation of the final Decommissioning Rule by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been assisted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff familiar with decommissioning matters. These efforts have included updating previous cost estimates developed during the series of studies on conceptually decommissioning reference licensed nuclear facilities for inclusion in the Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS) on decommissioning; documenting the cost updates; evaluating the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits on decommissioning; developing a revised scaling formula for estimating decommissioning costs for reactor plants different in size from the reference pressurized water reactor (PWR) described in the earlier study; defining a formula for adjusting current cost estimates to reflect future escalation in labor, materials, and waste disposal costs; and completing a study of recent PWR steam generator replacements to determine realistic estimates for time, costs and doses associated with steam generator removal during decommissioning. This report presents the results of recent PNL studies to provide supporting information in four areas concerning decommissioning of the reference PWR: updating the previous cost estimates to January 1986 dollars; assessing the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits; assessing the cost and dose impacts of recent steam generator replacements; and developing a scaling formula for plants different in size than the reference plant and an escalation formula for adjusting current cost estimates for future escalation

  5. Planning activities for ANPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazaryan, K.G.

    2002-01-01

    suggested solution was a choice of SAFSTOR as a viable decommissioning option. Spent fuel management is not considered part of decommissioning; however it can strongly affect the decommissioning strategy. Currently the spent nuclear fuel is being stored on site in pools and in a newly constructed NUHOMS storage facility built by FRAMATOME under license of USA Transnuclear West Company. The facility includes 11 horizontal storage modules (HSM). Each HSM has a capacity of 56 non-failed fuel assemblies. A capacity of the existing dry storage facility is not sufficient to accommodate all spent fuel generated during plant operation. However, the NUHOMS concept is modular and it is possible to increase the storage capacity. The facility is designed for 50 years storage of spent nuclear fuel. In any case, these studies should be considered as an informative basis only. Much more additional information should be collected and the detailed characterization survey, i.e. the comprehensive engineering and radiological survey, conducted to have sufficient data for all further planning activities. (author)

  6. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a refernce boiling water reactor power station: Technical support for decommissioning matters related to preparation of the final decommissioning rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.

    1988-07-01

    Preparation of the final Decommissioning Rule by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been assisted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff familiar with decommissioning matters. These efforts have included updating previous cost estimates developed during the series of studies of conceptually decommissioning reference licensed nuclear facilities for inclusion in the Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS) on decommissioning; documenting the cost updates; evaluating the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits on decommissioning; developing a revised scaling formula for estimating decommissioning costs for reactor plants different in size from the reference boiling water reactor (BWR) described in the earlier study; and defining a formula for adjusting current cost estimates to reflect future escalation in labor, materials, and waste disposal costs. This report presents the results of recent PNL studies to provide supporting information in three areas concerning decommissioning of the reference BWR: updating the previous cost estimates to January 1986 dollars; assessing the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits; and developing a scaling formula for plants different in size than the reference plant and an escalation formula for adjusting current cost estimates for future escalation

  7. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-01-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the UK, good progress has been made with the WAGR and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level. (author)

  8. The planning of decommissioning activities within nuclear facilities - Generating a Baseline Decommissioning Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, N.C.; Ingram, S.; Page, J.

    2003-01-01

    BNFL Environmental Services has developed planning tools to meet the emerging need for nuclear liabilities management and decommissioning engineering both in the UK and globally. It can provide a comprehensive baseline planning service primarily aimed at nuclear power stations and nuclear plant. The paper develops the following issues: Decommissioning planning; The baseline decommissioning plan;The process; Work package; Compiling the information; Deliverables summary; Customer Benefits; - Planning tool for nuclear liability life-cycle management; - Robust and reliable plans based upon 'real' experience; - Advanced financial planning; - Ascertaining risk; - Strategy and business planning. The following Deliverables are mentioned:1. Site Work Breakdown Structure; 2. Development of site implementation strategy from the high level decommissioning strategy; 3. An end point definition for the site; 4. Buildings, operational systems and plant surveys; 5. A schedule of condition for the site; 6. Development of technical approach for decommissioning for each work package; 7. Cost estimate to WBS level 5 for each work package; 8. Estimate of decommissioning waste arisings for each work package; 9. Preparation of complete decommissioning programme in planning software to suit client; 10. Risk modelling of work package and overall project levels; 11. Roll up of costs into an overall cost model; 12. Cash flow, waste profiling and resource profiling against the decommissioning programme; 13. Preparation and issue of Final Report. Finally The BDP process is represented by a flowchart listing the following stages: [Power Station project assigned] → [Review project and conduct Characterisation review of power station] → [Identify work packages] → [Set up WBS to level 3] → [Assign work packages] → [Update WBS to level 4] →[Develop cost model] → [Develop logic network] → [Develop risk management procedure] ] → [Develop project strategy document]→ [Work package

  9. Decommissioning of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    In the United Kingdom the Electricity Boards, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and BNFL cooperate on all matters relating to the decommissioning of nuclear plant. The Central Electricity Generating Board's (CEGB) policy endorses the continuing need for nuclear power, the principle of reusing existing sites where possible and the building up of sufficient funds during the operating life of a nuclear power station to meet the cost of its complete clearance in the future. The safety of the plant is the responsibility of the licensee even in the decommissioning phase. The CEGB has carried out decommissioning studies on Magnox stations in general and Bradwell and Berkeley in particular. It has also been involved in the UKAEA Windscale AGR decommissioning programme. The options as to which stage to decommission to are considered. Methods, costs and waste management are also considered. (U.K.)

  10. NPP Decommissioning: the concept; state of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemytov, S.; Zimin, V.

    2001-01-01

    The main principles of NPP decommissioning concept in Russia are given. The conditions with fulfillment of works on NPP unit pre-decommissioning and decommissioning including: development of the normative documentation, creation of special fund for financing NPP decommissioning activities, deriving the Gosatomnadzor license for decommissioning of shut down NPP units, development of the equipment and technologies for waste and spent fuel management are presented. The decommissioning cost and labour intensity of one WWER-440 unit are shown. The practical works, executed on shut down units at Beloyarsk NPP (Unit1 and 2) and Novo Voronezh NPP (Unit 1 and 2) are outlined

  11. Planning the Decommissioning of Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlaha, J., E-mail: pod@ujv.cz [Nuclear Research Institute Rez, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic)

    2013-08-15

    In the Czech Republic, three research nuclear reactors are in operation. According to the valid legislation, preliminary decommissioning plans have been prepared for all research reactors in the Czech Republic. The decommissioning plans shall be updated at least every 5 years. Decommissioning funds have been established and financial resources are regularly deposited. Current situation in planning of decommissioning of research reactors in the Czech Republic, especially planning of decommissioning of the LVR-15 research reactor is described in this paper. There appeared new circumstances having wide impact on the decommissioning planning of the LVR-15 research reactor: (1) Shipment of spent fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing and (2) preparation of processing of radioactive waste from reconstruction of the VVR-S research reactor (now LVR-15 research reactor). The experience from spent fuel shipment to the Russian Federation and from the process of radiological characterization and processing of radioactive waste from reconstruction of the VVR-S research reactor (now the LVR-15 research reactor) and the impact on the decommissioning planning is described in this paper. (author)

  12. Decommissioning in British Nuclear Fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colquhoun, A.

    1988-01-01

    Decommissioning projects at the BNFL Sellafield site have been selected taking the following into account; the need to gain experience in preparation for the decommissioning of the Magnox reactors and for the post Magnox stage; the need to develop larger scale projects; the need to be cost effective and to foster long term safety. The balance between prompt or delayed decommissioning has to consider operator dose uptake and radioactive waste management. The ten year plan for decommissioning at Sellafield is described briefly. Currently decommissioning is of the fuel pond and decanning plant, the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the coprecipitation plant and the uranium recovery plant. (author)

  13. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-01-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the United Kingdom, good progress has been made with the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level. (author)

  14. Brief Assessment of Krsko NPP Decommissioning Costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanata, D.; Medakovic, S.; Debrecin, N.

    2000-01-01

    The first part of the paper gives a brief description of decommissioning scenarios and models of financing the decommissioning of NPPs. The second part contains a review of decommissioning costs for certain PWR plants with a brief description of methods used for that purpose. The third part of the paper the authors dedicated to the assessment of decommissioning costs for Krsko NPP. It does not deal with ownership relations and obligations ensuing from them. It starts from the simple point that decommissioning is an structure of the decommissioning fund is composed of three basic cost items of which the first refers to radioactive waste management, the second to storage and disposal of the spent nuclear fuel and the third to decommissioning itself. The assessment belongs to the category of preliminary activities and as such has a limited scope and meaning. Nevertheless, the authors believe that it offers a useful insight into the basic costs that will burden the decommissioning fund of Krsko NPP. (author)

  15. Decommissioning planning of Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Gunnar; Bergh, Niklas [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraes (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    The technologies required for the decommissioning work are for the most part readily proven. Taken into account that there will be many more years before the studied reactor units will undergo decommissioning, the techniques could even be called conventional at that time. This will help bring the decommissioning projects to a successful closure. A national waste fund is already established in Sweden to finance amongst others all dismantling and decommissioning work. This will assure that funding for the decommissioning projects is at hand when needed. All necessary plant data are readily available and this will, combined with a reliable management system, expedite the decommissioning projects considerably. Final repositories for both long- and short-lived LILW respectively is planned and will be constructed and dimensioned to receive the decommissioning waste from the Swedish NPP:s. Since the strategy is set and well thought-through, this will help facilitate a smooth disposal of the radioactive decommissioning waste. (orig.)

  16. Remote Decommissioning Experiences at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownridge, M.

    2006-01-01

    British Nuclear Group has demonstrated through delivery of significant decommissioning projects the ability to effectively deploy innovative remote decommissioning technologies and deliver cost effective solutions. This has been achieved through deployment and development of off-the-shelf technologies and design of bespoke equipment. For example, the worlds first fully remotely operated Brokk was successfully deployed to enable fully remote dismantling, packaging and export of waste during the decommissioning of a pilot reprocessing facility. British Nuclear Group has also successfully implemented remote decommissioning systems to enable the decommissioning of significant challenges, including dismantling of a Caesium Extraction Facility, Windscale Pile Chimney and retrieval of Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) from storage cells. The challenge for the future is to continue to innovate through utilization of the supply chain and deploy off-the-shelf technologies which have been demonstrated in other industry sectors, thus reducing implementation schedules, cost and maintenance. (authors)

  17. Decommissioning licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perello, M.

    1979-01-01

    Decommissioning or closure of a nuclear power plant, defined as the fact that takes place from the moment that the plant stops producing for the purpose it was built, is causing preocupation. So this specialist meeting on Regulatory Review seems to be the right place for presenting and discusing the need of considering the decommissioning in the safety analysis report. The main goal of this paper related to the licensing procedure is to suggest the need of a new chapter in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (P.S.A.R.) dealing with the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Therefore, after a brief introduction the problem is exposed from the point of view of nuclear safety and finally a format of the new chapter is proposed. (author)

  18. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army's Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  19. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army`s Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  20. The IAEA Safety Regime for Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The International Atomic Energy Agency is developing an international framework for decommissioning of nuclear facilities that consists of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, and a hierarchy of Safety Standards applicable to decommissioning. The Joint Convention entered into force on 18 June 2001 and as of December 2001 had been ratified by 27 IAEA Member States. The Joint Convention contains a number of articles dealing with planning for, financing, staffing and record keeping for decommissioning. The Joint Convention requires Contracting Parties to apply the same operational radiation protection criteria, discharge limits and criteria for controlling unplanned releases during decommissioning that are applied during operations. The IAEA has issued Safety Requirements document and three Safety Guides applicable to decommissioning of facilities. The Safety Requirements document, WS-R-2, Pre-disposal Management of Radioactive Waste, including Decommissioning, contains requirements applicable to regulatory control, planning and funding, management of radioactive waste, quality assurance, and environmental and safety assessment of the decommissioning process. The three Safety Guides are WS-G-2.1, Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors, WS-G-2.2, Decommissioning of Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities, an WS-G-2.4, Decommissioning of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities. They contain guidance on how to meet the requirements of WS-R-2 applicable to decommissioning of specific types of facilities. These Standards contain only general requirements and guidance relative to safety assessment and do not contain details regarding the content of the safety case. More detailed guidance will be published in future Safety Reports currently in preparation within the Waste Safety Section of the IAEA. Because much material arising during the decommissioning

  1. New plant releases from the USDA-NRCS Aberdeen, Idaho, Plant Materials Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. St. John; P. Blaker

    2001-01-01

    The Plant Materials Center at Aberdeen, Idaho, is operated by the United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. The purpose of the Plant Materials Center is to evaluate and release plant materials for conservation use and to develop and transfer new technology for the establishment and management of plants. The Center serves portions...

  2. Funding nuclear-power-plant decommissioning. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, R.E.; Henderson, J.S.; Pollard, W.; Pryor, T.; Chen, Y.M.

    1982-10-01

    The report is organized according to the steps that one might go through when analyzing funding of decommissioning costs. The first step in analyzing decommissioning costs might be to review the present regulatory framework within which decommissioning cost decisions must be made. A description is presented of the present NRC regulations that address the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. A description is also presented of recent public utility commission activities concerning funding the costs of decommissioning. Possible future trends in NRC regulation are also discussed. The estimation of decommmissioning costs is analyzed. A description of each of the possible decommissoining options is presented. The options of decommissioning include immediate dismantlement, various types of safe storage, and entombment. A discussion is presented of cost estimations for each decommissioning option for nuclear units containing pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. A description is included of the various methods of collecting funds for decommissioning as well as a discussion of their possible regulatory treatment. Material is presented which will provide the reader with background information that might assist state utility commissioners or their staffs in choosing or evaluating one of the financial mechanisms for covering decommissioning costs

  3. Decommissioning Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. W.; Kang, Y. A.; Kim, G. H.

    2007-06-01

    It is predicted that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant would happen in Korea since 2020 but the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension still has been on an increasing trend and its domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project we developed following several essential technologies as a decommissioning R and D. The measurement technology for in-pipe radioactive contamination was developed for measuring alpha/beta/gamma emitting nuclides simultaneously inside a in-pipe and it was tested into the liquid waste transfer pipe in KRR-2. And the digital mock-up system for KRR-1 and 2 was developed for choosing the best scenarios among several scenarios on the basis of various decommissioning information(schedule, waste volume, cost, etc.) that are from the DMU and the methodology of decommissioning cost estimation was also developed for estimating a research reactor's decommissioning cost and the DMU and the decommissioning cost estimation system were incorporated into the decommissioning information integrated management system. Finally the treatment and management technology of the irradiated graphites that happened after decommissioning KRR-2 was developed in order to treat and manage the irradiated graphites safely

  4. Status of the Fort St. Vrain decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Fort St. Vrain is a high temperature gas cooled reactor. It has been shut down as a result of financial and technical difficulties. Fort St. Vrain has been planning for defueling and decommissioning for at least three years. The preliminary decommissioning plan, in accordance with the NRC's final rule, has been submitted and is being reviewed by the NRC. The basis of the preliminary decommissioning plan has been SAFSTOR. Public Service Company, who is the owner and operator of FSV, is scheduled to submit a proposed decommissioning plan to the NRC in the fourth quarter of 1990. PSC has gone out for bid on the decontamination and dismantlement of FSV. This paper includes the defueling schedule, the independent spent fuel storage installation status, the probability of shipping fuel to DOE, the status of the preliminary decommissioning plan submittal, the issuance of a possession only license and what are the results of obtaining this license amendment, preliminary decommissioning activities allowed prior to the approval of a proposed decommissioning plan, the preparation of a proposed decommissioning plan and the status of our decision to proceed with SAFSTOR or DECON as identified in the NRC's final decommissioning rule

  5. European Decommissioning Academy (EDA). Ready to start

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11 September 2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 2,000 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 150 each year. The article describes the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) which is prepared for the first term in June 2015 in Slovakia. The main goal is a creation of new nuclear experts generation for decommissioning via the Academy, which will include lessons, practical exercises in laboratories as well as 2 days on-site training at NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia). Four days technical tour via most interesting European decommissioning facilities in Switzerland and Italy are planned as well. After the final exam, there is the option to continue in knowledge collection via participation at the 2nd Eastern and Central European Decommissioning (ECED) conference in Trnava (Slovakia). We would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future.

  6. Study on decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    This study examines the status of maintenance of the decommissioning-related regulations to which the maintenance is still insufficient. The contents in 2012 are as follows. First, we examined site release criteria through reports by international organizations, by overseas countries where nuclear sites have been released, and the environment standards in Japan. Then we also examined the standards of decommissioning completion confirmation (in other words, site release criteria). The study results will be utilized to document standards. Second, we assessed the present Japanese decommissioning regulatory system based on safety requirements of IAEA, and identified improvements. Then we prepared an improvement plan benefiting from the regulatory experiences in foreign countries. The study results will be utilized to document standards. Third, the Fukushima Daiichi NPS, which experienced serious core accident in March, 2011, has become a Specified Nuclear Facilities according to the new nuclear regulation, and the examination of the implementation plan is performed of the Nuclear Regulation Authority. As Units 1 to 4 at the Fukushima Daiichi NPS are planned to be decommissioned, we investigated regulatory requirements in foreign countries which experienced severe accidents. (author)

  7. Considerations about the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.; Hinca, R.

    2014-01-01

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11.9.2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 500 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 35 per year.Having in mind the actual EHRO-N report from 2013 focused on operation of nuclear facilities and an assumption that the ratio between nuclear experts, nuclearized and nuclear aware people is comparable also for decommissioning (16:74:10), as well as the fact that the special study branch for decommissioning in the European countries almost does not exist, this European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) could be helpful in the overbridging this gap.For the first run of the EDA scheduled on 2014 we would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future in Europe.A graduate of the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) should have at least bachelor level from technical or natural science Universities or Colleges and at least one year working experiences in the area of NPP decommissioning or nuclear power engineering. This study creates prerequisites for acquiring and completion of professional and specialized knowledge in the subjects which are described. (authors)

  8. The curious accountancy of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Financial provision for the decommissioning and waste management of the United Kingdom Magnox and AGR reactor is discussed. In the last set of accounts prior to privatisation a decommissioning provision of Pound 8.34 bn was indicated whereas previous figures had only shown Pound 2.88. It is suggested that the increase was only achieved on paper, without real financial provision. Estimates of decommissioning costs for the Magnox stations have increased greatly. Cost estimates for AGR decommissioning have still to be released but it is expected that the post-privatisation owners of the nuclear power industry, Nuclear Electric, will have to find Pound 6-7 bn to dismantle its own reactors. Much of this it hopes to put off for over 100 years. The South of Scotland Electicity Board has made much more realistic provision for its own Magnox and two AGR stations. Reprocessing costs for AGR reactor fuel is uncertain and high reprocessing and decommissioning costs will mean increases in the price of nuclear electricity. (UK)

  9. Decommissioning Plan for European Spallation Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a survey of the European Spallation Source initial decommissioning plan developed in compliance with Swedish Regulatory Authority requirements. The report outlines the decommissioning strategy selected and the baseline plan for decommissioning. Types and quantities of radioactive waste estimated to be generated at the final shut-down of the facility are further provided. The paper ends up with the analysis of the key elements of the decommissioning plan and the recommendations to the ESS management team..

  10. Review of Impact Factors on Decommissioning Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Taesik; Jung, Hyejin; Kim, Younggook [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This article is prepared to factor out decommissioning strategies mostly appropriate to the decommissioning Kori-1 nuclear power plant. Terms used to delineate the lifetime of an authorized facility and of the associated licensing process consists of six core stages such as siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning. The term decommissioning implies the administrative and technical actions taken to allow the removal of some or all of the regulatory controls from a facility except for the part of a disposal facility in which the radioactive waste is emplaced. Whole range of each process of decommissioning should be considered throughout the other five stages. The decommissioning process is typically composed of its planning, conducting actions and terminating the authorization. In order to achieve the successful decommissioning, the impact factor on the strategy should be analyzed and evaluated to optimally apply to Kori-1 project. From my perspective, among eight factor, stakeholder’s consideration and spent fuel management are considered the key elements we have to concentrate on to smoothly go ahead for successful decommissioning of Kori-1.

  11. Nuclear decommissioning and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqualetti, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Links between decommissioning in general, reactor decommissioning in particular, and the public are indexed. The established links are recognised and others, such as jobs, are discussed. Finally the links with policy, such as political geography, and wider issues of the environment and public concern over waste disposal are considered. Decommissioning is a relatively new field where public opinion must now be considered but it has implications both for existing nuclear power plants and those planned for the future, especially in their siting. This book looks especially at the situation in the United Kingdom. There are twelve papers, all indexed separately. (UK)

  12. Decommissioning situation and research and development for the decommissioning of the commercial nuclear power station in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tatsumi.

    1996-01-01

    There are 48 commercial nuclear power stations in operation in Japan as of January 1, 1995, which supplies about 28% (2.2 x 10 8 MWh) of total annual electricity generation in FY 1992. Accordingly, as the nuclear power contributes so much in electricity generation, there is a growing concern in the public toward the safety on decommissioning nuclear power station. It is gravely important to secure the safety throughout the decommissioning. This paper discusses: the decommissioning situation in Japan; the Japanese national policy for decommissioning of commercial nuclear power stations; R and D for decommissioning of commercial nuclear power stations in Japan; and the present conditions of low-level radioactive wastes disposal in Japan

  13. Decommissioning Licensing Process of Nuclear Installations in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Sainz, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The Enresa experience related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities includes the decommissioning of the Vandellos I and Jose Cabrera NPPs. The Vandellos I gas-graphite reactor was decommissioned in about five years (from 1998 to 2003) to what is known as level 2. In February 2010, the decommissioning of Jose Cabrera power plant has been initiated and it is scheduled to be finished by 2018. The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant is a complex administrative process, the procedure for changing from operation to decommissioning is established in the Spanish law. This paper summarizes the legal framework defining the strategies, the main activities and the basic roles of the various agents involved in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Spain. It also describes briefly the Licensing documents required to obtain the decommissioning authorization and the Enresa point of view, as licensee, on the licensing decommissioning process. (author)

  14. The Turnover Process at Chalk River Laboratories from Operations to Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottelberg, Paul; Tremblay, Roger

    2016-01-01

    of the Preliminary Decommissioning Plan (PDP). If the PDP is not current then it should be revised before Facilities Decommissioning accepts full responsibility for the facility, building, component or area; - Details of Shutdown activities (e.g. isolations, draining, decontamination, etc.); - Hazards that remain; - Significant environmental aspects and operational controls; - Details of system/equipment that remain energized or continue to perform their design function (e.g. holding tank still containing radiological liquid, etc.); - Updated drawings and equipment specifications; - Status of Engineering Change Control (ECC) that are in progress; - Safety Related Systems (SRS) list; - Fire code and building code violations or deficiencies; - Maintenance schedule; - Inventory of Nuclear Materials; - Governing documents e.g. Criticality Safety Document, Preliminary Decommissioning Plan, Environmental Assessment, Safety Analysis Report, Facility Authorization, etc.; - Outstanding Regulatory commitments; - Information on any required amendments to the Site License; and - Listing of all documentation and records to be included with the Transfer Certificate. Key responsibilities are laid out defining what is required from each party and other groups involved in the transfer of the facility. (authors)

  15. Radiological Characterisation for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations - Final Report of the Task Group on Radiological Characterisation and Decommissioning (RCD) of the Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD) - Final Report, September 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieu, Caroline; Olivier Dehaye, Catherine; Tardy, Frederic; Boisserie, Thierry; Desnoyers, Yvon; Thierfeldt, Stefan; Martin, Nieves; Henrik Efraimsson; Haakansson, Lars; Larsson, Arne; Dunlop, Alister A.; Jarman, Sean; Orr, Peter; Abu-Eid, Boby

    2013-01-01

    , or during the dismantling phase where systems, structures, components and buildings have to be characterised for decisions regarding the extent of decontamination, application of appropriate dismantling techniques, identification, classification, treatment of radioactive materials, etc. The final status survey on the site has quite distinctive features as it also has to take into account the possibility of subsurface contamination, which may lead to radionuclide transfer into ground water and surface water bodies. Careful planning and implementation of radiological characterisation campaigns will allow significant reduction of time, costs and effort. On a strategic and managerial level, there are ways to maximise the efficiency of measurement techniques (e.g. by combining several types of measurement and sampling approaches) to increase efficiency of characterisation (e.g. by integrating characterisation into other tasks), or to choose an optimum form of organisation by allocating staff and resources timely and adequately to achieve the required characterisation results when needed, thus avoiding delays in the normal decommissioning work-flow or radioactive waste management. Today, experience gained from a large number of decommissioning projects helps to implement radiological characterisation effectively. Radiological characterisation is undoubtedly one of the key factors for any successful decommissioning project. The aim of this report is to identify and give an overview of the best practice for radiological characterisation at different stages of decommissioning and to point out areas that could or should be developed further through international co-operation and co-ordination. The report summarises various issues relating to radiological characterisation in a short and succinct way, giving an overview of the issues, the techniques, possible obstacles, strategic aspects and lessons learned. The reader interested in more in-depth or detailed information should

  16. Shippingport station decommissioning project technology transfer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquini, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) is to place the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in a long-term radiologically safe condition following defueling of the reactor, to perform decommissioning in such a manner as to demonstrate to the nuclear industry the application of decommissioning procedures to a large scale nuclear power plant, and to provide useful planning data for future decommissioning projects. This paper describes the Technology Transfer Program for collecting and archiving the decommissioning data base and its availability to the nuclear industry

  17. Revised Analyses of Decommissioning Reference Non-Fuel-Cycle Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierschbach, M.C.; Haffner, D.R.; Schneider, K.J.; Short, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of non-fuel-cycle nuclear facilities that represent a significant decommissioning task in terms of decontamination and disposal activities. This study is a re-evaluation of the original study (NUREG/CR-1754 and NUREG/CR-1754, Addendum 1). The reference facilities examined in this study are the same as in the original study and include: a laboratory for the manufacture of 3 H-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of 14 C-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of 123 I-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of 137 Cs sealed sources; a laboratory for the manufacture of 241 Am sealed sources; and an institutional user laboratory. In addition to the laboratories, three reference sites that require some decommissioning effort were also examined. These sites are: (1) a site with a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank; (2) a site with a contaminated ground surface; and (3) a tailings pile containing uranium and thorium residues. Decommissioning of these reference facilities and sites can be accomplished using techniques and equipment that are in common industrial use. Essentially the same technology assumed in the original study is used in this study. For the reference laboratory-type facilities, the study approach is to first evaluate the decommissioning of individual components (e.g., fume hoods, glove boxes, and building surfaces) that are common to many laboratory facilities. The information obtained from analyzing the individual components of each facility are then used to determine the cost, manpower requirements and dose information for the decommissioning of the entire facility. DECON, the objective of the 1988 Rulemaking for materials facilities, is the decommissioning alternative evaluated for the reference laboratories because it results in the release of the facility for restricted or unrestricted use as soon as possible. For a facility, DECON requires

  18. Revised Analyses of Decommissioning Reference Non-Fuel-Cycle Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MC Bierschbach; DR Haffner; KJ Schneider; SM Short

    2002-12-01

    Cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of non-fuel-cycle nuclear facilities that represent a significant decommissioning task in terms of decontamination and disposal activities. This study is a re-evaluation of the original study (NUREG/CR-1754 and NUREG/CR-1754, Addendum 1). The reference facilities examined in this study are the same as in the original study and include: a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 3}H-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 14}C-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 123}I-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 137}Cs sealed sources; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 241}Am sealed sources; and an institutional user laboratory. In addition to the laboratories, three reference sites that require some decommissioning effort were also examined. These sites are: (1) a site with a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank; (2) a site with a contaminated ground surface; and (3) a tailings pile containing uranium and thorium residues. Decommissioning of these reference facilities and sites can be accomplished using techniques and equipment that are in common industrial use. Essentially the same technology assumed in the original study is used in this study. For the reference laboratory-type facilities, the study approach is to first evaluate the decommissioning of individual components (e.g., fume hoods, glove boxes, and building surfaces) that are common to many laboratory facilities. The information obtained from analyzing the individual components of each facility are then used to determine the cost, manpower requirements and dose information for the decommissioning of the entire facility. DECON, the objective of the 1988 Rulemaking for materials facilities, is the decommissioning alternative evaluated for the reference laboratories because it results in the release of the facility for restricted or unrestricted use as soon as possible. For a

  19. Human resource development for management of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    This paper described the contents of 'Human resource development for the planning and implementation of safe and reasonable nuclear power plant decommissioning' as the nuclear human resource development project by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant takes 30 to 40 years for its implementation, costing tens of billions of yen. As the period of decommissioning is almost the same as the operation period, it is necessary to provide a systematic and continuous supply of engineers who understand the essence of the decommissioning project. The engineers required here should have project management ability to take charge of preparation, implementation, and termination of decommissioning, and have the ability to perform not only technology, but also factor management, cost management, and the like. As the preconditions of these abilities, it is important to develop human resources who possess qualities that can oversee decommissioning in the future. The contents of human resource education are as follows; (1) desk training (teaching materials: facilities of nuclear power plants, management of nuclear fuels, related laws, decommissioning work, decontamination, dismantling, disposal of waste, etc.), (2) field training (simulators, inspection of power station under decommissioning, etc.), (3) practical training (radiation inventory evaluation, and safety assessment), and (4) inspection of overseas decommissioning, etc. (A.O.)

  20. Decommissioning Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. W.; Kang, Y. A.; Kim, G. H. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    It is predicted that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant would happen in Korea since 2020 but the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension still has been on an increasing trend and its domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project we developed following several essential technologies as a decommissioning R and D. The measurement technology for in-pipe radioactive contamination was developed for measuring alpha/beta/gamma emitting nuclides simultaneously inside a in-pipe and it was tested into the liquid waste transfer pipe in KRR-2. And the digital mock-up system for KRR-1 and 2 was developed for choosing the best scenarios among several scenarios on the basis of various decommissioning information(schedule, waste volume, cost, etc.) that are from the DMU and the methodology of decommissioning cost estimation was also developed for estimating a research reactor's decommissioning cost and the DMU and the decommissioning cost estimation system were incorporated into the decommissioning information integrated management system. Finally the treatment and management technology of the irradiated graphites that happened after decommissioning KRR-2 was developed in order to treat and manage the irradiated graphites safely.

  1. Management of Decommissioning on a Multi-Facility Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraia, Michele; McIntyre, Peter; Visagie, Abrie

    2008-01-01

    The management of the decommissioning of multi-facility sites may be inadequate or inappropriate if based on approaches and strategies developed for sites consisting of only a single facility. The varied nature of activities undertaken, their interfaces and their interdependencies are likely to complicate the management of decommissioning. These issues can be exacerbated where some facilities are entering the decommissioning phase while others are still operational or even new facilities are being built. Multi-facility sites are not uncommon worldwide but perhaps insufficient attention has been paid to optimizing the overall site decommissioning in the context of the entire life cycle of facilities. Decommissioning management arrangements need to be established taking a view across the whole site. A site-wide decommissioning management system is required. This should include a project evaluation and approval process and specific arrangements to manage identified interfaces and interdependencies. A group should be created to manage decommissioning across the site, ensuring adequate and consistent practices in accordance with the management system. Decommissioning management should be aimed at the entire life cycle of facilities. In the case of multi facility sites, the process becomes more complex and decommissioning management arrangements need to be established with a view to the whole site. A site decommissioning management system, a group that is responsible for decommissioning on site, a site project evaluation and approval process and specific arrangements to manage the identified interfaces are key areas of a site decommissioning management structure that need to be addressed to ensure adequate and consistent decommissioning practices. A decommissioning strategy based on single facilities in a sequential manner is deemed inadequate

  2. The waste management implications of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passant, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    Decommissioning policy can only be framed in the light of radioactive waste management policy. What can be done with the waste materials, how and when, will determine the overall decommissioning plans and costs. In this paper the waste management options and their costs are reviewed for the decommissioning of the Central Electricity Generating Boards civil nuclear power stations. The paper concentrates on the decommissioning of Magnox stations, although comparative information on waste volumes and costs are given for the AGR programme and a typical PWR. (author)

  3. ECED 2013: Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning. International Conference on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities. Conference Guide and Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: (I) Opening session (2 contributions); (II) Managerial and Funding Aspects of Decommissioning (5 contributions); (III) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning I (6 contributions); (IV) Experience with Present Decommissioning Projects (4 contributions); (V) Poster Session (14 contributions); (VI) Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning - Panel Discussion; (VII) Release of Materials, Waste Management and Spent Fuel Management (6 contributions); (VIII) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning II (5 contributions).

  4. Decommissioning of AECL Whiteshell laboratories - 16311

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroll, Grant W.; Bilinsky, Dennis M.; Swartz, Randall S.; Harding, Jeff W.; Rhodes, Michael J.; Ridgway, Randall W.

    2009-01-01

    Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a Nuclear Research and Test Establishment near Winnipeg, Canada, operated by AECL since the early 1960's and now under decommissioning. WL occupies approximately 4400 hectares of land and employed more than 1000 staff up to the late-1990's, when the closure decision was made. Nuclear facilities at WL included a research reactor, hot cell facilities and radiochemical laboratories. Programs carried out at the WL site included high level nuclear fuel waste management research, reactor safety research, nuclear materials research, accelerator technology, biophysics, and industrial radiation applications. In preparation for decommissioning, a comprehensive environmental assessment was successfully completed [1] and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission issued a six-year decommissioning licence for WL starting in 2003 - the first decommissioning licence issued for a Nuclear Research and Test Establishment in Canada. This paper describes the progress in this first six-year licence period. A significant development in 2006 was the establishment of the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP), by the Government of Canada, to safely and cost effectively reduce, and eventually eliminate the nuclear legacy liabilities and associated risks, using sound waste management and environmental principles. The NLLP endorsed an accelerated approach to WL Decommissioning, which meant advancing the full decommissioning of buildings and facilities that had originally been planned to be decontaminated and prepared for storage-with-surveillance. As well the NLLP endorsed the construction of enabling facilities - facilities that employ modern waste handling and storage technology on a scale needed for full decommissioning of the large radiochemical laboratories and other nuclear facilities. The decommissioning work and the design and construction of enabling facilities are fully underway. Several redundant non-nuclear buildings have been removed and redundant

  5. Preservation and Implementation of Decommissioning Lessons Learned in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Rafael L.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has actively worked to capture and preserve lessons learned from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. More recently, NRC has involved industry groups, the Organization of Agreement States (OAS), and the Department of Energy (DOE) in the effort to develop approaches to capture, preserve and disseminate decommissioning lessons learned. This paper discusses the accomplishments of the working group, some lessons learned by the NRC in the recent past, and how NRC will incorporate these lessons learned into its regulatory framework. This should help ensure that the design and operation of current and future nuclear facilities will result in less environmental impact and more efficient decommissioning. In summary, the NRC will continue capturing today's experience in decommissioning so that future facilities can take advantage of lessons learned from today's decommissioning projects. NRC, both individually and collectively with industry groups, OAS, and DOE, is aggressively working on the preservation and implementation of decommissioning lessons learned. The joint effort has helped to ensure the lessons from the whole spectrum of decommissioning facilities (i.e., reactor, fuel cycle, and material facilities) are better understood, thus maximizing the amount of knowledge and best practices obtained from decommissioning activities. Anticipated regulatory activities at the NRC will make sure that the knowledge gained from today's decommissioning projects is preserved and implemented to benefit the nuclear facilities that will decommission in the future

  6. Worldwide overview of nuclear submarine decommissioning plans and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1995-06-01

    The number of nuclear propelled vessels that have reached the end of their useful life, is increasing. This raises the question of what to do with these vessels. In this paper the order of magnitude of the problem is first discussed, i.e. the number of nuclear ships built and the number already taken out of service. Next the problems of the first stages of decommissioning are discussed, i.e. the removal of the fuel and the preparation of the reactor parts for final disposal, including the amounts of radioactivity involved. Thirdly, the various methods of final disposal are considered, sea disposal, shallow land burial and deep land burial. Finally, the risks involved in nuclear submarine decommissioning are briefly discussed. (au)

  7. Avaliação de variedades e híbridos de bananeiras sob irrigação Evaluation of banana varieties and hybrids under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Rodrigues Donato

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil dispõe de um grande número de variedades de bananeira, porém poucas atendem integralmente as exigências relativas à preferência dos consumidores, à produtividade e à resistência a doenças. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante dois ciclos produtivos, em Guanambi (BA, as variedades Nam (AAA, Caipira (AAA, Grande Naine (AAA e Prata Anã (AAB e os híbridos (AAAB PA12-03, FHIA-01, SH3640 e FHIA-18 quanto ao porte, ao peso do cacho, ao número de pencas e de frutos, ao número de folhas no florescimento e na colheita e ao ciclo, no delineamento inteiramente casualizado. A 'Grande Naine' destacou-se nos dois ciclos, sobretudo na produtividade. No primeiro ciclo, a 'Caipira' e os híbridos FHIA-18 e SH3640 obtiveram, após a Grande Naine, os melhores rendimentos no peso do cacho. A Caipira também se destacou no número de frutos e os híbridos SH3640, FHIA-01 e FHIA-18 mostraram um bom desempenho no número de pencas, superando a 'Prata Anã'. O SH3640 apresentou o maior número de folhas na colheita e o PA12-03 foi o genótipo mais baixo e mais precoce. No segundo ciclo, o SH3640 foi um dos destaques quanto ao peso do cacho, ao número de pencas e ao número de folhas no florescimento e na colheita, perdendo apenas para a Grande Naine, nos dois primeiros caracteres, e para a Prata Anã, nos dois últimos. No número de frutos, a Caipira sobressaiu-se, superando a Grande Naine. Como no primeiro ciclo, o PA12-03 foi o genótipo mais precoce, ao lado do FHIA-18, e o segundo mais baixo, ao lado da Nam. O porte e o peso do cacho tiveram um acréscimo, entre os ciclos, nos genótipos avaliados. Os híbridos possuem potencial para ser lançados como cultivares.Brazil has a great number of banana varieties, however a few of them attend completely the exigencies related to the consumers preference requirements, productivity and diseases resistance. The objective of this work was to evaluate banana varieties and hybrids in Guanambi

  8. Preparatory activities of the Fugen decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Y.; Tajiri, T.; Kiyota, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Thermal Reactor Fugen is a 165 MWe, heavy water moderated, light-water cooled, pressure-tube type reactor. In February 1998, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan introduced a new policy that development and research of decommissioning of Fugen should be promoted in order to carry out the decommissioning smoothly after the shutdown. The Fugen reactor was shut down definitely in March 2003, and Fugen has been preparing for the project, including necessary development of technologies. The development of decommissioning for Fugen is divided into two areas. One area is the development of unique technology for dismantling special components such as the reactor core and the heavy water system. Another area is the improvement and enhancement of existing technologies. Especially the former area requires effort and comprises development of the reactor dismantlement, tritium decontamination of heavy water system and engineering support systems. The activities are as follows: the density and amount of radioactive nuclides in all equipment or concrete including the reactor core need to be evaluated for the decommissioning. To prepare for decommissioning, analysis, measurement and evaluation of the neutron flux density have been executed during reactor operation. Special dismantling process is necessary for the heavy water system and the reactor that are unique to Fugen. Some studies and tests are going on for the safe dismantling based on existing technologies and their combination. Systems engineering approach is necessary in order to optimize the work load, exposure dose, waste mass and cost by selecting appropriate dismantling process at the planning stage of the decommissioning. For this reason, in order to make a decommissioning plan efficiently, we have been developing an Engineering Support System for decommissioning by adopting new information technologies such as three-dimensional computer-aided design system and virtual reality system. Moreover, the

  9. Decommissioning of Facilities. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    Decommissioning is the last step in the lifetime management of a facility. It must also be considered during the design, construction, commissioning and operation of facilities. This publication establishes requirements for the safe decommissioning of a broad range of facilities: nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, facilities for processing naturally occurring radioactive material, former military sites, and relevant medical, industrial and research facilities. It addresses all the aspects of decommissioning that are required to ensure safety, aspects such as roles and responsibilities, strategy and planning for decommissioning, conduct of decommissioning actions and termination of the authorization for decommissioning. It is intended for use by those involved in policy development, regulatory control and implementation of decommissioning.

  10. UK reactor decommissioning strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woollam, P.B.

    2004-01-01

    With the cessation of electricity generation, nuclear power stations move into the next stage of the overall life cycle of the facility: decommissioning. Decommissioning is defined as the process whereby a nuclear facility, at the end of its economic life, is taken permanently out of service and its site made available for other purposes. This involves the implementation of a structured and safe programme for dismantling and clearing the site and making it available for alternative use in the future. In practical terms, 'decommissioning' means the systematic and progressive reduction of hazards to the point where the site could eventually be de-licensed. (author)

  11. Risk Assessment Strategy for Decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yamaguchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Risk management of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station decommissioning is a great challenge. In the present study, a risk management framework has been developed for the decommissioning work. It is applied to fuel assembly retrieval from Unit 3 spent fuel pool. Whole retrieval work is divided into three phases: preparation, retrieval, and transportation and storage. First of all, the end point has been established and the success path has been developed. Then, possible threats, which are internal/external and technical/societal/management, are identified and selected. “What can go wrong?” is a question about the failure scenario. The likelihoods and consequences for each scenario are roughly estimated. The whole decommissioning project will continue for several decades, i.e., long-term perspective is important. What should be emphasized is that we do not always have enough knowledge and experience of this kind. It is expected that the decommissioning can make steady and good progress in support of the proposed risk management framework. Thus, risk assessment and management are required, and the process needs to be updated in accordance with the most recent information and knowledge on the decommissioning works.

  12. Risk assessment strategy for decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Jang, Sung Hoon [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Hida, Kazuki [Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Yamanaka, Yasunori [Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Tokyo (Japan); Narumiya, Yoshiyuki [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Risk management of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station decommissioning is a great challenge. In the present study, a risk management framework has been developed for the decommissioning work. It is applied to fuel assembly retrieval from Unit 3 spent fuel pool. Whole retrieval work is divided into three phases: preparation, retrieval, and transportation and storage. First of all, the end point has been established and the success path has been developed. Then, possible threats, which are internal/external and technical/societal/management, are identified and selected. “What can go wrong?” is a question about the failure scenario. The likelihoods and consequences for each scenario are roughly estimated. The whole decommissioning project will continue for several decades, i.e., long-term perspective is important. What should be emphasized is that we do not always have enough knowledge and experience of this kind. It is expected that the decommissioning can make steady and good progress in support of the proposed risk management framework. Thus, risk assessment and management are required, and the process needs to be updated in accordance with the most recent information and knowledge on the decommissioning works.

  13. Constructing Predictive Estimates for Worker Exposure to Radioactivity During Decommissioning: Analysis of Completed Decommissioning Projects - Master Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmers, Dana Lee; Eide, Steven Arvid

    2002-10-01

    An analysis of completed decommissioning projects is used to construct predictive estimates for worker exposure to radioactivity during decommissioning activities. The preferred organizational method for the completed decommissioning project data is to divide the data by type of facility, whether decommissioning was performed on part of the facility or the complete facility, and the level of radiation within the facility prior to decommissioning (low, medium, or high). Additional data analysis shows that there is not a downward trend in worker exposure data over time. Also, the use of a standard estimate for worker exposure to radioactivity may be a best estimate for low complete storage, high partial storage, and medium reactor facilities; a conservative estimate for some low level of facility radiation facilities (reactor complete, research complete, pits/ponds, other), medium partial process facilities, and high complete research facilities; and an underestimate for the remaining facilities. Limited data are available to compare different decommissioning alternatives, so the available data are reported and no conclusions can been drawn. It is recommended that all DOE sites and the NRC use a similar method to document worker hours, worker exposure to radiation (person-rem), and standard industrial accidents, injuries, and deaths for all completed decommissioning activities.

  14. Human resource development for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarized the features of decommissioning work and the methods how to develop human resources. The general flow of decommissioning includes the following steps: (1) evaluation of facility characteristics, (2) planning, (3) decontamination and disassembly of equipment and structures contaminated with radioactivity, (4) radioactivity measurement, (5) treatment and disposal of radioactive waste, and (6) release from legal restrictions (termination of decommissioning). For this purpose, techniques in various fields are required. In the evaluation of facility characteristics, radiation measurement and calculation of activation amount in the core part are required. In decontamination and dismantling, cutting technology (mechanical cutting, thermal cutting, etc.), decontamination technology, and remote control technology are required. In the nuclear power education in the past, the fields related to design, construction, operation, and maintenance among the plant life cycle were the main parts. Much attention was not payed to decommissioning and the treatment/disposal of radioactive waste in the second half of life cycle. As university education, Hokkaido University and Fukui University have lectures on decommissioning. Furthermore, the education and research for students are proceeding at seven universities, with a focus on common reactors including those of Fukushima Daiichi Power Station. It is a key for promoting decommissioning, to incorporate project management, risk analysis, cost evaluation, and decision making into education, and to foster human resources heading toward challenging problems including social problems. (A.O.)

  15. An outsider's view of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, T.

    1996-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is not just a technical or even a financial issue. Presenting decommissioning as a technically difficult task overcome by superhuman effort on the part of the industry will not gain much credit amongst sophisticated consumers who now require that any complex technology will work and work safely. Any engineering problems are surmountable given the money to find the solution. Some of the financial aspects of decommissioning are worrying, however, given their open-ended nature. The cost of waste disposal is one of these. Despite a lapse of fifty years since the start-up of its first reactor, the United Kingdom is unlikely to have available a repository for the disposal of intermediate level waste until about 2020. Waste disposal is a large consideration in decommissioning and the industry's forecasts of cost in this area lack credibility in the light of a poor track record in financial prediction. Financial engineering in the form of the segregated fund set up in March 1996 to cover the decommissioning of nuclear power stations in the United Kingdom is likely to provide only short term reassurance in the light of doubts about a credible future for nuclear power. This lack of confidence over the wider problems of nuclear power creates particular problems for decommissioning which go beyond technical difficulties and complicate financial considerations. (UK)

  16. Principles of record keeping for decommissioning purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraia, M.

    2003-01-01

    At the siting and conceptual design stage of a nuclear facility the first records pertaining to that facility are produced and stored. Subsequent phases in the facility's life cycle (detailed design, construction, commissioning, operation and shutdown) will include the production and retention of a large variety of records. Design, as-built drawings and operational records are essential for safe and efficient operation of any nuclear facility. This set of records is constantly updated and augmented during operation. Records from all phases of a nuclear facility are important for planning its decommissioning. Although not all of these records need to be included explicitly in the decommissioning plan itself, the process of initial, ongoing and final planning utilizes pertinent records for, and ultimately achieves, safe and cost effective decommissioning. When a nuclear facility is shutdown for decommissioning, current operating experience may be lost. Therefore, one important element of planning is to identify, secure and store appropriate operational records to support decommissioning. This process is preferably initiated during the design and construction phase and continues throughout operation including shutdown. Part of the records inventory from operation will become records for decommissioning and it is cost effective to identify these records before final facility shutdown. Experience shows that lack of attention to record keeping may result in an undue waste of time, other resources and additional costs. The newly established Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management recognizes the importance of keeping decommissioning-related records. In addition, the systematic management of records is an essential part of quality assurance and is often a licence condition. A good comprehensive decommissioning records management system (RMS) is one specific application of the broader concepts of 'Protection

  17. Fort St. Vrain defueling ampersand decommissioning considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warembourg, D.

    1994-01-01

    Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station (FSV) is one of the first commercial reactors to be decommissioned under NRC's decommissioning rule. The defueling and decommissioning of this 330 MWe High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) has involved many challenges for Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC) including defueling to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI), establishing decommissioning funding, obtaining regulatory approvals, arranging for waste disposal, and managing a large fixed price decommissioning contract. In 1990, a team comprised of the Westinghouse Corporation and Morrison Knudsen Corporation, with the Scientific Ecology Group as a major subcontractor, was contracted by PSC to perform the decommissioning under a fixed price contract. Physical work activities began in August 1992. Currently, physical dismantlement activities are about 45% complete, the project is on schedule, and is within budget

  18. The European community's programme of research on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants: objectives, scope and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, B.

    1984-01-01

    The European Community's research activities on the decommissioning of nuclear installations are aimed at developing effective techniques and procedures for ensuring the protection of man and his environment against the potential hazards from nuclear installations that have been withdrawn from service. The first five-year (1979-1983) programme of research on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants has comprised seven R and D projects concerning the following areas: maintaining disused plants in safe condition; surface decontamination for decommissioning purposes; dismantling techniques; treatment of the main waste materials arising in decommissioning, i.e. steel, concrete and graphite; large containers for decommissioning waste; arisings and characteristics of decommissioning waste; plant design features facilitating decommissioning. The research work was carried out by organizations and companies in the Member States under 51 research contracts, most of them cost-sharing. The Commission is now launching a new five-year (1984-1988) programme of research on the decommissioning of nuclear installations. (author)

  19. Decommissioning of nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Yashchenko, Ya.V.

    2005-01-01

    This is the first manual in Ukraine giving the complete review of the decommissioning process of the nuclear power facilities including the issues of the planning, design documentation development, advanced technology description. On the base of the international and domestic experience, the issues on the radwaste management, the decontamination methods, the equipment dismantling, the remote technology application, and also the costs estimate at decommissioning are considered. The special attention to the personnel safety provision, population and environment at decommissioning process is paid

  20. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollradt, J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the main questions of decommissioning of nuclear power plants will be given in the sight of German utilities (VDEW-Working group 'Stillegung'). The main topics are: 1) Definitions of decommissioning, entombment, removal and combinations of such alternatives; 2) Radioactive inventory (build up and decay); 3) Experience up to now; 4) Possibilities to dismantle are given by possibility to repair nuclear power plants; 5) Estimated costs, waste, occupational radiation dose; 6) German concept of decommissioning. (orig./HK) [de

  1. Needs for European decommissioning academy (EDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11.9.2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 500 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 35 per year. Having in mind the actual EHRO-N report from 2013 focused on operation of nuclear facilities and an assumption that the ratio between nuclear experts, nuclearized and nuclear aware people is comparable also for decommissioning, as well as the fact that the special study branch for decommissioning in the European countries almost does not exist, this European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) could be helpful in the over-bridging this gap. The main goal is - from about 74% of nuclearized experts (graduated at different technical Universities and increased their nuclear knowledge and skills mostly via on-job training and often in the area of NPP operation) to create nuclear experts for decommissioning via our post-gradual coursed organized in two semester study at our Academy, which will include the lessons, practical exercises in our laboratories, on-site training at NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia as well as 3 days technical tour to JAVYS (Slovakia), UJV Rez (Czech Rep.) and PURAM (Hungary), respectively. Beside the exams in selected topics (courses), the final thesis written under supervision of recognized experts will be the precondition for graduation and certification of the participants. For the first run of the EDA scheduled on 2014 we would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future in Europe. The growing decommissioning market creates a potential for new activities, with highly skilled jobs in an innovative field, involving high-level technologies. A clear global positioning of the EU will stimulate the export of know-how to

  2. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  3. Decommissioning standards: the radioactive waste impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.L.; Crofford, W.N.

    1979-01-01

    Several considerations are important in establishing standards for decommissioning nuclear facilities, sites and materials. The review includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions, and low-level radioactive waste. Decommissioning appears more closely related to radiation protection than to waste management, although it is often carried under waste management programs or activities. Basically, decommissioning is the removal of radioactive contamination from facilities, sites and materials so that they can be returned to unrestricted use or other actions designed to minimize radiation exposure of the public. It is the removed material that is the waste and, as such, it must be managed and disposed of in an environmentally safe manner. It is important to make this distinction even though, for programmatic purposes, decommissioning may be carried under waste management activities. It was concluded that the waste disposal problem from decommissioning activities is significant in that it may produce volumes comparable to volumes produced during the total operating life of a reactor. However, this volume does not appear to place an inordinate demand on shallow land burial capacity. It appears that the greater problems will be associated with occupational exposures and costs, both of which are sensitive to the timing of decommissioning actions

  4. Autonomy-Enabled Fuel Savings for Military Vehicles: Report on 2016 Aberdeen Test Center Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-26

    Fuel savings have never been the primary focus for autonomy-enabled military vehicles. However, studies have estimated that autonomy in passenger and commercial vehicles could improve fuel economy by as much as 22%-33% over various drive cycles. If even a fraction of this saving could be realized in military vehicles, significant cost savings could be realized each year through reduced fuel transport missions, reduced fuel purchases, less maintenance, fewer required personnel, and increased vehicle range. Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory installed advanced data logging equipment and instrumentation on two autonomy-enabled convoy vehicles configured with Lockheed Martin's Autonomous Mobility Applique System to determine system performance and improve on the overall vehicle control strategies of the vehicles. Initial test results from testing conducted at the U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds are included in this report. Lessons learned from in-use testing and performance results have been provided to the project partners for continued system refinement.

  5. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Status report. Humboldt Bay Power Plant Unit 3, SAFSTOR decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, B.L.; Haffner, D.R.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.

    1986-06-01

    This document explains the purpose of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects (ENFDP) program and summarizes information concerning the decommissioning of the Humboldt Bay Power Plant (HBPP) Unit 3 facility. Preparations to put this facility into a custodial safe storage (SAFSTOR) mode are currently scheduled for completion by June 30, 1986. This report gives the status of activities as of June 1985. A final summary report will be issued after completion of this SAFSTOR decommissioning activity. Information included in this status report has been collected from the facility decommissioning plan, environmental report, and other sources made available by the licensee. This data has been placed in a computerized data base system which permits data manipulation and summarization. A description of the computer reports that can be generated by the decommissioning data system (DDS) for Humboldt Bay and samples of those reports are included in this document

  6. Challenges for decommissioning policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riotte, H.

    2007-01-01

    In the coming years, OECD member countries will be increasingly faced with the need to make appropriate provisions, in terms of policy, finance and management, for all aspects of decommissioning. Decommissioning requires regulatory approval and oversight, the directions of which are guided by national policy. In several instances, governments have only recently begun to address their approaches to decommissioning policy and regulation in national legislation, and international overviews of such approaches, which may eventually lead to international harmonization, are only now beginning to emerge. In parallel, policy and regulation have been evolving and a broadened competence has developed in relevant regulatory authorities. The challenge lying ahead is to establish a framework that will allow for the growth of nuclear industrial activities in competitive, globalized markets, while maintaining and assuring the safety of decommissioning for the public and for workers. Within this context, institutional arrangements, stakeholder issues, costs and funding, waste management and policies for release from regulatory control, as well as the availability of technologies and skills, need to be reviewed. (author)

  7. Program change management during nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushart, Sean; Kim, Karen; Naughton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Decommissioning a nuclear power plant is a complex project. The project involves the coordination of several different departments and the management of changing plant conditions, programs, and regulations. As certain project Milestones are met, the evolution of such plant programs and regulations can help optimize project execution and cost. This paper will provide information about these Milestones and the plant departments and programs that change throughout a decommissioning project. The initial challenge in the decommissioning of a nuclear plant is the development of a definitive plan for such a complex project. EPRI has published several reports related to decommissioning planning. These earlier reports provided general guidance in formulating a Decommissioning Plan. This Change Management paper will draw from the experience gained in the last decade in decommissioning of nuclear plants. The paper discusses decommissioning in terms of a sequence of major Milestones. The plant programs, associated plans and actions, and staffing are discussed based upon experiences from the following power reactor facilities: Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant, Yankee Nuclear Power Station, and the Haddam Neck Plant. Significant lessons learned from other sites are also discussed as appropriate. Planning is a crucial ingredient of successful decommissioning projects. The development of a definitive Decommissioning Plan can result in considerable project savings. The decommissioning plants in the U.S. have planned and executed their projects using different strategies based on their unique plant circumstances. However, experience has shown that similar project milestones and actions applied through all of these projects. This allows each plant to learn from the experiences of the preceding projects. As the plant transitions from an operating plant through decommissioning, the reduction and termination of defunct programs and regulations can help optimize all facets of

  8. Generic Overview of the Status of Characterization Surveys and Guidance for Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Eid, Rateb Boby

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of several topical areas pertaining to characterization and survey for decommissioning, including: U.S. NRC regulatory requirements for decommissioning and survey; a description of the decommissioning processes particularly role of characterization and survey; characterization survey types and NRC categorization of decommissioning groups; status of U.S. characterization survey guidance; and overview of key characterization and survey Issues. The specific topical areas are briefly discussed below: - The paper addresses the U.S. NRC requirements under 10 CFR Part 20, Subpart E - 'Radiological Criteria for License Termination', and final status surveys requirements under 10 CFR 20.1501(a). Other requirements under 10CFR Parts 50.75, 50.82, 51.53, and 51.95) as well as, reporting and record keeping for decommissioning planning will be outlined. The paper also discusses NRC general decommissioning process for materials and fuel cycle facilities, as well as, for power reactor facilities. - Strategy and planning for decommissioning using the data quality objectives (DQO) approach and its seven step process will be presented in some detail. - The US NRC 'Surveys and Site Investigation Process' as described in NUREG 1757 and categorization of 'Decommissioning Groups' in the context of characterization and survey needs will be addressed. - The paper briefly outlines methodologies, approaches, and status of U.S. multi-agency key guidance documents such as MARSSIM (NUREG-1575), MARSAME (NUREG- 1575, Supp.1), and more recently, the NRC Subsurface Guidance NUREG/CR 7021. - Dose modeling and software development/update in support of radiological survey and characterization for derivation of derived concentration guideline levels. - Lessons Learned from Regulatory 'Reviews of Survey Plans' particularly attributes of survey plans, common survey issues, and key aspects for decommissioning success are discussed in the paper. (author)

  9. Site decommissioning management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff's strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites

  10. Site decommissioning management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff`s strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites.

  11. Evaluation of the I. Stage of decommissioning and implementation of the II. Stage of decommissioning of NPP V1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrasnova, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper author deals with following aspects: 1. Introduction of company Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, plc; 2. Evaluation of the I. stage of decommissioning and implementation of the II. Stage of decommissioning of NPP V1; (author)

  12. Decommissioning standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofford, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  13. Planning of the BN-350 reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepikov, A.Kh.; Tazhibayeva, I.L.; Zhantikin, T.M.; Baldov, A.N.; Nazarenko, P.I.; Koltyshev, S.M.; Wells, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental and commercial BN-350 NPP equipped with a fast neutron sodium cooled reactor is located in Kazakhstan near the Aktau city on the Caspian Sea coast. It was commissioned in 1973 and intended for weapon-grade plutonium production and as stream supply to a water desalination facility and the turbines of the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex. Taking into account technical, financial and political issues, the Government of Kazakhstan enacted the Decree no. 456 'On Decommissioning of the Reactor BN-350 in the Aktau City of the Mangystau Region'. Because the decision on reactor decommissioning was adopted before the end of scheduled operation (2003), the plan to decommission the BN-350 reactor has not yet been developed. To determine the activities required for ensuring reactor safety and in preparation for decommission in the period prior, the development and ensuring approval by the Republic of Kazakhstan Government of the decommissioning plan, a 'Plan of Priority Actions for BN-350 Reactor Decommissioning' was developed and approved. Actions provided for in the plan include the following: Development of BN-350 Reactor Decommissioning Plan; Accident prevention during the period of transition; Unloading nuclear fuel from reactor and draining the coolant from the heat exchange circuits. Decommission is defined as a complex of administrative and technical actions taken to allow the removal of some or all of regulatory controls over a nuclear facility. These actions involve decontamination, dismantling and removal of radioactive materials, waste, components and structures. They are carried out to achieve a progressive and systematic reduction in radiological hazards and are undertaken on the basis of planning and assessment in order to ensure safety decommissioning operations. In accordance with the decision of Kazakhstan Government, three basic stages for BN-350 reactor decommissioning are envisaged: First stage - Placement of BN-350 into long-term storage

  14. 77 FR 41107 - Decommissioning Planning During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ..., 40, 50, 70, and 72 [NRC-2011-0162] Decommissioning Planning During Operations AGENCY: Nuclear... (DG) 4014, ``Decommissioning Planning During Operations.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC staff considers acceptable for use in complying with the NRC's Decommissioning Planning Rule. The NRC...

  15. 76 FR 77431 - Decommissioning Planning During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... (DG) DG-4014, ``Decommissioning Planning During Operations.'' This guide describes a method that the.... The draft regulatory guide entitled, ``Decommissioning Planning During Operations,'' is temporarily..., 40, 50, 70, and 72 RIN 3150-AI55 [NRC-2011-0286; NRC-2008-0030] Decommissioning Planning During...

  16. 78 FR 663 - Decommissioning Planning During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ...] Decommissioning Planning During Operations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide..., ``Decommissioning Planning During Operations.'' The guide describes a method that the NRC staff considers acceptable for use by holders of licenses in complying with the NRC's Decommissioning Planning Rule (DPR) (76 FR...

  17. Development of computer program for estimating decommissioning cost - 59037

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak-Soo; Park, Jong-Kil

    2012-01-01

    The programs for estimating the decommissioning cost have been developed for many different purposes and applications. The estimation of decommissioning cost is required a large amount of data such as unit cost factors, plant area and its inventory, waste treatment, etc. These make it difficult to use manual calculation or typical spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel. The cost estimation for eventual decommissioning of nuclear power plants is a prerequisite for safe, timely and cost-effective decommissioning. To estimate the decommissioning cost more accurately and systematically, KHNP, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd, developed a decommissioning cost estimating computer program called 'DeCAT-Pro', which is Decommission-ing Cost Assessment Tool - Professional. (Hereinafter called 'DeCAT') This program allows users to easily assess the decommissioning cost with various decommissioning options. Also, this program provides detailed reporting for decommissioning funding requirements as well as providing detail project schedules, cash-flow, staffing plan and levels, and waste volumes by waste classifications and types. KHNP is planning to implement functions for estimating the plant inventory using 3-D technology and for classifying the conditions of radwaste disposal and transportation automatically. (authors)

  18. Financial aspects of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Havris, A.

    2003-01-01

    European Commission adopted recently two proposals of Directives designed to pave the way for a Community approach to the safety of nuclear power plants and the processing of radioactive waste. Nuclear safety cannot be guaranteed without making available adequate financial resources. With regard, in particular, to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the Directive defines the Community rules for the establishment, management and use of decommissioning funds allocated to a body with legal personality separate from that of the nuclear operator. In order to comply with the acquis communautaire, Romanian Government issued the Emergency Ordinance no. 11/2003 which set up the National Agency for Radioactive Waste (ANDRAD) and soon will be established the financial mechanism for raising the necessary funds. Societatea Nationala 'Nuclearelectrica' S.A. operates, through one of its branches, Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 and has to prepare its decommissioning strategy and to analyze the options to assure the financing for covering the future costs. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the financial systems' mechanisms to the satisfaction of the nuclear operator obligations, according to the disbursement schedule foreseen by decommissioning projects . The availability of cash to pay for all the decommissioning expenditure must be foreseen by setting up assets and establishing a suitable financing plan. The different practices of assets management shall be presented in this paper on the basis of the international experience. Some calculation samples shall be given as an illustration. (author)

  19. Nuclear decommissioning planning, execution and international experience

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    A title that critically reviews the decommissioning and decontamination processes and technologies available for rehabilitating sites used for nuclear power generation and civilian nuclear facilities, from fundamental issues and best practices, to procedures and technology, and onto decommissioning and decontamination case studies.$bOnce a nuclear installation has reached the end of its safe and economical operational lifetime, the need for its decommissioning arises. Different strategies can be employed for nuclear decommissioning, based on the evaluation of particular hazards and their attendant risks, as well as on the analysis of costs of clean-up and waste management. This allows for decommissioning either soon after permanent shutdown, or perhaps a long time later, the latter course allowing for radioactivity levels to drop in any activated or contaminated components. It is crucial for clear processes and best practices to be applied in decommissioning such installations and sites, particular where any ...

  20. Nuclear installations: decommissioning and dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a compilation of seven talks given during the 1995 EUROFORUM conference about decommissioning and dismantling of Nuclear installations in the European Community. The first two papers give a detailed description of the legal, financial and regulatory framework of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities in the European Union and a review of the currently available decommissioning techniques for inventory, disassembly, decontamination, remote operations and management of wastes. Other papers describe some legal and technical aspects of reactor and plants dismantling in UK, Germany, Spain and France. (J.S.)

  1. Policy and systems analysis for nuclear installation decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jiande

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of introducing into principal concept for nuclear installation decommissioning, form policy, sciences point of view, the author analyses present problems in the policy, the administrative and programme for decommissioning work in China. According to the physical process of decommissioning, the author studied engineering economics, derived method and formulas to estimate decommissioning cost. It is pointed out that basing on optimization principle for radiation protection and analysing cost-benefit for decommissioning engineering, the corresponding policy decision can be made

  2. Decommissioning high-level waste surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The protective storage, entombment and dismantlement options of decommissioning a High-Level Waste Surface Facility (HLWSF) was investigated. A reference conceptual design for the facility was developed based on the designs of similar facilities. State-of-the-art decommissioning technologies were identified. Program plans and cost estimates for decommissioning the reference conceptual designs were developed. Good engineering design concepts were on the basis of this work identified

  3. Decommissioning nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadoumont, J.

    2010-01-01

    When a nuclear installation is permanently shut down, it is crucial to completely dismantle and decontaminate it on account of radiological safety. The expertise that SCK-CEN has built up in the decommissioning operation of its own BR3 reactor is now available nationally and internationally. Last year SCK-CEN played an important role in the newly started dismantling and decontamination of the MOX plant (Mixed Oxide) of Belgonucleaire in Dessel, and the decommissioning of the university research reactor Thetis in Ghent.

  4. Decommissioning and Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaut, V.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's decommissioning and decontamination programme are (1) to develop, test and optimise the technologies and procedures for decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear installations in order to minimise the waste arising and the distributed dose; (2) to optimise the environmental impact; (3) to reduce the cost of the end-of-life of the installation; (4) to make these new techniques available to the industry; (5) to share skills and competences. The programme and achievements in 1999 are summarised

  5. Roadmap and performance carried out during Ciemat site decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinones, Javier; Diaz Diaz, Jose Luis

    2005-01-01

    Ciemat (Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology) located in the heart of the Ciudad Universitaria of Madrid, occupies a property of 20 Ha. Since its creation in 1951 as JEN, and in 1986 renowned as Ciemat, it has involved on R and D projects in the field of Energy and Environment, i.e., Nuclear Fission, Nuclear Fusion, Fossils Fuels, Renewable Energy. As a consequence of the R and D projects developed between 1951 - 1986 on Nuclear Fission field (fuel design, fabrication, characterization on irradiated fuels, safety studies, etc) and to the diversification of the goals as well, it is necessary to Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) from nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor, Hot Cells, Irradiation facility), buildings and soils. Preparations for D and D included a staged shutdown of operations, planning documentation and licensing for decommissioning. As a prerequisite to Ciemat application for a decommissioning license and nuclear environmental assessment was carried out according to Spanish Nuclear Council (CSN) and approval of the site decommissioning project was obtained in 2000 and valid until December 31, 2006. Since 2001 - 2003 is underway and focussed on the radiological characterization of the site (divided in pieces of ground), when each piece of ground is characterized a planning for D and D is presented to CSN in order to obtain a license for actuation. Nowadays several pieces of ground are decontaminated and modifications have been done in order to achieve a safe state of storage-with-surveillance. Later phases have planned waste management improvements for selected wastes already on temporally storage, eventually followed by final decommissioning of facilities and buildings and cleaning of contaminants from soils and removal of waste from the site. This paper describes the planning, nuclear and environment assessment and descriptions of decommissioning activities currently underway at Ciemat. (Author)

  6. The assessment system based on virtual decommissioning environments to reduce abnormal hazards from human errors for decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Byung Seon; Hyun, Dong jun; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Ik June; Kang, Shin Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities has to be accomplished by assuring the safety of workers. So, it is necessary that before decommissioning, the exposure dose to workers has to be analyzed and assessed under the principle of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). Furthermore, to improve the proficiency of decommissioning environments, method and system need to be developed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities, it is necessary that assessment system is developed. This system has been successfully developed so that exposure dose to workers could be real-time measured and assessed in virtual decommissioning environments. It can be concluded that this system could be protected from accidents and enable workers to improve his familiarization about working environments. It is expected that this system can reduce human errors because workers are able to improve the proficiency of hazardous working environments due to virtual training like real decommissioning situations.

  7. Training practices to support decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourassa, J.; Clark, C.R.; Kazennov, A.; Laraia, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Scott, A.; Yoder, J.

    2006-01-01

    Adequate numbers of competent personnel must be available during any phase of a nuclear facility life cycle, including the decommissioning phase. While a significant amount of attention has been focused on the technical aspects of decommissioning and many publications have been developed to address technical aspects, human resource management issues, particularly the training and qualification of decommissioning personnel, are becoming more paramount with the growing number of nuclear facilities of all types that are reaching or approaching the decommissioning phase. One of the keys to success is the training of the various personnel involved in decommissioning in order to develop the necessary knowledge and skills required for specific decommissioning tasks. The operating organisations of nuclear facilities normally possess limited expertise in decommissioning and consequently rely on a number of specialized organisations and companies that provide the services related to the decommissioning activities. Because of this there is a need to address the issue of assisting the operating organisations in the development and implementation of human resource management policies and training programmes for the facility personnel and contractor personnel involved in various phases of decommissioning activities. The lessons learned in the field of ensuring personnel competence are discussed in the paper (on the basis of information and experiences accumulated from various countries and organizations, particularly, through relevant IAEA activities). Particularly, the following aspects are addressed: transition of training from operational to decommissioning phase; knowledge management; target groups, training needs analysis, and application of a systematic approach to training (SAT); content of training for decommissioning management and professional staff, and for decommissioning workers; selection and training of instructors; training facilities and tools; and training as

  8. Decommissioning and material recycling. Radiation risk management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, D.H.

    1996-09-01

    Once nuclear fuel cycle facilities have permanently stopped operations they have to be decommissioned. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the surveillance and dismantling of the facility systems and buildings, the management of the materials resulting from the dismantling activities and the release of the site for further use. The management of radiation risks associated with these activities plays an important role in the decommissioning process. Existing legislation covers many aspects of the decommissioning process. However, in most countries with nuclear power programmes legislation with respect to decommissioning is incomplete. In particular this is true in the Netherlands, where government policy with respect to decommissioning is still in development. Therefore a study was performed to obtain an overview of the radiation risk management issues associated with decommissioning and the status of the relevant legislation. This report describes the results of that study. It is concluded that future work at the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation on decommissioning and radiation risk management issues should concentrate on surveillance and dismantling activities and on criteria for site release. (orig.)

  9. Waste management considerations in nuclear facility decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.; Murphy, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities involves the management of significant quantities of radioactive waste. This paper summarizes information on volumes of waste requiring disposal and waste management costs developed in a series of decommissioning studies performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. These studies indicate that waste management is an important cost factor in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Alternatives for managing decommissioning wastes are defined and recommendations are made for improvements in waste management practices

  10. Decommissioning: the final folly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibdin, T.

    1990-01-01

    The Second International Seminar on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities held in London is reviewed. Various solutions to the reactor decommissioning, including isolating the reactor core, and turning the surrounding buildings into a theme park, are mentioned. The International Atomic Energy Agency identifies three decommissioning stages. Stage 1, defuelling; Stage 2 dismounting of non-radioactive plant with isolation of the nuclear island and Stage 3, return to a 'green field' site. The real debate is about waste management and timing of the stages - whether to defer Stage 3 for a century or so, or even whether to attempt Stage 3 at all. Cost estimation is also discussed. In the United Kingdom, the timing of completion of the deep repository for high level waste will affect the timing. (UK)

  11. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities: Feasibility, needs and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLaney, E.G.; Mickelson, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency's Working Group on Decommissioning is preparing a study entitled ''Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities: Feasibility, Needs and Costs.'' The study addresses the economics, technical feasibility and waste management aspects of decommissioning larger commercial reactors and nuclear support facilities. Experience on decommissioning small reactors and fuel cycle facilities shows that current technology is generally adequate. Several major projects that are either underway or planned will demonstrate decommissioning of the larger and more complex facilities. This experience will provide a framework for planning and engineering the decommissioning of the larger commercial reactors and fuel cycle facilities. Several areas of technology development are desired for worker productivity improvement, occupational exposure reduction, and waste volume reduction. In order to assess and plan for the decommissioning of large commercial nuclear facilities, projections have been made of the capacity of these facilities that may be decommissioned in the future and the radioactive waste that would be produced from the decommissioning of these facilities. These projections through the year 2025 are based on current data and the OECD reactor capacity forecast through the year 2000. A 25-year operating lifetime for electrical power generation was assumed. The possibilities of plant lifetime extension and the deferral of plant dismantlement make this projection very conservative

  12. Development of the Decommissioning Project Management System, DECOMMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B.

    2007-03-01

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The management of the projects can be defined as 'the decision of the changes of the decommissioning methodologies for the more efficient achievement of the project at an adequate time and to an improved method'. The correct decision comes from the experiences on the decommissioning project and the systematic experiences can be obtained from the good management of the decommissioning information. For this, a project management tool, DECOMMIS, was developed in the D and D Technology Division, which has the charge of the decommissioning projects at the KAERI, and its purpose was extended to following fields; generation of reports on the dismantling waste for WACID, record keeping for the next decommissioning projects of nuclear facilities, provision of fundamental data for the R and D of the decommissioning technologies

  13. The decommissioning of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, F.

    1992-01-01

    This report has been commissioned by the National Steering Committee of Nuclear Free Local Authorities to provide: a comprehensive introduction to the technical, social, political, environmental and economic dimensions to nuclear power station decommissioning; an independent analysis of Nuclear Electric's recent change of decommissioning strategy; the case for wider public involvement in decision making about decommissioning; and a preliminary assessment of the potential mechanisms for achieving that essential wider public involvement

  14. Development of a Preliminary Decommissioning Plan Following the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations - 13361

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshonas Cole, Katherine; Dinner, Julia; Grey, Mike; Daniska, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations, published by OECD/NEA, IAEA and EC is intended to provide a uniform list of cost items for decommissioning projects and provides a standard format that permits international cost estimates to be compared. Candesco and DECOM have used the ISDC format along with two costing codes, OMEGA and ISDCEX, developed from the ISDC by DECOM, in three projects: the development of a preliminary decommissioning plan for a multi-unit CANDU nuclear power station, updating the preliminary decommissioning cost estimates for a prototype CANDU nuclear power station and benchmarking the cost estimates for CANDU against the cost estimates for other reactor types. It was found that the ISDC format provides a well defined and transparent basis for decommissioning planning and cost estimating that assists in identifying gaps and weaknesses and facilitates the benchmarking against international experience. The use of the ISDC can also help build stakeholder confidence in the reliability of the plans and estimates and the adequacy of decommissioning funding. (authors)

  15. Trojan Decommissioning Project Cost Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael B. Lackey

    2000-01-01

    The Trojan nuclear plant (Trojan) was an 1160-MW(electric) four-loop pressurized water reactor located in Rainier, Oregon. The plant was permanently shut down in 1993 after ∼17 yr of commercial operation. The early plant closure was an economic decision. The key factors in the closure analysis were escalation of inspection and repair costs associated with steam generator tube cracking and the projected availability of inexpensive replacement power in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Since the plant closure, Portland General Electric (PGE) has been actively engaged in decommissioning. The Trojan Decommissioning Project currently has a forecast at completion of $429.7 million (all costs are in millions of 1997 dollars, unless otherwise noted). The cost performance of the Trojan Decommissioning Project to date is addressed, as well as the tools that are in place to provide cost control through completion of decommissioning

  16. Government Assigns New Supervisory Task. Safe Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekberg, Anna

    2003-01-01

    When the Government decided to shutdown one of the two Barsebaeck reactors in February of 1998, it presented SKI with a task that came much earlier than expected; the supervision of the decommissioning of a reactor. As a result of proposals presented in Parliament, SKI began the formulation of a long-term strategy in 1997 for the inspection of a nuclear plant during the decommissioning process. As a preliminary task, SKI started a research programme dealing with the potential risks associated with the transition from normal operations through shutdown to final deconstruction of the power plant. Emphasis was laid on safety culture issues and on questions of organization, as opposed to an earlier stress on the purely technical aspects of decommissioning. After a long period of uncertainty, following much discussion, in July 1998 a Government decision was finally reached to shutdown the first reactor at Barsebaeck. This was carried out in November 1999. It is still uncertain as to when the other reactor will be decommissioned; a decision is expected at the earliest in 2004. This uncertainty, resulting from the prolonged decision making process, could be detrimental to the safety culture on the site; motivation could diminish, and key personnel could be lost. Decommissioning is a new phase in the life cycle of a plant, giving rise to new inspection issues of supervision. During the period of uncertainty, while awaiting SKI has identified ten key areas, dealing with the safety culture of the organization, in connection with the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1. 1. Obtaining and retaining staff competence during decommissioning; 2. Sustaining organizational memory; 3. Identifying key organizational functions and management skills that are critical during the transition from operations to decommissioning. 4. Sustaining organizational viability and accountability for decommissioning; 5. Sustaining motivation and trust in management of dismantlement; 6. Overseeing

  17. The decommissioning plan of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, M.; Matsuo, R.; Fujikawa, S.; Nomura, T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the review about the decommissioning plan and present state of the Nuclear Ship Mutsu. The decommissioning of the Mutsu is carried out by Removal and Isolation method. The procedure of the decommissioning works is presented in this paper. The decommissioning works started in April, 1992 and it takes about four years after her last experimental voyage. (author)

  18. ORNL decontamination and decommissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A program has been initiated at ORNL to decontaminate and decommission surplus or abandoned nuclear facilities. Program planning and technical studies have been performed by UCC-ND Engineering. A feasibility study for decommissioning the Metal Recovery Facility, a fuel reprocessing pilot plant, has been completed

  19. Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities: a literature search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sande, W.E.; Freeman, H.D.; Hanson, M.S.; McKeever, R.

    1975-05-01

    is bibliography includes 429 unclassified references to the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The references are arranged in chronological order and cover the period from 1944 through 1974. Subject and author indexes are e provided. (U.S.)

  20. Development of the Decommissioning Project Management System, DECOMMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B

    2007-03-15

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The management of the projects can be defined as 'the decision of the changes of the decommissioning methodologies for the more efficient achievement of the project at an adequate time and to an improved method'. The correct decision comes from the experiences on the decommissioning project and the systematic experiences can be obtained from the good management of the decommissioning information. For this, a project management tool, DECOMMIS, was developed in the D and D Technology Division, which has the charge of the decommissioning projects at the KAERI, and its purpose was extended to following fields; generation of reports on the dismantling waste for WACID, record keeping for the next decommissioning projects of nuclear facilities, provision of fundamental data for the R and D of the decommissioning technologies.

  1. Vandellos 1 NPP decommissioning feedback experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Rodriguez A.

    2003-01-01

    necessary to support in order to reuse and apply the model to others projects. This knowledge and experience are mostly in three areas: -Data Bases, -Basic Document and - Lessons Learned which are described. Lessons Learned are summarized in eleven conclusions: a) The dilemma about the difference between an installation in operation and a decommissioning works. A NPP in operation is an installation; a NPP in decommissioning process is an activity, this impact is fundamental from the documentary and controls points of view; b) The flexibility of the time schedule of the project. In opposition with a construction, the time schedule of a decommissioning project it possible to maintain with small delays due to the versatility of parallel tasks; c) The authorization procedure is one of the key points, before and during the process. As a new activity, decommissioning was born without specifics regulation; day by day all the actors realize that is necessary to reflect back together in order to define and establish new standards to regulate the decommissioning processes; d) The prevention of the risks on site is a topic not only related to the Protection Radiation, the conventional risks have more importance in the decommissioning tasks. The issue of the new regulation about it, impact directly in the executions of the works. The training and the information to the workers are the best corrective tool again the risks; e) Some performances or characteristics of the auxiliary systems must be taken in account in the procurement process for decommissioning, namely, the modularity, versatility of the auxiliary systems and the reuse as a way of reducing wastes and save row materials. The radiation protection is the subject concern during all the operations; Important issues of radioprotection as operational radiological history, the characterization of the materials and the environment to prevent the risk, and special care with the internal contamination of the body; g) The very big

  2. Evaluating decommissioning costs for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of the economic aspects of decommissioning of large nuclear power plants in an attempt to put the subject in proper perspective. This is accomplished by first surveying the work that has been done to date in evaluating the requirements for decommissioning. A review is presented of the current concepts of decommissioning and a discussion of a few of the uncertainties involved. This study identifies the key factors to be considered in the econmic evaluation of decommissioning alternatives and highlights areas in which further study appears to be desirable. 12 refs

  3. Optimizing decommissioning strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passant, F.H.

    1993-01-01

    Many different approaches can be considered for achieving satisfactory decommissioning of nuclear installations. These can embrace several different engineering actions at several stages, with time variations between the stages. Multi-attribute analysis can be used to help in the decision making process and to establish the optimum strategy. It has been used in the Usa and the UK to help in selecting preferred sites for radioactive waste repositories, and also in UK to help with the choice of preferred sites for locating PWR stations, and in selecting optimum decommissioning strategies

  4. Platform decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, David

    1998-01-01

    There are over 6500 platforms worldwide contributing to the offshore oil and gas production industry. In the North Sea there are around 500 platforms in place. There are many factors to be considered in planning for platform decommissioning and the evaluation of options for removal and disposal. The environmental impact, technical feasibility, safety and cost factors all have to be considered. This presentation considers what information is available about the overall decommissioning costs for the North Sea and the costs of different removal and disposal options for individual platforms. 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Scheduling for decommissioning projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podmajersky, O.E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the Project Scheduling system being employed by the Decommissioning Operations Contractor at the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). Results from the planning system show that the project continues to achieve its cost and schedule goals. An integrated cost and schedule control system (C/SCS) which uses the concept of earned value for measurement of performance was instituted in accordance with DOE orders. The schedule and cost variances generated by the C/SCS system are used to confirm management's assessment of project status. This paper describes the types of schedules and tools used on the SSDP project to plan and monitor the work, and identifies factors that are unique to a decommissioning project that make scheduling critical to the achievement of the project's goals. 1 fig

  6. An analysis of decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teunckens, L.; Loeschhorn, U.; Yanagihara, S.; Wren, G.; Menon, S.

    1992-01-01

    Within the OECD/NEA Cooperative Programme on Decommissioning a Task Group was set up early in 1989 to identify the reasons for the large variations in decommissioning cost estimates. The Task Group gathered cost data from 12 of the 14 projects in the Programme to form the basis of their analysis. They included reactors being decommissioned to various stages as well as fuel cycle facilities. The projects were divided into groups of projects with similar characteristics ('models') to facilitate the analysis of the cost distribution in each group of projects and the cost data was progressively refined by a dialogue between the Task Group and the project managers. A comparative analysis was then performed and project specific discrepancies were identified. The Task Group's report is summarized on the results of the comparative analysis as well as the lessons learnt by the Task Group in the acquisition and analysis of cost data from international decommissioning projects. (author) 5 tabs

  7. Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Helena; Anunti, Aake; Edelborg, Mathias

    2013-06-01

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

  8. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias

    2013-06-01

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

  9. Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Helena; Anunti, Aake; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  10. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  11. Decommissioning and dismantling of the Rossendorf Isotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahnert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    After just over 40 years of production operation 2000, the operation of the Rossendorf Isotope Production was finally stopped. In the last few years of production already sections of the Rossendorf Isotope Production have been decommissioned. With the end of the isotope production the decommissioning of the entire complex started. In the two-part report, the decommissioning and dismantling of the Rossendorf Isotope production is presented. In part 1 (atw 5/2016) mainly the authorisation procedures and the realised decommissioning concept are presented. Part 2 (atw 6/2016) deals with special selected aspects of the implementation of the decommissioning programme.

  12. Public attitudes toward nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lough, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    A public workshop was conducted with a group of citizens to obtain the concerns and preferences of the group with respect to decommissioning. Seventeen concerns about decommissioning were identified and prioritized. The participants were most concerned about the potential health and safety effects from decommissioning. The potential impacts from the lost tax base and loss of employment were also rated highly. The estimated increase in electric utility rates was not a major concern. The participants were split fairly evenly on preferences about the methods of decommissioning. However, nine of the ten participants preferred power plant life extension over decommissioning by any method. Finally, the participants were given an evaluation questionnaire about the workshop. In general, they concluded that the process was effective, and they felt like they were a part of the Commission's planning process

  13. Decommissioning in the oil and gas industry and the inclusion of decommissioning permit in the Brazilian system of environmental permitting - first thoughts; O descomissionamento na industria de petroleo e gas e a inclusao da licenca de desinstalacao no procedimento de licenciamento ambiental brasileiro - primeiras reflexoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Luiz Gustavo Escorcio [Stroeter e Royster Advogados, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]|[Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito. Programa de Estudos e Pesquisa em Direito do Petroleo (ANP - PRH33)

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to promote discussions regarding the decommissioning issue, its role in the protection of the environment and the feasibility of the inclusion of a Decommissioning Permit in the Brazilian System of Environmental Permitting. (author)

  14. Strategic aspects on waste management in decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannemalm, T.; Eliasson, S.; Larsson, A.; Lidar, P.; Bergh, N.; Hedin, G.

    2017-01-01

    A team composed of experts from the facility owner OKG, Westinghouse and Studsvik (today Cyclife Sweden and Studsvik Consulting) was asked to develop a basis for decision on an overall strategy for the management of the material and waste arising from the decommissioning of two BWR NPPs at the Oskarshamn site in Sweden. To be able to provide a good basis for decision the full waste management chain from generation to disposition, i.e. clearance or disposal had to be assessed, categorised, quantified and analysed with regards to costs, environmental impact and risks. A systematic approach was applied taking benefit of the decommissioning studies made previously for the two facilities, the decommissioning concepts developed by Ndcon (the partnership in decommissioning between Studsvik and Westinghouse) and the combined knowledge and experience in the project team. In total 4 different waste management concepts were compared individually and in combinations. The four concepts evaluated were based on: direct disposal in the national geological repository; treatment of the waste for volume reduction and where applicable clearance in an external waste treatment facility; decontamination and clearance in an on-site waste treatment facility; direct disposal in a near surface repository at the NPP site. It was important to be able to compare the different options in a quantifiable way. Therefore the project team set up a matrix with parameters for the different options gained from the utility, the national waste management company, external vendors and the experience of the team. In this way a quantitative analysis could be done with the four different waste management options. In addition to the quantitative analysis the team summarised decades of experience in radioactive waste management and decommissioning recommendations and risk analyses. Special attention was given to risk mitigation and redundancy in the waste management chain. The development of an overall waste

  15. Decommissioning activities for Salaspils research reactor - 59055

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenkovs, A.; Malnacs, J.

    2012-01-01

    In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR). The reactor is out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study for the decommissioning of SRR has been carried out by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH at 1998-1999. The Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to 'green field' in October 26, 1999. The upgrade of decommissioning and dismantling plan was performed in 2003-2004 years, which change the main goal of decommissioning to the 'brown field'. The paper deals with the SRR decommissioning experience during 1999-2010. The main decommissioning stages are discussed including spent fuel and radioactive wastes management. The legal aspects and procedures for decommissioning of SRR are described in the paper. It was found, that the involvement of stakeholders at the early stages significantly promotes the decommissioning of nuclear facility. Radioactive waste management's main efforts were devoted to collecting and conditioning of 'historical' radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside of reactor hall. All radioactive materials (more than 96 tons) were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in the radioactive wastes repository 'Radons' at Baldone site. The dismantling of contaminated and activated components of SRR systems is discussed in paper. The cementation of dismantled radioactive wastes in concrete containers is discussed. Infrastructure of SRR, including personal protective and radiation measurement equipment, for decommissioning purposes was upgraded significantly. Additional attention was devoted to the free release measurement's technique. The certified laboratory was installed for supporting of all decommissioning activities. All non-radioactive equipments and materials outside of reactor buildings were released for clearance and dismantled for reusing or conventional disposing. Weakly contaminated materials from reactor hall were collected

  16. The Importance of Experience Based Decommissioning Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Hedin, Gunnar; Bergh, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Decommissioning of a nuclear facility is an extensive and multidisciplinary task, which involves the management and technical actions associated with ceasing operation and thereafter the step-by-step transfer of the facility from an operating plant to an object under decommissioning. The decommissioning phase includes dismantling of systems and components, decontamination and clearance, demolition of buildings, remediation of any contaminated ground and finally a survey of the site. Several of these activities generate radioactive or potentially radioactive waste, which has to be managed properly prior to clearance or disposal. What makes decommissioning of nuclear installations unique is to large extent the radioactive waste management. No other industries have that complex regulatory framework for the waste management. If decommissioning project in the nuclear industry does not consider the waste aspects to the extent required, there is a large risk of failure causing a reduced trust by the regulators and other stakeholders as well as cost and schedule overruns. This paper will give an overview of important aspects and findings gathered during decades of planning and conducting decommissioning and nuclear facility modernization projects. (authors)

  17. Record keeping for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities: Guidelines and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report covers record keeping for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Nuclear facilities include large commercial facilities such as nuclear power plants or chemical nuclear facilities (e.g. for fabrication and reprocessing), but also include smaller facilities such as research reactors and medical, industrial and other research facilities. Special attention may be needed for these small facilities owing to factors such as the low priority given to decommissioning by research teams and the possibility of poorly recorded structural and operational changes. A focus on research reactors is also important because of their widespread distribution. Two IAEA TECDOCs address record keeping for radioactive waste management and disposal facilities, and therefore these areas are not covered in this report. The objective of this report is to provide information, experience and assistance on how to identify, update as needed and maintain records to assist in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, including for the decommissioning plan. This report is intended to be useful to policy makers, regulators, owners, operators, decommissioning contractors and other interested parties. Record keeping is an integral part of overall QA or quality management programmes, and this is emphasized in this report. This report also indicates the possible consequences of not maintaining adequate records. This report describes the needs and the sources of the records for decommissioning (Section 3) and the process of identifying and selecting these records (Section 4). Section 5 considers the records from the decommissioning process itself and their retention, while Section 6 deals with QA, organization and responsibilities. The Records Management System (RMS) is dealt with in Section 7 and the management of new records in Section 8. A summary of observations is included in Section 9. The report is complemented by an appendix and annexes that describe case histories

  18. Integrated approach to planning the remediation of sites undergoing decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Responding to the needs of Member States, the IAEA has launched an environmental remediation guidance initiative dealing with the issues of radioactive contamination world wide. Its aim is to collate and disseminate information concerning the key issues affecting environmental remediation of contaminated sites. This IAEA initiative includes the development of documents that report on remediation technologies available, best practices, and information and guidance concerning (a) Strategy development for environmental remediation; (b) Characterization and remediation of contaminated sites and contaminated groundwater; (c) Management of waste and residues from mining and milling of uranium and thorium; (d) Decommissioning of buildings; (e) A database for contaminated sites. The subject of this present report concerns the integration of decommissioning and remediation activities at sites undergoing decommissioning and this fits within the first category of guidance documentation (strategy development). This document addresses key strategic planning issues. It is intended to provide practical advice and complement other reports that focus on decommissioning and remediation at nuclear facilities. The document is designed to encourage site remediation activities that take advantage of synergies with decommissioning in order to reduce the duplication of effort by various parties and minimize adverse impacts on human health, the environment, and costs through the transfer of experience and knowledge. To achieve this objective, the document is designed to help Member States gain perspective by summarizing available information about synergies between decommissioning and remediation, strategic planning and project management and planning tools and techniques to support decision making and remediation. Case studies are also presented as to give concrete examples of the theoretical elements elaborated in the documents. This publication investigates the potential synergies

  19. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities by the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLozier, M.F.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Field Office of the United States Department of Energy is projecting one of the largest decommissioning efforts in the nation during the next ten to twenty years. The nuclear facilities are varied with respect to the types of contaminants and types of structures and equipment involved. The facilities planned for decommissioning include 26 ORNL facilities (e.g., OGR, HRE, MSRE), 70 facilities at Oak Ridge K25 site, and the Y-12 plant at Oak Ridge. Innovative technologies are required to decommission the facilities and dispose of the waste generated. (R.P.)

  20. Lessons learned on stakeholder issues in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, P.; Pescatore, C.

    2008-01-01

    Issues of public concern during decommissioning and dismantling (D and D) are partly the same and partly different from those of the preceding phases (planning, construction and operation). While in the course of construction and operation the main challenges include meeting expectations of a higher quality of life, accommodating a growing population, mitigating construction nuisances, and assuring the safe operation of the facility, the main concerns in the D and D phase are decreasing employment rate, the eventual reduction of revenues for the municipality, the future use of the affected land and negative social impacts (e.g., out-migration). The decommissioning phase is characterised by heterogeneity of stakeholder interests and values, difficulties of reaching consensus or compromise, and difficulties in connection with the harmonization of energy production, environmental protection and sustainable socio-economic development considerations. Typically, there might also be tensions between local and regional decisions. As in other phases, the building of trust between stakeholder is crucial from the point of view of conflict management, and social lessons learnt from the siting and developments of nuclear facilities are widely applicable in the field of D and D as well. A review is presented of major lessons to be learnt from NEA activities in the field of decommissioning and stakeholder involvement. (author)

  1. Lessons learned on stakeholder issues in decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, P.; Pescatore, C. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 92 - Issy les Moulineaux (France)

    2008-07-01

    Issues of public concern during decommissioning and dismantling (D and D) are partly the same and partly different from those of the preceding phases (planning, construction and operation). While in the course of construction and operation the main challenges include meeting expectations of a higher quality of life, accommodating a growing population, mitigating construction nuisances, and assuring the safe operation of the facility, the main concerns in the D and D phase are decreasing employment rate, the eventual reduction of revenues for the municipality, the future use of the affected land and negative social impacts (e.g., out-migration). The decommissioning phase is characterised by heterogeneity of stakeholder interests and values, difficulties of reaching consensus or compromise, and difficulties in connection with the harmonization of energy production, environmental protection and sustainable socio-economic development considerations. Typically, there might also be tensions between local and regional decisions. As in other phases, the building of trust between stakeholder is crucial from the point of view of conflict management, and social lessons learnt from the siting and developments of nuclear facilities are widely applicable in the field of D and D as well. A review is presented of major lessons to be learnt from NEA activities in the field of decommissioning and stakeholder involvement. (author)

  2. Technical and cost aspects of radioactive wastes from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claes, J.; Menon, S.

    2001-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning was established in 1985 to share the experience and information emerging from on-going decommissioning projects within member countries. The main aim of the programme is to gather and collate such data, which can then provide the basis for planning the future industrial phase of decommissioning of commercial nuclear plants. Starting with 10 decommissioning projects in 1985, today the programme has 35 participating projects from 12 countries. Apart from exchanging valuable information, task groups have been set up for in-depth analysis and studies of areas of common interest, among which are the recycling of material from decommissioning projects and decommissioning costs. This paper will describe the structure and mode of operation of the programme. Some of the results of the work in the task groups will be presented, with particular emphasis on the management of materials from decommissioning and on decommissioning costs. (author)

  3. Preliminary plan for decommissioning - repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, Bengt; Tiberg, Liselotte

    2010-06-01

    The final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel is part of the KBS-3 system, which also consists of a central facility for interim storage and encapsulation of the spent nuclear fuel and a transport system. The nuclear fuel repository will be a nuclear facility. Regulation SSMFS 2008:1 (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations on safety of nuclear facilities) requires that the licensee must have a current decommissioning plan throughout the facility lifecycle. Before the facility is constructed, a preliminary decommissioning plan should be reported to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority. This document is a preliminary decommissioning plan, and submitted as an attachment to SKB's application for a license under the Nuclear Activities Act to construct, own and operate the facility. The final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel consists of an above ground part and a below ground part and will be built near Forsmark and the final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR. The parts above and below ground are connected by a ramp and several shafts, e.g. for ventilation. The below ground part consists of a central area, and several landfill sites. The latter form the repository area. The sealed below ground part constitutes the final repository. The decommissioning is taking place after the main operation has ended, that is, when all spent nuclear fuel has been deposited and the deposition tunnels have been backfilled and plugged. The decommissioning involves sealing of the remaining parts of the below ground part and demolition of above ground part. When decommissioning begins, there will be no contamination in the facility. The demolition is therefore performed as for a conventional plant. Demolition waste is sorted and recycled whenever possible or placed in landfill. Hazardous waste is managed in accordance with current regulations. A ground investigation is performed and is the basis for after-treatment of the site. The timetable for the

  4. Progress of JPDR decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyota, M.; Yanagihara, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) decommissioning project is progressively achieving its final goal; the project will be finished by March 1996 to release the JPDR's site into unrestricted use in a green field condition. The new techniques which developed or improved in R and D, the first phase of this program, have been successfully applied to the actual dismantling activities. Some decommissioning wastes have been managed as the first case of onsite shallow land burial based on the new regulatory frame of radioactive waste management. The experiences and the data obtained from the JPDR dismantling activities are expected to contribute to future decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. Prospective needs for decommissioning commercial nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Yasui, M.; Laraia, M.

    1992-01-01

    The answers to the questions: How many reactors will face the end of their operating lifetime over the next few decades? To what extent are the issues of decommissioning urgent? The answers will lead us to those issues that should be tackled now in order to complete smoothly the decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The prospective needs for decommissioning of nuclear power plants are illustrated from the viewpoint of reactor age, and some of the issues to be tackled, in particular by governments, in this century are discussed, to prepare for the future decommissioning activities. (author) 18 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Decommissioning considerations at a time of nuclear renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, Jas S.

    2007-01-01

    At a time of renaissance in the nuclear power industry, when it is estimated that anywhere between 60 to 130 new power reactors may be built worldwide over the next 15 years, why should we focus on decommissioning? Yet it is precisely the time to examine what decommissioning considerations should be taken into account as the industry proceeds with developing final designs for new reactors and the construction on the new build begins. One of the lessons learned from decommissioning of existing reactors has been that decommissioning was not given much thought when these reactors were designed three or four decades ago. Even though decommissioning may be sixty years down the road from the time they go on line, eventually all reactors will be decommissioned. It is only prudent that new designs be optimized for eventual decommissioning, along with the other major considerations. The overall objective in this regard is that when the time comes for decommissioning, it can be completed in shorter time frames, with minimum generation of radioactive waste, and with better radiological safety. This will ensure that the tail end costs of the power reactors are manageable and that the public confidence in the nuclear power is sustained through the renaissance and beyond. (author)

  7. Decontamination and decommissioning project for the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Paik, S. T.; Park, S. W. (and others)

    2007-02-15

    The final goal of this project is to complete the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 and no. 2(KRR-1 and 2) and uranium conversion plant safely and successfully. The goal of this project in 2006 is to complete the decontamination of the inside reactor hall of the KRR-2 which will be operating as a temporary storage for the radioactive waste until the construction and operation of the national repository site. Also the decommissioning work of the KRR-1 and auxiliary facilities is being progress. As the compaction of decommissioning project is near at hand, a computer information system was developed for a systematically control and preserve a technical experience and decommissioning data for the future reuse. The nuclear facility decommissioning, which is the first challenge in Korea, is being closed to the final stages. We completed the decommissioning of all the bio-shielding concrete for KRR-2 in 2005 and carried out the decontamination and waste material grouping of the roof, wall and bottom of the reactor hall of the KRR-2. The decommissioning for nuclear facility were demanded the high technology, remote control equipment and radioactivity analysis. So developed equipment and experience will be applied at the decommissioning for new nuclear facility in the future.

  8. Experience Practices on Decontamination Activity in NPP Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Bon; Kim, Jeongju; Sohn, Wook [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Decommissioning of a nuclear power plant (NPP) involves various technical and administrative activities for a utility to terminate its license, which allows the plant site to be released from the regulatory control (site release). Decontamination activity in NPP decommissioning is one of the main technical activities to be performed during the decommissioning. The decontamination at decommissioning sites is usually performed due to several reasons such as reducing personnel dose and disposal costs, and cleanup to meet license termination requirements by using physical or chemical removal techniques proven through the previous experience practices. This paper introduces the best and worst practices for the decontamination activities collected from the decommissioning operational experiences through the implementation of nuclear decommissioning projects around the world. Review of the experiences of decontamination shows that it is important to conduct an advanced planning for optimized implementation of decontamination taking into considering site specific conditions such as operating time, reactor type, system, and so on. Also, a review of newer decontamination methods is necessary to safely and economically decommission the nuclear facility.

  9. New iteration of decommissioning program for NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokner, V.; Levanat, I.; Rapic, A.; Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.; Jenko, T.

    2004-01-01

    As required by the paragraph 10 of the Agreement between the governments of Slovenia and Croatia on status and other legal issues related to investment, exploitation, and decommissioning of Nuclear power plant Krsko, Decommissioning program for Krsko NPP including LILW and spent fuel management was drafted. The Intergovernmental body required that the Program should be extensive revision of existing program as one of several iterations to be prepared before the final version. The purpose of the Program is to estimate the expenses of the future decommissioning, radioactive waste and spent fuel management for Krsko NPP. Costing estimation would be the basis for establishment of a special fund in Croatia and for adjustment of the annual rates for the existing decommissioning fund in Slovenia. The Program development was entrusted to specialized organizations both in Croatia and Slovenia, which formed the Project team as the operative body. Consulting firms from Croatia and Slovenia were involved as well as experts from the International Atomic Energy Agency (through short visits to Zagreb and Ljubljana) for specialized fields (e.g. economic aspects of decommissioning, pre-feasibility study for spent fuel repository in crystalline rock, etc.). The analysis was performed in several steps. The first step was to develop rational and feasible integral scenarios (strategies) of decommissioning and LILW and spent fuel management on the basis of detailed technical analysis and within defined boundary conditions. Based on technological data, every scenario was attributed with time distribution of expenses for all main activities. In the second step, financial analysis of the scenarios was undertaken aiming at estimation of total discounted expense and the related annuity (19 installments to the single fund, empty in 2003) for each of the scenarios. The third step involves additional analysis of the chosen scenarios aiming at their (technical or financial) improvements even at

  10. Ecological aspects of decommissioning of the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskolkov, B.Ya.; Nosovskij, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    During the development of Design of ChNPP Decommissioning, it is necessary to consider all the real ecological conditions of its existence and, taking into account the economic potential, to define the achievable and expedient final result, i.e. the final ecological goal. The final goal of ChNPP decommissioning from the point of view of ecology is the termination of the unfavorable influence of the object on the ecosystem of the location area and renovation of the natural conditions of the environment up to the starting level, i.e. like it was prior to the NPP construction or to the level of accepted for the society at present considering the minimization of the problems for the future generations. For the Chornobyl NPP this result is practically unachievable

  11. Decommissioning analyzis of a university cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.X.; Buls, N.; Hermanne, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the widespread use of some medical nuclear facilities, such as cyclotrons for isotope production, Life cycle analyzis, including decommissioning, was not taken into account. The structural materials of an accelerator and the concrete shielding of the bunker are activated by neutrons. This could yield a considerable volume of nuclear waste and needs radiation protection concern for occupational workers and the environment during some decennia. At the university of Brussels (WB) a prospective radiation protection and waste analyzis is being made for the later decommissioning of their cyclotron. Only few similar studies have been published. In Belgium future nuclear dismantling operations will be submitted to a radiation protection authorization procedure. Meanwhile the nuclear waste authorities insist on dismantling planning, including financial provisioning. An optimization exercise was made at the VUB-cyclotron, taking into account international trends to clearance levels for low level nuclear waste. Conceptual prevention opportunities e.g. selective material choice could be identified for future accelerator constructions. (author)

  12. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants: policies, strategies and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, I.

    2004-01-01

    As many nuclear power plants will reach the end of their lifetime during the next 20 years or so, decommissioning is an increasingly important topic for governments, regulators and industries. From a governmental viewpoint, particularly in a deregulated market, one essential aspect is to ensure that money for the decommissioning of nuclear installations will be available at the time it is needed, and that no 'stranded' liabilities will be left to be financed by the taxpayers rather than by the electricity consumers. For this reason, there is governmental interest in understanding decommissioning costs, and in periodically reviewing decommissioning cost estimates from nuclear installation owners. Robust cost estimates are key elements in designing and implementing a coherent and comprehensive national decommissioning policy including the legal and regulatory bases for the collection, saving and use of decommissioning funds. From the industry viewpoint, it is essential to assess and monitor decommissioning costs in order to develop a coherent decommissioning strategy that reflects national policy and assures worker and public safety, whilst also being cost effective. For these reasons, nuclear power plant owners are interested in understanding decommissioning costs as best as possible and in identifying major cost drivers, whether they be policy, strategy or 'physical' in nature. National policy considerations will guide the development of national regulations that are relevant for decommissioning activities. Following these policies and regulations, industrial managers responsible for decommissioning activities will develop strategies which best suit their needs, while appropriately meeting all government requirements. Decommissioning costs will be determined by technical and economic conditions, as well as by the strategy adopted. Against this backdrop, the study analyses the relationships among decommissioning policy as developed by governments, decommissioning

  13. The brief introduction to decommissioning of nuclear reactor projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shixin

    1991-01-01

    The basic concept and procedure of the decommissioning of nuclear reactor project and the three stages of decommissioning defined by IAEA are introduced. The main work of decommissioning of nuclear reactor are as following: (1) the documentary and technological preparation; (2) the site preparation of decommissioning project; (3) the dismantling of equipment piping system and components; (4) the decontamination of the piping system before and after decomminssioning; (5) the storage and disposal of the operational and decommissioning waste

  14. The brief introduction to decommissioning of nuclear reactor projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shixin, Zhao [Beijing Inst. of Nuclear Engineering (China)

    1991-08-01

    The basic concept and procedure of the decommissioning of nuclear reactor project and the three stages of decommissioning defined by IAEA are introduced. The main work of decommissioning of nuclear reactor are as following: (1) the documentary and technological preparation; (2) the site preparation of decommissioning project; (3) the dismantling of equipment piping system and components; (4) the decontamination of the piping system before and after decomminssioning; (5) the storage and disposal of the operational and decommissioning waste.

  15. Methodology and technology of decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear facilities is a topic of great interest to many Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) because of the large number of older nuclear facilities which are or soon will be retired from service. In response to increased international interest in decommissioning and to the needs of Member States, the IAEA's activities in this area have increased during the past few years and will be enhanced considerably in the future. A long range programme using an integrated systems approach covering all the technical, regulatory and safety steps associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities is being developed. The database resulting from this work is required so that Member States can decommission their nuclear facilities in a safe time and cost effective manner and the IAEA can effectively respond to requests for assistance. The report is a review of the current state of the art of the methodology and technology of decommissioning nuclear facilities including remote systems technology. This is the first report in the IAEA's expanded programme and was of benefit in outlining future activities. Certain aspects of the work reviewed in this report, such as the recycling of radioactive materials from decommissioning, will be examined in depth in future reports. The information presented should be useful to those responsible for or interested in planning or implementing the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  16. Securing decommissioning funds. Why organization matters?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchapga, F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Securing decommissioning funds requires that the financial resources set aside for the purpose of decommissioning be managed prudently. Decommissioning of nuclear power plant is prescribed by National Atomic Laws or by other nuclear legislation. It is a mandatory operation. The operators of nuclear power plants set money aside for that purpose. This is known as 'Decommissioning reserve fund'. Decommissioning implies costs very distant in time. Thus, it is obvious, from an economic point of view, that the funds set aside should be managed. As decommissioning is mandatory, the funds accumulated should be secured. In others words, they should be available when needed. Availability of funds is influenced by endogenous and exogenous factors. Endogenous factors are a matter of design of the reserve funds. They include the management of the funds, its monitoring and control... Availability of funds is influenced by these factors, depending on the rules to which the behaviour of the manager of the funds is subjected. In contrast, exogenous factors deal with the energy context. These factors are mainly the electricity sector organisation and/or the overall economic situation. They are decisive factors of the economic performance of the reserve fund for a given design. Therefore, the requirement of availability of funds, when needed, is a matter of compatibility between the design of the decommissioning funds and the electricity context. Put differently, reserve fund's design need to be consistent with the electricity context's features in respect of the availability of funds. Current reserve funds were designed in a context of monopoly regime. In this context, availability of decommissioning funds was not questionable. At least, as far as the design of the reserve funds is concerned. This is because nuclear generator didn't confront any competition pressure. Electricity prices were set trough rate base mechanism, and all the business risks were borne by the

  17. Platform decommissioning. Environmental challenges and practical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvalvik, Inge

    1998-01-01

    The publication gives a short introduction of platform decommissioning, followed by an overview of what to be decommissioned and removed. This will be followed by some of the vital technologies and methods within decommissioning, abandonment of wells, removal and handling of remains that is reuse and scrapping. A final presentation with a view of current research and developments is given. 3 figs

  18. Nuclear decommissioning trusts: A case for convertible bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Asset-liability management is studied with special emphasis on application of the author's findings to the management of nuclear decommissioning trusts (NDTs). The trust themselves are investment vehicles established to accumulate and build funds to be used to defray future decommissioning costs. Decommissioning, in turn, is the process of dismantling the shell of a nuclear reactor and the surrounding concrete structures, followed by disposal of the radioactive material, the objective being to return the site to a greenfield state i.e. the site is freed up for unrestricted use. Unfortunately, the assets of NDTs are not so easily managed. The liability that the trusts have been established to fund is a highly uncertain moving target for which little historical data is available. This study first develops a framework for selecting portfolios when the investment objective is to invest against a future liability. The challenge then is to build an investment strategy around an uncertain liability, in the presence of taxes and miscellaneous portfolio constraints. The study then explores the viability of convertible bonds for liability-driven investment strategies because of the hybrid debt/equity nature of these instruments

  19. A study of a decommissioning activities classification structure for decommissioning of the project management of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Seong; Park, Seung Kook; Jin, Hyung Gon; Song, Chan Ho; Ha, Jei Hyun; Moon, Jei kwon

    2015-01-01

    Decommissioning activities and requirements that was established in the planning stage should be organized systematically in the course of dismantling the NPP. The work breakdown structure is essential to ensuring that all the project scope is identified, estimated and executed. The project manager needs to ensure that a WBS is established early in the project and maintained throughout the project life cycle. A project management system is ongoing under the circumstance of having no experience dismantling the NPP. The system related to the NPP decommissioning should have technical criteria as well as regulatory requirements in the full scale of decommissioning stage. In the dismantling stage, decommissioning plan document should include the results of radiation/radioactivity characterization, evaluation of the amount of dismantled waste, calculation of the expose dose rate, evaluation of decommissioning cost and schedule after shutdown

  20. A study of a decommissioning activities classification structure for decommissioning of the project management of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Seong; Park, Seung Kook; Jin, Hyung Gon; Song, Chan Ho; Ha, Jei Hyun; Moon, Jei kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Decommissioning activities and requirements that was established in the planning stage should be organized systematically in the course of dismantling the NPP. The work breakdown structure is essential to ensuring that all the project scope is identified, estimated and executed. The project manager needs to ensure that a WBS is established early in the project and maintained throughout the project life cycle. A project management system is ongoing under the circumstance of having no experience dismantling the NPP. The system related to the NPP decommissioning should have technical criteria as well as regulatory requirements in the full scale of decommissioning stage. In the dismantling stage, decommissioning plan document should include the results of radiation/radioactivity characterization, evaluation of the amount of dismantled waste, calculation of the expose dose rate, evaluation of decommissioning cost and schedule after shutdown.

  1. Status of the support researches for the regulation of nuclear facilities decommissioning in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yusuke; Iguchi, Yukihiro; Kawasaki, Satoru; Kato, Masami

    2011-01-01

    In Japan, 4 nuclear power stations are under decommissioning and some nuclear fuel cycle facilities are expected to be decommissioned in the future. On the other hand, the safety regulation of decommissioning of nuclear facilities was changed by amending act in 2005. An approval system after review process of decommissioning plan was adopted and applied to the power stations above. In this situation, based on the experiences of the new regulatory system, the system should be well established and moreover, it should be improved and enhanced in the future. Nuclear Industry and Safety Agency (NISA) is in charge of regulation of commercial nuclear facilities in Japan and decommissioning of them is included. Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) is in charge of technical supports for NISA as a TSO (Technical Support Organization) also in this field. As for decommissioning, based on regulatory needs, JNES has been continuing research activities from October 2003, when JNES has been established. Considering the 'Prioritized Nuclear Safety Research Plan (August 2009)' of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan and the situation of operators facilities, 'Regulatory Support Research Plan between FY 2010-2014' was established in November 2009, which shows the present regulatory needs and a research program. This program consists of researches for 1. review process of decommissioning plan of power reactors, 2. review process of decommissioning plan of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, 3. termination of license at the end of decommissioning and 4. management of decommissioning waste. For the item 1, JNES studied safety assessment methods of dismantling, e.g. obtaining data and analysis of behavior of dust diffusion and risk assessment during decommissioning, which are useful findings for the review process. For the item 2, safety requirements for the decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities was compiled, which will be used in the future review. For the item 3

  2. 78 FR 64028 - Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0035] Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... the NRC's regulations relating to the decommissioning process for nuclear power reactors. The revision... Commission (NRC) is issuing Revision 1 of regulatory guide (RG) 1.184 ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power...

  3. Development of a Decommissioning Certificate Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, M. R.

    1999-01-01

    A Decommissioning Certificate Program has been developed at Washington State University Tri-Cities (WSU TC) in conjunction with Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)to address the increasing need for qualified professionals to direct and manage decommissioning projects. The cooperative effort between academia, industry, and government in the development and delivery of this Program of education and training is described, as well as the Program's design to prepare students to contribute sooner, and at a higher level, to decommissioning projects

  4. The Importance of Decommissioning Planning for African Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenweaver, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Many countries in Africa have facilities that will require eventual decommissioning. If the entire life cycle of a nuclear facility is considered, decommissioning is just the last activity. The IAEA has published a number of documents that can be used during the decommissioning process, from initial planning to final release of the site. These documents are discussed briefly in this paper and further discussion is provided that will explain why planning for decommissioning should start now.

  5. Nuclear power plant decommissioning. The nature of problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, Yaziz

    1986-04-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large-scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane.

  6. Fatores de correção para perímetro escrotal ao sobreano para tourinhos mestiços Aberdeen Angus x Nelore Adjustment factors for scrotal circumference at yearling for crossbred Aberdeen Angus x Nelore young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Lopes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Obtiveram-se fatores de correção (FC para o perímetro escrotal ao sobreano (PES para os efeitos de grupo genético (GG, heterozigose individual (HI, peso ao sobreano (PS e idade do animal à pesagem de sobreano (IDS, utilizando-se registros de peso corporal e medidas de perímetro escrotal obtidos de 11.662 tourinhos das raças Aberdeen Angus, Nelore e de produtos do cruzamento entre elas, criados nas regiões Sul, Sudeste e Centro-Oeste do Brasil, nascidos entre 1987 e 2001. Os coeficientes de regressão que geraram os FC foram estimados pelo método dos quadrados mínimos, adotando um modelo que incluiu os efeitos de grupo de contemporâneos ao sobreano (GC, GG, heterozigose materna (HM, HI, PS e IDS. Todos os efeitos incluídos no modelo foram significativos (PAdjustment factors (AF for scrotal circumference at yearling (SCY were figured out for effects of genetic group (GG, individual heterozygosis (IH, yearling weight (YW, and age of the animal at yearling weight (AYW using body weight and scrotal circumference records from 11,662 Aberdeen Angus, Nelore, and their crosses. The animals were born from 1987 to 2001 and were raised in the South East and Central West Regions of Brazil. The regression coefficients to obtain AF were estimated by least squares means method. The model included the fixed effects of contemporaneous group at yearling (CG, maternal heterozygosis (MH, IH, and the covariates YW (linear and quadratic effects and AYW (linear effect. All the factors included in the model showed significant effects (P<0.01 on SCY. The mean and standard deviation for SCY were 29.90±3.55cm. Quadratic effect of YW on SCY was also observed. Decreases in SCY with the increase in YW was found. High SCY was observed immediately after post-weaning. The YW effects on SCY were 0.06695804±0.00345000cm/kg (linear effect and -0.00005252±0.00000508cm/kg² (quadratic effect. The AYW linear effect on SCY was 0.02176450±0.00038568cm/day. The factors

  7. U.S. experience with organizational issues during decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, N.E.; Harty, R.

    1998-01-01

    The report provides information from a variety of sources, including interviews with US NRC management and staff, interviews and discussions with former employees of a decommissioned plant, discussions with subject matter experts, and relevant published documents. The NRC has modified its rule regarding decommissioning requirements. Two key reasons for these modifications are that plants have been decommissioning early and for economic reasons instead of at the end of their license period and, a desire for a more efficient rule that would more effectively use NRC staff. NRC management and staff expressed the opinion that resource requirements for the regulatory have been higher than anticipated. Key observations about decommissioning included that: The regulator faces new challenges to regulatory authority and performance during decommissioning. The public concern over decommissioning activities can be very high. There are changes in the types of safety concerns during decommissioning. It is important to balance planning and the review of plans with verification of activities. There are important changes in the organizational context at the plant during decommissioning. Retention of key staff is important. In particular, the organizational memory about the plant that is in the staff should not be lost. Six key areas of risk during decommissioning are fuel storage, potential accidents that could cause an offsite release, inappropriate release of contaminated material, radiation protection of workers, industrial accidents, and shipment of hazardous materials. Deconstruction of one unit while a co-located unit is still operating could create risks with regard to shared systems, specific risks of dismantling activities and coordination and management. Experience with co-located units at one site in the US was that there was a lack of attention to the decommissioning plant

  8. U.S. experience with organizational issues during decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, N.E. [MPD Consulting, Kirkland, WA (United States); Harty, R. [Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The report provides information from a variety of sources, including interviews with US NRC management and staff, interviews and discussions with former employees of a decommissioned plant, discussions with subject matter experts, and relevant published documents. The NRC has modified its rule regarding decommissioning requirements. Two key reasons for these modifications are that plants have been decommissioning early and for economic reasons instead of at the end of their license period and, a desire for a more efficient rule that would more effectively use NRC staff. NRC management and staff expressed the opinion that resource requirements for the regulatory have been higher than anticipated. Key observations about decommissioning included that: The regulator faces new challenges to regulatory authority and performance during decommissioning. The public concern over decommissioning activities can be very high. There are changes in the types of safety concerns during decommissioning. It is important to balance planning and the review of plans with verification of activities. There are important changes in the organizational context at the plant during decommissioning. Retention of key staff is important. In particular, the organizational memory about the plant that is in the staff should not be lost. Six key areas of risk during decommissioning are fuel storage, potential accidents that could cause an offsite release, inappropriate release of contaminated material, radiation protection of workers, industrial accidents, and shipment of hazardous materials. Deconstruction of one unit while a co-located unit is still operating could create risks with regard to shared systems, specific risks of dismantling activities and coordination and management. Experience with co-located units at one site in the US was that there was a lack of attention to the decommissioning plant.

  9. BNFL decommissioning strategy and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the range of reactor decommissioning projects being managed by BNFL, both on its own sites and for other client organizations in the UK and abroad. It also describes the decommissioning strategies and techniques that have been developed by BNFL and adopted in order to carry out this work

  10. The regulatory process for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide general guidance to Member States for regulating the decommissioning of nuclear facilities within the established nuclear regulatory framework. The Guide should also be useful to those responsible for, or interested in, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The Guide describes in general terms the process to be used in regulating decommissioning and the considerations to be applied in the development of decommissioning regulations and guides. It also delineates the responsibilities of the regulatory body and the licensee in decommissioning. The provisions of this Guide are intended to apply to all facilities within the nuclear fuel cycle and larger industrial installations using long lived radionuclides. For smaller installations, however, less extensive planning and less complex regulatory control systems should be acceptable. The Guide deals primarily with decommissioning after planned shutdown. Most provisions, however, are also applicable to decommissioning after an abnormal event, once cleanup operations have been terminated. The decommissioning planning in this case must take account of the abnormal event. 28 refs, 1 fig

  11. Treatment of Decommissioning Combustible Wastes with Incineration Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y. Min; Yang, D. S.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The aim of the paper is current status of management for the decommissioning radioactive combustible and metal waste in KAERI. In Korea, two decommissioning projects were carried out for nuclear research facilities (KRR-1 and KRR-2) and a uranium conversion plant (UCP). Through the two decommissioning projects, lots of decommissioning wastes were generated. Decommissioning waste can be divided into radioactive waste and releasable waste. The negative pressure of the incineration chamber remained constant within the specified range. Off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measures gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits. The achieved average volume reduction ratio during facility operation is about 1/65.

  12. Decommissioning of a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, S.; Colquhoun, A.

    1990-01-01

    Decommissioning of the coprecipitation plant, which made plutonium/uranium oxide fuel, is a lead project in the BNFL Sellafield decommissioning programme. The overall programme has the objectives of gaining data and experience in a wide range of decommissioning operations and hence in this specific project to pilot the decommissioning of plant heavily contaminated with plutonium and other actinides. Consequently the operations have been used to test improvements in temporary containment, contamination control and decontamination methods and also to develop in situ plutonium assay, plutonium recovery and size-reduction methods. Finally the project is also yielding data on manpower requirements, personnel radiation uptake and waste arisings to help in the planning of future decommissioning projects

  13. TOP 01-1-011B Vehicle Test Facilities at Aberdeen Test Center and Yuma Test Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-12

    Test Center 400 Colleran Road Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5059 U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground Yuma Test Center 301 C. Street Yuma, AZ...22 2.6 Munson Test Area (MTA) ..................................................... 24 2.7 Land Vehicle Maintenance Facility...127 3.6 Maintenance Facilities ........................................................... 143

  14. Decommissioning Challenges, strategy and programme development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potier, J.M.; Laraie, M.; Dinner, P. [Waste Technology Section, Dept. of Nuclear Energy, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Pescatore, C.; O' Sullivan [Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency, 75 - Paris (France); Dupuis, M.C. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Szilagyi, A.; Collazo, Y.; Negin, Ch. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-11-15

    This document gathers 4 short articles. The first one presents the IAEA decommissioning activities. These activities include: -) the development and implementation of the international action on decommissioning, -) the provision of experts and equipment to assist member states, -) networking activities such as training or exchange of knowledge and experience. The second article presents the work program of the Nea (nuclear energy agency) in the field of decommissioning and reports on the lessons that have been learnt. Among these lessons we can quote: -) selecting a strategy for decommissioning and funding it adequately, -) regulating the decommissioning of nuclear activities, -) thinking of the future in terms of reusing materials, buildings and sites, -) involving local and regional actors in the decommissioning process from decision-making to dismantling work itself, and -) increasing transparency in decision-making in order to build trust. The third article presents the management of radioactive wastes in France. This management is based on the categorization of wastes in 6 categories according to both the activity level and the radioactive half-life T: 1) very low activity, 2) low activity and T < 31 years, 3) low activity and T > 31 years, 4) intermediate activity and T < 31 years, 5) intermediate activity and T > 31 years, and 6) high activity. For categories 1, 2, 3 and 5, the waste treatment process and the disposal places have been operating for a long time while for categories 4 and 6, the disposal places are still being studied: low-depth repository and deep geological repository respectively. The last article presents the action of the US Department of energy in decommissioning activities and environmental remediation, the example of the work done at the ancient nuclear site of Rocky Flats gives an idea of the magnitude and complexity of the operations made. (A.C.)

  15. Approaches to estimating decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.I.

    1990-07-01

    The chronological development of methodology for estimating the cost of nuclear reactor power station decommissioning is traced from the mid-1970s through 1990. Three techniques for developing decommissioning cost estimates are described. The two viable techniques are compared by examining estimates developed for the same nuclear power station using both methods. The comparison shows that the differences between the estimates are due largely to differing assumptions regarding the size of the utility and operating contractor overhead staffs. It is concluded that the two methods provide bounding estimates on a range of manageable costs, and provide reasonable bases for the utility rate adjustments necessary to pay for future decommissioning costs. 6 refs

  16. The Dynamics of the Regional Innovation around the Oil and Gas Industries: Cases of Stavanger and Aberdeen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gjelsvik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the IRIS and MIT comparative study of the two oil capitals in Europe: Aberdeen and Stavanger, in order to analyze two successful oil and gas clusters. The Norwegian innovation system would be presented in detail. The article also examines the intrinsic role between the universities and the industrial context in the regional innovation system.//Este artículo presenta el estudio comparativo entre las dos capitales petroleras de Europa, Aberdeen y Stavanger, realizado por IRIS y MIT, con el objetivo de analizar dos clusters exitosos de gas y petróleo. Se exhibe en detalle el sistema noruego de innovación. Asimismo, este artículo examina la relación intrínseca entre las universidades y el contexto industrial en el sistema regional de innovación.

  17. An overview of U.S. decommissioning experience -- A basic introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boing, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the US experiences in the decommissioning technical area. Sections included are: (1) an overview of the magnitude of the problem, (2) a review of the US decommissioning process, (3) regulation of decommissioning, (4) regulatory and funding requirements for decommissioning, and (5) a general overview of all on-going and completed decommissioning projects to date in the US. The final section presents a review of some issues in the decommissioning area currently being debated in the technical specialists community

  18. Draft principles, policy, and acceptance criteria for decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy contaminated surplus facilities and summary of international decommissioning programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.K.

    1994-12-01

    Decommissioning activities enable the DOE to reuse all or part of a facility for future activities and reduce hazards to the general public and any future work force. The DOE Office of Environment, Health and Safety has prepared this document, which consists of decommissioning principles and acceptance criteria, in an attempt to establish a policy that is in agreement with the NRC policy. The purpose of this document is to assist individuals involved with decommissioning activities in determining their specific responsibilities as identified in Draft DOE Order 5820.DDD, ''Decommissioning of US Department of Energy Contaminated Surplus Facilities'' (Appendix A). This document is not intended to provide specific decommissioning methodology. The policies and principles of several international decommissioning programs are also summarized. These programs are from the IAEA, the NRC, and several foreign countries expecting to decommission nuclear facilities. They are included here to demonstrate the different policies that are to be followed throughout the world and to allow the reader to become familiar with the state of the art for environment, safety, and health (ES and H) aspects of nuclear decommissioning

  19. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  20. Quality management in nuclear facilities decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garonis, Omar H.

    2002-01-01

    Internationally, the decommissioning organizations of nuclear facilities carry out the decommissioning according to the safety requirements established for the regulatory bodies. Some of them perform their activities in compliance with a quality assurance system. This work establishes standardization through a Specifications Requirement Document, for the management system of the nuclear facilities decommissioning organizations. It integrates with aspects of the quality, environmental, occupational safety and health management systems, and also makes these aspects compatible with all the requirements of the nuclear industry recommended for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  1. Regulatory aspects of nuclear reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses the regulatory aspects of decommissioning commercial nuclear power stations in the UK. The way in which the relevant legislation has been used for the first time in dealing with the early stages of decommissioning commercial nuclear reactor is described. International requirements and how they infit with the UK system are also covered. The discussion focusses on the changes which have been required, under the Nuclear Site Licence, to ensure that the licensee carries out of work of reactor decommissioning in a safe and controlled manner. (Author)

  2. Decommissioning - The worldwide challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, John

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Whatever the future may hold for nuclear power, there are closed or ageing nuclear facilities in many countries around the world. While these may be in safe care and maintenance at present, a sustainable long term solution is required. Facilities need to be decommissioned, contaminated land remediated, and wastes conditioned for safe storage or disposal. Practical nuclear site restoration has been demonstrated internationally. This experience has revealed generic challenges in dealing with old, often experimental, facilities. These include: Facilities not designed for ease of decommissioning; Records of plant construction and operation, and of the materials utilised and wastes produced, not to modern standards; Fuels and wastes stored for long periods in less than optimal conditions, leading to deterioration and handling problems; The historic use of experimental fuels and materials, giving rise to unique waste streams requiring unique waste management solutions; The application of modern safety and environmental standards to plant which dates from the 1940s, 50s and 60s, requiring investment before decommissioning can even commence. These problems can be tackled, as examples from UKAEA's own programme will illustrate. But two fundamental issues must be recognised and considered. First, the costs of decommissioning older facilities are very high, and may place a heavy burden on national budgets, despite using best efforts to control them. We can limit these costs by learning from one another's experience and sharing the development of new techniques and technologies. UKAEA has already initiated a programme of international collaboration, and hopes that other IAEA countries will be encouraged to follow suit. But whilst the costs of decommissioning may be high, the process normally meets with public acceptance. This is seldom the case for long term waste storage or disposal. Until waste management routes are available - either nationally or internationally

  3. The work and perspective of the OECD/NEA in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, P.; Pescatore, C.

    2008-01-01

    OECD member countries are increasingly faced with the need to make provisions for dealing with all aspects of dealing with the management of legacy nuclear installations, especially in terms of having in place adequate policies and regulatory frameworks for ensuring both safety and the efficient implementation of the decommissioning projects. Efficiency also requires that funding schemes are capable of providing adequate funds when required, even in the event that issues arise during implementation that were not anticipated during the planning phase. Waste management arrangements may encompass separate disposal routes for different categories of waste, including Very Low Level Waste, and may also include provisions for clearance and recycling. Recent moves in several countries towards establishing new nuclear programmes are bringing decommissioning activities into fresh focus, for reasons of public confidence (i.e. demonstrating that decommissioning can be done). In some instances existing nuclear sites will be used for the construction of new installations, but stakeholder issues are important for these sites as well. Maturing decommissioning experience should also provide lessons that would help in the reduction of lifetime costs for nuclear plants and other facilities. The challenge lying ahead is to establish a framework that will account for growing nuclear industrial activities in competitive, globalized markets, while maintaining and assuring the safety of decommissioning for the public and for workers. Within this context, institutional arrangements, stakeholder issues, costs and funding, waste management and release policies, as well as availability of technologies and skills, need to be kept under review. (authors)

  4. Some studies related to decommissioning of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, C.; Menon, S.

    1990-02-01

    Decommissioning of large nuclear reactors has not yet taken place in the Nordic countries. Small nuclear installations, however, have been dismantled. This NKA-programme has dealt with some interesting and important factors which have to be analysed before a large scale decommissioning programme starts. Prior to decommissioning, knowledge is required regarding the nuclide inventory in various parts of the reactor. Measurements were performed in regions close to the reactor tank and the biological shield. These experimental data are used to verify theoretical calculations. All radioactive waste generated during decommissioning will have to be tansported to a repository. Studies show that in all the Nordic countries there are adequate transport systems with which decommissioning waste can be transported. Another requirement for orderly decommissioning planning is that sufficient information about the plant and its operation history must be available. It appears that if properly handled and sorted, all such information can be extracted from existing documentation. (authors)

  5. Decommissioning alternatives, process and work activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The following outlines the topics discussed under Decommissioning Alternatives, Process and Work Activities: (1) decommissioning alternatives, (2) work activities for prompt removal/dismantling, (3) work activities for entombment with delayed dismantling, and (4) work activities for mothballing with delayed dismantling

  6. Decommissioning of Facilities. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 6 (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Decommissioning is the last step in the lifetime management of a facility. It must also be considered during the design, construction, commissioning and operation of facilities. This publication establishes requirements for the safe decommissioning of a broad range of facilities: nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, facilities for processing naturally occurring radioactive material, former military sites, and relevant medical, industrial and research facilities. It addresses all the aspects of decommissioning that are required to ensure safety, aspects such as roles and responsibilities, strategy and planning for decommissioning, conduct of decommissioning actions and termination of the authorization for decommissioning. It is intended for use by those involved in policy development, regulatory control and implementation of decommissioning.

  7. Decommissioning of Facilities. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 6 (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Decommissioning is the last step in the lifetime management of a facility. It must also be considered during the design, construction, commissioning and operation of facilities. This publication establishes requirements for the safe decommissioning of a broad range of facilities: nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, facilities for processing naturally occurring radioactive material, former military sites, and relevant medical, industrial and research facilities. It addresses all the aspects of decommissioning that are required to ensure safety, aspects such as roles and responsibilities, strategy and planning for decommissioning, conduct of decommissioning actions and termination of the authorization for decommissioning. It is intended for use by those involved in policy development, regulatory control and implementation of decommissioning

  8. Cost estimation for decommissioning of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de; Segabinaze, Roberto de Oliveira; Daniska, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    In the case of research reactors, the limited data that is available tends to provide only overall decommissioning costs, without any breakdown of the main cost elements. In order to address this subject, it is important to collect and analyse all available data of decommissioning costs for the research reactors. The IAEA has started the DACCORD Project focused on data analysis and costing of research reactors decommissioning. Data collection is organized in accordance with the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC), developed jointly by the IAEA, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the European Commission. The specific aims of the project include the development of representative and comparative data and datasets for preliminary costing for decommissioning. This paper will focus on presenting a technique to consider several representative input data in accordance with the ISDC structure and using the CERREX (Cost Estimation for Research Reactors in Excel) software developed by IAEA. (author)

  9. Risk Management of Large Component in Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Ku; Kim, Tae Ryong

    2014-01-01

    The need for energy, especially electric energy, has been dramatically increasing in Korea. Therefore, a rapid growth in nuclear power development has been achieved to have about 30% of electric power production. However, such a large nuclear power generation has been producing a significant amount of radioactive waste and other matters such as safety issue. In addition, owing to the severe accidents at the Fukushima in Japan, public concerns regarding NPP and radiation hazard have greatly increased. In Korea, the operation of KORI 1 has been scheduled to be faced with end of lifetime in several years and Wolsong 1 has been being under review for extending its life. This is the reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. Decommissioning is the final phase in the life-cycle of a nuclear facility and during decommissioning operation, one of the most important management in decommissioning is how to deal with the disused large component. Therefore, in this study, the risk in large component in decommissioning is to be identified and the key risk factor is to be analyzed from where can be prepared to handle decommissioning process safely and efficiently. Developing dedicated acceptance criteria for large components at disposal site was analyzed as a key factor. Acceptance criteria applied to deal with large components like what size of those should be and how to be taken care of during disposal process strongly affect other major works. For example, if the size of large component was not set up at disposal site, any dismantle work in decommissioning is not able to be conducted. Therefore, considering insufficient time left for decommissioning of some NPP, it is absolutely imperative that those criteria should be laid down

  10. Risk Management of Large Component in Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Ku; Kim, Tae Ryong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The need for energy, especially electric energy, has been dramatically increasing in Korea. Therefore, a rapid growth in nuclear power development has been achieved to have about 30% of electric power production. However, such a large nuclear power generation has been producing a significant amount of radioactive waste and other matters such as safety issue. In addition, owing to the severe accidents at the Fukushima in Japan, public concerns regarding NPP and radiation hazard have greatly increased. In Korea, the operation of KORI 1 has been scheduled to be faced with end of lifetime in several years and Wolsong 1 has been being under review for extending its life. This is the reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. Decommissioning is the final phase in the life-cycle of a nuclear facility and during decommissioning operation, one of the most important management in decommissioning is how to deal with the disused large component. Therefore, in this study, the risk in large component in decommissioning is to be identified and the key risk factor is to be analyzed from where can be prepared to handle decommissioning process safely and efficiently. Developing dedicated acceptance criteria for large components at disposal site was analyzed as a key factor. Acceptance criteria applied to deal with large components like what size of those should be and how to be taken care of during disposal process strongly affect other major works. For example, if the size of large component was not set up at disposal site, any dismantle work in decommissioning is not able to be conducted. Therefore, considering insufficient time left for decommissioning of some NPP, it is absolutely imperative that those criteria should be laid down.

  11. Apollo decommissioning project, Apollo, Pennsylvania. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In November, 1991 Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) received a grant to partially fund the decommissioning of the former Apollo Nuclear Fuel Facility. The decommissioning was performed in accordance with a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved decommissioning plan. This report summarizes the decommissioning of the Apollo Nuclear Fuel Facility and the radiological surveying of the site to demonstrate that these decommissioning activities were effective in reducing residual activity well below NRC's criteria for release for unrestricted use. The Apollo Nuclear Fuel Facility was utilized by the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC) and B and W for nuclear research and production under Atomic Energy Commission and Department of Energy (DOE) contracts during 20 plus years of nuclear fuel manufacturing operations

  12. Comparing nuclear decommissioning in the UK and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, J.; Garcier, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we will compare the decommissioning policies in the UK and France. Both countries have a long nuclear history and decommissioning has taken place since the 1960. However, the proposed decommissioning of Magnox and AGR sites in the UK and of UNGG sites in France brings decommissioning efforts to a new level. Whilst we explore in detail the approaches and methodologies adopted in each country we remain sensitive to the effects that political and economic history play in shaping the policy response. In this paper we draw upon interviews conducted with a range of key stakeholders including: national regulators, companies involved in decommissioning, local politicians and community representatives. We also analyse key academic and non academic literature. (authors)

  13. Nuclear power plant decommissioning costs in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, Geoffrey; Deffrennes, Marc; Weber, Inge

    2016-01-01

    At the international level, actual experience is limited in the completion of nuclear power plant decommissioning projects. Cost data for decommissioning projects are thus largely unavailable, with few examples of analyses or comparisons between estimates and actual costs at the project level. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) initiated a project to address this knowledge gap and in early 2016 published the outcomes in the report on Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants. The study reviews decommissioning costs and funding practices adopted by NEA member countries, based on the collection and analysis of survey data via a questionnaire. The work was carried out in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission (EC). (authors)

  14. Decommissioning of IFEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccotti, G.; Sberze, L.

    1995-05-01

    The IFEC nuclear fuel fabrication plant operated in Italy for more then thirty years and has now been successfully decommissioned. The rules and regulations relating to Quality Assurance established during the fabrication of Cirene reactor fuel have been adhered to during the decommissioning phase. The use of personnel with large experience in the nuclear field has resulted in vast majority of cares of material and apparatus to be reutilized in conventional activities without the need of calling on the assistance of external firms. The whole decontamination process was successfully completed on time and in particular the quantity of contaminated wastes was kept to eminimun

  15. Establishment the code for prediction of waste volume on NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, W. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, Y. D.; Kim, I. S.; Moon, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    In practice, decommissioning waste volume can be estimated appropriately by finding the differences between prediction and actual operation and considering the operational problem or supplementary matters. So in the nuclear developed countries such as U.S. or Japan, the decommissioning waste volume is predicted on the basis of the experience in their own decommissioning projects. Because of the contamination caused by radioactive material, decontamination activity and management of radio-active waste should be considered in decommissioning of nuclear facility unlike the usual plant or facility. As the decommissioning activity is performed repeatedly, data for similar activities are accumulated, and optimal strategy can be achieved by comparison with the predicted strategy. Therefore, a variety of decommissioning experiences are the most important. In Korea, there is no data on the decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants yet. However, KAERI has accumulated the basis decommissioning data of nuclear facility through decommissioning of research reactor (KRR-2) and uranium conversion plant (UCP). And DECOMMIS(DECOMMissioning Information Management System) was developed to provide and manage the whole data of decommissioning project. Two codes, FAC code and WBS code, were established in this process. FAC code is the one which is classified by decommissioning target of nuclear facility, and WBS code is classified by each decommissioning activity. The reason why two codes where created is that the codes used in DEFACS (Decommissioning Facility Characterization management System) and DEWOCS (Decommissioning Work-unit productivity Calculation System) are different from each other, and they were classified each purpose. DEFACS which manages the facility needs the code that categorizes facility characteristics, and DEWOCS which calculates unit productivity needs the code that categorizes decommissioning waste volume. KAERI has accumulated decommissioning data of KRR

  16. IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor decommissioning plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Grossi, Pablo; Oliveira de Tello, Cledola Cassia; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is concerning to establish or adopt standards of safety for the protection of health, life and property in the development and application of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. In this way the IAEA recommends that decommissioning planning should be part of all radioactive installation licensing process. There are over 200 research reactors that have either not operated for a considerable period of time and may never return to operation or, are close to permanent shutdown. Many countries do not have a decommissioning policy, and like Brazil not all installations have their decommissioning plan as part of the licensing documentation. Brazil is signatory of Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management, but until now there is no decommissioning policy, and specifically for research reactor there is no decommissioning guidelines in the standards. The Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN) has a TRIGA Mark I Research Reactor IPR-R1 in operation for 47 years with 3.6% average fuel burn-up. The original power was 100 k W and it is being licensed for 250 k W, and it needs the decommissioning plan as part of the licensing requirements. In the paper it is presented the basis of decommissioning plan, an overview and the end state / final goal of decommissioning activities for the IPR-R1, and the Brazilian ongoing activities about this subject. (author)

  17. 30 CFR 285.906 - What must my decommissioning application include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Decommissioning Applications § 285.906 What must my decommissioning application include? You must... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must my decommissioning application...

  18. Reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1984-01-01

    A pioneering project on the decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, by the UKAEA, is described. Reactor data; policy; waste management; remote handling equipment; development; and recording and timescales, are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Decommissioning wind energy projects: An economic and political analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, Shannon L.; DeVuyst, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing segment of new electrical power capacity in the United States, with the potential for significant growth in the future. To facilitate such growth, a number of concerns between developers and landowners must be resolved, including assurance of wind turbine decommissioning at the end of their useful lives. Oklahoma legislators enlisted the authors to develop an economically-sound proposal to ensure developers complete their decommissioning obligations. Economic analysis of turbine decommissioning is complicated by a lack of operational experience, as few U.S. projects have been decommissioned. This leads to a lack of data regarding decommissioning costs. Politically, the negotiation leading to the finally-enacted solution juxtaposed economic theory against political pragmatism, leading to a different but hopefully sound solution. This article will provide background for the decommissioning issue, chronicle the development of the decommissioning component of the Oklahoma Wind Energy Act, and frame issues that remain for policymakers in regulating wind power development. - Highlights: ► Wind energy is the fastest-growing component of U.S. power generation. ► Decommissioning wind projects is policy concern for wind development. ► Little public information on wind turbine decommissioning costs exists. ► Oklahoma’s solution attempts to account for both costs and risks. ► Additional research is needed to create a more precise policy solution.

  20. Decommissioning and disposal costs in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurkinden, Auguste

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Goal: Secure sufficient financial resources. Question: How much money is needed? Mean: Concrete plans for decommissioning and waste disposal. - It is the task of the operators to elaborate these plans and to evaluate the corresponding costs - Plans and costs are to be reviewed by the authorities Decommissioning Plans and Costs - Comprise decommissioning, dismantling and management (including disposal) of the waste. - New studies 2001 for each Swiss nuclear power plant (KKB 2 x 380 MWe, KKM 370 MWe, KKG 1020 MWe, KKL 1180 MWe). - Studies performed by NIS (D). - Last developments taken into account (Niederaichbach, Gundremmingen, Kahl). Decommissioning: Results and Review Results: Total cost estimates decreasing (billion CHF) 1994 1998 2001 13.7 13.1 11.8 Lower costs for spent fuel conditioning and BE/HAA/LMA repository (Opalinus Clay) Split in 2025: 5.6 bil. CHF paid by NPP 6.2 billion CHF in Fund Review: Concentrates on disposal, ongoing

  1. Decommissioning of DR 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauridsen, Kurt

    2006-01-15

    The report describes the decommissioning activities carried out at the 2kW homogeneous reactor DR 1 at Risoe National Laboratory. The decommissioning work took place from summer 2004 until late autumn 2005. The components with the highest activity, the core vessel the recombiner and the piping and valves connected to these, were dismantled first by Danish Decommissioning's own technicians. Demolition of the control rod house and the biological shield as well as the removal of the floor in the reactor hall was carried out by an external demolition contractor. The building was emptied and left for other use. Clearance measurements of the building showed that radionuclide concentrations were everywhere below the clearance limit set by the Danish nuclear regulatory authorities. Furthermore, measurements on the surrounding area showed that there was no contamination that could be attributed to the operation and decommissioning of DR 1. (au)

  2. Decommissioning of DR 1, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauridsen, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    The report describes the decommissioning activities carried out at the 2kW homogeneous reactor DR 1 at Risoe National Laboratory. The decommissioning work took place from summer 2004 until late autumn 2005. The components with the highest activity, the core vessel the recombiner and the piping and valves connected to these, were dismantled first by Danish Decommissioning's own technicians. Demolition of the control rod house and the biological shield as well as the removal of the floor in the reactor hall was carried out by an external demolition contractor. The building was emptied and left for other use. Clearance measurements of the building showed that radionuclide concentrations were everywhere below the clearance limit set by the Danish nuclear regulatory authorities. Furthermore, measurements on the surrounding area showed that there was no contamination that could be attributed to the operation and decommissioning of DR 1. (au)

  3. Ecological and political issues surrounding decommissioning of offshore oil facilities in the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Donna M.; Love, Milton S.

    2004-01-01

    To aid legislators, resource managers, and the general public, this paper summarizes and clarifies some of the issues and options that the federal government and the state of California face in decommissioning offshore oil and gas production platforms, particularly as these relate to platform ecology. Both local marine ecology and political climate play a role in decommissioning offshore oil production platforms. Compared to the relatively supportive political climate in the Gulf of Mexico for “rigs-to-reefs” programs, conflicting social values among stakeholders in Southern California increases the need for understanding ecological impacts of various decommissioning alternatives (which range from total removal to allowing some or all of platform structure to remain in the ocean). Additional scientific needs in the decommissioning process include further assessment of platform habitat quality, estimation of regional impacts of decommissioning alternatives to marine populations, and determination of biological effects of any residual contaminants. The principal management need is a ranking of environmental priorities (e.g. species-of-interest and marine habitats). Because considerable numbers of economically important species reside near oil platforms, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries should consider the consequences of decommissioning alternatives in their overall management plans. Management strategies could include designating reefed platforms as marine protected areas. The overarching conclusion from both ecological and political perspectives is that decommissioning decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis.

  4. Stakeholder involvement in the decommissioning of Trojan and Maine Yankee nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Bruce A.; Orlando, Dominick A.

    2006-01-01

    Trojan Nuclear Plant (Trojan) and Maine Yankee Nuclear Plant (Maine Yankee) were the first two power reactors to complete decommissioning under the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) License Termination Rule (LTR), 10 CFR Part 20, Subpart E. The respective owners' decisions to decommission the sites resulted in different approaches to both the physical aspects of the decommissioning, and the approach for obtaining approval for completing the decommissioning in accordance with regulations. Being in different States, the two single-unit pressurized water reactor sites had different State requirements and levels of public interest that impacted the decommissioning approaches. This resulted in significant differences in the decommissioning planning, the conduct of decommissioning operations, the volume of low-level radioactive waste, and the final status survey (FSS) program. While both licensees have Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSIs), Trojan obtained a separate license for the ISFSI in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR Part 72 and terminated its 10 CFR Part 50 license. Maine Yankee elected to reduce the 10 CFR Part 50 license to only the requirements for the ISFSI. While the NRC regulations are flexible and allow different approaches to ISFSI licensing, there are separate licensing requirements that must be addressed. In 10 CFR 50.82, the NRC mandates public participation in the decommissioning process. For Maine Yankee, stakeholder and public input resulted in the licensee entering into an agreement with a citizen group and resulted in State legislation that lowered the dose limit below the NRC radiological criteria of 0.25 milli-Sievert/year (mSv/yr) (25 mrem/yr) in 10 CFR 20.1402 for unrestricted use. The lowering of the radiological criteria resulted in a significant dose modeling effort using site-specific Derived Concentrations Guideline Levels (DCGLs) that were well below the NRC DCGL screening values. This contributed to

  5. NMSS handbook for decommissioning fuel cycle and materials licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, D.A.; Hogg, R.C.; Ramsey, K.M.

    1997-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its regulations to set forth the technical and financial criteria for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities. These regulations were further amended to establish additional recordkeeping requirements for decommissioning; to establish timeframes and schedules for the decommissioning; and to clarify that financial assurance requirements must be in place during operations and updated when licensed operations cease. Reviews of the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) program found that, while the NRC staff was overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear facilities in a manner that was protective of public health and safety, progress in decommissioning many sites was slow. As a result NRC determined that formal written procedures should be developed to facilitate the timely decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities. This handbook was developed to aid NRC staff in achieving this goal. It is intended to be used as a reference document to, and in conjunction with, NRC Inspection Manual Chapter (IMC) 2605, ''Decommissioning Inspection Program for Fuel Cycle and Materials Licensees.'' The policies and procedures discussed in this handbook should be used by NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at licensed fuel cycle and materials sites; formerly licensed sites for which the licenses were terminated; sites involving source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to NRC regulation for which a license was never issued; and sites in the NRC's SDMP program. NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear reactor facilities subject to regulation under 10 CFR Part 50 are not required to use the procedures discussed in this handbook

  6. Radiation safety for decommissioning projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    Decommissioning of redundant nuclear facilities is a growth area in the UK at the present time. NUKEM Nuclear Limited is a leading-edge nuclear decommissioning and waste management contractor (with its own in-house health physics and safety department), working for a variety of clients throughout the UK nuclear industry. NUKEM Nuclear is part of the prestigious, international NUKEM group, a world-class organization specializing in nuclear engineering and utilities technologies. NUKEM Nuclear is involved in a number of large, complex decommissioning projects, both in its own right and as part of consortia. This paper explores the challenges presented by such projects and the interfaces of contractor, client and subcontractors from the point of view of a radiation protection adviser. (author)

  7. Decommissioning three nuclear reactors at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, G.M.; Salazar, M.

    1992-01-01

    Three nuclear reactors, including the historic water boiler reactor, were decommissioned at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The decommissioning of the facilities involved removing the reactors and their associated components. Planning for the decommissioning operation included characterizing the facilities, estimating the costs of decommissioning operations, preparing environmental documentation, establishing systems to track costs and work progress, and preplanning to correct health and safety concerns in each facility

  8. Several issues of uranium geology exploration facilities decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lu; Lu Caixia; Sheng Qing; Zhuang Jingqi; Xie Shujun; Liao Yunxuan

    2013-01-01

    The environmental protection completion acceptance review work of uranium geology exploration facilities 'llth five-year plan' decommissioned and remediation projects is introduced. Some questions related to norms and standards for uranium geology exploration facilities decommissioning and remediation, scheme of decommissioning and remediation, process inspection and acceptance of project and so on are discussed, and corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward, Some references can be provided for the later development of uranium geological exploration facility '12th five-year plan' decommissioning and remediation projects. (authors)

  9. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKernan, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was located on the Ohio River in Shippingport Borough (Beaver County), Pennsylvania, USA. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) constructed the plant in the mid-1950s on a seven and half acre parcel of land leased from Duquesne Light Company (DLC). The purposes were to demonstrate and to develop Pressurized Water Recovery technology and to generate electricity. DLC operated the Shippingport plant under supervision of (the successor to AEC) the Department of Energy (DOE)-Naval Reactors (NR) until operations were terminated on October 1, 1982. NR concluded end-of-life testing and defueling in 1984 and transferred the Station's responsibility to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL), Surplus Facility Management Program Office (SFMPO5) on September 5, 1984. SFMPO subsequently established the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and selected General Electric (GE) as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This report is intended to provide an overview of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

  10. Decommissioning and demolition 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, I.L.

    1992-01-01

    The decommissioning and demolition of structures offshore, onshore and in nuclear works involves new technologies and industries in demolition and removal. The aim of the conference was to provide a forum to keep up to date with technological developments, to publicise new techniques and to share and discuss present and future plans. A particular feature was the multi-disciplinary approach to promote and encourage communication between different sectors of this difficult field of operations. The conference emphasised not only technical issues but also legislative, management and health and safety aspects. Papers were presented by practising engineers, contractors and research workers involved in offshore structures, buildings, power stations, contaminated sites, nuclear plant and includes specialist techniques of cutting, lifting, explosives, ground treatment and decontamination. Many valuable case histories and records based on practical experience were reported. The volume provides a reference source on the state-of-the-art in decommissioning and demolition. The ten papers relevant to the decommissioning and demolition of nuclear facilities are indexed separately. (Author)

  11. Unrestricted re-use of decommissioned nuclear laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelissen, R; Noynaert, L; Harnie, S; Marien, J

    1996-09-18

    A decommissioning strategy was developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN. In this strategy decommissioning works are limited to the radioactive parts of the nuclear installation. After obtaining an attestation for unrestricted reuse of the building after removal of all radioactivity, the building can be used for new industrial purposes outside the nuclear field. The decommissioning activities according to this strategy have been applied in four buildings. The results are described.

  12. Discussion on management of decommissioning funds for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hailiang

    2013-01-01

    Decommissioning funding is one of the major issues with regard to the policy and management of nuclear power. This paper describes current status of decommissioning of nuclear power plants in some foreign countries and narrates the practices in these countries on the estimation of decommissioning cost, the retrieval and management of decommissioning funds, and the guarantee of fund sufficiency. Based on a brief analysis of the status of decommissioning funding management for nuclear power plants in China, suggestions on tasks or activities needed to be carried out at present in the field of decommissioning funding are proposed. (authors)

  13. Research reactor back-end options - decommissioning: a necessary consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, M.R.; Parry, D.R.; Smith, C.

    1998-01-01

    Decommissioning is a challenge, which all radioactive site licensees eventually need to face and research reactors are no exception. BNFL has completed numerous major decommissioning projects at its own operational sites and has undertaken similar works at customers' sites including the decommissioning of the Universities Research Reactor (URR), Risley and the ICI TRIGA 1-Mk I Reactor at Billingham. Based on the execution of such projects BNFL has gained an understanding of the variety of customer requirements and the effectiveness of specific decommissioning techniques for research reactors. This paper addresses factors to be considered when reviewing the way forward following shut down and how these affect the final decisions for fuel management and the extent of decommissioning. Case studies are described from BNFL's recent experience decommissioning both the URR and ICI TRIGA reactors. (author)

  14. Study on archive management for nuclear facility decommissioning projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ling; Gong Jing; Luo Ning; Liao Bing; Zhou Hao

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the main features and status of the archive management for nuclear facility decommissioning projects, and explores and discusses the countermeasures in its archive management. Taking the practice of the archive management system of a reactor decommissioning project as an example, the paper illustrates the establishment of archive management system for the nuclear facility decommissioning projects. The results show that the development of a systematic archive management principle and system for nuclear decommissioning projects and the construction of project archives for the whole process from the design to the decommissioning by digitalized archive management system are one effective route to improve the complete, accurate and systematic archiving of project documents, to promote the standardization and effectiveness of the archive management and to ensure the traceability of the nuclear facility decommissioning projects. (authors)

  15. Stakeholder involvement in decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Significant numbers of nuclear facilities will need to be decommissioned in the coming decades. In this context, NEA member countries are placing increasing emphasis on the involvement of stakeholders in the associated decision procedures. This study reviews decommissioning experience with a view to identifying stakeholder concerns and best practice in addressing them. The lessons learnt about the end of the facility life cycle can also contribute to better foresight in siting and building new facilities. This report will be of interest to all major players in the field of decommissioning, in particular policy makers, implementers, regulators and representatives of local host communities

  16. Technical survey of decommissioning of commercial power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    The technical survey of decommissioning of commercial power reactors had been carried out from 1982 to 2003. The investigation items are scenarios, procedures, simplification and recycling. On the scenarios, the case studies on the decommissioning steps (1983 to 1984), evaluation of the prior conditions of case studies (1994 to 1998), evaluation of rationalization of the scenarios of decommissioning steps (1999 to 2001) and evaluation of the effects of investigation of clearance level (1999 to 2002) are described. Procedures (1985 to 1996) and simplification (1985 to 1987) of decommissioning are investigated. On the recycling, survey on recycle of waste produced by the decommissioning step (1985 to 1993) and recycle of demolition waste (1997 to 2002) are reported. Recycle of radioactive waste has to be controlled under lows. (S.Y.)

  17. Guidelines for estimating nuclear power plant decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.; Williams, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of the study were: (1) To develop guidelines to facilitate estimating the cost of nuclear power plant decommissioning alternatives on a plant-specific basis and to facilitate comparing estimates made by others. The guidelines are expressed in a form that could be readily adapted by technical specialists from individual utilities or by other uses. (2) To enhance the industry's credibility with decision-makes at the state and federal levels during rate/regulatory processes involving decommissioning costs. This is accomplished by providing a detailed, systematic breakdown of how decommissioning cost estimates are prepared. (3) To increase the validity, realism, and accuracy of site-specific decommissioning cost estimates. This is accomplished by pulling together the experiences and practices of several nuclear utilities and consultants in conducting past decommissioning cost estimates

  18. Decommissioning of blocks 1 to 5 of the Greifswald NPS (KGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, S.; King, A.J.; Koehler, G.; Bernhagen, A.; Friedrich, W.

    1992-01-01

    A study group has prepared a decommissioning and demolition concept for blocks 1 - 5 of the Greifswald NPS. In all, the Greifswald NPS comprises 8 double-blocks (some under construction) of the Russian reactor type WWER 440 (pressure water reactor).After differing operating times, the two oldest double-blocks 1/2 and 3/4 were finally shut down in 1990. The double blocks are almost identical. This document is divided into two parts, i.e. the technical concept which describes the technical procedure for decommissioning and demolishing blocks 1 - 5 and a development concept which contains costs, schedules and estimated manpower requirements. (Author)

  19. Structure and function design for nuclear facilities decommissioning information database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yongkuo; Song Yi; Wu Xiaotian; Liu Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is a radioactive and high-risk project which has to consider the effect of radiation and nuclear waste disposal, so the information system of nuclear facilities decommissioning project must be established to ensure the safety of the project. In this study, by collecting the decommissioning activity data, the decommissioning database was established, and based on the database, the decommissioning information database (DID) was developed. The DID can perform some basic operations, such as input, delete, modification and query of the decommissioning information data, and in accordance with processing characteristics of various types of information data, it can also perform information management with different function models. On this basis, analysis of the different information data will be done. The system is helpful for enhancing the management capability of the decommissioning process and optimizing the arrangements of the project, it also can reduce radiation dose of the workers, so the system is quite necessary for safe decommissioning of nuclear facilities. (authors)

  20. Knowledge Management Aspects of Decommissioning. Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pironkov, Lyubomir

    2017-01-01

    Kozloduy NPP: Units 5&6, type VVER-1000 - in operation. SE RAW SD “Decommissioning of units 1-4” (type VVER-440); SD “Radioactive Waste – Kozloduy”; SD “National Repository for Radioactive Waste“; SD “Permanent Repository for Radioactive Waste – Novi Han”. Decommissioning Strategy: Strategy Target: “Brown Field”. Initial Version: Safe enclosure – completing by 2050. Updated Version: Continuous dismantling of equipment; Completing the process of Decommissioning of Units 1-4 by 2030. Major Phases: 1.Pre-decommissioning activities; 2.Facility shutdown activities; 3.Procurement of equipment; 4.Dismantling activities; 5.Treatment of RAM and RAW and delivery for disposal; 6.Site management and support; 7.Project management and engineering; 8.Management of SNF and activated materials

  1. A database structure for radiological optimization analyses of decommissioning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.; Van de Walle, B.

    1995-09-01

    The structure of a database for decommissioning experiences is described. Radiological optimization is a major radiation protection principle in practices and interventions, involving radiological protection factors, economic costs, social factors. An important lack of knowledge with respect to these factors exists in the domain of the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, due to the low number of decommissioning operations already performed. Moreover, decommissioning takes place only once for a installation. Tasks, techniques, and procedures are in most cases rather specific, limiting the use of past experiences in the radiological optimization analyses of new decommissioning operations. Therefore, it is important that relevant data or information be acquired from decommissioning experiences. These data have to be stored in a database in a way they can be used efficiently in ALARA analyses of future decommissioning activities

  2. Offshore decommissioning issues: Deductibility and transferability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parente, Virginia; Ferreira, Doneivan; Moutinho dos Santos, Edmilson; Luczynski, Estanislau

    2006-01-01

    Dealing with the decommissioning of petroleum installations is a relatively new challenge to most producer countries. It is natural to expect that industry's experience in building platforms is much greater than the one of dismantling them. Even if manifold and varied efforts are underway towards establishing international 'best practices' standards in this sector, countries still enjoy rather extensive discretionary power as they practice a particular national style in the regulation of decommissioning activities in their state's jurisdiction. The present paper offers a broad panorama of this discussion, concentrating mainly on two controversial aspects. The first one analyses the ex-ante deductibility of decommissioning costs as they constitute an ex-post expense. The second discussion refers to the assignment of decommissioning responsibility in the case of transfer of exploration and production rights to new lessees during the project's life. Finally the paper applies concepts commonly used in project financing as well as structures generally used in organising pension funds to develop insights into these discussions

  3. Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1993-01-01

    The German law governing decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations can be called to be embryonic as compared to other areas of the nuclear regulatory system, and this is why the AIDN/INLA regional meeting organised by the German national committee in July 1992 in Schwerin has been intended to elaborate an assessment of the current legal situation and on this basis establish proposals for enhancement and development, taking into account the experience reported by experts from abroad. The proceedings comprise the paper of the opening session, 'Engineering and safety aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear installations', and the papers and discussions of the technical sessions entitled: - Comparative assessment of the regulatory regimes. - Legislation governing the decommissioning of nuclear installations in Germany. - Analysis of the purpose and law making substance of existing regulatory provisions for the decommissioning of nuclear installations. All seventeen papers of the meeting have been prepared for separate retrieval from the database. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: overview and justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this booklet is to brief the reader on the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and to summarize the benefits of funding the project in FY 1984. Background information on the station and the decommissioning project is provided in this section of the booklet; the need for a reactor decommissining demonstration is discussed in the next section; and a summary of how the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) provides the needed demonstration is provided in the final section

  5. Summary of Session 2.A. Decommissioning strategies and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schattke, H.

    2003-01-01

    The discussion focused largely on the decommissioning of large nuclear facilities. Equivalent strategies and procedures need to be developed for the safe decommissioning of the many other applications in medicine, industry and research involving radioactive materials. Planning for decommissioning should start early. Ideally, decommissioning considerations should have been taken into account at the design stage. Three basic decommissioning strategies are envisaged as possibilities for nuclear installations: immediate dismantling; safe enclosure prior to deferred dismantling; and entombment. All have advantages and disadvantages, but immediate dismantling is the generally preferred option. Immediate dismantling typically has the fewest uncertainties. It also eliminates the risks associated with the facility as promptly as possible, normally costs less than delaying and allows the retention of operational staff who know the facility and its history to contribute their expertise and experience during decommissioning. Approaches to regulating the implementation of decommissioning plans vary, but the common aim is to provide effective regulatory control to ensure safe decommissioning. The transition from operation to decommissioning will usually be accompanied by organizational changes, particularly reductions in staff. Such reductions may be inevitable, but the operator must manage the change so as to retain the expertise needed and to guard against a degradation of safety culture due to demotivation of the remaining staff. The absence of an available disposal route has been used as another argument for the safe enclosure strategy rather than immediate dismantling, the idea being that dismantling is delayed until a repository is available. The ultimate aim of decommissioning is to allow the removal of some or all regulatory control from a site, but internationally agreed criteria for the removal of such controls are needed

  6. SGN's Dismantling and Decommissioning engineering, projects experience and capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destrait, L.

    1998-01-01

    Its experience in waste treatment, conditioning, storage and disposal, its cooperation with CEA and COGEMA Group in license agreements give SGN expertise in the decommissioning field. SGN's experience and background in all areas of nuclear facility decommissioning, such as chemical and mechanical cells, nuclear advanced reactors, reprocessing facilities result in fruitful references to the customers. The poster is presenting different achievements and projects with SGN's participation such as: - The decommissioning of Windscale Advanced Gas cooled Reactors (WAGR), in particular providing methodology and equipment to dismantle the Pressure and Insulation Vessel of the reactor. - The decommissioning plan of Ignalina (Lithuania) and Paldiski (Estonia), defining strategies, scenarios, necessary equipments and tools and choosing the best solutions to decommission the site under different influencing parameters such as cost, dose rate exposure, etc... - Th One Site Assistance Team (OSAT) at Chernobyl regarding the preparation works for the waste management and decommissioning of the plant. - The decommissioning of French nuclear facilities such as reprocessing (UP1) and reactor (EL4) plants. The important experience acquired during the facility management and during the first dismantling and decommissioning operations is an important factor for the smooth running of these techniques for the future. The challenge to come is to control all the operations, the choice of strategies, the waste management, the efficiency of tools and equipments, and to provide nuclear operators with a full range of proven techniques to optimise costs and minimize decommissioning personnel exposure. (Author)

  7. Optimising waste management performance - The key to successful decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keep, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: On the 1. of April 2005 the United Kingdom's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority became responsible for the enormous task of decommissioning the UK's civilian nuclear liabilities. The success of the NDA in delivering its key objectives of safer, cheaper and faster decommissioning depends on a wide range factors. It is self-evident, however, that the development of robust waste management practices by those charged with decommissioning liability will be at the heart of the NDA's business. In addition, the implementation of rigorous waste minimisation techniques throughout decommissioning will deliver tangible environmental benefits as well as better value for money and release funds to accelerate the decommissioning program. There are mixed views as to whether waste minimisation can be achieved during decommissioning. There are those that argue that the radioactive inventory already exists, that the amount of radioactivity cannot be minimised and that the focus of activities should be focused on waste management rather than waste minimisation. Others argue that the management and decommissioning of the UK's civilian nuclear liability will generate significant volumes of additional radioactive waste and it is in this area where the opportunities for waste minimisation can be realised. (author)

  8. General principles underlying the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    Previous statements on the use of the term 'decommissioning' by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Atomic Energy Control Board, and the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety are reviewed, culminating in a particular definition for its use in this paper. Three decommissioning phases are identified and discussed, leading to eight general principles governing decommissioning including one related to financing

  9. The 'old and the new' of decommissioning Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Peter; Chalmers, Tony; Somerville, Susan; Varallo, Giovanna; Watkin, Tim; White, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The Dounreay site is situated on the north coast of Scotland, mainland United Kingdom, and since the 1950s it has been instrumental in fast breeder research and fuel reprocessing plant development. The work programme on the site has changed, and is now one of safe decommissioning and site restoration. Previous papers have discussed and reviewed progress during the very early stages of the decommissioning programme and this paper provides an update on the work programme from a primarily radiation protection perspective. This paper discusses progress in decommissioning the Dounreay site and the adoption of 'tried and tested', as well as innovative techniques to achieve this decommissioning safely. This includes detailed discussion of the radiation protection aspects of decommissioning, and the consideration and implementation of various radiological protection controls within varying decommissioning environments, such as: a) Remote operations; b) Robotics; c) Shielding; d) Remote readout dosimetry (during personnel entry into elevated dose rate areas). The change from an operational to a decommissioning work programme at Dounreay, created a requirement to modify the type and variety of radiological personal protective equipment (PPE) available. The selection of appropriate PPE, utilised following exhaustion of the hierarchy of controls, to remove the residual radiological risk to personnel is discussed within the paper. The benefit of developing this PPE, as well as other controls, in collaboration with the operatives performing the work, is clearly obvious. The paper concludes with a review of the relative merits and success of the decommissioning techniques that have been adopted, from a radiological protection perspective, together with a summary of lessons learnt. (author)

  10. Decommissioning costs of WWER-440 nuclear power plants. Interim report: Data collection and preliminary evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    Based on the interest in decommissioning costs within Member States, especially in WWER- 440 operating countries that face the complex decision about continued operation vs. decommissioning in the near future, the IAEA launched the task to prepare a technical document on decommissioning costs of WWER-440 nuclear power plants. The main objectives of this publication were to present the decommissioning costs of WWER-440 NPPs in a uniform manner, i.e. using the cost item and cost group system of the Interim Technical Document on Nuclear Decommissioning 'A Proposed Standardised List of Items for Costing Purposes' developed jointly by the EC, the IAEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), and providing, as such, a basis for understanding decommissioning costs differences. Member States operating WWER-440 NPPs or having such units under shutdown or even under decommissioning conditions have been requested to provide cost estimates and other input data in order to facilitate understanding of their cost figures. Both decommissioning options, i.e. immediate decommissioning and safe enclosure, have been considered. In the aforementioned joint Interim Technical Document, cost items related to activities that are carried out with a similar emphasis, whether or not tied to a similar time schedule for decommissioning, or that are based on overall activities that cannot be categorised in a specific time period, are grouped as follows: pre-decommissioning actions; facility shutdown activities; procurement of general equipment and material; dismantling activities; waste processing, storage and disposal; site security, surveillance and maintenance; site restoration, cleanup and landscaping; project management, engineering and site support; research and development; fuel and nuclear material; other costs. Before starting implementation of the study, agreement was obtained on general financial, technical and social boundary conditions that should be used in order to facilitate

  11. Study on the decommissioning of research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Doo Hwan; Jun, Kwan Sik; Choi, Yoon Dong; Lee, Tae Yung; Kwon, Sang Woon; Lee, Jong Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    Currently, KAERI operates TRIGA Mark-II and TRIGA Mark-III research reactors as a general purpose research and training facility. As these are, however, situated at Seoul office site of KAERI which is scheduled to be transferred to KEPCO as well as 30 MW HANARO research reactor which is expected to reach the first criticality in 1995 is under construction at head site of KAERI, decommissioning of TRIGA reactors has become an important topic. The objective of this study is to prepare and present TRIGA facility decontamination and decommissioning plan. Estimation of the radioactive inventory in TRIGA research reactor was carried out by the use of computational method. In addition, summarized in particular were the methodologies associated with decontamination, segmenting processes for activated metallic components, disposition of wastes. Particular consideration in this study was focused available technology applicable to decommissioning of TRIGA research reactor. State-of-the-art summaries of the available technology for decommissioning presented here will serve a useful document for preparations for decommissioning in the future. 6 figs, 41 tabs, 30 refs. (Author).

  12. Regulatory experience in nuclear power station decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.M.; Waters, R.E.; Taylor, F.E.; Burrows, P.I.

    1995-01-01

    In the UK, decommissioning on a licensed nuclear site is regulated and controlled by HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate on behalf of the Health and Safety Executive. The same legislative framework used for operating nuclear power stations is also applied to decommissioning activities and provides a continuous but flexible safety regime until there is no danger from ionising radiations. The regulatory strategy is discussed, taking into account Government policy and international guidance for decommissioning and the implications of the recent white paper reviewing radioactive waste management policy. Although each site is treated on a case by case basis as regulatory experience is gained from decommissioning commercial nuclear power stations in the UK, generic issues have been identified and current regulatory thinking on them is indicated. Overall it is concluded that decommissioning is an evolving process where dismantling and waste disposal should be carried out as soon as reasonably practicable. Waste stored on site should, where it is practical and cost effective, be in a state of passive safety. (Author)

  13. Systematic Approach for Decommissioning Planning and Estimating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear facility decommissioning, satisfactorily completed at the lowest cost, relies on a systematic approach to the planning, estimating, and documenting the work. High quality information is needed to properly perform the planning and estimating. A systematic approach to collecting and maintaining the needed information is recommended using a knowledgebase system for information management. A systematic approach is also recommended to develop the decommissioning plan, cost estimate and schedule. A probabilistic project cost and schedule risk analysis is included as part of the planning process. The entire effort is performed by a experienced team of decommissioning planners, cost estimators, schedulers, and facility knowledgeable owner representatives. The plant data, work plans, cost and schedule are entered into a knowledgebase. This systematic approach has been used successfully for decommissioning planning and cost estimating for a commercial nuclear power plant. Elements of this approach have been used for numerous cost estimates and estimate reviews. The plan and estimate in the knowledgebase should be a living document, updated periodically, to support decommissioning fund provisioning, with the plan ready for use when the need arises

  14. KONTEC 2009. Report about the 9th International Symposium on ''Conditioning of radioactive operational and decommissioning wastes''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    ''Kontec 2009'' was organized in Dresden on April 15-17, 2009. For the 8 th time, this established international meeting covered the subjects of ''Conditioning of Radioactive Operational and Decommissioning Wastes'' and ''Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities'' and the R and D Status Report delivered by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research on this key topic. Some 790 participants from 13 countries heard and discussed the contributions to the three-day meeting. The program of the symposium comprised plenary sessions dealing with these 4 key subjects: Disposal of Radioactive Residues from Nuclear Facilities' Operation and Decommissioning, Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities, Facilities and Systems for the Conditioning of Operational and Decommissioning Wastes, Transport, Interim and Final Storage of Non-heat Generating Wastes (i.e. Konrad). The sessions were supplemented by poster sessions and selected short presentations under the heading of ''Kontec Direct.'' (orig.)

  15. The Role of Stakeholders in the Decommissioning of Salaspils Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenkovs, A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the role of different stakeholders in the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor. Decommissioning was a large challenge for the Latvia, since the country in this moment had no decommissioning experience and necessary technologies for the implementation of the defined goals by the Government. In this case for facilitation of the decommissioning of Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR), the significant role plays the local and international stakeholders. The paper deals with information on the basic stages of decommissioning of SRR and the role of the wide spectrum of stakeholders in preparation, upgrade and implementation of the decommissioning plan. The role of governmental institutions in the decommissioning of Salaspils research reactor is discussed. It was shown, that local municipalities are very important stakeholders, which significantly influence the decommissioning of SRR. The Salaspils municipalities positive impact on the decommissioning processes are discussed. Basic problems with the Baldone municipality in context of radioactive wastes management are indicated. The role of international stakeholders in decommissioning of Salaspils research reactor is discussed. It was shown, that the support from International Atomic Energy Agency significantly promotes the decommissioning of SRR. The main issues were expert support for solution of different technical problems in radioactive wastes management, area monitoring, and verification of decommissioning plans, training of staff and technical expertise during whole process of decommissioning. It was shown, that technical and economical support from DOE, USA provides the possibility to solve the fuel problem during decommissioning of SRR, as well as, to increase the physical safety of SRR and repository 'Radons'. It was shown, that a proper coordination of all activities and using the services from stakeholders can significantly reduce the total project expenses. The cooperation between

  16. A state-of-the art on decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Kook; Kim, Hee Reyoung; Chung, Un Soo; Jung, Ki Jung

    2002-05-01

    While proceeding the KRR-1 and 2 decommissioning project, we are carried out study for the state of the art on decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Japan. Also, we are studied for the research reactors and commercial power plant that has the object of decommissioning, and for the government and the organization related on decommissioning operation. We are investigated for decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities achieved by JAERI, and collected the information and data for decommissioning techniques and computational system through the JPDR(Japan Power Demonstration Reactor) decommissioning activities. Such techniques are applying for Tokai Power Station began the decommissioning project from last year, and for Fugen Nuclear Power Station to be planned the decommissioning from 2003. Recent techniques for decommissioning was acquired by direct contact. The status of the treatment for decommissioning waste and the disposal facility for the very low-level radioactive concrete wastes was grasped

  17. Project and feedback experience on nuclear facility decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J.L. [ENRESA (Spain); Benest, T.G. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Windscale, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Tardy, F.; Lefevre, Ph. [Electricite de France (EDF/CIDEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Willis, A. [VT Nuclear Services (United Kingdom); Gilis, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R. [Belgoprocess (Belgium); Jeanjacques, M. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Bohar, M.P.; Bremond, M.P.; Poyau, C.; Mandard, L.; Boissonneau, J.F.; Fouquereau, A.; Pichereau, E.; Binet, C. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, 92 (France); Fontana, Ph.; Fraize, G. [CEA Marcoule 30 (France); Seurat, Ph. [AREVA NC, 75 - Paris (France); Chesnokov, A.V.; Fadin, S.Y.; Ivanov, O.P.; Kolyadin, V.I.; Lemus, A.V.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Semenov, S.G.; Shisha, A.D.; Volkov, V.G.; Zverkov, Y.A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-11-15

    This series of 6 short articles presents the feedback experience that has been drawn from various nuclear facility dismantling and presents 3 decommissioning projects: first, the WAGR project that is the UK demonstration project for power reactor decommissioning (a review of the tools used to dismantle the reactor core); secondly, the dismantling project of the Bugey-1 UNGG reactor for which the dismantling works of the reactor internals is planned to be done underwater; and thirdly, the decommissioning project of the MR reactor in the Kurchatov Institute. The feedback experience described concerns nuclear facilities in Spain (Vandellos-1 and the CIEMAT research center), in Belgium (the Eurochemic reprocessing plant), and in France (the decommissioning of nuclear premises inside the Fontenay-aux-roses Cea center and the decommissioning of the UP1 spent fuel reprocessing plant at the Marcoule site). (A.C.)

  18. Project and feedback experience on nuclear facility decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, J.L.; Benest, T.G.; Tardy, F.; Lefevre, Ph.; Willis, A.; Gilis, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R.; Jeanjacques, M.; Bohar, M.P.; Bremond, M.P.; Poyau, C.; Mandard, L.; Boissonneau, J.F.; Fouquereau, A.; Pichereau, E.; Binet, C.; Fontana, Ph.; Fraize, G.; Seurat, Ph.; Chesnokov, A.V.; Fadin, S.Y.; Ivanov, O.P.; Kolyadin, V.I.; Lemus, A.V.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Semenov, S.G.; Shisha, A.D.; Volkov, V.G.; Zverkov, Y.A.

    2008-01-01

    This series of 6 short articles presents the feedback experience that has been drawn from various nuclear facility dismantling and presents 3 decommissioning projects: first, the WAGR project that is the UK demonstration project for power reactor decommissioning (a review of the tools used to dismantle the reactor core); secondly, the dismantling project of the Bugey-1 UNGG reactor for which the dismantling works of the reactor internals is planned to be done underwater; and thirdly, the decommissioning project of the MR reactor in the Kurchatov Institute. The feedback experience described concerns nuclear facilities in Spain (Vandellos-1 and the CIEMAT research center), in Belgium (the Eurochemic reprocessing plant), and in France (the decommissioning of nuclear premises inside the Fontenay-aux-roses Cea center and the decommissioning of the UP1 spent fuel reprocessing plant at the Marcoule site). (A.C.)

  19. Overview of decommissioning activities in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. has been involved the successful decontamination, decommissioning and reutilization of nuclear facilities for over 20 years. A number of commercial power plants in the United States have either completed their decommissioning, or will be in the next few years. In addition, the U.S. DOE has taken an aggressive approach to site remediation focusing on site closures so as to better utilize its financial resources. The U.S. initiative to deregulate the electrical generation industry to promote competition and presumably to reduce electricity prices to the consumer, is again in flux. Some utilities, facing the real or perceived threat of competition in its markets decided to shut down the 'costly' nuclear plants to alleviate the drain on their financial reserves. The older nuclear units experienced serious mechanical problems, entailing expensive repairs and replacements. Such difficulties have caused owner-operator utilities to decide to decommission these facilities rather than incur the expense of upgrading or repairing the plants to meet current regulatory and design criteria. Plants that were marginally cost-competitive, or not at all competitive, were shut down and decommissioned. Other utilities have bought some of the older nuclear plants in the Northeast (a high power demand region) to operate them and to extend their licenses for continued life. This paper will discuss the decommissioning lessons learned, management approaches, site characterization and challenges faced in disposition of radioactive waste and large components, contracting practice, and the status of several of these shut down reactor-decommissioning programs. The industry has proven that nuclear power plants can be cost effectively and safely decommissioned. (author)

  20. Shippingport station decommissioning project technology transfer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKernan, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) decommissioned, decontaminated, and dismantled the world's first, nuclear fueled, commercial size, electric power plant. SSDP programmatic goal direction for technology transfer is documentation of project management and operations experience. Objective is to provide future nuclear facility decommissioning projects with pertinent SSDP performance data for project assessment, planning, and operational implementation. This paper presents a working definition for technology transfer. Direction is provided for access and availability for SSDP technology acquisition

  1. Development of the Decommissioning Planning System for the WWR-M Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobach, Y. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2013-08-15

    Kiev's research reactor WWR-M is in operation for more than 50 years and its continued operation is planned. At the same time the development of a decommissioning plan is a mandatory requirement of the national legislation and it must be performed at the operational stage of nuclear installation as early as possible. Recently, the Decommissioning Programme for the WWR-M reactor has been developed. The programme covers the whole decommissioning process and represents the main guiding document during the whole decommissioning period, which determines and substantiates the principal technical and organizational activities on the preparation and implementation of the reactor decommissioning, the consequence of the decommissioning stages, the sequence of planned works and measures as well as the necessary conditions and infrastructure for the provision and safe implementation. The programme contains the basic directions of further decommissioning planning aimed on the timely preparation for the reactor decommissioning. This paper describes the status of the WWR-M reactor decommissioning planning attained by the middle of 2011. (author)

  2. Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharin, O.; Handler, J.

    1995-01-01

    Russia is facing technical, economic and organizational difficulties in dismantling its oversized and unsafe fleet of nuclear powered submarines. The inability of Russia to deal effectively with the submarine decommissioning crisis increases the risk of environmental disaster and may hamper the implementation of the START I and START II treaties. This paper discusses the nuclear fleet support infrastructure, the problems of submarine decommissioning, and recommends international cooperation in addressing these problems

  3. International Atomic Energy Agency activities in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenweaver, D W.; )

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been addressing the safety and technical issues of decommissioning for over 20 years, but their focus has been primarily on planning. Up to know, the activities have been on an ad hoc basis and sometimes, important issues have been missed. A new Action Plan on the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities has recently been approved by the Agency's board of Governors which will focus the Agency's efforts and ensure that our Member States' concerns are addressed. The new initiatives associated with this Action Plan will help ensure that decommissioning activities in the future are performed in a safe and coherent manner. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been preparing safety and technical documents concerning decommissioning since the mid-1980's. There have been over 30 documents prepared that provide safety requirements, guidance and supporting technical information. Many of these documents are over 10 years old and need updating. The main focus in the past has been on planning for decommissioning. During the past five years, a set of Safety Standards have been prepared and issued to provide safety requirements and guidance to Member States. However, decommissioning was never a real priority with the Agency, but was something that had to be addressed. To illustrate this point, the first requirements documents on decommissioning were issued as part of a Safety Requirements [1] on pre-disposal management of radioactive waste. It was felt that decommissioning did not deserve its own document because it was just part of the normal waste management process. The focus was mostly on waste management. The Agency has assisted Member States with the planning process for decommissioning. Most of these activities have been focused on nuclear power plants and research reactors. Now, support for the decommissioning of other types of facilities is being requested. The Agency is currently providing technical

  4. Assessment of exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to suggest the method analyze and assess the exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments. To simulate a lot of decommissioning scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed in virtual reality. To simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers, human model also was designed in virtual environments. These virtual decommissioning environments made it possible to real-time simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers. This work was to be able to simulate scenarios of decommissioning so that exposure dose to workers could be measured and assessed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities are accomplished, the method of simulation assessment was developed in virtual radiological environments. But this work was developed as a tool of simulation for single subject mode. Afterwards, the simulation environment for multi-subjects mode will be upgraded by simultaneous modules with networking environments. Then the much more practical method will be developed by changing number of workers and duration of time under any circumstances of decommissioning

  5. Assessment of exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    This paper is intended to suggest the method analyze and assess the exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments. To simulate a lot of decommissioning scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed in virtual reality. To simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers, human model also was designed in virtual environments. These virtual decommissioning environments made it possible to real-time simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers. This work was to be able to simulate scenarios of decommissioning so that exposure dose to workers could be measured and assessed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities are accomplished, the method of simulation assessment was developed in virtual radiological environments. But this work was developed as a tool of simulation for single subject mode. Afterwards, the simulation environment for multi-subjects mode will be upgraded by simultaneous modules with networking environments. Then the much more practical method will be developed by changing number of workers and duration of time under any circumstances of decommissioning.

  6. Canadian decommissioning experience from policy to project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pare, F.E.

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian policy on decommissioning of nuclear facilities as defined in the Atomic Energy Control Act and Regulations is administered by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), a Federal Government agency. It requires that these facilities be decommissioned according to approved plans which are to be developed by the owner of the nuclear facility during its early stages of design and to be refined during its operating life. In this regulatory environment, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a decommissioning strategy for power stations which consists of three distinctive phases. After presenting AECL's decommissioning philosophy, this paper explains its foundations and describes how it has and soon will be applied to various facilities. It terminates by providing a brief summary of the experience gained up to date on the implementation of this strategy

  7. Feedback experience from the decommissioning of Spanish nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Spain has accumulated significant experience in the field of decommissioning of nuclear and radioactive facilities. Relevant projects include the remediation of uranium mills and mines, the decommissioning of research reactors and nuclear research facilities and the decommissioning of gas-graphite nuclear power plants. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Spain is undertaken by ENRESA, who is also responsible for the management of radioactive wastes. The two most notable projects are the decommissioning of the Vandellos I nuclear power plant and the decommissioning of the CIEMAT nuclear research centre. The Vandellos I power plant was decommissioned in about five years to what is known as level 2. During this period, the reactor vessel was confined, most plant systems and components were dismantled, the facility was prepared for a period of latency and a large part of the site was restored for subsequent release. In 2005 the facility entered into the phase of dormancy, with minimum operating requirements. Only surveillance and maintenance activities are performed, among which special mention should be made to the five-year check of the leak tightness of the reactor vessel. After the dormancy period (25 - 30 years), level 3 of decommissioning will be initiated including the total dismantling of the remaining parts of the plant and the release of the whole site for subsequent uses. The decommissioning of the CIEMAT Research Centre includes the dismantling of obsolete facilities such as the research reactor JEN-1, a pilot reprocessing plant, a fuel fabrication facility, a conditioning plant for liquid and a liquid waste storage facility which were shutdown in the early eighties. Dismantling works have started in 2006 and will be completed by 2009. On the basis of the experience gained in the above mentioned sites, this paper describes the approaches adopted by ENRESA for large decommissioning projects. (author)

  8. Several issues on the decommissioning of uranium mining/milling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lechang; Xu Jianxin; Gao Shangxiong

    2007-01-01

    Several issues on the decommissioning of uranium mining/milling facilities are discussed at the national and international level of decommissioning, including radiation, monitoring, dose evaluation, covering, water treatment and stabilization of uranium tailings impoundment, etc. Some suggestions are made: drawing international lessons on decommissioning of uranium mining/milling facilities; enhancing monitoring and database construction in decommissioning management; stressing utilization of measured dose data; using the experience of other countries for reference on covering designs for uranium tailings impoundment and water treatment; strengthening decommissioning management, etc. (authors)

  9. Closing responsibilities: decommissioning and the law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrory, R.

    1990-01-01

    Laws change over time, with the times. Interpretations of old laws shift and the need for new laws emerges. There are endless reasons for these necessary changes, but the basic impetus is the changing nature of societal circumstance. Fifty years ago there were no laws directly governing nuclear power in any way. Today we know that nuclear power touches people from their wallets to their descendants. Currently, many laws related to nuclear power are in place, laws which protect all sectors of society from electricity generating bodies to a newborn child, and the Chernobyl accident has broadened the legal ramifications of nuclear power even more. This expanding body of nuclear law reflects our expanding understanding of nuclear power from its technical beginnings to its societal consequences and implications. The law is now beginning to reflect the growing significance of decommissioning. What are the relationships between decommissioning and the existing laws, government agencies, and policies? Ironically, although the UK will lead the world in addressing decommissioning responsibilities, there are no explicit laws in place to govern the process. In the absence of specific legislation governing decommissioning, the primary responsibilities fall to the operators of the power plants, a circumstance not lost on those involved in privatization. In this chapter, the wide and varied legal ramifications of decommissioning are examined. (author)

  10. 77 FR 8751 - Guidance for Decommissioning Planning During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ..., 40, 50, 70, and 72 [NRC-2011-0286] Guidance for Decommissioning Planning During Operations AGENCY... Guide, DG-4014, ``Decommissioning Planning During Operations'' in the Federal Register with a public... Guide DG-4014, ``Decommissioning Planning During Operations.'' This DG refers to NUREG-1757 Volume 3...

  11. Waste Management During RA Reactor Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, M.; Avramovic, I.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of radioactive waste management during the RA reactor decommissioning is to deal with radioactive waste in a manner that protects human health and the environment now and in the future. The estimation of waste quantities to be expected during decommissioning is a very important step in the initial planning. (author)

  12. Vandellos 1 NPP decommissioning feedback experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Rodriguez A. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos, ENPRESA, Madrid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    necessary to support in order to reuse and apply the model to others projects. This knowledge and experience are mostly in three areas: -Data Bases, -Basic Document and - Lessons Learned which are described. Lessons Learned are summarized in eleven conclusions: a) The dilemma about the difference between an installation in operation and a decommissioning works. A NPP in operation is an installation; a NPP in decommissioning process is an activity, this impact is fundamental from the documentary and controls points of view; b) The flexibility of the time schedule of the project. In opposition with a construction, the time schedule of a decommissioning project it possible to maintain with small delays due to the versatility of parallel tasks; c) The authorization procedure is one of the key points, before and during the process. As a new activity, decommissioning was born without specifics regulation; day by day all the actors realize that is necessary to reflect back together in order to define and establish new standards to regulate the decommissioning processes; d) The prevention of the risks on site is a topic not only related to the Protection Radiation, the conventional risks have more importance in the decommissioning tasks. The issue of the new regulation about it, impact directly in the executions of the works. The training and the information to the workers are the best corrective tool again the risks; e) Some performances or characteristics of the auxiliary systems must be taken in account in the procurement process for decommissioning, namely, the modularity, versatility of the auxiliary systems and the reuse as a way of reducing wastes and save row materials. The radiation protection is the subject concern during all the operations; Important issues of radioprotection as operational radiological history, the characterization of the materials and the environment to prevent the risk, and special care with the internal contamination of the body; g) The very big

  13. Development of a Decommissioning Certificate Program; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. R. Morton

    1999-01-01

    A Decommissioning Certificate Program has been developed at Washington State University Tri-Cities (WSU TC) in conjunction with Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)to address the increasing need for qualified professionals to direct and manage decommissioning projects. The cooperative effort between academia, industry, and government in the development and delivery of this Program of education and training is described, as well as the Program's design to prepare students to contribute sooner, and at a higher level, to decommissioning projects

  14. BN-350 nuclear power plant. Regulatory aspects of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiganakov, S.; Zhantikin, T.; Kim, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The BN-350 reactor is a fast breeder reactor using liquid sodium as a coolant [1]. This reactor was commissioned in 1973 and operated for its design life of 20 years. Thereafter, it was operated on the basis of annual licenses, and the final shutdown was initially planned in 2003. In 1999, however, the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on the Decommissioning of BN-350 Reactor. This Decree establishes the conception of the reactor plant decommissioning. The conception envisages three stages of decommissioning. The first stage of decommissioning aims at putting the installation into a state of long term safe enclosure. The main goal is an achievement of nuclear-and radiation-safe condition and industrial safety level. The completion criteria for the stage are as follows: spent fuel is removed and placed in long term storage; radioactive liquid metal coolant is drained from the reactor and processed; liquid and solid radioactive wastes are reprocessed and long-term stored; systems and equipment, that are decommissioned at the moment of reactor safe store, are disassembled; radiation monitoring of the reactor building and environment is provided. The completion criteria of the second stage are as follows: 50 years is up; a decision about beginning of works by realization of dismantling and burial design is accepted. The goal of the third stage is partial or total dismantling of equipment, buildings and structure and burial. Since the decision on the decommissioning of BN-350 Reactor Facility was accepted before end of scheduled service life (2003), to this moment 'The Decommissioning Plan' (which in Kazakhstan is called 'Design of BN-350 reactor Decommission') was not worked out. For realization of the Governmental Decree and for determination of activities by the reactor safety provision and for preparation of its decommission for the period till Design approval the following documents were developed: 1. Special Technical Requirements

  15. A Decommissioning Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. K.; Hong, S. B.; Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In 1996, it was determined that research reactors, the KRR-1 and the KRR-2, would be shut down and dismantled. A project for the decommissioning of these reactors was launched in January 1997 with the goal of a completion by 2008. The total budget of the project was 19.4 million US dollars, including the cost for the waste disposal and for the technology development. The work scopes during the decommissioning project were the dismantling of all the facilities and the removal of all the radioactive materials from the reactor site. After the removal of the entire radioactivity, the site and buildings will be released for an unconditional use. A separate project for the decommissioning of the uranium conversion plant was initiated in 2001. The plant was constructed for the development of the fuel manufacturing technologies and the localization of nuclear fuels in Korea. It was shut downed in 1993 and finally it was concluded in 2000 that the plant would be decommissioned. The project will be completed by 2008 and the total budget was 9.2 million US dollars. During this project, all vessels and equipment will be dismantled and the building surface will be decontaminated to be utilized as general laboratories.

  16. Addressing Uncertainties in Cost Estimates for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, Serge; Descures, Sylvain; Du Pasquier, Louis; Francois, Patrice; Buonarotti, Stefano; Mariotti, Giovanni; Tarakonov, Jurij; Daniska, Vladimir; Bergh, Niklas; Carroll, Simon; AaSTRoeM, Annika; Cato, Anna; De La Gardie, Fredrik; Haenggi, Hannes; Rodriguez, Jose; Laird, Alastair; Ridpath, Andy; La Guardia, Thomas; O'Sullivan, Patrick; ); Weber, Inge; )

    2017-01-01

    The cost estimation process of decommissioning nuclear facilities has continued to evolve in recent years, with a general trend towards demonstrating greater levels of detail in the estimate and more explicit consideration of uncertainties, the latter of which may have an impact on decommissioning project costs. The 2012 report on the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations, a joint recommendation by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission, proposes a standardised structure of cost items for decommissioning projects that can be used either directly for the production of cost estimates or for mapping of cost items for benchmarking purposes. The ISDC, however, provides only limited guidance on the treatment of uncertainty when preparing cost estimates. Addressing Uncertainties in Cost Estimates for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities, prepared jointly by the NEA and IAEA, is intended to complement the ISDC, assisting cost estimators and reviewers in systematically addressing uncertainties in decommissioning cost estimates. Based on experiences gained in participating countries and projects, the report describes how uncertainty and risks can be analysed and incorporated in decommissioning cost estimates, while presenting the outcomes in a transparent manner

  17. Procedures and Practices - Challenges for Decommissioning Management and Teamwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rindahl, G., E-mail: grete.rindahl@hrp.no [Institute for Energy Technology, Halden (Norway)

    2013-08-15

    The mental and practical approach to a decommissioning project is often not the same at all levels of an organization. Studies indicate that the early establishment of a decommissioning mindset throughout an organization is an important and frequently overlooked process. It is not enough to establish procedures, if practices and mental approaches are overlooked; and for decommissioning projects that are more often than not dominated by one of a kind problem solving, procedure design is challenging, and new requirements are put on communication. Our research considers stakeholder involvement in these processes in the wider sense of the term; however the main stakeholders in focus are regulators and the work force that will perform or lead the tasks related to decommissioning. Issues here treated include: Decommissioning mindset and the manifestation of mindset issues in decommissioning projects, including challenges and prospective solutions; trust building and trust breaking factors in communication and collaboration relevant to transition and decommissioning; new technologies for collaboration and communication and how these may impair or empower participants - experiences from several domains. This paper is based on work done in collaboration with the OECD NEA Halden Reactor Project. (author)

  18. Shippingport Atomic Power Station decommissioning program and applied technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crimi, F P; Skavdahl, R E

    1985-01-01

    The Shippingport Station decommissioning project is the first decommissioning of a large scale nuclear power plant, and also the first nuclear power plant to be decommissioned which has continued the power operation as long as 25 years. The nuclear facilities which have been decommissioned so far have operated for shorter period and were small as compared with commercial power reactors, but the experience gained by those decommissionings as well as that gained by nuclear plant maintenance and modification has helped to establish the technology and cost basis for Shippingport and future decommissioning projects. In this paper, the current status of the preparation being made by the General Electric Co., its subcontractor and the US Department of Energy for starting the decommissioning phase of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station is described. Also remote metal cutting, decontamination, concrete removal, the volume reduction of liquids and solids and robotics which will be applied to the project are discussed. The Shippingport Station is a 72 MWe PWR plant having started operation in 1957, and permanently shut down in 1982, after having generated over 7.4 billion kWh of electricity.

  19. Accidental safety analysis methodology development in decommission of the nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G. H.; Hwang, J. H.; Jae, M. S.; Seong, J. H.; Shin, S. H.; Cheong, S. J.; Pae, J. H.; Ang, G. R.; Lee, J. U. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of a nuclear reactor cost about 20% of construction expense and production of nuclear wastes during decommissioning makes environmental issues. Decommissioning of a nuclear reactor in Korea is in a just beginning stage, lacking clear standards and regulations for decommissioning. This work accident safety analysis in decommissioning of the nuclear facility can be a solid ground for the standards and regulations. For source term analysis for Kori-1 reactor vessel, MCNP/ORIGEN calculation methodology was applied. The activity of each important nuclide in the vessel was estimated at a time after 2008, the year Kori-1 plant is supposed to be decommissioned. And a methodology for risk analysis assessment in decommissioning was developed.

  20. Decommissioning strategy of the operating WWER type units in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinsky, L.L.; Lobach, Yu.N.; Skripov, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    At present in Ukraine, 13 WWER type units are in operation and two other ones are in the final stage of construction. Decommissioning of these units is expected after the year 2010. General planning of their decommissioning is developed in the framework of the decommissioning strategy of operating WWER type units. The strategy contains the objectives, principles and main tasks of the decommissioning as well as the activities at each phase of decommissioning. It is considered a broad range of factors important for the planning and implementation of decommissioning. (author)

  1. Organization and management for decommissioning of large nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For nuclear facilities, decommissioning is the final phase in the life-cycle after siting, design, construction, commissioning and operation. It is a complex process involving operations such as detailed surveys, decontamination and dismantling of plant equipment and facilities, demolition of buildings and structures, and management of resulting waste and other materials, whilst taking into account aspects of health and safety of the operating personnel and the general public, and protection of the environment. Careful planning and management is essential to ensure that decommissioning is accomplished in a safe and cost effective manner. Guidance on organizational aspects may lead to better decision making, reductions in time and resources, lower doses to the workers and reduced impact on public health and the environment. The objective of this report is to provide information and guidance on the organization and management aspects for the decommissioning of large nuclear facilities which will be useful for licensees responsible for discharging these responsibilities. The information contained in the report may also be useful to policy makers, regulatory bodies and other organizations interested in the planning and management of decommissioning. In this report, the term 'decommissioning' refers to those actions that are taken at the end of the useful life of a nuclear facility in withdrawing it from service with adequate regard for the health and safety of workers and members of the public and for the protection of the environment. The term 'large nuclear facilities' involves nuclear power plants, large nuclear research reactors and other fuel cycle facilities such as reprocessing plants, fuel conversion, fabrication and enrichment plants, as well as spent fuel storage and waste management plants. Information on the planning and management for decommissioning of smaller research reactors or other small nuclear facilities can be found elsewhere. The report covers

  2. Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    'Funding' started with CEGB and SSEB (state-owned electric utilities) in 1976 using the internal un-segregated fund route (i.e unfunded). This continued until privatisation of electricity industry (excluding nuclear) in 1990. Assets bought with the internal un-segregated fund were mostly transferred into non-nuclear private utilities. New state-owned Nuclear Electric (England and Wales) was given a 'Fossil Fuel Levy', a consumer charge of 10% on retail bills, amounting to c. BP 1 bn. annually. This allowed Nuclear Electric to trade legally (A reserve of BP 2.5 bn. was available from Government if company ran out of money). By 1996 the newer nuclear stations (AGRS plus PWR) were privatised as British Energy. British Energy started an external segregated fund, the Nuclear Decommissioning Fund, with a starting endowment of c. BP 225 m. - and BE made annual contributions of British Pound 16 m. into the Fund. Assumptions were that BE had 70 to accumulate cash and could get a 3.5% average annual real return. Older stations (Magnox) were left in private sector and went to BNFL in 1997. Magnox inherited the surplus cash in BE - mostly unspent Fossil Fuel Levy receipts - of c. BP 2.6 bn. Government gave an 'Undertaking' to pay BP 3.8 bn. (escalating at 4.5% real annually) for Magnox liabilities, should Magnox Electric run out of cash. BNFL inherited the BP 2.6 bn. and by 2000 had a 'Nuclear Liabilities Investment Portfolio' of c. BP 4 bn. This was a quasi-segregated internal fund for liabilities in general. [Note: overall UK nuclear liabilities in civilian sector were running at c. BP 48 bn. by now]. BE started profitable and paid BP 100 m. annually in dividends to private investors for several years. BE ran into severe financial problems after 2001 and Government organised restructuring aid, now approved by European Commission. Terms include: - BE now to contribute BP 20 m. a year into an expanded Nuclear Liabilities Fund; - A bond issue of BP 275 m. to go to Fund; - 65

  3. SOGIN Decommissioning strategy and funding (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Statement: In Italy, as it is well known, there are no more operational NPPs. The four existing nuclear plants are definitely shutdown and ready for decommissioning. Considerations on decommissioning funding system have to take into account this particular situation. Strategy for decommissioning: New inputs given to SOGIN by the Italian Government are: conditioning all radioactive waste existing on the NPPs within the year 2010, release all nuclear sites - free of radiological constraints - by 2020. The last task is conditioned by availability of the national waste repository by the year 2009. Strategy for decommissioning: Key issue is prompt dismantling considering No more nuclear activities in Italy and Progressive loss of competencies. Previously Existing funds: Before plant shutdown, ENEL has cumulated provisions for decommissioning, even in absence of a clear regulatory framework. These provisions were not sufficient for decommissioning, considering the early closure of the plants. An additional fund was granted to ENEL by the government, in the form of a 'credit' to be paid by the 'electric system' (CCSE). This fund (provisions + credit) was considered sufficient by ENEL for a decommissioning with Safe Store strategy (fund = discounted foreseen costs). The total fund (provisions + credit) was assigned to Sogin at the incorporation date. The amount, money 1999, was about 800 M euros. Considering the new context: new strategy (Prompt Dismantling with site release by 2020), Sogin constitution (societal costs), new economic conditions. The fund was not considered sufficient for all Sogin tasks. This conclusion was agreed upon also by the independent 'Authority for electric energy and gas'. A new regulatory framework was therefore defined. Regulatory aspects: The Legislative Decree 79/99 has stated that costs for the decommissioning of NPP, fuel cycle back end and related activities should be considered as stranded costs for the general electric system. The same

  4. The decommissioning and redevelopment of NECSA site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visagie, A.L.; Fourie, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The South African nuclear programme started in 1948 and was focussed on research and development in the nuclear field. In the early 70s a uranium conversion plant and a uranium enrichment plant were constructed on the NECSA site. The enriched uranium was used for military purposes, as fuel for the research reactor SAFARI-1 at Necsa. A semi-commercial uranium enrichment plant and a fuel manufacturing plant were commissioned in the 80's to supply fuel for the nuclear power plant at Koeberg near Cape Town. Currently the research reactor is utilized for the generation of radioactive isotopes for industrial and medical applications. Various other research projects were initiated and buildings constructed on the Necsa site to accommodate the different projects. The uranium conversion and enrichment projects were terminated in the early 90's, and many buildings on the Necsa site became redundant. An initial decommissioning strategy was to return the Necsa site to green fields. This endpoint of decommissioning has changed dramatically with the nuclear renaissance to include redevelopment and reuse options. In the case of a multi-facility nuclear site, such as the Necsa site, it is vital to develop a total site redevelopment plan rather than to decommission and allocate individual facilities for isolated reuse demands. A holistic approach should be assured by considering current and projected future redevelopment demands in the development of a redevelopment and reuse plan. It is important not to allow the redevelopment and reuse of a single facility on a multi-facility site based on short- term financial gain. With the recent increase in demand for nuclear facilities the redevelopment and reuse of nuclear facilities for non-nuclear applications should generally not be considered due to the inherent advantages associated with an existing licensed site. The initial decommissioning plan did not consider the Necsa site as a whole. Decommissioning costs, and the

  5. Decommissioning of fast reactors after sodium draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    Acknowledging the importance of passing on knowledge and experience, as well mentoring the next generation of scientists and engineers, and in response to expressed needs by Member States, the IAEA has undertaken concrete steps towards the implementation of a fast reactor data retrieval and knowledge preservation initiative. Decommissioning of fast reactors and other sodium bearing facilities is a domain in which considerable experience has been accumulated. Within the framework and drawing on the wide expertise of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA has initiated activities aiming at preserving the feedback (lessons learned) from this experience and condensing those to technical recommendations on fast reactor design features that would ease their decommissioning. Following a recommendation by the TWG-FR, the IAEA had convened a topical Technical Meeting (TM) on 'Operational and Decommissioning Experience with Fast Reactors', hosted by CEA, Centre d'Etudes de Cadarache, France, from 11 to 15 March 2002 (IAEA-TECDOC- 1405). The participants in that TM exchanged detailed technical information on fast reactor operation and decommissioning experience with various sodium cooled fast reactors, and, in particular, reviewed the status of the various decommissioning programmes. The TM concluded that the decommissioning of fast reactors to reach safe enclosure presented no major difficulties, and that this had been accomplished mainly through judicious adaptation of processes and procedures implemented during the reactor operation phase, and the development of safe sodium waste treatment processes. However, the TM also concluded that, on the path to achieving total dismantling, challenges remain with regard to the decommissioning of components after sodium draining, and suggested that a follow-on TM be convened, that would provide a forum for in-depth scientific and technical exchange on this topic. This publication constitutes the Proceedings of

  6. On-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    On-site disposal is not a novel decommissioning strategy in the history of the nuclear industry. Several projects based on this strategy have been implemented. Moreover, a number of studies and proposals have explored variations within the strategy, ranging from in situ disposal of entire facilities or portions thereof to disposal within the site boundary of major components such as the reactor pressure vessel or steam generators. Regardless of these initiatives, and despite a significant potential for dose, radioactive waste and cost reduction, on-site disposal has often been disregarded as a viable decommissioning strategy, generally as the result of environmental and other public concerns. Little attention has been given to on-site disposal in previous IAEA publications in the field of decommissioning. The objective of this report is to establish an awareness of technical factors that may or may not favour the adoption of on-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy. In addition, this report presents an overview of relevant national experiences, studies and proposals. The expected end result is to show that, subject to safety and environmental protection assessment, on-site disposal can be a viable decommissioning option and should be taken into consideration in decision making

  7. AECL's strategy for decommissioning Canadian nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, W.M.; Pare, F.E.; Pratapagiri, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian policy on decommissioning of nuclear facilities as defined in the Atomic Energy Control Act and Regulations is administered by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), a Federal Government agency. It requires that these facilities be decommissioned according to approved plans which are to be developed by the owner of the nuclear facility during its early stages of design and to be refined during its operating life. In this regulatory environment, Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) has developed a decommissioning strategy for power stations which consists of three distinctive phases. After presenting AECL's decommissioning philosophy, its foundations are explained and it is described how it has and soon will be applied to various facilities. A brief summary is provided of the experience gained up to date on the implementation of this strategy. (author) 3 figs.; 1 tab

  8. Offshore decommissioning issues: deductibility and transferability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, V.; Santos, M. dos [University of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Instituto de Electrotecnica; Ferreira, D. [State University of Campinas (Brazil). Dept. of Geology and Natural Resources; Luczynski, E. [Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Economico-Energeticas, Belem (Brazil)

    2006-10-15

    Dealing with the decommissioning of petroleum installations is a relatively new challenge to most producer countries. It is natural to expect that industry's experience in building platforms is much greater than the one of dismantling them. Even if manifold and varied efforts are underway towards establishing international ''best practices'' standards in this sector, countries still enjoy rather extensive discretionary power as they practice a particular national style in the regulation of decommissioning activities in their state's jurisdiction. The present paper offers a broad panorama of this discussion, concentrating mainly on two controversial aspects. The first one analyses the ex-ante deductibility of decommissioning costs as they constitute an ex-post expense. The second discussion refers to the assignment of decommissioning responsibility in the case of transfer of exploration and production rights to new lessees during the project's life. Finally the paper applies concepts commonly used in project financing as well as structures generally used in organising pension funds to develop insights into these discussions. (author)

  9. Decommissioning technology development for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. W.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, Y. K.

    2004-03-01

    Although it is expected that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant will happen since 2020, the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension has been on an increasing trend and domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project the decommissioning DB system on the KRR-1 and 2 was developed as establishing the information classification system of the research reactor dismantling and the structural design and optimization of the decommissioning DB system. Also in order to secure the reliability and safety about the dismantling process, the main dismantling simulation technology that can verify the dismantling process before their real dismantling work was developed. And also the underwater cutting equipment was developed to remove these stainless steel parts highly activated from the RSR. First, the its key technologies were developed and then the design, making, and capability analysis were performed. Finally the actual proof was achieved for applying the dismantling site. an automatic surface contamination measuring equipment was developed in order to get the sample automatically and measure the radiation/radioactivity

  10. Decommissioning project feedback experience in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, S.; Tachibana, M.; Miyajima, K.

    2003-01-01

    Since starting the research and development program for peaceful use of nuclear energy in 1950's, various research and demonstration facilities have been constructed in research organizations, universities and commercial sectors in Japan. Some of the nuclear facilities constructed in the early stage of research and development have been retired to be decommissioned because of completion of the initial objectives in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). On the other hand, since the first commercial operation of nuclear power plant (1968), the number of nuclear power plants has increased up to 52 plants operating as of August 2003 in Japan. The shear of nuclear energy accounts approximately for 35% of electricity generation in total at present time. However, several nuclear power plants have been operated for more than 25 years and two nuclear power plants are expected to be finally shutdown by 2010 to be eventually decommissioned. The Tokai Power Station, the oldest Japanese nuclear power plant operated by the Japan Atomic Power Company, was permanently shutdown from March 1998 and it is in decommissioning stage at this time. The Fugen, which is advanced thermal reactor operated by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), was finally shutdown on March, 2003 after 25 years operation to be decommissioned. In addition, relating to planned unification between JAERI and JNC in 2005, the studies have been in progress on decommissioning and radioactive waste treatment and disposal; the cost was estimated to be 10 to 30 billion Japanese yens per year during 80 years for decommissioning of nearly 200 nuclear facilities. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities is thus getting to be one of important issues in Japan. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities might be possible using conventional and/or partially improved technology. However, reviewing project feedback experience on decommissioning and decontamination might contribute to solve various issues

  11. Decommissioning of DR 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strufe, N.

    2009-02-15

    This report describes the work of dismantling and demolishing reactor DR 2, the waste volumes generated, the health physical conditions and the clearance procedures used for removed elements and waste. Since the ultimate goal for the decommissioning project was not clearance of the building, but downgrading the radiological classification of the building with a view to converting it to further nuclear use, this report documents how the lower classification was achieved and the known occurrence of remaining activity. The report emphasises some of the deliberations made and describes the lessons learned through this decommissioning project. The report also intends to contribute towards the technical basis and experience basis for further decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in Denmark. (au)

  12. Decommissioning and decontrolling the R1-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, C.; Holmberg, B.T.

    1985-01-01

    Sweden's first nuclear reactor - the research reactor R1 - situated in bedrock under the Royal Technical Institute of Stockholm, has in the period 1981-1983 been subject to a complete decommissioning. The National Institute for Radiation Protection has followed the work in detail, and has after the completion of the decommissioning performed measurements of radioactivity on site. The report gives an account of the work the Institute has done in preparation for- and during decommissioning and specifically report on the measurements for classification of the local as free for non-nuclear use. (aa)

  13. Initial decommissioning planning for the Budapest research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Gabor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Budapest Research Reactor is the first nuclear research facility in Hungary. The reactor is to remain in operation for at least another 13 years. At the same time, the development of a decommissioning plan is a mandatory requirement under national legislation. The present paper describes the current status of decommissioning planning which is aimed at a timely preparation for the forthcoming decommissioning of the reactor.

  14. Decommissioning of nuclear installations - regulations - financing - responsibility - insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, E.H.; Andersson, C.; Deprimoz, J.; Mayoux, J.C.; Richard, M.; Sartorelli, C.; Nocera, F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper highlights three aspects of decommissioning of nuclear installations which relate, more or less directly, to legal options already applied or advocated. It reviews the regulatory conditions for decommissioning a nuclear installation and indicates legal provisions for financing decommissioning expenditures. It also describes the legal provisions to determine liabilities in case of nuclear damage and the assistance which insurers may provide to cover the consequences of such liabilities. (NEA) [fr

  15. Vinca nuclear decommissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Subotic, K.; Sotic, O.; Plecas, I.; Ljubenov, V.; Peric, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a preliminary program for the nuclear decommissioning in The Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences is presented. Proposed Projects and Activities, planned to be done in the next 10 years within the frames of the Program, should improve nuclear and radiation safety and should solve the main problems that have arisen in the previous period. Project of removal of irradiated spent nuclear fuel from the RA reactor, as a first step in all possible decommissioning strategies and the main activity in the first two-three years of the Program realization, is considered in more details. (author)

  16. Inherited predisposition to preeclampsia: Analysis of the Aberdeen intergenerational cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayorinde, Abimbola A; Bhattacharya, Sohinee

    2017-04-01

    To assess the magnitude of familial risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in women born of a preeclamptic pregnancy and those born of pregnancy complicated by gestational hypertension while accounting for other risk factors. An intergenerational dataset was extracted from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank (AMND) which records all pregnancy and delivery details occurring in Aberdeen, Scotland since 1950. The analysis included all nulliparous women whose mothers' records at their births are also recorded in the AMND. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the risk of having preeclampsia or gestational hypertension based on maternal history of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. There were 17302 nulliparous women included, of whom 1057(6.1%) had preeclampsia while 4098(23.7%) had gestational hypertension. Furthermore, 424(2.5%) and 2940(17.0%) had maternal history of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension respectively. The risk of preeclampsia was higher in women who were born of pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (adjusted RRR 2.55 95% CI 1.87-3.47). This was higher than the risk observed in women whose mothers had gestational hypertension (adjusted RRR 1.44 95% CI 1.23-1.69). Conversely, the risk of gestational hypertension was similar in those who were born of preeclamptic pregnancies (adjusted RRR 1.37 95% CI 1.09-1.71) and those whose mothers had gestational hypertension (adjusted RRR 1.36 95% CI 1.24-1.49). There was a dose response effect in the inheritance pattern of preeclampsia with the highest risk in women born of preeclamptic pregnancies. Gestational hypertension showed similar increased risk with maternal gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analytical methodology for optimization of waste management scenarios in nuclear installation decommissioning process - 16148

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachar, Matej; Necas, Vladimir; Daniska, Vladimir; Rehak, Ivan; Vasko, Marek

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear installation decommissioning process is characterized by production of large amount of various radioactive and non-radioactive waste that has to be managed, taking into account its physical, chemical, toxic and radiological properties. Waste management is considered to be one of the key issues within the frame of the decommissioning process. During the decommissioning planning period, the scenarios covering possible routes of materials release into the environment and radioactive waste disposal, should be discussed and evaluated. Unconditional and conditional release to the environment, long-term storage at the nuclear site, near surface or deep geological disposal and relevant material management techniques for achieving the final status should be taken into account in the analysed scenarios. At the level of the final decommissioning plan, it is desirable to have the waste management scenario optimized for local specific facility conditions taking into account a national decommissioning background. The analytical methodology for the evaluation of decommissioning waste management scenarios, presented in the paper, is based on the materials and radioactivity flow modelling, which starts from waste generation activities like pre-dismantling decontamination, selected methods of dismantling, waste treatment and conditioning, up to materials release or conditioned radioactive waste disposal. The necessary input data for scenarios, e.g. nuclear installation inventory database (physical and radiological data), waste processing technologies parameters or material release and waste disposal limits, have to be considered. The analytical methodology principles are implemented into the standardised decommissioning parameters calculation code OMEGA, developed in the DECOM company. In the paper the examples of the methodology implementation for the scenarios optimization are presented and discussed. (authors)

  18. Facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, E.B. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    Information on design features, special equipment, and construction methods useful in the facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors is presented. A wide range of facilitation methods - from improved documentation to special decommissioning tools and techniques - is discussed. In addition, estimates of capital costs, cost savings, and radiation dose reduction associated with these facilitation methods are given

  19. EPRI nuclear power plant decommissioning technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Karen S.; Bushart, Sean P.; Naughton, Michael; McGrath, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is a non-profit research organization that supports the energy industry. The Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning Technology Program conducts research and develops technology for the safe and efficient decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  20. Current status of decommissioning projects and their strategies in advanced countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B

    2007-06-15

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The number of nuclear facilities to be dismantled will be much increased in future and the decommissioning industries will be enlarged. Keeping pace with this increasing tendency, each country formulated their own strategies and regulation systems, and applied their own technologies. The international organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD/NEA also prepared standards in technologies and regulation upon decommissioning and recommended to adopt them to the decommissioning projects. These strategies and technologies are very different country by country due to the different site dependent conditions and it will not be reasonable to evaluate their merits and weakness. The world wide status of the decommissioning, highlighted on that of 5 countries of USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan because they are advanced counties in nuclear industries, are summarized and their site specific conditions are evaluated. The scopes of the evaluation are decommissioning strategies, licensing procedures and requirements focused on decommissioning plan, waste management, technology development and so on. The detailed decommissioning progresses of several typical example sites were introduced. The activities on decommissioning field of the international organization, increased according to the enlarged decommissioning industries, are also summarized.

  1. Current status of decommissioning projects and their strategies in advanced countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, U. S.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B.

    2007-06-01

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The number of nuclear facilities to be dismantled will be much increased in future and the decommissioning industries will be enlarged. Keeping pace with this increasing tendency, each country formulated their own strategies and regulation systems, and applied their own technologies. The international organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD/NEA also prepared standards in technologies and regulation upon decommissioning and recommended to adopt them to the decommissioning projects. These strategies and technologies are very different country by country due to the different site dependent conditions and it will not be reasonable to evaluate their merits and weakness. The world wide status of the decommissioning, highlighted on that of 5 countries of USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan because they are advanced counties in nuclear industries, are summarized and their site specific conditions are evaluated. The scopes of the evaluation are decommissioning strategies, licensing procedures and requirements focused on decommissioning plan, waste management, technology development and so on. The detailed decommissioning progresses of several typical example sites were introduced. The activities on decommissioning field of the international organization, increased according to the enlarged decommissioning industries, are also summarized

  2. Decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, D.R.; England, M.R.; Ward, A.; Green, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers the fuel removal, transportation and subsequent decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I Reactor at Billingham, UK. BNFL Waste Management and Decommissioning carried out this work on behalf of ICI. The decommissioning methodology was considered in the four stages to be described, namely Preparatory Works, Reactor Defueling, Intermediate Level Waste Removal and Low Level Waste Removal. This paper describes the principal methodologies involved in the defueling of the reactor and subsequent decommissioning operations, highlighting in particular the design and safety case methodologies used in order to achieve a solution which was completed without incident or accident and resulted in a cumulative radiation dose to personnel of only 1.57 mSv. (author)

  3. Decommissioning a nuclear power plant: the tax effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foyt, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    The tax treatment of decommissioning costs is as important a consideration as construction costs. The principles also apply to offshore operations and pipeline systems having a negative salvage value. Estimates place the cost at somewhere between 15 and 100% of construction costs, depending on how the decommissioning is done. It is essential to find an accurate way to project decommissioning costs and to decide how they should be reported for tax purposes. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) does not plan to apply Section 167, which deals with negative net salvage. Utility customers will ultimately provide the funds, but current IRS rulings count these funds as ordinary income and do not allow matching the additional revenue with decommissioning expenses

  4. Decommissioning in the United States - Past, present and future - 16318

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, Jas S.

    2009-01-01

    The experience related to decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the United States is very substantial and covers power reactors, research reactors, and many facilities in the Department of Energy complex. The focus of this paper however is on the commercial power plants. With 104 operating reactors, the U.S. fleet of civilian reactors is still the largest in the world. Nuclear power industry in the United States has undergone a dramatic upturn after decades of stalemate. One effect of this nuclear renaissance has been that the plans have changed for several reactors that were initially destined for decommissioning. Instead, the focus now is on re-licensing of the reactors and on power up-rates. In fact, after the peak period between 1987 and 1998, no additional power reactors have been shutdown. On the contrary, power up-rates in the past twenty years have added a cumulative capacity equivalent to five new reactors. Almost all the operating reactors plan to have license extensions, thus postponing the eventual decommissioning. Nevertheless, in addition to the 9 reactors where licenses have been terminated following decommissioning, 12 power and early demonstration reactors and 14 test and research reactors are permanently shutdown and are in decommissioning phase. Substantial experience and lessons learned are available from the U.S. projects that are of value to the international decommissioning projects, especially where such projects are in early stages. These lessons cover a wide array of areas from decommissioning plans, technology applications, large component removal, regulatory and public interface, decommissioning funding and costs, clean up criteria, surveys of the decommissioned site, and license termination. Additionally, because of the unavailability of a national spent fuel disposition facility, most decommissioning sites are constructing above ground interim storage facilities for the spent nuclear fuel. The U.S. nuclear power projects are also

  5. Decommissioning of Salaspils nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenkovs, A.; Malnachs, J.; Popelis, A.

    2002-01-01

    In May 1995, the Latvian Government decided to shut down the Research Reactor Salaspils (SRR) and to dispense with nuclear energy in future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study for the decommissioning of SRR has been carried out by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH from 1998-1999. he Latvian Government decided on 26 October 1999 to start the direct dismantling to 'green field' in 2001. The results of decommissioning and dismantling performed in 1999-2001 are presented and discussed. The main efforts were devoted to collecting and conditioning 'historical' radioactive waste from different storages outside and inside the reactor hall. All radioactive material more than 20 tons were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in the radioactive waste depository 'Radons' in the Baldone site. Personal protective and radiation measurement equipment was upgraded significantly. All non-radioactive equipment and material outside the reactor buildings were free-released and dismantled for reuse or conventional disposal. Weakly contaminated material from the reactor hall was collected and removed for free-release measurements. The technology of dismantling of the reactor's systems, i.e. second cooling circuit, zero power reactors and equipment, is discussed in the paper. (author)

  6. Blending of Low-Level Radioactive Waste for NPP Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, David S.; Kim, Chang Lak

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive wastes may are generated throughout the life cycle of a nuclear power plant. These wastes can be categorized as follows: Operational wastes in the form of solids, liquids and gases. Plant components resulting from maintenance, modification or life extension work (e.g. steam generators, pumps, valves, control rods, spent filters, etc.). Materials from the structure of the plant and equipment (e.g. metals and concrete that result in large quantities of waste upon decommissioning Large quantities of materials will be generated during decommissioning and dismantling. A significant proportion of these materials will only be slightly contaminated with radioactivity. Due to economies of scale, recycling and reuse options are more likely to be cost effective for such large quantities of materials than for the relatively smaller quantities arising during operation. These materials also present opportunities to manage waste more effectively by utilizing the approaches to blending discussed in this paper. The NRC uses allows blending based on risk and performance measures for public health and safety. Performance-based regulation means that the blended waste must meet the limits on radiation exposures at the disposal facility and limits on how much the radioactivity concentration may vary or in other words, how homogeneous and well mixed it is. LLW blending is an approach to waste management that can give greater flexibility for disposal options for NPP waste from the entire life cycle of the plant which includes operational wastes such as ion exchange resins and filters, maintenance wastes which include replacement components (discrete items), and large quantities of decommissioning wastes

  7. Blending of Low-Level Radioactive Waste for NPP Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, David S.; Kim, Chang Lak [KEPCO, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Radioactive wastes may are generated throughout the life cycle of a nuclear power plant. These wastes can be categorized as follows: Operational wastes in the form of solids, liquids and gases. Plant components resulting from maintenance, modification or life extension work (e.g. steam generators, pumps, valves, control rods, spent filters, etc.). Materials from the structure of the plant and equipment (e.g. metals and concrete that result in large quantities of waste upon decommissioning Large quantities of materials will be generated during decommissioning and dismantling. A significant proportion of these materials will only be slightly contaminated with radioactivity. Due to economies of scale, recycling and reuse options are more likely to be cost effective for such large quantities of materials than for the relatively smaller quantities arising during operation. These materials also present opportunities to manage waste more effectively by utilizing the approaches to blending discussed in this paper. The NRC uses allows blending based on risk and performance measures for public health and safety. Performance-based regulation means that the blended waste must meet the limits on radiation exposures at the disposal facility and limits on how much the radioactivity concentration may vary or in other words, how homogeneous and well mixed it is. LLW blending is an approach to waste management that can give greater flexibility for disposal options for NPP waste from the entire life cycle of the plant which includes operational wastes such as ion exchange resins and filters, maintenance wastes which include replacement components (discrete items), and large quantities of decommissioning wastes.

  8. A decontamination technique for decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heki, H.; Hosaka, K.; Kuribayashi, N.; Ishikura, T.

    1993-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive metallic waste is generated from decommissioned commercial nuclear reactors. It is necessary from the point of environmental protection and resource utilization to decontaminate the contaminated metallic waste. A decommissioning waste processing system has been previously proposed considering such decommissioning waste characteristics as its large quantity, large radioactivity range, and various shapes and materials. The decontamination process in this system was carried out by abrasive blasting as pretreatment, electrochemical decontamination as the main process, and ultrasonic cleaning in water as post-treatment. For electrochemical decontamination, electrolytic decontamination for simple shaped waste and REDOX decontamination for complicated shaped waste were used as effective decontamination processing. This time, various kinds of actual radioactive contaminated samples were taken from operating power plants to simulate the decontamination of decommissioning waste. After analyzing the composition, morphogenesis and surface observation, electrolytic decontamination, REDOX decontamination, and ultrasonic cleaning experiments were carried out by using these samples. As a result, all the samples were decontaminated below the assumed exemption level(=4 x 10 -2 Bq/g). A maximum decontamination factor of over 104 was obtained by both electrolytic and REDOX decontamination. The stainless steel sample was easy to decontaminate in both electrochemical decontaminations because of its thin oxidized layer. The ultrasonic cleaning process after electrochemical decontamination worked effectively for removing adhesive sludge and the contaminated liquid. It has been concluded from the results mentioned above that electrolytic decontamination and REDOX decontamination are effective decontamination process for decontaminating decommissioning waste

  9. Decommissioning co-operation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Under the provisions of the Euratom treaty, member states of the European Community have since 1978 been conducting successive five-year R and D programmes in the field of decommissioning on the basis of cost-sharing contracts. The main objective of the programmes is to establish safe, socially acceptable and economic decommissioning strategies for obsolete nuclear plant. The programmes share the common aim of all Euratom activities in promoting cooperation, scientific exchange and industrial competition within the Community. (author)

  10. Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models and medical education at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Margaret Maria

    2011-09-01

    In the 1860s, Dr. Louis Thomas Jérôme Auzoux introduced a set of papier-mâché teaching models intended for use in the botanical classroom. These botanical models quickly made their way into the educational curricula of institutions around the world. Within these institutions, Auzoux's models were principally used to fulfil educational goals, but their incorporation into diverse curricula also suggests they were used to implement agendas beyond botanical instruction. This essay examines the various uses and meanings of Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen in the nineteenth century. The two main conclusions of this analysis are: (1) investing in prestigious scientific collections was a way for these universities to attract fee-paying students so that better medical accommodation could be provided and (2) models were used to transmit different kinds of botanical knowledge at both universities. The style of botany at the University of Glasgow was offensive and the department there actively embraced and incorporated ideas of the emerging new botany. At Aberdeen, the style of botany was defensive and there was some hesitancy when confronting new botanical ideas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. BCD: a wiki-based decommissioning knowledge management tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, V.; Coudouneau, L.; Goursaud, V.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge management allows decommissioning stakeholders to take advantage of past experience (in terms of efficiency, quality, safety, cost, etc.), avoid repeating previous errors, and identify good ideas and practices. It is usually broken down into three processes: collecting information, supplementing and enriching it, and making it available to all decommissioning stakeholders. The CEA has been collecting and centralizing data for many years: the first qualitative assessment of operational experience began in 1991. However, the documents collected were not always relevant for this assessment and, for lack of enrichment and distribution, were generally not used to a significant extent. In order to take advantage of the existing and future body of knowledge and to share this knowledge among decommissioning stakeholders, the CEA decommissioning review unit decided to develop an intranet site known as BCD (from the French acronym for Central Decommissioning Database) using the same wiki technology as the collaborative web encyclopedia, Wikipedia. The objective of BCD is to develop a decommissioning encyclopedia comprising definitions and terminology, the regulatory framework, the lessons of experience with technical or contractual projects, guidelines, statements of results, etc. This article describes BCD and its potential, together with the results observed to date and its prospects for future development. (authors)

  12. Regulations and financing for decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Osamu

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to survey the French legislation concerning the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the method of financing for it. There is no clause in French regulations, which states any specific criterion or licensing procedure for the proper decommissioning. The legal problems in this domain are treated within the general regulation system on atomic energy. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is carried out in accordance with the licensing procedure for constructing nuclear facilities or the permission procedure for operating them, according to the ''Decree on nuclear installations, 1963''. The works for the final shut-down and decommissioning are regarded as the modification to the safety report or the general operation instructions, and new permit is required. In the case that the radioactivity of substances after decommissioning is above the criteria of the Decree, 1963, the new license is required. In the case of below the criteria, the facilities are governed by the ''Act on installations classified for environmental protection, 1976''. The ''Decree on general radiation protection, 1966'', the ''Decree on radiation protection of workers in nuclear installations, 1975'', the ''Ministerial order on transport of dangerous materials, 1945'', and two ministerial orders on radioactive effluent discharge, 1974, are applied to the decommissioning works. (Kako, I.)

  13. Cost Estimation for Research Reactor Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The purpose of this publication is to develop a costing methodology and a software tool in order to support cost estimation for research reactor decommissioning. The costing methodology is intended for the preliminary cost estimation stages for research reactor decommissioning with limited inventory data and other input data available. Existing experience in decommissioning costing is considered. As the basis for the cost calculation structure, the costing model uses the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) that is recommended by the IAEA, the Organisation for

  14. The French decommissioning program: a stakeholder point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatry, Jean-Paul; Grenouillet, Jean-Jacques

    2006-01-01

    In January 2001, EDF owner of 56 plants in operation and 9 plants in decommissioning stage decided to accelerate the decommissioning of its first nine nuclear generation units in order to achieve final decommissioning in 25 years' time. An engineering center dedicated to decommissioning, radwaste management and environment was set up to implement this strategy. Four years after its creation, the first lessons learned in the fields of organization, project and program management can now be described. During the 4 years that have elapsed since the creation of CIDEN in 2001 to implement EDF's new decommissioning strategy, its organization has constantly improved to ensure success of its decommissioning projects. The aim has been to build an efficient organization with clearly defined roles for the key players. Simultaneously, the Program Management activities have received increasing consideration and specific mechanisms have been implemented to bring financing and licensing flexibility to the program. The continuous improvement of its organization and the development of new project or program management methodologies is a constant preoccupation of EDF. Its aim is to successfully implement its decommissioning strategy, one of the key issues for guaranteeing the future of a safe economic and environment friendly nuclear energy in France

  15. FAMS DECOMMISSIONING END-STATE ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, B; Stephen Chostner, S; Brenda Green, B

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Material Management (NMM) completed a comprehensive study at the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR) in 2004 (Reference 11.1). The study evaluated the feasibility of removal and/or mitigation of the Pu-238 source term in the F-Area Material Storage (FAMS) facility during on-going material storage operations. The study recommended different options to remove and/or mitigate the Pu-238 source term depending on its location within the facility. During April 2005, the Department of Energy (DOE) sent a letter of direction (LOD) to Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) directing WSRC to implement a new program direction that would enable an accelerated shutdown and decommissioning of FAMS (Reference 11.2). Further direction in the LOD stated that effective December 1, 2006 the facility will be transitioned to begin deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) activities. To implement the LOD, Site D and D (SDD) and DOE agreed the planning end-state would be demolition of the FAMS structure to the building slab. SDD developed the D and D strategy, preliminary cost and schedule, and issued the deactivation project plan in December 2005 (Reference 11.3). Due to concerns and questions regarding the FAMS planning end-state and in support of the project's Critical Decision 1, an alternative study was performed to evaluate the various decommissioning end-states and the methods by which those end-states are achieved. This report documents the results of the alternative evaluation which was performed in a structured decision-making process as outlined in the E7 Manual, Procedure 2.15, ''Alternative Studies'' (Reference 11.4)

  16. Criteria development methodology for DOE decommissioning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Radiological Guide for DOE Decommissioning Operations provides a uniform basis for assessing hazard inventories, making risk analyses, performing site characterizations, and certifying decommissioning operations. While initially addressed to radioactive contaminants, in all likelihood it will be extended to include other contaminants

  17. The cost of decommissioning uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lush, D.L.; Lendrum, C.; Hostovsky, C.; Eedy, W.; Ashbrook, A.

    1986-04-01

    This report identifies several key operations that are commonly carried out during decommissioning of tailings areas in the Canadian environment. These operations are unit costed for a generic site to provide a base reference case. The unit costs have also been scaled to the quantities required for the decommissioning of four Canadian sites and these scaled quantities compared with site-specific engineering cost estimates and actual costs incurred in carrying out the decommissioning activities. Variances in costing are discussed. The report also recommends a generic monitoring regime upon which both short- and longer-term environmental monitoring costs are calculated. Although every site must be addressed as a site-specific case, and monitoring programs must be tailored to fit a specific site, it would appear that for the conventional decommissioning and monitoring practices that have been employed to date, costs can be reasonably estimated when site-specific conditions are taken into account

  18. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-01-01

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted

  19. Brazilian nuclear power plants decommissioning plan for a multiple reactor site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Deiglys B.; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Maiorino, Jose R., E-mail: deiglys.monteiro@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joserubens.maiorino@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Aplicadas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia e Engenharia da Energia

    2015-07-01

    Actually, Brazil has two operating Nuclear Power Plants and a third one under construction, all at Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA. To comply with regulatory aspects the power plants operator, Eletronuclear, must present to Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Agency, CNEN, a decommissioning plan. Brazilian experience with decommissioning is limited because none of any nuclear reactor at the country was decommissioned. In literature, decommissioning process is well described despite few nuclear power reactors have been decommissioned around the world. Some different approach is desirable for multiple reactors sites, case of CNAAA site. During the decommissioning, a great amount of wastes will be produced and have to be properly managed. Particularly, the construction of Auxiliary Services on the site could be a good choice due to the possibility of reducing costs. The present work intends to present to the Eletronuclear some aspects of the decommissioning concept and decommissioning management, storage and disposal de wastes, based on the available literature, regulatory standards of CNEN and international experience as well as to suggest some solutions to be implemented at CNAAA site before starts the decommissioning project in order to maximize the benefits. (author)

  20. Brazilian nuclear power plants decommissioning plan for a multiple reactor site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Deiglys B.; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Maiorino, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Actually, Brazil has two operating Nuclear Power Plants and a third one under construction, all at Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA. To comply with regulatory aspects the power plants operator, Eletronuclear, must present to Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Agency, CNEN, a decommissioning plan. Brazilian experience with decommissioning is limited because none of any nuclear reactor at the country was decommissioned. In literature, decommissioning process is well described despite few nuclear power reactors have been decommissioned around the world. Some different approach is desirable for multiple reactors sites, case of CNAAA site. During the decommissioning, a great amount of wastes will be produced and have to be properly managed. Particularly, the construction of Auxiliary Services on the site could be a good choice due to the possibility of reducing costs. The present work intends to present to the Eletronuclear some aspects of the decommissioning concept and decommissioning management, storage and disposal de wastes, based on the available literature, regulatory standards of CNEN and international experience as well as to suggest some solutions to be implemented at CNAAA site before starts the decommissioning project in order to maximize the benefits. (author)

  1. Safety Oversight of Decommissioning Activities at DOE Nuclear Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zull, Lawrence M.; Yeniscavich, William

    2008-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) is an independent federal agency established by Congress in 1988 to provide nuclear safety oversight of activities at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facilities. The activities under the Board's jurisdiction include the design, construction, startup, operation, and decommissioning of defense nuclear facilities at DOE sites. This paper reviews the Board's safety oversight of decommissioning activities at DOE sites, identifies the safety problems observed, and discusses Board initiatives to improve the safety of decommissioning activities at DOE sites. The decommissioning of former defense nuclear facilities has reduced the risk of radioactive material contamination and exposure to the public and site workers. In general, efforts to perform decommissioning work at DOE defense nuclear sites have been successful, and contractors performing decommissioning work have a good safety record. Decommissioning activities have recently been completed at sites identified for closure, including the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, the Fernald Closure Project, and the Miamisburg Closure Project (the Mound site). The Rocky Flats and Fernald sites, which produced plutonium parts and uranium materials for defense needs (respectively), have been turned into wildlife refuges. The Mound site, which performed R and D activities on nuclear materials, has been converted into an industrial and technology park called the Mound Advanced Technology Center. The DOE Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long term stewardship of these former EM sites. The Board has reviewed many decommissioning activities, and noted that there are valuable lessons learned that can benefit both DOE and the contractor. As part of its ongoing safety oversight responsibilities, the Board and its staff will continue to review the safety of DOE and contractor decommissioning activities at DOE defense nuclear sites

  2. When a plant shuts down: The psychology of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.; Crawford, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    Within the next decade, 10 to 25 nuclear plants in the United States may be taken off line. Many will have reached the end of their 40-year life cycles, but others will be retired because the cost of operating them has begun to outweigh their economic benefit. Such was the case at Fort St. Vrain, the first decommissioning of a US commercial plant under new Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Two major problems associated with decommissioning plants have been obvious: (1) the technical challenges and costs of decommissioning, and (2) the cost of maintaining and finally decommissioning a plant after a safe storage (SAFSTOR) period of approximately 60 years. What has received little attention is the challenge that affects not only the people who make a plant work, but the quality of the solutions to these problems: how to maintain effective organizational performance during the process of downsizing and decommissioning and/or SAFSTOR. The quality of technical solutions for closing a plant, as well as how successfully the decommissioning process is held within or below budget, will depend largely on how effectively the nuclear organization functions as a social unit. Technical and people issues are bound together. The difficulty is how to operate a plant effectively when plant personnel have no sense of long-term security. As the nuclear power industry matures and the pace for closing operating plants accelerates, the time has come to prepare for the widespread decommissioning of plants. The industry would be well served by conducting a selective, industry-wide evaluation of plants to assess its overall readiness for the decommissioning process. A decommissioning is not likely to be trouble free, but with a healthy appreciation for the human side of the process, it will undoubtedly go more smoothly than if approached as a matter of dismantling a machine

  3. Waste from decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, P.O.

    1992-05-01

    This report is based on the assumption that all twelve nuclear power plants will be shut down no later than A.D. 2010, as was decided by the parliament after the referendum on the future of nuclear power in Sweden. The recent 'Party agreement on the energy policy' of January 15, 1991 does, indeed, leave the door open for an extension of the operational period for the nuclear reactors. This will, however, not change the recommendations and conclusions drawn in this report. The report consists of two parts. Part 1 discusses classification of waste from decommissioning and makes comparisons with the waste arising from reactor operation. Part 2 discusses the documentation required for decommissioning waste. Also this part of the report draws parallels with the documentation required by the authorities for the radioactive waste arising from operation of the nuclear power plants. To some extent these subjects depend on the future use of the nuclear power plant sites after decommissioning of the plants. The options for future site use are briefly discussed in an appendix to the report. There are many similarities between the waste from reactor operations and the waste arising from dismantling and removal of decommissioned nuclear power plants. Hence it seems natural to apply the same criteria and recommendations to decommissioning waste as those presently applicable to reactor waste. This is certainly true also with respect to documentation, and it is strongly recommended that the documentation requirements on decommissioning waste are made identical, or at least similar, to the documentation requirements for reactor waste in force today. (au)

  4. Options for Steam Generator Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Gregor; Amcoff, Bjoern; Robinson, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Selecting the best option for decommissioning steam generators is a key consideration in preparing for decommissioning PWR nuclear power plants. Steam Generators represent a discrete waste stream of large, complex items that can lend themselves to a variety of options for handling, treatment, recycling and disposal. Studsvik has significant experience in processing full size Steam Generators at its metal recycling facility in Sweden, and this paper will introduce the Studsvik steam generator treatment concept and the results achieved to date across a number of projects. The paper will outline the important parameters needed at an early stage to assess options and to help consider the balance between off-site and on-site treatment solutions, and the role of prior decontamination techniques. The paper also outlines the use of feasibility studies and demonstration projects that have been used to help customers prepare for decommissioning. The paper discusses physical, radiological and operational history data, Pro and Contra factors for on- and off-site treatment, the role of chemical decontamination prior to treatment, planning for off-site shipments as well as Studsvik experience This paper has an original focus upon the coming challenges of steam generator decommissioning and potential external treatment capacity constraints in the medium term. It also focuses on the potential during operations or initial shut-down to develop robust plans for steam generator management. (authors)

  5. Review of decommissioning, spent fuel and radwaste management in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamrich, J.

    2000-01-01

    Two nuclear power plants with two WWER reactors are currently under operation in Jaslovske Bohunice and NPP A-1 is under decommissioning on the same site. At the second nuclear site in the Slovak Republic in Mochovce third nuclear power plant with two units is in operation. In accordance with the basic Slovak legislation (Act on Peaceful Utilisation of Nuclear Energy) defining the responsibilities, roles and authorities for all organisations involved in the decommissioning of nuclear installations Nuclear Regulatory Authority requires submission of conceptual decommissioning plans by the licensee. The term 'decommissioning' is used to describe the set of actions to be taken at the end of the useful life of a facility, in order to retire the facility from service while, simultaneously, ensuring proper protection of the workers, the general public and the environment. This set of activities is in principle comprised of planning and organisation of decommissioning inclusive strategy development, post-operational activities, implementation of decommissioning (physical and radiological characterisation, decontamination, dismantling and demolition, waste and spent fuel management), radiological, aspects, completion of decommissioning as well as ensuring of funding for these activities. Responsibility for nuclear installations decommissioning, radwaste and spent fuel, management in Slovakia is with a subsidiary of Slovak Electric called Nuclear Installations Decommissioning Radwaste and Spent Fuel Management (acronym SE VYZ), established on January 1, 1996. This paper provides description of an approach to planning of the NPP A-1 and NPPs with WWER reactors decommissioning, realisation of treatment, conditioning and disposal of radwaste, as well as spent fuel management in Slovakia. It takes into account that detail papers on all these issues will follow later during this meeting. (author)

  6. Interim Storage Facility decommissioning. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Speed, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of the Interim Storage Facility were completed. Activities included performing a detailed radiation survey of the facility, removing surface and imbedded contamination, excavating and removing the fuel storage cells, restoring the site to natural conditions, and shipping waste to Hanford, Washington, for burial. The project was accomplished on schedule and 30% under budget with no measurable exposure to decommissioning personnel

  7. Project gnome decontamination and decommissioning plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The document presents the operational plan for conducting the final decontamination and decommissioning work at the site of the first U.S. nuclear detonation designed specifically for peaceful purposes and the first underground event on the Plowshare Program to take place outside the Nevada Test Site. The plan includes decontamination and decommissioning procedures, radiological guidelines, and the NV concept of operations

  8. Industrial safety in a nuclear decommissioning environment observations and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevig, D.

    2008-01-01

    Decommissioning activities present unusual and unexpected workplace safety challenges that go far beyond the traditional experience of nuclear power plant managers. A blend of state-of-the-art safety program management tools along with new and practical applications are required to ensure high industrial safety performance. The demanding and rigorously applied nuclear safety engineering standards that are accepted as normal and routine in the operation of a nuclear power facility, should transform as an industrial safety standard during the non-operating period of decommissioning. In addition, historical measures of non-nuclear industrial safety injury rates would or should not be acceptable safety behaviors during a nuclear decommissioning project. When complex projects, such as the decommissioning of a nuclear generating facility are undertaken, the workforce brings experience, qualifications, and assumptions to the project. The overall multi-year general schedule is developed, with more schedule details, for example, for the nearest rolling 12-18 months. Methods are established for the selection of contractors to assist in areas that are not normal tasks for the facility workforce, whose normal activity is managing and operating a nuclear generating station. However, it is critical to manage those contractors to the agreed work scope to ensure success is maintained by both parties, e.g. the job gets done, on schedule, on budget, all parties are financially whole when the work is complete, and safely. The purpose of this paper is to provide a perspective of nuclear plant personal safety in the ever changing industrial environment created by the demolition of robust and often radiologically contaminated structures in a nuclear facility decommissioning project. (author)

  9. Industrial safety in a nuclear decommissioning environment observations and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevig, D. [Independent Consultant, San Clemente (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Decommissioning activities present unusual and unexpected workplace safety challenges that go far beyond the traditional experience of nuclear power plant managers. A blend of state-of-the-art safety program management tools along with new and practical applications are required to ensure high industrial safety performance. The demanding and rigorously applied nuclear safety engineering standards that are accepted as normal and routine in the operation of a nuclear power facility, should transform as an industrial safety standard during the non-operating period of decommissioning. In addition, historical measures of non-nuclear industrial safety injury rates would or should not be acceptable safety behaviors during a nuclear decommissioning project. When complex projects, such as the decommissioning of a nuclear generating facility are undertaken, the workforce brings experience, qualifications, and assumptions to the project. The overall multi-year general schedule is developed, with more schedule details, for example, for the nearest rolling 12-18 months. Methods are established for the selection of contractors to assist in areas that are not normal tasks for the facility workforce, whose normal activity is managing and operating a nuclear generating station. However, it is critical to manage those contractors to the agreed work scope to ensure success is maintained by both parties, e.g. the job gets done, on schedule, on budget, all parties are financially whole when the work is complete, and safely. The purpose of this paper is to provide a perspective of nuclear plant personal safety in the ever changing industrial environment created by the demolition of robust and often radiologically contaminated structures in a nuclear facility decommissioning project. (author)

  10. Mound's decommissioning experience, tooling, and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, A.B.; Davis, W.P.; Elswick, T.C.; Garner, J.M.; Geichman, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC), which operates Mound for the Department of Energy (DOE), has been decommissioning radioactively contaminated facilities since 1949. We are currently decommissioning three plutonium-238 contaminated facilities (approximately 50,000 ft 2 ) that contained 1100 linear ft of gloveboxes; 900 linear ft of conveyor housing; 2650 linear ft of dual underground liquid waste lines; and associated contaminated piping, services, equipment, structures, and soil. As of June 1982, over 29,000 Ci of plutonium-238 have been removed in waste and scrap residues. As a result of the current and previous decommissioning projects, valuable experience has been gained in tooling and techniques. Special techniques have been developed in planning, exposure control, contamination control, equipment removal, structural decontamination, and waste packaging

  11. Development of decommissioning management system for nuclear fuel cycle facilities (DECMAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichirou; Ishijima, Noboru; Tanimoto, Ken-ichi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-04-01

    In making a plan of decommissioning of nuclear fuel facilities, it is important to optimize the plan on the standpoint of a few viewpoints, that is, the amount of working days, workers, radioactive waste, exposure dose of worker, and cost (they are called evaluation indexes). In the midst of decommissioning, the decommissioning plan would be modified suitably to optimize the evaluation indexes adjusting to progress of the decommissioning. The decommissioning management code (DECMAN), that is support system on computer, has been developed to assist the decommissioning planning. The system calculates the evaluation indexes quantitatively. The system consists of three fundamental codes, facility information database code, technical know-how database code and index evaluation code, they are composed using Oracle' database and 'G2' expert system. The functions of the system are as follows. (1) Facility information database code. Information of decommissioning facility and its rooms, machines and pipes in the code. (2) Technical know-how database code. Technical Information of tools to use in decommissioning work, cutting, dose measure, and decontamination are there. (3) Index evaluation code. User build decommissioning program using above two database codes. The code evaluates five indexes, the amount of working days, workers, radioactive waste, exposure dose of worker, and cost, on planning decommissioning program. Results of calculation are shown in table, chart, and etc. (author)

  12. The Preliminary Decommissioning Plan of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Pham Van; Vien, Luong Ba; Vinh, Le Vinh; Nghiem, Huynh Ton; Tuan, Nguyen Minh; Phuong, Pham Hoai [Nuclear Research Institute, Da Lat (Viet Nam)

    2013-08-15

    Recently, after 25 years of operation, a preliminary decommissioning plan for the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) has been produced but as yet it has not been implemented due to the continued operations of the reactor. However, from the early phases of facility design and construction and during operation, the aspects that facilitate decommissioning process have been considered. This paper outlines the DNRR general description, the organization that manages the facility, the decommissioning strategy and associated project management, and the expected decommissioning activities. The paper also considers associated cost and funding, safety and environmental issues and waste management aspects amongst other considerations associated with decommissioning a nuclear research reactor. (author)

  13. Social effects of decommissioning Trawsfynydd Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, H.

    2001-01-01

    The decision to close Trawsfynydd in 1993 had significant implications for the staff and local community. The site is situated within a National Park and local employment opportunities are limited. The staff and local communities were consulted regarding the issues arising from closure and decommissioning. This consultation influenced the decommissioning strategy for the site, with emphasis placed on the mitigation of the effects of closure. Subsequent studies have shown that the adopted strategies have served to limit the social and economic effects. The experience at Trawsfynydd has proved to be generally applicable at other decommissioning sites. (author)

  14. TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, M.E.; Montoya, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m 3 of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m 3 of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Economical aspect of the decommissioning for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daryoko, M.

    1998-01-01

    The estimated, analysed and founding of the economical aspect at decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) have been studied. The data that have been obtained from literature, then the calculation and analysing have been done base to the future condition. The cost for NPP decommissioning depend on the internal factor such as type, capacity and safe storage time, and the external factor such as policy, manpower and the technology preparation. The successfulness of funding, depend on the rate of inflation, discount rate of interest and the currency fluctuation. For the internal factor, the influence of the type of the reactor (BWR or PWR) to the decommissioning cost is negligible, the big reactor capacity (±1100 MW), and the safe storage between 30 to 100 years are recommended, and for the external factor, specially Indonesia, to meet the future need the ratio of decommissioning cost and capital cost will be lower than in develop countries at the present (10%). The ratio between decommissioning fund and electricity generation cost relatively very low, are more less than 1.79 % for 30 years safe storage, and discount rate of interest 3%, or more less than 0.30 % for safe storage 30 years, and discount rate of interest 6%. (author)

  16. The Impact of Severe Nuclear Accidents on National Decision for Nuclear Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Young A; Hornibrook, Carol; Yim, Man Sung

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers have tried to identify the impact of severe nuclear accidents on a country's or international nuclear energy policy [2-3]. However, there is little research on the influence of nuclear accidents and historical events on a country's decision to permanently shutdown an NPP versus international nuclear decommissioning trends. To demonstrate the correlation between a nuclear severe accident and the impact on world nuclear decommissioning, this research reviewed case studies of individual historical events, such as the St. Lucens, TMI, Chernobyl, Fukushima accidents and the series of events leading up to the collapse of the Soviet Union. For validation of the results of these case studies, a statistical analysis was conducted using the R code. This will be useful in explaining how international and national decommissioning strategies are affected by shutdown reasons, i.e. world historical events. The number of permanently shutdown NPPs was selected as an indicator because any relationship between the number of permanently In conclusion, nuclear severe accidents and historical events have an impact on the number of international NPPs that shutdown permanently and cancelled NPP construction. This directly impacts international nuclear decommissioning policy and nuclear energy policy trends. The number of permanently shutdown NPPs was selected as an indicator because any relationship between the number of permanently

  17. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities: Decontamination, disassembly and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The term 'decommissioning', as used within the nuclear industry, means the actions taken at the end of a facility's useful life to retire the facility from service in a manner that provides adequate protection for the health and safety of the decommissioning workers, the general public, and for the environment. These actions can range from merely closing down the facility and a minimal removal of radioactive material coupled with continuing maintenance and surveillance, to a complete removal of residual radioactivity in excess of levels acceptable for unrestricted use of the facility and its site. This latter condition, unrestricted use, is the ultimate goal of all decommissioning actions at retired nuclear facilities. The purpose of this report is to provide an information base on the considerations important to decommissioning, the methods available for decontamination and disassembly of a nuclear facility, the management of the resulting radioactive wastes, and the areas of decommissioning methodology where improvements might be made. Specific sections are devoted to each of these topics, and conclusions are presented concerning the present status of each topic. A summary of past decommissioning experience in Member States is presented in the Appendix. The report, with its discussions of necessary considerations, available operational methods, and waste management practices, together with supporting references, provides an appreciation of the activities that comprise decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It is anticipated that the information presented in the report should prove useful to persons concerned with the development of plans for the decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities

  18. Assessment of financial expenditure for Rivne NPP power units decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Salij, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The article covers some financial aspects of developing a decommissioning concept for Rivne NPP power units with reactor VVER-440 and VVER-1000. Possible methodological approaches to costs estimate have been analyzed. Preliminary results of cost estimation are presented for two decommissioning options: deferred and immediate dismantling. Principally possible options for accumulating assets have been analyzed to finance measures related to Rivne NPP decommissioning. A mathematical model has been proposed for creating decommissioning financial reserve

  19. Needs for R and D and innovations to address challenges of nuclear facility decommissioning after its normal shutdown versus advanced approaches required for Fukushima Daiichi NPS decommissioning. Needs and emergency technologies for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, G.

    2017-01-01

    Taking into account several attempts to address variety of needs for R and D related to the decommissioning challenges such as: - Characterisation and survey prior to dismantling, - Technologies for dismantling, - Decontamination and on-site remediation, - Material and waste management, - Site characterisation and environmental monitoring. This presentation will give an update of approaches in several countries for R and D to aim at more efficient and effective decommissioning and, above all, to reduce current labour intensive needs to implement this kind of work. The evidence of the particular needs to coordinate efforts both for 'normal decommissioning' and accident cases like Fukushima Daiichi will be offered by demonstrating that, for a large part, that needs might be considered as similar. Some examples of particular interest will be given and it will be emphasized the need to adapt existing and/or new technologies from 'non-nuclear' areas to use them for nuclear decommissioning. The global interest to evaluate and to coordinate R and D efforts will be demonstrated. Consequently there might be a large international interest to increase the consensus where R and D can be better directed. The more comprehensive coordination should support improvement of the overview of future decommissioning needs to implement the decommissioning activities more effectively in terms of time and finance, not compromising safety. (author)

  20. Planning and progress of the WAGR decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boorman, T.

    1988-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, the earliest production reactors, which will be decommissioned first, are of the Magnox type. The Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, is however, sufficiently similar to make it a suitable prototype decommissioning project. The planning and progress so far is described. Special decommissioning equipment, including a remote dismantling machine, has been developed and a waste packaging building built on site. Its function is to enable all intermediate-level and low-level radioactive waste removed from the reactor vault by remote equipment to be packaged remotely into suitable containers. The work done on the WAGR decommissioning has shown that the dismantling of a power-producing reactor is feasible and can be accomplished using existing engineering techniques. (U.K.)

  1. Selecting strategies for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This status report on Selecting Strategies for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities is based on the viewpoints and materials presented at the Tarragona seminar as well as the experience of the WPDD. It identifies, reviews and analyses factors influencing decommissioning strategies and addresses the challenges associated with balancing these factors in the process of strategy selection. It gives recognition to the fact that, in addition to technical characteristics, there are many other factors that influence the selection of a decommissioning strategy and that cannot be quantified, such as policy, regulatory and socio-economic factors and aspects that reach far into the future. Uncertainties associated with such factors are a challenge to those who have to take decisions on a decommissioning strategy. (author)

  2. Assessment methodology applicable to safe decommissioning of Romanian VVR-S research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baniu, O.; Vladescu, G.; Vidican, D.; Penescu, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper contains the results of research activity performed by CITON specialists regarding the assessment methodology intended to be applied to safe decommissioning of the research reactors, developed taking into account specific conditions of the Romanian VVR-S Research Reactor. The Romanian VVR-S Research Reactor is an old reactor (1957) and its Decommissioning Plan is under study. The main topics of paper are as follows: Safety approach of nuclear facilities decommissioning. Applicable safety principles; Main steps of the proposed assessment methodology; Generic content of Decommissioning Plan. Main decommissioning activities. Discussion about the proposed Decommissioning Plan for Romanian Research Reactor; Safety risks which may occur during decommissioning activities. Normal decommissioning operations. Fault conditions. Internal and external hazards; Typical development of a scenario. Features, Events and Processes List. Exposure pathways. Calculation methodology. (author)

  3. Treatment of mine-water from decommissioning uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Quanhui

    2002-01-01

    Treatment methods for mine-water from decommissioning uranium mines are introduced and classified. The suggestions on optimal treatment methods are presented as a matter of experience with decommissioned Chenzhou Uranium Mine

  4. General principles of nuclear safety management related to research reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banciu, Ortenzia; Vladescu, Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    The paper contents the general principles applicable to the decommissioning of research reactors to ensure a proper nuclear safety management, during both decommissioning activities and post decommissioning period. The main objective of decommissioning is to ensure the protection of workers, population and environment against all radiological and non-radiological hazards that could result after a reactor shutdown and dismantling. In the same time, it is necessary, by some proper provisions, to limit the effect of decommissioning for the future generation, according to the new Romanian, IAEA and EU Norms and Regulations. Assurance of nuclear safety during decommissioning process involves, in the first step, to establish of some safety principles and requirements to be taken into account during whole process. In the same time, it is necessary to perform a series of analyses to ensure that the whole process is conducted in a planned and safe manner. The general principles proposed for a proper management of safety during research reactor decommissioning are as follows: - Set-up of all operations included in a Decommissioning Plan; - Set-up and qualitative evaluation of safety problems, which could appear during normal decommissioning process, both radiological and nonradiological risks for workers and public; - Set-up of accident list related to decommissioning process the events that could appear both due to some abnormal working conditions and to some on-site and off-site events like fires, explosions, flooding, earthquake, etc.); - Development and qualitative/ quantitative evaluation of scenarios for each incidents; - Development (and evaluation) of safety indicator system. The safety indicators are the most important tools used to assess the level of nuclear safety during decommissioning process, to discover the weak points and to establish safety measures. The paper contains also, a safety case evaluation (description of facility according to the decommissioning

  5. Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities: Training and Human Resource Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    One of the cornerstones of the success of nuclear facility decommissioning is the adequate competence of personnel involved in decommissioning activities. The purpose of this publication is to provide methodological guidance for, and specific examples of good practices in training as an integral part of human resource management for the personnel performing decommissioning activities. The use of the systematic methodology and techniques described in this publication may be tailored and applied to the development of training for all types of nuclear facilities undergoing decommissioning. Examples of good practices in other aspects of human resources, such as knowledge preservation, management of the workforce and improvement of human performance, are also covered. The information contained in this publication, and the examples provided in the appendices and enclosed CD-ROM, are representative of the experience of decommissioning of a wide variety of nuclear facilities.

  6. Decommissioning: a United Kingdom perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, A.; Reed, D.L.; Bleeze, A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper considers the United Kingdom legislative framework relevant to decommissioning of facilities on nuclear licensed sites. It describes the various legislative bodies involved in regulating this activity and the inspectorate concerned. The licensing regime is described in some detail highlighting the UK arrangements whereby a license is granted for the site upon which nuclear facilities are planned or exist. The license remains in place throughout the life of the plant on the site: from initial planning through to the end of decommissioning. A site (of part of) is not de-licensed until it can be stated that there has ceased to be any danger from ionising radiations from anything on the site (or appropriate part of the site). The final part of the paper considers the changes arising from the commercialization of the nuclear power industry in UK and the restatement of the Nuclear Installation Inspectorate's policy on decommissioning which has arisen as a result of a review made in response to these changes. (author)

  7. Safety problems in decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    The safety problems in decommissioning are presented by the example of light water reactors with an electric power of 1300 MW and 40 years of preceding specified operation. In such a plant the radioactivity in the form of activation and contamination is of the order of 10 7 Ci one year after final shut-down. The fuel elements are not taken into account. During the work at the reactor vessel dose rates of some 10 4 rem/h may occur at the flange level. According to a rough estimation the dose accumulated by the decommissioning personnel during dismantling of the radioactive components amounts to 1200 rem. During the decommissioning work the problems are caused predominantly by the direct radiation from the radioactive components and systems as well as from the release of radioactive particles, aerosols and liquids on cutting them up. In designing new plants the extent of later decommissioning problems can be reduced above all by selection of suitable materials and by decommissioning-minded design and arrangement of the components and parts of the plant. (orig./RW) [de

  8. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Project summary report, Elk River Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Adams, J.A.

    1982-12-01

    This report summarizes information concerning the decommissioning of the Elk River Reactor. Decommissioning data from available documents were input into a computerized data-handling system in a manner that permits specific information to be readily retrieved. The information is in a form that assists the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in its assessment of decommissioning alternatives and ALARA methods for future decommissionings projects. Samples of computer reports are included in the report. Decommissioning of other reactors, including NRC reference decommissioning studies, will be described in similar reports

  9. Alternatives and costs for the decommissioning of Angra Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carajilescov, Pedro; Moreira, Joao Manoel Losada; Maiorino, Jose Rubens

    2013-01-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear reactor requires several actions involving legal basis, decommissioning strategies, planning, dismantling, packing, transport and storage of a large volume of radioactive materials, qualified personnel and financial resources. The paper discusses the several aspects of these actions for the decommissioning of Angra nuclear Power Plants, based on the international experiences. The main phases of the decommissioning process, the Brazilian regulation and cost estimations are also presented. Finally, two alternatives for the decommissioning of the plants, based on logistic aspects, are discussed. (author)

  10. Alternatives and costs for the decommissioning of Angra Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carajilescov, Pedro; Moreira, Joao Manoel Losada; Maiorino, Jose Rubens, E-mail: pedro.carajilescov@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear reactor requires several actions involving legal basis, decommissioning strategies, planning, dismantling, packing, transport and storage of a large volume of radioactive materials, qualified personnel and financial resources. The paper discusses the several aspects of these actions for the decommissioning of Angra nuclear Power Plants, based on the international experiences. The main phases of the decommissioning process, the Brazilian regulation and cost estimations are also presented. Finally, two alternatives for the decommissioning of the plants, based on logistic aspects, are discussed. (author)

  11. ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES, AND LESSONS LEARNED FROM MULTI-REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING PROJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, M.R.; Nielson, R.R.; Trevino, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the Reactor Interim Safe Storage (ISS) Project within the decommissioning projects at the Hanford Site and reviews the lessons learned from performing four large reactor decommissioning projects sequentially. The advantages and disadvantages of this multi-reactor decommissioning project are highlighted

  12. Experiences of development of IT support systems for decommissioning of Fugen NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Y.; Kato, Y.; Yanagihara, I.S.; Tezuka, M.; Koda, Y.

    2017-01-01

    core, coupling with the robotics even the data creation is expensive. Moreover, when the radiation is relatively high but accessible to the material, we have to consider occupational dose at the planning of manual works. In this case, a simulation system such as VRdose is very useful for the planning, training of workers in the realistic situation. However, if the radiation level is relatively low, the material is accessible, the detailed data and computer system may be unnecessary. We have to keep up the new IT technologies, e.g. Augmented Reality (AR) is one of the useful technologies for the real field application. Knowledge management system (KMS) for the optimizing decommissioning and transfer and education of lessons learned to the next generation seems to be promising. It takes in existing data, information and acquire valuable knowledge of workers and the knowledge can be reused and shared inside and outside of the community with minimum resources. We have started these activities. (authors)

  13. Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning, ECED 2015 - Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Scientific conference deals with problems of reactor decommissioning and radioactive waste management in the Central Europe. The Conference included the following sessions: (1): Characterisation and Radioactive Waste Management; (2) Managerial Aspects of Decommissioning; (3) JAVYS Experience with Back-End of Nuclear Power Engineering - Progress in Last 2 Years; (4) Decommissioning Planning and Costing and Education; (5) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning; (6) Radioactive Waste Management; (4) Poster Session. The Book of Abstracts contains two invitation speeches and 30 abstracts.

  14. Radiation protection aspects of the decommissioning of the Linac-Adone storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiti, M.; Esposito, A.

    1996-01-01

    An e + e - collider, christened DAΦNE (Double Annular Φ factory for Nice Experiments), optimized for operation at a total energy of 1020 MeV, is under construction at the Frascati National Laboratories (LNF) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN). The new machine will be placed into the existing buildings which in the past housed the Linac-Adone complex, which definitively ceased operation April 26th 1993 and was at once decommissioned. The Linac-Adone complex has operated without stopping up to the 26th of April 1993 except for the ordinary maintenance periods. It was composed by a Linac, capable of accelerating 100 mA of e - beam peak current to 400 MeV and 1 mA of e + beam peak current to 365 MeV, in operation since 1964, and by an e + e - storage ring capable of storing 2x10 11 particles per beam at 1500 MeV, in operation since 1967. Radiation safety standard and criteria for unrestricted release adopted at LNF. The objectives of radiation safety for the Linac-Adone decommissioning were: - limitation of personal doses, - control of radioactive materials either for reuse or for disposal, -prevention of dispersion of radioactive material during handling and transportation to the final destination. The limits for personal doses and radioactive material were taken from the recommendations of the Italian National Agency of Environment Protection and from the law in force on the safety and health protection for workers and population against the danger of ionizing radiation field, as follows: - the reference dose for people working in decommissioning areas was 15 mSv/y; - a limit for unrestricted release for My emitters was set at l kBq/m 2 for surface contamination and 1 kBq/kg for mass activity. (author)

  15. Ratemaking treatment of decommissioning costs by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenart, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has the responsibility for the assurance of funds at the time of decommissioning. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), in conjunction with the State Public Utility Commissions, have the responsibilty to ensure that utilities have just and reasonable rates and an opportunity to collect an appropriate amount of dollars to decommission a nuclear reactor at the conclusion of its service life. Therefore, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission allows utilities to include nuclear power plant decommissioning costs in rates based on the following ratemaking concepts: (1) that the methodology used by a utility equitably allocates costs between present and future ratepayers who receive service from a nuclear unit; (2) that, given the uncertainty and imprecision that are included in cost estimates for events that will transpire 20-40 years in the future, the FERC chose to err on the low side rather than run the risk of overcharging current customers for future decommissioning expense; and (3) that, as decommissioning experience accumulates, as decommissioning technology improves, and as decommissioning estimates become more refined, utilities would continue to seek revised decommissioning expense allowances from FERC in order to ensure that actual decommissioning costs are recovered over the useful life in which the plant provides service

  16. Decommissioning: Strategies and programmes at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraia, M.

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has included decommissioning in its regular programmes since 1985. Until a few years ago, attention was focused on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, and to a lesser extent, research reactors. Some countries, however, are now devoting greater attention to the decommissioning of non-reactor facilities, with implementation of these programmes being seen as a high priority. This demanded equal attention in IAEA's programmes. In recent years, the IAEA has expanded its programmes to include guidance on decommissioning of small medical, industrial and research facilities which are prevailing in most of its over 130 Member States. By 2010-2020, a significant number of nuclear power plants, research reactors, fuel cycle and non-reactor facilities will have exceeded their normal design lifetimes. Many of these facilities are already shutdown and are awaiting decommissioning. In 1996, the IAEA organized the decommissioning programme along two directions. A first direction focuses on the safety of management of radioactive waste including decommissioning. A second direction focuses on the technology and strategies to support waste management and decommissioning activities. This split of activities was instituted in order to keep the regulatory aspects separated from the strategic and technology-related activities. The focus of this paper will be on current and foreseen activities related to strategies and technologies of decommissioning, but other activities will be touched upon as well. All technical divisions of the IAEA provide technical support for Technical Co-operation (TC) projects with developing countries. TC projects in the field of decommissioning are given separate coverage in this paper. The IAEA documents on decommissioning strategies and technologies are presented in Section 2. Technical Co-operation Programme concerning Decommissioning is discussed focusing the objectives, the specific projects and the

  17. Health physics program for the Edgemont Uranium Mill decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polehn, J.L.; Wallace, R.G.; Reed, R.P.; Wilson, G.T.

    1986-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is actively involved in decommissioning a uranium mill located near the town of Edgemont, South Dakota. The Edgemont Mill Decommissioning Project, which is unique in many respects, will involve dismantlement of the old inactive mill building and excavation and transportation of several million tons of uranium mill tailings to a permanent disposal site. To ensure that workers are adequately protected from radiation exposure during decommissioning operations, a health physics program appropriate for the decommissioning situation was developed. The Edgemont Mill Decommissioning Project Health Physics Manual (HPM) gives the programmatic requirements for worker radiation protection. The requirements of the HPM are implemented by means of detailed onsite operating procedures. The Edgemont project health physics program was developed using currently available regulations and guidance for an operating uranium mill with appropriate modifications for decommissioning. This paper discusses the development, implementation, and documentation of that program

  18. Initial building investigations at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Objectives and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Dougherty, J.M.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1994-12-01

    As part of an environmental-contamination source-definition program at Aberdeen Proving Ground, detailed internal and external inspections of 23 potentially contaminated buildings are being conducted to describe and characterize the state of each building as it currently exists and to identify areas potentially contaminated with toxic or other hazardous substances. In addition, a detailed geophysical investigation is being conducted in the vicinity of each target building to locate and identify subsurface structures, associated with former building operations, that are potential sources of contamination. This report describes the objectives of the initial building inspections, including the geophysical investigations, and discusses the methodology that has been developed to achieve these objectives.

  19. Decommissioning Project Manager's Implementing Instructions (PMII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalic, M.A.

    1998-02-01

    Decommissioning Project personnel are responsible for complying with these PMII. If at any time in the performance of their duties a conflict between these instructions and other written or verbal direction is recognized or perceived, the supervisor or worker shall place his/her work place in a safe condition, stop work, and seek resolution of the conflict from the Decommissioning Project Manager or his designee

  20. Decommissioning and equipment replacement of nuclear power plants under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Ryuta; Naito, Yuta; Kimura, Hiroshi; Madarame, Haruki

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the optimal timing for the decommissioning and equipment replacement of nuclear power plants. We consider that the firm has two options of decommissioning and equipment replacement, and determines to exercise these options under electricity price uncertainty. This problem is formulated as two optimal stopping problems. The solution of this model provides the value of the nuclear power plant and the threshold values for decommissioning and replacement. The dependence of decommissioning and replacement strategies on uncertainty and each cost is shown. In order to investigate the probability of events for decommissioning and replacement, Monte Carlo calculations are performed. We also show the probability distribution and the conditional expected time for each event. (author)

  1. Research reactor utilization, safety, decommissioning, fuel and waste management. Posters of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    self assessments. Current developments in research reactor design criteria. Calculation methods and codes. Regulatory aspects and experience with current research reactor issues. Quality assurance programmes during the various stages of a reactor life. Training and qualification of reactor operating personnel and regulators. Modifications in operating procedures and training and qualification. In-service and special inspections with respect to ageing. c) Fuel cycle issues covering new high-density fuel development. Fuel fabrication and performance. Fuel qualification programmes. Core conversion. Fuel management (including spent fuel storage). Spent fuel transportation. Final disposition. d) Reactor Decommissioning including Preliminary decommissioning planning (long term). Creation of data base for decommissioning (e.g. during refurbishment). Final decommissioning planning. Extensive research and development activities associated with decommissioning of research reactors. On-going/recently completed research reactor decommissioning projects. e) Waste management (operational waste management) and decommissioning waste management

  2. Planning for the decommissioning of a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, W.J.; Isakari, H.H.; Munro, J.F.; Lim, T.H.; Denton, M.M.; Vernig, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the steps that must be taken and the uncertainties and potential pitfalls that can be encountered in decommissioning a research reactor, whether owned by private industry, a university, or a government agency. The paper is based on the experience in preparing for decommissioning the TRIGA Mark III Berkeley Research Reactor (BRR). Six topics of interest to an owner-operator are addressed: task and schedule planning, decommissioning organization, cost estimating, health and safety considerations, waste management, and regulatory concerns

  3. Decommissioning Operations at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouhier, E.

    2008-01-01

    Among the different activities of the CEA research center of Cadarache, located in the south of France, one of the most important involves decommissioning. As old facilities close, decommissioning activity increases. This presentation will give an overview of the existing organization and the different ongoing decommissioning and cleanup operations on the site. We shall also present some of the new facilities under construction the purpose of which is to replace the decommissioned ones. Cadarache research center was created on October 14, 1959. Today, the activities of the research center are shared out among several technological R and D platforms, essentially devoted to nuclear energy (fission and fusion) Acting as a support to these R and D activities, the center of Cadarache has a platform of services which groups the auxiliary services required by the nuclear facilities and those necessary to the management of nuclear materials, waste, nuclear facility releases and decommissioning. Many old facilities have shut down in recent years (replaced by new facilities) and a whole decommissioning program is now underway involving the dismantling of nuclear reactors (Rapsodie, Harmonie), processing facilities (ATUE uranium treatment facility, LECA UO 2 facility) as well as waste treatment and storage facilities (INB37, INB 56. In conclusion: other dismantling and cleanup operations that are now underway in Cadarache include the following: - Waste treatment and storage facilities, - Historical VLLW and HLW storage facility, - Fissile material storage building, - Historical spent fuel storage facility. Thanks to the project organization: - Costs and risks on these projects can be reduced. - Engineers and technicians can easily move from one project to another. In some cases, when a new facility is under construction for the purpose of replacing a decommissioned one, some of the project team can integrate the new facility as members of the operation team. Today

  4. Decontamination and Decommissioning at Small Nuclear Facilities: Facilitating the Submission of Decommissioning Funding Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, D.A.; Grumbles, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the efforts of the Washington State Department of Health to ensure that small nuclear facilities have the tools each needs to submit Decommissioning Funding Plans. These Plans are required by both the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and in some states - in the case of Washington state, the Washington State Department of Health is the regulator of radioactive materials. Unfortunately, the guidance documents provided by the U.S. NRC pertain to large nuclear facilities, such as nuclear fuel fabrication plants, not the small nuclear laboratory nor small nuclear laundry that may also be required to submit such Plans. These small facilities are required to submit Decommissioning Funding Plans by dint of their nuclear materials inventory, but have only a small staff, such as a Radiation Safety Officer and few authorized users. The Washington State Department of Health and Attenuation Environmental Company have been working on certain tools, such as templates and spreadsheets, that are intended to assist these small nuclear facilities prepare compliant Decommissioning Funding Plans with a minimum of experience and effort. (authors)

  5. Site Decommissioning Management Plan. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauver, D.N.; Weber, M.F.; Johnson, T.C.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 51 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety, they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC stairs strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 51 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites. This is supplement number one to NUREG-1444, which was published in October 1993

  6. Development of the Decommissioning Technology for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. W.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, S. G.

    2010-04-01

    The evaluation technology of decommissioning process must be developed and will be used for the ALARA planning tool of decommissioning process and demonstrated for tools of decommissioning equipment. Also, this technology can be used for tools workplaces with high work difficulty such as large-scale chemical plant, under water and space. The monitoring system for high alpha radioactive contamination measurement will be use in the high radioactivity decommissioning sites such as hot-cell or glove box. Also, it will be use in the general nuclear facilities as the radiation monitoring unit. The preparation technology of the radiation sensor for high radioactive contamination measurement will be transferred to the company for the industrialization. The remote monitoring system can prevent the workers exposure using the optical fiber to separate the sensor and electronics

  7. Nuclear energy. First experiences with decommissioning in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokoll, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    After the Fukushima disaster in 2011 the German parliament changed the national atomic energy law by way of its thirteenth amendment. In contrast to the initial ''nuclear phaseout'' the new phaseout of nuclear energy foresees a large number of decommissionings which will occur in part successively and in part simultaneously and will extend over a period of eleven years. Eight generating units were already decommissioned in 2011 or have not been ramped up again since then. By 2020 the last units will have been decommissioned and the phaseout of nuclear energy will have been completed, at least in terms of power plant operation. However the subsequent dismantling operations will keep German operators busy for decades to come. This article reports on first practical experiences in decommissioning.

  8. Legal and Regulatory Frameworks for Decommissioning and Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Safe and efficient decommissioning and waste management requires clear structures for allocating responsibility and funding. Organisation of decommissioning and waste management activities and the regulatory environment within which those activities are undertaken should also allow the supply chain to prosper and, wherever possible, reduce barriers to international availability of resources and waste facilities. Radioactive waste treatment and disposal in particular raises both legal and political challenges to effective international co-operation, yet options for decommissioning and waste management are maximised where international barriers can be minimised. Added to this, international nuclear liabilities issues must be managed so as to avoid unnecessary deterrents to international mobility of capability within the decommissioning market. Contractual terms and insurance arrangements for international shipments of nuclear waste and materials will also need to take into account imminent changes to liabilities conventions, ensuring compliance and management of compliance costs (of both insurance and management time). This paper explores legal and commercial structures intended to support effective decommissioning and waste management and examines regulatory and commercial factors affecting the ability of facility operators to utilise internationally available capability. It focusses on: - strategic approaches developed in the UK to address decommissioning and waste management liabilities associated with the UK's first and second generation civil nuclear sites and comparison of those approaches with other jurisdictions with significant decommissioning liabilities; - liability and compliance risks associated with navigating international nuclear liabilities regimes in context of both mobility of decommissioning capability and international waste shipment; and - regulatory issues affecting international availability of waste treatment facilities, including

  9. Standard Guide for Radiation Protection Program for Decommissioning Operations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides instruction to the individual charged with the responsibility for developing and implementing the radiation protection program for decommissioning operations. 1.2 This guide provides a basis for the user to develop radiation protection program documentation that will support both the radiological engineering and radiation safety aspects of the decommissioning project. 1.3 This guide presents a description of those elements that should be addressed in a specific radiation protection plan for each decommissioning project. The plan would, in turn, form the basis for development of the implementation procedures that execute the intent of the plan. 1.4 This guide applies to the development of radiation protection programs established to control exposures to radiation and radioactive materials associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The intent of this guide is to supplement existing radiation protection programs as they may pertain to decommissioning workers, members of...

  10. Financial aspects of decommissioning. Report by an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    Estimating decommissioning costs and collecting funds for eventual decommissioning of facilities that have used radioactive material is a prerequisite for safe, timely and cost effective decommissioning. A comprehensive overview of decommissioning costs and funding mechanisms was missing in the IAEA literature although the subject had been marginally dealt with in a few IAEA publications. Costing and funding issues were partially addressed by other international organizations, but there is a need to address the subject from the standpoint of the diverse social, economic and cultural environments that constitute IAEA membership. In its role of an international expert committee assisting the IAEA, the Technical Group on Decommissioning (TEGDE) debates and draws conclusions on topics omitted from general guidance. TEGDE members met in Vienna in 2003, 2004 and 2005 to develop the basis for this publication. The views expressed here reflect those of TEGDE and not necessarily those of the IAEA

  11. 10 CFR 70.25 - Financial assurance and recordkeeping for decommissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... segregated from licensee assets and outside the licensee's administrative control of cash or liquid assets such that the amount of funds would be sufficient to pay decommissioning costs. Prepayment may be in... estimate for decommissioning and a description of the method of assuring funds for decommissioning from...

  12. Use of data processing tools in decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrasch, P.; Lukacs, G.

    1995-01-01

    With the present level of electronic data processing technology, no project of the scale of nuclear reactor decommissioning could be carried out without the use of data processing systems. On the contrary, a reactor decommissioning project requires essential support not only for the technical but also the economic side through the use of proper data processing programs, and not only general applications in the area of personal computers such as MS-EXCEL or MS Project, but also special data processing systems designed for the reactor decommissioning tasks. Various data processing supports are required depending upon the progress of a reactor decommissioning project. (orig./DG) [de

  13. Computer System Analysis for Decommissioning Management of Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurokhim; Sumarbagiono

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear reactor decommissioning is a complex activity that should be planed and implemented carefully. A system based on computer need to be developed to support nuclear reactor decommissioning. Some computer systems have been studied for management of nuclear power reactor. Software system COSMARD and DEXUS that have been developed in Japan and IDMT in Italy used as models for analysis and discussion. Its can be concluded that a computer system for nuclear reactor decommissioning management is quite complex that involved some computer code for radioactive inventory database calculation, calculation module on the stages of decommissioning phase, and spatial data system development for virtual reality. (author)

  14. Conceptual data modeling on the KRR-1 and 2 decommissioning database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Seoung; Park, Seung Kook; Lee, Kune Woo; Park, Jin Ho

    2002-01-01

    A study of the conceptual data modeling to realize the decommissioning database on the KRR-1 and 2 was carried out. In this study, the current state of the abroad decommissioning databased was investigated to make a reference of the database. A scope of the construction of decommissioning database has been set up based on user requirements. Then, a theory of the database construction was established and a scheme on the decommissioning information was classified. The facility information, work information, radioactive waste information, and radiological information dealing with the decommissioning database were extracted through interviews with an expert group and also decided upon the system configuration of the decommissioning database. A code which is composed of 17 bit was produced considering the construction, scheme and information. The results of the conceptual data modeling and the classification scheme will be used as basic data to create a prototype design of the decommissioning database

  15. Plan for reevaluation of NRC policy on decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Recognizing that the current generation of large commercial reactors and supporting nuclear facilities would substantially increase future decommissioning needs, the NRC staff began an in-depth review and re-evaluation of NRC's regulatory approach to decommissioning in 1975. Major technical studies on decommissioning have been initiated at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory in order to provide a firm information base on the engineering methodology, radiation risks, and estimated costs of decommissioning light water reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is now considering development of a more explicit overall policy for nuclear facility decommissioning and amending its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 50, and 70 to include more specific guidance on decommissioning criteria for production and utilization facility licensees and byproduct, source, and special nuclear material licensees. The report sets forth in detail the NRC staff plan for the development of an overall NRC policy on decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  16. Chernobyl NPP decommissioning efforts - Past, Present and Future. Decommissioning Efforts on Chernobyl NPP site - Past, Present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchinskiy, V.

    2017-01-01

    Two unique large-scale projects are underway at the moment within the Chernobyl - Exclusion zone - Shelter object transformation into ecologically safe system and the decommissioning of 3 Chernobyl NPP Units. As a result of beyond design accident in 1986 the entire territory of the industrial site and facilities located on it was heavily contaminated. Priority measures were carried out at the damaged Unit under very difficult conditions to reduce the accident consequences and works to ensure nuclear and radiation safety are continuous, and the Unit four in 1986 was transformed into the Shelter object. Currently, works at the Shelter object are in progress. Under assistance of the International Community new protective construction was built above the existing Shelter object - New Safe Confinement, which will ensure the SO Safety for the long term - within up to 100 years. The second major project is the simultaneous decommissioning of Chernobyl NPP Units 1, 2 and 3. Currently existing Chernobyl NPP decommissioning Strategy has been continuously improved starting from the Concept of 1992. Over the years the following was analyzed and taken into account: the results of numerous research and development works, international experience in decommissioning, IAEA recommendations, comments and suggestions from the governmental and regulatory bodies in the fields of nuclear energy use and radioactive waste management. In 2008 the final decommissioning strategy option for Chernobyl NPP was approved, that was deferred gradual dismantling (SAFSTOR). In accordance with this strategy, decommissioning will be carried out in 3 stages (Final Shutdown and Preservation, Safe Enclosure, Dismantling). The SAFSTOR strategy stipulates: -) the preservation of the reactor, the primary circuit and the reactor compartment equipment; -) the dismantling of the equipment external in relation to the reactor; -) the safe enclosure (under the supervision); -) the gradual dismantling of the primary

  17. Stakeholders involvement in the decommissioning processes in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionisi, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the situation about stakeholders involvement in Italy in the framework of the decommissioning process of the Italian nuclear installations, and in particular the specific experience of the Italian Regulatory Body APAT. Specific aspects and APAT initiatives for building confidence of stakeholders in the process of the release of solid material from the regulatory control are presented. Content: Decommissioning activities in Italy, Decommissioning licensing procedures (Site and material release, APAT - ARPA Partnership approach in the clearance process)

  18. The cost of decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report sets out the results of a National Audit Office investigation to determine the extent of the potential Government liability for nuclear decommissioning, how this is to be financed and the possible implications for the taxpayer. Further effort are needed to improve the nuclear industry's estimates, improve efficiency and face up to the costs of decommissioning. This should also ensure that the full cost of nuclear energy is identified. (author)

  19. Evolution of some important principles on decommissioning of nuclear and radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yamin; Wu Hao

    2004-01-01

    The paper introduces the evolution of some important principles on decommissioning of nuclear and radiation facilities. Decommissioning issue should not be regarded just as an end phase of the facilities operation, but should be taken into consideration as a part of whole operation process. The decommissioning plan and management should be considered in all phases of siting, design, construction and operation. A new term 'Facilitating Decommissioning' is introduced. Three stages principle of decommissioning (storage with surveillance, restricted release and unrestricted release) is being faded. The decommissioning implementation and related regulatory body should pay attention to these principal changes

  20. Development of a digital mock-up system for selecting a decommissioning scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-Kyun; Park, Hee-Sung; Lee, Kune-Woo; Jung, Chong-Hun

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of decommissioning scenarios is critical to the successful development and execution of a decommissioning project. In the past, many experts have used a physical mock-up system to find the exact work processes and the working positions. Nowadays, these jobs are being done by a Digital Mock-Up (DMU) system. The DMU, which is a technology to realize an effective work process by using virtual environments through representing the physical and logical schema and the behavior of a real decommissioning work, can save on the cost and time, reduce the risk of making later changes, and develop various decommissioning scenarios. In this research, a decommissioning DMU system was developed for simulating the relevant dismantling processes. Decommissioning data-computing modules which can calculate a dismantling schedule, quantify a radioactive waste, visualize a radioactive inventory, estimate a decommissioning cost, and estimate a worker's exposure were also developed to qualitatively assess the decommissioning information. And an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model was developed to evaluate the decommissioning scenarios which reflected the quantitative and qualitative considerations. To establish the proper scenario for the thermal column in KRR-1, the developed decommissioning DMU system was applied to evaluate the two candidate scenarios of it

  1. Radiation protection in connection with the decommissioning of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This document presents the SSI preliminary views and position concerning the decommissioning of nuclear plants. To prevent the exposure of the decommissioning personnel and the general public to unacceptable levels of radiation and to protect the environment and future generations, it is SSI's task to formulate and issue the necessary terms and regulations with which the reactor licensees must comply during the decommissioning work. The views and principles presented here are the basis of SSI's continued work on guidelines and regulations for the decommissioning of nuclear plants

  2. Education and Training in Decommissioning Needs, Opportunities and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kockerols, Pierre; Schneider, Hans Guenther; ); Freer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is an industrial activity that is growing worldwide, creating job opportunities at all educational levels. Over the last decades, European companies have been involved in decommissioning projects that are targeted at delivering an environmentally friendly end-product, in line with the 'circular economy', as promoted by EU and national policies. European industry has acquired know-how and today Europe can position itself at the top level in the world decommissioning market. However, in view of the preparation of future decommissioning programmes, efforts are necessary to ensure and share the underpinning knowledge, skills and competences. In this perspective, the University of Birmingham in association with the European Commission's Joint Research Centre have organised a joint seminar to address the following questions in relation to education and training in nuclear decommissioning: - What are the competence needs for the future? - What are the education and training opportunities? - How can we stimulate interest and future talent? In answering these questions a report has been published which provides suggestions for helping the development, coordination and promotion of adequate education and training programmes at EU level in nuclear decommissioning. It highlights, in particular, the necessity to improve the long term planning of the resources and competences, addressing the specifics of decommissioning activities, to give more visibility to the career possibilities in the sector, and to enhance the cooperation between the existing education and training programmes, providing also more clarity in the learning outcomes. (authors)

  3. Factors influencing the decommissioning of large-scale nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The decision-making process involving the decommissioning of the UK graphite moderated, gas-cooled nuclear power stations is complex. There are timing, engineering, waste disposal, cost and lost generation capacity factors to consider and the overall decision of when and how to proceed with decommissioning may include political and public tolerance dimensions. For the final stage of decommissioning the nuclear industry could either completely dismantle the reactor island leaving a green-field site or, alternatively, the reactor island could be maintained indefinitely with additional super- and substructure containment. At this time the first of these options, or deferred decommissioning, prevails and with this the nuclear industry has expressed considerable confidence that the technology required will become available with passing time, that acceptable radioactive waste disposal methods and facilities will be available and that the eventual costs of decommissioning will not escalate without restraint. If the deferred decommissioning strategy is wrong and it is not possible to completely dismantle the reactor islands a century into the future, then it may be too late to effect sufficient longer term containment to maintain the reactor hulks in a reliable condition. With respect to the final decommissioning of large-scale nuclear plant, it is concluded that the nuclear industry does not know quite how to do it, when it will be attempted and when it will be completed, and they do not know how much it will eventually cost. (author)

  4. Decontamination and Decommissioning Project for the Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Paik, S. T.; Park, S. W. and others

    2006-02-15

    The final goal of this project is to complete safely and successfully the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 (KRR-1) and the Korean Research Reactor no.2 (KRR-2), and uranium conversion plant (UCP). The dismantling of the reactor hall of the KRR-2 was planned to complete till the end of 2004, but it was delayed because of a few unexpected factors such as the development of a remotely operated equipment for dismantling of the highly radioactive parts of the beam port tubes. In 2005, the dismantling of the bio-shielding concrete structure of the KRR-2 was finished and the hall can be used as a temporary storage space for the radioactive waste generated during the decommissioning of the KRR-1 and KRR-2. The cutting experience of the shielding concrete by diamond wire saw and the drilling experience by a core boring machine will be applied to another nuclear facility dismantling. An effective management tool of the decommissioning projects, named DECOMIS, was developed and the data from the decommissioning projects were gathered. This system provided many information on the daily D and D works, waste generation, radiation dose, etc., so an effective management of the decommissioning projects is expected from next year. The operation experience of the uranium conversion plant as a nuclear fuel cycle facility was much contributed to the localization of nuclear fuels for both HWR and PWR. It was shut down in 1993 and a program for its decontamination and dismantling was launched in 2001 to remove all the contaminated equipment and to achieve the environment restoration. The decommissioning project is expected to contribute to the development of the D and D technologies for the other domestic fuel cycle facilities and the settlement of the new criteria for decommissioning of the fuel cycle related facilities.

  5. Socio-economic impact of nuclear reactor decommissioning at Vandellos I NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liliana Yetta Pandi

    2013-01-01

    Currently nuclear reactors in Indonesia has been outstanding for more than 30 years, the possibility of nuclear reactors will be decommissioned. Closure of the operation or decommissioning of nuclear reactors will have socio-economic impacts. The socioeconomic impacts occur to workers, local communities and wider society. In this paper we report on socio-economic impacts of nuclear reactors decommissioning and lesson learned that can be drawn from the socio-economic impacts decommissioning Vandellos I nuclear power plant in Spain. Socio-economic impact due to decommissioning of nuclear reactor occurs at installation worker, local community and wider community. (author)

  6. Development of training system to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwanseong; Moon, Jeikwon; Choi, Byungseon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, Geunho; Seo, Jaeseok

    2014-01-01

    Decommissioning workers need familiarization with working environments because working environment is under high radioactivity and work difficulty during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. On-the-job training of decommissioning works could effectively train decommissioning workers but this training approach could consume much costs and poor modifications of scenarios. The efficiency of virtual training system could be much better than that of physical training system. This paper was intended to develop the training system to prevent accidents for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The requirements for the training system were drawn. The data management modules for the training system were designed. The training system of decommissioning workers was developed on the basis of virtual reality which is flexibly modified. The visualization and measurement in the training system were real-time done according as changes of the decommissioning scenario. It can be concluded that this training system enables the subject to improve his familiarization about working environments and to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  7. Development of training system to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwanseong; Moon, Jeikwon; Choi, Byungseon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, Geunho; Seo, Jaeseok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Decommissioning workers need familiarization with working environments because working environment is under high radioactivity and work difficulty during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. On-the-job training of decommissioning works could effectively train decommissioning workers but this training approach could consume much costs and poor modifications of scenarios. The efficiency of virtual training system could be much better than that of physical training system. This paper was intended to develop the training system to prevent accidents for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The requirements for the training system were drawn. The data management modules for the training system were designed. The training system of decommissioning workers was developed on the basis of virtual reality which is flexibly modified. The visualization and measurement in the training system were real-time done according as changes of the decommissioning scenario. It can be concluded that this training system enables the subject to improve his familiarization about working environments and to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities.

  8. Decommissioning a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    The process of decommissioning a facility such as a nuclear reactor or reprocessing plant presents many waste management options and concerns. Waste minimization is a primary consideration, along with protecting a personnel and the environment. Waste management is complicated in that both radioactive and chemical hazardous wastes must be dealt with. This paper presents the general decommissioning approach of a recent project at Los Alamos. Included are the following technical objectives: site characterization work that provided a thorough physical, chemical, and radiological assessment of the contamination at the site; demonstration of the safe and cost-effective dismantlement of a highly contaminated and activated nuclear-fuelded reactor; and techniques used in minimizing radioactive and hazardous waste. 12 figs

  9. Decommissioning of small medical, industrial and research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Most of the technical literature on decommissioning addresses the regulatory, organizational, technical and other aspects for large facilities such as nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants and relatively large prototype, research and test reactors. There are, however, a much larger number of licensed users of radioactive material in the fields of medicine, research and industry. Most of these nuclear facilities are smaller in size and complexity and may present a lower radiological risk during their decommissioning. Such facilities are located at research establishments, biological and medical laboratories, universities, medical centres, and industrial and manufacturing premises. They are often operated by users who have not been trained or are unfamiliar with the decommissioning, waste management and associated safety aspects of these types of facility at the end of their operating lives. Also, for many small users of radioactive material such as radiation sources, nuclear applications are a small part of the overall business or process and, although the operating safety requirements may be adhered to, concern or responsibility may not go much beyond this. There is concern that even the minimum requirements of decommissioning may be disregarded, resulting in avoidable delays, risks and safety implications (e.g. a loss of radioactive material and a loss of all records). Incidents have occurred in which persons have been injured or put at risk. It is recognized that the strategies and specific requirements for small facilities may be much less onerous than for large ones such as nuclear power plants or fuel processing facilities, but many of the same principles apply. There has been considerable attention given to nuclear facilities and many IAEA publications are complementary to this report. This report, however, attempts to give specific guidance for small facilities. 'Small' in this report does not necessarily mean small in size but generally modest in terms

  10. Civil engineering design for decommissioning of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paton, A.A.; Benwell, P.; Irwin, T.F.; Hunter, I.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the work carried out by Taylor Woodrow Construction Limited (TWC) in a study aimed at identifying features which may be incorporated at the design stage of future nuclear power plants to facilitate their eventual decommissioning and, in so doing, promote economic and radiological benefits at teh decommissioning stage. For the purposes of this study, decommissioning of a nuclear facility means those measures taken at the end of the facility's operating life to remove it from the site and restore the site to green field conditions, and, while so doing, ensure the continued protection of the public from any residual radioactivity or other potential hazards present in or emanating from the facility. The overall decommissioning process involves eventual dismantling and demolition and may also include, where possible and appropriate, the intermediate steps of renewal and refurbishing. The work has been carried out in a number of sequential stages consisting principally of a literature review, identification of problems likely to arise in decommissioning, generation of possible solutions to the problems, first assessment of the feasibility of these solutions, closer investigation of promising solutions and, finally, preparation of conclusions and recommendations. (author)

  11. Generations of decay: the political geography of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, A.

    1990-01-01

    Energy is politics. We rarely find it where we need it, it imposes upon other areas when we move it, and the less control we have over its development and use, the more politically insecure we feel. Nuclear power appears to avoid the traditional politics of energy supply by geographically internalizing much of the fuel cycle. But the problem of waste disposal, including decommissioning, is a major source of political conflict and uncertainty affecting the whole future of the nuclear industry. One of the most politically motivated decisions of the decommissioning era will be in choosing whether the process will be immediate or deferred. Deferred decommissioning is the most likely strategy, and that geographical inertia is the likely outcome. Such inertia is a feature of industrial decline, with each industrial epoch leaving the detritus of past decisions for future generations to discover and deal with. The political basis of the nuclear fuel cycle is its links with considerations of wastes, hazards, longevity, and equity, all matters of public interest and concern. As part of the nuclear fuel cycle, decommissioning will include these considerations too, and it is for this reason that, wherever decommissioning takes place, political questions arise. (author)

  12. Full system chemical decontamination used in nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, George; Rottner, Bernard; Braehler, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear power stations at the end of the operational period of electricity generation offers technical challenges in the safe dismantling of the facility and the minimization of radioactive waste arising from the decommissioning activities. These challenges have been successfully overcome as demonstrated by decommissioning of the first generation of nuclear power plants. One of the techniques used in decommissioning is that of chemical decontamination which has a number of functions and advantages as given here: 1. Removal of contamination from metal surfaces in the reactors cooling systems. 2. Reduction of radioactive exposure to decommissioning workers 3. Minimization of metal waste by decontamination and recycling of metal components 4. Control of contamination when dismantling reactor and waste systems 5. Reduction in costs due to lower radiation fields, lower contamination levels and minimal metal waste volume for disposal. One such chemical decontamination technology was developed for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) by Bradtec (Bradtec is an ONET Technologies subsidiary) and is known as the EPRI DFD system. This paper gives a description of the EPRI DFD system, and highlights the experience using the system. (orig.)

  13. Lessons learned from the decommissioning of NORM facility in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontol, Khairuddin M.; Omar, Muhamat; Ahmad, Syed H.S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Malaysia Decommissioning of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) facility in Malaysia will run into unforeseeable complications and difficulties if there is no proper planning. The Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) plays important role in guiding and assisting the operator/contractor in this NORM decommissioning project. A local Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) processing plant located in the northern region of peninsular Malaysia had ceased its operations and decided to decommission and remediate its site for the final release of the site. The remediated site is earmarked as an industrial site. During its operations, monazites are processed for rare earth elements such as cerium and lanthanum. It's plant capable of processing monazite to produce rare earth chloride and rare earth carbonate. The main by-product of monazite processing is the radioactive cake containing primarily thorium hydroxide. Operation of the monazite processing plant started in early eighties and terminated in early nineties. The decommissioning of the plant site started in late 2003 and completed its decommissioning and remediation works in early 2006. This paper described the lesson learned by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in conducting third party independent audit for the decommissioning of the NORM contaminated facility. By conti