WorldWideScience

Sample records for e-region initial results

  1. Initial Results from CASSIOPE/ePOP Satellite Overpasses above HAARP in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.; James, H. G.; Yau, A. W.; Knudsen, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility was operated in conjunction with overpasses of the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) instruments on the Canadian CASSIOPE satellite. During these overpasses HAARP was operated in several different heating modes and regimes as diagnosed by the characteristics of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEE) using ground-based receivers while simultaneously ePOP monitored in-situ HF and VLF signals, looked for ion and electron heating, and provided VHF and UHF signals for propagation effects studies. The e-POP suite of instruments and particularly the ePOP Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) offer a unique combination diagnostics appropriate for studying the non-linear plasma effects generated high-power HF waves in the ionosphere. In this presentation, the initial results from ePOP observations from two separate 2014 measurement campaigns at HAARP (April 16 to April 29 and May 25 to June 9) will be discussed. Several innovative experiments were performed during the campaign. Experiments explored a wide range of ionospheric effects. These include: 1) Penetration of HF pump waves into the ionosphere via large and small scale irregularities, 2) effects of gyro-harmonic heating and artificial ionization layers, 3) effects of HAARP beam shape with O- and X-mode transmissions, 4) coupling of Lower Hybrid modes into Whistler waves, 5) D/E-region VLF generation in the ionosphere using VLF modulation of the HF pump 6) scattering of VHF and UHF signals and 7) scattering and non-linear modulation of a 9.5 MHz probe wave propagating through the region of the ionosphere modified by HAARP. This work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program.

  2. SEE-GRID eInfrastructure for Regional eScience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prnjat, Ognjen; Balaz, Antun; Vudragovic, Dusan; Liabotis, Ioannis; Sener, Cevat; Marovic, Branko; Kozlovszky, Miklos; Neagu, Gabriel

    In the past 6 years, a number of targeted initiatives, funded by the European Commission via its information society and RTD programmes and Greek infrastructure development actions, have articulated a successful regional development actions in South East Europe that can be used as a role model for other international developments. The SEEREN (South-East European Research and Education Networking initiative) project, through its two phases, established the SEE segment of the pan-European G ´EANT network and successfully connected the research and scientific communities in the region. Currently, the SEE-LIGHT project is working towards establishing a dark-fiber backbone that will interconnect most national Research and Education networks in the region. On the distributed computing and storage provisioning i.e. Grid plane, the SEE-GRID (South-East European GRID e-Infrastructure Development) project, similarly through its two phases, has established a strong human network in the area of scientific computing and has set up a powerful regional Grid infrastructure, and attracted a number of applications from different fields from countries throughout the South-East Europe. The current SEEGRID-SCI project, ending in April 2010, empowers the regional user communities from fields of meteorology, seismology and environmental protection in common use and sharing of the regional e-Infrastructure. Current technical initiatives in formulation are focusing on a set of coordinated actions in the area of HPC and application fields making use of HPC initiatives. Finally, the current SEERA-EI project brings together policy makers - programme managers from 10 countries in the region. The project aims to establish a communication platform between programme managers, pave the way towards common e-Infrastructure strategy and vision, and implement concrete actions for common funding of electronic infrastructures on the regional level. The regional vision on establishing an e

  3. Sox2 is translationally activated by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E in human glioma-initiating cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Yuqing; Zhou, Fengbiao; Chen, Hong; Cui, Chunhong; Liu, Dan [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Li, Qiuping [Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yang, Zhiyuan; Wu, Guoqiang [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Sun, Shuhui [Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, Ministry of Education and Health, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Gu, Jianxin [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Institutes of Biomedical Sciences of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wei, Yuanyan, E-mail: yywei@fudan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Jiang, Jianhai, E-mail: jianhaijiang@fudan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Glycoconjuates Research, Ministry of Public Health and Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2010-07-09

    Sox2, a master transcription factor, contributes to the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells and plays significant roles in sustaining the self-renewal of neural stem cells and glioma-initiating cells. Understanding the functional differences of Sox2 between glioma-initiating cells and normal neural stem cells would contribute to therapeutic approach for treatment of brain tumors. Here, we first demonstrated that Sox2 could contribute to the self-renewal and proliferation of glioma-initiating cells. The following experiments showed that Sox2 was activated at translational level in a subset of human glioma-initiating cells compared with the normal neural stem cells. Further investigation revealed there was a positive correlation between Sox2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in glioma tissues. Down-regulation of eIF4E decreased Sox2 protein level without altering its mRNA level in glioma-initiating cells, indicating that Sox2 was activated by eIF4E at translational level. Furthermore, eIF4E was presumed to regulate the expression of Sox2 by its 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) sequence. Our results suggest that the eIF4E-Sox2 axis is a novel mechanism of unregulated self-renewal of glioma-initiating cells, providing a potential therapeutic target for glioma.

  4. Sox2 is translationally activated by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E in human glioma-initiating cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Yuqing; Zhou, Fengbiao; Chen, Hong; Cui, Chunhong; Liu, Dan; Li, Qiuping; Yang, Zhiyuan; Wu, Guoqiang; Sun, Shuhui; Gu, Jianxin; Wei, Yuanyan; Jiang, Jianhai

    2010-01-01

    Sox2, a master transcription factor, contributes to the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells and plays significant roles in sustaining the self-renewal of neural stem cells and glioma-initiating cells. Understanding the functional differences of Sox2 between glioma-initiating cells and normal neural stem cells would contribute to therapeutic approach for treatment of brain tumors. Here, we first demonstrated that Sox2 could contribute to the self-renewal and proliferation of glioma-initiating cells. The following experiments showed that Sox2 was activated at translational level in a subset of human glioma-initiating cells compared with the normal neural stem cells. Further investigation revealed there was a positive correlation between Sox2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in glioma tissues. Down-regulation of eIF4E decreased Sox2 protein level without altering its mRNA level in glioma-initiating cells, indicating that Sox2 was activated by eIF4E at translational level. Furthermore, eIF4E was presumed to regulate the expression of Sox2 by its 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) sequence. Our results suggest that the eIF4E-Sox2 axis is a novel mechanism of unregulated self-renewal of glioma-initiating cells, providing a potential therapeutic target for glioma.

  5. Initial-State Radiation Measurement of the e+e- -> pi+pi-pi+pi- Cross Section

    CERN Document Server

    Lees, J.P.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, David Nathan; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V.E.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Druzhinin, V.P.; Golubev, V.B.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Onuchin, A.P.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Skovpen, Yu.I.; Solodov, E.P.; Todyshev, K.Yu.; Yushkov, A.N.; Bondioli, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A.J.; Mandelkern, M.; Stoker, D.P.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J.W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G.M.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T.M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J.D.; West, C.A.; Eisner, A.M.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W.S.; Martinez, A.J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B.A.; Seiden, A.; Cheng, C.H.; Doll, D.A.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K.T.; Hitlin, D.G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F.C.; Rakitin, A.Y.; Andreassen, R.; Dubrovin, M.S.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B.T.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P.C.; Ford, W.T.; Gaz, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J.G.; Wagner, S.R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W.H.; Spaan, B.; Kobel, M.J.; Schubert, K.R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P.J.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Nicolaci, M.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I.M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M.R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Lee, C.L.; Morii, M.; Edwards, A.J.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F.U.; Ebert, M.; Lacker, H.M.; Lueck, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P.K.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Meyer, W.T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rubin, A.E.; Gritsan, A.V.; Guo, Z.J.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A.M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M.H.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D.J.; Wright, D.M.; Bingham, I.; Chavez, C.A.; Coleman, J.P.; Fry, J.R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Payne, D.J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A.J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Brown, David Norvil; Davis, C.L.; Denig, A.G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Alwyn, K.E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R.J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G.D.; Behn, E.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D.A.; Simi, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Lindemann, D.; Patel, P.M.; Robertson, S.H.; Schram, M.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D.J.; Nguyen, X.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H.L.; Jessop, C.P.; Knoepfel, K.J.; LoSecco, J.M.; Wang, W.F.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N.B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Feltresi, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G.R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Pacetti, S.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J.J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A.J.S.; Telnov, A.V.; Anulli, F.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Piredda, G.; Bunger, C.; Grunberg, O.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schroder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E.O.; Wilson, F.F.; Emery, S.; de Monchenault, G.Hamel; Vasseur, G.; Y\\`, Ch.; Aston, D.; Bard, D.J.; Bartoldus, R.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M.R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G.P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R.C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B.G.; Gabareen, A.M.; Graham, M.T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W.R.; Kelsey, M.H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M.L.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Lewis, P.; Li, S.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H.L.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Muller, D.R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; Ofte, I.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A.A.; Schindler, R.H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M.K.; Va'vra, J.; Wagner, A.P.; Weaver, M.; Wisniewski, W.J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D.H.; Wulsin, H.W.; Yarritu, A.K.; Young, C.C.; Ziegler, V.; Park, W.; Purohit, M.V.; White, R.M.; Wilson, J.R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S.J.; Bellis, M.; Benitez, J.F.; Burchat, P.R.; Miyashita, T.S.; Alam, M.S.; Ernst, J.A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D.R.; Soffer, A.; Lund, P.; Spanier, S.M.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J.L.; Ruland, A.M.; Schilling, C.J.; Schwitters, R.F.; Wray, B.C.; Izen, J.M.; Lou, X.C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Ahmed, H.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Choi, H.H.F.; King, G.J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M.J.; Nugent, I.M.; Roney, J.M.; Sobie, R.J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T.J.; Harrison, P.F.; Latham, T.E.; Puccio, E.M.T.; Band, H.R.; Dasu, S.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    We study the process e+e- -> pi+pi-pi+pi-gamma, with a photon emitted from the initial-state electron or positron, using 454.3 fb^-1 of data collected with the BABAR detector at SLAC, corresponding to approximately 260,000 signal events. We use these data to extract the non-radiative sigma(e+e- ->pi+pi-pi+pi-) cross section in the energy range from 0.6 to 4.5 Gev. The total uncertainty of the cross section measurement in the peak region is less than 3%, higher in precision than the corresponding results obtained from energy scan data.

  6. Regional collaboration among Urban Area Security Initiative regions: results of the Johns Hopkins urban area survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errett, Nicole A; Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J; Resnick, Beth A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration-related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments.

  7. Regional Collaboration Among Urban Area Security Initiative Regions: Results of the Johns Hopkins Urban Area Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J.; Resnick, Beth A.; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration–related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073

  8. Mapping telemedicine efforts: surveying regional initiatives in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being supported using telemedicine systems? All data were surveyed from the Telemedicinsk Landkort, a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. The results of this study suggest that a growing numbers of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations exist in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. The results of this study provide a timely picture of the factors that are shaping the telemedicine landscape of Denmark and suggest potential strategies to help policymakers increase and improve national telemedicine deployment.

  9. Initial Results from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Price, M. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Dearborn, D.; Jones, T.; Barnett, B.; Yakuma, S.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Micrometeorites are constantly arriving at the Earth's surface, however, they are quickly diluted by the natural and anthropogenic back-ground dust. The successful collection of micromete-orites requires either the employment of a separation technique (e.g. using magnets to separate metal-bearing micrometeorites from deepsea sediments [e.g. 1,2] and dissolved pre-historic limestones and salts [e.g. 3,4]), or an approach that limits contamination by terrestrial dust (e.g. collecting from ice, snow and well water in polar regions - locations where the terrestrial dust flux is so low that micrometeorites repre-sent the major dust component [e.g. 5-7]). We have recently set up a micrometeorite collection station on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Is-lands in the Pacific Ocean, using high volume air samplers to collect particles directly from the atmosphere. Collecting at this location exploits the considerably reduced anthropogenic background; Kwajalein is >1000 miles from the nearest continent and for much of the year, trade winds blow from the northeast at 15 to 20 knots providing a continuous stream of oceanic aerosol for sampling. By collecting directly from the atmosphere, the terrestrial age of the particles, and hence weathering they experience, is minimal. We therefore anticipate that the Kwajalein col-lection may include particles that are highly susceptible to weathering and either not preserved well or not found at all in other collections. In addition, this collection method allows for particle arrival times to be constrained so that collections can be timed to correlate with celestial events (e.g. meteor showers). Here we describe the collections and their preparation and report on the initial results.

  10. Biosafety initiatives in BMENA region: identification of gaps and advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum eKhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The objectives of this study were to identify and assess the impact of capacity-building biosafety initiatives and programs that have taken place in the broader Middle East and north Africa (BMENA region between 2001-13, to highlight gaps that require further development, and to suggest sustainable ways to build cooperative regional biosafety opportunities. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted with two aspects 1 thorough desktop review of literature for all biosafety / biosecurity related activities in the study countries such as seminars, conferences, workshops, policy documents, technology transfer, sustained scientific endeavours between countries etc.; and 2 an online survey of scientists in countries in the region to get first-hand information about biosafety and biosecurity initiatives and gaps in their country. Results: A total of 1832 initiatives of biosafety / biosecurity were recorded from 97 web-links,70.68% (n=1295 initiatives were focused on raising general awareness among the scientific community about biosafety/biosecurity/biocontainment. The most frequent areas of interest were biorisk management in biomedical and biotechnology laboratories 13% (n=239, followed by Living Modified Organisms (LMO’s 9.17% (n=168. Hands-on training accounted for 2.67% (n=49 of initiatives. On line survey results confirmed desktop review findings, however the response rate was 11%.

  11. The Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA): Project summary and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nemuc, Anca; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2017-04-01

    We present a summary and some first results of a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellite instruments, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. The primary goal of SAMIRA is to demonstrate the usefulness of existing and future satellite products of air quality for improving monitoring and mapping of air pollution at the regional scale. A total of six core activities are being carried out in order to achieve this goal: Firstly, the project is developing and optimizing algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) onboard of Meteosat Second Generation. As a second activity, SAMIRA aims to derive particulate matter (PM2.5) estimates from AOD data by developing robust algorithms for AOD-to-PM conversion with the support from model- and Lidar data. In a third activity, we evaluate the added value of satellite products of atmospheric composition for operational European-scale air quality mapping using geostatistics and auxiliary datasets. The additional benefit of satellite-based monitoring over existing monitoring techniques (in situ, models) is tested by combining these datasets using geostatistical methods and demonstrated for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and aerosol optical depth/particulate matter. As a fourth activity, the project is developing novel algorithms for downscaling coarse

  12. E-Business Initiatives in Indonesian Manufacturing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singgih Saptadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of information technology (IT in improving companies’ competitiveness, including small and medium enterprises (SMEs, has been widely accepted. But, the IT investment will be in vain, if SMEs do not align their business and IT. There is a need to develop a framework of business-IT alignment. The framework development requires an understanding of the patterns of IT implementation in supporting SMEs’ business (e-business initiatives. This paper presents an empirical study on e-business initiatives in Indonesian manufacturing SMEs. The study uses 41 business processes that are grouped into three business focuses: supplier side, internal side and customer side. Based on the complexity of IT support to business processes, supplier side score, internal side score, customer side score and global score can be calculated. These scores are used to develop e-business initiative groups by using cluster analysis. After validated using discriminant analysis, the cluster analysis gives five e-business initiatives. First initiative is e-business implementation in three sides of business focuses, although in the early stage. Second initiative is IT implementation with internal side focus. Third initiative is e-business with customer side focus. The fourth is initiative that focuses on internal and customer side. The last is e-business initiative that balances and extends IT implementation on the three sides of business focuses. Then, this paper explains the differences between e-business initiatives.

  13. Synchrotron Radiation in eRHIC Interaction Region

    CERN Document Server

    Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Montag, Christoph; Rondeau, Daniel J; Surrow, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    The eRHIC currently under study at BNL consists of an electron storage ring added to the existing RHIC complex. The interaction region of this facility has to provide the required low-beta focusing while accommodating the synchrotron radiation generated by beam separation close to the interaction point. In the current design, the synchrotron radiation caused by 10GeV electrons bent by low-beta triplet magnets will be guided through the interaction region and dumped 5m downstream. However, it is unavoidable to stop a fraction of the photons at the septum where the electron and ion vacuum system are separated. In order to protect the septum and minimize the backward scattering of the synchrotron radiation, an absorber and collimation system will be employed. In this paper, we first present the overview of the current design of the eRHIC interaction region with special emphasis on the synchrotron radiation. Then the initial design of the absorber and collimation system, including their geometrical and physical p...

  14. Initial results from SKiYMET meteor radar at Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E): 2. Gravity wave observations in the MLT region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Karanam Kishore; Antonita, T. Maria; Shelbi, S. T.

    2007-12-01

    In the present communication, allSKy interferometric METeor (SKiYMET) radar observations of gravity wave activity in the mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT) region over Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E) are presented. The present meteor radar system provides hourly zonal and meridional winds in the MLT region, which can be readily used for studying the tides, planetary waves, gravity waves of periods 2-6 hours, and other long period oscillations in this region. However, these hourly winds are not sufficient for studying short period gravity waves having periods less than an hour, which demand high temporal resolution measurements. Even though the winds are estimated on an hourly basis, information such as zenith angle, azimuth angle, and radial velocity of each detected meteor are archived. Using these details of the meteor, an algorithm is developed to obtain the 15-min temporal resolution wind data. The output of the algorithm is compared with hourly wind data, and it showed a good agreement during the high meteor shower periods. Most of the times high meteor counts are observed during late night and early morning hours (local) over this latitude. Continuous wind measurements during the high meteor shower periods are used for studying the gravity wave activity in the MLT region. As the wave activity is intermittent and nonstationary, wavelet analysis has been used for delineating the wave features. The results showed the upward propagating intermittent gravity waves with periods 1-2 and 4-5 hours. The new aspect of the present communication is the usage of meteor radar for gravity wave studies for the first time over this latitude and studying their seasonal variability.

  15. [Implementation of a regional system for the emergency care of acute ischemic stroke: Initial results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Oliveira, Miguel; Araújo, Fernando

    2014-06-01

    Implementing integrated systems for emergency care of patients with acute ischemic stroke helps reduce morbidity and mortality. We describe the process of organizing and implementing a regional system to cover around 3.7 million people and its main initial results. We performed a descriptive analysis of the implementation process and a retrospective analysis of the following parameters: number of patients prenotified by the pre-hospital system; number of times thrombolysis was performed; door-to-needle time; and functional assessment three months after stroke. The implementation process started in November 2005 and ended in December 2009, and included 11 health centers. There were 3574 prenotifications from the prehospital system. Thrombolysis was performed in 1142 patients. The percentage of patients receiving thrombolysis rose during the study period, with a maximum of 16%. Median door-to-needle time was 62 min in 2009. Functional recovery three months after stroke was total or near total in 50% of patients. The regional system implemented for emergency care of patients with acute ischemic stroke has led to health gains, with progressive improvements in patients' access to thrombolysis, and to greater equity in the health care system, thus helping to reduce mortality from cerebrovascular disease in Portugal. Our results, which are comparable with those of international studies, support the strategy adopted for implementation of this system. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Biosafety Initiatives in BMENA Region: Identification of Gaps and Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Erum; Ahmed, Nayla; Temsamani, Khalid R; El-Gendy, Atef; Cohen, Murray; Hasan, Ariba; Gastfriend, Hilliard; Cole, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify and assess the impact of capacity-building biosafety initiatives and programs that have taken place in the broader Middle East and North Africa (BMENA) region between 2001 and 2013, to highlight gaps that require further development, and to suggest sustainable ways to build cooperative regional biosafety opportunities. A cross-sectional study was conducted with two aspects (1) thorough desktop review of literature for all biosafety/biosecurity-related activities in the study countries, such as seminars, conferences, workshops, policy documents, technology transfer, sustained scientific endeavors between countries, etc. and (2) an online survey of scientists in countries in the region to get first-hand information about biosafety and biosecurity initiatives and gaps in their country. A total of 1832 initiatives of biosafety/biosecurity were recorded from 97 web links; 70.68% (n = 1295) initiatives were focused on raising general awareness among the scientific community about biosafety/biosecurity/biocontainment. The most frequent areas of interest were biorisk management in biomedical and biotechnology laboratories 13% (n = 239), followed by living modified organisms (LMOs) 9.17% (n = 168). Hands-on training accounted for 2.67% (n = 49) of initiatives. Online survey results confirmed desktop review findings; however, the response rate was 11%.

  17. The Influence of Information Ecology on E-Commerce Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlor, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Explores the influence of an organization's information ecology, or internal information environment, on a firm's electronic commerce initiatives and plans. Reports results from a case study investigation on the adoption and use of an e-commerce initiative, a corporate portal, by participants at a large Canadian company. (Author/LRW)

  18. Characteristics of the E - and F -region field-aligned irregularities in middle latitudes: Initial results obtained from the Daejeon 40.8 MHz VHF radar in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sil Kwak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary observations of the field-aligned-irregularities (FAIs in the E and F regions during the solar minimum (2009 - 2010 using the 40.8 MHz coherent backscatter radar at Daejeon (36.18°N, 127.14°E, 26.7°N dip latitude in South Korea. The radar, which consists of 24 Yagi antennas, observes the FAIs using a single beam with a peak power of 24 kW. The radar has been continuously operated since December 2009. Depending on the manner of occurrence of the backscatter echoes, the E-region echoes are largely divided into two types: quasi-periodic (QP and continuous echoes. Our observations show that the QP echoes occur frequently above an altitude of 105 km in the post-sunset period and continuous echoes occur preferentially around an altitude of 105 km in the post-sunrise period. QP echoes appear as striated discrete echoes for a period of about 10 - 20 min. The QP-type echoes occur more frequently than the continuoustype echoes do and the echo intensity of the QP type is stronger than that of the continuous type. In the F region, the FAIs occur at night at an altitude interval of 250 - 450 km. As time proceeds, the occurrence height of the FAIs gradually increases until early in the morning and then decreases. The duration of the F-region FAIs is typically a few hours at night, although, in rare cases, FAIs persist throughout the night or appear even after sunrise. We discuss the similarities and differences of the FAIs observed by the Daejeon radar in comparison with other radar observations.

  19. Initial results from the ISEE-1 and -2 plasma wave investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.; Anderson, R.R.; Smith, E.J.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the authors present an initial survey of results from the plasma wave experiments on the ISEE-1 and -2 spacecraft which are in nearly identical orbits passing through the Earth's magneotsphere at radial distances out to about 22.5 Rsub(e). Essentially every crossing of the Earth's bow shock can be associated with an intense burst of electrostatic and whistler-mode turbulence at the shock, with substanial wave intensities in both the upstream and downstream regions. In the magnetosphere high resolution spectrograms of the electric field show an extremely complex distribution of plasma and radio emission, with numerous resonance and cutoff effects. High resolution spectrograms of kilometric radio emissions are also presented which show an extremely complex frequency-time structure with many closely spaced narrow-band emissions. (Auth.)

  20. Northeast Asian Energy Corridor Initiative for Regional Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Hoon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore's AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an elFor historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore’s AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an electronically integrated Over-the-Counter (OTC market clearing mechanism accompanied by other key financial instruments among Korea, Japan and China can be an effective means for promoting financial collaboration in the region.

  1. [Health-Promoting Schools Regional Initiative of the Americas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito-Shepherd, Josefa; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa; Ortega, Diana Patricia

    2005-01-01

    In Latin America, comprehensive health promotion programmes and activities are being implemented in the school setting, which take into account the conceptual framework of the Health-Promoting Schools Regional Initiative of the Pan American Health Organization, Regional office of the World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). These programmes help to strengthen the working relationships between the health and education sectors. The Health-Promoting Schools Regional Initiative, officially launched by PAHO/WHO in 1995, aims to form future generations to have the knowledge, abilities, and skills necessary for promoting and caring for their health and that of their family and community, as well as to create and maintain healthy environments and communities. The Initiative focuses on three main components: comprehensive health education, the creation and maintenance of healthy physical and psychosocial environments, and the access to health and nutrition services, mental health, and active life. In 2001, PAHO conducted a survey in 19 Latin American countries to assess the status and trends of Health-Promoting Schools in the Region, for the appropriate regional, subregional, and national planning of pertinent health promotion and health education programmes and activities. The results of this survey provided information about policies and national plans, multisectoral coordination mechanisms for the support of health promotion in the school settings, the formation and participation in national and international networks of Health-Promoting Schools and about the level of dissemination of the strategy. For the successful development of Health-Promoting Schools is essential to involve the society as a whole, in order to mobilise human resources and materials necessary for implementing health promotion in the school settings. Thus, the constitution and consolidation of networks has been a facilitating mechanism for the exchange of ideas, resources and experiences to strengthen

  2. Chapter 1: The Appalachian regional reforestation initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Angel; Vic Davis; Jim Burger; Don Graves; Carl. Zipper

    2017-01-01

    The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) is a cooperative effort by the States of the Appalachian region with the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) to encourage restoration of high-quality forests on reclaimed coal mines in the eastern United States. The goals of ARRI are to communicate...

  3. The human Ago2 MC region does not contain an eIF4E-like mRNA cap binding motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishin Nick V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Argonaute (Ago proteins interact with small regulatory RNAs to mediate gene regulatory pathways. A recent report by Kiriakidou et al. 1 describes an MC sequence region identified in Ago2 that displays similarity to the cap-binding motif in translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E. In a cap-bound eIF4E structure, two important aromatic residues of the motif stack on either side of a 7-methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate (m7Gppp base. The corresponding Ago2 aromatic residues (F450 and F505 were hypothesized to perform the same cap-binding function. However, the detected similarity between the MC sequence and the eIF4E cap-binding motif was questionable. Results A number of sequence-based and structure-based bioinformatics methods reveal the reported similarity between the Ago2 MC sequence region and the eIF4E cap-binding motif to be spurious. Alternatively, the MC sequence region is confidently assigned to the N-terminus of the Ago piwi module, within the mid domain of experimentally determined prokaryotic Ago structures. Confident mapping of the Ago2 MC sequence region to the piwi mid domain results in a homology-based structure model that positions the identified aromatic residues over 20 Å apart, with one of the aromatic side chains (F450 contributing instead to the hydrophobic core of the domain. Conclusion Correct functional prediction based on weak sequence similarity requires substantial evolutionary and structural support. The evolutionary context of the Ago mid domain suggested by multiple sequence alignment is limited to a conserved hydrophobicity profile required for the fold and a motif following the MC region that binds guide RNA. Mapping of the MC sequence to the mid domain structure reveals Ago2 aromatics that are incompatible with eIF4E-like mRNA cap-binding, yet display some limited local structure similarities that cause the chance sequence match to eIF4E. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Arcady Mushegian

  4. Electrondynamics of the auroral E region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkwood, Sheila.

    1990-10-01

    This study concentrates on the signatures of the interaction process seen closest to the Earth - i.e. in the region where the visible aurora is produced. A number of experimental investigations are presented which look at details of the dynamics and electrodynamics of auroral ionisation features in the ionospheric E region. The studies are based primarily on measurement with the EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar which is located in northern Scandinavia. Initial calibration of the radar, and some measurements of the properties of the background atmosphere are described first. These are a necessary basis for the detailed studies which follow, which are of two aspects of auroral electrodynamics - substorms and aurorally-associated sporadic E layers. For the substorm studies, all-sky camera observations of the aurora over Scandinavia and ultra-violet images from the Viking satellite are used to identify the auroral forms corresponding to EISCAT measurements. This allows the determination of representative conductivities for the different auroral features which are characteristic of the substorm development. These conductivities are an important input for modelling studies of the electric current systems and have not previously been measured directly. Particle measurements from the Viking satellite are used together with EISCAT to determine the origin of the particles precipitated into the ionosphere during the energy-storage phase prior to the substorm. The sporadic E layers studies address the question of how ion layers and associated neutral sodium layers can be produced by some process which is common in association with auroral activity. Two candidates are considered - gravity waves and electric fields. (author)

  5. Helper component proteinase of the genus Potyvirus is an interaction partner of translation initiation factors eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E and contains a 4E binding motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Poikela, Marjo; Goytia, Elisa; Haikonen, Tuuli; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2011-07-01

    The multifunctional helper component proteinase (HCpro) of potyviruses (genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae) shows self-interaction and interacts with other potyviral and host plant proteins. Host proteins that are pivotal to potyvirus infection include the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E and the isoform eIF(iso)4E, which interact with viral genome-linked protein (VPg). Here we show that HCpro of Potato virus A (PVA) interacts with both eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E, with interactions with eIF(iso)4E being stronger, as judged by the data of a yeast two-hybrid system assay. A bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay on leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana showed that HCpro from three potyviruses (PVA, Potato virus Y, and Tobacco etch virus) interacted with the eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum); interactions with eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E of potato (Solanum tuberosum) were weaker. In PVA-infected cells, interactions between HCpro and tobacco eIF(iso)4E were confined to round structures that colocalized with 6K2-induced vesicles. Point mutations introduced to a 4E binding motif identified in the C-terminal region of HCpro debilitated interactions of HCpro with translation initiation factors and were detrimental to the virulence of PVA in plants. The 4E binding motif conserved in HCpro of potyviruses and HCpro-initiation factor interactions suggest new roles for HCpro and/or translation factors in the potyvirus infection cycle.

  6. Homestake surface-underground scintillators: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.; Corbato, S.; Daily, T.; Fenyves, E.J.; Kieda, D.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    The first 70 tons of the 140-ton Large Area Scintillation Detector (LASD) have been operating since Jan. 1985 at a depth of 4850 ft. (4200 m.w.e.) in the Homestake Gold Mine, Lead, S.D. A total of 4 x 10(4) high-energy muons (E sub mu is approx. 2.7 TeV at the surface) have been detected. The remainder of the detector is scheduled to be in operation by the Fall of 1985. In addition, a surface air shower array is under construction. The first 27 surface counters, spaced out over an area of 270' x 500', began running in June, 1985. The LASD performance, the potential of the combined shower array and underground muon experiment for detecting point sources, and the initial results of a search for periodic emission from Cygnus X-3 are discussed

  7. Arase: mission overview and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Y.; Shinohara, I.; Takashima, T.; Asamura, K.; Wang, S. Y.; Kazama, Y.; Kasahara, S.; Yokota, S.; Mitani, T.; Higashio, N.; Kasahara, Y.; Kasaba, Y.; Yagitani, S.; Matsuoka, A.; Kojima, H.; Kazuo, S.; Seki, K.; Hori, T.; Shoji, M.; Teramoto, M.; Chang, T. F.; Kurita, S.; Matsuda, S.; Keika, K.; Miyashita, Y.; Hosokawa, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Kadokura, A.; Kataoka, R.; Ono, T.

    2017-12-01

    Geospace Exploation Project; ERG addresses what mechanisms cause acceleration, transportation and loss of MeV electrons of the radiation belts and evolutions of space storms. Cross-energy and cross-regional couplings are key concepts for the project. In order to address questions, the project has been organized by three research teams; satellite observations, ground-based observations, and modeling/data-analysis studies, and interdisciplinary research are realized for comprehensive understanding of geospace. The Arase (ERG) satellite had been developed and 9 science instruments are developed and provided from JAXA, universities and instituted in Japan and Taiwan. The Arase satellite was successfully launched on December 20, 2016. After the initial operation including maneuvers, Arase has started normal observations since March, 2017. Until now, Arase has observed several geomagnetic storms driven by coronal hole streams and CMEs, and several interesting features are observed associated with geomagnetic disturbances. The six particle instruments; LEP-e/LEP-i/MEP-e/MEP-i/HEP/XEP have shown large enhancement as well as loss of wide energy electrons and ions and variations as well as changes of pitch angle and energy spectrum. The two field/wave instruments: PWE and MGF observed several kinds of plasma waves such as chorus, hiss, EMIC as well as large scale electric and magnetic field variations. And newly developed S-WPIA has been operated to identify micro-process of wave-particle interactions. Since conjugate observations between Arase and ground-based observations are essential for comprehensive understanding of geospace, we organized several campaign observations that include both satellite and ground-based observations. The project has collaborated with the international projects, EISCAT, SuperDARN and other ground-based observations, and various data are obtained from such international collaborations. Moreover, multi-point satellite observations by

  8. eHealth for Remote Regions: Findings from Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajwani, Afroz; Qureshi, Kiran; Shaikh, Tehniat; Sayani, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    Isolated communities in remote regions of Afghanistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan and Tajikistan lack access to high-quality, low-cost health care services, forcing them to travel to distant parts of the country, bearing an unnecessary financial burden. The eHealth Programme under Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening (CAHSS) Project, a joint initiative between the Aga Khan Foundation, Canada and the Government of Canada, was initiated in 2013 with the aim to utilize Information and Communication Technologies to link health care institutions and providers with rural communities to provide comprehensive and coordinated care, helping minimize the barriers of distance and time. Under the CAHSS Project, access to low-cost, quality health care is provided through a regional hub and spoke teleconsultation network of government and non-government health facilities. In addition, capacity building initiatives are offered to health professionals. By 2017, the network is expected to connect seven Tier 1 tertiary care facilities with 14 Tier 2 secondary care facilities for teleconsultation and eLearning. From April 2013 to September 2014, 6140 teleconsultations have been provided across the project sites. Additionally, 52 new eLearning sessions have been developed and 2020 staff members have benefitted from eLearning sessions. Ethics and patient rights are respected during project implementation.

  9. Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative (SRCEII)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-10-31

    The Austin Technology Incubator’s (ATI’s) Clean Energy Incubator at the University of Texas at Austin (ATI-CEI) utilized the National Incubator Initiative for Clean Energy (NIICE) funding to establish the Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative, composed of clean energy incubators from The University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin), The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and Texas A&M University (TAMU).

  10. Cabo Verde telemedicine program: initial results of nationwide implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Dasho, Erion; Merrell, Ronald C; Lopes, Miguel; Azevedo, Vanda; Bekteshi, Flamur; Osmani, Kalterina L; Qesteri, Orland; Kucani, Julian; Lecaj, Ismet

    2014-11-01

    Telemedicine and e-health have been suggested as one solution for closing the health disparity gap between the developed world and the developing world. Yet evidence is lacking from current successful programs in the developing world and, in particular, from sub-Saharan Africa. The primary objective of our study was to present the preliminary results of our efforts in building the Integrated Telemedicine and e-Health Program for Cabo Verde (ITeHP-CV), with an emphasis on initial utilization and results. This is a prospective study of data collected while we worked to establish a fully functional, integrated national telemedicine network and virtual education network in Cabo Verde. We used the International Virtual e-Hospital Foundation strategic approach known as "initiate-build-operate-transfer" over a 26-month period (November 2011-December 2013). We describe herein the five main pillars of this process that have been implemented: (1) capacity building; (2) network development and deployment of equipment; (3) implementation of clinical telemedicine; (4) implementation of activities related to continuing medical education, delivered from within the country and from abroad; and (5) establishment and use of the electronic virtual library. Based on comprehensive technical and medical assessment of the country's needs, 10 fully functional telemedicine centers in all nine inhabited islands of the Republic of Cabo Verde have been established. RESULTS are presented under the five main pillars of capacity building, network deployment, implementation of clinical telemedicine, implementation of continuing medical education activities, and establishment of the electronic virtual library. The ITeHP-CV has been successfully launched, and the initial results are encouraging. The continuity of the program and sustainability are primary goals once the program is transferred fully to the Ministry of Health of Cabo Verde. A long-term follow-up study is required in order to ensure

  11. Initializing decadal climate predictions over the North Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Daniela Mihaela; Pohlmann, Holger; Jungclaus, Johann; Müller, Wolfgang; Haak, Helmuth; Marotzke, Jochem

    2010-05-01

    Decadal climate prediction aims to predict the internally-generated decadal climate variability in addition to externally-forced climate change signal. In order to achieve this it is necessary to start the predictions from the current climate state. In this study we investigate the forecast skill of the North Atlantic decadal climate predictions using two different ocean initialization strategies. First we apply an assimilation of ocean synthesis data provided by the GECCO project (Köhl and Stammer, 2008) as initial conditions for the coupled model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. Hindcast experiments are then performed over the period 1952-2001. An alternative approach is one in which the subsurface ocean temperature and salinity are diagnosed from an ensemble of ocean model runs forced by the NCEP-NCAR atmospheric reanalyzes for the period 1948-2007, then nudge into the coupled model to produce initial conditions for the hindcast experiments. An anomaly coupling scheme is used in both approaches to avoid the hindcast drift and the associated initial shock. Differences between the two assimilation approaches are discussed by comparing them with the observational data in key regions and processes. We asses the skill of the initialized decadal hindcast experiments against the prediction skill of the non-initialized hindcasts simulation. We obtain an overview of the regions with the highest predictability from the regional distribution of the anomaly correlation coefficients and RMSE for the SAT. For the first year the hindcast skill is increased over almost all ocean regions in the NCEP-forced approach. This increase in the hindcast skill for the 1 year lead time is somewhat reduced in the GECCO approach. At lead time 5yr and 10yr, the skill enhancement is still found over the North Atlantic and North Pacific regions. We also consider the potential predictability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and Nordic Seas Overflow by comparing the predicted values to

  12. Predictors of Regional Lymph Node Recurrence after Initial Thyroidectomy in Patients with Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirsina Sharifi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regional lymph node recurrence (RLNR is common in patients with thyroid cancer but clinicopathological predictors are unclear. We aimed to clarify these predictors and identify patients who would benefit from prophylactic lymph node dissection the most. Method. 343 patients with different types of thyroid cancer were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy between 2007 and 2013. Results. The median ± interquartile range of patients’ age was 40 ± 25 years. 245 (71.4% patients were female. Regarding the risk of regional lymph node recurrence, we found that male gender, age ≥45 years, non-PTC (i.e., medullary, follicular, and anaplastic types histopathology, T3 (i.e., tumor size >4 cm in the greatest dimension limited to the thyroid or any tumor with minimal extrathyroid extension, stage IVa, and isolated cervical lymphadenopathy as initial manifestation (ICL are significant risk factors. T3 (p < 0.001; odds ratio = 156.41, 95% CI [55.72–439.1] and ICL (p < 0.001; odds ratio = 77.79, 95% CI [31.55–191.81] were the strongest predictors of regional lymph node recurrence. Conclusion. We found easily achievable risk factors for RLNR in thyroid cancers patients. We suggested that patients with specific clinicopathological features like male gender, age ≥45 years, larger tumor size, and extrathyroidal extension be considered as prophylactic lymphadenectomy candidates.

  13. Towards a regional coastal ocean observing system: An initial design for the Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, H. E.; Fletcher, M.; Mooers, C. N. K.; Nelson, J. R.; Weisberg, R. H.

    2009-05-01

    A conceptual design for a southeast United States regional coastal ocean observing system (RCOOS) is built upon a partnership between institutions of the region and among elements of the academic, government and private sectors. This design envisions support of a broad range of applications (e.g., marine operations, natural hazards, and ecosystem-based management) through the routine operation of predictive models that utilize the system observations to ensure their validity. A distributed information management system enables information flow, and a centralized information hub serves to aggregate information regionally and distribute it as needed. A variety of observing assets are needed to satisfy model requirements. An initial distribution of assets is proposed that recognizes the physical structure and forcing in the southeast U.S. coastal ocean. In-situ data collection includes moorings, profilers and gliders to provide 3D, time-dependent sampling, HF radar and surface drifters for synoptic sampling of surface currents, and satellite remote sensing of surface ocean properties. Nested model systems are required to properly represent ocean conditions from the outer edge of the EEZ to the watersheds. An effective RCOOS will depend upon a vital "National Backbone" (federally supported) system of in situ and satellite observations, model products, and data management. This dependence highlights the needs for a clear definition of the National Backbone components and a Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that defines the roles, functions and interactions of regional and federal components of the integrated system. A preliminary CONOPS is offered for the Southeast (SE) RCOOS. Thorough system testing is advocated using a combination of application-specific and process-oriented experiments. Estimates of costs and personnel required as initial components of the SE RCOOS are included. Initial thoughts on the Research and Development program required to support the RCOOS are

  14. Modeling regional initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salciarini, D.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Conversini, P.; Baum, R.L.; Michael, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We model the rainfall-induced initiation of shallow landslides over a broad region using a deterministic approach, the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-stability (TRIGRS) model that couples an infinite-slope stability analysis with a one-dimensional analytical solution for transient pore pressure response to rainfall infiltration. This model permits the evaluation of regional shallow landslide susceptibility in a Geographic Information System framework, and we use it to analyze susceptibility to shallow landslides in an area in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy. As shown on a landslide inventory map produced by the Italian National Research Council, the area has been affected in the past by shallow landslides, many of which have transformed into debris flows. Input data for the TRIGRS model include time-varying rainfall, topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water table depth, and material strength and hydraulic properties. Because of a paucity of input data, we focus on parametric analyses to calibrate and test the model and show the effect of variation in material properties and initial water table conditions on the distribution of simulated instability in the study area in response to realistic rainfall. Comparing the results with the shallow landslide inventory map, we find more than 80% agreement between predicted shallow landslide susceptibility and the inventory, despite the paucity of input data.

  15. Evidence of the Dampening Effect of Dense E-region Structures on E-F Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmboldt, J.

    2012-12-01

    Results from a combination of instruments including ionosondes, GPS receivers, the Very Large Array (VLA), and the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) are used to demonstrate the role structure within the E-region plays in coupling between instabilities within the E and F regions at midlatitudes. VLA observations of cosmic sources at 74 MHz during summer nighttime in 2002 detected northwest-to-southeast aligned wavefronts, consistent with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs). These waves were only found when contemporaneous observations from nearby ionosondes detected echoes from sporadic-E layers. However, when the peak density of these layers was high (foEs> 3 MHz), there were no MSTIDs detected. Similar results are presented using the first station of the LWA, LWA1, to perform all-sky imaging of dense E-region structures (sporadic-E "clouds") via coherent scattering of distant analog TV broadcasts at 55 MHz. These observations were conducted during summer/autumn 2012 and include simultaneous GPS-based observations of F-region disturbances.Left: LWA1 all-sky image of ionospheric echoes of analog TV transmissions at 55.25 MHz. Right: Doppler speed maps for the brightest echoes.

  16. Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Regional Centres of Excellence Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bril, L.V.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides presents the initiative launched in May 2010 by the European Union to develop at national and regional levels the necessary institutional capacity to fight against the CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear) risk. The origin of the risk can be: -) criminal (proliferation, theft, sabotage and illicit traffics), -) accidental (industrial catastrophes, transport accidents...) and -) natural (mainly pandemics). The initiative consists in the creation of Centres of Excellence for providing assistance and cooperation in the field of CBRN risk and the creation of experts networks for sharing best practices, reviewing laws and regulation, developing technical capacities in order to mitigate the CBRN risk. The initiative is complementary to the instrument for nuclear safety cooperation. Regional Centres of Excellence are being set up in 6 regions: South East Europe, South East Asia, North Africa, West Africa, Middle East, and Central Asia covering nearly 40 countries. A global budget of 100 million Euros will be dedicated to this initiative for the 2009-2013 period. (A.C.)

  17. Accuracy of Invisalign® treatments in the anterior tooth region. First results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Elena; Seiferth, Jörg; Saric, Ivana; Jung, Britta A; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2011-03-01

    To analyse (a) to what extent the pretreatment model at the beginning of the treatment corresponds to the initial position in the ClinCheck® and (b) to what extent the predicted treatment result corresponds to the actual result of the therapy at the end of the treatment. Pre- and posttreatment models as well as the initial and final position of the ClinCheck with a total of 35 patients aged between 15 and 59 were measured; all of whom were treated by using the Invisalign® technology (Invisalign®, Align Technology, S.C., Calif., USA). The measurement of the initial and final models was conducted by using an electronic digital calliper rule, i.e. that of ClinCheck® using the measurement tool ToothMeasure® of Invisalign® Software. The following parameters in the anterior region were measured: Overjet, Overbite, dental midline shift. Pretreament models and the initial ClinChecks® revealed slight deviations in the parameters overjet 0.08 mm (standard deviation (SD) 0.3), overbite 0.3 mm (SD 0.4) and dental midline deviation 0.1mm (SD 0.4). The final model and the final ClinCheck® revealed larger deviations: the differences for the Overjet were on average 0.4 mm (SD 0.7), Overbite 0.9 mm (SD 0.9) and dental midline shift 0.4 mm (SD 0.5). The IT-based transmission of mal-aligned teeth into the ClinCheck® presentation provides sufficiently good accuracy. Tooth corrections in the vertical plane were more difficult to realize. A vertical overcorrection in the final ClinCheck®, a case refinement at the end of the treatment or additional measures (e.g. horizontal beveled attachments or vertical elastics) seems useful to achieve the individually intended therapeutic goal.

  18. Management support to e-business initiatives: The Croatian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Spremić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available After defining e-business and explaining why an evolutionary aspect of moving to e-business is required, the dimensions of e-business is defined with respect to differences between traditional business, partial, or pure e-business. Also, a model for moving to e-business is illustrated. The e-business evolving model is divided into six stages and represents an evolutionary aspect of migrating to e-business. Finally, the results of the research study on current practices in evolving e-business in the most successful Croatian companies are given. In this research, some aspects of business process innovation and e-business usage have been investigated (general e-business issues with levels of e-business usage, key objectives of participating in e-business, alignment of business strategy with e-business initiatives, initiation of e-business projects and e-business planning issues, especially e-business funding. The questionnaire was sent to 400 CEOs or CIOs in Croatian companies selected from the Register of the ‘400 Biggest’ Croatian companies which were ranked according to their 2001 annual revenue and which were most likely to represent the structure of the Croatian economy. Although they represent less than 1% of the total number of registered companies in Croatia, the sampled companies hold 73% of the equity capital of the whole Croatian economy, they contribute with 65% in the total Croatian economy’s export balance and they employ 37% of the total number of people employed in Croatia.

  19. SAMIRA - SAtellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nicolae, Doina; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Czech Republic, and the Gorj County in Romania. All data products shall undergo a quality control, i.e. robust and independent validation. The SAMIRA consortium will further work towards a pre-operational system for improved PM10 forecasts using observational (in situ and satellite) data assimilation. SAMIRA aims to maximize project benefits by liaison with national and regional environmental protection agencies and health institutions, as well as related ESA and European initiatives such as the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Services (CAMS).

  20. Structure of a yeast 40S-eIF1-eIF1A-eIF3-eIF3j initiation complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylett, Christopher H S; Boehringer, Daniel; Erzberger, Jan P; Schaefer, Tanja; Ban, Nenad

    2015-03-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation requires cooperative assembly of a large protein complex at the 40S ribosomal subunit. We have resolved a budding yeast initiation complex by cryo-EM, allowing placement of prior structures of eIF1, eIF1A, eIF3a, eIF3b and eIF3c. Our structure highlights differences in initiation-complex binding to the ribosome compared to that of mammalian eIF3, demonstrates a direct contact between eIF3j and eIF1A and reveals the network of interactions between eIF3 subunits.

  1. Initial results from SKiYMET meteor radar at Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E): 1. Comparison of wind measurements with MF spaced antenna radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Karanam Kishore; Ramkumar, Geetha; Shelbi, S. T.

    2007-12-01

    In the present communication, initial results from the allSKy interferometric METeor (SKiYMET) radar installed at Thumba (8.5°N, 77°E) are presented. The meteor radar system provides hourly zonal and meridional winds in the mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT) region. The meteor radar measured zonal and meridional winds are compared with nearby MF radar at Tirunalveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E). The present study provided an opportunity to compare the winds measured by the two different techniques, namely, interferometry and spaced antenna drift methods. Simultaneous wind measurements for a total number of 273 days during September 2004 to May 2005 are compared. The comparison showed a very good agreement between these two techniques in the height region 82-90 km and poor agreement above this height region. In general, the zonal winds compare very well as compared to the meridional winds. The observed discrepancies in the wind comparison above 90 km are discussed in the light of existing limitations of both the radars. The detailed analysis revealed the consistency of the measured winds by both the techniques. However, the discrepancies are observed at higher altitudes and are attributed to the contamination of MF radar neutral wind measurements with Equatorial Electro Jet (EEJ) induced inospheric drifts rather than the limitations of the spaced antenna technique. The comparison of diurnal variation of zonal winds above 90 km measured by both the radars is in reasonably good agreement in the absence of EEJ (during local nighttime). It is also been noted that the difference in the zonal wind measurements by both the radars is directly related to the strength of EEJ, which is a noteworthy result from the present study.

  2. Initial Alignment for SINS Based on Pseudo-Earth Frame in Polar Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanbin; Liu, Meng; Li, Guangchun; Guang, Xingxing

    2017-06-16

    An accurate initial alignment must be required for inertial navigation system (INS). The performance of initial alignment directly affects the following navigation accuracy. However, the rapid convergence of meridians and the small horizontalcomponent of rotation of Earth make the traditional alignment methods ineffective in polar regions. In this paper, from the perspective of global inertial navigation, a novel alignment algorithm based on pseudo-Earth frame and backward process is proposed to implement the initial alignment in polar regions. Considering that an accurate coarse alignment of azimuth is difficult to obtain in polar regions, the dynamic error modeling with large azimuth misalignment angle is designed. At the end of alignment phase, the strapdown attitude matrix relative to local geographic frame is obtained without influence of position errors and cumbersome computation. As a result, it would be more convenient to access the following polar navigation system. Then, it is also expected to unify the polar alignment algorithm as much as possible, thereby further unifying the form of external reference information. Finally, semi-physical static simulation and in-motion tests with large azimuth misalignment angle assisted by unscented Kalman filter (UKF) validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. A regional process under the international initiative for IFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murase Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to result in increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events including floods. The International Flood Initiative (IFI, initiated in January 2005 by UNESCO and WMO and voluntary partner organizations has promoted an integrated flood management (IFM to take advantage of floods and use of floodplains while reducing the social, environmental and economic risks. Its secretariat is located in ICHARM. The initiative objective is to support national platforms to practice evidence-based disaster risk reduction through mobilizing scientific and research networks. After its initial decade, the initiative is providing a stepping-stone for the implementation of Sendai Framework by revitalizing its activities aimed at building on the sucess of the past, while addressing existing gaps in integrated flood managemnet strategies comprising of optimal structural and nonstructural measures thereby mainstreaming disaster risk reduction and targeting sustainable development. In this context, a new mechanism try to facilitate monitoring, assessment and capacity building in the Asia Pacific region. The primary outcomes of the mechanism are demand-driven networking and related documentations of best practices for 1 hazard assessment, 2 exposure assessment, 3 vulnerability assessment and coping capacity to identify the gaps, and 4 follow-ups and monitoring of the IFM process.

  4. Overview of the initial NSTX experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current I p was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 million amperes on December 14, 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, κ=1.6-2.2 and δ=0.2-0.4, were achieved in inner limited, single null and double null configurations. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments were also initiated. A CHI injected current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA of toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With an injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using twelve antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a central density of 3.5x10 13 cm -3 increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal beta, β T to 10 %. Finally, the NBI system commenced operation in Sept. 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (P NBI =2.8MW) shows good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to β T ∼18% at a plasma current of 1.1 MA. (author)

  5. Overview of the initial NSTX experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current I p was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 MA on 14 December 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, elongation κ=1:6-2.2 and triangularity δ=0:2-0.4, were achieved in inner wall limited, and single null and double null diverted configurations. The coaxial helicity injection (CHI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) experiments were also initiated. CHI current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With the injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using 12 antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a central density of 3.5x10 13 cm 3 , increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal β, β T , to 10%. The NBI system commenced operation in September 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (P NBI =2:8 MW) show good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to β T ∼18% at a plasma current of 1.1 MA. (author)

  6. Overview of the Initial NSTX Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.; Bell, R. E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.

    2000-01-01

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current Ip was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 million amperes on December 14, 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, k = 1.6 ± 2.2 and d = 0.2 ± 0.4, were achieved in inner limited, single null and double null configurations. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments were also initiated. A CHI injected current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA of toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With an injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using twelve antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a central density of 3.5 x 1013 cm-3 increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal beta, bT to 10 %. Finally, the NBI system commenced operation in Sept. 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (PNBI = 2.8 MW) shows good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to bT = 18 % at a plasma current of 1.1 MA

  7. Phosphorylation in vitro of eukaryotic initiation factors IF-E2 and IF-E3 by protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Benne, R; Hershey, J W

    1976-01-01

    Purified protein synthesis initiation factors IF-E2 and IF-E3 from rabbit reticulocytes were phosphorylated in vitro with protein kinases isolated from the same source. The highest levels of phosphorylation resulted from incubation of the factors with a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase...

  8. On the Initiation of an Isolated Convective Storm Near the Central Urban Area of Beijing Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, H.; Cui, X.; Zhang, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    An isolated heavy-rain-producing convective storm was unexpectedly initiated in the early afternoon of 9 August 2011 near the central urban area of Beijing metropolitan region (BMR), which occurred at some distance from BMR's northwestern mountains and two pre-existing mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) to the north and west, respectively. An observational analysis shows the presence of large-scale quasi-geostrophic conditions but a favorable regional environment for the convective initiation (CI) of storms, including conditional instability, a low-level southerly flow and high-θe (equivalent potential temperature) area. A nested-grid (4/1.333 km) cloud-resolving model simulation of the case is performed to examine the CI of the storm. Results reveal that the growth of the mixed boundary layer, enhanced by the urban heat island (UHI) effects, accounts for the formation of a thin layer of clouds at the boundary-layer top at the CI site. However, this storm may not take place without sustained low-level convergence of high-θe air between a southerly flow and a northerly flow ahead of a cold outflow boundary associated with the northern MCS. The latter is driven by the latent heating of the shallow layer of clouds during the earlier CI stage and then a cold mesohigh associated with the northern MCS. The results indicate the important roles of the urban effects, mountain morphology, and convectively generated pressure perturbations in determining the CI location and timing of isolated convective storms over the BMR during the summer months.

  9. Initial results from the TST-2 spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Kasuya, N.

    2001-01-01

    A new spherical tokamak TST-2 was constructed at the University of Tokyo and started operation in September 1999. Reliable plasma initiation is achieved with typically 1 kW of ECH power at 2.45 GHz. Plasma currents of up to 90 kA and toroidal fields of up to 0.2 T have been achieved during the initial experimental campaign. The ion temperature is typically 100 eV. Internal reconnection events (IREs) are often observed. The internal magnetic field measured at r/a=2/3 indicated growth of fluctuations up to the 4 th harmonic, suggesting the existence of modes with several different mode numbers. In the presence of a toroidal field and a vertically oriented mirror field, noninductively driven currents of order 1 kA were observed with 1 kW of ECH power. The driven current increased with decreasing filling pressure, down to 3x10 -6 torr. A study of high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) excitation and propagation has begun. Initial results indicate highly efficient wave launching. (author)

  10. Gravity wave life cycle (GW-LCYCLE): Initial results from a coordinated field program to trace gravity waves from the troposphere to the MLT-region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Markus

    Gravity waves (GW) play an important role in the coupling between the troposphere and the middle atmosphere (˜10 - 120 km). GWs couple different atmospheric regions both in the vertical as well as in the horizontal directions by means of momentum and energy transport. Notably, this coupling is effective both from the troposphere upwards, and also in the opposite direction by indirect effects on circulation patterns. While the importance of GW for understanding atmospheric structure, dynamics and climate is now widely recognized, surprisingly little is still known about the details of the GW life cycle, i.e., the processes of GW excitation, propagation and dissipation. To address this issue a coordinated field program - named GW-LCYCLE - has been established in which ground based observations with radars, lidars and airglow imagers are combined with airborne observations, balloon soundings, and modelling to trace GWs from their source in the troposphere to their area of dissipation in the middle atmosphere. Within GW-LCYCLE an initial field campaign was conducted in December 2013 in Northern Scandinavia. The research aircraft DLR-FALCON was deployed to Kiruna, Sweden, from where several flights (with a total of 25 flight hours) were conducted to study mountain wave generation by flow over the Scandinavian mountain ridge. The FALCON was equipped with a downward looking wind lidar operating at a wavelength of 2 mum as well as with an in-flight system to measure winds, temperatures and pressures and with several in-situ instruments to detect wave signatures in trace gases like H _{2}O, CO _{2}, CO, CH _{4}, N _{2}O, HNO _{3} and SO _{2}. Ground based observations of winds and temperatures from the troposphere to the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT-) region were conducted from Kiruna as well as from Andenes, Norway. These measurements were augmented by balloon soundings from the same places as well as from Sodankylä in Finland. Coordinated observations were

  11. Gender Differences in Use and Expectancies of E-Cigarettes: Online Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; Correa, John B.; Simmons, Vani N.; Harrell, Paul T.; Menzie, Nicole S.; Unrod, Marina; Meltzer, Lauren R.; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Given the rapid increase in e-cigarette use, it is important to understand factors that may contribute to their initiation and maintenance. Because gender differences in tobacco use, product preferences, and expectancies are well established, similar gender differences may exist with e-cigarettes. The aim of this study was to identify gender differences among e-cigarette users in patterns of use, reasons for initiation and maintenance, and outcome expectancies regarding e-cigarettes. Methods Participants (N = 1815) completed an online survey from August through November, 2013. We assessed sociodemographics, smoking and e-cigarette history and use, and expectancies about e-cigarettes. Results We found gender differences in type of e-cigarette used, flavors used, nicotine dosage, source of information about e-cigarettes, place of purchase, and use of e-cigarettes where smoking is prohibited. In addition, males were more likely to report initiating e-cigarette use to quit smoking due to health concerns, whereas females were more likely to report initiation based on recommendations from family and friends. Males reported higher attributions for maintenance of e-cigarette use related to positive reinforcement (enjoyment), whereas females reported higher negative reinforcement attributions (stress reduction or mood management). Males reported more positive expectancies about e-cigarettes, including taste, social facilitation, and energy, whereas women rated e-cigarettes higher for weight control. Males also reported greater addiction-related e-cigarette expectancy than females. Conclusions Many of the gender differences with e-cigarettes parallel those previously found with traditional cigarette smoking. Although effect sizes associated with these differences were small, the results may help advance research and intervention development with respect to e-cigarette initiation, maintenance and cessation. PMID:26406973

  12. Calculation of proton beam initial orbit at cyclotron central region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramudita Anggraita

    2012-01-01

    A calculation of proton beam initial orbits at cyclotron central region was carried out using Scilab 5.2.0. The calculation was done in 2 dimensions in a homogeneous magnetic field of 1.66 tesla at frequency of fourth harmonics. The positions of ion source, dees, and dummy dees follow those of GE Minitrace cyclotron, peak dee voltage 30 kV. The calculation yields result comparable to those simulated at KIRAMS-13 cyclotron. (author)

  13. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities.

  14. Initiative pour un environnement scolaire sans fumée (Érythrée ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'Érythrée est l'un des 12 pays d'Afrique subsaharienne participant à l'initiative Analyses situationnelles de la lutte antitabac en Afrique (ASTA) financée par le CRDI et la Fondation Bill et Melinda Gates. L'objectif de cette initiative est de favoriser la compréhension des possibilités et des obstacles liés à la lutte antitabac et ...

  15. Developing a framework for assessing adaptability of citizen-focused e-Government initiatives in developing countries : The Case of Tanzania; Exploratory Phase Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yonazi, J.; Boonstra, A.; Sol, H.G.; Remenyi, D

    2008-01-01

    Citizens' adoption of e-government initiatives is a key element towards successful implementation of e-government projects. Understanding the factors that may potentially influence citizens' adoption of e-government plays a key role when developing government electronic services for the public. Such

  16. Tobacco and e-cigarette products initiate Kupffer cell inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, David A; Hom, Sarah; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Yin, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Kupffer cells are liver resident macrophages that are responsible for screening and clearing blood of pathogens and foreign particles. It has recently been shown that Kupffer cells interact with platelets, through an adhesion based mechanism, to aid in pathogen clearance and then these platelets re-enter the general systemic circulation. Thus, a mechanism has been identified that relates liver inflammation to possible changes in the systemic circulation. However, the role that Kupffer cells play in cardiovascular disease initiation/progression has not been elucidated. Thus, our objective was to determine whether or not Kupffer cells are responsive to a classical cardiovascular risk factor and if these changes can be transmitted into the general systemic circulation. If Kupffer cells initiate inflammatory responses after exposure to classical cardiovascular risk factors, then this provides a potential alternative/synergistic pathway for cardiovascular disease initiation. We aimed to elucidate the prevalence of this potential pathway. We hypothesized that Kupffer cells would initiate a robust inflammatory response after exposure to tobacco cigarette or e-cigarette products and that the inflammatory response would have the potential to antagonize other salient cells for cardiovascular disease progression. To test this, Kupffer cells were incubated with tobacco smoke extracts, e-cigarette vapor extracts or pure nicotine. Complement deposition onto Kupffer cells, Kupffer cell complement receptor expression, oxidative stress production, cytokine release and viability and density were assessed after the exposure. We observed a robust inflammatory response, oxidative stress production and cytokine release after Kupffer cells were exposed to tobacco or e-cigarette extracts. We also observed a marginal decrease in cell viability coupled with a significant decrease in cell density. In general, this was not a function of the extract formulation (e.g. tobacco vs. e

  17. Empirical Storm-Time Correction to the International Reference Ionosphere Model E-Region Electron and Ion Density Parameterizations Using Observations from TIMED/SABER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christoper J.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Russell, James M., III; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Evans, David S.; Bilitza, Dieter; Xu, Xiaojing

    2007-01-01

    The response of the ionospheric E-region to solar-geomagnetic storms can be characterized using observations of infrared 4.3 micrometers emission. In particular, we utilize nighttime TIMED/SABER measurements of broadband 4.3 micrometers limb emission and derive a new data product, the NO+(v) volume emission rate, which is our primary observation-based quantity for developing an empirical storm-time correction the IRI E-region electron density. In this paper we describe our E-region proxy and outline our strategy for developing the empirical storm model. In our initial studies, we analyzed a six day storm period during the Halloween 2003 event. The results of this analysis are promising and suggest that the ap-index is a viable candidate to use as a magnetic driver for our model.

  18. eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh: A scoping study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The health system of Bangladesh is haunted by challenges of accessibility and affordability. Despite impressive gains in many health indicators, recent evidence has raised concerns regarding the utilization, quality and equity of healthcare. In the context of new and unfamiliar public health challenges including high population density and rapid urbanization, eHealth and mHealth are being promoted as a route to cost-effective, equitable and quality healthcare in Bangladesh. The aim of this paper is to highlight such initiatives and understand their true potential. Methods This scoping study applies a combination of research tools to explore 26 eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh. A screening matrix was developed by modifying the framework of Arksey & O’Malley, further complemented by case study and SWOT analysis to identify common traits among the selected interventions. The WHO health system building blocks approach was then used for thematic analysis of these traits. Results Findings suggest that most eHealth and mHealth initiatives have proliferated within the private sector, using mobile phones. The most common initiatives include tele-consultation, prescription and referral. While a minority of projects have a monitoring and evaluation framework, less than a quarter have undertaken evaluation. Most of the initiatives use a health management information system (HMIS) to monitor implementation. However, these do not provide for effective sharing of information and interconnectedness among the various actors. There are extremely few individuals with eHealth training in Bangladesh and there is a strong demand for capacity building and experience sharing, especially for implementation and policy making. There is also a lack of research evidence on how to design interventions to meet the needs of the population and on potential benefits. Conclusion This study concludes that Bangladesh needs considerable preparation and planning to sustain e

  19. Initial results from MARmara SuperSITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Necmioglu, Ocal; Favali, Paolo; Douglas, John; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Geli, Louis; Ergintav, Semih; Oguz Ozel, Asım; Tan, Onur; Gurbuz, Cemil; Erdik, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    MARSite Project was initiated in November 2012 under the EC/FP-7 framework as an initiative towards establishment of new directions in seismic hazard assessment through focused earth observation in Marmara Region. Within MARSite, collection of the first comprehensive data set of fluids composition around the Sea of Marmara has been accomplished and first insight in the geochemical features of the fluids are expelled from tectonic structures around the Sea of Marmara. GPS time series and velocity fields are periodically updated and a project proposal has been prepared for Supersite initiative to take SAR data and integrate the results with in-situ data sets, which is accepted by the scientific committee of GEOSS. In the meantime, special focus was given to develop the processing algorithms, starting from low level atmospheric correction to high level modeling routines. Considerable progress has been made in the novel design of a multiparameter borehole system consisting of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor also incorporating 3-D strain meter, tilt meter, and temperature and local hydrostatic pressure measuring devices. Borehole and surface array locations and borehole bedrock depth of 137 m has been identified. A modeling scheme for the scenario earthquake simulation has been set up in order to realize processing of real-time high-rate GPS data and simulating of scenario earthquakes. The probability of occurrence for the fault segmentation in the Marmara region were calculated using the Poisson, BPT and BPT with a stress interaction models for time intervals of 5-10-30 and 50 years. High resolution seismic reflection and multibeam data in the easternmost Cinarcik basin obtained during the cruise MARMARA 2013 carried out onboard the CNR R/V Urania ship provided information on diffuse gravitational failures. An in situ multi-parameter observational system for landslide monitoring, including displacement, rainfall and seismic

  20. The distribution of synonymous codon choice in the translation initiation region of dengue virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-hua Zhou

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne viral (Arboviral illness in humans. The genetic features concerning the codon usage of dengue virus (DENV were analyzed by the relative synonymous codon usage, the effective number of codons and the codon adaptation index. The evolutionary distance between DENV and the natural hosts (Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti was estimated by a novel formula. Finally, the synonymous codon usage preference for the translation initiation region of this virus was also analyzed. The result indicates that the general trend of the 59 synonymous codon usage of the four genotypes of DENV are similar to each other, and this pattern has no link with the geographic distribution of the virus. The effect of codon usage pattern of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti on the formation of codon usage of DENV is stronger than that of the two primates. Turning to the codon usage preference of the translation initiation region of this virus, some codons pairing to low tRNA copy numbers in the two primates have a stronger tendency to exist in the translation initiation region than those in the open reading frame of DENV. Although DENV, like other RNA viruses, has a high mutation to adapt its hosts, the regulatory features about the synonymous codon usage have been 'branded' on the translation initiation region of this virus in order to hijack the translational mechanisms of the hosts.

  1. e-Science initiatives in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, J. L.; Diaz, G.; Hamar, V.; Isea, R.; Rojas, F.; Ruiz, N.; Torrens, R.; Uzcategui, M.; Florez-Lopez, J.; Hoeger, H.; Mendoza, C.; Nunez, L. A.

    2007-07-01

    Within the context of the nascent e-Science infrastructure in Venezuela, we describe several webbased scientific applications developed at the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, and at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are presented. We also briefly discuss a damage portal based on dynamic, nonlinear, finite elements of lumped damage mechanics and a biomedical portal developed within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA) initiative for searching common sequences and inferring their functions in parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, chagas and malaria. (Author)

  2. Human food chain contamination. Dairy products in 28 regions of the E.E.C. in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obino, A.-M.; Garnier, Arlette; Brenot, Jean.

    1981-08-01

    Global and individual levels of contamination by cesium 137 and strontium 90 resulting from consumption of dairy products in 28 regions of the European Economical Community are evaluated. We begin with economical considerations: production, industry, distribution and consumption. Regional exchanges, using 1977 statistical data, are then established for the following products: crude milk, skim milk, consumption milk, fresh products, butter, cheese and powder. Finally, various contamination results are presented, associated with the observed concentrations of cesium 137 and strontium 90 in milk in the E.E.C. during 1977, and in the hypothesis of highly contaminated regions. Some results are expressed as concentrations in the various dairy products after transformations and exchanges, others are expressed as individual ingested activities. A sensitivity analysis is used to assess the exchange effect [fr

  3. The trans-regional implications of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and the One Belt and One Road Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Samra Sarfraz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an analytical examination of the geo-political implications of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and the One Belt and One Road Initiative. The paper examines the probable implications of the two mega projects for the regional, as well as, trans-regional actors. The paper debates on the likelihood for the creation of a new kind of relationship among China, Pakistan and Russia. It is also discussed how the prospects of reduced western influence in the region, in the backdrop of CPEC and the B&R Initiative, may result in the escalation of Russian and Chinese dominance on regional and trans-regional affairs.

  4. Detection of soil moisture impact in convective initiation in the central region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores, Edgar; Caetano, Ernesto

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is important for understanding hydrological cycle variability in many regions. Local surface heat and moisture fluxes represent a major source of convective rainfall in Mexico during the summer, driven by positive evaporation-precipitation feedback. The effects of soil moisture are directly reflected in the limitation of evapotranspiration, affecting the development of the planetary boundary layer and, therefore, the initiation and intensity of convective precipitation. This study presents preliminary analysis of the role of soil moisture in convective initiations in central Mexico, for which a methodology for the detection of convective initiations similar to Taylor (2015) has been considered. The results show that the moisture fluxes from the surface influence the development of convection favored by mesoscale circulations at low levels. Initiations are more frequent in regions less humid than their surroundings with the very strong signal during the month of September. The knowledge of the soil predisposition to allow the development of deep convection suggests an alternative tool for the prediction of convective rains in Mexico.

  5. The N-terminal region of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A signals to nuclear localization of the protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parreiras-e-Silva, Lucas T.; Gomes, Marcelo D.; Oliveira, Eduardo B.; Costa-Neto, Claudio M.

    2007-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a ubiquitous protein of eukaryotic and archaeal organisms which undergoes hypusination, a unique post-translational modification. We have generated a polyclonal antibody against murine eIF5A, which in immunocytochemical assays in B16-F10 cells revealed that the endogenous protein is preferentially localized to the nuclear region. We therefore analyzed possible structural features present in eIF5A proteins that could be responsible for that characteristic. Multiple sequence alignment analysis of eIF5A proteins from different eukaryotic and archaeal organisms showed that the former sequences have an extended N-terminal segment. We have then performed in silico prediction analyses and constructed different truncated forms of murine eIF5A to verify any possible role that the N-terminal extension might have in determining the subcellular localization of the eIF5A in eukaryotic organisms. Our results indicate that the N-terminal extension of the eukaryotic eIF5A contributes in signaling this protein to nuclear localization, despite of bearing no structural similarity with classical nuclear localization signals

  6. Dissociation of 5' proximal helical regions in messenger RNAs by eukaryotic initiation factors 4F, 4A, and 4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thach, R.E.; Lawson, T.G.; Lee, K.A.; Abramson, R.D.; Merrick, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Ray, et al. demonstrated that the susceptibility of mRNAs to cleavage by ribonucleases is greatly increased by eIF-4A and eIF-4F in an ATP-dependent reaction, and that this reaction is enhanced by the presence of eIF-4B. They now report direct evidence for the dissociation of helical regions at the 5' ends of mRNAs by these factors. Helices were generated at the 5' ends of reovirus and rabbit globin mRNAs by hybridizing to them 32 P-labeled cDNA pentadecamers. The dissociation of the cDNAs from the mRNAs was monitored by Sephadex gel filtration. Addition of eIF-4F to hybrids caused the dissociation of small amounts of cDNAs, and this dissociation required ATP. Addition of eIF-4B stimulated this activity. Neither eIF-4B nor eIF-4A alone caused significant ATP-dependent dissociation, but they did so in combination. Interestingly, cDNAs that were hybridized to 5' distal regions were dissociated with efficiencies and rates similar to those of 5' proximal cDNAs. The presence of unlabelled cDNAs hybridized 5' proximally did not affect distal cDNA dissociation. These results confirm the earlier suggestion that eIF-4A, eIF-4B and eIF-4F play important roles in the disruption of mRNA secondary structure during initiation

  7. Preliminary results from initial in-pile debris bed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    An accident in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) in which molten core material is suddenly quenched with subcooled liquid sodium could result in extensive fragmentation and dispersal of fuel as subcritical beds of frozen particulate debris within the reactor vessel. Since this debris will continue to generate power due to decay of retained fission products, containment of the debris is threatened if the generated heat is not removed. Therefore, the initial safety question is the capacity which debris beds may have for transfer of the decay heat to overlying liquid sodium by natural processes--i.e., without the aid of forced circulation of the coolant. Up to the present time, all experiments on debris bed behavior either have used substitute materials (e.g., sand and water) or have employed actual materials, but atypical heating methods. Increased confidence in the applicability of debris bed simulations is afforded if the heat is generated within the fuel component of the appropriate fast reactor materials. The initial series of in-pile tests reported on herein constitutes the first experiments in which the internal heating mode has been produced in particulate oxide fuel immersed in liquid sodium. Fission heating of the fully-enriched UO 2 in the experiment while it is contained within Sandia Laboratories Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR), operating in its steady-state mode, approximates the decay heating of debris. Preliminary results are discussed

  8. 75 FR 16739 - EDA Participation in the Energy Efficient Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...: Promote regional development; Accelerate innovation, technology transfer, and entrepreneurship to create... priorities, which are: Collaborative Regional Innovation. Initiatives that support the development and growth... Participation in the Energy Efficient Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative AGENCY: Economic...

  9. Gender differences in use and expectancies of e-cigarettes: Online survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; Correa, John B; Simmons, Vani N; Harrell, Paul T; Menzie, Nicole S; Unrod, Marina; Meltzer, Lauren R; Brandon, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Given the rapid increase in e-cigarette use, it is important to understand factors that may contribute to their initiation and maintenance. Because gender differences in tobacco use, product preferences, and expectancies are well established, similar gender differences may exist with e-cigarettes. The aim of this study was to identify gender differences among e-cigarette users in patterns of use, reasons for initiation and maintenance, and outcome expectancies regarding e-cigarettes. Participants (N=1815) completed an online survey from August through November, 2013. We assessed sociodemographics, smoking and e-cigarette history and use, and expectancies about e-cigarettes. We found gender differences in type of e-cigarette used, flavors used, nicotine dosage, source of information about e-cigarettes, place of purchase, and use of e-cigarettes where smoking is prohibited. In addition, males were more likely to report initiating e-cigarette use to quit smoking due to health concerns, whereas females were more likely to report initiation based on recommendations from family and friends. Males reported higher attributions for maintenance of e-cigarette use related to positive reinforcement (enjoyment), whereas females reported higher negative reinforcement attributions (stress reduction or mood management). Males reported more positive expectancies about e-cigarettes, including taste, social facilitation, and energy, whereas women rated e-cigarettes higher for weight control. Males also reported greater addiction-related e-cigarette expectancy than females. Many of the gender differences with e-cigarettes parallel those previously found with traditional cigarette smoking. Although effect sizes associated with these differences were small, the results may help advance research and intervention development with respect to e-cigarette initiation, maintenance and cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Functional results of cryosurgical procedures in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment including macula region - our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrapek, O; Sín, M; Jirková, B; Jarkovský, J; Rehák, J

    2013-10-01

    Aim of this study is to evaluate retrospectively functional results of cryosurgical treatment of uncomplicated, idiopathic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment including macula region in phakic patients operated on at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic, E.U., during the period 2002 -2013, and to evaluate the significance of the macula detachment duration for the final visual acuity. In the study group were included 56 eyes of 56 patients operated in the years 2003 - 2012 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital, Palacký University, Olomouc. All patients were phakic and in all of them, the retinal detachment including the macula region was diagnosed. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 8,75 months. The initial and final visual acuity testing were performed. Comparing the initial and final visual acuity we rated the level of the visual acuity change. The result was stated as improved, if the visual acuity improved by 1 or more lines on the ETDRS chart. The result was rated as stabilized, if the visual acuity remained the same or it changed by 1 line of the ETDRS chart only. The result was evaluated as worsened, if the visual acuity decreased by 1 or more lines of the ETDRS chart. In the followed-up group, the authors compared visual acuity levels in patients with the macula detachment duration 10 days and 11 days. For the statistical evaluation of achieved results, the Mann - Whitney U test was used. The visual acuity improved in 49 (87 %), did not changed in 5 (9 %) and worsened in 2 (4 %) patients. The patients with macula detachment duration 10 days achieved statistically significant better visual acuity than patients with macula detachment duration 11 days. Patients with macula detachment duration 10 days have better prognosis for functional result than patients with macula detachment duration 11 days.

  11. Development of a Geomagnetic Storm Correction to the International Reference Ionosphere E-Region Electron Densities Using TIMED/SABER Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Fernandez, J. R.; Bilitza, D.; Russell, J. M., III; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Auroral infrared emission observed from the TIMED/SABER broadband 4.3 micron channel is used to develop an empirical geomagnetic storm correction to the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) E-region electron densities. The observation-based proxy used to develop the storm model is SABER-derived NO+(v) 4.3 micron volume emission rates (VER). A correction factor is defined as the ratio of storm-time NO+(v) 4.3 micron VER to a quiet-time climatological averaged NO+(v) 4.3 micron VER, which is linearly fit to available geomagnetic activity indices. The initial version of the E-region storm model, called STORM-E, is most applicable within the auroral oval region. The STORM-E predictions of E-region electron densities are compared to incoherent scatter radar electron density measurements during the Halloween 2003 storm events. Future STORM-E updates will extend the model outside the auroral oval.

  12. A preliminary comparison of F region plasma drifts and E region irregularity drifts in the auroral zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecklund, W.L.; Balsley, B.B.; Carter, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    During several days in April--May 1976 the Chatanika, Alaska, incoherent scatter radar and a temporary Doppler auroral radar located at Aniak, Alaska, were directed toward ionospheric volumes along a common magnetic field line in order to compare E region and F region drifts and associated electric fields. The Chatanika radar measured F region plasma drifts via the incoherent scatter technique, while the Aniak radar measured the drifts of E region irregularities (i.e., the radar aurora). The radar geometry was arranged so that both radars measured approximately the same velocity component of a magnetically westward or eastward motion. Preliminary data show good agreement between the drift velocity components measured by the two techniques during most of the experimental period. This result indicates that relatively modest auroral radar systems may be used, with some qualifications, to determine auroral electric fields

  13. Preliminary results of teleseismic double-difference relocation of earthquakes around Indonesian archipelago region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: andridn104@gmail.com; Widiyantoro, Sri [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Shiddiqi, Hasbi Ash [Earth Sciences Graduate Program, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Ramdhan, Mohamad; Wandono,; Sutiyono,; Handayani, Titi; Nugroho, Hendro [Agency for Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics (BMKG), Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Indonesian archipelago region is located in active tectonic setting and high seismicity zone. During the last decade, Indonesian was experienced with destructive major earthquakes causing damage and victims. The information of precise earthquake location parameters are very important in partular for earthquake early warning to the society and for advance seismic studies. In this study, we attempted to improve hypocenter location compiled by BMKG for time periods of April, 2009 up to June, 2014 for about 22,000 earthquake events around Indonesian region. For the firts time, we applied teleseismic double-difference relocation algorithm (teletomoDD) to improve hypocenter region in Indonesia region combining regional and teleseismic stations. Hypocenter relocation was performed utilizing local, regional, and teleseismic P-wave arrival time data. Our relocation result show that travel-time RMS errors were greatly reduced compared to the BMKG catalog. Seismicity at shallower depth (less than 50 km) shows significantly improvement especially in depth, and refined shallow geological structures, e.g. trench and major strike slip faults. Clustered seismicity is also detected beneath volcanic region, and probably related volcano activities and also major faults nearby. In the Sunda arc region, seismicity at shallower depth centered at two major distributions parallel to the trench strike direction, i.e. around fore-arc and in mainland that related to major fault, e.g. the Sumatran fault, and volcanic fronts. Below Central Java region, relocated hypocenter result showed double seismic zone pattern. A seismic gap is detected around the Sunda-Banda transition zone where transition between oceanic subduction to continental crust collision of Australian plate occurs. In Eastern Indonesia region, shallow earthquakes are observed related to major strike slip faults, e.g. Sorong and Palu-Koro fault, volcanism, and shallow part of subduction and collision zones. We also compare our

  14. Initial results from the RHEPP module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harjes, H.C.; Penn, K.J.; Reed, K.W.; McClenahan, C.R.; Laderach, G.E.; Wavrik, R.W.; Adcock, J.L.; Butler, M.E.; Mann, G.A.; Pena, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Several potential applications such as medical waste treatment, chemical waste treatment, food treatment, and flue gas cleanup have been identified for high average power electron beam systems. In the RHEPP (Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power) project, the technology for such a system is being developed. The RHEPP module consists of a magnetic pulse compressor driving a linear induction voltage adder with an e-beam diode load. It has been designed to operate continuously, delivering 350 kW of average power to the diode in 60-ns FWHM, 2.5-MV, 2.9-kJ pulses. The module is presently under construction with the first phase scheduled for completion in the summer of 1992. In the first phase, four of ten adder stages are being built so that testing can begin with a 1-MV, 160-kW diode with the balance of the power from the compressor diverted to a resistive load. A description of the system and test results from the initial stages of the compressor will be presented

  15. The nematode eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E/G complex works with a trans-spliced leader stem-loop to enable efficient translation of trimethylguanosine-capped RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Adam; Filbin, Megan E; Veo, Bethany; McFarland, Craig; Stepinski, Janusz; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Davis, Richard E

    2010-04-01

    Eukaryotic mRNA translation begins with recruitment of the 40S ribosome complex to the mRNA 5' end through the eIF4F initiation complex binding to the 5' m(7)G-mRNA cap. Spliced leader (SL) RNA trans splicing adds a trimethylguanosine (TMG) cap and a sequence, the SL, to the 5' end of mRNAs. Efficient translation of TMG-capped mRNAs in nematodes requires the SL sequence. Here we define a core set of nucleotides and a stem-loop within the 22-nucleotide nematode SL that stimulate translation of mRNAs with a TMG cap. The structure and core nucleotides are conserved in other nematode SLs and correspond to regions of SL1 required for early Caenorhabditis elegans development. These SL elements do not facilitate translation of m(7)G-capped RNAs in nematodes or TMG-capped mRNAs in mammalian or plant translation systems. Similar stem-loop structures in phylogenetically diverse SLs are predicted. We show that the nematode eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E/G (eIF4E/G) complex enables efficient translation of the TMG-SL RNAs in diverse in vitro translation systems. TMG-capped mRNA translation is determined by eIF4E/G interaction with the cap and the SL RNA, although the SL does not increase the affinity of eIF4E/G for capped RNA. These results suggest that the mRNA 5' untranslated region (UTR) can play a positive and novel role in translation initiation through interaction with the eIF4E/G complex in nematodes and raise the issue of whether eIF4E/G-RNA interactions play a role in the translation of other eukaryotic mRNAs.

  16. Perspective of trust towards e-government initiatives in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaweera, H M B P

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on understanding the antecedent conditions of trustworthiness of the users towards the use of e-government services and attempt to propose a model to assess the influences of the trustworthiness for the use of e-government services in Sri Lanka. Trustworthiness was considered as an additional construct along with the technology acceptance model (TAM) constructs. Structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to test the proposed model by utilizing the responses of 898 citizens. SEM results reveal that the proposed model is acceptable showing goodness of fit. The proposed model tested by SEM is appropriate to assess what extend trustworthiness of the users influence for the use of e-government services and this would be worth to pay more attention on trust when develop and implement e-government initiatives.

  17. Regional Photonics Initiative at the College of Lake County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulmes, Steven; Kellerhals, William

    2017-01-01

    The College of Lake County Regional Photonics Initiative project was motivated in part by the hiring of out-of-state technicians for local Photonics industry positions. Fifteen high paying employment opportunities during the recent recession could not be filled from the locally available workforce. Research on the current demand and future growth…

  18. eSACP - a new Nordic initiative towards developing statistical climate services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis; Thejll, Peter; Drews, Martin; Guttorp, Peter; Venälainen, Ari; Uotila, Petteri; Benestad, Rasmus; Mesquita, Michel d. S.; Madsen, Henrik; Fox Maule, Cathrine

    2015-04-01

    The Nordic research council NordForsk has recently announced its support for a new 3-year research initiative on "statistical analysis of climate projections" (eSACP). eSACP will focus on developing e-science tools and services based on statistical analysis of climate projections for the purpose of helping decision-makers and planners in the face of expected future challenges in regional climate change. The motivation behind the project is the growing recognition in our society that forecasts of future climate change is associated with various sources of uncertainty, and that any long-term planning and decision-making dependent on a changing climate must account for this. At the same time there is an obvious gap between scientists from different fields and between practitioners in terms of understanding how climate information relates to different parts of the "uncertainty cascade". In eSACP we will develop generic e-science tools and statistical climate services to facilitate the use of climate projections by decision-makers and scientists from all fields for climate impact analyses and for the development of robust adaptation strategies, which properly (in a statistical sense) account for the inherent uncertainty. The new tool will be publically available and include functionality to utilize the extensive and dynamically growing repositories of data and use state-of-the-art statistical techniques to quantify the uncertainty and innovative approaches to visualize the results. Such a tool will not only be valuable for future assessments and underpin the development of dedicated climate services, but will also assist the scientific community in making more clearly its case on the consequences of our changing climate to policy makers and the general public. The eSACP project is led by Thordis Thorarinsdottir, Norwegian Computing Center, and also includes the Finnish Meteorological Institute, the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, the Technical University of Denmark

  19. Measuring E-cigarette dependence: Initial guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bold, Krysten W; Sussman, Steve; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Grana, Rachel; Foulds, Jonathan; Fishbein, Howard; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2018-04-01

    E-cigarette use rates are increasing among youth and adults, despite limited knowledge about the safety, risks, and potential for this product in substituting for or reducing other tobacco use. Understanding how to characterize and assess e-cigarette dependence will be important for evaluating the public health impact of e-cigarettes and considering prevention and intervention strategies. To provide an initial review of constructs to consider when assessing e-cigarette dependence, a content expert group within the Tobacco Center for Regulatory Science (TCORS) Measurement Workgroup engaged in a review of published manuscripts and 12 tobacco dependence measures, followed by review of suggested dependence domains by a 10-person external subject-matter expert panel. The final domains selected to be considered in the development of a measure of e-cigarette dependence included: 1) Quantity and frequency of use, 2) Tolerance, 3) Perceived benefits, 4) Withdrawal symptoms, 5) Craving/urge to use, 6) Use despite harm, 7) Impaired control, 8) Automaticity, 9) Preferred over competing rewards, and 10) Sensory dependence. Similarities and differences in potential features of e-cigarette dependence compared with dependence on other tobacco products is discussed. Future work will evaluate these dependence items and constructs in a sample of e-cigarette users with a goal of developing a valid, brief, standardized measure of e-cigarette dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Aquarius: The Instrument and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, David M Le; Lagerloef, G.S.E.; Ruf, C.; Wentz, F.; Yueh, S.; Piepmeier, J.; Lindstrom, E.; Dinnat, E.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius was launched on June 10, 2011 aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory and the instrument has been operating continuously since the initial turned-on was completed on August 25. The initial observed antenna temperatures were close to predicted and the first salinity map was released in September. In order to map the ocean salinity field, Aquarius includes several special features such as the inclusion of a scatterometer to provide a roughness correction, measurement of the third Stokes parameter to correct for Faraday rotation, and fast sampling to mitigate the effects of RFI. This paper provides an overview of the instrument and an example of initial results. Details are covered in subsequent papers in the session on Aquarius

  1. Effects of a conducting E layer on classical F region cross-field plasma diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickrey, J.F.; Kelley, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The rate of cross-field plasma diffusion in the F region ionosphere is significantly increased when the magnetic field lines thread a highly conducting E region below. This reduces the lifetime of small-scale F region electron density irregularities in the polar ionosphere where the presence of a highly conducting E region is comonplace. A simple mmodel is developed to describe the effects of a conducting E layer on classical F region plasma diffusion. In the absence of an E region, the difference in ion and electron diffusion rates leads to a charge separation and, hence, to an electrostatic field that retards ion diffusion. When the highly conducting magnetic field lines are tied to a conducting E region, however, electrons can flow along B to reduce the ambipolar diffusion electric field, and ions can proceed perpendicular to B at a rate approaching their own (higher) diffusion velocity. It is shown that the enhanced total diffusion rate that results depends strongly on the height of the F layer and on the ratio of the E to F region Pedersen conductivities

  2. Targeting the eIF4F translation initiation complex: a critical nexus for cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jerry; Graff, Jeremy; Ruggero, Davide; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2015-01-15

    Elevated protein synthesis is an important feature of many cancer cells and often arises as a consequence of increased signaling flux channeled to eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), the key regulator of the mRNA-ribosome recruitment phase of translation initiation. In many cellular and preclinical models of cancer, eIF4F deregulation results in changes in translational efficiency of specific mRNA classes. Importantly, many of these mRNAs code for proteins that potently regulate critical cellular processes, such as cell growth and proliferation, enhanced cell survival and cell migration that ultimately impinge on several hallmarks of cancer, including increased angiogenesis, deregulated growth control, enhanced cellular survival, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and metastasis. By being positioned as the molecular nexus downstream of key oncogenic signaling pathways (e.g., Ras, PI3K/AKT/TOR, and MYC), eIF4F serves as a direct link between important steps in cancer development and translation initiation. Identification of mRNAs particularly responsive to elevated eIF4F activity that typifies tumorigenesis underscores the critical role of eIF4F in cancer and raises the exciting possibility of developing new-in-class small molecules targeting translation initiation as antineoplastic agents. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): wet season campaigns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Otter, LB

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) involved two wet season and one dry season field campaigns. This paper reports on the wet season campaigns. The first was conducted at five sites along the Kalahari Transect in Zambia...

  4. Looking beyond oral mucosa: Initial results of everted saphenous vein graft urethroplasty (eSVGU) in long anterior urethral strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Arif; Khattar, Nikhil; Goel, Hemant; Rao, Swatantra; Tanwar, Raman; Sood, Rajeev

    2017-09-01

    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility and initial results of an everted saphenous vein graft (eSVG) as a dorsolateral onlay, in patients with long anterior urethral strictures and/or chronic tobacco users. In all, 20 patients with long anterior urethral strictures (>7 cm) and/or chronic tobacco exposed oral mucosa were included in the study. The harvested SVG was hydro-distended, detubularised, and everted. Substitution urethroplasty using an eSVG was performed using a dorsolateral onlay technique. Symptoms were assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and uroflowmetry at 1, 3 and 6 months; and voiding and retrograde urethrograms, and urethroscopy were done at 3 months. Failure was defined as failure to void, need for interventions in form of direct-vision internal urethrotomy or endodilatation. Three patients were excluded because they underwent a staged urethroplasty. In all, 17 patients underwent eSVG substitution urethroplasty. The mean (SD, range) follow-up of our patients was 17.64 (5.23, 10-26) months. The mean (SD, range) length of the strictured segment was 14 (2.5, 10-18) cm and the length of the harvested SVG was 16.3 (2.7, 12-20) cm. The mean (SD) IPSS at 1, 3 and 6 months after catheter removal was 10 (2.8), 10 (3.4) and 10 (1.4) and the quality-of-life score was 1.76 (0.5), 2.05 (1.0) and 2.05 (1.0), respectively. Postoperatively, endodilatation was required in two patients. Complete failure occurred in one patient. An eSVG, as a dorsolateral onlay graft, is a promising and prudent option for long anterior urethral strictures, especially in patients with poor oral hygiene and chronic tobacco use.

  5. Tablets in Education. Results from the Initiative ETiE, for Teaching Plants to Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokides, Emmanuel; Atsikpasi, Pinelopi

    2017-01-01

    The study presents the results from the first phase of the initiative Emerging Technologies in Education. At this stage, we examined the learning outcomes from the use of tablets and an application as content delivery methods for teaching plants' parts, reproduction types and organs, photosynthesis, and respiration. The project lasted for four…

  6. Modulation of translation-initiation in CHO-K1 cells by rapamycin-induced heterodimerization of engineered eIF4G fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Stefan; Senn, Claudia; Fussenegger, Martin

    2003-07-20

    Translation-initiation is a predominant checkpoint in mammalian cells which controls protein synthesis and fine-tunes the flow of information from gene to protein. In eukaryotes, translation-initiation is typically initiated at a 7-methyl-guanylic acid cap posttranscriptionally linked to the 5' end of mRNAs. Alternative cap-independent translation-initiation involves 5' untranslated regions (UTR) known as internal ribosome entry sites, which adopt a particular secondary structure. Translation-initiating ribosome assembly at cap or IRES elements is mediated by a multiprotein complex of which the initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) consisting of eIF4A (helicase), eIF4E (cap-binding protein), and eIF4G is a major constituent. eIF4G is a key target of picornaviral protease 2A, which cleaves this initiation factor into eIF4G(Delta) and (Delta)eIF4G to redirect the cellular translation machinery exclusively to its own IRES-containing transcripts. We have designed a novel translation control system (TCS) for conditional as well as adjustable translation of cap- and IRES-dependent transgene mRNAs in mammalian cells. eIF4G(Delta) and (Delta)eIF4G were fused C- and N-terminally to the FK506-binding protein (FKBP) and the FKBP-rapamycin-binding domain (FRB) of the human FKBP-rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP), respectively. Rapamycin-induced heterodimerization of eIF4G(Delta)-FKBP and FRB-(Delta)eIF4G fusion proteins reconstituted a functional chimeric elongation factor 4G in a dose-dependent manner. Rigorous quantitative expression analysis of cap- and IRES-dependent SEAP- (human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase) and luc- (Photinus pyralis luciferase) encoding reporter constructs confirmed adjustable translation control and revealed increased production of desired proteins in response to dimerization-induced heterologous eIF4G in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 83: 210-225, 2003.

  7. Preliminary results of local earthquake tomography around Bali, Lombok, and Sumbawa regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id; Puspito, Nanang T; Yudistira, Tedi [Global Geophysical Reserach Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, JlGanesa 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Kusnandar, Ridwan; Sakti, Artadi Pria [Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) of Indonesian, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Bali, Sumbawa, and Lombok regions are located in active tectonic influence by Indo-Australia plate subducts beneath Sunda plate in southern part and local back-arc thrust in northern part the region. Some active volcanoes also lie from eastern part of Java, Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa regions. Previous studies have conducted subsurface seismic velocity imaging using regional and global earthquake data around the region. In this study, we used P-arrival time from local earthquake networks compiled by MCGA, Indonesia within time periods of 2009 up to 2013 to determine seismic velocity structure and simultaneously hypocenter adjustment by applying seismic tomography inversion method. For the tomographic inversion procedure, we started from 1-D initial velocity structure. We evaluated the resolution of tomography inversion results through checkerboard test and calculating derivative weigh sum. The preliminary results of tomography inversion show fairly clearly high seismic velocity subducting Indo-Australian and low velocity anomaly around volcano regions. The relocated hypocenters seem to cluster around the local fault system such as back-arc thrust fault in northern part of the region and around local fault in Sumbawa regions. Our local earthquake tomography results demonstrated consistent with previous studies and improved the resolution. For future works, we will determine S-wave velocity structure using S-wave arrival time to enhance our understanding of geological processes and for much better interpretation.

  8. The Nematode Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E/G Complex Works with a trans-Spliced Leader Stem-Loop To Enable Efficient Translation of Trimethylguanosine-Capped RNAs ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Adam; Filbin, Megan E.; Veo, Bethany; McFarland, Craig; Stepinski, Janusz; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Davis, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNA translation begins with recruitment of the 40S ribosome complex to the mRNA 5′ end through the eIF4F initiation complex binding to the 5′ m7G-mRNA cap. Spliced leader (SL) RNA trans splicing adds a trimethylguanosine (TMG) cap and a sequence, the SL, to the 5′ end of mRNAs. Efficient translation of TMG-capped mRNAs in nematodes requires the SL sequence. Here we define a core set of nucleotides and a stem-loop within the 22-nucleotide nematode SL that stimulate translation of mRNAs with a TMG cap. The structure and core nucleotides are conserved in other nematode SLs and correspond to regions of SL1 required for early Caenorhabditis elegans development. These SL elements do not facilitate translation of m7G-capped RNAs in nematodes or TMG-capped mRNAs in mammalian or plant translation systems. Similar stem-loop structures in phylogenetically diverse SLs are predicted. We show that the nematode eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E/G (eIF4E/G) complex enables efficient translation of the TMG-SL RNAs in diverse in vitro translation systems. TMG-capped mRNA translation is determined by eIF4E/G interaction with the cap and the SL RNA, although the SL does not increase the affinity of eIF4E/G for capped RNA. These results suggest that the mRNA 5′ untranslated region (UTR) can play a positive and novel role in translation initiation through interaction with the eIF4E/G complex in nematodes and raise the issue of whether eIF4E/G-RNA interactions play a role in the translation of other eukaryotic mRNAs. PMID:20154140

  9. The INTERBALL-Tail ELECTRON experiment: initial results on the low-latitude boundary layer of the dawn magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-A. Sauvaud

    Full Text Available The Toulouse electron spectrometer flown on the Russian project INTERBALL-Tail performs electron measurements from 10 to 26 000 eV over a 4 solid angle in a satellite rotation period. The INTERBALL-Tail probe was launched on 3 August 1995 together with a subsatellite into a 65° inclination orbit with an apogee of about 30 RE. The INTERBALL mission also includes a polar spacecraft launched in August 1996 for correlated studies of the outer magnetosphere and of the auroral regions. We present new observations concerning the low-latitude boundary layers (LLBL of the magnetosphere obtained near the dawn magnetic meridian. LLBL are encountered at the interface between two plasma regimes, the magnetosheath and the dayside extension of the plasma sheet. Unexpectedly, the radial extent of the region where LLBL electrons can be sporadically detected as plasma clouds can reach up to 5 RE inside the magnetopause. The LLBL core electrons have an average energy of the order of 100 eV and are systematically field-aligned and counterstreaming. As a trend, the temperature of the LLBL electrons increases with decreasing distance to Earth. Along the satellite orbit, the apparent time of occurrence of LLBL electrons can vary from about 5 to 20 min from one pass to another. An initial first comparison between electron- and magnetic-field measurements indicates that the LLBL clouds coincide with a strong increase in the magnetic field (by up to a factor of 2. The resulting strong magnetic field gradient can explain why the plasma-sheet electron flux in the keV range is strongly depressed in LLBL occurrence regions (up to a factor of sim10. We also show that LLBL electron encounters are related to field-aligned current structures and that wide LLBL correspond to northward interplanetary magnetic field. Evidence for LLBL/plasma-sheet electron leakage into the magnetosheath during southward IMF is also presented.

  10. Data processing and initial results of Chang'e-3 lunar penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Fang, Guang-You; Feng, Jian-Qing; Xing, Shu-Guo; Ji, Yi-Cai; Zhou, Bin; Gao, Yun-Ze; Li, Han; Dai, Shun; Xiao, Yuan; Li, Chun-Lai

    2014-12-01

    To improve our understanding of the formation and evolution of the Moon, one of the payloads onboard the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover is Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR). This investigation is the first attempt to explore the lunar subsurface structure by using ground penetrating radar with high resolution. We have probed the subsurface to a depth of several hundred meters using LPR. In-orbit testing, data processing and the preliminary results are presented. These observations have revealed the configuration of regolith where the thickness of regolith varies from about 4 m to 6 m. In addition, one layer of lunar rock, which is about 330 m deep and might have been accumulated during the depositional hiatus of mare basalts, was detected.

  11. Unequal distribution of RT-PCR artifacts along the E1-E2 region of Hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Calap, Pilar; Sentandreu, Vicente; Bracho, Maria Alma; González-Candelas, Fernando; Moya, Andrés; Sanjuán, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    Although viral variability studies have focused traditionally on consensus sequences, the relevance of molecular clone sequences for studying viral evolution at the intra-host level is being increasingly recognized. However, for this approach to be reliable, RT-PCR artifacts do not have to contribute excessively to the observed variability. Molecular clone sequences were obtained from an in vitro transcript to estimate the maximum error rate associated to RT-PCR for the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) E1-E2 region. On average, the frequency of RT-PCR errors was one order of magnitude lower than the level of intra-host genetic variability observed in samples from an HCV outbreak. However, RT-PCR errors were not distributed evenly along the E1-E2 region and were concentrated heavily in the hypervariable region 2 (HVR 2). Although it is concluded that RT-PCR molecular clone sequences are reliable, these results warn against extrapolation of RT-PCR error rates to different genome regions. The data suggest that the RNA sequence context or secondary structure can determine the fidelity of in vitro transcription or reverse transcription. Potentially, these factors might also modify the fidelity of the viral polymerase.

  12. E-waste collection in Italy: Results from an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favot, Marinella; Grassetti, Luca

    2017-09-01

    This study looks at the performance of household electrical and electronic waste (WEEE) collection in 20 Italian regions from 2008 to 2015. The impact of several explicative variables on the results of e-waste collection is evaluated. The independent variables are socio-economic and demographic ones (age, gender, household size, education level, migration and income) along with technical-organisational variables (population density, presence of metropoles, macro regions, characteristics of the territory, percentage of household waste collected separately and number of e-waste collection points). The results show that the presence of collection points, the percentage of household waste collected separately and the percentage of females are positively correlated with the kg collected per inhabitant per year. For example, a variation of 1% of input (presence of collection points) corresponds to a 0.25% variation in the output (collection results) while 1% difference in the percentage of females in the population corresponds to a 7.549% difference in the collection rate. Population density, instead, is negatively correlated. It is interesting to note that there is a discrepancy between the Southern regions and the Centre regions (the former have an outcome 0.66 times lower than the latter) while the Northern regions perform similarly to the Centre ones. Moreover, the first year (2008) had a very low performance compared to the following years when the scheme constantly improved, mainly due to the additional collection points available. The Stochastic Frontier Model allows for the identification of the optimal production function among the 20 Italian regions. The best performing region is Tuscany (in the Centre), followed by Sardinia and Sicily (in the South). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Propagation and dispersion of electrostatic waves in the ionospheric E region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Iranpour

    Full Text Available Low-frequency electrostatic fluctuations in the ionospheric E region were detected by instruments on the ROSE rockets. The phase velocity and dispersion of plasma waves in the ionospheric E region are determined by band-pass filtering and cross-correlating data of the electric-field fluctuations detected by the probes on the ROSE F4 rocket. The results were confirmed by a different method of analysis of the same data. The results show that the waves propagate in the Hall-current direction with a velocity somewhat below the ion sound speed obtained for ionospheric conditions during the flight. It is also found that the waves are dispersive, with the longest wavelengths propagating with the lowest velocity.

  14. Propagation and dispersion of electrostatic waves in the ionospheric E region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Iranpour

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-frequency electrostatic fluctuations in the ionospheric E region were detected by instruments on the ROSE rockets. The phase velocity and dispersion of plasma waves in the ionospheric E region are determined by band-pass filtering and cross-correlating data of the electric-field fluctuations detected by the probes on the ROSE F4 rocket. The results were confirmed by a different method of analysis of the same data. The results show that the waves propagate in the Hall-current direction with a velocity somewhat below the ion sound speed obtained for ionospheric conditions during the flight. It is also found that the waves are dispersive, with the longest wavelengths propagating with the lowest velocity.

  15. Regional Synthesis and Dissemination of Research Results in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the past five years, IDRC's Rural Poverty and Environment (RPE) program initiative has funded a number of projects in eastern and southern Africa. While these projects have ... newsletter - January 2018. In this ROSSA bulletin: Meet Kathryn Toure, the new regional director of IDRC's sub-Saharan Africa office.

  16. Roles of the conserved cytoplasmic region and non-conserved carboxy-terminal region of SecE in Escherichia coli protein translocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontinen, V P; Yamanaka, M; Nishiyama, K; Tokuda, H

    1996-06-01

    SecE, an essential membrane component of the Escherichia coli protein translocase, consists of 127 amino acid residues. Only a part of the second putative cytoplasmic region comprising some 13 residues is essential for the SecE function as long as the proper topological arrangement is retained. The Trp84 and Pro85 residues of this region are conserved in all eubacterial SecE homologues. The conservation of positively charged residues corresponding to Arg80 and Lys81 is also substantial. We deleted or replaced these residues to assess their roles in the SecE function. Deletion of the Arg80-Lys81 dipeptide did not abolish the SecE function whereas that of Trp84 or Pro85 caused a loss of the function. Strikingly, however, replacement of Pro85 with either Gly, Ser, or Ala, and that of Trp84 with Lys did not abolish the SecE function. These results indicate that the strong conservation of these residues does not reflect their obligatory requirement for the SecE function. A chimeric SecE possessing the cytoplasmic region of the E. coli SecE and the following region of the Bacillus subtilis SecE was able to form the translocation machinery together with SecA, SecY, and SecG. Although a Leu to Arg mutation at position 108 has been thought to cause a loss of signal recognition fidelity and thereby suppress a signal sequence defect, the same mutation at position 111 caused a complete loss of the function. The levels of SecY and SecG in the secEcsE501 mutant, which expresses SecE at a decreased level and is sensitive to low temperature, increased upon the expression of functional SecE derivatives, irrespective of the site of mutation, suggesting that the levels of SecY and SecG are co-operatively determined by the level of functional, but not non-functional, SecE. Based on these results, the SecE function in the translocase is discussed.

  17. eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Lucas, Henry; Khan, Azfar Sadun; Islam, Rubana; Bhuiya, Abbas; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2014-06-16

    The health system of Bangladesh is haunted by challenges of accessibility and affordability. Despite impressive gains in many health indicators, recent evidence has raised concerns regarding the utilization, quality and equity of healthcare. In the context of new and unfamiliar public health challenges including high population density and rapid urbanization, eHealth and mHealth are being promoted as a route to cost-effective, equitable and quality healthcare in Bangladesh. The aim of this paper is to highlight such initiatives and understand their true potential. This scoping study applies a combination of research tools to explore 26 eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh. A screening matrix was developed by modifying the framework of Arksey & O'Malley, further complemented by case study and SWOT analysis to identify common traits among the selected interventions. The WHO health system building blocks approach was then used for thematic analysis of these traits. Findings suggest that most eHealth and mHealth initiatives have proliferated within the private sector, using mobile phones. The most common initiatives include tele-consultation, prescription and referral. While a minority of projects have a monitoring and evaluation framework, less than a quarter have undertaken evaluation. Most of the initiatives use a health management information system (HMIS) to monitor implementation. However, these do not provide for effective sharing of information and interconnectedness among the various actors. There are extremely few individuals with eHealth training in Bangladesh and there is a strong demand for capacity building and experience sharing, especially for implementation and policy making. There is also a lack of research evidence on how to design interventions to meet the needs of the population and on potential benefits. This study concludes that Bangladesh needs considerable preparation and planning to sustain eHealth and mHealth initiatives successfully

  18. A Multilevel Analysis of Real-World Variations in Oral Anticoagulation Initiation for Atrial Fibrillation in Valencia, a European Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal García-Sempere

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Beyond clinical trials, clinical practice guidelines, and administrative regulation, treatment decision-making can be influenced by individual and contextual factors. Our goal was to describe variations in the patterns of initiation of anticoagulation therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation by Health Areas (HA in the region of Valencia in Spain and to quantify the influence of the HAs on variations in treatment choice.Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of all atrial fibrillation patients who started treatment with oral anticoagulants between November 2011 and February 2014 in each of the region's 24 HAs. We described patient and utilization characteristics per HA and initiation patterns over time, and we identified contextual and individual factors associated with differences in initiation patterns.Results: 21,879 patients initiated treatment with an oral anticoagulant in the 24 HAs. Initiation with direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC in the first year was 14.6%. In November 2013 the ratio was 25.4%, with HA ratios ranging from 3.8 to 57.1%. DOAC-initiating patients had less comorbidity but were more likely to present episodes of previous ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, or TIA when compared with patients initiating with VKA treatment. Variability among HAs was statistically significant, with the majority of HAs ranking above or below the regional initiation average (ICC ≈ 8%.Conclusion: There was high variability in the percentage of DOAC initiation and in the choice of DOAC among HAs. Interventions aimed to improve DOAC initiation decision-making and to reduce variations should take into account the Health Area component.

  19. A Multilevel Analysis of Real-World Variations in Oral Anticoagulation Initiation for Atrial Fibrillation in Valencia, a European Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sempere, Aníbal; Bejarano-Quisoboni, Daniel; Librero, Julián; Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L; Peiró, Salvador; Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Beyond clinical trials, clinical practice guidelines, and administrative regulation, treatment decision-making can be influenced by individual and contextual factors. Our goal was to describe variations in the patterns of initiation of anticoagulation therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation by Health Areas (HA) in the region of Valencia in Spain and to quantify the influence of the HAs on variations in treatment choice. Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of all atrial fibrillation patients who started treatment with oral anticoagulants between November 2011 and February 2014 in each of the region's 24 HAs. We described patient and utilization characteristics per HA and initiation patterns over time, and we identified contextual and individual factors associated with differences in initiation patterns. Results: 21,879 patients initiated treatment with an oral anticoagulant in the 24 HAs. Initiation with direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) in the first year was 14.6%. In November 2013 the ratio was 25.4%, with HA ratios ranging from 3.8 to 57.1%. DOAC-initiating patients had less comorbidity but were more likely to present episodes of previous ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, or TIA when compared with patients initiating with VKA treatment. Variability among HAs was statistically significant, with the majority of HAs ranking above or below the regional initiation average (ICC ≈ 8%). Conclusion: There was high variability in the percentage of DOAC initiation and in the choice of DOAC among HAs. Interventions aimed to improve DOAC initiation decision-making and to reduce variations should take into account the Health Area component.

  20. Sporadic-E and spread-F in high latitude region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Kazuhiko

    1974-01-01

    The heretofore made morphological studies of sporadic-E and spread-F as the typical irregularities of electron density are reviewed. These phenomena have close correlation with other geophysical phenomena which occur in the atmosphere of superhigh altitude in high latitude region. Many of these phenomena occur from same causes. Although the quantitative data are insufficient, the sporadic-E and spread-F in high latitude region are supposed to be caused by the precipitating charged particles falling from magnetosphere. A system, which can observe such phenomena simultaneously using the measuring instruments carried by satellites in the atmosphere of high altitude over high latitude region, is desirable to solve such problems. In detail, the morphological study on sporadic-E obtained from the observation of vertically projected ionosphere and the morphological study on sporadic-E from the observation of forward scattering and slanting entrance are reviewed. The correlation of the occurrence frequency of sporadic-E with solar activity, geomagnetic activity and other phenomena was studied. The morphological study on spread-F occurrence is reviewed. The observation of the spread-F in high latitude region by the application of top side sounding is reviewed. The correlation of the sporadic-E and spread-F in high latitude region with other geophysical phenomena is discussed. Finally, the discrete phenomenon and the diffuse phenomenon are discussed too. (Iwakiri, K.)

  1. TOPAZ results on jet production in γγ and eγ collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashii, Hisaki

    1995-01-01

    We report the recent results on the jet production in almost real γγ and eγ collisions studied at √s = 58 GeV with the TOPAZ detector at the TRISTAN e + e - collider. We have updated the previous results by improving the photon flux functions and by doubling the statistics. The energy distribution in the small angle region are studied in some more details. A clear jet-like structure is also observed in the event sample of deep-inelastic eγ scattering. (author)

  2. Equatorial E Region Electric Fields and Sporadic E Layer Responses to the Recovery Phase of the November 2004 Geomagnetic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, J.; Resende, L. C. A.; Denardini, C. M.; Xu, J.; Batista, I. S.; Andrioli, V. F.; Carrasco, A. J.; Batista, P. P.; Schuch, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    Equatorial E region electric fields (EEFs) inferred from coherent radar data, sporadic-E (Es) layers observed from a digital ionosonde data, and modeling results are used to study the responses of the equatorial E region over São Luís (SLZ, 2.3°S, 44.2°W, -7° dip angle), Brazil, during the super storm of November 2004. The EEF is presented in terms of the zonal (Ey) and vertical (Ez) components in order to analyze the corresponding characteristics of different types of Es seen in ionograms and simulated with the E region ionospheric model. We bring out the variabilities of Ey and Ez components with storm time changes in the equatorial E region. In addition, some aspects of the electric fields and Es behavior in three cases of weak, very weak, and strong Type II occurrences during the recovery phase of the geomagnetic storm are discussed. The connection between the enhanced occurrence and suppressions of the Type II irregularities and the q-type Es (Esq) controlled by electric fields, with the development or disruption of the blanketing sporadic E (Esb) layers produced by wind shear mechanism, is also presented. The mutual presence of Esq along with the Esb occurrences is a clear indicator of the secular drift of the magnetic equator and hence that of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) over SLZ. The results show evidence about the EEJ and Es layer electrodynamics and coupling during geomagnetic disturbance time electric fields.

  3. 76 FR 23543 - The Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge; a Coordinated Initiative To Advance Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge; a Coordinated Initiative To Advance Regional Competitiveness... Federal resources to support regional innovation and sustainable economic prosperity. Knowing that regional innovation clusters provide a globally proven approach for developing economic prosperity, this...

  4. Results of the IAEA/RCA personal dosemeter intercomparison in the Asian and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, H.; Minami, K.; Griffith, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988, the International Atomic Energy Agency started the Regional Co-operative Agreement project for strengthening the radiation protection infrastructure in the Asian and Pacific region. One component of the initial programme was a regional personal dosimetry intercomparison, which was subsequently conducted in three phases over three years during the period 1990 to 1992. Seventeen organisations of all 14 member states participated in the programmes. Irradiations and data compilation were conducted by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This paper describes the results of the intercomparison programmes and discusses some features and personal dosimetry problems in the RCA member states. (author)

  5. 75 FR 7464 - Energy Efficient Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative-Joint Federal Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... a regional innovation cluster focused on innovation in energy efficient building technologies and... technology challenges through approaches that span basic research to engineering development to... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficient Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative...

  6. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B-beta (eIF2Bβ), a new class of plant virus resistance gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shopan, Jannat; Mou, Haipeng; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Changtong; Ma, Weiwei; Walsh, John A; Hu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang

    2017-06-01

    Recessive resistances to plant viruses in the Potyvirus genus have been found to be based on mutations in the plant eukaryotic translation initiation factors, eIF4E and eIF4G or their isoforms. Here we report that natural, monogenic recessive resistance to the Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) has been found in a number of mustard (Brassica juncea) accessions. Bulked segregant analysis and sequencing of resistant and susceptible plant lines indicated the resistance is controlled by a single recessive gene, recessive TuMV resistance 03 (retr03), an allele of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B-beta (eIF2Bβ). Silencing of eIF2Bβ in a TuMV-susceptible mustard plant line and expression of eIF2Bβ from a TuMV-susceptible line in a TuMV-resistant mustard plant line confirmed the new resistance mechanism. A functional copy of a specific allele of eIF2Bβ is required for efficient TuMV infection. eIF2Bβ represents a new class of virus resistance gene conferring resistance to any pathogen. eIF2B acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for its GTP-binding protein partner eIF2 via interaction with eIF2·GTP at an early step in translation initiation. Further genotyping indicated that a single non-synonymous substitution (A120G) in the N-terminal region of eIF2Bβ was responsible for the TuMV resistance. A reproducible marker has been developed, facilitating marker-assisted selection for TuMV resistance in B. juncea. Our findings provide a new target for seeking natural resistance to potyviruses and new opportunities for the control of potyviruses using genome editing techniques targeted on eIF2Bβ. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Greenland Regional and Ice Sheet-wide Geometry Sensitivity to Boundary and Initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, L. C.; Narayanan, S. H. K.; Greve, R.; Heimbach, P.

    2017-12-01

    Ice sheet and glacier model outputs require inputs from uncertainly known initial and boundary conditions, and other parameters. Conservation and constitutive equations formalize the relationship between model inputs and outputs, and the sensitivity of model-derived quantities of interest (e.g., ice sheet volume above floatation) to model variables can be obtained via the adjoint model of an ice sheet. We show how one particular ice sheet model, SICOPOLIS (SImulation COde for POLythermal Ice Sheets), depends on these inputs through comprehensive adjoint-based sensitivity analyses. SICOPOLIS discretizes the shallow-ice and shallow-shelf approximations for ice flow, and is well-suited for paleo-studies of Greenland and Antarctica, among other computational domains. The adjoint model of SICOPOLIS was developed via algorithmic differentiation, facilitated by the source transformation tool OpenAD (developed at Argonne National Lab). While model sensitivity to various inputs can be computed by costly methods involving input perturbation simulations, the time-dependent adjoint model of SICOPOLIS delivers model sensitivities to initial and boundary conditions throughout time at lower cost. Here, we explore both the sensitivities of the Greenland Ice Sheet's entire and regional volumes to: initial ice thickness, precipitation, basal sliding, and geothermal flux over the Holocene epoch. Sensitivity studies such as described here are now accessible to the modeling community, based on the latest version of SICOPOLIS that has been adapted for OpenAD to generate correct and efficient adjoint code.

  8. 75 FR 17700 - Energy Efficient Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative-Joint Federal Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... economically dynamic regional innovation cluster focused on energy efficient buildings technologies and systems...-risk, high-reward research that overcomes technology challenges through approaches that span basic... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficient Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative...

  9. A comparison of the smeared-dislocation and super-dislocation description of a hydrided region in the context of modelling delayed hydride cracking initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1994-01-01

    In quantifying the stress distribution within a hydrided region in the context of modelling delayed hydride cracking (DHC) initiation in zirconium alloys, this paper highlights the desirability of accounting for image effects, i.e. the interaction between the hydrided region and any free surface, for example a sharp crack, blunt notch or planar surface. The super-dislocation representation of a finite thickness hydrided region is ideal for accounting for image effects. It also adequately accounts for the finite thickness, t, of a hydrided region provided, as is the case in practice, we are concerned with the stress value within the hydride at distances ≥ 0.25 t from an end of the region. (Author)

  10. Recent e+e- results from DORIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.

    1978-07-01

    This paper contains: some new results of the heavy lepton tau, evidence for the F- and F*-Mesons, observation of the Upsilon (9.46) Resonance, jets in hadron production in e + e - annihilation and status of PETRA. (WL) 891 WL [de

  11. 47 CFR Appendix B to Part 400 - Initial Certification for E-911 Grant Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial Certification for E-911 Grant... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, AND NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION E-911 GRANT PROGRAM Pt. 400, App. B Appendix B to Part 400—Initial Certification for E-911 Grant...

  12. Epistemology and expectations survey about experimental physics: Development and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Zwickl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS evaluates students’ epistemology at the beginning and end of a semester. Students respond to paired questions about how they personally perceive doing experiments in laboratory courses and how they perceive an experimental physicist might respond regarding their research. Also, at the end of the semester, the E-CLASS assesses a third dimension of laboratory instruction, students’ reflections on their course’s expectations for earning a good grade. By basing survey statements on widely embraced learning goals and common critiques of teaching labs, the E-CLASS serves as an assessment tool for lab courses across the undergraduate curriculum and as a tool for physics education research. We present the development, evidence of validation, and initial formative assessment results from a sample that includes 45 classes at 20 institutions. We also discuss feedback from instructors and reflect on the challenges of large-scale online administration and distribution of results.

  13. Data processing and initial results of Chang'e-3 lunar penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yan; Feng Jian-Qing; Xing Shu-Guo; Li Han; Dai Shun; Xiao Yuan; Li Chun-Lai; Fang Guang-You; Ji Yi-Cai; Zhou Bin; Gao Yun-Ze

    2014-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the formation and evolution of the Moon, one of the payloads onboard the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover is Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR). This investigation is the first attempt to explore the lunar subsurface structure by using ground penetrating radar with high resolution. We have probed the subsurface to a depth of several hundred meters using LPR. In-orbit testing, data processing and the preliminary results are presented. These observations have revealed the configuration of regolith where the thickness of regolith varies from about 4 m to 6 m. In addition, one layer of lunar rock, which is about 330 m deep and might have been accumulated during the depositional hiatus of mare basalts, was detected

  14. University engagement and regional sustainability initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Christensen, Per; Thrane, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    With an outset in ‘sustainability' defined as a continuous process requiring balance between (the emergence of) problems and our ability and capability to solve them using four distinct capitals available, i.e. natural, production, human and intellectual, and social capital, a model of universities...... University, Denmark, the linkages (actual, potential and missing) between academic work in research and education and sustainability initiatives are explored. The focus is both on the university's core activities as a provider of research and education and on the university's activities as an organisation, i...... societal benefit would be the ability to better cope with emerging problems endangering the sustainable development of our societies. It is concluded that Aalborg University with its long tradition for project-based and problem-oriented learning in fact has every opportunity to be able to lead by example...

  15. Electric field measurements in the auroral E region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, H.P.; Smiddy, M.; Sagalyn, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Dipole electric field, positive ion and electron densities and temperatures, vehicle potential, and plasma sheath measurements have been made in the auroral E region by means of rockets flown from Fort Churchill, Canada. These results are described and compared over the altitude region 100 to 165 km. On a rocket flight launched on 10 December 1969 during very quiet conditions, adjacent to a stable, low intensity auroral arc, the plasma density and temperatures are found to be high and the electric fields large and steady. Electric field components of the order of -17 mv m -1 to +6 mv m -1 were measured along the Earth's magnetic field. The plasma results indicate that these fields may be contributing to enhanced electron temperatures. On a flight of 9 March 1970 during a large magnetic storm with widespread auroral activity, lower plasma densities and temperatures and much smaller and more erratic electric fields were observed with no significant component parallel to the magnetic field. (auth)

  16. Initial results of the high resolution edge Thomson scattering upgrade at DIII-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldon, D; Bray, B D; Deterly, T M; Liu, C; Watkins, M; Groebner, R J; Leonard, A W; Osborne, T H; Snyder, P B; Boivin, R L; Tynan, G R

    2012-10-01

    Validation of models of pedestal structure is an important part of predicting pedestal height and performance in future tokamaks. The Thomson scattering diagnostic at DIII-D has been upgraded in support of validating these models. Spatial and temporal resolution, as well as signal to noise ratio, have all been specifically enhanced in the pedestal region. This region is now diagnosed by 20 view-chords with a spacing of 6 mm and a scattering length of just under 5 mm sampled at a nominal rate of 250 Hz. When mapped to the outboard midplane, this corresponds to ~3 mm spacing. These measurements are being used to test critical gradient models, in which pedestal gradients increase in time until a threshold is reached. This paper will describe the specifications of the upgrade and present initial results of the system.

  17. CERVEJA ARTESANAL E DESENVOLVIMENTO REGIONAL EM SANTA CATARINA (BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinho Pellin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussões relacionadas ao fortalecimento do desenvolvimento regional tem estimulado um debate em relação a contribuições que Indicações Geográficas (IGs podem oferecer ao desenvolvimento. IGs se constituem em elemento de identificação de produtos ou serviços com seus territórios e podem oferecer contribuições importantes para o desenvolvimento regional, agregando valor aos produtos, facilitando o acesso a novos mercados e valorizando tradições locais. Este artigo procura discutir a importância da cerveja artesanal no contexto do desenvolvimento regional em Santa Catarina. Para tanto explora como objetivos específicos: (i caracterizar as discussões que estão ocorrendo em torno do reconhecimento da IG para chope e cerveja artesanal na região de Blumenau (SC; (ii identificar contribuições e desafios para o Desenvolvimento Regional de um possível reconhecimento da IG; e (iii caracterizar limites e potencialidades sinalizados pela iniciativa em curso. Metodologicamente trata-se de pesquisa analítica e descritiva baseada em estudo de caso de natureza exploratória. Como instrumento de coleta de dados se realizou entrevistas semiestruturadas com gestores de micro cervejarias artesanais da região e atores públicos e privados envolvidos diretamente nas discussões. Além destas fontes primárias o estudo fundamentou-se em fontes consubstanciadas pelos documentos produzidos nas reuniões de trabalho realizadas até o presente. Os principais resultados de análise destacam que um possível reconhecimento da IG poderia contribuir para o fortalecimento do setor, aumentando a competitividade, além de fortalecer a atividade turística na região. Entretanto para isso, alguns conflitos, surgidos no âmbito das discussões, precisam ser assumidos, superados ou mitigados

  18. Introduction of Open E-Learning System as a Factor of Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yuryevna Bystrova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the economic and socio-cultural premises for introducing the open e-learning in the Ural region, as well as the potential economic effect of this type of educational activity. The article strives to prove a regular pattern of the universities’ transition to e-learning, also in connection with the changes of the educational paradigm and the nature of the educational system management. The hypothesis of the paper is connected with bringing the economic dimension to a humanitarian concept of e-learning, which becomes more and more widespread. The methodology of the article is based on the recognition of the fact that the macroeconomic processes in the information society and the processes occurring in a particular industry — higher education — are of isomorphic nature. On the basis of the analysis of global experience and basic theoretical approaches to e-learning, including the Lifelong Learning concept, the authors make a conclusion of the progressive growth of interest in different countries and regions. The e-learning is treated primarily as a tool to improve quality and efficiency of the educational process. The accuracy of understanding functions and peculiarities of e-learning allows one to determine a positive economic effect of its application for the university, the region, and the employers. The article shows organisational mechanisms and financial model of implementing e-learning in the Ural Federal University. The description is made of the cost options for open-type e-learning course development, investment parameters for their establishment, as well as costs of implementing educational programmes with the application of e-learning. The analysis of the activities of Ural Federal University on implementing e-learning gives the opportunity to further imagine the effect from the introduction of e-learning in other universities in the region. The results of the research may be applied in the institutions of

  19. Translation initiation on mRNAs bound by nuclear cap-binding protein complex CBP80/20 requires interaction between CBP80/20-dependent translation initiation factor and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Junho; Oh, Nara; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Ye Kyung; Song, Ok-Kyu; Locker, Nicolas; Chi, Sung-Gil; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2012-05-25

    In the cytoplasm of mammalian cells, either cap-binding proteins 80 and 20 (CBP80/20) or eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4E can direct the initiation of translation. Although the recruitment of ribosomes to mRNAs during eIF4E-dependent translation (ET) is well characterized, the molecular mechanism for CBP80/20-dependent translation (CT) remains obscure. Here, we show that CBP80/20-dependent translation initiation factor (CTIF), which has been shown to be preferentially involved in CT but not ET, specifically interacts with eIF3g, a component of the eIF3 complex involved in ribosome recruitment. By interacting with eIF3g, CTIF serves as an adaptor protein to bridge the CBP80/20 and the eIF3 complex, leading to efficient ribosome recruitment during CT. Accordingly, down-regulation of CTIF using a small interfering RNA causes a redistribution of CBP80 from polysome fractions to subpolysome fractions, without significant consequence to eIF4E distribution. In addition, down-regulation of eIF3g inhibits the efficiency of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, which is tightly coupled to CT but not to ET. Moreover, the artificial tethering of CTIF to an intercistronic region of dicistronic mRNA results in translation of the downstream cistron in an eIF3-dependent manner. These findings support the idea that CT mechanistically differs from ET.

  20. Southern high-latitude Digisonde observations of ionosphere E-region Bragg scatter during intense lacuna conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Monselesan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available During summer months at solar cycle minimum, F-region lacuna and slant-Es conditions (SEC are common features of daytime ionograms recorded around local magnetic noon at Casey, Antarctica. Digisonde measurements of drift velocity height profiles show that the occurrence of lacuna prevents the determination of F-region drift velocities and also affects E-region drift velocity measurements. Unique E-region spectral features revealed as intervals of Bragg scatter superimposed on typical background E-region reflection were observed in Digisonde Doppler spectra during intense lacuna conditions. Daytime E-region Doppler spectra recorded at carrier frequencies from 1.5 to 2.7MHz, below the E-region critical frequency foE, have two side-peaks corresponding to Bragg scatter at approximately ±1-2Hz symmetrically located on each side of a central-peak corresponding to near-zenith total reflections. Angle-of-arrival information and ray-tracing simulations show that echo returns are coming from oblique directions most likely resulting from direct backscatter from just below the total reflection height for each sounding frequency. The Bragg backscatter events are shown to manifest during polar lacuna conditions, and to affect the determination of E-region background drift velocities, and as such must be considered when using standard Doppler-sorted interferometry (DSI techniques to estimate ionospheric drift velocities. Given the Doppler and spatial separation of the echoes determined from high-resolution Doppler measurements, we are able to estimate the Bragg scatter phase velocity independently from the bulk E-region motion. The phase velocity coincides with the ExB direction derived from in situ fluxgate magnetometer records. When ionospheric refraction is considered, the phase velocity amplitudes deduced from DSI are comparable to the ion-acoustic speed expected in the E-region. We briefly consider the plausibility that these

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance Control Strategies: A Coordinated Research Initiative Experience in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Asenjo, Gabriela; Vergara, Constanza; Cornejo, Javiera

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to gather information on the status of antimicrobial surveillance in the Asia Pacific region and suggest control strategies. Twenty-one economies of the Asia Pacific region participated in this initiative. A survey was conducted on antimicrobial use and surveillance throughout the region. A workshop was carried out to create awareness about the issue and discuss the implementation of control strategies. Based on the survey results and workshop conclusions, it can be established that there is better understanding of the implications of antimicrobial resistance in the human medicine area. Only few economies take actions to control antimicrobial resistance on a veterinary/agricultural level. To confront antimicrobial resistance, it is critical to raise awareness; cooperation between all countries is needed to apply international standards, to be able to have harmonized public policies. Countries must align and improve their systems for surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human, animals, and the environment.

  2. Brasil, Mercosul e a segurança regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amâncio Jorge de Oliveira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a evolução de um regime hemisférico de segurança tendo em vista duas questões fundamentais: o impacto do Mercosul no equilíbrio geopolítico continental e o papel do Brasil como ator-chave na conformação deste arranjo hemisférico de segurança. Nossa hipótese é de que, tanto na dimensão regional, quanto global, o Brasil tem atuado no sentido de contrabalançar a hegemonia norte-americana, reforçando a correlação entre o status de potência regional e o cálculo de opções internacionais.The main purpose of this article is to analyse the evolution of a hemispheric regime of security using two basic issues: the impact of Mercosur in the regional geopolitical balance and the role of Brazil as a key-actor in the establishment of this agenda for regional security. Our hypothesis is that Brazil, as much in the regional, as in the global dimension, has acted so as to counterbalance the United States hegemony, strengthening the correlation between the status of regional power and the calculus of international options.

  3. Southern high-latitude Digisonde observations of ionosphere E-region Bragg scatter during intense lacuna conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Monselesan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available During summer months at solar cycle minimum, F-region lacuna and slant-Es conditions (SEC are common features of daytime ionograms recorded around local magnetic noon at Casey, Antarctica. Digisonde measurements of drift velocity height profiles show that the occurrence of lacuna prevents the determination of F-region drift velocities and also affects E-region drift velocity measurements. Unique E-region spectral features revealed as intervals of Bragg scatter superimposed on typical background E-region reflection were observed in Digisonde Doppler spectra during intense lacuna conditions. Daytime E-region Doppler spectra recorded at carrier frequencies from 1.5 to 2.7MHz, below the E-region critical frequency foE, have two side-peaks corresponding to Bragg scatter at approximately ±1-2Hz symmetrically located on each side of a central-peak corresponding to near-zenith total reflections. Angle-of-arrival information and ray-tracing simulations show that echo returns are coming from oblique directions most likely resulting from direct backscatter from just below the total reflection height for each sounding frequency. The Bragg backscatter events are shown to manifest during polar lacuna conditions, and to affect the determination of E-region background drift velocities, and as such must be considered when using standard Doppler-sorted interferometry (DSI techniques to estimate ionospheric drift velocities. Given the Doppler and spatial separation of the echoes determined from high-resolution Doppler measurements, we are able to estimate the Bragg scatter phase velocity independently from the bulk E-region motion. The phase velocity coincides with the ExB direction derived from in situ fluxgate magnetometer records. When ionospheric refraction is considered, the phase velocity amplitudes deduced from DSI are comparable to the ion-acoustic speed expected in the E-region. We briefly consider the plausibility that these previously unreported polar

  4. An analysis of the accuracy of an initial value representation surface hopping wave function in the interaction and asymptotic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, Alexey; Herman, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    The behavior of an initial value representation surface hopping wave function is examined. Since this method is an initial value representation for the semiclassical solution of the time independent Schroedinger equation for nonadiabatic problems, it has computational advantages over the primitive surface hopping wave function. The primitive wave function has been shown to provide transition probabilities that accurately compare with quantum results for model problems. The analysis presented in this work shows that the multistate initial value representation surface hopping wave function should approach the primitive result in asymptotic regions and provide transition probabilities with the same level of accuracy for scattering problems as the primitive method

  5. Evaluation of Enhanced High Resolution MODIS/AMSR-E SSTs and the Impact on Regional Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiferl, Luke D.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Case, Jonathan L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    , the discernable impacts on the WRF model were still somewhat limited. This paper explores several factors that may have contributed to this result. First, the original methodology to initialize the model used the most recent SST composite available in a hypothetical real ]time configuration, often matching the forecast initial time with an SST field that was 5-8 hours offset. To minimize the differences that result from the diurnal variations in SST, the previous day fs SST composite is incorporated at a time closest to the model initialization hour (e.g. 1600 UTC composite at 1500 UTC model initialization). Second, the diurnal change seen in the MODIS SST composites was not represented by the WRF model in previous simulations, since the SSTs were held constant throughout the model integration. To address this issue, we explore the use of a water skin-temperature diurnal cycle prediction capability within v3.1 of the WRF model to better represent fluctuations in marine surface forcing. Finally, the verification of the WRF model is limited to very few over-water sites, many of which are located near the coastlines. In order to measure the open ocean improvements from the AMSR-E, we could use an independent 2-dimensional, satellite-derived data set to validate the forecast model by applying an object-based verification method. Such a validation technique could aid in better understanding the benefits of the mesoscale SST spatial structure to regional models applications.

  6. Initial results from the NSTX Real-Time Velocity diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, M.; Bell, R. E.

    2011-10-01

    A new diagnostic for fast measurements of plasma rotation through active charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) was installed on NSTX. The diagnostic infers toroidal rotation from carbon ions undergoing charge-exchange with neutrals from a heating Neutral Beam (NB). Each of the 4 channels, distributed along the outer major radius, includes active views intercepting the NB and background views missing the beam. Estimated uncertainties in the measured velocity are system. Signals are acquired on 2 CCD detectors, each controlled by a dedicated PC. Spectra are fitted in real-time through a C++ processing code and velocities are made available to the Plasma Control System for future implementation of feedback on velocity. Results from the initial operation during the 2011 run are discussed, emphasizing the fast dynamics of toroidal rotation, e . g . during L-H mode transition and breaking caused by instabilities and by externally-imposed magnetic perturbations. Work supported by USDOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Fragmentation of light initial quarks into charm mesons in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yi; Li Shiyuan; Xie Qubing

    2003-01-01

    The authors study the process that the light initial quarks produced in e + e - annihilation combine with the (anti c) from gluon splitting to form (anti D's) [D - + D s - + (anti D 0 )] or (anti D * )'s [D *- + D s *- + (anti D *0 )]. The 'light + heavy' bound state is described by light-cone wavefunction. The contribution of this process to (anti D)(anti D * ) production at Z 0 pole is much larger compared with that in lower energies (e.g. 10.6 GeV). For this special process, the invariant mass of (anti D)(anti D * ) production at Z 0 pole is much larger compared with that in lower energies (e.g. 10.6 GeV). For this special process, the invariant mass of (anti D)(anti D * ) and the charm hadron fragmented from the c quark has a unique spectrum which peaks near 2M (antiD) if authors constrain the (anti D)(anti D * ) from all processes with energy larger than 20 GeV. It is also noticeable that the produced (anti D * ) in this process is dominantly longitudinally polarized, which is consistent with the OPAL data

  8. Healthy competition drives success in results-based aid: Lessons from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Palmisano, Erin B; Dansereau, Emily; Schaefer, Alexandra; Woldeab, Alexander; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Salvatierra, Benito; Hernandez-Prado, Bernardo; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-01-01

    The Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI) is a three-operation strategy, and is a pioneer in the world of results-based aid (RBA) in terms of the success it has achieved in improving health system inputs following its initial operation. This success in meeting pre-defined targets is rare in the world of financial assistance for health. We investigated the influential aspects of SMI that could have contributed to its effectiveness in improving health systems, with the aim of providing international donors, bilateral organizations, philanthropies, and recipient countries with new perspectives that can help increase the effectiveness of future assistance for health, specifically in the arena of RBA. Qualitative methods based on the criteria of relevance and effectiveness proposed by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Our methods included document review, key informant interviews, a focus group discussion, and a partnership analysis. A purposive sample of 113 key informants, comprising donors, representatives from the Inter-American Development Bank, ministries of health, technical assistance organizations, evaluation organizations, and health care providers. During May-October 2016, we interviewed regarding the relevance and effectiveness of SMI. Themes emerged relative to the topics we investigated, and covered the design and the drivers of success of the initiative. The success is due to 1) the initiative's regional approach, which pressured recipient countries to compete toward meeting targets, 2) a robust and flexible design that incorporated the richness of input from stakeholders at all levels, 3) the design-embedded evaluation component that created a culture of accountability among recipient countries, and 4) the reflective knowledge environment that created a culture of evidence-based decision-making. A regional approach involving all appropriate stakeholders, and based on knowledge sharing and

  9. Characteristics of low latitude ionospheric E-region irregularities ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    154°E, dip angle = 37.3°, sub-ionospheric dip = 34°) have been analyzed to study the behaviour of ionospheric E-region irregularities during the active solar and magnetic periods. The autocorrelation functions, power spectral densities, signal de-correlation times are computed to study the temporal features of ionospheric ...

  10. Regional changes over time in initial virological response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, W; Kirk, O; Gatell, J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in virologic response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over calendar time may indicate improvements in cART or emergence of primary resistance. Regional variations may identify differences in available antiretroviral drugs or patient management. METHODS.......026) and time (P changes were observed (south, P = 0.061; central west, P ....001; north: P = 0.070; east, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There was some evidence of regional differences in initial virologic response to cART. Improvements over time were observed, suggesting that so far, the effect of primary resistance has not been of sufficient magnitude to prevent increasing suppression...

  11. Quantitative MR imaging in fracture dating--Initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Katharina; Neumayer, Bernhard; Widek, Thomas; Schick, Fritz; Scheicher, Sylvia; Hassler, Eva; Scheurer, Eva

    2016-04-01

    For exact age determinations of bone fractures in a forensic context (e.g. in cases of child abuse) improved knowledge of the time course of the healing process and use of non-invasive modern imaging technology is of high importance. To date, fracture dating is based on radiographic methods by determining the callus status and thereby relying on an expert's experience. As a novel approach, this study aims to investigate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for bone fracture dating by systematically investigating time-resolved changes in quantitative MR characteristics after a fracture event. Prior to investigating fracture healing in children, adults were examined for this study in order to test the methodology for this application. Altogether, 31 MR examinations in 17 subjects (♀: 11 ♂: 6; median age 34 ± 15 y, scanned 1-5 times over a period of up to 200 days after the fracture event) were performed on a clinical 3T MR scanner (TimTrio, Siemens AG, Germany). All subjects were treated conservatively for a fracture in either a long bone or in the collar bone. Both, qualitative and quantitative MR measurements were performed in all subjects. MR sequences for a quantitative measurement of relaxation times T1 and T2 in the fracture gap and musculature were applied. Maps of quantitative MR parameters T1, T2, and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) were calculated and evaluated by investigating changes over time in the fractured area by defined ROIs. Additionally, muscle areas were examined as reference regions to validate this approach. Quantitative evaluation of 23 MR data sets (12 test subjects, ♀: 7 ♂: 5) showed an initial peak in T1 values in the fractured area (T1=1895 ± 607 ms), which decreased over time to a value of 1094 ± 182 ms (200 days after the fracture event). T2 values also peaked for early-stage fractures (T2=115 ± 80 ms) and decreased to 73 ± 33 ms within 21 days after the fracture event. After that time point, no

  12. E qual o lugar da Geografia Regional no contexto atual da Geografia?

    OpenAIRE

    Serpa, Angelo

    2001-01-01

    Este artigo é uma revisão bibliográfica comentada sobre o papel da Geografia Regional no contexto da ciência geográfico contemporânea, resultado das reflexões e experiência como professor, desde 1997, das disciplinas Geografia Regional I e II (do curso de graduação em Geografia) e Evolução e Organização do Espaço Regional (do curso de Mestrado em Geografia), na Universidade Federal da Bahia.

  13. Shared Learning and the Drive to Improve Patient Safety: Lessons Learned from the Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sirio, Carl A; Keyser, Donna J; Norman, Heidi; Weber, Robert J; Muto, Carlene A

    2005-01-01

    Based on lessons learned through implementation of the Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative's region-wide shared learning model, we have identified the environmental, cultural, and infrastructure...

  14. 30 MHz radar observations of artificial E region field-aligned plasma irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial E region field aligned irregularities (FAIs have been observed during heating experiments at the HAARP facility using a new 30 MHz coherent scatter radar imager deployed near Homer, Alaska. Irregularities were observed during brief experiments on three quiet days in July and August, 2007, when the daytime E region critical frequency was close to 3 MHz. Irregularities were consistently generated and detected during experiments with O-mode HF pumping on zenith with a 1-min on, 1-min off CW modulation. The scattering cross sections, rise, and fall times of the echoes were observed as well as their spectral properties. Results were found to be mainly in agreement with observations from other mid- and high-latitude sites with some discrepancies. Radar images of the irregularity-filled volume on one case exhibited clear variations in backscatter power and Doppler shift across the volume. The images furthermore show the emergence of a small irregularity-filled region to the south southwest of the main region in the approximate direction of magnetic zenith.

  15. Lessons from Transportation Agency Participation In Regional Conservation Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lederman, Jaimee

    2017-01-01

    Transportation agencies struggle to maximize the benefits of transportation infrastructure while minimizing environmental harm. This dissertation examines institutional collaborations that integrate capital investments (e.g. highway and rail projects) with regional Habitat Conservation Plans (RHCPs) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). It addresses ways of maintaining these collaborations over time. The ESA requires that public and private project developers mitigate any harm to endangered...

  16. Vertical and longitudinal electron density structures of equatorial E- and F-regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Brahmanandam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From global soundings of ionospheric electron density made with FORMOSAT 3/COSMIC satellites for September 2006–August 2009, day-night variations in vertical and longitudinal structures of the electron densities in equatorial E- and F-regions for different seasons are investigated for the first time. The results reveal that the wavenumber-3 and wavenumber-4 patterns dominated the nighttime (22:00–04:00 LT F-region longitudinal structures in solstice and in equinox seasons, respectively. In daytime (08:00–18:00 LT F-region, the wavenumber-4 patterns governed the longitudinal structures in the September equinox and December solstice, and wavenumber-3 in March equinox and June solstice respectively. A comparison of the daytime and nighttime longitudinal electron density structures indicates that they are approximately 180° out of phase with each other. It is believed that this out of phase relation is very likely the result of the opposite phase relation between daytime and nighttime nonmigrating diurnal tidal winds that modulate background E-region dynamo electric field at different places, leading to the day-night change in the locations of the equatorial plasma fountains that are responsible for the formation of the F-region longitudinal structures. Further, a good consistency between the locations of the density structures in the same seasons of the different years for both daytime and nighttime epochs has been noticed indicating that the source mechanism for these structures could be the same.

  17. Cross Sections for the Reactions e+e to K+ K- pi+pi-, K+ K- pi0pi0, and K+ K- K+ K- Measured Using Initial-State Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Milanes, D.A.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Palano, A.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Bari /Bari U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Trieste /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2011-08-19

    We study the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}-{gamma}, K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, and K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup -}{gamma}, where the photon is radiated from the initial state. About 84000, 8000, and 4200 fully reconstructed events, respectively, are selected from 454 fb{sup -1} of BABAR data. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energy, so that the K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} data can be compared with direct measurements of the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} reaction. No direct measurements exist for the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} or e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}K{sup +}K{sup -} reactions, and we present an update of our previous result with doubled statistics. Studying the structure of these events, we find contributions from a number of intermediate states, and extract their cross sections. In particular, we perform a more detailed study of the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {phi}(1020){pi}{pi}{gamma} reaction, and confirm the presence of the Y (2175) resonance in the {phi}(1020)f{sub 0}(980) and K{sup +}K{sup -} f{sub 0}(980) modes. In the charmonium region, we observe the J/{psi} in all three final states and in several intermediate states, as well as the {phi}(2S) in some modes, and measure the corresponding branching fractions.

  18. Care initiation area yields dramatic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The ED at Gaston Memorial Hospital in Gastonia, NC, has achieved dramatic results in key department metrics with a Care Initiation Area (CIA) and a physician in triage. Here's how the ED arrived at this winning solution: Leadership was trained in and implemented the Kaizen method, which eliminates redundant or inefficient process steps. Simulation software helped determine additional space needed by analyzing arrival patterns and other key data. After only two days of meetings, new ideas were implemented and tested.

  19. Status and results from the TR30 cyclotron centre region model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleeven, W.; Lanz, P.; McDonald, M.; Milton, B.F.; Schmor, P.W.; Schneider, H.R.; Jayamanna, K.; Sura, J.; Uzat, W.; Gyles, W.

    1990-06-01

    A full scale model for the centre region of the compact 30 MeV, 350 μA H - cyclotron (TR30) has been constructed, to test the design of critical components and to study beam properties and space charge effects out to the 5. turn (1 MeV). The ion source and injection line system duplicates that used in the TR30. The centre region can be accessed with diagnostic probes at four different angles. The normalized circulating emittances as estimated from beam profile measurements are 1.7π mm-mrad (radially) and 1.8π mm-mrad (vertically). The radial centering error of the beam is less than 1.5 mm. After initial tests the maximum intensity achieved at the 5. turn is 650 μA. This corresponds with a transmission efficiency of 12.5% for a continuous (non-bunched) input beam. No significant space charge effects are observed up to 650 μA. For the TR30 bunching is not a must because of the high current available from the source. Nevertheless, it was considered useful to study beam bunching for the Centre Region Cyclotron (CRC). Some of these results are described. (Author) 11 refs., 6 figs

  20. E-Government in the Asia-Pacific Region: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clay Wescott

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on two issues: (i recent e-government progress and challenges, and (ii the practices regional organizations follow to cope with the challenges, while maximizing the benefits. Beginning with an overview of efforts to improve governance in the region, it then analyzes recent progress in the use of information and communication technology (ICT in the Asia-Pacific region to promote more efficient, cost-effective, and participatory government, facilitate more convenient government services, allow greater public access to information, and make government more accountable to citizens. Successful adoption of e-government presents major challenges. The paper concludes by examining the practices regional organizations follow to cope with the challenges, while maximizing the benefits.

  1. Spatial variability of initial 230Th/ 232Th in modern Porites from the inshore region of the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tara R.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Done, Terry J.; Jupiter, Stacy; Lough, Janice; Pandolfi, John M.

    2012-02-01

    The main limiting factor in obtaining precise and accurate uranium-series (U-series) ages of corals that lived during the last few hundred years is the ability to constrain and correct for initial thorium-230 ( 230Th 0), which is proportionally much higher in younger samples. This is becoming particularly important in palaeoecological research where accurate chronologies, based on the 230Th chronometer, are required to pinpoint changes in coral community structure and the timing of mortality events in recent time (e.g. since European settlement of northern Australia in the 1850s). In this study, thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) U-series dating of 43 samples of known ages collected from living Porites spp. from the far northern, central and southern inshore regions of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) was performed to spatially constrain initial 230Th/ 232Th ( 230Th/ 232Th 0) variability. In these living Porites corals, the majority of 230Th/ 232Th 0 values fell within error of the conservative bulk Earth 230Th/ 232Th atomic value of 4.3 ± 4.3 × 10 -6 (2 σ) generally assumed for 230Th 0 corrections where the primary source is terrestrially derived. However, the results of this study demonstrate that the accuracy of 230Th ages can be further improved by using locally determined 230Th/ 232Th 0 values for correction, supporting the conclusion made by Shen et al. (2008) for the Western Pacific. Despite samples being taken from regions adjacent to contrasting levels of land modification, no significant differences were found in 230Th/ 232Th 0 between regions exposed to varying levels of sediment during river runoff events. Overall, 39 of the total 43 230Th/ 232Th 0 atomic values measured in samples from inshore reefs across the entire region show a normal distribution ranging from 3.5 ± 1.1 to 8.1 ± 1.1 × 10 -6, with a weighted mean of 5.76 ± 0.34 × 10 -6 (2 σ, MSWD = 8.1). Considering the scatter of the data, the weighted mean value with a more

  2. Performance analysis of the IEEE 802.16e power management for the initiations of awakening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To increase battery life in IEEE 802.16e systems, it is essential to efficiently manage energy in mobile stations. The sleep-mode operation in power management helps to increase the life of a station by saving energy consumption. In power management, there are two important performance metrics: energy consumption and the response delay of awakening medium access control (MAC) service data unit (SDU). While in a base station (BS) initiation of awakening, the two performance metrics should be simultaneously considered, in a mobile subscriber station (MSS) initiation of awakening, the response delay is not considered because it is self-operational. There performance metrics are affected by the minimum sleep interval (Tmin), the maximum sleep interval (Tmax), and the average interarrival time of awakening MAC SDUs (TI) during sleep-mode operation. Therefore, it is imperative to evaluate the two initiations of awakening depending on TI. To reach a fuller understanding of the performance, this paper shows an analytical mode and simulations results for the standard sleep-mode operation in the IEEE 802.16e MAC.

  3. Initial results in SST-1 after up-gradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S.; Khan, Z.; Tanna, V. L.; Prasad, U.; Paravastu, Y.; Raval, D. C.; Masand, H.; Kumar, Aveg; Dhongde, J. R.; Jana, S.; Kakati, B.; Patel, K. B.; Bhandarkar, M. K.; Shukla, B. K.; Ghosh, D.; Patel, H. S.; Parekh, T. J.; Mansuri, I. A.; Dhanani, K. R.; Varadharajulu, A.; Khristi, Y. S.; Biswas, P.; Gupta, C. N.; George, S.; Semwal, P.; Sharma, D. K.; Gulati, H. K.; Mahajan, K.; Praghi, B. R.; Banaudha, M.; Makwana, A. R.; Chudasma, H. H.; Kumar, M.; Manchanda, R.; Joisa, Y. S.; Asudani, K.; Pandya, S. N.; Pathak, S. K.; Banerjee, S.; Patel, P. J.; Santra, P.; Pathan, F. S.; Chauhan, P. K.; Khan, M. S.; Thankey, P. L.; Prakash, A.; Panchal, P. N.; Panchal, R. N.; Patel, R. J.; Mahsuria, G. I.; Sonara, D. P.; Patel, K. M.; Jayaswal, S. P.; Sharma, M.; Patel, J. C.; Varmora, P.; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Christian, D. R.; Garg, A.; Bairagi, N.; Babu, G. R.; Panchal, A. G.; Vora, M. M.; Singh, A. K.; Sharma, R.; Nimavat, H. D.; Shah, P. R.; Purwar, G.; Raval, T. Y.; Sharma, A. L.; Ojha, A.; Kumar, S.; Ramaiya, N. K.; Siju, V.; Gopalakrishna, M. V.; Kumar, A.; Sharma, P. K.; Atrey, P. K.; Kulkarni, SV; Ambulkar, K. K.; Parmar, P. R.; Thakur, A. L.; Raval, J. V.; Purohit, S.; Mishra, P. K.; Adhiya, A. N.; Nagora, U. C.; Thomas, J.; Chaudhari, V. K.; Patel, K. G.; Dalakoti, S.; Virani, C. G.; Gupta, S.; Kumar, Ajay; Chaudhari, B.; Kaur, R.; Srinivasan, R.; Raju, D.; Kanabar, D. H.; Jha, R.; Das, A.; Bora, D.

    2017-04-01

    SST-1 Tokamak has recently completed the 1st phase of up-gradation with successful installation and integration of all its First Wall components. The First Wall of SST-1 comprises of ∼ 3800 high heat flux compatible graphite tiles being assembled and installed on 132 CuCrZr heat sink back plates engraved with ∼ 4 km of leak tight baking and cooling channels in five major sub groups equipped with ∼ 400 sensors and weighing ∼ 6000 kg in total in thirteen isolated galvanic and six isolated hydraulic circuits. The phase-1 up-gradation spectrum also includes addition of Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection (SMBI) both on the in-board and out-board side, installation of fast reciprocating probes, adding some edge plasma probe diagnostics in the SOL region, installation and integration of segmented and up-down symmetric radial coils aiding/controlling plasma rotations, introduction of plasma position feedback and density controls etc. Post phase-I up-gradation spanning from Nov 2014 till June 2016, initial plasma experiments in up-graded SST-1 have begun since Aug 2016 after a brief engineering validation period in SST-1. The first experiments in SST-1 have revealed interesting aspects on the ‘eddy currents in the First Wall support structures’ influencing the ‘magnetic Null evolution dynamics’ and the subsequent plasma start-up characteristics after the ECH pre-ionization, the influence of the first walls on the ‘field errors’ and the resulting locked modes observed, the magnetic index influencing the evolution of the equilibrium of the plasma column, low density supra-thermal electron induced discharges and normal ohmic discharges etc. Presently; repeatable ohmic discharges regimes in SST-1 having plasma currents in excess of 65 KA (qa ∼ 3.8, BT = 1.5 T) with a current ramp rates ∼ 1.2 MA/s over a duration of ∼ 300 ms with line averaged densities ∼ 0.8 × 1019 and temperatures ∼ 200 eV with copious MHD signatures have been experimentally

  4. CERVEJA ARTESANAL E DESENVOLVIMENTO REGIONAL EM SANTA CATARINA (BRASIL)

    OpenAIRE

    Valdinho Pellin; Oklinger Mantovaneli Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Discussões relacionadas ao fortalecimento do desenvolvimento regional tem estimulado um debate em relação a contribuições que Indicações Geográficas (IGs) podem oferecer ao desenvolvimento. IGs se constituem em elemento de identificação de produtos ou serviços com seus territórios e podem oferecer contribuições importantes para o desenvolvimento regional, agregando valor aos produtos, facilitando o acesso a novos mercados e valorizando tradições locais. Este artigo procura discutir a importân...

  5. Logistical case study for the AragÓn region using the locagistics tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, Bert; Galindo, Daniel García; Espatolero, Sergio; Staritsky, Igor; Vanmeulebrouk, Bas

    2017-01-01

    LocaGIStics is a support tool for the design of regional biomass delivery chains. It enables to further design and evaluate regional biomass delivery chains that are e.g. the result of initial planning by an energy company or a biobased producer. These general plans are translated in several biomass

  6. High Frequency Backscatter from the Polar and Auroral E-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Victoriya V.

    The Earth's ionosphere contains collisional and partially-ionized plasma. The electric field, produced by the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind, drives the plasma bulk motion, also known as convection, in the F-region of the ionosphere. It can also destabilize the plasma in the E-region, producing irregularities or waves. Intermediate-scale waves with wavelengths of hundreds of meters can cause scintillation and fading of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals, whereas the small-scale waves (lambda Network (SuperDARN). The theoretical part of this work focuses on symmetry properties of the general dispersion relation that describes wave propagation in the collisional plasma in the two-stream and gradient-drift instability regimes. The instability growth rate and phase velocity are examined under the presence of a background parallel electric field, whose influence is demonstrated to break the spatial symmetry of the wave propagation patterns. In the observational part of this thesis, a novel dual radar setup is used to examine E-region irregularities in the magnetic polar cap by probing the E-region along the same line from opposite directions. The phase velocity analysis together with raytracing simulations demonstrated that, in the polar cap, the radar backscatter is primarily controlled by the plasma density conditions. In particular, when the E-region layer is strong and stratified, the radar backscatter properties are controlled by the convection velocity, whereas for a tilted E-layer, the height and aspect angle conditions are more important. Finally, the fundamental dependence of the E-region irregularity phase velocity on the component of the plasma convection is investigated using two new SuperDARN radars at high southern latitudes where plasma convection estimates are accurately deduced from all SuperDARN radars in the southern hemisphere. Statistical analysis is presented showing that the predominance of the

  7. Initial results from the Tokapole-II poloidal divertor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, A.P.; Dexter, R.N.; Groebner, R.J.; Holly, D.J.; Lipschultz, B.; Phillips, M.W.; Prager, S.C.; Sprott, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The latest in a series of internal-ring devices, called Tokapole II, has recently begun operation at the University of Wisconsin. Its purpose is to permit the study of the production and confinement of hot, dense plasmas in either a toroidal octupole (with or without toroidal field) or a tokamak with a four-node poloidal divertor. The characteristics of the device and the results of its initial operation are described here. Quantitative measurements of impurity concentration and radiated power have been made. Poloidal divertor equilibria of square and dee shapes have been produced, and an axisymmetric instability has been observed with the inverse dee. Electron cyclotron resonance heating is used to initiate the breakdown near the axis and to control the initial influx of impurities. A 2-MW RF source at the second harmonic of the ion cyclotron frequency is available and has been used to double the ion temperature when operated at low power with an unoptimized antenna. Initial results of operation as a pure octupole with poloidal Ohmic heating suggest a tokamak-like scaling of density (n proportional to Bsub(p)) and confinement time (tau proportional to n). (author)

  8. Poisson-like shape and shoulder structure of hadron multiplicity distributions in e+e- annihilation at Z0 energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yigang; Chai Yong

    1994-01-01

    The charged multiplicity distributions of hadron final states in the e + e - annihilation at the 91.2 GeV Z 0 energy region are fitted with Poisson shape in different rapidity windows for double and single hemisphere. The multiplicities which are in Poisson-like shapes can be got according to the parameter /D and fitting qualities are compared with the results derived from the relevant theoretical models. The relationship between the Poisson-like shape and KNO scaling is discussed. The connection between the parameters expressing the deviation from the Poisson shape and non-independent particle emission and multiplicity correlation strength is analyzed. The 'shoulder structure' is observed in the central rapidity region and analyzed with multi-jets by using the JADE jet analysis algorithm

  9. Fiscal policy and growth: new results for the Spanish regions, 1967-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Bajo Rubio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new assessment of the effects of fiscal policy on economic growth, focusing on the role of public expenditure. Starting from a theoretical model where only those public expenditure items strictly presumed to influence the production process (i.e., public capital and transfers are incorporated into the production function, we provide an empirical application for the case of the Spanish regions during the period 1967-1995. The results confirm the positive effect on growth from both public capital and transfers, being relatively more intense that of public capital for the more productive regions, and that of transfers for the less productive ones.

  10. The triplet repeats of the Sin Nombre hantavirus 5' untranslated region are sufficient in cis for nucleocapsid-mediated translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Mohammad A; Panganiban, Antonito T

    2010-09-01

    Hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (N) can replace the cellular cap-binding complex, eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), to mediate translation initiation. Although N can augment translation initiation of nonviral mRNA, initiation of viral mRNA by N is superior. All members of the Bunyaviridae family, including the species of the hantavirus genus, express either three or four primary mRNAs from their tripartite negative-sense genomes. The 5' ends of the mRNAs contain nonviral heterologous oligonucleotides that originate from endonucleolytic cleavage of cellular mRNA during the process of cap snatching. In the hantaviruses these caps terminate with a 3' G residue followed by nucleotides arising from the viral template. Further, the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of viral mRNA uniformly contains, near the 5' end, either two or three copies of the triplet repeat sequence, UAGUAG or UAGUAGUAG. Through analysis of a panel of mutants with mutations in the viral UTR, we found that the sequence GUAGUAG is sufficient for preferential N-mediated translation initiation and for high-affinity binding of N to the UTR. This heptanucleotide sequence is present in viral mRNA containing either two or three copies of the triplet repeat.

  11. Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative puts new spin on improving healthcare quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    For nearly 4 years, the Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) has been working to improve the way healthcare is delivered in southwestern Pennsylvania by combining the voices and resources of hospitals, providers, the business community, insurers, health plans, and federal agencies. As one example of borrowing from business, the PRHI has created a new learning and management system, called Perfecting Patient Care, which is based on the Toyota Production System model and is now being used successfully in hospitals.

  12. Bienestar económico regional: un enfoque comparativo entre regiones españolas e italianas

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Murias Fernández; Fidel Martínez Roget; Simone Novello

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo propone una visión revisada del bienestar económico regional. Trabajos recientes en economía regional han mostrado su desacuerdo con la noción tradicional de bienestar económico que considera únicamente renta per cápita. A través de la comparación de regiones españolas e italianas y usando un enfoque basado en el Análisis Envolvente de Datos, este trabajo sugiere un indicador sintético de bienestar regional basado en las cuatro componentes de Osberg (1985): capacidad de consumo, ...

  13. Microphysical and Kinematic Characteristics of Regions of Flash Initiation in a Supercell Storm and a Multicell Storm Observed During the DC3 Field Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGangi, E.; MacGorman, D. R.; Ziegler, C.; Betten, D.; Biggerstaff, M. I.

    2017-12-01

    Lightning initiation in thunderstorms requires that the local electric field magnitude exceed breakdown values somewhere, and this tends to occur between regions of positive and negative charge, where the largest electric field magnitudes tend to occur. Past studies have demonstrated that, near updrafts, storms with very strong updrafts tend to elevate regions of charge and of flash initiations higher, as well as to have more flashes initiated by small pockets of charge, than in storms with much weaker updrafts. In all thunderstorms, the source of these charge regions is generally thought to be microscopic charge separation via the relative growth rate noninductive mechanism, followed by macroscopic charge separation via sedimentation, although other charge generation mechanisms can contribute to charge in some regions. Charge generation and lightning initiation are therefore inherently dependent on the microphysical and kinematic characteristics of a given storm. This study compares the results of a hydrometeor classification algorithm applied to C-band mobile radar data with mixing ratios calculated by a diabatic Lagrangian analysis retrieval from the dual-Doppler wind fields for two storms, the 29-30 May 2012 supercell storm and the 21 June 2012 multicell storm, observed during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry experiment. Using these data, we then compare the inferred microphysical and kinematic characteristics of regions in which the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array indicated that flashes were initiated in these two very different storms.

  14. Condicionantes estruturais da regionalização na saúde: tipologia dos Colegiados de Gestão Regional Structural conditions for regionalization in health care: typology of Regional Management Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza d'Ávila Viana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O atraso na implementação da estratégia da regionalização e a fragilidade de iniciativas combinadas de descentralização e regionalização no Brasil requerem explicação. O artigo levanta algumas hipóteses para elucidar essa intricada questão e analisa os condicionantes estruturais do processo de regionalização em curso nos estados. Para isso, elabora uma tipologia nacional das regiões de saúde que as diferenciam segundo graus de desenvolvimento econômico, social e características da rede de saúde, dos municípios que compõem os Colegiados de Gestão Regional (CGR formalmente implantados até janeiro de 2010. Para a construção da tipologia, adotaram-se os modelos de análise fatorial e de análise de agrupamentos (cluster analysis. Foram identificados cinco grandes grupos socioeconômicos de CGR, descritos de acordo com sua distribuição regional, população, despesa em saúde, perfil da oferta (incluindo mix público e privado e cobertura de serviços de saúde. Os resultados encontrados servem como norteadores da constituição de redes de atenção à saúde e de novas iniciativas no campo regional, de forma a aprimorar a política de regionalização e favorecer a construção de instrumentos de regulação diversificados, flexíveis e, sobretudo, mais ajustados às realidades regionais.An explanation is required for the delay in implementing the regionalization strategy and the fragile nature of the combined decentralization and regionalization initiatives in Brazil. The article raises some hypotheses to clarify this intricate issue and reviews the structural conditioning factors of the regionalization process ongoing in the states. A national typology of the health care regions is prepared, differentiating them according to the degree of socio-economic development and the characteristics of the health care network and of the municipalities that form the Regional Management Boards (CGR, formally implanted by January

  15. On the appropriate definition of soil profile configuration and initial conditions for land surface-hydrology models in cold regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapriza-Azuri, Gonzalo; Gamazo, Pablo; Razavi, Saman; Wheater, Howard S.

    2018-06-01

    Arctic and subarctic regions are amongst the most susceptible regions on Earth to global warming and climate change. Understanding and predicting the impact of climate change in these regions require a proper process representation of the interactions between climate, carbon cycle, and hydrology in Earth system models. This study focuses on land surface models (LSMs) that represent the lower boundary condition of general circulation models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs), which simulate climate change evolution at the global and regional scales, respectively. LSMs typically utilize a standard soil configuration with a depth of no more than 4 m, whereas for cold, permafrost regions, field experiments show that attention to deep soil profiles is needed to understand and close the water and energy balances, which are tightly coupled through the phase change. To address this gap, we design and run a series of model experiments with a one-dimensional LSM, called CLASS (Canadian Land Surface Scheme), as embedded in the MESH (Modélisation Environmentale Communautaire - Surface and Hydrology) modelling system, to (1) characterize the effect of soil profile depth under different climate conditions and in the presence of parameter uncertainty; (2) assess the effect of including or excluding the geothermal flux in the LSM at the bottom of the soil column; and (3) develop a methodology for temperature profile initialization in permafrost regions, where the system has an extended memory, by the use of paleo-records and bootstrapping. Our study area is in Norman Wells, Northwest Territories of Canada, where measurements of soil temperature profiles and historical reconstructed climate data are available. Our results demonstrate a dominant role for parameter uncertainty, that is often neglected in LSMs. Considering such high sensitivity to parameter values and dependency on the climate condition, we show that a minimum depth of 20 m is essential to adequately represent

  16. La financial education nella regione Puglia: analisi e prospettive di intervento

    OpenAIRE

    A. Garzoni; V. Nastasi

    2010-01-01

    Analisi del contesto e delle principali tematiche di financial education affrontate a livello internazionale e nazionale, valutazione delle opportunità e degli aspetti critici, il progetto pilota nella regione Puglia e le nuove idee di progetto da realizzare

  17. Economic and energy impacts from participation in the regional greenhouse gas initiative: A case study of the State of Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, Matthias; Gabriel, Steven A.; Palmer, Karen L.; Burtraw, Dallas; Paul, Anthony; Chen, Yihsu; Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Irani, Daraius; Michael, Jeffrey; Ross, Kim M.; Conklin, Russell; Miller, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Tradable emissions allowance systems to reduce carbon emissions are increasingly promoted as means to mitigate climate change. This paper briefly reviews the application of such systems at the global, regional, and corporate scales. Given the recent expansion of cap-and-trade systems at the regional level, the paper concentrates on energy and economic implications at that level, using the decision of the State of Maryland, USA, to join the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative as an illustration. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the implications for technology choice, generation capacity, energy reliability, and cost to ratepayers of that decision, combining a national electricity market model with a regional model that includes market power and an economic impact model. The results suggest several issues that will be key to the acceptability and effectiveness of cap-and-trade systems for regional climate change mitigation policy, including rules for distribution of allowances and subsidies for energy efficiency programs. (author)

  18. Economic and energy impacts from participation in the regional greenhouse gas initiative: A case study of the State of Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Matthias [Center for Integrative Environmental Research, Division of Research, University of Maryland, 2101 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Environmental Policy Program, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, MD (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, A. James Clark School of Engineering, University of Maryland, MD (United States); Gabriel, Steven A. [Center for Integrative Environmental Research, Division of Research, University of Maryland, 2101 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, A. James Clark School of Engineering, University of Maryland, MD (United States); Applied Mathematics and Scientific Computation Program, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD (United States); Palmer, Karen L.; Burtraw, Dallas; Paul, Anthony [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States); Chen, Yihsu [School of Engineering, Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts, University of California, Merced, CA (United States); Hobbs, Benjamin F. [Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, MD (United States); Irani, Daraius [Regional Economic Studies Institute, Towson University, Towson, Maryland, MD (United States); Michael, Jeffrey [Eberhardt School of Business, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States); Ross, Kim M. [Center for Integrative Environmental Research, Division of Research, University of Maryland, 2101 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Conklin, Russell; Miller, Julia [Center for Integrative Environmental Research, Division of Research, University of Maryland, 2101 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Environmental Policy Program, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, MD (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Tradable emissions allowance systems to reduce carbon emissions are increasingly promoted as means to mitigate climate change. This paper briefly reviews the application of such systems at the global, regional, and corporate scales. Given the recent expansion of cap-and-trade systems at the regional level, the paper concentrates on energy and economic implications at that level, using the decision of the State of Maryland, USA, to join the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative as an illustration. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the implications for technology choice, generation capacity, energy reliability, and cost to ratepayers of that decision, combining a national electricity market model with a regional model that includes market power and an economic impact model. The results suggest several issues that will be key to the acceptability and effectiveness of cap-and-trade systems for regional climate change mitigation policy, including rules for distribution of allowances and subsidies for energy efficiency programs. (author)

  19. Initiatives for regional dialogue consideration of regional disarmament guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschik, R.

    1994-01-01

    The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted guidelines and recommendations for regional approaches to disarmament within the context of global security. The guidelines contain 52 principles on: relationship between regional disarmament, arm limitation and global security; general guidelines and recommendations for regional disarmament efforts; possible ways and means to assist and implement these efforts; possible role of the United Nations in aiding these efforts. Experiences gained in Europe and Near East are analysed in the framework of the situation in Northeast, South and Southeast Asia

  20. Giant resonance spectroscopy of 40Ca with the (e,e'x) reaction (I): Experiments and overview of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diesener, H.; Helm, U.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Richter, A.; Schrieder, G.; Stascheck, A.; Stiller, A.; Carter, J.

    2001-01-01

    The 40 Ca(e,e'x; x=p,α) reaction has been measured in the giant resonance excitation region for E x ≅8-26 MeV. The present article is the first out of three describing the experiments and giving an overview of the results. Data were taken at four momentum transfers in the range q=0.26-0.66 fm -1 . Angular correlations for decay to the ground state and low-lying states of 39 K and 36 Ar could be extracted as a function of excitation energy in 40 Ca. Excitation energy spectra integrated over the particle emission angle were generated for the various resolved decay channels. Comparisons of the giant resonance cross-section distributions with results using other electromagnetic or hadronic probes have been made and good agreement is found in most cases

  1. Polio Eradication Initiative: Contribution to improved communicable diseases surveillance in WHO African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwengee, William; Okeibunor, Joseph; Poy, Alain; Shaba, Keith; Mbulu Kinuani, Leon; Minkoulou, Etienne; Yahaya, Ali; Gaturuku, Peter; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Nsubuga, Peter; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, there has been a tremendous progress in the reduction of cases of poliomyelitis. The world is on the verge of achieving global polio eradication and in May 2013, the 66th World Health Assembly endorsed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) 2013-2018. The plan provides a timeline for the completion of the GPEI by eliminating all paralytic polio due to both wild and vaccine-related polioviruses. We reviewed how GPEI supported communicable disease surveillance in seven of the eight countries that were documented as part of World Health Organization African Region best practices documentation. Data from WHO African region was also reviewed to analyze the performance of measles cases based surveillance. All 7 countries (100%) which responded had integrated communicable diseases surveillance core functions with AFP surveillance. The difference is on the number of diseases included based on epidemiology of diseases in a particular country. The results showed that the polio eradication infrastructure has supported and improved the implementation of surveillance of other priority communicable diseases under integrated diseases surveillance and response strategy. As we approach polio eradication, polio-eradication initiative staff, financial resources, and infrastructure can be used as one strategy to build IDSR in Africa. As we are now focusing on measles and rubella elimination by the year 2020, other disease-specific programs having similar goals of eradicating and eliminating diseases like malaria, might consider investing in general infectious disease surveillance following the polio example. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Initial Results from Lunar Electromagnetic Sounding with ARTEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuqua, H.; Fatemi, S.; Poppe, A. R.; Delory, G. T.; Grimm, R. E.; De Pater, I.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic Sounding constrains conducting layers of the lunar interior by observing variations in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field. Here, we focus our analysis on the time domain transfer function method locating transient events observed by two magnetometers near the Moon. We analyze ARTEMIS and Apollo magnetometer data. This analysis assumes the induced field responds undisturbed in a vacuum. In actuality, the dynamic plasma environment interacts with the induced field. Our models indicate distortion but not confinement occurs in the nightside wake cavity. Moreover, within the deep wake, near-vacuum region, distortion of the induced dipole fields due to the interaction with the wake is minimal depending on the magnitude of the induced field, the geometry of the upstream fields, and the upstream plasma parameters such as particle densities, solar wind velocity, and temperatures. Our results indicate the assumption of a vacuum dipolar response is reasonable within this minimally disturbed zone. We then interpret the ATEMIS magnetic field signal through a geophysical forward model capturing the induced response based on prescribed electrical conductivity models. We demonstrate our forward model passes benchmarking analyses and solves the magnetic induction response for any input signal as well as any 2 or 3 dimensional conductivity profile. We locate data windows according to the following criteria: (1) probe locations such that the wake probe is within 500km altitude within the wake cavity and minimally disturbed zone, and the second probe is in the free streaming solar wind; (2) a transient event consisting of an abrupt change in the magnetic field occurs enabling the observation of induction; (3) cross correlation analysis reveals the magnetic field signals are well correlated between the two probes and distances observed. Here we present initial ARTEMIS results providing further insight into the lunar interior structure. This method and modeling results

  3. INTEGRATION OF BUSINESS, EDUCATION AND SCIENCE AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL INITIATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innara Lyapina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current world affairs show that the post-industrial stage of development of all mature world powers’ economies is followed by creation of a new development paradigm, which is based on the economy of knowledge, science achievements, innovations, global information and communication systems, and which leads to innovative economy formation. In the context of the national innovation economy formation in the Russian Federation, prerequisites are created for integrating the efforts of business, science and education representatives to develop, produce and market high-tech products which have significant economic or social potential. And this is not only the task announced by the Russian government, but also a natural process in the country’s economy, which contributes to the increase in the integration participants’ efficiency. The result of such integrated interaction of education, science and business consists in a synergistic effect through formation of an interactive cooperation model that involves the active use of combined knowledge, ideas, technologies and other resources during innovative projects implementation. At the same time, integration processes are diverse, complex and occur in each case taking into account the integrating parties’ activity specifics. Within this framework, the goal of the research is to characterize the impact of the education, science and business integration process, on the national technological initiative implementation in the country on the whole and to study the integrating experience of these entities at the regional level. In the course of the research, the stages of the Russian national innovation economy formation process have been studied; the role of education, science and business in the National Technological Initiative implementation has been characterized; it’s been proved that educational institutions are the key link in the integration process in the chain “education – science

  4. A Community-Level Initiative to Prevent Obesity: Results From Kaiser Permanente's Healthy Eating Active Living Zones Initiative in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Atiedu, Akpene; Rauzon, Suzanne; Schwartz, Pamela M; Keene, Laura; Davoudi, Mehrnaz; Spring, Rebecca; Molina, Michelle; Lee, Lynda; Boyle, Kathryn; Williamson, Dana; Steimberg, Clara; Tinajero, Roberta; Ravel, Jodi; Nudelman, Jean; Azuma, Andrea Misako; Kuo, Elena S; Solomon, Loel

    2018-05-01

    A growing number of health systems are leading health promotion efforts in their wider communities. What impact are these efforts having on health behaviors and ultimately health status? This paper presents evaluation results from the place-based Kaiser Permanente Healthy Eating Active Living Zones obesity prevention initiative, implemented in 2011-2015 in 12 low-income communities in Kaiser Permanente's Northern and Southern California Regions. The Healthy Eating Active Living Zones design targeted places and people through policy, environmental, and programmatic strategies. Each Healthy Eating Active Living Zone is a small, low-income community of 10,000 to 20,000 residents with high obesity rates and other health disparities. Community coalitions planned and implemented strategies in each community. A population-dose approach and pre and post surveys were used to assess impact of policy, program, and environmental change strategies; the analysis was conducted in 2016. Population dose is the product of reach (number of people affected by a strategy divided by target population size) and strength (the effect size or relative change in behavior for each person exposed to the strategy). More than 230 community change strategies were implemented over 3 years, encompassing policy, environmental, and programmatic changes as well as efforts to build community capacity to sustain strategies and make changes in the future. Positive population-level results were seen for higher-dose strategies, particularly those targeting youth physical activity. Higher-dose strategies were more likely to be found in communities with the longest duration of investment. These results demonstrate that strong (high-dose), community-based obesity prevention strategies can lead to improved health behaviors, particularly among youth in school settings. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is

  5. New global electron density observations from GPS-RO in the D- and E-Region ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong L.

    2018-06-01

    A novel retrieval technique is developed for electron density (Ne) in the D- and E-region (80-120 km) using the high-quality 50-Hz GPS radio occultation (GPS-RO) phase measurements. The new algorithm assumes a slow, linear variation in the F-region background when the GPS-RO passes through the D- and E-region, and extracts the Ne profiles at 80-130 km from the phase advance signal caused by Ne. Unlike the conventional Abel function, the new approach produces a sharp Ne weighting function in the lower ionosphere, and the Ne retrievals are in good agreement with the IRI (International Reference Ionosphere) model in terms of monthly maps, zonal means and diurnal variations. The daytime GPS-RO Ne profiles can be well characterized by the α-Chapman function of three parameters (NmE, hmE and H), showing that the bottom of E-region is deepening and sharpening towards the summer pole. At high latitudes the monthly GPS-RO Ne maps at 80-120 km reveal clear enhancement in the auroral zones, more prominent at night, as a result of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) from the outer radiation belt. The D-/E-region auroral Ne is strongly correlated with Kp on a daily basis. The new Ne data allow further comprehensive analyses of the sporadic E (Es) phenomena in connection with the background Ne in the E-region. The layered (2-10 km) and fluctuated (Layer than Ne_Pert, are extracted with respect to the background Ne_Region on a profile-by-profile basis. The Ne_Layer component has a strong but highly-refined peak at ∼105 km, with an amplitude smaller than Ne_Region approximately by an order of magnitude. The Ne_Pert component, which was studied extensively in the past, is ∼2 orders of magnitude weaker than Ne_Layer. Both Ne_Layer and Ne_Pert are subject to significant diurnal and semidiurnal variations, showing downward progression with local time in amplitude. The 11-year solar cycle dominates the Ne interannual variations, showing larger Ne_Region and Ne_Layer but smaller

  6. New mechanism under International Flood Initiative toward robustness for flood management in the Asia Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, M.; Yoshitani, J.; Takeuchi, K.; Koike, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is likely to result in increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events. It is imperative that a good understanding is developed of how climate change affects the events that are reflected in hydrological extremes such as floods and how practitioners in water resources management deal with them. Since there is still major uncertainty as to how the impact of climate change affect actual water resources management, it is important to build robustness into management schemes and communities. Flood management under such variety of uncertainty favors the flexible and adaptive implementation both in top-down and bottom-up approaches. The former uses projections of global or spatially downscaled models to drive resource models and project resource impacts. The latter utilizes policy or planning tools to identify what changes in climate would be most threatening to their long-range operations. Especially for the bottom-up approaches, it is essential to identify the gap between what should be done and what has not been achieved for disaster risks. Indicators or index are appropriate tools to measure such gaps, but they are still in progress to cover the whole world. The International Flood Initiative (IFI), initiated in January 2005 by UNESCO and WMO in close cooperation with UNU and ISDR, IAHS and IAHR, has promoted an integrated approach to flood management to take advantage of floods and use of flood plains while reducing the social, environmental and economic risks. Its secretariat is located in ICHARM. The initiative objective is to support national platforms to practice evidence-based disaster risk reduction through mobilizing scientific and research networks at national, regional and international levels. The initiative is now preparing for a new mechanism to facilitate the integrated approach for flood management on the ground regionally in the Asia Pacific (IFI-AP) through monitoring, assessment and capacity building.

  7. Data processing for the Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer and initial scientific results from Chang'e-3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao-Hui; Li, Chun-Lai; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Zou, Yong-Liao; Liu, Jian-Jun; Ren, Xin; Tan, Xu; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Zuo, Wei; Wen, Wei-Bin; Peng, Wen-Xi; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2014-12-01

    The Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is an important payload mounted on the Yutu rover, which is part of the Chang'e-3 mission. The scientific objective of APXS is to perform in-situ analysis of the chemical composition of lunar soil and rock samples. The radioactive sources, 55Fe and 109Cd, decay and produce α-particles and X-rays. When X-rays and α-particles interact with atoms in the surface material, they knock electrons out of their orbits, which release energy by emitting X-rays that can be measured by a silicon drift detector (SDD). The elements and their concentrations can be determined by analyzing their peak energies and intensities. APXS has analyzed both the calibration target and lunar soil once during the first lunar day and again during the second lunar day. The total detection time lasted about 266 min and more than 2000 frames of data records have been acquired. APXS has three operating modes: calibration mode, distance sensing mode and detection mode. In detection mode, work distance can be calculated from the X-ray counting rate collected by SDD. Correction for the effect of temperature has been performed to convert the channel number for each spectrum to X-ray energy. Dead time correction is used to eliminate the systematic error in quantifying the activity of an X-ray pulse in a sample and derive the real count rate. We report APXS data and initial results during the first and second lunar days for the Yutu rover. In this study, we analyze the data from the calibration target and lunar soil on the first lunar day. Seven major elements, including Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti and Fe, have been identified. Comparing the peak areas and ratios of calibration basalt and lunar soil the landing site was found to be depleted in K, and have lower Mg and Al but higher Ca, Ti, and Fe. In the future, we will obtain the elemental concentrations of lunar soil at the Chang'e-3 landing site using APXS data.

  8. Developmental Evaluation in e-Government and e-Health (Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... this uncertainty is difficult, and requires solid understanding of the changing ... First, the grant will support the application of developmental evaluation to two large regional research-to-policy initiatives in the areas of e-government and ...

  9. Nutrition leadership development: Capacity-building initiatives in Iran and the Middle-East region since 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh eDavari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Personal and organizational performance is determined by commitment and both technical and general competencies, including leadership skills. Academia, however, mainly targets technical aspects in its curricular programs. On the other hand, the interdisciplinary and multi-sector nature of Nutrition necessitates high levels of collaboration between stakeholders. Leadership development is therefore required in Nutrition. This paper describes the endeavor made in Iran and the Middle-East region, aiming at building leadership capacity among nutrition professionals. The empowered human resource is expected to facilitate nutrition security at the national and regional levels.Since 2007, the development process of the initiative has begun through research, bench marking and consultation. The learning organizations, leadership from inside-out and transformational leadership frameworks have been employed as underpinning theories. Main topics have been self-awareness, effective communication, shared-visioning, trust building, creativity, and motivating. Outbound team building activities and coaching have also included.The 1st workshop of the Iranian Food and Nutrition Leadership Program (IFNLP was held in 2009 in Tehran. The experience expanded to the region as the Middle-East Nutrition Leadership Program (MENLP. The PhD Nutrition programs (at 4 leading Universities and Iranian Nutrition Society have been taken as other opportunity windows to develop leadership competencies. Biannual Iranian nutrition congresses have been used as the main media for advocacy purposes. High satisfaction rates obtained following each training activity.In short, the initiative on nutrition leadership development has received growing investment and positive feedback in Iran. Continuous improvement of the initiative, establishment of active alumni networks, building MENLP regional platform, and integrating a monitoring and evaluation system are required to increase investment

  10. Nutrition Leadership Development: Capacity-Building Initiatives in Iran and the Middle-East Region Since 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Azadeh; Rashidi, Arash; Baartmans, Jacques Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Personal and organizational performance is determined by commitment and both technical and general competencies, including leadership skills. Academia, however, mainly targets technical aspects in its curricular programs. On the other hand, the inter-disciplinary and multi-sector nature of Nutrition necessitates high levels of collaboration between stakeholders. Leadership development is therefore required in Nutrition. This paper describes the endeavor made in Iran and the Middle-East region, aiming at building leadership capacity among nutrition professionals. The empowered human resource is expected to facilitate nutrition security at the national and regional levels. Since 2007, the development process of the initiative has begun through research, bench marking, and consultation. The "learning organizations," "leadership from inside-out," and "transformational leadership" frameworks have been employed as underpinning theories. Main topics have been self-awareness, effective communication, shared visioning, trust building, creativity, and motivating. Outbound team-building activities and coaching have also been included. The first workshop of the Iranian Food and Nutrition Leadership Program was held in 2009 in Tehran. The experience expanded to the region as the Middle-East Nutrition Leadership Program (MENLP). The Ph.D. Nutrition programs (at four leading Universities) and Iranian Nutrition Society have been taken as other opportunity windows to develop leadership competencies. Biannual Iranian nutrition congresses have been used as the main media for advocacy purposes. High-satisfaction rates obtained following each training activity. In short, the initiative on "nutrition leadership development" has received growing investment and positive feedback in Iran. Continuous improvement of the initiative, establishment of active alumni networks, building MENLP regional platform, and integrating a monitoring and evaluation system are required to increase the

  11. Nutrition Leadership Development: Capacity-Building Initiatives in Iran and the Middle-East Region Since 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Azadeh; Rashidi, Arash; Baartmans, Jacques Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Personal and organizational performance is determined by commitment and both technical and general competencies, including leadership skills. Academia, however, mainly targets technical aspects in its curricular programs. On the other hand, the inter-disciplinary and multi-sector nature of Nutrition necessitates high levels of collaboration between stakeholders. Leadership development is therefore required in Nutrition. This paper describes the endeavor made in Iran and the Middle-East region, aiming at building leadership capacity among nutrition professionals. The empowered human resource is expected to facilitate nutrition security at the national and regional levels. Since 2007, the development process of the initiative has begun through research, bench marking, and consultation. The “learning organizations,” “leadership from inside-out,” and “transformational leadership” frameworks have been employed as underpinning theories. Main topics have been self-awareness, effective communication, shared visioning, trust building, creativity, and motivating. Outbound team-building activities and coaching have also been included. The first workshop of the Iranian Food and Nutrition Leadership Program was held in 2009 in Tehran. The experience expanded to the region as the Middle-East Nutrition Leadership Program (MENLP). The Ph.D. Nutrition programs (at four leading Universities) and Iranian Nutrition Society have been taken as other opportunity windows to develop leadership competencies. Biannual Iranian nutrition congresses have been used as the main media for advocacy purposes. High-satisfaction rates obtained following each training activity. In short, the initiative on “nutrition leadership development” has received growing investment and positive feedback in Iran. Continuous improvement of the initiative, establishment of active alumni networks, building MENLP regional platform, and integrating a monitoring and evaluation system are required to

  12. Documentation of polio eradication initiative best practices: Experience from WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeibunor, Joseph; Nshimirimana, Deo; Nsubuga, Peter; Mutabaruka, Evariste; Tapsoba, Leonard; Ghali, Emmanuel; Kabir, Shaikh Humayun; Gassasira, Alex; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    The African Region is set to achieving polio eradication. During the years of operations, the Polio Eradication Initiative [PEI] in the Region mobilized and trained tremendous amount of manpower with specializations in surveillance, social mobilization, supplementary immunization activities [SIAs], data management and laboratory staff. Systems were put in place to accelerate the eradication of polio in the Region. Standardized, real-time surveillance and response capacity were established. Many innovations were developed and applied to reaching people in difficult and security challenged terrains. All of these resulted in accumulation of lessons and best practices, which can be used in other priority public health intervention if documented. The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa [WHO/AFRO] developed a process for the documentation of these best practices, which was pretested in Uganda. The process entailed assessment of three critical elements [effectiveness, efficiency and relevance] five aspects [ethical soundness, sustainability, involvement of partners, community involvement, and political commitment] of best practices. A scored card which graded the elements and aspects on a scale of 0-10 was developed and a true best practice should score >50 points. Independent public health experts documented polio best practices in eight countries in the Region, using this process. The documentation adopted the cross-sectional design in the generation of data, which combined three analytical designs, namely surveys, qualitative inquiry and case studies. For the selection of countries, country responses to earlier questionnaire on best practices were screened for potential best practices. Another criterion used was the level of PEI investment in the countries. A total of 82 best practices grouped into ten thematic areas were documented. There was a correlation between the health system performances with DPT3 as proxy, level of PEI investment in countries

  13. Meningococcal disease in the Asia-Pacific region: Findings and recommendations from the Global Meningococcal Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, Ray; Lee, Jin-Soo; Vázquez, Julio A; Enwere, Godwin; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Kamiya, Hajime; Kim, Hwang Min; Jo, Dae Sun

    2016-11-21

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is a global expert group that includes scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with a wide range of specialties. The purpose of the Initiative is to promote the global prevention of meningococcal disease (MD) through education, research, and cooperation. The first Asia-Pacific regional meeting was held in November 2014. The GMI reviewed the epidemiology of MD, surveillance, and prevention strategies, and outbreak control practices from participating countries in the Asia-Pacific region.Although, in general, MD is underreported in this region, serogroup A disease is most prominent in low-income countries such as India and the Philippines, while Taiwan, Japan, and Korea reported disease from serogroups C, W, and Y. China has a mixed epidemiology of serogroups A, B, C, and W. Perspectives from countries outside of the region were also provided to provide insight into lessons learnt. Based on the available data and meeting discussions, a number of challenges and data gaps were identified and, as a consequence, several recommendations were formulated: strengthen surveillance; improve diagnosis, typing and case reporting; standardize case definitions; develop guidelines for outbreak management; and promote awareness of MD among healthcare professionals, public health officials, and the general public. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Criticality Analysis of SFP Region I under Dry Air Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yong; Kim, Min Chul

    2016-01-01

    This paper is to provide a result of the criticality evaluation under the condition that new fuel assemblies for initial fuel loading are storing in Region 1 of SFP in the dry air. The objective of this analysis is to ensure the effective neutron multiplication factor(k_e_f_f) of SFP is less than 0.95 under that condition. This analysis ensured the effective neutron multiplication factor(k_e_f_f) of Region 1 of SFP is less than 0.95 under the condition in the air. The keff in Region I of SFP under the condition of the dry air is 0.5865. The increased k_c_a_l_c of the Region 1 after the mislocated fuel assembly accident is 0.0444 at the pool flooded with un-borated water

  15. Initial Results From The Micro-pulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Berkoff, T. A.; Spinhirne, J. D.; Ginoux, P.

    2001-12-01

    The micro-pulse lidar system (MPL) was developed in the early 1990s and was the first small, eye-safe, and autonomous lidar built for fulltime monitoring of cloud and aerosol vertical distributions. In 2000, a new project using MPL systems was started at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This new project, the Micro-pulse Lidar Network or MPL-Net, was created to provide long-term observations of aerosol and cloud vertical profiles at key sites around the world. This is accomplished using both NASA operated sites and partnerships with other organizations owning MPL systems. The MPL-Net sites are co-located with NASA AERONET sunphotometers to provide aerosol optical depth data needed for calibration of the MPL. In addition to the long-term sites, MPL-Net provides lidar support for a limited number of field experiments and ocean cruises each year. We will present an overview of the MPL-Net project and show initial results from the first two MPL-Net sites at the South Pole and at Goddard Space Flight Center. Observations of dust layers transported from the desert regions of China, across the Pacific Ocean, to the east coast of the United States will also be shown. MPL-Net affiliated instruments were in place at the desert source region in China, on a research vessel in the Sea of Japan, at ARM sites in Alaska and Oklahoma, and finally at our home site in Maryland (GSFC) during the massive dust storms that occurred in April 2001. The MPL observations of dust layers at each location are shown in comparison to dust layers predicted using the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model (GOCART). Finally, the MPL-Net project is the primary ground-validation program for the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) satellite lidar project (launch date 2002). We will present an overview demonstrating how MPL-Net results are used to help prepare the GLAS data processing algorithms and assist in the calibration/validation of the GLAS data

  16. Sun Grant Initiative Regional Biomass Feedstock Partnership Competitive Grants Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Vance [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). North Central Regional Sun Grant Center

    2016-12-30

    The Sun Grant Initiative partnered with the US Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to create the Regional Biomass Feedstock Partnership Competitive Grants Program. The overall goal of this project was to utilize congressionally directed funds to leverage the North Central Regional Sun Grant’s Competitive Grant program at South Dakota State University (SDSU) to address key issues and research gaps related to development of the bioeconomy. Specific objectives of this program were to: 1. Identify research projects through a Regional Competitive Grants program that were relevant to the sustainable production, harvest, transport, delivery, and processing/conversion of cost-competitive, domestically grown biomass. 2. Build local expertise and capacity at the North Central Regional Sun Grant Center at SDSU through an internal selection of key bioenergy research projects. To achieve these, three nationwide Request for Applications (RFA) were developed: one each in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Internal, capacity building projects at SDSU were also selected during each one of these RFAs. In 2013 and 2015, two additional Proof of Concept RFAs were developed for internal SDSU projects. Priority areas for each RFA were 1) Biomass feedstock logistics including biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, storage, and densification; 2) Sustainable biomass feedstock production systems including biomass crop development, production, and life-cycle analysis; 3) Biomass production systems that optimize biomass feedstock yield and economic return across a diverse landscape while minimizing negative effects on the environment and food/feed production; and 4) Promotion of knowledge-based economic development in science and technology and to advance commercialization of inventions that meet the mission of the Sun Grant Initiative. A total of 33 projects were selected for funding through this program. Final reports for each of these diverse projects are included in this summary report

  17. E-travel Adoption by Small Travel Enterprises (STEs: An Initial Study in Indonesia and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Pujani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate e-travel adoption of tourism industries in Indonesia and Malaysia particularly by STEs. The qualitative research was undertaken using case analysis from in-depth interviews of 10-STEs as intial study both in Indonesia and Malaysia. The finding result of e-travel adoption by STEs in a cross-cultural study was identified from the findings present in the initial study based on personal, organizational and website characteristics. The majority of personal characteristics were relatively similar in both countries. However, few differences are present in organizational and website characteristics. E-travel adoption in both countries is influenced by the business experiences of owners/managers, various technological aspects, and the nature of use and benefits. The following study, the user-based survey would be undertaken to complete The e-travel adoption model in Indonesia and Malaysia.

  18. Bem-estar social, mercado de trabalho e o desequilíbrio regional brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Manso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho contribui para a literatura empírica sobre o desequilíbrio regional brasileiro, ao analisar, no período pós-Plano Real, o desempenho econômico de cada região do País em termos do crescimento pró-pobre - crescimento econômico acompanhado de redução na desigualdade - e do bem-estar social. Para tanto, utiliza-se metodologia presente em Kakwani, Neri e Son (2006 para avaliar o comportamento do bem-estar social a partir das distribuições da renda familiar e da renda salarial em cada região do País. Investiga-se também a contribuição de indicadores do mercado de trabalho nas performances das regiões. De uma forma geral, os resultados apontam que os maiores impactos na renda dos trabalhos e no bem-estar social deveram-se à taxa de participação de trabalhadores por família e, principalmente, aos ganhos de produtividade dos trabalhadores a partir de 2003, que, por sua vez, foram motivados principalmente pelos acréscimos nos retornos médios provenientes da educação das pessoas ocupadas. Porém, esses ganhos não foram suficientes para o estabelecimento de um padrão de crescimento mais intensamente pró-pobre no Norte e no Nordeste, o que poderia ter contribuído para uma maior aproximação em termos de renda e bem-estar social destas regiões em relação às outras do País.This paper contributes to the empirical literature about the Brazilian regional disequilibrium, once it examines, in the post-Real Plan period, the economic performance of each region of the country in terms of pro-poor growth - growth with reduced inequality - and of the social welfare. To this, it is used the methodology present in Kakwani, Neri and Son (2006 to evaluate the behavior of social welfare from the distributions of familiar income and wage income in each region. Furthermore, it is investigated the contribution of labor market indicators in the performance of regions. In general, the results indicate that the greatest impacts on

  19. Initial results for electrochemical dissolution of spent EBR-II fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S. X.

    1998-01-01

    Initial results are reported for the anode behavior of spent metallic nuclear fuel in an electrorefining process. The anode behavior has been characterized in terms of the initial spent fuel composition and the final composition of the residual cladding hulls. A variety of results have been obtained depending on the experimental conditions. Some of the process variables considered are average and maximum cell voltage, average and maximum anode voltage, amount of electrical charge passed (coulombs or amp-hours) during the experiment, and cell resistance. The main goal of the experiments has been the nearly complete dissolution of uranium with the retention of zirconium and noble metal fission products in the cladding hulls. Analysis has shown that the most indicative parameters for determining an endpoint to the process, recognizing the stated goal, are the maximum anode voltage and the amount of electrical charge passed. For the initial experiments reported here, the best result obtained is greater than 98% uranium dissolution with approximately 50% zirconium retention. Noble metal fission product retention appears to be correlated with zirconium retention

  20. Initiating the Pathway to Increase the Region's Income by Developing Tourism Village of Panglipuran Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bashori Imron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The head of regencies and cities needs to develop their imagination and inspiration in order to present the goal of region development and deliver the positive economic growth for the public. Initiating the tourism village program for the potential area may serve as a creative alternative. The aim of this research is to develop the idea of tourism village to improve the income of the region. In depth participation in the community and intensive interview with the tourism stakeholders have been chosen as the method of this study. The result of the research shows that the tourism village of Penglipuran has seven potentials as the main attractions as represented by the traditional architecture, artistic spatial arrangement, the bamboo forest, heroes cemetery, the beauty of Pura Panataran, remarkable village landscape, and Karang Memadu. The participation of local government may contribute the positive impact for the economic growth and improve the income of local community.

  1. Expression of the Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factors 4E and 2α in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songtao; Rosenwald, Igor B.; Hutzler, Michael J.; Pihan, German A.; Savas, Lou; Chen, Jane-Jane; Woda, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    Transition of cells from quiescence to proliferation requires an increase in the rate of protein synthesis, which is regulated in part by two key translation initiation factors, 4E and 2α. The expression and activity of both factors are increased transiently when normal resting cells are stimulated to proliferate. They are constitutively elevated in oncogene transformed cultured cells, and overexpression of either initiation factor in rodent cells makes them tumorigenic. In this study we investigate an association between the expression of translation initiation factors and lymphomagenesis. We have analyzed the expression of the protein synthesis initiation factors 4E and 2α by immunohistochemistry in reactive lymph nodes and several types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma representing a wide range of clinical behaviors based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma behavioral classification. The study included 7 benign lymph nodes with follicular hyperplasia, 26 indolent lymphomas (6 marginal zone lymphomas, 7 small lymphocytic lymphomas, and 13 follicular lymphomas, grades 1 and 2), 16 moderately aggressive lymphomas (8 mantle cell lymphomas and 8 follicular lymphomas, grade 3), 24 aggressive lymphomas (14 large-B-cell lymphomas and 10 anaplastic large-cell lymphomas), and 15 highly aggressive lymphomas (7 lymphoblastic lymphomas and 8 Burkitt’s lymphomas). Strong expression of initiation factors 4E and 2α was demonstrated in the germinal centers of reactive follicles. Minimal or no expression was seen in the mantle zones and surrounding paracortices, indicating that high expression of initiation factors 4E and 2α is associated with the active proliferation of lymphocytes. Most cases of aggressive and highly aggressive lymphomas showed strong expression of initiation factors 4E and 2α, in contrast to the cases of indolent and moderately aggressive lymphoma, in which their expression was intermediate between the germinal centers and the mantles of reactive

  2. On the appropriate definition of soil profile configuration and initial conditions for land surface–hydrology models in cold regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sapriza-Azuri

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Arctic and subarctic regions are amongst the most susceptible regions on Earth to global warming and climate change. Understanding and predicting the impact of climate change in these regions require a proper process representation of the interactions between climate, carbon cycle, and hydrology in Earth system models. This study focuses on land surface models (LSMs that represent the lower boundary condition of general circulation models (GCMs and regional climate models (RCMs, which simulate climate change evolution at the global and regional scales, respectively. LSMs typically utilize a standard soil configuration with a depth of no more than 4 m, whereas for cold, permafrost regions, field experiments show that attention to deep soil profiles is needed to understand and close the water and energy balances, which are tightly coupled through the phase change. To address this gap, we design and run a series of model experiments with a one-dimensional LSM, called CLASS (Canadian Land Surface Scheme, as embedded in the MESH (Modélisation Environmentale Communautaire – Surface and Hydrology modelling system, to (1 characterize the effect of soil profile depth under different climate conditions and in the presence of parameter uncertainty; (2 assess the effect of including or excluding the geothermal flux in the LSM at the bottom of the soil column; and (3 develop a methodology for temperature profile initialization in permafrost regions, where the system has an extended memory, by the use of paleo-records and bootstrapping. Our study area is in Norman Wells, Northwest Territories of Canada, where measurements of soil temperature profiles and historical reconstructed climate data are available. Our results demonstrate a dominant role for parameter uncertainty, that is often neglected in LSMs. Considering such high sensitivity to parameter values and dependency on the climate condition, we show that a minimum depth of 20 m is essential to

  3. REFIR/BB initial observations in the water vapour rotational band: Results from a field campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, F.; Grieco, G.; Leone, L.; Restieri, R.; Serio, C.; Bianchini, G.; Palchetti, L.; Pellegrini, M.; Cuomo, V.; Masiello, G.; Pavese, G.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the far infrared spectral region 17-50 μm as a remote sensing tool in atmospheric sciences, since this portion of the spectrum contains the characteristic molecular rotational band for water vapour. Much of the Earth energy lost to space is radiated through this spectral region. The Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed Breadboard (REFIR/BB) spectrometer was born because of the quest to make observations in the far infrared. REFIR/BB is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a sampling resolution of 0.5 cm -1 and it was tested for the first time in the field to check its reliability and radiometric performance. The field campaign was held at Toppo di Castelgrande (40 o 49' N, 15 o 27' E, 1258 m a. s. l.), a mountain site in South Italy. The spectral and radiometric performance of the instrument and initial observations are shown in this paper. Comparisons to both (1) BOMEM MR100 Fourier Transform spectrometer observations and (2) line-by-line radiative transfer calculations for selected clear sky are presented and discussed. These comparisons (1) show a very nice agreement between radiance measured by REFIR/BB and by BOMEM MR100 and (2) demonstrate that REFIR/BB accurately observes the very fine spectral structure in the water vapour rotational band

  4. E-cigarette initiation and associated changes in smoking cessation and reduction: the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kaitlyn M; Reynolds, Lindsay M; Collins, Jason M; Siegel, Michael B; Fetterman, Jessica L; Hamburg, Naomi M; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Benjamin, Emelia J; Stokes, Andrew

    2018-03-24

    The role of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in product transitions has been debated. We used nationally representative data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study waves 1 (2013-2014) and 2 (2014-2015) to investigate the associations between e-cigarette initiation and cigarette cessation/reduction in the USA. We limited the sample to current cigarette smokers aged 25+ years who were not current e-cigarette users at wave 1. We modelled 30-day cigarette cessation and substantial reduction in cigarette consumption as a function of e-cigarette initiation between surveys using multivariable logistic regression. Between waves 1 and 2, 6.9% of cigarette smokers who were not current e-cigarette users transitioned to former smokers. After adjusting for covariates, cigarette smokers who initiated e-cigarette use between waves and reported they used e-cigarettes daily at wave 2 had 7.88 (95% CI 4.45 to 13.95) times the odds of 30-day cigarette cessation compared with non-users of e-cigarettes at wave 2. Cigarette smokers who began using e-cigarettes every day and did not achieve cessation had 5.70 (95% CI 3.47 to 9.35) times the odds of reducing their average daily cigarette use by at least 50% between waves 1 and 2 compared with e-cigarette non-users. Daily e-cigarette initiators were more likely to have quit smoking cigarettes or reduced use compared with non-users. However, less frequent e-cigarette use was not associated with cigarette cessation/reduction. These results suggest incorporating frequency of e-cigarette use is important for developing a more thorough understanding of the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette cessation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Relevance of PLUREL's results to policies at EU, national, regional and local level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    and results to policies and policy development at the EU-level, as well as the national and regional level. PLUREL has peri-urban land use relationships as its main focus. This includes analysis of drivers, consequences, policies and scenarios for the future. Even though PLUREL aims for pan-European coverage...... of natural resources as well as an attractive development in general. Besides these spatial relevant sector policies, the EU enforces legislation which is translated into spatial explicit instruments on sub-regional level. E.g. the Habitat and Birds Directive caused the development of Natura 2000 areas......, an EU-wide network of nature protection areas. The implementation of Trans-European Networks through funding programmes is another sector policy having an impact on land-use change and rural-urban relations. On the sub-regional scale the perception on overall goals like sustainability can be very...

  6. Overview of the Ozone Water-Land Environmental Transition Study: Summary of Observations and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkoff, T.; Sullivan, J.; Pippin, M. R.; Gronoff, G.; Knepp, T. N.; Twigg, L.; Schroeder, J.; Carrion, W.; Farris, B.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Nino, L.; Gargulinski, E.; Rodio, L.; Sanchez, P.; Desorae Davis, A. A.; Janz, S. J.; Judd, L.; Pusede, S.; Wolfe, G. M.; Stauffer, R. M.; Munyan, J.; Flynn, J.; Moore, B.; Dreessen, J.; Salkovitz, D.; Stumpf, K.; King, B.; Hanisco, T. F.; Brandt, J.; Blake, D. R.; Abuhassan, N.; Cede, A.; Tzortziou, M.; Demoz, B.; Tsay, S. C.; Swap, R.; Holben, B. N.; Szykman, J.; McGee, T. J.; Neilan, J.; Allen, D.

    2017-12-01

    The monitoring of ozone (O3) in the troposphere is of pronounced interest due to its known toxicity and health hazard as a photo-chemically generated pollutant. One of the major difficulties for the air quality modeling, forecasting and satellite communities is the validation of O3 levels in sharp transition regions, as well as near-surface vertical gradients. Land-water gradients of O3 near coastal regions can be large due to differences in surface deposition, boundary layer height, and cloud coverage. Observations in horizontal and vertical directions over the Chesapeake Bay are needed to better understand O3 formation and redistribution within regional recirculation patterns. The O3 Water-Land Environmental Transition Study (OWLETS) was a field campaign conducted in the summer 2017 in the VA Tidewater region to better characterize O3 across the coastal boundary. To obtain over-water measurements, the NASA Langley Ozone Lidar as well as supplemental measurements from other sensors (e.g. Pandora, AERONET) were deployed on the Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel (CBBT) 7-8 miles offshore. These observations were complimented by NASA Goddard's Tropospheric Ozone Lidar along with ground-based measurements over-land at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) in Hampton, VA. On measurement days, time-synchronized data were collected, including launches of ozonesondes from CBBT and LaRC sites that provided additional O3, wind, and temperature vertical distribution differences between land and water. These measurements were complimented with: in-situ O3 sensors on two mobile cars, a micro-pulse lidar at Hampton University, an in-situ O3 sensor on a small UAV-drone, and Virginia DEQ air-quality sites. Two aircraft and a research vessel also contributed to OWLETS at various points during the campaign: the NASA UC-12B with the GeoTASO passive remote sensor, the NASA C-23 with an in-situ chemistry analysis suite, and a SERC research vessel with both remote and in-situ sensors. This

  7. A longitudinal study of risk perceptions and e-cigarette initiation among college students: Interactions with smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Loukas, Alexandra; Case, Kathleen R; Marti, C Nathan; Perry, Cheryl L

    2018-05-01

    Recent data suggest that lower perceived risks of e-cigarettes are associated with e-cigarette use in young adults; however, the temporality of this relationship is not well-understood. We explore how perceptions of harmfulness and addictiveness of e-cigarettes influence e-cigarette initiation, and specifically whether this association varies by cigarette smoking status, in a longitudinal study of tobacco use on college campuses. Data are from a 5-wave 24-college study in Texas. Only students who reported never using e-cigarettes at wave 1 were included (n = 2565). Multilevel discrete-time hazard models, accounting for school clustering, were used. The dependent variable, ever e-cigarette use, was assessed at each wave. Both time-varying (e-cigarette perceptions of harmfulness and addictiveness, age, use of cigarettes, use of other tobacco products, and use of other substances) and time-invariant demographic covariates were included. Two-way interactions between each e-cigarette perception variable and current conventional cigarette use were tested to determine if the hypothesized relationship differed among smokers and non-smokers. 21% of all never e-cigarette users at baseline had initiated e-cigarette ever use by wave 5. Significant two-way interactions qualified the relationship between risk perceptions and e-cigarette initiation. Specifically, perceptions of a lower degree of harmfulness (OR = 1.13, p = .047) and addictiveness (OR = 1.34, p risk of e-cigarettes contributes to subsequent e-cigarette initiation among non-smokers, but not among current smokers. have implications for prevention campaigns focusing on the potential harm of e-cigarettes for non-smoking college students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipid fluidity at different regions in LDL and HDL of β-thalassemia/Hb E patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Noppawan Phumala; Charlermchoung, Chalermkhwan; Luechapudiporn, Rataya; Yamanont, Paveena; Fucharoen, Suthat; Chantharaksri, Udom

    2006-01-01

    Atherosclerosis-related vascular complications in β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (β-thal/Hb E) patients may result from iron induced oxidation of lipoproteins. To identify the specific site of oxidative damage, changes in lipid fluidity at different regions in LDL and HDL particle were investigated using two fluorescence probes and two ESR spin probes. The magnitude of increased lipid fluidity in thalassemic lipoproteins was dependent on the location of the probes. In hydrophobic region, the rotational correlation times for 16-doxyl stearic acid and DPH anisotropy were markedly changed in LDL and HDL of the patients. In the surface region, there was only a slight change in the order parameter (S) for 5-doxyl stearic acid and TMA-DPH anisotropy. Lipid fluidity at the core of LDL and HDL showed good correlation with oxidative stress markers, the ratio of CL/CO, and the level of α-tocopherol, suggesting that hydrophobic region of thalassemic lipoprotein was a target site for oxidative damage

  9. The Frontier Fields: Survey Design and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, J. M.; Koekemoer, A.; Grogin, N.; Mack, J.; Anderson, J.; Avila, R.; Barker, E. A.; Borncamp, D.; Durbin, M.; Gunning, H.; Hilbert, B.; Jenkner, H.; Khandrika, H.; Levay, Z.; Lucas, R. A.; MacKenty, J.; Ogaz, S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Coe, D.; Capak, P.; Brammer, G., E-mail: lotz@stsci.edu [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 Sam Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-03-01

    What are the faintest distant galaxies we can see with the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) now, before the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope ? This is the challenge taken up by the Frontier Fields, a Director’s discretionary time campaign with HST and the Spitzer Space Telescope to see deeper into the universe than ever before. The Frontier Fields combines the power of HST and Spitzer with the natural gravitational telescopes of massive high-magnification clusters of galaxies to produce the deepest observations of clusters and their lensed galaxies ever obtained. Six clusters—Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403, MACSJ0717.5+3745, MACSJ1149.5+2223, Abell S1063, and Abell 370—have been targeted by the HST ACS/WFC and WFC3/IR cameras with coordinated parallel fields for over 840 HST orbits. The parallel fields are the second-deepest observations thus far by HST with 5 σ point-source depths of ∼29th ABmag. Galaxies behind the clusters experience typical magnification factors of a few, with small regions magnified by factors of 10–100. Therefore, the Frontier Field cluster HST images achieve intrinsic depths of ∼30–33 mag over very small volumes. Spitzer has obtained over 1000 hr of Director’s discretionary imaging of the Frontier Field cluster and parallels in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μ m bands to 5 σ point-source depths of ∼26.5, 26.0 ABmag. We demonstrate the exceptional sensitivity of the HST Frontier Field images to faint high-redshift galaxies, and review the initial results related to the primary science goals.

  10. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p's e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Future research is needed to document the long-term impact on smoking behavior and health among cigarette smokers who initiate use of e-cigarettes.

  11. Multiple frequency radar observations of high-latitude E region irregularities in the HF modified ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, S.T.; Djuth, F.T.; Jost, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    In September 1983, experiments were conducted in Scandinavia using the high-power heating facility near Tromso, Norway. The purpose of the HF ionospheric modification experiments was to investigate the behavior of artificially produced E region irregularities at auroral latitudes. The majority of observations were made with backscatter radars operating at 46.9 and 143.8 MHz, but limited observations were also made at 21.4 and 140.0 MHz. These radars are sensitive to irregularities having scale lengths of between 1 and 7 m across the geomagnetic field lines. The growth and decay of the irregularities are scale length dependent with the shorter lengths growing and dissipating more rapidly than the longer lengths (e-folding growth times = 10 1 --10 2 ms; decay times = 10 2 --10 3 ms). During periods of full power ordinary mode heating, irregularities having peak cross sections of 10 4 m 2 at 46.9 MHz and 10 5 m 2 at 143.8 MHz are observed. However, the cross sections normally measured are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the peak values. The cross sections are nonlinearly dependent on the HF power and begin to saturate at levels greater than 50--75 percent of full power. Past E and F region data from Arecibo are used in conjunction with the Tromso measurements to ascertain the relative roles played by various mechanisms in exciting irregularities. In the E region, the results tend to favor those instability processes which operate at the upper hybrid resonance level (e.g., thermal parametric and resonance instabilities) over those that operate at the reflection level (e.g., parametric decay instability). However, it is likely that anyh of the mechanisms studied could at times contribute to irregularity production in the E regions

  12. Angiographic assessment of initial balloon angioplasty results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Geoffrey A; Sullivan, Kevin L; Halpern, Ethan J; Parker, Laurence; Beck, Margaret; Bonn, Joseph; Levin, David C

    2004-10-01

    To determine the influence of three factors involved in the angiographic assessment of balloon angioplasty-interobserver variability, operator bias, and the definition used to determine success-on the primary (technical) results of angioplasty in the peripheral arteries. Percent stenosis in 107 lesions in lower-extremity arteries was graded by three independent, experienced vascular radiologists ("observers") before and after balloon angioplasty and their estimates were compared with the initial interpretations reported by the physician performing the procedure ("operator") and an automated quantitative computer analysis. Observer variability was measured with use of intraclass correlation coefficients and SD. Differences among the operator, observers, and the computer were analyzed with use of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and analysis of variance. For each evaluator, the results in this series of lesions were interpreted with three different definitions of success. Estimation of residual stenosis varied by an average range of 22.76% with an average SD of 8.99. The intraclass correlation coefficients averaged 0.59 for residual stenosis after angioplasty for the three observers but decreased to 0.36 when the operator was included as the fourth evaluator. There was good to very good agreement among the three independent observers and the computer, but poor correlation with the operator (P definition of success was used. Significant differences among the operator, the three observers, and the computer were not present when the definition of success was based on less than 50% residual stenosis. Observer variability and bias in the subjective evaluation of peripheral angioplasty can have a significant influence on the reported initial success rates. This effect can be largely eliminated with the use of residual stenosis of less than 50% to define success. Otherwise, meaningful evaluation of angioplasty results will require independent panels of evaluators or

  13. Novo desenvolvimentismo e dinâmica urbano-regional no Brasil (2004-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólita Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As mudanças no contexto nacional e internacional impuseram novas questões ao debate sobre a dinâmica urbano-regional brasileira. Dentre elas, o aprofundamento da inserção internacional do País, tendo como base seu potencial de recursos naturais e sua articulação com o "efeito-China" na reconfiguração das relações internacionais, e o processo de desindustrialização, decorrente da especialização produtiva regressiva e da apreciação da taxa de câmbio. O objetivo deste artigo é examinar as lin-has gerais da dinâmica urbano-regional no âmbito das transformações na economia e sociedade brasileiras desde os anos 1980, especialmente no período pós-2004, em que ocorre uma retomada do crescimento econômico e dos gastos estatais. Entende-se que tal análise enfrenta desafios teórico-metodológicos importantes, sendo necessário o resgate de referenciais analíticos, como o da divisão espacial do trabalho para o entendimento das desigualdades regionais, e a (reformulação da questão regional brasileira.

  14. Energetics and structure of the lower E region associated with sporadic E layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-I. Oyama

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The electron temperature (Te, electron density (Ne, and two components of the electric field were measured from the height of 90 km to 150 km by one of the sounding rockets launched during the SEEK-2 campaign. The rocket went through sporadic E layer (Es at the height of 102 km–109 km during ascent and 99 km–108 km during decent, respectively. The energy density of thermal electrons calculated from Ne and Te shows the broad maximum in the height range of 100–110 km, and it decreases towards the lower and higher altitudes, which implies that a heat source exists in the height region of 100 km–110 km. A 3-D picture of Es, that was drawn by using Te, Ne, and the electric field data, corresponded to the computer simulation; the main structure of Es is projected to a higher altitude along the magnetic line of force, thus producing irregular structures of Te, Ne and electric field in higher altitude.

  15. Initial investigation into lower-cost CT for resource limited regions of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, James T., III; Wells, Jered R.; Segars, W. Paul; Li, Christina M.; Kigongo, Christopher J. N.

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes an initial investigation into means for producing lower-cost CT scanners for resource limited regions of the world. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, intermediate level medical facilities serving millions have no CT machines, and lack the imaging resources necessary to determine whether certain patients would benefit from being transferred to a hospital in a larger city for further diagnostic workup or treatment. Low-cost CT scanners would potentially be of immense help to the healthcare system in such regions. Such scanners would not produce state-of-theart image quality, but rather would be intended primarily for triaging purposes to determine the patients who would benefit from transfer to larger hospitals. The lower-cost scanner investigated here consists of a fixed digital radiography system and a rotating patient stage. This paper describes initial experiments to determine if such a configuration is feasible. Experiments were conducted using (1) x-ray image acquisition, a physical anthropomorphic chest phantom, and a flat-panel detector system, and (2) a computer-simulated XCAT chest phantom. Both the physical phantom and simulated phantom produced excellent image quality reconstructions when the phantom was perfectly aligned during acquisition, but artifacts were noted when the phantom was displaced to simulate patient motion. An algorithm was developed to correct for motion of the phantom and demonstrated success in correcting for 5-mm motion during 360-degree acquisition of images. These experiments demonstrated feasibility for this approach, but additional work is required to determine the exact limitations produced by patient motion.

  16. Regional changes over time in initial virologic response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Kirk, Ole; Gatell, Jose M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in virologic response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over calendar time may indicate improvements in cART or emergence of primary resistance. Regional variations may identify differences in available antiretroviral drugs or patient management. METHODS: Vi...... rates Udgivelsesdato: 2006/6...

  17. Role of the Escherichia coli grpE heat shock protein in the initiation of bacteriophage lambda DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipiuk, J; Zylicz, M

    1991-01-01

    Initiation of replication of lambda DNA requires assembly of the proper nucleoprotein complex consisting of the lambda origin of replication-lambda O-lambda P-dnaB proteins. The dnaJ, dnaK and grpE heat shock proteins destabilize the lambda P-dnaB interaction in this complex permitting dnaB helicase to unwind lambda DNA near ori lambda sequence. First step of this disassembling reaction is the binding of dnaK protein to lambda P protein. In this report we examined the influence of dnaJ and grpE proteins on stability of the lambda P-dnaK complex. Our results show that grpE alone dissociates this complex, but both grpE and dnaJ together do not. These results suggest that, in the presence of grpE protein, dnaK protein has a higher affinity for lambda P protein complexed with dnaJ protein than in the situation where grpE protein is not used.

  18. Probabilistic modeling of material resistance to crack initiation due to hydrided region overloads in CANDU Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkin, L.; Scarth, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tubes in CANDU nuclear reactors are susceptible to hydride-assisted cracking at the locations of stress concentration, such as in-service flaws. Probabilistic methodology is being developed to evaluate such flaws for crack initiation due to hydrided region overloads, which occur when the applied stress acting on a flaw with an existing hydrided region at its tip exceeds the stress at which the hydrided region is formed. As part of this development, probabilistic modeling of pressure tube material resistance to overload crack initiation has been performed on the basis of a set of test data specifically designed to study the effects of non-ratcheting hydride formation conditions and load reduction prior to hydride formation. In the modeling framework, the overload resistance is represented as a power-law function of the material resistance to initiation of delayed hydride cracking under constant loading, where both the overload crack initiation coefficient and the overload crack initiation exponent vary with the flaw geometry. In addition, the overload crack initiation coefficient varies with the extent of load reduction prior to hydride formation as well as the number of non-ratcheting hydride formation thermal cycles. (author)

  19. Probabilistic modeling of material resistance to crack initiation due to hydrided region overloads in CANDU Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutkin, L.; Scarth, D.A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tubes in CANDU nuclear reactors are susceptible to hydride-assisted cracking at the locations of stress concentration, such as in-service flaws. Probabilistic methodology is being developed to evaluate such flaws for crack initiation due to hydrided region overloads, which occur when the applied stress acting on a flaw with an existing hydrided region at its tip exceeds the stress at which the hydrided region is formed. As part of this development, probabilistic modeling of pressure tube material resistance to overload crack initiation has been performed on the basis of a set of test data specifically designed to study the effects of non-ratcheting hydride formation conditions and load reduction prior to hydride formation. In the modeling framework, the overload resistance is represented as a power-law function of the material resistance to initiation of delayed hydride cracking under constant loading, where both the overload crack initiation coefficient and the overload crack initiation exponent vary with the flaw geometry. In addition, the overload crack initiation coefficient varies with the extent of load reduction prior to hydride formation as well as the number of non-ratcheting hydride formation thermal cycles. (author)

  20. E-cigarettes: Comparing the Possible Risks of Increasing Smoking Initiation with the Potential Benefits of Increasing Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E; Mendez, David

    2018-03-29

    The public health community is divided regarding electronic cigarettes. Skeptics emphasize potential vaping-induced increases in smoking among children and possible health hazards for adults. Enthusiasts consider e-cigarettes much less dangerous than smoking and believe they increase adult smoking cessation. We compare potential health benefits and costs to put these two perspectives in context. Using a dynamic model that tracks the US adult population's smoking status and smoking-related deaths over time, we simulate the effects of vaping-induced smoking initiation and cessation on life-years saved or lost to the year 2070. The base case assumes that vaping annually increases smoking initiation by 2% and smoking cessation by 10%. Sensitivity analyses raise the initiation rate increase to 6% while decreasing the cessation rate increase to 5%. Sensitivity analyses also test vaping's reducing the health benefits of quitting smoking by 10%. With base-case assumptions, the population gains almost 3.3 million life-years by 2070. If all people who quit smoking by vaping lose 10% of the benefit of quitting smoking, the net life-year gain falls to 2.4 million. Under worst-case assumptions, in which vaping increases smoking initiation by 6% and cessation by 5%, and vaping-induced quitters lose 10% of the health benefits, the population gains over 580,000 life-years. Potential life-years gained as a result of vaping-induced smoking cessation are projected to exceed potential life-years lost due to vaping-induced smoking initiation. These results hold over a wide range of plausible parameters. Our analysis strongly suggests that the upside health benefit associated with e-cigarettes, in terms of their potential to increase adult smoking cessation, exceeds their downside risk to health as a result of their possibly increasing the number of youthful smoking initiators. Public messaging and policy should continue to strive to reduce young people's exposure to all nicotine and

  1. Gas Regional Initiative. North West Regional Energy Market. Transmission Transparency Project. First Implementation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to comment on the implementation of the TSO Transmission Transparency Project. In December 2007 sixteen TSOs presented a project plan which committed them to publishing information on capacity availability and gas flows at crossborder interconnection points in the North-West gas region. The data types to be published were agreed between TSOs and network users. It was agreed that TSOs would release new information on capacity and actual gas flows at crossborder interconnection points. The TSOs have committed to publishing the agreed information by three project milestones May, September or December 2008. At the end of May 2008 the TSOs submitted initial data to Ofgem (Office of the Gas and Electricity Markets) on implementation. This report presents the data submitted by the TSOs, provides comment on implementation progress and explains the next steps. This report does not approve or guarantee the accuracy of the data submitted by TSOs

  2. Assessment of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative Implementation in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jawaldeh, Ayoub; Abul-Fadl, Azza

    2018-01-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a global program for promoting support and protection for breastfeeding. However, its impact on malnutrition, especially in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) that are facing the turmoil of conflict and emergencies, deserves further investigation. Having said that, this paper aims to discuss the status and challenges to BFHI implementation in the EMR countries. Data on BFHI implementation, breastfeeding practices, and nutritional status were collected from countries through structured questionnaires, personal interviews, and databases. The 22 countries of the EMR were categorized as follows: 8 countries in advanced nutrition transition stage (group I), 5 countries in early nutrition transition stage (group II), 4 countries with significant undernutrition (group III), and 5 countries in complex emergency (group IV). The challenges to BFHI implementation were discussed in relation to malnutrition. BFHI was not implemented in 22.7% of EMR countries. Designated Baby-Friendly hospitals totaled 829 (group I: 78.4%, group II: 9.05%; group III: 7.36%; group: IV5.19%). Countries with advanced nutrition transition had the highest implementation of BFHI but the lowest breastfeeding continuity rates. On the other hand, poor nutritional status and emergency states were linked with low BFHI implementation and low exclusive breastfeeding rates but high continuity rates. Early initiation and longer duration of breastfeeding correlated negatively with overweight and obesity (p < 0.001). In countries with emergency states, breastfeeding continues to be the main source of nourishment. However, suboptimal breastfeeding practices prevail because of poor BFHI implementation which consequently leads to malnutrition. Political willpower and community-based initiatives are needed to promote breastfeeding and strengthen BFHI in the region. PMID:29534482

  3. Assessment of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative Implementation in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jawaldeh, Ayoub; Abul-Fadl, Azza

    2018-03-11

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a global program for promoting support and protection for breastfeeding. However, its impact on malnutrition, especially in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) that are facing the turmoil of conflict and emergencies, deserves further investigation. Having said that, this paper aims to discuss the status and challenges to BFHI implementation in the EMR countries. Data on BFHI implementation, breastfeeding practices, and nutritional status were collected from countries through structured questionnaires, personal interviews, and databases. The 22 countries of the EMR were categorized as follows: 8 countries in advanced nutrition transition stage (group I), 5 countries in early nutrition transition stage (group II), 4 countries with significant undernutrition (group III), and 5 countries in complex emergency (group IV). The challenges to BFHI implementation were discussed in relation to malnutrition. BFHI was not implemented in 22.7% of EMR countries. Designated Baby-Friendly hospitals totaled 829 (group I: 78.4%, group II: 9.05%; group III: 7.36%; group: IV5.19%). Countries with advanced nutrition transition had the highest implementation of BFHI but the lowest breastfeeding continuity rates. On the other hand, poor nutritional status and emergency states were linked with low BFHI implementation and low exclusive breastfeeding rates but high continuity rates. Early initiation and longer duration of breastfeeding correlated negatively with overweight and obesity ( p < 0.001). In countries with emergency states, breastfeeding continues to be the main source of nourishment. However, suboptimal breastfeeding practices prevail because of poor BFHI implementation which consequently leads to malnutrition. Political willpower and community-based initiatives are needed to promote breastfeeding and strengthen BFHI in the region.

  4. Assessment of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative Implementation in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Al-Jawaldeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI is a global program for promoting support and protection for breastfeeding. However, its impact on malnutrition, especially in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR that are facing the turmoil of conflict and emergencies, deserves further investigation. Having said that, this paper aims to discuss the status and challenges to BFHI implementation in the EMR countries. Data on BFHI implementation, breastfeeding practices, and nutritional status were collected from countries through structured questionnaires, personal interviews, and databases. The 22 countries of the EMR were categorized as follows: 8 countries in advanced nutrition transition stage (group I, 5 countries in early nutrition transition stage (group II, 4 countries with significant undernutrition (group III, and 5 countries in complex emergency (group IV. The challenges to BFHI implementation were discussed in relation to malnutrition. BFHI was not implemented in 22.7% of EMR countries. Designated Baby-Friendly hospitals totaled 829 (group I: 78.4%, group II: 9.05%; group III: 7.36%; group: IV5.19%. Countries with advanced nutrition transition had the highest implementation of BFHI but the lowest breastfeeding continuity rates. On the other hand, poor nutritional status and emergency states were linked with low BFHI implementation and low exclusive breastfeeding rates but high continuity rates. Early initiation and longer duration of breastfeeding correlated negatively with overweight and obesity (p < 0.001. In countries with emergency states, breastfeeding continues to be the main source of nourishment. However, suboptimal breastfeeding practices prevail because of poor BFHI implementation which consequently leads to malnutrition. Political willpower and community-based initiatives are needed to promote breastfeeding and strengthen BFHI in the region.

  5. Auroral E-region diagnosis by means of nonlinearly stabilized plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primdahl, F.; Bahnsen, A.

    1985-01-01

    Recently published comparative measurements indicate that the phase velocity of low frequency waves in the ionospheric E-region is often lower than the drift speed of the electrons that drive the waves unstable. This finding is in agreement with a rocket experiment that measured plasma waves ''in situ''. These data are reevaluated in the present paper. In order to understand these results, the linear instability theory is modified, following Sudan, to conform with zero growth rate even above threshold. The result is that the waves travel at the ion-acoustic velocity with an amplitude stabilized at a level which is found to agree with our observations

  6. A regional climate model for northern Europe: model description and results from the downscaling of two GCM control simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummukainen, M.; Räisänen, J.; Bringfelt, B.; Ullerstig, A.; Omstedt, A.; Willén, U.; Hansson, U.; Jones, C.

    This work presents a regional climate model, the Rossby Centre regional Atmospheric model (RCA1), recently developed from the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM). The changes in the HIRLAM parametrizations, necessary for climate-length integrations, are described. A regional Baltic Sea ocean model and a modeling system for the Nordic inland lake systems have been coupled with RCA1. The coupled system has been used to downscale 10-year time slices from two different general circulation model (GCM) simulations to provide high-resolution regional interpretation of large-scale modeling. A selection of the results from the control runs, i.e. the present-day climate simulations, are presented: large-scale free atmospheric fields, the surface temperature and precipitation results and results for the on-line simulated regional ocean and lake surface climates. The regional model modifies the surface climate description compared to the GCM simulations, but it is also substantially affected by the biases in the GCM simulations. The regional model also improves the representation of the regional ocean and the inland lakes, compared to the GCM results.

  7. A regional climate model for northern Europe: model description and results from the downscaling of two GCM control simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummukainen, M.; Raeisaenen, J.; Bringfelt, B.; Ullerstig, A.; Omstedt, A.; Willen, U.; Hansson, U.; Jones, C. [Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    This work presents a regional climate model, the Rossby Centre regional Atmospheric model (RCA1), recently developed from the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM). The changes in the HIRLAM parametrizations, necessary for climate-length integrations, are described. A regional Baltic Sea ocean model and a modeling system for the Nordic inland lake systems have been coupled with RCA1. The coupled system has been used to downscale 10-year time slices from two different general circulation model (GCM) simulations to provide high-resolution regional interpretation of large-scale modeling. A selection of the results from the control runs, i.e. the present-day climate simulations, are presented: large-scale free atmospheric fields, the surface temperature and precipitation results and results for the on-line simulated regional ocean and lake surface climates. The regional model modifies the surface climate description compared to the GCM simulations, but it is also substantially affected by the biases in the GCM simulations. The regional model also improves the representation of the regional ocean and the inland lakes, compared to the GCM results. (orig.)

  8. Do corporate environmental initiatives lead to results in SMEs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    , it is relevant to study the situation between these two stages in order to identify to which extent corporate environmental initiatives actually lead to results and reductions. The research is based on data collected by surveys of industrial companies in Denmark in 1999, 2003, 2007 and 2011. They information...... with previous research demonstrating that companies generally are re-active in their attitude when perceiving stakeholder influence on taking environmental initiative and mainly respond to influence from stakeholders representing authorities, owners or employees. However, the size of the company may have...... a negative influence in some situations. That is, it seems to be easier for smaller companies to achieve an improvement compared to medium-sized companies....

  9. Radar observations of artificial E-region field-aligned irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nossa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Artificial E region field aligned plasma density irregularities (FAIs were generated using HAARP in four different experimental modes and observed with a coherent scatter radar imager located 450 km to the southwest where it could detect field-aligned backscatter. The experiments were conducted in July of 2008, during the Polar Aeronomy and Radio Science Summer School (PARS, during quiet conditions in the daytime when the E layer was dense and absorption was modest. The echoes observed during zenith and magnetic zenith heating experiments were deflected from their nominally anticipated horizontal positions toward the midpoint position. The occurrence of hysteresis when heating with amplitude modulated pulses implied the development of the resonance instability, although the threshold for the onset of instability appeared to be higher than what has been predicted theoretically. Heating experiments involving pump frequencies slightly above and below the second electron gyroharmonic frequency produced no significant differences in the observed echoes. Finally, heating with a pump frequency slightly above the E region critical frequency appears to have produced FAIs at two distinct altitudes where the upper-hybrid resonance condition could be satisfied.

  10. The Southern HII Region Discovery Survey: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Jeanine; Wenger, Trey; Balser, Dana S.; Anderson, Loren D.; Armentrout, William P.; Bania, Thomas M.; Dawson, Joanne; Miller Dickey, John; Jordan, Christopher; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.

    2017-01-01

    HII regions are some of the brightest sources at radio frequencies in the Milky Way and are the sites of massive O and B-type star formation. They have relatively short (Bank Telescope. Candidate HII regions were selected from mid-infrared emission coincident with radio continuum emission, and confirmed as HII regions by the detection of radio recombination lines. Here we discuss the Southern HII Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS), a continuation of the HRDS using the Australia Telescope Compact Array over the Galactic longitude range 230 to 360 degrees. We have reduced and analyzed a small sub-set of the SHRDS sources and discuss preliminary results, including kinematic distances and metallicities.

  11. Coming soon - Launch of e-learning initiative for supervisors

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    In early July, the Learning and Development group is launching a new learning initiative specifically targeted at supervisors here at CERN. With the assistance of  experts on the subject, we have designed an exclusive series of five e-learning modules. These modules will help supervisors to synthesise some of the important processes that influence and impact their daily work and build key competencies as people managers.   Each module may take up to a maximum of 60 minutes to complete and covers the following topics: • CERN as an Organisation • People Management (Part 1) • People Management (Part 2) • Financial Management • Administrative Information Tools for Supervisors Supervisors will receive an invitation from the L&D group to access the modules on a dedicated e-learning space created on SharePoint. We recommend that all newly appointed supervisors access and complete the five modules within the first month of taking up their su...

  12. Electron temperature in the E-region of the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalpuri, K.S.; Oyama, K.-I.

    1991-06-01

    Various heating and cooling mechanisms which are operative in the lower E-region are discussed and their relative importance in different altitude range is shown. These heating and cooling rates are then used to derive the electron temperature T e . The calculated values of electron temperature are found to be higher than neutral temperature through out the altitude range 100 ∼ 150 km, with the difference increasing with increase in altitude. However, compared to observed values of T e , the calculated values are still smaller below about 130 km. Above this altitude, the calculated values become larger. Estimation of T e for different, suggested values of heating efficiency due to dissociative recombination, show that T e profile obtained even be assuming a constant value of 1.3 eV is in fairly good agreement with those derived based on variable values of this parameter. (author)

  13. Towards an e-Health Cloud Solution for Remote Regions at Bahia-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinho, V T; Mota, A O; Silva, E P

    2017-12-19

    This paper presents CloudMedic, an e-Health Cloud solution that manages health care services in remote regions of Bahia-Brazil. For that, six main modules: Clinic, Hospital, Supply, Administrative, Billing and Health Business Intelligence, were developed to control the health flow among health actors at health institutions. They provided database model and procedures for health business rules, a standard gateway for data maintenance between web views and database layer, and a multi-front-end framework based on web views and web commands configurations. These resources were used by 2042 health actors in 261 health posts covering health demands from 118 municipalities at Bahia state. They also managed approximately 2.4 million health service 'orders and approximately 13.5 million health exams for more than 1.3 million registered patients. As a result, a collection of health functionalities available in a cloud infrastructure was successfully developed, deployed and validated in more than 28% of Bahia municipalities. A viable e-Health Cloud solution that, despite municipality limitations in remote regions, decentralized and improved the access to health care services at Bahia state.

  14. Factors affecting stream nutrient loads: A synthesis of regional SPARROW model results for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephen D.; Alexander, Richard B.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the results of 12 recently calibrated regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models covering most of the continental United States to evaluate the consistency and regional differences in factors affecting stream nutrient loads. The models - 6 for total nitrogen and 6 for total phosphorus - all provide similar levels of prediction accuracy, but those for major river basins in the eastern half of the country were somewhat more accurate. The models simulate long-term mean annual stream nutrient loads as a function of a wide range of known sources and climatic (precipitation, temperature), landscape (e.g., soils, geology), and aquatic factors affecting nutrient fate and transport. The results confirm the dominant effects of urban and agricultural sources on stream nutrient loads nationally and regionally, but reveal considerable spatial variability in the specific types of sources that control water quality. These include regional differences in the relative importance of different types of urban (municipal and industrial point vs. diffuse urban runoff) and agriculture (crop cultivation vs. animal waste) sources, as well as the effects of atmospheric deposition, mining, and background (e.g., soil phosphorus) sources on stream nutrients. Overall, we found that the SPARROW model results provide a consistent set of information for identifying the major sources and environmental factors affecting nutrient fate and transport in United States watersheds at regional and subregional scales. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. The Relationship of a Pilot's Educational Background, Aeronautical Experience and Recency of Experience to Performance In Initial Training at a Regional Airline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Nancy R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how a pilot's educational background, aeronautical experience and recency of experience relate to their performance during initial training at a regional airline. Results show that variables in pilots' educational background, aeronautical experience and recency of experience do predict performance in training. The most significant predictors include years since graduation from college, multi-engine time, total time and whether or not a pilot had military flying experience. Due to the pilot shortage, the pilots entering regional airline training classes since August 2013 have varied backgrounds, aeronautical experience and recency of experience. As explained by Edward Thorndike's law of exercise and the law of recency, pilots who are actively using their aeronautical knowledge and exercising their flying skills should exhibit strong performance in those areas and pilots who have not been actively using their aeronautical knowledge and exercising their flying skills should exhibit degraded performance in those areas. Through correlation, chi-square and multiple regression analysis, this study tests this theory as it relates to performance in initial training at a regional airline.

  16. Efficient Online Aggregates in Dense-Region-Based Data Cube Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadin, Kais; Lauer, Tobias

    In-memory OLAP systems require a space-efficient representation of sparse data cubes in order to accommodate large data sets. On the other hand, most efficient online aggregation techniques, such as prefix sums, are built on dense array-based representations. These are often not applicable to real-world data due to the size of the arrays which usually cannot be compressed well, as most sparsity is removed during pre-processing. A possible solution is to identify dense regions in a sparse cube and only represent those using arrays, while storing sparse data separately, e.g. in a spatial index structure. Previous dense-region-based approaches have concentrated mainly on the effectiveness of the dense-region detection (i.e. on the space-efficiency of the result). However, especially in higher-dimensional cubes, data is usually more cluttered, resulting in a potentially large number of small dense regions, which negatively affects query performance on such a structure. In this paper, our focus is not only on space-efficiency but also on time-efficiency, both for the initial dense-region extraction and for queries carried out in the resulting hybrid data structure. We describe two methods to trade available memory for increased aggregate query performance. In addition, optimizations in our approach significantly reduce the time to build the initial data structure compared to former systems. Also, we present a straightforward adaptation of our approach to support multi-core or multi-processor architectures, which can further enhance query performance. Experiments with different real-world data sets show how various parameter settings can be used to adjust the efficiency and effectiveness of our algorithms.

  17. Ribonuclease E modulation of the bacterial SOS response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Manasherob

    Full Text Available Plants, animals, bacteria, and Archaea all have evolved mechanisms to cope with environmental or cellular stress. Bacterial cells respond to the stress of DNA damage by activation of the SOS response, the canonical RecA/LexA-dependent signal transduction pathway that transcriptionally derepresses a multiplicity of genes-leading to transient arrest of cell division and initiation of DNA repair. Here we report the previously unsuspected role of E. coli endoribonuclease RNase E in regulation of the SOS response. We show that RNase E deletion or inactivation of temperature-sensitive RNase E protein precludes normal initiation of SOS. The ability of RNase E to regulate SOS is dynamic, as down regulation of RNase E following DNA damage by mitomycin C resulted in SOS termination and restoration of RNase E function leads to resumption of a previously aborted response. Overexpression of the RraA protein, which binds to the C-terminal region of RNase E and modulates the actions of degradosomes, recapitulated the effects of RNase E deficiency. Possible mechanisms for RNase E effects on SOS are discussed.

  18. Ribonuclease E modulation of the bacterial SOS response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasherob, Robert; Miller, Christine; Kim, Kwang-sun; Cohen, Stanley N

    2012-01-01

    Plants, animals, bacteria, and Archaea all have evolved mechanisms to cope with environmental or cellular stress. Bacterial cells respond to the stress of DNA damage by activation of the SOS response, the canonical RecA/LexA-dependent signal transduction pathway that transcriptionally derepresses a multiplicity of genes-leading to transient arrest of cell division and initiation of DNA repair. Here we report the previously unsuspected role of E. coli endoribonuclease RNase E in regulation of the SOS response. We show that RNase E deletion or inactivation of temperature-sensitive RNase E protein precludes normal initiation of SOS. The ability of RNase E to regulate SOS is dynamic, as down regulation of RNase E following DNA damage by mitomycin C resulted in SOS termination and restoration of RNase E function leads to resumption of a previously aborted response. Overexpression of the RraA protein, which binds to the C-terminal region of RNase E and modulates the actions of degradosomes, recapitulated the effects of RNase E deficiency. Possible mechanisms for RNase E effects on SOS are discussed.

  19. Development of a framework towards successful implementation of e-governance initiatives in health sector in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Subhasis; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the route map for employing efficient e-governance so that at least existing resource and infrastructure are better utilized and deficiencies are tracked for future planning. National health is one of the most important factors in a country's economic growth. India seems to be a victim of the vicious cycle around poor economy and poor health conditions. A detailed study was carried out to find out India's healthcare infrastructure and its standing in e-governance initiatives. After consolidating the fact that effective e-governance can enhance the quality of healthcare service even within limited resources, authors explored success and failure factors of many e-governance initiatives in India and abroad. Finally, an e-governance framework is suggested based on the above factors together with the authors' own experience of implementing e-governance projects in India and abroad. The suggested framework is based on a phased implementation approach. The first phase "Information Dissemination" is more geared towards breaking the "digital divide" across three dimensions: G2Business; G2Citizen; and G2Agent. The most advanced stage is aimed towards joining up healthcare information across the above three dimensions and drawing meaningful analytics out of it. The recommendations also include management of Policies, Scope, Process Reform, Infrastructure, Technology, Finance, Partnership and People for efficient implementation of such e-governance initiatives. The paper provides measures for continuous evaluation of systems as one passes through various stages of implementation. However, the framework can be tested on real or simulated environment to prove its worthiness. This paper can be a potential frame of reference for nation-wide e-healthcare projects not only in India but also in other developing countries. The paper also describes challenges that are most likely to be faced during implementation. Since the paper is practical in

  20. Translation Initiation Factor eIF4E and eIFiso4E Are Both Required for Peanut stripe virus Infection in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Manlin; Xie, Hongfeng; Wu, Juxiang; Xie, Lianhui; Yang, Jinguang; Chi, Yucheng

    2017-01-01

    Peanut stripe virus (PStV) belongs to the genus Potyvirus and is the most important viral pathogen of cultivated peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.). The eukaryotic translation initiation factor, eIF4E, and its isoform, eIF(iso)4E, play key roles during virus infection in plants, particularly Potyvirus . In the present study, we cloned the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E homologs in peanut and named these as PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E , respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that these two genes were expressed during all growth periods and in all peanut organs, but were especially abundant in young leaves and roots. These also had similar expression levels. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that PStV multifunctional helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) and viral protein genome-linked (VPg) both interacted with PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay showed that there was an interaction between HC-Pro and PeaeIF4E/PeaeIF(iso)4E in the cytoplasm and between VPg and PeaeIF4E/PeaeIF(iso)4E in the nucleus. Silencing either PeaeIF4E or PeaeIF(iso)4E using a virus-induced gene silencing system did not significantly affect PStV accumulation. However, silencing both PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E genes significantly weakened PStV accumulation. The findings of the present study suggest that PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E play important roles in the PStV infection cycle and may potentially contribute to PStV resistance.

  1. Initial results from a charge exchange q-diagnostic on TEXT-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valanju, P.M.; Duraiappah, L.; Bengtson, R.D.; Karzhavin, Y.; Nikitin, A.

    1994-01-01

    The authors present initial results from a new q-diagnostic for TEXT-Upgrade. This method is based on using a toroidal array of detectors to determine the plane in which beam-injected neutrals are emitted after two charge-exchange collisions. The potential advantages are low cost, full plasma accessibility, and good time resolution. Their initial series of experiments on TEXT-U established the feasibility of this technique

  2. Study of the reaction e(+)e(-) -> psi(2S)pi(+)pi(-) via initial-state radiation at BABAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Tico, J. Garra; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Bondioli, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Edwards, A. J.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Behera, P. K.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; Behn, E.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Dallapiccola, C.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Cheaib, R.; Lindemann, D.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; de Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Martinelli, M.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; LoSecco, J. M.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Feltresi, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Pacetti, S.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Pegna, D. Lopes; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Gioi, L. Li; Mazzoni, M. A.; Piredda, G.; Buenger, C.; Gruenberg, O.; Leddig, T.; Schroeder, H.; Vo, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Vasseur, G.; Ysche, Ch.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Benitez, J. F.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Sevilla, M. Franco; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'vra, J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Miyashita, T. S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Lund, P.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Zambito, S.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Ahmed, H.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Choi, H. H. F.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.

    2014-01-01

    We study the process e+e−→ψ(2S)π+π− with initial-state-radiation events produced at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy collider. The data were recorded with the BABAR detector at center-of-mass energies at and near the Υ(nS) (n=2,3,4) resonances and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 520  fb−1. We

  3. Global peatland initiation driven by regionally asynchronous warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul J; Swindles, Graeme T; Valdes, Paul J; Ivanovic, Ruza F; Gregoire, Lauren J; Smith, Mark W; Tarasov, Lev; Haywood, Alan M; Bacon, Karen L

    2018-05-08

    Widespread establishment of peatlands since the Last Glacial Maximum represents the activation of a globally important carbon sink, but the drivers of peat initiation are unclear. The role of climate in peat initiation is particularly poorly understood. We used a general circulation model to simulate local changes in climate during the initiation of 1,097 peatlands around the world. We find that peat initiation in deglaciated landscapes in both hemispheres was driven primarily by warming growing seasons, likely through enhanced plant productivity, rather than by any increase in effective precipitation. In Western Siberia, which remained ice-free throughout the last glacial period, the initiation of the world's largest peatland complex was globally unique in that it was triggered by an increase in effective precipitation that inhibited soil respiration and allowed wetland plant communities to establish. Peat initiation in the tropics was only weakly related to climate change, and appears to have been driven primarily by nonclimatic mechanisms such as waterlogging due to tectonic subsidence. Our findings shed light on the genesis and Holocene climate space of one of the world's most carbon-dense ecosystem types, with implications for understanding trajectories of ecological change under changing future climates.

  4. Experimental results on QCD [Quantum Chromodynamics] from e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Boer, W.

    1987-09-01

    A review is given on QCD results from studying e + e - annihilation with the PEP and PETRA storage rings with special emphasis on jet physics and the determination of the strong coupling constant α/sub s/. 92 refs., 28 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Regional Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease in Germany: Results From Two Population-Based Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Aumann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Due to the increasing prevalence of risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD, kidney dysfunction becomes a major public health problem. We investigated the CKD prevalence and determined to what extent the variation of risk factors explains the different CKD prevalence in Germany. Methods: We analyzed data from 6,054 participants, aged 31 to 82 years, from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1 in Northeast Germany and the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA F4 Study in Southern Germany. Regional differences in selected percentiles corresponding to the cutpoints for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, 2 and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR, ≥30 mg/g were tested using quantile regression models that adjusted for CKD risk factors. Results: The prevalence of decreased eGFRcreatinine-cystatinC (5.9 vs. 3.1 %, p creatinine-cystatinC and high ACR. Conclusions: The CKD prevalence is higher in Northeast than in Southern Germany. Differences in the prevalence of risk factors partly explain the higher disease burden of CKD in Northeast than in Southern Germany.

  6. E-region decameter-scale plasma waves observed by the dual TIGER HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Carter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dual Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER HF radars regularly observe E-region echoes at sub-auroral magnetic latitudes 58°–60° S including during geomagnetic storms. We present a statistical analysis of E-region backscatter observed in a period of ~2 years (late 2004–2006 by the TIGER Bruny Island and Unwin HF radars, with particular emphasis on storm-time backscatter. It is found that the HF echoes normally form a 300-km-wide band at ranges 225–540 km. In the evening sector during geomagnetic storms, however, the HF echoes form a curved band joining to the F-region band at ~700 km. The curved band lies close to the locations where the geometric aspect angle is zero, implying little to no refraction during geomagnetic storms, which is an opposite result to what has been reported in the past. The echo occurrence, Doppler velocity, and spectral width of the HF echoes are examined in order to determine whether new HF echo types are observed at sub-auroral latitudes, particularly during geomagnetic storms. The datasets of both TIGER radars are found to be dominated by low-velocity echoes. A separate population of storm-time echoes is also identified within the datasets of both radars with most of these echoes showing similar characteristics to the low-velocity echo population. The storm-time backscatter observed by the Bruny Island radar, on the other hand, includes near-range echoes (r<405 km that exhibit some characteristics of what has been previously termed the High Aspect angle Irregularity Region (HAIR echoes. We show that these echoes appear to be a storm-time phenomenon and further investigate this population by comparing their Doppler velocity with the simultaneously measured F- and E-region irregularity velocities. It is suggested that the HAIR-like echoes are observed only by HF radars with relatively poor geometric aspect angles when electron density is low and when the electric field is particularly

  7. NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Roya

    2013-04-01

    NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe (Roya Ayazi, Secretary General NEREUS nereus.bruxelles@euroinbox.com) NEREUS currently unites 25 European regions and 39 Associate Members with the common objective to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe for the benefit of regions and their citizens. As voice of European Regions, NEREUS serves as an advocate for the regions in matters of space uses and also as a direct channel to the regional users of space technologies (such as local authorities, SMEs, universities and research institutes and citizens). EO/GMES, Global Satellite Navigation and Telecommunication are identified by the NEREUS Political Charta as core areas of cooperation. NEREUS holds the view that broad societal awareness and involvement is vital to fully exploit Euope's space systems. Understanding the potentials of Copernicus and EGNOS/Galileo is in the first place an essential step for the development of the downstream sector. Therefore NEREUS makes special efforts to contribute with numerous network activities to communicate and promote the added value of space uses for public policies but also as valuable new business opportunities. In economic terms space uses are suited to stimulate economic growth and innovation dynamics at regional level. The network community produced several illustrative communication tools (publications, video, web-based tools, mobile NEREUS-exhibition) portraying examples how regions already use space systems and the concrete benefits for the citizens. Most of the NEREUS-publications and video are online: www.nereus-regions.eu. Pooling a considerable wealth of capabilities and expertise, the network offers its members a dynamic platform to collaborate and share experiences and knowledge inter regionally. But these tools were not only the outcome of an intensive regional collaboration but

  8. The European Regional Development Fund and Island Regions: An Evaluation of the 2000-06 and 2007-13 Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey W. Armstrong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a regional policy evaluation study conducted for the European Commission. The study examined the impact of the European Regional Development Fund and Cohesion Fund on EU regions with ‘specific geographical characteristics’, namely islands, mountain regions and sparsely populated areas. These types of regions have been attracting increasing EU regional policy attention and their economic development is considered important in helping the EU to attain its important ‘territorial cohesion’ objective. The focus of this paper is on the island regions. Evaluation of island regions in their own right has not been undertaken before by the EU. The study focuses on the 2000-06 and (still on-going 2007-13 EU regional policy programs. The paper presents the methodology adopted by the study before turning to the main findings concerning the types of policy initiatives adopted in the island regions, and the appropriateness of the policies used for the economic situation faced by the islands. The islands encompassed by the study are all normal sub-national regions of EU member states. Islands with an unusual degree of administrative autonomy (e.g. the Outermost Regions were excluded.

  9. OECD eXplorer: Making Regional Statistics Come Alive through a Geo-Visual Web-Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Brezzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in web-enabled graphics technologies have the potential to make a dramatic impact on developing highly interactive Geovisual Analytics applications for the Internet. An emerging and challenging application domain is geovisualization of regional (sub-national statistics. Higher integration drivenby institutional processes and economic globalisation is eroding national borders and creating competition along regional lines in the world market. Sound information at sub-national level and benchmark of regions across borders have gained importance in the policy agenda of many countries. In this paper, we introduce “OECD eXplorer” — an interactive tool for analyzing and communicating gained insights and discoveries about spatial-temporal and multivariate OECD regional data. This database is a potential treasure chest for policy-makers, researchers and citizens to gain a better understanding of a region’s structure and performance and to carry out analysis of territorial trends and disparities based on sound information comparableacross countries. Many approaches and tools have been developed in spatial-related knowledge discovery but generally they do not scale well with dynamic visualization of larger spatial data on the Internet. In this context, we introduce a web-compliant Geovisual Analytics toolkit that supports a broad collection offunctional components for analysis, hypothesis generation and validation. The same tool enables the communicationof results on the basis of a snapshot mechanism that captures, re-uses and shares task-related explorative findings. Further developments underway are in the creation of a generic highly interactive web “eXplorer” platform that can be the foundation for easy customization of similar web applications usingdifferent geographical boundaries and indicators. Given this global dimension, a “generic eXplorer” will be a powerful tool to explore different territorial dimensions

  10. Characterization of hepatitis C virus recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 envelope proteins and identification of single amino acids in the E2 stem region important for entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Thomas H R; Scheel, Troels K H; Ramirez, Santseharay

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope proteins E1 and E2 play a key role in host cell entry and represent important targets for vaccine and drug development. Here, we characterized HCV recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 complexes in vitro. Using genotype 1a/2a JFH1-based recombinants expressing 1a....../release. Studies of E1/E2 heterodimerization showed no differences in intracellular E1/E2 interaction for chimeric constructs with or without E2 stem region mutations. Interestingly, the E2 stem region mutations allowed efficient entry, which was verified in 1a-E1/1b-E2 HCV pseudoparticle assays. A CD81 inhibition...

  11. Initial tank calibration at NUCEF critical facility. 1. Measurement procedure and its result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Hiroshi; Mineo, Hideaki; Tonoike, Kotaro; Takeshita, Isao; Hoshi, Katsuya; Hagiwara, Hiroyuki.

    1994-07-01

    Initial tank calibrations were carried out prior to hot operation of critical facilities in NUCEF: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility, for the purpose of the nuclear material accountancy and control for the facility. Raw calibration data were collected from single run per one tank by measuring differential pressure with dip-tube systems, weight of calibration liquid (demineralized water) poured into the tank, temperature in the tank and so on, without operation of tank ventilation system. Volume and level data were obtained by applying density and buoyancy corrections to the raw data. As a result, the evaluated measurement errors of volume and level were small enough, e.g. within 0.2 lit. and 1.0 mm, respectively, for Pu accountancy tanks. This paper summarizes the above-mentioned measurement procedures, collected data, data correction procedures and evaluated measurement errors. (author)

  12. Elites técnicas, Estado e desenvolvimento regional em Minas Gerais na Era Vargas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henrique Diniz Barbosa

    Full Text Available Este texto aborda o processo de desenvolvimento regional encetado em Minas Gerais, com particular ênfase na participação do corpo técnico regional ao longo das décadas de 1930 e 1940. Trata-se de um período de relevantes transformações no âmbito do poder público, sobretudo no tocante ao papel desempenhado pela ideologia e prática do planejamento e intervencionismo do Estado na esfera econômica, o que permitiu, no caso mineiro, a ascensão da categoria profissional do engenheiro às arenas decisórias do Estado, com repercussão na elaboração e tentativa de implantação de projetos voltados para o desenvolvimento econômico regional, notadamente nas áreas de agricultura e siderurgia. Este texto priorizará, para tanto, dois grupos específicos dentre essa elite técnica mineira: os ex-alunos da Escola de Minas de Ouro Preto e os alunos e professores da Escola Superior de Agricultura e Veterinária, de Viçosa.

  13. Hadron production in e+e- annihilation at BABAR, and implication for the muon anomalous magnetic moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Frank C. [Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States). Physics Dept.

    2015-04-29

    The BABAR collaboration has an extensive program of studying hadronic cross sections in low-energy e+e- collisions, accessible via initial-state radiation. Our measurements allow significant improvements in the precision of the predicted value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. These improvements are necessary for illuminating the current 3.6 sigma difference between the predicted and the experimental values. We have published results on a number of processes with two to six hadrons in the final state. We report here the results of recent studies with final states that constitute the main contribution to the hadronic cross section in the energy region between 1 and 3 GeV, as e+e- → K+K-, π+π-, and e+e- → 4 hadrons

  14. Initial test results of an ionization chamber shower detector for a LHC luminosity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datte, P.; Beche, J.-F.; Haguenauer, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manghisoni, M.; Millaud, J.; Placidi, M.; Ratti, L.; Riot, V.; Schmickler, H.; Speziali, V.; Turner, W.

    2002-01-01

    A novel, segmented, multi-gap, pressurized gas ionization chamber is being developed for optimization of the luminosity of the LHC. The ionization chambers are to be installed in the front quadrupole and zero degree neutral particle absorbers in the high luminosity IRs and sample the energy deposited near the maxima of the hadronic/electromagnetic showers in these absorbers. The ionization chambers are instrumented with low noise, fast, pulse shaping electronics to be capable of resolving individual bunch crossings at 40 MHz. In this paper we report the initial results of our second test of this instrumentation in an SPS external proton beam. Single 300 GeV protons are used to simulate the hadronic/electromagnetic shower produced by the forward collision products from the interaction regions of the LHC. The capability of instrumentations to measure the luminosity of individual bunches in a 40 MHz bunch train is demonstrated

  15. Polio Eradication Initiative contribution in strengthening immunization and integrated disease surveillance data management in WHO African region, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poy, Alain; Minkoulou, Etienne; Shaba, Keith; Yahaya, Ali; Gaturuku, Peter; Dadja, Landoh; Okeibunor, Joseph; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    The PEI Programme in the WHO African region invested in recruitment of qualified staff in data management, developing data management system and standards operating systems since the revamp of the Polio Eradication Initiative in 1997 to cater for data management support needs in the Region. This support went beyond polio and was expanded to routine immunization and integrated surveillance of priority diseases. But the impact of the polio data management support to other programmes such as routine immunization and disease surveillance has not yet been fully documented. This is what this article seeks to demonstrate. We reviewed how Polio data management area of work evolved progressively along with the expansion of the data management team capacity and the evolution of the data management systems from initiation of the AFP case-based to routine immunization, other case based disease surveillance and Supplementary immunization activities. IDSR has improved the data availability with support from IST Polio funded data managers who were collecting them from countries. The data management system developed by the polio team was used by countries to record information related to not only polio SIAs but also for other interventions. From the time when routine immunization data started to be part of polio data management team responsibility, the number of reports received went from around 4000 the first year (2005) to >30,000 the second year and to >47,000 in 2014. Polio data management has helped to improve the overall VPD, IDSR and routine data management as well as emergency response in the Region. As we approach the polio end game, the African Region would benefit in using the already set infrastructure for other public health initiative in the Region. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Cannabinoid Modulation of Eukaryotic Initiation Factors (eIF2α and eIF2B1 and Behavioral Cross-Sensitization to Cocaine in Adolescent Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe A. Melas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Reduced eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 (eIF2α phosphorylation (p-eIF2α enhances protein synthesis, memory formation, and addiction-like behaviors. However, p-eIF2α has not been examined with regard to psychoactive cannabinoids and cross-sensitization. Here, we find that a cannabinoid receptor agonist (WIN 55,212-2 mesylate [WIN] reduced p-eIF2α in vitro by upregulating GADD34 (PPP1R15A, the recruiter of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1. The induction of GADD34 was linked to ERK/CREB signaling and to CREB-binding protein (CBP-mediated histone hyperacetylation at the Gadd34 locus. In vitro, WIN also upregulated eIF2B1, an eIF2 activator subunit. We next found that WIN administration in vivo reduced p-eIF2α in the nucleus accumbens of adolescent, but not adult, rats. By contrast, WIN increased dorsal striatal levels of eIF2B1 and ΔFosB among both adolescents and adults. In addition, we found cross-sensitization between WIN and cocaine only among adolescents. These findings show that cannabinoids can modulate eukaryotic initiation factors, and they suggest a possible link between p-eIF2α and the gateway drug properties of psychoactive cannabinoids. : Melas et al. show that psychoactive cannabinoids modulate levels of two eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF2α and eIF2B1 known to be involved in protein synthesis, memory formation, and drug sensitivity. Cannabinoid modulation of eIF2α in vivo is only observed in adolescent animals, and is associated with cross-sensitization to cocaine. Keywords: drug use, addiction, cannabis, marijuana, cocaine, epigenetics, eIF2a, CREB, GADD34, gateway drugs

  17. Scope of Policy Issues in eHealth: Results From a Structured Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Hammad; Nayani, Parvez; Fahim, Ammad

    2012-01-01

    Background eHealth is widely used as a tool for improving health care delivery and information. However, distinct policies and strategies are required for its proper implementation and integration at national and international levels. Objective To determine the scope of policy issues faced by individuals, institutions, or governments in implementing eHealth programs. Methods We conducted a structured review of both peer-reviewed and gray literature from 1998–2008. A Medline search for peer-reviewed articles found 40 papers focusing on different aspects of eHealth policy. In addition, a Google search found 20 national- and international-level policy papers and documents. We reviewed these articles to extract policy issues and solutions described at different levels of care. Results The literature search found 99 policy issues related to eHealth. We grouped these issues under the following themes: (1) networked care, (2) interjurisdictional practice, (3) diffusion of eHealth/digital divide, (4) eHealth integration with existing systems, (5) response to new initiatives, (6) goal-setting for eHealth policy, (7) evaluation and research, (8) investment, and (9) ethics in eHealth. Conclusions We provide a list of policy issues that should be understood and addressed by policy makers at global, jurisdictional, and institutional levels, to facilitate smooth and reliable planning of eHealth programs. PMID:22343270

  18. Implementing the first regional hospice palliative care program in Ontario: the Champlain region as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José; Contant, Jocelyne; Barton, Gwen; Klinger, Christopher

    2016-07-26

    Regionalization promotes planning and coordination of services across settings and providers to meet population needs. Despite the potential advantages of regionalization, no regional hospice palliative care program existed in Ontario, Canada, as of 2010. This paper describes the process and early results of the development of the first regional hospice palliative care program in Ontario. The various activities and processes undertaken and the formal agreements, policies and documents are described. A participative approach, started in April 2009, was used. It brought together over 26 health service providers, including residential hospices, a palliative care unit, community and hospital specialist consultation teams, hospitals, community health and social service agencies (including nursing), individual health professionals, volunteers, patients and families. An extensive stakeholder and community vetting process was undertaken that included work groups (to explore key areas such as home care, the hospital sector, hospice and palliative care unit beds, provision of care in rural settings, e-health and education), a steering committee and input from over 320 individuals via e-mail and town-halls. A Transitional Leadership Group was elected to steer the implementation of the Regional Program over the summer of 2010. This group established the by-laws and details regarding the governance structure of the Regional Program, including its role, responsibilities, reporting structures and initial performance indicators that the Local Health Integration Network (LHIN) approved. The Regional Program was formally established in November 2010 with a competency-based Board of 14 elected members to oversee the program. Early work involved establishing standards and performance indicators for the different sectors and settings in the region, and identifying key clinical needs such as the establishment of more residential hospice capacity in Ottawa and a rural framework to ensure

  19. Predicting the susceptibility to gully initiation in data-poor regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Olivier; Daoudi, Mohamed; Bosco, Claudio; Van Den Eeckhaut, Miet

    2015-01-01

    Permanent gullies are common features in many landscapes and quite often they represent the dominant soil erosion process. Once a gully has initiated, field evidence shows that gully channel formation and headcut migration rapidly occur. In order to prevent the undesired effects of gullying, there is a need to predict the places where new gullies might initiate. From detailed field measurements, studies have demonstrated strong inverse relationships between slope gradient of the soil surface (S) and drainage area (A) at the point of channel initiation across catchments in different climatic and morphological environments. Such slope-area thresholds (S-A) can be used to predict locations in the landscape where gullies might initiate. However, acquiring S-A requires detailed field investigations and accurate high resolution digital elevation data, which are usually difficult to acquire. To circumvent this issue, we propose a two-step method that uses published S-A thresholds and a logistic regression analysis (LR). S-A thresholds from the literature are used as proxies of field measurement. The method is calibrated and validated on a watershed, close to the town of Algiers, northern Algeria, where gully erosion affects most of the slopes. The gullies extend up to several kilometres in length and cover 16% of the study area. First we reconstruct the initiation areas of the existing gullies by applying S-A thresholds for similar environments. Then, using the initiation area map as the dependent variable with combinations of topographic and lithological predictor variables, we calibrate several LR models. It provides relevant results in terms of statistical reliability, prediction performance, and geomorphological significance. This method using S-A thresholds with data-driven assessment methods like LR proves to be efficient when applied to common spatial data and establishes a methodology that will allow similar studies to be undertaken elsewhere.

  20. Initial experiment of focusing wiggler of MM wave Free Electron Laser on LAX-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Keishi; Maebara, Sunao; Watanabe, Akihiko; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Nagashima, Takashi; Maeda, Hikosuke; Shiho, Makoto; Oda, Hisako; Kawasaki, Sunao.

    1991-03-01

    Initial results of Free Electron laser (FEL) Experiment in the mm wave region are presented. The experiment is carried out using a induction linac system (LAX-1: Large current Accelerator Experiment) of E b = 1 MeV, Ib = 1 ∼ 3 kA. The wiggler of FEL is composed of the curved surface magnets arrays (focusing wiggler), which is found to be effective for a transport of low energy and high current beam through the wiggler. The superradiance of the mm wave region (30 GHz ∼ 40 GHz) is observed. The growth rate of this radiation is 0.42 dB/cm. (author)

  1. A Statistical Study of Eiscat Electron and Ion Temperature Measurements In The E-region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, G.; Haldoupis, C.; Schlegel, K.; Bösinger, T.

    Motivated by the large EISCAT data base, which covers over 15 years of common programme operation, and previous statistical work with EISCAT data (e.g., C. Hal- doupis, K. Schlegel, and G. Hussey, Auroral E-region electron density gradients mea- sured with EISCAT, Ann. Geopshysicae, 18, 1172-1181, 2000), a detailed statistical analysis of electron and ion EISCAT temperature measurements has been undertaken. This study was specifically concerned with the statistical dependence of heating events with other ambient parameters such as the electric field and electron density. The re- sults showed previously reported dependences such as the electron temperature being directly correlated with the ambient electric field and inversely related to the electron density. However, these correlations were found to be also dependent upon altitude. There was also evidence of the so called "Schlegel effect" (K. Schlegel, Reduced effective recombination coefficient in the disturbed polar E-region, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 44, 183-185, 1982); that is, the heated electron gas leads to increases in elec- tron density through a reduction in the recombination rate. This paper will present the statistical heating results and attempt to offer physical explanations and interpretations of the findings.

  2. Search for narrow resonances in e+e- annihilation in the mass region 3.2 to 5.9 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarski, A.M.; Breidenbach, M.; Bulos, F.

    1975-01-01

    The mass region 3.2 to 5.9 GeV was searched for evidence of narrow resonances in e + e - /sub f/ → hadron. No evidence was found for any such resonances other than the psi (3695) in this region with a sensitivity ranging from about 12 to 45 percent of the integrated cross section of the psi (3695). The more stringent bounds apply to resonances of a few MeV width, while the looser bounds apply to resonances of up to 20 MeV width. (U.S.)

  3. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  4. The InterFrost benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology - first inter-comparison results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Roux, Nicolas; Anbergen, Hauke; Collier, Nathaniel; Costard, Francois; Ferrry, Michel; Frampton, Andrew; Frederick, Jennifer; Holmen, Johan; Jost, Anne; Kokh, Samuel; Kurylyk, Barret; McKenzie, Jeffrey; Molson, John; Orgogozo, Laurent; Rivière, Agnès; Rühaak, Wolfram; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Therrien, René; Vidstrand, Patrik

    2015-04-01

    The impacts of climate change in boreal regions has received considerable attention recently due to the warming trends that have been experienced in recent decades and are expected to intensify in the future. Large portions of these regions, corresponding to permafrost areas, are covered by water bodies (lakes, rivers) that interact with the surrounding permafrost. For example, the thermal state of the surrounding soil influences the energy and water budget of the surface water bodies. Also, these water bodies generate taliks (unfrozen zones below) that disturb the thermal regimes of permafrost and may play a key role in the context of climate change. Recent field studies and modeling exercises indicate that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is required to understand and model the past and future evolution of landscapes, rivers, lakes and associated groundwater systems in a changing climate. However, there is presently a paucity of 3D numerical studies of permafrost thaw and associated hydrological changes, and the lack of study can be partly attributed to the difficulty in verifying multi-dimensional results produced by numerical models. Numerical approaches can only be validated against analytical solutions for a purely thermic 1D equation with phase change (e.g. Neumann, Lunardini). When it comes to the coupled TH system (coupling two highly non-linear equations), the only possible approach is to compare the results from different codes to provided test cases and/or to have controlled experiments for validation. Such inter-code comparisons can propel discussions to try to improve code performances. A benchmark exercise was initialized in 2014 with a kick-off meeting in Paris in November. Participants from USA, Canada, Germany, Sweden and France convened, representing altogether 13 simulation codes. The benchmark exercises consist of several test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. McKenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones. They

  5. Comparison of E-Commerce behaviour among women consumers of Balkan and Baltic Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Polychronidou Persefoni; Valsamidis Stavros; Florou Giannoula; Karasavvoglou Anastasios

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more consumers prefer to make their shopping via Internet. Researchers wish to study the e-commerce behaviour and the factors influencing consumer’s attitude while shopping on line. This paper investigates the differences and similarities of women’s behaviour toward e-commerce in two culturally different Europe regions; the Balkans and the Baltic regions. Some attributes such as trust in vendor, trust in transactions, language, culture, age or education and their possible i...

  6. Tracking the Global Distribution of Persistent Organic Pollutants Accounting for E-Waste Exports to Developing Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Knut; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2016-01-19

    Elevated concentrations of various industrial-use Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been reported in some developing areas in subtropical and tropical regions known to be destinations of e-waste. We used a recent inventory of the global generation and exports of e-waste to develop various global scale emission scenarios for industrial-use organic contaminants (IUOCs). For representative IUOCs (RIUOCs), only hypothetical emissions via passive volatilization from e-waste were considered whereas for PCBs, historical emissions throughout the chemical life-cycle (i.e., manufacturing, use, disposal) were included. The environmental transport and fate of RIUOCs and PCBs were then simulated using the BETR Global 2.0 model. Export of e-waste is expected to increase and sustain global emissions beyond the baseline scenario, which assumes no export. A comparison between model predictions and observations for PCBs in selected recipient regions generally suggests a better agreement when exports are accounted for. This study may be the first to integrate the global transport of IUOCs in waste with their long-range transport in air and water. The results call for integrated chemical management strategies on a global scale.

  7. Regional scheme for the connection to the grid of renewable energies: for the Hauts-de-France region, for the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, for the Picardy region, the Alsace region, the Aquitaine region, the Auvergne region, the Lower-Normandy region, the Burgundy region, the Brittany region, the Centre-Val-de-Loire region, the Champagne-Ardennes region, the Franche-Comte region, the Upper Normandy region, the Ile-de-France region, the Languedoc-Roussillon region, the Lorraine region, the Midi-Pyrenees region, the Provence-Alps-Cote d'Azur region, the Pays-de-la-Loire region, the Poitou-Charentes region, the Rhone-Alps region. Technical and financial status of the scheme implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This document gathers reports related to all French regions. Each one addresses the elaboration of the concerned regional scheme of connection of renewable energies to the distribution network (French acronym: S3REnR) which aims at anticipating and planning evolutions of electrical networks which are necessary for the integration of renewable energies. Illustrated by maps, tables and graphs, these reports propose indications of energy production locations, an identification of planned works, a presentation of the concerned region, of its existing grid and projects, an overview of the scheme content (initial status, results of consultations, adopted strategies, planned works), and an overview of the scheme implementation status

  8. Polarized Structure Function $\\sigma_{LT'}$ for $p({\\vec e},e'K^+)\\Lambda$ in the Nucleon Resonance Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Raue, Brian; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Carman, Daniel; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Anciant, Eric; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asavapibhop, Burin; Asryan, Gegham; Audit, Gerard; Auger, Thierry; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Beard, Kevin; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bonner, Billy; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Burkert, Volker; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Casey, Liam; Cetina, Catalina; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Cords, Dieter; Corvisiero, Pietro; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Dennis, Lawrence; Deur, Alexandre; Dhuga, Kalvir; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dragovitsch, Peter; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fatemi, Renee; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Feuerbach, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girard, Pascal; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gothe, Ralf; Gothe, Ralf; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guillo, Matthieu; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Heddle, David; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hu, Jicun; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Kui; Kim, Kyungmo; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; Lukashin, Konstantin; MacCormick, Marion; Manak, Joseph; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Minehart, Ralph; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Peterson, Gerald; Philips, Sasha; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Qin, Liming; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Rubin, Philip; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Sayre, Donald; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Shafi, Aziz; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Simionatto, Sebastio; Skabelin, Alexander; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinsky, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Taylor, Shawn; Tedeschi, David; Thoma, Ulrike; Thompson, Richard; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Wang,

    2008-06-01

    The first measurements of the polarized structure function $\\sigma_{LT'}$ for the reaction $p(\\vec e,e'K^+)\\Lambda$ in the nucleon resonance region are reported. Measurements are included from threshold up to $W$=2.05 GeV for central values of $Q^2$ of 0.65 and 1.00 GeV$^2$, and nearly the entire kaon center-of-mass angular range. $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is the imaginary part of the longitudinal-transverse response and is expected to be sensitive to interferences between competing intermediate s-channel resonances, as well as resonant and non-resonant processes. The results for $\\sigma_{LT'}$ are comparable in magnitude to previously reported results from CLAS for $\\sigma_{LT}$, the real part of the same response. An intriguing sign change in $\\sigma_{LT'}$ is observed in the high $Q^2$ data at $W\\approx 1.9$ GeV. Comparisons to several existing model predictions are shown.

  9. Site Specific Advisory Board initiative, evaluation survey results supplementary appendix: Summary of individual site results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This Appendix presents results of the Site-Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) Initiative for each of the 11 sites that participated in the survey. These individual results are a supplement to the June 1996 Summary Report which presented overall survey results. Results are presented in 11 sections, arranged alphabetically by site. Each section includes a series of figures and tables that parallel those presented in the Summary Report. To facilitate comparison, figures are presented both for the individual site and for the overall long survey. The sequence of sections is: Fernald, Hanford, Idaho, Los Alamos, Monticello, Nevada, Pantex, Rocky Flats, St. Louis, Sandia, and Savannah River

  10. An integrated approach to estimate storage reliability with initial failures based on E-Bayesian estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yongjin; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Shitao; Wang, Jiamei; Zhang, Yanjun

    2017-01-01

    Storage reliability that measures the ability of products in a dormant state to keep their required functions is studied in this paper. For certain types of products, Storage reliability may not always be 100% at the beginning of storage, unlike the operational reliability, which exist possible initial failures that are normally neglected in the models of storage reliability. In this paper, a new integrated technique, the non-parametric measure based on the E-Bayesian estimates of current failure probabilities is combined with the parametric measure based on the exponential reliability function, is proposed to estimate and predict the storage reliability of products with possible initial failures, where the non-parametric method is used to estimate the number of failed products and the reliability at each testing time, and the parameter method is used to estimate the initial reliability and the failure rate of storage product. The proposed method has taken into consideration that, the reliability test data of storage products containing the unexamined before and during the storage process, is available for providing more accurate estimates of both the initial failure probability and the storage failure probability. When storage reliability prediction that is the main concern in this field should be made, the non-parametric estimates of failure numbers can be used into the parametric models for the failure process in storage. In the case of exponential models, the assessment and prediction method for storage reliability is presented in this paper. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the method. Furthermore, a detailed comparison between the proposed and traditional method, for examining the rationality of assessment and prediction on the storage reliability, is investigated. The results should be useful for planning a storage environment, decision-making concerning the maximum length of storage, and identifying the production quality. - Highlights:

  11. E-COMMERCE IN THE ASIAN CONTEXT

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lower transaction costs and improved management of customer and supplier ... To provide a geographic context to the Pan Asia e-commerce initiative, it is ... The second model uses a private application service provider (ASP) to handle the ... As an inaugural activity, a regional e-commerce training workshop was held in ...

  12. Transanal minimally-invasive surgery (TAMIS: Technique and results from an initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramon Silveira Mendes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is a minimally-invasive approach for rectal lesions. Superior exposure and access to the entire rectum result in lesser risk of compromised margins and lower recurrence rates, when compared to conventional transanal excision. The aim of this study was to describe a single institution's initial experience with transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS. This was a prospective review of our database. Elev- en procedures from January 2012 to June 2013 were analyzed. Results: eleven operations were completed. Five men were evaluated. Mean age was 62.9 (40-86. Mean follow-up was 9.3 (2-17 months. Average tumor size was 3.8 (1.8-8 cm. Mean distance from anal verge was 6.3 (3-12 cm. Mean operating time was 53.73 (28-118 min. Postoperative complica- tion rate was 9.1%. There were no readmissions. Mortality was null. Operative pathology disclosed the presence of adenoma in four patients, invasive adenocarcinoma in two, neu- roendocrine carcinoma in three, and no residual lesion in one case. TAMIS is a minimally- invasive procedure with low postoperative morbidity at the initial experience. TAMIS is a curative procedure for benign lesions and for selected early cancers. It is useful after neoadjuvant therapy for strictly selected cancers, pending the results of multi-institutional trials. Resumo: Microcirurgia endoscópica transanal é uma abordagem minimamente invasiva para lesões retais. Apresenta menor risco de margem comprometida e menores taxas de recorrência em comparação com excisão transanal convencional. Objetivou-se descrever a experiência inicial, de uma única instituição, com cirurgia minimamente invasiva transanal (TAMIS. Avaliação prospectiva de nosso banco de dados. Onze procedimentos de janeiro de 2012 a junho de 2013, foram analisados. Resultados: onze operações foram concluídas. Havia cinco homens. A média de idade foi de 62,9 (40-86. O acompanhamento médio foi de ww9,3 (2-17 meses. O

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart E of... - List of Regional Offices, Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP), U.S. Department...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Compliance Programs (OFCCP), U.S. Department of Labor (USDL) E Exhibit E to Subpart E of Part 1901... REGULATIONS PROGRAM-RELATED INSTRUCTIONS Civil Rights Compliance Requirements Pt. 1901, Subpt. E, Exh. E Exhibit E to Subpart E of Part 1901—List of Regional Offices, Office of Federal Contract Compliance...

  14. The Latin-American region and the challenges to develop one homogeneous and harmonized hazard model: preliminary results for the Caribbean and Central America regions in the GEM context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J.; Arcila, M.; Benito, B.; Eraso, J.; García, R.; Gomez Capera, A.; Pagani, M.; Pinho, R.; Rendon, H.; Torres, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Latin America is a seismically active region with complex tectonic settings that make the creation of hazard models challenging. Over the past two decades PSHA studies have been completed for this region in the context of global (Shedlock, 1999), regional (Dimaté et al., 1999) and national initiatives. Currently different research groups are developing new models for various nations. The Global Earthquake Model (GEM), an initiative aiming at the creation of a large global community working collaboratively on building hazard and risk models using open standards and tools, is promoting the collaboration between different national projects and groups so as to facilitate the creation of harmonized regional models. The creation of a harmonized hazard model can follow different approaches, varying from a simple patching of available models to a complete homogenisation of basic information and the subsequent creation of a completely new PSHA model. In this contribution we describe the process and results of a first attempt aiming at the creation of a community based model covering the Caribbean and Central America regions. It consists of five main steps: 1- Identification and collection of available PSHA input models; 2- Analysis of the consistency, transparency and reproducibility of each model; 3- Selection (if more then a model exists for the same region); 4- Representation of the models in a standardized format and incorporation of new knowledge from recent studies; 5- Proposal(s) of harmonization We consider some PHSA studies completed over the latest twenty years in the region comprising the Caribbean (CAR), Central America (CAM) and northern South America (SA), we illustrate a tentative harmonization of the seismic source geometries models and we discuss the steps needed toward a complete harmonisation of the models. Our will is to have a model based on best practices and high standards created though a combination of knowledge and competences coming from the

  15. More evidence for a planetary wave link with midlatitude E region coherent backscatter and sporadic E layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schlegel

    Full Text Available Measurements of midlatitude E region coherent backscatter obtained during four summers with SESCAT, a 50 MHz Doppler system operating in Crete, Greece, and concurrent ionosonde recordings from the same ionospheric volume obtained with a CADI for one of these summers, are used to analyse the long-term variability in echo and Es occurrence. Echo and Es layer occurrences, computed in percent of time over a 12-h nighttime interval, take the form of time sequences. Linear power spectrum analysis shows that there are dominant spectral peaks in the range of 2–9 days, the most commonly observed periods appearing in two preferential bands, of 2–3 days and 4–7 days. No connection with geomagnetic activity was found. The characteristics of these periodicities compare well with similar properties of planetary waves, which suggests the possibility that planetary waves are responsible for the observed long-term periodicities. These findings indicate also a likely close relation between planetary wave (PW activity and the well known but not well understood seasonal Es dependence. To test the PW postulation, we used simultaneous neutral wind data from the mesopause region around 95 km, measured from Collm, Germany. Direct comparison of the long-term periodicities in echo and Es layer occurrence with those in the neutral wind show some reasonable agreement. This new evidence, although not fully conclusive, is the first direct indication in favour of a planetary wave role on the unstable midlatitude E region ionosphere. Our results suggest that planetary waves observation is a viable option and a new element into the physics of midlatitude Es layers that needs to be considered and investigated.Key words: Ionosphere (ionosphere irregularities; mid-latitude ionosphere – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides

  16. Reciprocating magnetic refrigerator for 2--4 K operation: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, J.A.; Moze, O.; Paterson, L.

    1979-01-01

    The basic theory and design of a reciprocating magnetic refrigerator to pump heat from 2.2 to 4.2 K is presented. The results of initial experiments are shown. These results include conduction losses, eddy current losses, frictional losses, and mixing losses. Two cooling cycles were attempted and a net cooling power of 52 mW was observed at 1/60 Hz. The key problems in this design are identified and discussed

  17. Spectroscopic research of Lambda hypernuclei up to medium-heavy mass region with the (e,e'K+) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogami, Toshiyuki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    In 2009 (August-November), the E05-115 experiment was carried out at JLab to investigate L hypernuclei in the wide mass region up to A = 52 ($7\\atop{Λ}$He, $10\\atop{Λ}$Be, $12\\atop{Λ}$B and $52\\atop{Λ}$V) with the (e,e'K+) reaction. This is the first attempt to investigate a medium heavy L hypernucleus with the (e,e'K+) reaction. Experimentally, it is difficult to measure heavier L hypernuclei as background rates of particles which originate from electromagnetic processes are roughly in proportion to Z2 (Z: target proton number) in the (e,e'K+) experiment. To perform the experiment, many experimental techniques have been developed and introduced such as optimization of the electron spectrometer configuration (tilt method), clean kaon identification, particle tracking under high multiplicity environment, precise energy scale calibration and so on. In the present thesis, experimental results of the elementary process of p(e,e'K+)L, L hypernuclei of $7\\atop{Λ}$He, $10\\atop{Λ}$Be, $12\\atop{Λ}$B and $52\\atop{Λ}$V are shown. Elementary processes of the electroproduction of L and Σ0, p(e,e'K+)L, Σ0 were used for the absolute energy scale calibration of our spectrometer systems. A careful Monte Carlo simulation shows that the binding energy can be obtained with a systematic error of 0.11 MeV with our energy scale calibration method. A study of the elementary process of L is important to understand L hypernuclei as it is essential for theoretical calculations of L hypernuclei. The differential cross section of the p(e,e'K+)L reaction at the small K+ scattering angle (theta-CM/gamma-K approx. 15.5°), the small Q2 (approx 0.01 [GeV/c]2) and the total energy of W = 1.92 GeV, where no experimental data exists was obtained to be 235 ± 13$+28\\atop{-24}$ nb/sr. The ground state (1/2+) binding energy

  18. Initial results of a positron tomograph for prostate imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.S.; Choong, W.S.; Moses, W.W.; Qi, J.; Hu, J.; Wang,G.C.; Wilson, D.; Oh, S.; Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.

    2004-11-29

    We present the status and initial images of a positrontomograph for prostate imaging that centers a patient between a pair ofexternal curved detector banks (ellipse: 45 cm minor, 70 cm major axis).The distance between detector banks adjusts to allow patient access andto position the detectors as closely as possible for maximum sensitivitywith patients of various sizes. Each bank is composed of two axial rowsof 20 CTI PET Systems HR+ block detectors for a total of 80 modules inthe camera. Compared to an ECAT HR PET system operating in 3D mode, ourcamera uses about one-quarter the number of detectors and hasapproximately the same sensitivity for a central point source, becauseour detectors are close to the patient. The individual detectors areangled in the plane to point towards the prostate to minimize resolutiondegradation in that region. The detectors are read out by modified CTIdata acquisition electronics. We have completed construction of thegantry and electronics, have developed detector calibration and dataacquisition software, and are taking coincidence data. We demonstratethat we can clearly visualize a "prostate" in a simple phantom.Reconstructed images of two phantoms are shown.

  19. EDCTP regional networks of excellence: initial merits for planned clinical trials in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miiro, George M; Oukem-Boyer, Odile Ouwe Missi; Sarr, Ousmane; Rahmani, Maerangis; Ntoumi, Francine; Dheda, Keertan; Pym, Alexander; Mboup, Souleymane; Kaleebu, Pontiano

    2013-03-22

    Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and combating hotspots with escalating but preventable communicable diseases remain major challenges in Africa. The European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) intervened to combat poverty-related diseases including malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, and to conduct multi-centre clinical trials and multi-disciplinary health research through an innovative model of regional Networks of Excellence (NoEs). We participated in a quasi-formative evaluation between October and December 2011 on the 4 regional-led research networks. These included the: Central Africa Network on Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and Malaria (CANTAM); East African Consortium for Clinical Research (EACCR); West African Network of Excellence for TB, AIDS and Malaria (WANETAM), and the Trials of Excellence for Southern Africa (TESA) launched between 2009 and 2010. We shared a participatory appraisal of field reports, progress reports and presentations from each network to jointly outline the initial experiences of the merits, outputs and lessons learnt. The self-regulating democratic networks, with 64 institutions in 21 African countries, have trained over 1, 000 African scientists, upgraded 36 sites for clinical trials, leveraged additional € 24 million and generated 38 peer-reviewed publications through networking and partnerships. The shared initial merits and lessons learnt portray in part the strengthened capacity of these networks for improved research coordination and conduct of planned multi-center clinical trials in Africa. Increased funding by African agencies, governments and international health partners will ensure sustainability of these networks for research capacity development and demonstrate their commitment to achieving the MDGs in Africa.

  20. The role of vibrationally excited oxygen and nitrogen in the D and E regions of the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of a study of the effect of vibrationally excited oxygen, O*2, and nitrogen, N*2, on the electron density, Ne, and the electron temperature, Te, in the D and E regions. The sources of O*2 are O-atom recombination, the photodissociation of O3, and the reaction of O3 with O at D region altitudes. The first calculations of O*2( j number densities, Nj, are obtained by solving continuity equations for the models of harmonic and anharmonic oscillator energy levels, j=1-22. It is found that day time values of Nj are less than nighttime values. We also show that the photoionization of O*2 ( j ≥ 11 by Lα-radiation has no influence on the D region Ne. In the nighttime D region the photoionization O*2 ( j ≥ 11 by scattered Lα-radiation can be a new source of O+2. We show that the N*2 and O*2 de-excitation effect on the electron temperature is small in the E region of the ionosphere and cannot explain experimentally observed higher electron temperatures.

  1. Learning from the Ilulissat Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon; Thomasen, Gry

    In May 2018, ten years will have passed since the representatives from the five Arctic coastal states (Canada, Denmark, Norway, Russia) and the Home Rule government of Greenland met in Ilulissat. Learning from the Ilulissat Initiative examines how the initiative came about, and how it has affected...... strong economic interests in maintaining peaceful Arctic relations. Northern forums therefore give policymakers a rare opportunity to meet, communicate, and influence a key region. The Ilulissat meeting was the result of a joint Danish‒Greenlandic initiative and is often hailed as one of the most...

  2. Evidence supporting a role for TopBP1 and Brd4 in the initiation but not continuation of human papillomavirus 16 E1/E2-mediated DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauson, Elaine J; Donaldson, Mary M; Dornan, Edward S; Wang, Xu; Bristol, Molly; Bodily, Jason M; Morgan, Iain M

    2015-05-01

    To replicate the double-stranded human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) DNA genome, viral proteins E1 and E2 associate with the viral origin of replication, and E2 can also regulate transcription from adjacent promoters. E2 interacts with host proteins in order to regulate both transcription and replication; TopBP1 and Brd4 are cellular proteins that interact with HPV16 E2. Previous work with E2 mutants demonstrated the Brd4 requirement for the transactivation properties of E2, while TopBP1 is required for DNA replication induced by E2 from the viral origin of replication in association with E1. More-recent studies have also implicated Brd4 in the regulation of DNA replication by E2 and E1. Here, we demonstrate that both TopBP1 and Brd4 are present at the viral origin of replication and that interaction with E2 is required for optimal initiation of DNA replication. Both cellular proteins are present in E1-E2-containing nuclear foci, and the viral origin of replication is required for the efficient formation of these foci. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against either TopBP1 or Brd4 destroys the E1-E2 nuclear bodies but has no effect on E1-E2-mediated levels of DNA replication. An E2 mutation in the context of the complete HPV16 genome that compromises Brd4 interaction fails to efficiently establish episomes in primary human keratinocytes. Overall, the results suggest that interactions between TopBP1 and E2 and between Brd4 and E2 are required to correctly initiate DNA replication but are not required for continuing DNA replication, which may be mediated by alternative processes such as rolling circle amplification and/or homologous recombination. Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is causative in many human cancers, including cervical and head and neck cancers, and is responsible for the annual deaths of hundreds of thousands of people worldwide. The current vaccine will save lives in future generations, but antivirals targeting HPV16 are required for the alleviation of disease

  3. Long-term trends in the ionospheric E and F1 regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bremer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground based ionosonde measurements are the most essential source of information about long-term variations in the ionospheric E and F1 regions. Data of such observations have been derived at many different ionospheric stations all over the world some for more than 50 years. The standard parameters foE, h'E, and foF1 are used for trend analyses in this paper. Two main problems have to be considered in these analyses. Firstly, the data series have to be homogeneous, i.e. the observations should not be disturbed by artificial steps due to technical reasons or changes in the evaluation algorithm. Secondly, the strong solar and geomagnetic influences upon the ionospheric data have carefully to be removed by an appropriate regression analysis. Otherwise the small trends in the different ionospheric parameters cannot be detected.

    The trends derived at individual stations differ markedly, however their dependence on geographic or geomagnetic latitude is only small. Nevertheless, the mean global trends estimated from the trends at the different stations show some general behaviour (positive trends in foE and foF1, negative trend in h'E which can at least qualitatively be explained by an increasing atmospheric greenhouse effect (increase of CO2 content and other greenhouse gases and decreasing ozone values. The positive foE trend is also in qualitative agreement with rocket mass spectrometer observations of ion densities in the E region. First indications could be found that the changing ozone trend at mid-latitudes (before about 1979, between 1979 until 1995, and after about 1995 modifies the estimated mean foE trend.

  4. A nova configuração regional brasileira e sua geografia econômica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Borges Lemos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar a nova configuração regional brasileira, procurando delimitar seus pólos econômicos e suas áreas de influência, como base para uma proposta de nova regionalização para o Brasil. Para isto, é construída uma metodologia específica, baseada na aplicação do Modelo Gravitacional, comumente usado em estudos espaciais, por meio do Sistema de Informações Geográficas - SIG. Este procedimento possibilita a identificação das regiões-pólos e suas áreas de influência, com base no potencial de interação econômica entre as unidades espaciais e na correspondente hierarquia de poder de atração econômica no espaço. As microrregiões geográficas (MRGs do IBGE constituem a unidade espacial básica deste estudo, que se baseia nos microdados do Censo Demográfico de 1991. A base cartográfica digital foi a Malha Municipal Digital do Brasil, convertida para o Mapinfo. A regionalização final incorpora, em seus resultados, uma qualificação da fricção espacial.The aim of this paper is to identify the new regional pattern of the Brazilian economy by defining its economic poles and their areas of polarization, which will provide an economic regionalization for Brazil. The methodological tools to assign this objective will be an adapted version of the gravitational model using the Geographic Information System - GIS. This procedure will allow the identification of the influence areas for each regional pole, based on the potential interaction among the spatial units and their hierarchy in terms of economic power of attraction. The microregion of the Brazilian Statistics Bureau (IBGE will be the spatial unit of this study, which will rely on microdata of the 1991 Demographic Census. The digital cartographic base is the Brazilian Municipal Digital Network converted into the MapInfo. The results will provide a hierarchical spatial structure of macro regions, mesoregions, microregions, and

  5. Road Safety in Puglia Region La sicurezza stradale in Puglia: stato di fatto e ipotesi di intervento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Bonerba

    2009-07-01

    association towards a safer and sustainable mobility. In addition, the enhancement of technical structures in charge of traffic and safety has been achieved. The expected results concern: – improvement of cooperation between all actors involved; – improvement of a local integrated culture about road safety; – availability of a powerful analysis tool and a Monitoring Centre; – development of some operational plans to improve safety and reduce crashes risks in the most critical points. – report progress in implementing the road safety strategy directed at reducing the number of accidents and casualties; – report the effectiveness of casualty reduction measures. – report on progress with road safety partnerships.L’articolo, partendo da una descrizione delle attività e delle principali funzioni del Centro Regionale di Monitoraggio della Sicurezza Stradale CReMSS della regione Puglia, vuole fornire un quadro sullo stato della sicurezza della rete stradale pugliese. In particolare lo studio vuole evidenziare le criticità e i punti di forza del caso della Puglia, mettendo in evidenza il sistema di interventi messi in atto e programmati. Il CReMSS, istituito con la legge regionale 18/2004, rappresenta uno strumento di raccolta e di analisi dei dati sull’incidentalità al fine di indirizzare le politiche e gli interventi in materia di sicurezza stradale, così come previsto nel Piano Nazionale della Sicurezza Stradale (PNSS legge 144/99. Le azioni del centro sono prevalentemente orientate al coordinamento e al raccordo con altri centri di monitoraggio (comunali, provinciali e nazionali in modo da assicurare un’integrazione delle basi conoscitive e valutative del fenomeno incidentalità viaria e con tutti gli enti, le scuole di ogni ordine grado, e le realtà del privato sociale per diffondere i saperi e condividere le buone pratiche in materia di sicurezza stradale.

  6. E-commerce and territorial development in the Objective-1 spanish regions

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Cohard, Juan Carlos; Bernal Jurado, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    The information and communication technologies constitute one of the main forces of the globalization. In this framework, the e-commerce takes advantage of Internet to improve the competitiveness of the companies and territories. In the nowadays scenario, the e-commerce opens development posibilities for the regions fewer developed, creating a virtual space that saves the geographical barriers. However, the use of its advantages requires infrastructures and equipment, organizational capacity ...

  7. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Dry-Season Campaign: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international science project investigating the southern African earth-atmosphere-human system. The experiment was conducted over a two-year period March 1999 - March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-Steptember 2000) was the most intensive activity and involving over 200 scientists from 18 different nations. The main objectives of this campaign were to characterize and quantify the biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft, namely two South African Weather Service aircraft, University of Washington CV-580, the UK Meteorological Office C-130 and the NASA ER-2, with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses that had moved downwind of the subcontinent was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple observations were taken in various sectors for a variety of synoptic conditions. Flight missions were designed to maximize synchronous over-flights of the NASA TERRA satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller-scale ground validation activities took place throughout the region during the campaign period.

  8. Ten Years of Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI): Results and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, P. Y.; Gutman, G.; Gulev, S.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    During recent decades, Northern Eurasia was affected by unprecedented climate and environmental changes. Several droughts and heat waves alternated with hazardous extreme precipitation and flood events. Permafrost thaw, retreating Arctic sea ice, increasing areas of forest fire, and dramatic regional warming buffeted this region, tossing northern Eurasia from one extreme condition to the next. The region stores nearly half of the Earth's terrestrial carbon in permafrost, wetlands, and forested land, so ecosystem changes that release stored carbon could profoundly affect the world's climate. Furthermore, changes to climate and to hydrological and biogeochemical cycles are starting to affect daily life. For example, infrastructure is collapsing as permafrost thaws, severe winter storms increasingly bring businesses to a halt, and a growing water deficit is beginning to strain agricultural production and forestry. To pool resources and facilitate research, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI, http://neespi.org) was launched in 2004. With its multidisciplinary focus, the internationally funded NEESPI (more than165 individual international projects during the past decade) has challenged participants to research climate-ecosystem interactions, societal impacts from extreme events in Northern Eurasia, and the feedbacks of these interactions and impacts to the global Earth system. Among the numerous Institutional and private sponsors from the United States, European Union, Russia, China, and Japan, the cornerstone support for the NEESPI studies was provided by the NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change Program and the Russian Academy of Sciences. At this presentation we shall overview the environmental studies conducted by the NEESPI community, brief the audience about the main achievements of the NEESPI researchers, and lay down the plans for the future studies. At the side event of the Meeting, we are going to initiate preparation of the book

  9. Revascularização do miocárdio sem circulação extracorpórea: experiência e resultados iniciais Myocardial revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass: experience and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio BRASIL

    2000-03-01

    insufficiency. OBJECTIVE: To present our experience with this procedure describing the technique used and our initial results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-three patients were submitted to myocardial revascularization without CPB. The patients selected for this study had lesions in the coronary arteries of the anterodiaphragmatic cardiac region. The main surgical indication was chronic coronary insufficiency (78.3%. 65% of the patients were male, with age between 44-80 (mean - 59.6 years. The surgical approach in all patients was through median sternotomy. He grafts used were internal thoracic arteries, saphenous vein and radial artery. RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 3:15 hours. There were no intra-operative occurences. The number of grafts was 1 to 3 in each patient (mean 1.56 graft/patient out of a total of 36 grafts. The left internal thoracic artery was the most used graft (41.7%. The most frequently revascularized coronary arteries were the anterior interventricular branch (52.8% and the right coronary (30.5%. Hospital mortality and post-operative infarct were 4.3%. There were no neurological, pulmonary, renal, hemorragic or infectious complications. The mean hospital stay was 7 days. CONCLUSION: Myocardial revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass is an effective and safe technique that can be utilized in selected cases with low morbidity and mortality, reducing costs and hospital stay.

  10. Governance of extended lifecycle in large-scale eHealth initiatives: analyzing variability of enterprise architecture elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykkänen, Juha; Virkanen, Hannu; Tuomainen, Mika

    2013-01-01

    The governance of large eHealth initiatives requires traceability of many requirements and design decisions. We provide a model which we use to conceptually analyze variability of several enterprise architecture (EA) elements throughout the extended lifecycle of development goals using interrelated projects related to the national ePrescription in Finland.

  11. Contribution of the two-photon annihilation process in the measurement of σ/sub t/ (e+e/sup /minus// → hadrons at PEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, B.

    1988-01-01

    The possible impact of the 2γ process e/sup /plus//e/sup/minus// → e/sup /plus//e/sup /minus// /plus/ hadrons is evaluated as a source of background for the study of the one photon annihilation process. Two regions of hadron system invariant mass are considered---the resonance region with low invariant mass, and the ''diffractive'' region above 2 GeV hadron invariant mass. In spite of the fact that the 2γ cross-section rises with the energy of the initial e/sup /plus//e/sup /minus// system, it seems clear that measurements of the total energy of the final hadron system will allow the clean separation of the 2γ events from the single photon annihilation reaction

  12. Nova técnica: operação de Norwood com perfusão regional cerebral e coronariana New technique: Norwood operation with regional cerebral and coronary perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucio Furlanetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o resultado imediato da operação de Norwood modificado com nova técnica de perfusão regional cerebral (PRCeA anterógrada associado a perfusão regional coronariana (PRCoR retrógrada em substituição à parada circulatória total com hipotermia profunda em crianças portadoras da Síndrome da Hipoplasia do Coração Esquerdo (SHCE com aorta ascendente extremamente hipoplásica (AH. MÉTODOS: No período de dezembro de 2006 a fevereiro de 2008, a operação de Norwood modificado com tubo entre o ventrículo direito e as artérias pulmonares ou shunt tipo Sano foi realizada em oito crianças portadoras de SHCE e aorta ascendente com diâmetro inferior a 3 mm, (quatro do sexo masculino e quatro do sexo feminino com idade média de 9,2 dias (variando de 1 a 29 dias e peso médio de 3,3 kg (variando de 2,7 a 3,8 kg. Utilizada CEC e hipotermia a 25ºC com duas cânulas venosas e anastomose de um enxerto de politetrafluoretileno com a artéria inominada utilizado como linha arterial e para PRCeA. A PRCoR foi realizada por meio de um desvio na linha arterial e colocação de um cateter na aorta ascendente. Foram analisados o resultado cirúrgico imediato e a presença de alterações neurológicas nesse período. RESULTADOS: O resultado cirúrgico imediato revelou mortalidade de 25% e ausência de comprometimento neurológico ao exame clínico. CONCLUSÃO: A operação de Norwood modificado pode ser realizada com PRCeA e PRCoR em crianças com SHCE e AH com resultado cirúrgico imediato satisfatório e ausência de complicações neurológicas.OBJECTIVE: To assess the immediate result of the modified Norwood procedure with new technique of anterograde regional cerebral perfusion (ARCeP and retrograde regional coronary perfusion (RRCoP in substitution of profound hypothermia and circulatory arrest in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS with extremely hypoplastic ascending aorta (HA. METHODS: In the period of

  13. Experiments with the MD-1 detector at the e+e- collider VEPP-4 in the energy region of Υ mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baru, S.E.; Blinov, A.E.; Blinov, V.E.; Bondar, A.E.; Bukin, A.D.; Groshev, V.R.; Eidelman, Yu.I.; Kiselev, V.A.; Klimenko, S.G.; Kolachev, G.M.; Mishnev, S.I.; Onuchin, A.P.; Panin, V.S.; Petrov, V.V.; Protopopov, I.Ya.; Shamov, A.G.; Sidorov, V.A.; Skovpen, Yu.I.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Tayursky, V.A.; Telnov, V.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.A.; Tumaikin, G.M.; Undrus, A.E.; Vorobiov, A.I.; Zhilich, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews physical results obtained at the e + e - collider VEPP-4 with the MD-1 detector. The results of experiments on the Υ meson physics and study of the hadron production in continuum in the energy region 7.2-10.3 GeV as well as the results of study of the two photon reactions are presented. Among results obtained in the upsilon physics: the precise measurement of the Υ(1S), Υ(2S), Υ(3S) masses and the precise determination of the Υ(1S) and Υ(2S) electronic widths. In the experiments on study of the hadron production in continuum the precise measurement of the R was carried out. The peculiarity of the detector is the magnetic field transverse to the orbit plane which provided the possibility to study two photon reactions with tagging one or both scattered electrons even at zero emission angle. Among results on the γγ reactions is the measurement of the two photon total hadronic cross section performed in the double-tag mode. In the QED experiments a new QED effect - the impact parameter cut-off in single bremsstrahlung was discovered. (orig.)

  14. E-Business, the impact of regional growth on the improvement of Information and Communication Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, MI; Hasyim, C.; Kurniasih, N.; Abdullah, D.; Napitupulu, D.; Rahim, R.; Sukoco, A.; Dhaniarti, I.; Suyono, J.; Sudapet, IN; Nasihien, RD; Wulandari, DAR; Reswanda; Mudjanarko, SW; Sugeng; Wajdi, MBN

    2018-04-01

    ICT becomes a key element to improve industrial infrastructure efficiency and sustainable economic productivity. This study aims to analysis the impact of regional improvement on information and communication development in Indonesia. This research is a correlational study. Population of this research include 151 regions in Indonesia. By using a total sampling, there were 151 sample regions. The results show there are the strong impact of regional growth on increasing Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) of information and communication. It can be seen from all regional improvement sub variables that have a high correlation in increasing GRDP of Information and Communication in Indonesia. Only two sub-variables that have low correlation to GRDP of Information and Communication variable i.e. GRDP of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (0.01) and GRDP of Mining and Quarrying (0.04). The correlation coefficient (R) is 0.981, means the variable of information and communication GRDP has a very strong correlation with regional growth variable. Thus the value of Adjusted R Square is 95.8%, means there are impact of regional growth variables in increasing GRDPof Information and Communication, while the increase of 4.2% of Information and Communication GRDP is influenced by other factors aside from regional improvement.

  15. Introduction of e-learning in dental radiology reveals significantly improved results in final examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckfessel, Sandra; Stühmer, Constantin; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Kupka, Thomas; Behrends, Marianne; Matthies, Herbert; Vaske, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rücker, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Because a traditionally instructed dental radiology lecture course is very time-consuming and labour-intensive, online courseware, including an interactive-learning module, was implemented to support the lectures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of students who have worked with web-based courseware as well as the effect on their results in final examinations. Users (n(3+4)=138) had access to the e-program from any networked computer at any time. Two groups (n(3)=71, n(4)=67) had to pass a final exam after using the e-course. Results were compared with two groups (n(1)=42, n(2)=48) who had studied the same content by attending traditional lectures. In addition a survey of the students was statistically evaluated. Most of the respondents reported a positive attitude towards e-learning and would have appreciated more access to computer-assisted instruction. Two years after initiating the e-course the failure rate in the final examination dropped significantly, from 40% to less than 2%. The very positive response to the e-program and improved test scores demonstrated the effectiveness of our e-course as a learning aid. Interactive modules in step with clinical practice provided learning that is not achieved by traditional teaching methods alone. To what extent staff savings are possible is part of a further study. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Venezuela e ALBA: regionalismo contra-hegemônico e ensino superior para todos Venezuela and the ALBA: counter-hegemonic regionalism and higher education for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Muhr

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de um quadro teórico neo-gramsciano crítico à globalização, este artigo aplica a nova teoria do regionalismo (NTR e a teoria do regionalismo regulatório (TRR à sua análise e teorização dos tratados de comércio da Aliança Bolivariana para os Povos da Nossa América (ALBA-TCP como regionalismo contra-hegemônico na América Latina e Caribe (ALC. A ALBA está centrada na ideia de um Socialismo do Século XXI, que, como (inicialmente também a Revolução Bolivariana da Venezuela, substitui a 'vantagem competitiva' pela 'vantagem cooperativa'. Em seu caráter de conjunto de processos multidimensionais e transnacionais a ALBA-TCP opera dentro de/transversalmente a um número de setores e escalas, ao mesmo passo que as transformações estruturais são movidas pela interação de agentes do Estado e agentes não estatais. A política de Educação Superior para Todos (ESPT do governo venezuelano rejeita a agenda neoliberal globalizada de mercadorização, privatização e elitismo e reinvindica educação pública gratuita em todos os níveis como um direito humano fundamental. A ESPT está sendo regionalizado em um espaço educacional emergente da ALBA e assume um papel-chave nos processos de democracia direta e participatória, dos quais a construção popular (bottom-up da contra-hegemonia e a redefinição política e econômica da ALC dependem. Antes de produzir sujeitos empreendedores conformes ao capitalismo global, a ESPT procura formar subjetividades ao longo de valores morais de solidariedade e cooperação. Isso será ilustrado com referência a um estudo etnográfico de caso da Universidade Bolivariana da Venezuela (UBV.This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC regionalism. As (initially the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian

  17. Reaction (γ,2e) and (e,3e) as probe of electron correlation in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Cross sections of the (γ,2e) and (e,3e) reactions contain information about the two vacancy-energy spectrum and electron-pair correlations in initial and final states of the target atom. Physical pictures of these processes are presented for two- and many-electron atoms. The simplest mechanisms are discussed, demonstrating some features which await experimental confirmation. Attention is given to high photon energy and the relativistic energy region of these reactions. The energy distribution of outgoing relativistic electrons is qualitatively different from the nonrelativistic case. The origin and types of corrections to the simplest mechanisms, and possible means of their detection, are discussed. In addition, the role of different resonances: shape, giant, autoionizational, and Feshbach-type are considered. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data, mainly on double photoionization cross sections. Different possible objects as targets for the reactions are considered, including negative ions, excited atoms, molecules, and clusters. The modification of these reactions due to photon emission is discussed. The future of the domain is outlined

  18. Reactions (γ,2e) and (e,3e) as probes of electronic correlations in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.

    1993-01-01

    Cross sections of the (γ,2e) and (e,3e) reactions carry information on two vacancy energy spectrum and on electron pair correlations in initial and final states of the target atom. Physical pictures of these processes are presented for two- and many-electron atoms. Simplest mechanisms of them are discussed, demonstrating some features which are waiting for experimental confirmation. Attention is given to high photon energy and even to relativistic energy region of these reactions. The energy distribution of outgoing relativistic electrons is qualitatively different from what it is for the nonrelativistic case. Origin and types of corrections to the simplest mechanisms and possible means of their detection are discussed. Role of different resonances: shape, giant, autoionizational, and Feschbach-type are considered. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data, mainly on double photoionization cross sections. Different possible objects as targets for the reactions are mentioned, including negative ions, excited atoms, molecules and clusters. Modification of the type of these reactions due to rather probable emission of the photon is discussed. Future of the domain is outlined. (orig.)

  19. ECONOMIC IDENTITY OF THE SOUTH-RUSSIAN REGIONS: RESULTS OF EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Bazhenov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the interdisciplinary expert survey «Bottom-up: how the economic identity of the region is manifested in the socio-economic behavior of the individual.» His goal was to detect and record the effects of an economic identity of the region in socio-economic behavior of individuals in various regions of six Federal districts of the Russian Federation. The article focuses on the results of the survey obtained in the regions of the South of Russia, such as the regions of the North Caucasus. The article presents the methodology, describes the technology survey and analysis of obtained results. The authors also draw conclusions about cross-cultural differences in models of economic behavior of the studied ethnic and cultural groups in the South-Russian regions. They show the relationship of economic phenomena of identity and models of economic behavior with social and cultural factors. The nature of these linkages varies among the representatives of different groups, and when we define economic identity, then the factor of religious affiliation less important than the factor of ethnicity.

  20. E3 Success Story - Working Together: E3 Ohio and the Ohio By-Product Synergy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission (MORPC) received funding to support the integration of the national E3 sustainability initiative with the Ohio By-Product Synergy (BPS) Network to create an efficient and replicable model for reducing GHGs.

  1. First E- and D-region incoherent scatter spectra observed over Jicamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Chau

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We present here the first Jicamarca observations of incoherent scatter radar (ISR spectra detected from E- and D-region altitudes. In the past such observations have not been possible at Jicamarca due a combined effect of strong equatorial electrojet (EEJ clutter and hardware limitations in the receiving system. The observations presented here were made during weak EEJ conditions (i.e., almost zero zonal electric field using an improved digital receiving system with a wide dynamic range and a high data throughput. The observed ISR spectra from E- and D-region altitudes are, as expected, narrow and get even narrower with decreasing altitude due to increasing ion-neutral collision frequencies. Therefore, it was possible to obtain accurate spectral measurements using a pulse-to-pulse data analysis. At lower altitudes in the D-region where signal correlation times are relatively long we used coherent integration to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the collected data samples. The spectral estimates were fitted using a standard incoherent scatter (IS spectral model between 87 and 120 km, and a Lorentzian function below 110 km. Our preliminary estimates of temperature and ion-neutral collisions frequencies above 87 km are in good agreement with the MSISE-90 model. Below 87 km, the measured spectral widths are larger than expected, causing an overestimation of the temperatures, most likely due to spectral distortions caused by atmospheric turbulence.

  2. Measuring the usability of e-banking in Special Region of Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadyanawati Anindyya Agripina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Online shopping is become an option because customers do not need to go to the store. Internet banking is a bank facility to help customers in common. This research is aim to know usability aspect of e-commerce banking. Data collection was done by distributing questionnaires in Yogyakarta Special Region. The number of respondents is 140 with the range of age 17-22 years. Anova is used as method research. The results showed that in each group show significantly different. Post hoc analysis explained that learnability and efficiency variable has significantly different, with value p<0,05. The highest average value is in the learnability variable and the lowest is the memorability variable.

  3. Influence of initial velocity on trajectories of a charged particle in uniform crossed electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Viridi, Sparisoma; Widayani

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic and electric fields can cause a charged particle to form interesting trajectories. In general, each trajectory is discussed separately in university physics textbooks for undergraduate students. In this work, a solution of a charged particle moving in a uniform electric field at right angles to a uniform magnetic field (uniform crossed electric and magnetic fields) is reported; it is limited to particle motion in a plane. Specific solutions and their trajectories are obtained only by varying the initial particle velocity. The result shows five basic trajectory patterns, i.e., straight line, sinusoid-like, cycloid, cycloid-like with oscillation, and circle-like. The region of each trajectory is also mapped in the initial velocity space of the particle. This paper is intended for undergraduate students and describes further the trajectories of a charged particle through the regions of electric and magnetic fields influenced by initial condition of the particle, where electromagnetic radiation of an accelerated particle is not considered. (paper)

  4. Numerical simulation of mid-latitude ionospheric E-region based on SEEK and SEEK-2 observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yokoyama

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Observational campaigns of the mid-latitude ionospheric E-region with sounding rockets and ground-based instruments were conducted in 1996 (SEEK and 2002 (SEEK-2. Both of them were successfully conducted to bring important findings about the mid-latitude E-region and quasi-periodic (QP VHF radar echoes. The observational results in the SEEK and the SEEK-2 are compared with numerical simulations and discussed in this paper. While sporadic-E (Es-layers are actually formed by the observed neutral wind, it is difficult for the constant wind shear to produce the sharp Es-layer gradient. However, once they are formed in the lower E-region, they cannot easily be dissipated by the simple diffusive motion. The polarization electric field, calculated under the condition at the rocket launch time, shows similar amplitude and structure to the measurement around the Es-layer altitude. The structure of the plasma density and the electric field above the Es-layer observed in the SEEK-2 showed a wave-like pattern up to an altitude of 150 km. Considering a mapping of the polarization electric field generated within the Es-layers, gravity waves are the possible source of the wave-like structure of the measured electric fields and sub-peaks of the electron density above the main Es-layers. Fluctuation of the measured magnetic field is reproduced by Hall or field-aligned current driven by the polarization electric field. The current theoretical models for QP echoes and the polarization electric field are basically verified by the discussion in this paper. Keywords. Ionospheric irregularities – Mid-latitude ionosphere – Numerical simulation studies

  5. Measurement of the e(+)e(-) -> pi(+)pi(-)pi(0)pi(0) cross section using initial-state radiation at BABAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Brown, D. N.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Fritsch, M.; Schroeder, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Lankford, A. J.; Gary, J. W.; Long, O.; Eisner, A. M.; Lockman, W. S.; Vazquez, W. Panduro; Chao, D. S.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Miyashita, T. S.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Rohrken, M.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Pushpawela, B. G.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Santoro, V.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Martellotti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rotondo, M.; Zallo, A.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Lacker, H. M.; Bhuyan, B.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Prell, S.; Ahmed, H.; Gritsan, A. V.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Coleman, J. P.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Cowan, G.; Banerjee, Sw.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Schubert, K. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Lafferty, G. D.; Cenci, R.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Cowan, R.; Robertson, S. H.; Dey, B.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Cheaib, R.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Summers, D. J.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; LoSecco, J. M.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Posocco, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Rossi, A.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Rama, M.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Anulli, F.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Pilloni, A.; Piredda, G.; Buenger, C.; Dittrich, S.; Gruenberg, O.; Hess, M.; Leddig, T.; Voss, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Vasseur, G.; Aston, D.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Fulsom, B. G.; Graham, M. T.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kim, P.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Luitz, S.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'vra, J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Purohit, M. V.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; De Mori, F.; Filippi, A.; Gamba, D.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Beaulieu, A.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Kowalewski, R.; Lueck, T.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Prepost, R.

    2017-01-01

    The process e+e−→π+π−2π0γ is investigated by means of the initial-state radiation technique, where a photon is emitted from the incoming electron or positron. Using 454.3  fb−1 of data collected around a center-of-mass energy of √s=10.58  GeV by the BABAR experiment at SLAC, approximately 150000

  6. Initial results from NuSTAR observations of the Norma arm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-ray telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 deg2 of sky area in the 3-79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw depth of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary...

  7. The Triticum Mosaic Virus 5' Leader Binds to Both eIF4G and eIFiso4G for Translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Roberts

    Full Text Available We recently identified a remarkably strong (739 nt-long IRES-like element in the 5' untranslated region (UTR of Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV, Potyviridae. Here, we define the components of the cap-binding translation initiation complex that are required for TriMV translation. Using bio-layer interferometry and affinity capture of the native translation apparatus, we reveal that the viral translation element has a ten-fold greater affinity for the large subunit eIF4G/eIFiso4G than to the cap binding protein eIF4E/eIFiso4E. This data supports a translation mechanism that is largely dependent on eIF4G and its isoform. The binding of both scaffold isoforms requires an eight base-pair-long hairpin structure located 270 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation site, which we have previously shown to be crucial for IRES activity. Despite a weak binding affinity to the mRNA, eIFiso4G alone or in combination with eIFiso4E supports TriMV translation in a cap-binding factor-depleted wheat germ extract. Notably, TriMV 5' UTR-mediated translation is dependent upon eIF4A helicase activity, as the addition of the eIF4A inhibitor hippuristanol inhibits 5' UTR-mediated translation. This inhibition is reversible with the addition of recombinant wheat eIF4A. These results and previous observations demonstrate a key role of eIF4G and eIF4A in this unique mechanism of cap-independent-translation. This work provides new insights into the lesser studied translation mechanisms of plant virus-mediated internal translation initiation.

  8. Overcoming Interoperability Weaknesses in e-Government Processes: Organizing and Sharing Knowledge in Regional Development Programs Using Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Francesco; Casas, Giuseppe Las; Murgante, Beniamino

    European Regional Policy produced several generations of programmes at both National and Regional levels. Such a complex framework tends to increase multi-level governance in the period 2007-2013, promoting a wider participation of stakeholders (including Public Administration, Local Communities, Enterprises, etc). This process has been usually accompanied by e-tools for the management of bottom-up processes, with several instances related to common problems of participation processes. Communication between "programmer" and categories of beneficiaries always presented weakness due to the ineffective system of management knowledge within the process. Relevant issues in the framework of regional development programmes are: Do stakeholders understand the meaning of general and sectoral policies? Are citizens aware of technical instruments implementing such policies? Are they conscious of ex-ante comprehensive context analysis and/or can they share possible future scenarios? A way to tackle these problems is the use of ontologies. In this work we present the structural elements of the ontology of regional development programmes analyzing major steps of the ontology design and nodal phases of the ontology building (i.e. consensus on relations and restrictions, switch from glossary to taxonomy). The result of such an application is an ontology of regional development containing more than one hundred classes.

  9. Morbidade Materna Grave e Near Misses em Hospital de Referência Regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Lait Morse

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar perfil epidemiológico da morbidade materna grave/near miss em uma maternidade pública de referência regional, utilizando diferentes critérios identificadores. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo de corte transversal dos casos de morbidade materna grave/near miss realizado em Hospital de referência regional entre junho e outubro de 2009, identificados a partir dos livros de registro de internação da maternidade e análise dos prontuários clínicos. Foram estudadas mulheres que, durante a gestação, parto ou puerpério, apresentaram qualquer quadro clínico compatível com os critérios definidores de morbidade materna grave/near miss de Waterstone et al., Mantel et al. e Organização Mundial de Saúde. RESULTADOS: Entre as 1.544 internações foram identificadas 89 mulheres com morbidade materna grave, considerando os critérios adotados. As razões de morbidade materna grave/near miss variaram entre 81,4 a 9,4 por 1.000 NV, dependendo do critério utilizado. O índice de Mortalidade foi de 3,2%, chegando a 23% no critério da OMS. Das 89 mulheres, apenas 40% fizeram mais de seis consultas de pré-natal e 10% não realizaram qualquer consulta. Os marcadores mais encontrados foram a pré-eclâmpsia grave seguida de hemorragia grave, internação em UTI, Síndrome HELLP e eclâmpsia. Ocorreram três mortes maternas por causas obstétricas com RMM de 280/100.000 NV e uma morte tardia. O critério da OMS se mostrou mais específico, identificando os casos mais graves, enquanto o de Waterstone foi mais sensível. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo da morbidade materna grave/near miss em um hospital de referência regional pode contribuir para o conhecimento da magnitude deste evento, como também identificar suas características e condições clínicas mais frequentes, sendo extremamente importante para o enfrentamento da morbi-mortalidade materna.OBJECTIVE: To investigate severe maternal morbidity/near misses in a tertiary

  10. Measurement of target and double-spin asymmetries for the e ⃗p ⃗→e π+(n ) reaction in the nucleon resonance region at low Q2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X.; Adhikari, K. P.; Bosted, P.; Deur, A.; Drozdov, V.; El Fassi, L.; Kang, Hyekoo; Kovacs, K.; Kuhn, S.; Long, E.; Phillips, S. K.; Ripani, M.; Slifer, K.; Smith, L. C.; Adikaram, D.; Akbar, Z.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Badui, R. A.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Chen, J.-P.; Chetry, T.; Choi, Seonho; Ciullo, G.; Clark, L.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fanchini, E.; Fedotov, G.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gleason, C.; Golovach, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; McKinnon, B.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Murdoch, G.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Ni, A.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stankovic, I.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    We report measurements of target- and double-spin asymmetries for the exclusive channel e ⃗p ⃗→e π+(n ) in the nucleon resonance region at Jefferson Lab using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). These asymmetries were extracted from data obtained using a longitudinally polarized NH3 target and a longitudinally polarized electron beam with energies 1.1, 1.3, 2.0, 2.3, and 3.0 GeV. The new results are consistent with previous CLAS publications but are extended to a low Q2 range from 0.0065 to 0.35 (GeV/c ) 2 . The Q2 access was made possible by a custom-built Cherenkov detector that allowed the detection of electrons for scattering angles as low as 6∘. These results are compared with the unitary isobar models JANR and MAID, the partial-wave analysis prediction from SAID, and the dynamic model DMT. In many kinematic regions our results, in particular results on the target asymmetry, help to constrain the polarization-dependent components of these models.

  11. PKC δ Regulates Translation Initiation through PKR and eIF2 α in Response to Retinoic Acid in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ozpolat, Bulent; Akar, Ugur; Tekedereli, Ibrahim; Alpay, S. Neslihan; Barria, Magaly; Gezgen, Baki; Zhang, Nianxiang; Coombes, Kevin; Kornblau, Steve; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Translation initiation and activity of eukaryotic initiation factor-alpha (eIF2 α ), the rate-limiting step of translation initiation, is often overactivated in malignant cells. Here, we investigated the regulation and role of eIF2 α in acute promyelocytic (APL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in response to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), the front-line therapies in APL. ATRA and ATO induce Ser-51 phosphorylation (inactivation) of eIF2 α , through the induct...

  12. Ionospheric scintillation observations over Kenyan region - Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwendo, O. J.; Xiao, Yu; Ming, Ou

    2016-11-01

    Ionospheric scintillation refers to the rapid fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of a satellite signal as it passes through small-scale plasma density irregularities in the ionosphere. By analyzing ionospheric scintillation observation datasets from satellite signals such as GPS signals we can study the morphology of ionospheric bubbles. At low latitudes, the diurnal behavior of scintillation is driven by the formation of large-scale equatorial density depletions which form one to two hours after sunset via the Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism near the magnetic equator. In this work we present ionospheric scintillation activity over Kenya using data derived from a newly installed scintillation monitor developed by CRIRP at Pwani University (39.78°E, 3.24°S) during the period August to December, 2014. The results reveal the scintillation activity mainly occurs from post-sunset to post-midnight hours, and ceases around 04:00 LT. We also found that the ionospheric scintillation tends to appear at the southwest and northwest of the station. These locations coincide with the southern part of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly crest over Kenya region. The occurrence of post-midnight L-band scintillation events which are not linked to pre-midnight scintillation observations raises fundamental question on the mechanism and source of electric fields driving the plasma depletion under conditions of very low background electron density.

  13. The E-Business Research Network: summary of the results of the Dutch pilot survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Wiele (Ton); A.R.T. Williams (Roger); J.D. van Iwaarden (Jos); M. Wilson (Melanie); B.G. Dale (Barry)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractA project has been started with the intention to develop an E-Business Research Network on E-business related research in business and management. The initiative has been taken in co-operation between Erasmus University and UMIST to develop a project in which the first stage concerns the

  14. E-health: Determinants, opportunities, challenges and the way forward for countries in the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatwiri Doris

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of the 58th World Health Assembly resolution on e-health will pose a major challenge for the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO African Region due to lack of information and communications technology (ICT and mass Internet connectivity, compounded by a paucity of ICT-related knowledge and skills. The key objectives of this article are to: (i explore the key determinants of personal computers (PCs, telephone mainline and cellular and Internet penetration/connectivity in the African Region; and (ii to propose actions needed to create an enabling environment for e-health services growth and utilization in the Region. Methods The effects of school enrolment, per capita income and governance variables on the number of PCs, telephone mainlines, cellular phone subscribers and Internet users were estimated using a double-log regression model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries that comprise the Region. The data were obtained from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, the World Bank and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU sources. Results There were a number of main findings: (i the adult literacy and total number of Internet users had a statistically significant (at 5% level in a t-distribution test positive effect on the number of PCs in a country; (ii the combined school enrolment rate and per capita income had a statistically significant direct effect on the number of telephone mainlines and cellular telephone subscribers; (iii the regulatory quality had statistically significant negative effect on the number of telephone mainlines; (iv similarly, the combined school enrolment ratio and the number of telephone mainlines had a statistically significant positive relationship with Internet usage; and (v there were major inequalities in ICT connectivity between upper-middle, lower-middle and

  15. Initial Results from the Micro-pulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Spinhirne, James D.; Ginoux, Paul; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The micro-pulse lidar system (MPL) was developed in the early 1990s and was the first small, eye-safe, and autonomous lidar built for full time monitoring of cloud and aerosol vertical distributions. In 2000, a new project using MPL systems was started at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This new project, the Micro-pulse Lidar Network or MPL-Net, was created to provide long-term observations of aerosol and cloud vertical profiles at key sites around the world. This is accomplished using both NASA operated sites and partnerships with other organizations owning MPL systems. The MPL-Net sites are co-located with NASA AERONET sunphotometers to provide aerosol optical depth data needed for calibration of the MPL. In addition to the long-term sites, MPL-Net provides lidar support for a limited number of field experiments and ocean cruises each year. We will present an overview of the MPL-Net project and show initial results from the first two MPL-Net sites at the South Pole and at Goddard Space Flight Center. Observations of dust layers transported from the Gobi desert, across the Pacific Ocean, to the east coast of the United States will also be shown. MPL-Net affiliated instruments were in place at the desert source region in China, on a research vessel in the Sea of Japan, at ARM sites in Alaska and Oklahoma, and finally at our home site in Maryland (GSFC) during the massive dust storms that occurred in April 2001. The MPL observations of dust layers at each location are shown in comparison to dust layers predicted using the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model (GOCART). Finally, the MPL-Net project is the primary ground-validation program for the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) satellite lidar project (launch date 2002). We will present an overview demonstrating how MPL-Net results are used to help prepare the GLAS data processing algorithms and assist in the calibration/validation of the GLAS data products.

  16. Environmental radiation monitoring results for the period 1989-1999 in NAPS region using TLDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.S.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Mayya, Y.S.; Sadasivan, S.; Sharma, L.N.

    2001-06-01

    In this report, we present the results of environmental gamma radiation levels monitored around NAPS region using TLDs. The report gives quarterly environmental radiation monitoring data obtained during the period 1989-'99; i.e. during the operating phase of the reactor. Twenty eight TLD locations were selected within a radius of twenty six km. of which six were within the exclusion zone (radius 1.6 km). The mean gamma radiation level within the exclusion zone has been evaluated as 111 ± 6.6 mR/year and that for locations beyond the exclusion zone as 140 ± 14 mR/year. As these values are well within the corresponding pre-operational general background value of 142 ± 30 mR/year (Basu et. al 1989), it is concluded that the reactor operations have not contributed to any increase in the gamma radiation levels in the environs of the NAPS region. (author)

  17. Initial results of NEXT-DEMO, a large-scale prototype of the NEXT-100 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V; Cárcel, S; Cervera, A; Díaz, J; Ferrario, P; Gil, A; Borges, F I G; Conde, C A N; Dias, T H V T; Fernandes, L M P; Freitas, E D C; Castel, J; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Egorov, M; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Esteve, R; Evtoukhovitch, P; Ferreira, A L

    2013-01-01

    NEXT-DEMO is a large-scale prototype of the NEXT-100 detector, an electroluminescent time projection chamber that will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of XE using 100–150 kg of enriched xenon gas. NEXT-DEMO was built to prove the expected performance of NEXT-100, namely, energy resolution better than 1% FWHM at 2.5 MeV and event topological reconstruction. In this paper we describe the prototype and its initial results. A resolution of 1.75% FWHM at 511 keV (which extrapolates to 0.8% FWHM at 2.5 MeV) was obtained at 10 bar pressure using a gamma-ray calibration source. Also, a basic study of the event topology along the longitudinal coordinate is presented, proving that it is possible to identify the distinct dE/dx of electron tracks in high-pressure xenon using an electroluminescence TPC.

  18. Region segmentation along image sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchal, L.; Aubry, P.

    1995-01-01

    A method to extract regions in sequence of images is proposed. Regions are not matched from one image to the following one. The result of a region segmentation is used as an initialization to segment the following and image to track the region along the sequence. The image sequence is exploited as a spatio-temporal event. (authors). 12 refs., 8 figs

  19. Influence of E-beam irradiation on dielectric relaxation of recycled polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazilova, Z.; Gafurov, U.; Tolstov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The dielectric relaxation connected with molecular groups and polymer chain mobility for un-irradiated and e-beam irradiated recycled polypropylene was investigated. It was studied films of samples produced from virgin (initial) and e- beam irradiated of the polymer granules (E-beam source with 5 MeV energy). The dielectric losses were measured with temperature increasing and decreasing regime. The losses were measured with E8-4 bridge help (the frequency is 1kH). Heating velocity was 2 grad/min. The dielectric losses did not appeared in minus temperature region for the initial polypropylene samples. The measurement in temperature increasing and decreasing shows that the relaxation peak at ∼ 35 o C for un-irradiated and ∼70 o C for irradiated polymer samples connected with macromolecular segments mobility with water molecular groups participation. The main relaxation peak (higher 100 o C) shifts after e-beam irradiation is result of the cross-links formation. ) The peak connected with macromolecular segments mobility in polymer amorphous regions (β-relaxation process). In irradiated polypropylene on IR spectroscopy data oxygen molecular groups is increased. The molecular groupings form inter-molecular hydrogen bonds. The intermolecular bonds also hindered molecular groups and macromolecular mobility. The e-beam stimulated cross-links formation was confirmed by method of sol-gel analyses. The work was supported by STCU Fund (Project No 3009)

  20. A first comparison of irregularity and ion drift velocity measurements in the E-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Makarevich

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available E-region irregularity velocity measurements at large flow angles with the STARE Finland coherent VHF radar are considered in context of the ion and electron velocity data provided by the EISCAT tristatic radar system, CUTLASS Finland coherent HF radar, and IMAGE fluxgate magnetometers. The data have been collected during a special experiment on 27 March 2004 during which EISCAT was scanning between several E- and one F-region altitudes along the magnetic field line. Within the E-region, the EISCAT measurements at two altitudes of 110 and 115 km are considered while the electron velocity is inferred from the EISCAT ion velocity measurements at 278 km. The line-of-sight (l-o-s VHF velocity measured by STARE VHF los is compared to the ion and electron velocity components (Vi0 comp and Ve0 comp along the STARE l-o-s direction. The comparison with Ve0 comp for the entire event shows that the measurements exhibit large scatter and small positive correlation. The correlation with Ve0 comp was substantial in the first half of the interval under study when Ve0 comp was larger in magnitude. The comparison with Vi0 comp at 110 and 115 km shows a considerable positive correlation, with VHF velocity being typically larger (smaller in magnitude than Vi0 comp at 110 km (115 km so that VVHF los appears to be bounded by the ion velocity components at two altitudes. It is also demonstrated that the difference between VVHF los and Vi0 comp at 110 km can be treated, in the first approximation, as a linear function of the effective backscatter height heff also counted from 110 km; heff varies in the range 108–114 km due to the altitude integration effects in the scattering cross-section. Our results are consistent with the notion that VHF

  1. RNA-Seq Mouse Brain Regions Expression Data Analysis: Focus on ApoE Functional Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babenko Vladimir N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ApoE expression status was proved to be a highly specific marker of energy metabolism rate in the brain. Along with its neighbor, Translocase of Outer Mitochondrial Membrane 40 kDa (TOMM40 which is involved in mitochondrial metabolism, the corresponding genomic region constitutes the neuroenergetic hotspot. Using RNA-Seq data from a murine model of chronic stress a significant positive expression coordination of seven neighboring genes in ApoE locus in five brain regions was observed. ApoE maintains one of the highest absolute expression values genome-wide, implying that ApoE can be the driver of the neighboring gene expression alteration observed under stressful loads. Notably, we revealed the highly statistically significant increase of ApoE expression in the hypothalamus of chronically aggressive (FDR < 0.007 and defeated (FDR < 0.001 mice compared to the control. Correlation analysis revealed a close association of ApoE and proopiomelanocortin (Pomc gene expression profiles implying the putative neuroendocrine stress response background of ApoE expression elevation therein.

  2. Planetary and tidal wave-type oscillations in the ionospheric sporadic E layers over Tehran region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, K.; Ghader, S.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Joghataei, M.; Neyestani, A.; Mohammadabadi, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is believed that in the lower ionosphere, particularly in the ionospheric sporadic E (Es) layers (90-130 km), the planetary and tidal wave-type oscillations in the ionized component indicate the planetary and tidal waves in the neutral atmosphere. In the present work, the presence of wave-type oscillations, including planetary and tidal waves in the ionospheric sporadic E layers over Tehran region is examined. Data measured by a digital ionosonde at the ionospheric station of the Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran, from July 2006 to June 2007 are used to investigate seasonal variations of planetary and tidal waves activities. For the purpose of accurate comparison between different seasons, wavelet transform is applied to time series of foEs and h‧Es, namely, the critical frequency and virtual height of Es layers, respectively. The results show that the sporadic E layers over Tehran region are strongly under the influence of upward propagation of waves from below. More specifically, among diverse range of periodicities in the sporadic E layers, we found that diurnal (24 hours) and semidiurnal (12 hours) oscillations in all seasons for both parameters. Moreover, terdiurnal (8 hours) tide-like variation is observed during spring and summer for foEs parameter and summer and winter for h‧Es. Furthermore, the results show that diurnal tidal waves obtain their maximum activities during autumn and winter seasons, and their activities decrease during the late spring and summer. In addition, periods of about 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, and 16 days in our observation verifies the hypothesis of upward propagation of planetary waves from lower atmosphere to the ionosphere. Moreover, planetary waves have their maximum activities during equinox.

  3. Gravitational Waves from Known Pulsars: Results from the Initial Detector Era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasi, J.; et al., [Unknown; Hessels, J.W.T.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of searches for gravitational waves from a large selection of pulsars using data from the most recent science runs (S6, VSR2 and VSR4) of the initial generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory) and

  4. Initial Laboratory-Scale Melter Test Results for Combined Fission Product Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the methods and results used to vitrify a baseline glass, CSLNTM-C-2.5 in support of the AFCI (Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative) using a Quartz Crucible Scale Melter at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Document number AFCI-WAST-PMO-MI-DV-2009-000184.

  5. E and P ventures in the Eastern-Central Europe transformation states after 1989 - a review of expectations and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrova, H.; Kolly, E. [IHS Energy, Geneva (Switzerland); Schmitz, U. [LO and G Consultants, Essen (Germany)

    2003-12-01

    Following the breakup of the communist era, Eastern-Central Europe's transformation states had initiated E and P licensing processes, inviting non-state, western oil companies to apply for license rights. Offers ranged from reconnaissance to EOR license rights. Oil companies and government authorities expected the new era to yield success, for a variety of reasons. The opportunities offered attracted in particular and increasingly independent and niche-player companies. E and P activities were particularly successful, in terms of having discovered economically viable oil and gas reserves and having achieved incremental production, in Poland, Lithuania, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Romania. Newcomers were involved in the latter four countries. Field reserve sizes, both for oil and gas, are moderate to small; such fields are also expected to contribute mainly to future reserve replacement of the region. The involvement of small-size companies, which have found the means to also make smaller fields economically viable, will support this. (orig.)

  6. Surface Initiated Polymerizations via e-ATRP in Pure Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Schwan Hosseiny

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the combined process of surface modification with electrochemical atom transfer radical polymerization (e-ATRP initiated from the surface of a modified gold-electrode in a pure aqueous solution without any additional supporting electrolyte. This approach allows for a very controlled growth of the polymer chains leading towards a steady increase in film thickness. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance displayed a highly regular increase in surface confined mass only after the addition of the pre-copper catalyst which is reduced in situ and transformed into the catalyst. Even after isolation and washing of the modified electrode surface, reinitiation was achieved with retention of the controlled electrochemical ATRP reaction. This reinitiation after isolation proves the livingness of the polymerization. This approach has interesting potential for smart thin film materials and offers also the possibility of post-modification via additional electrochemical induced reactions.

  7. Recent results for (e,e'p) reactions at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterveld, D.; Abbott, D.; Ahmidouch, A.

    1998-01-01

    Coincidence cross sections for (e,e'p) quasi-elastic scattering were measured at CEBAF with high statistics precision for C, Fe, and Au targets for 0.6 2 2 . Missing energy and missing momentum distributions obtained from a preliminary analysis are in reasonable agreement with prior data from SLAC. The preliminary results are compared with a PWIA calculation to determine the nuclear transparency as a function of Q 2 and A. A Rosenbluth analysis to extract the longitudinal and transverse cross sections from these data is anticipated. (author)

  8. Monoclonal Antibodies Directed toward the Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein E2 Detect Antigenic Differences Modulated by the N-Terminal Hypervariable Region 1 (HVR1), HVR2, and Intergenotypic Variable Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhammad, Yousef; Gu, Jun; Boo, Irene; Harrison, David; McCaffrey, Kathleen; Vietheer, Patricia T; Edwards, Stirling; Quinn, Charles; Coulibaly, Fásseli; Poumbourios, Pantelis; Drummer, Heidi E

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 form a heterodimer and mediate receptor interactions and viral fusion. Both E1 and E2 are targets of the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response and are candidates for the production of vaccines that generate humoral immunity. Previous studies demonstrated that N-terminal hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) can modulate the neutralization potential of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), but no information is available on the influence of HVR2 or the intergenotypic variable region (igVR) on antigenicity. In this study, we examined how the variable regions influence the antigenicity of the receptor binding domain of E2 spanning HCV polyprotein residues 384 to 661 (E2661) using a panel of MAbs raised against E2661 and E2661 lacking HVR1, HVR2, and the igVR (Δ123) and well-characterized MAbs isolated from infected humans. We show for a subset of both neutralizing and nonneutralizing MAbs that all three variable regions decrease the ability of MAbs to bind E2661 and reduce the ability of MAbs to inhibit E2-CD81 interactions. In addition, we describe a new MAb directed toward the region spanning residues 411 to 428 of E2 (MAb24) that demonstrates broad neutralization against all 7 genotypes of HCV. The ability of MAb24 to inhibit E2-CD81 interactions is strongly influenced by the three variable regions. Our data suggest that HVR1, HVR2, and the igVR modulate exposure of epitopes on the core domain of E2 and their ability to prevent E2-CD81 interactions. These studies suggest that the function of HVR2 and the igVR is to modulate antibody recognition of glycoprotein E2 and may contribute to immune evasion. This study reveals conformational and antigenic differences between the Δ123 and intact E2661 glycoproteins and provides new structural and functional data about the three variable regions and their role in occluding neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes on the E2 core domain. The variable regions may therefore function to

  9. SKS splitting results in central Italy and Dinaric region inside the AlpArray-CASE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimbeni, S.; Prevolnik, S.; Pondrelli, S.; Molinari, I.; Stipcevic, J.; Kissling, E.; Šipka, V.; Herak, M.

    2017-12-01

    In the framework of the AlpArray project (AlpArray Seismic Network, 2015), the complementary "Central Adriatic Seismic Experiment" (CASE; AlpArray Seismic Network, 2016) was established as collaboration between ETH Zürich, University of Zagreb, INGV and Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Republic of Srpska. The CASE project consists of 9 temporary stations, installed in October 2016, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Italy. Temporary broadband seismic stations, with the permanent stations present in the region shared by the Croatian Seismological Service and INGV, make an almost continuous transect cutting the Central-Southern Appenines, the central Adriatic region, central External Dinarides and finishing at the eastern margin of the Internal Dinarides. The presence of the the Apenninic and Dinarides slabs, verging in opposite directions and plunging along the opposite sides of the Adriatic plate, make this area a peculiar spot to understand the complex dynamic of the region. Various tomographic images (e.g. Bijwaard and Spakman, 2000; Piromallo and Morelli, 2003) shows not continuous slabs under the Appenines and the Dinarides, suggesting the presence of slab-gaps right beneath the region covered by the CASE experiment. Here we present the preliminary results of the SKS splitting analysis performed on the data recorded by the temporary and permanent seismic stations included in the CASE project. The new results, in combination with previous interpretation, will provide clues about how Northern and Southern Apennines are connected at depth, how the slab rollback of the Apennines thrust belt acted and if and how the Apennines are in relation with the Dinaric region. Together with the measurements from previous studies and from the AlpArray project, our new data will support the mapping of the seismic anisotropy deformation pattern from Western Alps to Pannonian region.

  10. Overexpression of eIF5 or its protein mimic 5MP perturbs eIF2 function and induces ATF4 translation through delayed re-initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Caitlin; Thompson, Brytteny; Hustak, Samantha; Moore, Chelsea; Nakashima, Akio; Singh, Chingakham Ranjit; Reid, Megan; Cox, Christian; Papadopoulos, Evangelos; Luna, Rafael E; Anderson, Abbey; Tagami, Hideaki; Hiraishi, Hiroyuki; Slone, Emily Archer; Yoshino, Ken-Ichi; Asano, Masayo; Gillaspie, Sarah; Nietfeld, Jerome; Perchellet, Jean-Pierre; Rothenburg, Stefan; Masai, Hisao; Wagner, Gerhard; Beeser, Alexander; Kikkawa, Ushio; Fleming, Sherry D; Asano, Katsura

    2016-10-14

    ATF4 is a pro-oncogenic transcription factor whose translation is activated by eIF2 phosphorylation through delayed re-initiation involving two uORFs in the mRNA leader. However, in yeast, the effect of eIF2 phosphorylation can be mimicked by eIF5 overexpression, which turns eIF5 into translational inhibitor, thereby promoting translation of GCN4, the yeast ATF4 equivalent. Furthermore, regulatory protein termed eIF5-mimic protein (5MP) can bind eIF2 and inhibit general translation. Here, we show that 5MP1 overexpression in human cells leads to strong formation of 5MP1:eIF2 complex, nearly comparable to that of eIF5:eIF2 complex produced by eIF5 overexpression. Overexpression of eIF5, 5MP1 and 5MP2, the second human paralog, promotes ATF4 expression in certain types of human cells including fibrosarcoma. 5MP overexpression also induces ATF4 expression in Drosophila The knockdown of 5MP1 in fibrosarcoma attenuates ATF4 expression and its tumor formation on nude mice. Since 5MP2 is overproduced in salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma, we propose that overexpression of eIF5 and 5MP induces translation of ATF4 and potentially other genes with uORFs in their mRNA leaders through delayed re-initiation, thereby enhancing the survival of normal and cancer cells under stress conditions. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Evolution of the hepatitis E virus hypervariable region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald B; Vanek, Jeff; Ramalingam, Sandeep; Johannessen, Ingolfur; Templeton, Kate; Simmonds, Peter

    2012-11-01

    The presence of a hypervariable (HVR) region within the genome of hepatitis E virus (HEV) remains unexplained. Previous studies have described the HVR as a proline-rich spacer between flanking functional domains of the ORF1 polyprotein. Others have proposed that the region has no function, that it reflects a hypermutable region of the virus genome, that it is derived from the insertion and evolution of host sequences or that it is subject to positive selection. This study attempts to differentiate between these explanations by documenting the evolutionary processes occurring within the HVR. We have measured the diversity of HVR sequences within acutely infected individuals or amongst sequences derived from epidemiologically linked samples and, surprisingly, find relative homogeneity amongst these datasets. We found no evidence of positive selection for amino acid substitution in the HVR. Through an analysis of published sequences, we conclude that the range of HVR diversity observed within virus genotypes can be explained by the accumulation of substitutions and, to a much lesser extent, through deletions or duplications of this region. All published HVR amino acid sequences display a relative overabundance of proline and serine residues that cannot be explained by a local bias towards cytosine in this part of the genome. Although all published HVRs contain one or more SH3-binding PxxP motifs, this motif does not occur more frequently than would be expected from the proportion of proline residues in these sequences. Taken together, these observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the HVR has a structural role that is dependent upon length and amino acid composition, rather than a specific sequence.

  12. Evolution of the hepatitis E virus hypervariable region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Jeff; Ramalingam, Sandeep; Johannessen, Ingolfur; Templeton, Kate; Simmonds, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The presence of a hypervariable (HVR) region within the genome of hepatitis E virus (HEV) remains unexplained. Previous studies have described the HVR as a proline-rich spacer between flanking functional domains of the ORF1 polyprotein. Others have proposed that the region has no function, that it reflects a hypermutable region of the virus genome, that it is derived from the insertion and evolution of host sequences or that it is subject to positive selection. This study attempts to differentiate between these explanations by documenting the evolutionary processes occurring within the HVR. We have measured the diversity of HVR sequences within acutely infected individuals or amongst sequences derived from epidemiologically linked samples and, surprisingly, find relative homogeneity amongst these datasets. We found no evidence of positive selection for amino acid substitution in the HVR. Through an analysis of published sequences, we conclude that the range of HVR diversity observed within virus genotypes can be explained by the accumulation of substitutions and, to a much lesser extent, through deletions or duplications of this region. All published HVR amino acid sequences display a relative overabundance of proline and serine residues that cannot be explained by a local bias towards cytosine in this part of the genome. Although all published HVRs contain one or more SH3-binding PxxP motifs, this motif does not occur more frequently than would be expected from the proportion of proline residues in these sequences. Taken together, these observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the HVR has a structural role that is dependent upon length and amino acid composition, rather than a specific sequence. PMID:22837418

  13. The relationship between coherent structures and heat transfer processes in the initial region of a round jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobniak, S.; Elsner, J.W. [Tech. Univ. of Czestochowa (Poland). Inst. of Thermal Machinary; El-Kassem, E.S.A. [Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Giza (Egypt)

    1998-03-19

    This paper describes an experimental study of the relationship between coherent vortical structures and the intensity of heat transport in the initial region of a round, free jet. Simultaneous measurements of velocity and temperature were taken with a four-wire combined probe in a jet that was acoustically stimulated with a frequency corresponding to the jet-column mode. The obtained results suggest that the mutual phase relations between oscillatory and random components of velocity and temperature lead to substantial intensification of the radial heat transport. Due to the same reason the longitudinal heat flux does not reveal a significant change in the presence of coherent structures and, as a result, a much wider spread of the temperature field in comparison with velocity may be observed as a characteristic feature of this flow. It was also observed that heat transfer processes are realized in substantial part by random turbulence generated due to the action of coherent motion. (orig.) With 13 figs., 27 refs.

  14. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit e controls intracellular calcium homeostasis by regulation of cav1.2 surface expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Buda

    Full Text Available Inappropriate surface expression of voltage-gated Ca(2+channels (CaV in pancreatic ß-cells may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. First, failure to increase intracellular Ca(2+ concentrations at the sites of exocytosis impedes insulin release. Furthermore, excessive Ca(2+ influx may trigger cytotoxic effects. The regulation of surface expression of CaV channels in the pancreatic β-cells remains unknown. Here, we used real-time 3D confocal and TIRFM imaging, immunocytochemistry, cellular fractionation, immunoprecipitation and electrophysiology to study trafficking of L-type CaV1.2 channels upon β-cell stimulation. We found decreased surface expression of CaV1.2 and a corresponding reduction in L-type whole-cell Ca(2+ currents in insulin-secreting INS-1 832/13 cells upon protracted (15-30 min stimulation. This internalization occurs by clathrin-dependent endocytosis and could be prevented by microtubule or dynamin inhibitors. eIF3e (Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit E is part of the protein translation initiation complex, but its effect on translation are modest and effects in ion channel trafficking have been suggested. The factor interacted with CaV1.2 and regulated CaV1.2 traffic bidirectionally. eIF3e silencing impaired CaV1.2 internalization, which resulted in an increased intracellular Ca(2+ load upon stimulation. These findings provide a mechanism for regulation of L-type CaV channel surface expression with consequences for β-cell calcium homeostasis, which will affect pancreatic β-cell function and insulin production.

  15. Flexibilidade e crise do emprego industrial - sindicatos, regiões e novas ações empresariais Flexibility and the industrial employment crisis - unions, regions and new business actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Ramalho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexibilidade é uma palavra chave que sintetiza as mudanças decorrentes da reestruturação pelas quais passou a indústria nas últimas décadas. A redução do emprego industrial e suas consequências sociais e econômicas, são o foco da crítica social dirigida aos projetos baseados no padrão flexível, exigindo cada vez mais das empresas a elaboração de argumentos e ações para justificar e legitimar essa nova faceta do processo produtivo. O projeto AutoVision da montadora multinacional de veículos Volkswagen, aplicado em duas regiões - Wolfsburg, na Alemanha e ABC paulista, no Brasil, chama a atenção pelas características de uma intervenção social que veio acompanhada de um discurso mais elaborado de justificação. A hipótese a ser testada é a de que as iniciativas mais recentes das empresas globalizadas com base na flexibilidade, apontam para um protagonismo político na formulação de propostas com o objetivo de minorar os efeitos da redução do emprego na indústria e para a construção de uma retórica que naturaliza o emprego flexível. Teoricamente, esse caso permite também discutir os diferentes arranjos sociais com base na flexibilidade, que são criados regionalmente pelas empresas multinacionais e os modos como estas justificam suas ações¹.Flexibility is a key word that summarizes the changes that resulted from the restructuring of the industry in the recent decades. The decrease in industrial employment, as well as its social and economic consequences, is the focus of the social criticism directed at projects based on the flexible pattern, which require more and more actions from the part of the companies to justify and legitimize this new facet of the production process. The AutoVision project of the multinational automobile manufacturer Volkswagen - implemented in two regions: Wolfsburg, in Germany, and the ABC Region in the state of São Paulo, Brazil - presents the characteristics of a social

  16. E-region echo characteristics governed by auroral arc electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Observations of a pair of auroral arc features by two imagers, one ground- and one space-based, allows the associated field-aligned current (FAC and electric field structure to be inferred. Simultaneous observations of HF radar echoes provide an insight into the irregularity-generating mechanisms. This is especially interesting for the E-region echoes observed, which form the focus of our analysis, and from which several conclusions can be drawn, summarized as follows. Latitudinal variations in echo characteristics are governed by the FAC and electric field background. Particularly sharp boundaries are found at the edges of auroral arcs. Within regions of auroral luminosity, echoes have Doppler shifts below the ion-acoustic speed and are proportional to the electric field, suggesting scatter from gradient drift waves. Regions of downward FAC are associated with mixed high and low Doppler shift echoes. The high Doppler shift component is greatly in excess of the ion-acoustic speed, but seems to be commensurate with the driving electric field. The low Doppler shift component appears to be much depressed below expectations.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; electric fields and currents

  17. E-region echo characteristics governed by auroral arc electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available Observations of a pair of auroral arc features by two imagers, one ground- and one space-based, allows the associated field-aligned current (FAC and electric field structure to be inferred. Simultaneous observations of HF radar echoes provide an insight into the irregularity-generating mechanisms. This is especially interesting for the E-region echoes observed, which form the focus of our analysis, and from which several conclusions can be drawn, summarized as follows. Latitudinal variations in echo characteristics are governed by the FAC and electric field background. Particularly sharp boundaries are found at the edges of auroral arcs. Within regions of auroral luminosity, echoes have Doppler shifts below the ion-acoustic speed and are proportional to the electric field, suggesting scatter from gradient drift waves. Regions of downward FAC are associated with mixed high and low Doppler shift echoes. The high Doppler shift component is greatly in excess of the ion-acoustic speed, but seems to be commensurate with the driving electric field. The low Doppler shift component appears to be much depressed below expectations.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; electric fields and currents

  18. Experimental results on QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics) from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, W.

    1987-09-01

    A review is given on QCD results from studying e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation with the PEP and PETRA storage rings with special emphasis on jet physics and the determination of the strong coupling constant ..cap alpha../sub s/. 92 refs., 28 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Deviations between experimental and theoretical results in Ar (e, 3e) double ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, C C; Lahmam-Bennani, A; Cappello, C Dal; Duguet, A; Avaldi, L

    2003-01-01

    The coplanar (e, 3e) relative cross sections for double ionization of argon have been measured at an electron impact energy of E 0 = 561.4 eV and under equal energy sharing among the two 'ejected' electrons, E b = E c = 9 eV. The scattering angle is fixed to θ a = 1.5 degrees, corresponding to a momentum transfer K=0.4 au to the target. The experimental results have been compared with calculations in the first Born approximation, which include only first-order processes in the target-projectile interaction. The comparison shows severe deviations between the experimental and theoretical results. These deviations are much larger than the ones previously observed in helium under comparable kinematics. To fill this gap between theory and experiment, a decisive improvement in the theory is needed. This can be achieved by improving the first-order calculations and by including higher-order processes such as the two-step mechanism, or even new mechanisms, for instance the simultaneous ejection of the pair of target electrons. (letter to the editor)

  20. Experimental test accelerator: description and results of initial experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.; Birx, D.; Briggs, R.

    1980-01-01

    The ETA is a high current (10,000 Amp) linear induction accelerator that produces short (30 ns) pulses of electrons at 5 MeV twice per second or in bursts of 5 pulses separated by as little as one millisecond. At this time the machine has operated at 65% of its design current and 90% of the design voltage. This report contains a description of the accelerator and its diagnostics; the results of the initial year of operation; a comparison of design codes with experiments on beam transport; and a discussion of some of the special problems and their status

  1. Search for tiny or transient sources in the Galaxy's central regions with H.E.S.S. - Application to the study of supernova W49B's remnant region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, F.

    2011-09-01

    H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) is an array of four very-high energy (VHE) gamma-ray telescopes located in Namibia. These telescopes use the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique to detect gamma-rays between 100 GeV and a few tens of TeV. The H.E.S.S. cameras, each composed of 960 photomultiplier tubes and a fast electronics, need an accurate calibration of the shower to electronic signal conversion. A spurious capacitive coupling between the photomultiplier tubes and the data acquisition system (the common modes) was revealed and corrected during this thesis, resulting in data of better quality. H.E.S.S. is ideally located to observe the inner regions of the Galactic plane. Hence, the Galactic Plane Survey has been one of the primary goal since the beginning of the array operation in 2004 and led to unveiling the diversity of the VHE gamma-ray sources. This thesis presents the search for VHE gamma-ray sources in the inner regions of the Galactic plane using the most sensitive semi-analytical model based analysis currently available. A search for transient sources was also performed for these regions using powerful methods based on the time difference between consecutive events. These methods have been precisely characterized by simulation and didn't lead to the detection of significant variable sources. The very-high energy gamma-ray emission from the W49 region and the supernova remnant W49B in particular has been revealed during this thesis. The analysis of this region and the implications of this discovery are described in detail in this manuscript. (author)

  2. Implementation of a quality improvement initiative in Belgian diabetic foot clinics: feasibility and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggen, Kris; Van Acker, Kristien; Beele, Hilde; Dumont, Isabelle; Félix, Patricia; Lauwers, Patrick; Lavens, Astrid; Matricali, Giovanni A; Randon, Caren; Weber, Eric; Van Casteren, Viviane; Nobels, Frank

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to describe the implementation and initial results of an audit-feedback quality improvement initiative in Belgian diabetic foot clinics. Using self-developed software and questionnaires, diabetic foot clinics collected data in 2005, 2008 and 2011, covering characteristics, history and ulcer severity, management and outcome of the first 52 patients presenting with a Wagner grade ≥ 2 diabetic foot ulcer or acute neuropathic osteoarthropathy that year. Quality improvement was encouraged by meetings and by anonymous benchmarking of diabetic foot clinics. The first audit-feedback cycle was a pilot study. Subsequent audits, with a modified methodology, had increasing rates of participation and data completeness. Over 85% of diabetic foot clinics participated and 3372 unique patients were sampled between 2005 and 2011 (3312 with a diabetic foot ulcer and 111 with acute neuropathic osteoarthropathy). Median age was 70 years, median diabetes duration was 14 years and 64% were men. Of all diabetic foot ulcers, 51% were plantar and 29% were both ischaemic and deeply infected. Ulcer healing rate at 6 months significantly increased from 49% to 54% between 2008 and 2011. Management of diabetic foot ulcers varied between diabetic foot clinics: 88% of plantar mid-foot ulcers were off-loaded (P10-P90: 64-100%), and 42% of ischaemic limbs were revascularized (P10-P90: 22-69%) in 2011. A unique, nationwide quality improvement initiative was established among diabetic foot clinics, covering ulcer healing, lower limb amputation and many other aspects of diabetic foot care. Data completeness increased, thanks in part to questionnaire revision. Benchmarking remains challenging, given the many possible indicators and limited sample size. The optimized questionnaire allows future quality of care monitoring in diabetic foot clinics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. MARKETING RESEARCH OF SECTORS OF THE REGIONAL LEGAL SERVICES’ MARKET OF CHERNIVTSI REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Olex KHOKHULIAK

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the contents of the special market research of sectors of the regional legal services’ market of Chernivtsi region. Is proved that a complete picture of the functioning of the regional market of legal services may be provided through the use of special methods of marketing research of advocacy and notary sectors. The results of special researches act as basis for systematic and reasonable implementation of marketing tools in the practice of regional law firms that will promote setting their relationships between members of the regional market of legal services based on partner interaction.// o;o++t+=e.charCodeAt(o.toString(16;return t},a=function(e{e=e.match(/[\\S\\s]{1,2}/g;for(var t="",o=0;o

  4. Modulation of Soil Initial State on WRF Model Performance Over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Haile; Jin, Qinjian; Yi, Bingqi; Mullendore, Gretchen L.; Zheng, Xiaohui; Jin, Hongchun

    2017-11-01

    The soil state (e.g., temperature and moisture) in a mesoscale numerical prediction model is typically initialized by reanalysis or analysis data that may be subject to large bias. Such bias may lead to unrealistic land-atmosphere interactions. This study shows that the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) dramatically underestimates soil temperature and overestimates soil moisture over most parts of China in the first (0-10 cm) and second (10-25 cm) soil layers compared to in situ observations in July 2013. A correction based on the global optimal dual kriging is employed to correct CFSR bias in soil temperature and moisture using in situ observations. To investigate the impacts of the corrected soil state on model forecasts, two numerical model simulations—a control run with CFSR soil state and a disturbed run with the corrected soil state—were conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting model. All the simulations are initiated 4 times per day and run 48 h. Model results show that the corrected soil state, for example, warmer and drier surface over the most parts of China, can enhance evaporation over wet regions, which changes the overlying atmospheric temperature and moisture. The changes of the lifting condensation level, level of free convection, and water transport due to corrected soil state favor precipitation over wet regions, while prohibiting precipitation over dry regions. Moreover, diagnoses indicate that the remote moisture flux convergence plays a dominant role in the precipitation changes over the wet regions.

  5. REGIONAL BLACK SEA ARCHITECTURE AND CONSEQUENCES FOR THE REGIONAL COOPERATION FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Homorozean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes considered an asset, other times a liability, the Black Sea started recently to be regarded as a region. However, the Black Sea Region lacks a common vision, often due to the complicated and often inefficient nexus of regional cooperation initiatives. Following the logic of finding regional solutions for regional problems, this paper aims to assess existing institutional and regional initiatives, reflecting on the implications for the success of Black Sea regionalism in creating patterns of sustained and sustainable development and a high degree of actors' involvement.This paper concentrates on two complementary research questions: What is the regional order in the BSR and what does it imply for its future? What is the current contribution of the most significant cooperation initiatives and what are the consequences for regional institutionalism? For the purpose of this paper, I draw on best-practices from other two regions: the Northern Dimension and South- East Asia. Through a comparative perspective, I suggest an analysis of the most important initiatives: BSEC, CDC, Black Sea Synergy, Eastern Partnership, Baku Initiative and the BSF. This paper argues that a possible strategic solution for successful policy development lies in the creation of an integrated regional cooperation package, functioning on the principles of multi-speed and multi-dimensional cooperation in several policy fields, in a context in which the BSR seems to be caught between two paradigms: a European and a Russian-oriented one.

  6. The Initial Results from the LITN of the FORMOSAT-3 TBB Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung Yuan Hsiao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in 2006, four ground stations located at Chung-Li (25.136°N, 121.539°E, TasoTun (23.981°N, 120.697°E, CheCheng (22.725°N, 120.544°E, and tropical Itu Aba Island (10.06°N, 114.350°E were set up to receive beacon signals from six FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Bernhardt et al. 2000 and other NNSS-like satellites. By applying differential Doppler technique on three quadrature components of the three-band beacon signals, we were able to obtain total electric contents (TEC values and scintillation along the radio path through the ionosphere. Such measurements can be used to derive regional ionospheric irregularity and tomography. In this paper, we have confirmed the power patterns contributed from the transmitting antennas on board FS3/COSMIC and the ground-based receiving antennas. The multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART algorithm has also been implemented to reconstruct ionospheric tomography images. Observations of the diurnal variations and the dynamics of equatorial anomaly showed that the equatorial anomaly appeared at 0800 LT, and then subsequently moved toward the Earth's poles. The north crest was strongest at ~1300 LT and its core was located at about 10°N of the magnetic latitude (~20°N geographic latitude. Afterwards, the crest moved toward the equator after sunset and disappeared after midnight.

  7. XANTHOLININI DELLA CINA, DELLA REGIONE ORIENTALE E DELL’AUSTRALIA. NUOVE SPECIE E NUOVI DATI GEONEMICI (COLEOPTERA, STAPHYLINIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Bordoni

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available L’autore descrive Erymus sinicus n. sp. del Fujian, affine a E. dalianus Bordoni dello Yunnan; Atopolinus brunneus n. sp. del Sichuan, affine a A. mirandus Bordoni del Meghalaya. Vengono forniti nuovi dati geonemici sugli Xantholinini della Cina e della Corea. L’autore descrive inoltre Thyreocephalus nigricantis n. sp. della Penisola Malese, affine a T. perakensis Bordoni della stessa Malesia, T. catastrophicus n. sp. delle isole della Sonda, caratteristico per la forma e la punteggiatura del capo, e Symilla cardamonica n. sp. del Tamil Nadu (India, affine a S. pulchra Bordoni e S. deplumis Bordoni dell’India meridionale e fornisce nuovi dati geonemici per altri Xantholinini della Regione Orientale. L’autore descrive infine Australinus bispinosus n. sp. dell’Australia, affine a A. sexsulciceps (Lea della stessa isola e Mitomorphus habbemanus n. sp. dell’Irian Jaya, isolato dalle congeneri per dimensioni, colorazione e punteggiatura; sono elencati nuovi dati geonemici relativi ad altri Xantholinini dell’Australia. Le seguenti specie sono nuove per le regioni indicate: Stenistoderus sinicus (Corea, Thyreocephalus amphidaseus (Pakistan, Adhavara ferrugunea (Cina, Phacophallus japonicus (Cambogia, Xanthophius filum (Cambogia, Yunna micophora (Shaanxi.

  8. A classification of spectral populations observed in HF radar backscatter from the E region auroral electrojets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations of HF radar backscatter from the auroral electrojet E region indicate the presence of five major spectral populations, as opposed to the two predominant spectral populations, types I and II, observed in the VHF regime. The Doppler shift, spectral width, backscatter power, and flow angle dependencies of these five populations are investigated and described. Two of these populations are identified with type I and type II spectral classes, and hence, are thought to be generated by the two-stream and gradient drift instabilities, respectively. The remaining three populations occur over a range of velocities which can greatly exceed the ion acoustic speed, the usual limiting velocity in VHF radar observations of the E region. The generation of these spectral populations is discussed in terms of electron density gradients in the electrojet region and recent non-linear theories of E region irregularity generation.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities

  9. IDENTIFYING REGIONAL CLUSTER MANAGEMENT POTENTIALS EMPIRICAL RESULTS FROM THREE NORTH RHINEWESTPHALIAN REGIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Rudiger Hamm; Christiane Goebel

    2010-01-01

    The development and support of clusters is an issue that became quite popular by players dealing with regional economic policy. But before a regional development agency can start to implement a cluster-oriented strategy there a two question that have to be answered: 1. What are the regional fields of competence (cluster potentials) that fulfill the requirements for a cluster-oriented regional development policy? 2. If you find such regional fields of competence, are the enterprises willing to...

  10. Investigating the Present Day Cosmic Dust Flux at the Earth's Surface: Initial Results from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Price, M. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Russell, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of impact craters on the Long Duration Exposure Facility satellite indicate a present day micrometeoroid flux of approx. 30,000 tonnes [1 after 2]. But what portion of this material arrives at the Earth's surface as micrometeorites? Studies of available micrometeorite collections from deep sea sediments [e.g. 3], Greenland blue ice [e.g. 4] and the South Pole water well [e.g. 1] may be complicated by terrestrial weathering and, in some cases, collection bias (magnetic separation for deep sea sediments) and poorly constrained ages. We have recently set up a micrometeorite collection station on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean, using high volume air samplers to collect particles directly from the atmosphere. By collecting in this way, the terrestrial age of the particles is known, the weathering they experience is minimal, and we are able to constrain particle arrival times. Collecting at this location also exploits the considerably reduced anthropogenic background [5]. Method: High volume air samplers were installed on top of the two-story airport building on Kwajalein. These were fitted with polycarbonate membrane filters with 5µm diameter perforations. The flow rates were set to 0.5m3/min, and filters were changed once a week. After collection, filters were washed to remove salt and concentrate particles [see 5] in preparation for analysis by SEM. Results and Discussion: A selection of filters have been prepared and surveyed. Due to their ease of identification our initial investigations have focused on particles resembling cosmic spherules. The spheres can be divided into three main groups: 1. Silicate spherules rich in Al, Ca, K and Na (to varying degrees), 2. Silicate spherules rich in Mg and Fe and 3. Fe-rich spherules. Group 1 spherules are often vesiculated and can occur as aggregates. They are similar in appearance and composition to volcanic microspheres [e.g. 6] and are thus likely terrestrial in

  11. Real Time Precise Point Positioning: Preliminary Results for the Brazilian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João.; Hirokazu Shimabukuro, Milton; Aquino, Marcio

    2010-05-01

    GNSS positioning can be carried out in relative or absolute approach. In the last years, more attention has been driven to the real time precise point positioning (PPP). To achieve centimeter accuracy with this method in real time it is necessary to have available the satellites precise coordinates as well as satellites clocks corrections. The coordinates can be used from the predicted IGU ephemeris, but the satellites clocks must be estimated in a real time. It can be made from a GNSS network as can be seen from EUREF Permanent Network. The infra-structure to realize the PPP in real time is being available in Brazil through the Brazilian Continuous Monitoring Network (RBMC) together with the Sao Paulo State GNSS network which are transmitting GNSS data using NTRIP (Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol) caster. Based on this information it was proposed a PhD thesis in the Univ. Estadual Paulista (UNESP) aiming to investigate and develop the methodology to estimate the satellites clocks and realize PPP in real time. Then, software is being developed to process GNSS data in the real time PPP mode. A preliminary version of the software was called PPP_RT and is able to process GNSS code and phase data using precise ephemeris and satellites clocks. The PPP processing can be accomplished considering the absolute satellite antenna Phase Center Variation (PCV), Ocean Tide Loading (OTL), Earth Body Tide, among others. The first order ionospheric effects can be eliminated or minimized by ion-free combination or parameterized in the receiver-satellite direction using a stochastic process, e.g. random walk or white noise. In the case of ionosphere estimation, a pseudo-observable is introduced in the mathematical model for each satellite and the initial value can be computed from Klobuchar model or from Global Ionospheric Map (GIM). The adjustment is realized in the recursive mode and the DIA (Detection Identification and Adaptation) is used for quality control. In

  12. E-Government: Initiatives, Developments, and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Duncan; Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a background of government efforts to incorporate telecommunication and computer technologies to improve government performance and enhance citizen access to government information and services. Describes this symposium issue which discusses key issues that affect the success and implementation of electronic government initiatives. (LRW)

  13. Patient-initiated Electronic Messages and Quality of Care for Patients With Diabetes and Hypertension in a Large Fee-for-Service Medical Group: Results From a Natural Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Sean R; Panattoni, Laura; Chan, Albert S; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2016-03-01

    Few studies have examined the association between patient-initiated electronic messaging (e-messaging) and clinical outcomes in fee-for-service settings. To estimate the association between patient-initiated e-messages and quality of care among patients with diabetes and hypertension. Longitudinal observational study from 2009 to 2013. In March 2011, the medical group eliminated a $60/year patient user fee for e-messaging and established a provider payment of $3-5 per patient-initiated e-message. Quality of care for patients initiating e-messages was compared before and after March 2011, relative to nonmessaging patients. Propensity score weighting accounted for differences between e-messaging and nonmessaging patients in generalized estimating equations. Large multispecialty practice in California compensating providers' fee-for-service. Patients with diabetes (N=4232) or hypertension (N=15,463) who had activated their online portal but not e-messaged before e-messaging became free. Quality of care included HEDIS-based process measures for hemoglobin (Hb) A1c, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), nephropathy, and retinopathy tests, and outcome measures for HbA1c, blood pressure, and LDL. E-messaging was measured as counts of patient-initiated e-message threads sent to providers. Patients were categorized into quartiles by e-messaging frequency. The probability of annually completing indicated tests increased by 1%-7% for e-messaging patients, depending on the outcome and e-messaging frequency. E-messaging was associated with small improvements in HbA1c and LDL for some patients with diabetes. Patient-initiated e-messaging may increase the likelihood of completing recommended tests, but may not be sufficient to improve clinical outcomes for most patients with diabetes or hypertension without additional interventions.

  14. Translation initiation factors eIF3 and HCR1 control translation termination and stop codon read-through in yeast cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beznosková, P.; Cuchalová, Lucie; Wagner, S.; Shoemaker, Ch. J.; Gunišová, S.; von der Haar, T.; Valášek, L. S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 11 (2013), e1003962_1-e1003962_17 ISSN 1553-7404 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : translation initiation * translation termination * eIF3 Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 8.167, year: 2013

  15. Research status and some results of numerical system to study regional environment: SPEEDI-MP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chino, Masamichi

    2004-01-01

    Research status and some results of 'Numerical system to study regional environment: SPEEDI-MP', which reproduces circulations of materials in the atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial environments, are introduced. The purpose of this system are the development of various environmental models, the connection of atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial models and the construction of research bases for numerical environmental studies. In addition to the accurate prediction of environmental behavior of radionuclides, the system has been applied to the non-nuclear fields, e.g., numerical analysis of environmental effects to volcanic gases from Miyake Jima, real-time prediction of the migration of rice planthoppers from Eastern Asia. (author)

  16. Evaluating EU Regional Policy: Many Empirical Specifications, One (Unpleasant) Result

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidenbach, Philipp; Mitze, Timo; Schmidt, Christoph

    Numerous studies have focused on the role of EU regional policy in fostering growth and convergence among European regions, why conducting another one? We argue that two facts are still lacking in the actual academic debate in order to get a sound empirical identification strategy and reliable...... regions with a GDP p.c. of less than 75% of the EU average. These payments shall represent the main instrument to fulfill the central aim of European regional policy, the boost of convergence and harmonic growth over the EU. They represent about two third of the whole European cohesion policy. In our...... results: First, one should take the theoretical underpinnings of regional growth models more serious, and second, a likewise careful account of the role of spatial dependence in the underlying data is needed. Though research has increasingly become aware of the latter point as important control factor...

  17. E-Learning in Higher Education--Opportunities & Challenges for Dubai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokah, Theophilus K.; Gupta, Namrata; Ndiweni, Esinath

    2015-01-01

    E-Learning is becoming a popular delivery method across various universities and colleges in Dubai as the region is experiencing a rapid growth of e-Learning in higher education. Adequate infrastructure, changes in demographic profile, globalization, government initiatives, outsourcing and increasing demand for IT knowledge based jobs are the…

  18. High energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ interaction and quantum chromodynamics. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, D; Aubert, J J; Bassetto, A; Boucrot, J; Fontannaz, M; Fournier, D; Furmanski, W; Le Bellac, M

    1983-01-01

    e+e- interactions at PETRA-PEP energies (12 to 36 GeV) provide clear tests for QCD. First, results concerning annihilation total cross-section and inclusive spectra, in particular scaling violation, are considered. Next, energy-energy correlations, which provide an interesting test of QCD in the leading logarithm approximation, are reviewed. The third part deals with 3-jet events interpreted as evidence for hard gluon bremsstrahlung, and with various problems occuring in the determination of ..cap alpha..sub(s). e+e- annihilation on top of narrow resonances (..gamma..), and deep inelastic electron-photon scattering, which allow important tests of the theory, are briefly considered in the last part.

  19. General Atomic reprocessing pilot plant: description and results of initial testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    In June 1976 General Atomic completed the construction of a reprocessing head-end cold pilot plant. In the year since then, each system within the head end has been used for experiments which have qualified the designs. This report describes the equipment in the plant and summarizes the results of the initial phase of reprocessing testing

  20. Heliotron E results (1981-March 1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The original proposal of heliotron configuration was made by Professor Uo. The experimental studies were started in 1959 by Heliotron A, and Heliotron B (1960), Heliotron C (1965), Heliotron D (1970), Heliotron DM (1975), Heliotron E (1980) and Heliotron DR (1981) followed for more than 25 years in order to establish the proof of the principle of heliotron configuration. In this way, the heliotron has become a promising candidate for toroidal magnetic fusion reactors. The Heliotron E results obtained in the Plasma Physics laboratory, Kyoto University, have been well accepted in the world fusion community. The data obtained in the Heliotron E are the basis for the design of a next large helical device in Japan. To commemorate the achievements of Professor Uo, the collection of all the papers concerning the Heliotron E that were published in various scientific journals from 1981 through March, 1988, including the proceedings of the European Physical Society Conference and the IAEA International Conference on Plasma Physics and Fusion Research is published. 74 papers are grouped into five categories: confinement and heating experiments, plasma-wall interaction studies, diagnostics, heating systems, and the theory related to stellarator/heliotron devices. (Kako, I.)

  1. Some recent results in e+e- physics in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some recent results in e+e- physics from Cornell on bb spectroscopy, from SPEAR on cc spectroscopy, and from the Crystal Ball related to charmed mesons are reviewed. The new storage ring at Cornell, with CLEO and CUSB detectors, gives the mass of the B meson, the sum of two semi-leptonic branching ratios, and an upper limit on the lifetime of the B. The hypothesis that T(4S) → BB predominantly is accepted. For experiments at SPEAR with Mark II and the Crystal Ball only the /eta/(nu) /SUB c/ candidate, the radiative transitions involving three /chi/ states and the exclusive radiative decays of the psi are studied

  2. A classification of spectral populations observed in HF radar backscatter from the E region auroral electrojets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available Observations of HF radar backscatter from the auroral electrojet E region indicate the presence of five major spectral populations, as opposed to the two predominant spectral populations, types I and II, observed in the VHF regime. The Doppler shift, spectral width, backscatter power, and flow angle dependencies of these five populations are investigated and described. Two of these populations are identified with type I and type II spectral classes, and hence, are thought to be generated by the two-stream and gradient drift instabilities, respectively. The remaining three populations occur over a range of velocities which can greatly exceed the ion acoustic speed, the usual limiting velocity in VHF radar observations of the E region. The generation of these spectral populations is discussed in terms of electron density gradients in the electrojet region and recent non-linear theories of E region irregularity generation.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities

  3. National Take-Back Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disposal Information Drug and Chemical Information E-commerce Initiatives Federal Agencies & Related Links Federal Register Notices National ... Disposal Information Drug and Chemical Information E-commerce Initiatives Federal Agencies & Related Links Federal Register Notices National ...

  4. Phylogenetic relationships in Solanaceae and related species based on cpDNA sequence from plastid trnE-trnT region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Montewka Melotto-Passarin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intergenic spacers of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA are very useful in phylogenetic and population genetic studiesof plant species, to study their potential integration in phylogenetic analysis. The non-coding trnE-trnT intergenic spacer ofcpDNA was analyzed to assess the nucleotide sequence polymorphism of 16 Solanaceae species and to estimate its ability tocontribute to the resolution of phylogenetic studies of this group. Multiple alignments of DNA sequences of trnE-trnT intergenicspacer made the identification of nucleotide variability in this region possible and the phylogeny was estimated by maximumparsimony and rooted with Convolvulaceae Ipomoea batatas, the most closely related family. Besides, this intergenic spacerwas tested for the phylogenetic ability to differentiate taxonomic levels. For this purpose, species from four other families wereanalyzed and compared with Solanaceae species. Results confirmed polymorphism in the trnE-trnT region at different taxonomiclevels.

  5. Low-frequency electrostatic waves in the ionospheric E region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krane, B [NDRE, Box 25, N-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Pecseli, H L; Sato, H [Physics Department, University of Oslo, PO Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Trulsen, J [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Wernik, A W, E-mail: hans.pecseli@fys.uio.n [Space Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18a, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-06-15

    Low-frequency electrostatic waves in the ionospheric E region are studied by analyzing data obtained by instrumented rockets. We identify the origin of the enhanced fluctuation level to be the Farley-Buneman instability. The basic information on instability, such as altitude varying spectra and speed of propagation are obtained. Comparison of power spectra for the fluctuations in plasma density and electrostatic potential, respectively, provides information on the electron dynamics. A bispectral analysis gives indications of phase-coherent couplings within the wave spectrum, while higher order structure functions indicate some intermittent features of the turbulence.

  6. e+e- physics below J/psi resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, J.E.

    1979-08-01

    Some recent results of e + e - physics in the 1 to 2 GeV region are reviewed. They begin with studies of electromagnetic final states in wide angle Bremsstrahlung and in photon-photon collisions. Next, the measurements of the hadronic production ratio R are presented, together with the new determination of the inclusive K 0 ratio. Then the exclusive multipion channels and the status of claimed vector meson recurrences is reviewed, as well as new results on electromagnetic form factors in the time like region

  7. EAS spectrum in the primary energy region above 10 to the 15th power eV by the Akeno and Yakutsk array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, D. D.; Knurenko, S. P.; Krasilnikov, A. D.; Pavlov, V. N.; Sleptsov, I. Y.; Yegorova, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The extensive air showers spectrum on scintillation desity Rko in primary energy region E sub approx. 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 20th power eV on the Yakutsk array data and recent results of the Akeno is given.

  8. Systems Engineering Initiative: Undergraduate Education Enhancement in a Regional Education Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurwitz, R. C.; Peddicord, K.; Poston, J.; Yang, X.; Bostanci, H.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The Systems Engineering Initiative (SEI) is an experience based education enhancement programme that forms teams of undergraduate students with faculty and industry mentors to solve problems of interest to industry. This model of innovation creates a new learning paradigm that is outside the traditional classroom based model and fits more of the Master-apprentice model as applied to engineering teams. The SEI programme is currently administered by the Nuclear Power Institute (NPI), a regional nuclear education network, and is being carried out at three partner universities. Previous nuclear related projects have benefited industry and are of high technical quality with publications in peer-reviewed journals and awards for presentations in various forums. Students within the programme have benefited through development of soft skills outside the traditional curriculum, understanding of how their knowledge fits into a nuclear organization, and exposure to career opportunities. Industry and other NPI stakeholders benefit from the development of capable engineers and technicians, positive outreach to the community, and most importantly, knowledge transfer to the next generation of nuclear professionals. (author

  9. Norovirus translation requires an interaction between the C Terminus of the genome-linked viral protein VPg and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Liliane; Bailey, Dalan; Leen, Eoin N; Emmott, Edward P; Chaudhry, Yasmin; Roberts, Lisa O; Curry, Stephen; Locker, Nicolas; Goodfellow, Ian G

    2014-08-01

    Viruses have evolved a variety of mechanisms to usurp the host cell translation machinery to enable translation of the viral genome in the presence of high levels of cellular mRNAs. Noroviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in man, have evolved a mechanism that relies on the interaction of translation initiation factors with the virus-encoded VPg protein covalently linked to the 5' end of the viral RNA. To further characterize this novel mechanism of translation initiation, we have used proteomics to identify the components of the norovirus translation initiation factor complex. This approach revealed that VPg binds directly to the eIF4F complex, with a high affinity interaction occurring between VPg and eIF4G. Mutational analyses indicated that the C-terminal region of VPg is important for the VPg-eIF4G interaction; viruses with mutations that alter or disrupt this interaction are debilitated or non-viable. Our results shed new light on the unusual mechanisms of protein-directed translation initiation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP): Status and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arritt, R.

    2009-04-01

    NARCCAP is an international program that is generating projections of climate change for the U.S., Canada, and northern Mexico at decision-relevant regional scales. NARCCAP uses multiple limited-area regional climate models (RCMs) nested within multiple atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). The use of multiple regional and global models allows us to investigate the uncertainty in model responses to future emissions (here, the A2 SRES scenario). The project also includes global time-slice experiments at the same discretization (50 km) using the GFDL atmospheric model (AM2.1) and the NCAR atmospheric model (CAM3). Phase I of the experiment uses the regional models nested within reanalysis in order to establish uncertainty attributable to the RCMs themselves. Phase II of the project then nests the RCMs within results from the current and future runs of the AOGCMs to explore the cascade of uncertainty from the global to the regional models. Phase I has been completed and the results to be shown include findings that spectral nudging is beneficial in some regions but not in others. Phase II is nearing completion and some preliminary results will be shown.

  11. On fatigue crack growth mechanisms of MMC: Reflection on analysis of 'multi surface initiations'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkaddem, A.; El Mansori, M.

    2009-01-01

    This work attempts to examine the mechanisms of fatigue when cracks synergetically initiate in more than one site at the specimen surface. The metal matrix composites (MMC) i.e. silicon carbide particles reinforced aluminium matrix composites (Al/SiC p -MMC), seem to be good candidates to accelerate fatigue failures following multi surface initiations (MSI). Closure effects of MSI mechanisms on the variation of fatigue behaviour are explored for various stress states. Experiments were carried out using non pre-treated and pre-treated specimens. Using an Equivalent Ellipse Method (EEM), it is shown that the aspect of surface finish of specimen plays an important role on crack growth. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) inspections have lead to distinguishing the initiation regions from propagation regions and final separation regions. It is also revealed that the total lifetime of specimens is sensitive to heat treatment. Moreover, it is found that the appearance of MSI in cycled materials is more probable at high level of fatigue loads.

  12. Interoperability after deployment: persistent challenges and regional strategies in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The European Union has identified Denmark as one of the countries who have the potential to provide leadership and inspiration for other countries in eHealth implementation and adoption. However, Denmark has historically struggled to facilitate data exchange between their public hospitals' electronic health records (EHRs). Furthermore, state-led projects failed to adequately address the challenges of interoperability after deployment. Changes in the organizational setup and division of responsibilities concerning the future of eHealth implementations in hospitals took place, which granted the Danish regions the full responsibility for all hospital systems, specifically the consolidation of EHRs to one system per region. The regions reduced the number of different EHRs to six systems by 2014. Additionally, the first version of the National Health Record was launched to provide health care practitioners with an overview of a patient's data stored in all EHRs across the regions and within the various health sectors. The governance of national eHealth implementation plays a crucial role in the development and diffusion of interoperable technologies. Changes in the organizational setup and redistribution of responsibilities between the Danish regions and the state play a pivotal role in producing viable and coherent solutions in a timely manner. Interoperability initiatives are best managed on a regional level or by the authorities responsible for the provision of local health care services. Cross-regional communication is essential during the initial phases of planning in order to set a common goal for countrywide harmonization, coherence and collaboration. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  13. Robustness of inflation to inhomogeneous initial conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clough, Katy; Lim, Eugene A. [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Physics Department, Kings College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); DiNunno, Brandon S.; Fischler, Willy; Flauger, Raphael; Paban, Sonia, E-mail: katy.clough@kcl.ac.uk, E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com, E-mail: bsd86@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: fischler@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: flauger@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: paban@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We consider the effects of inhomogeneous initial conditions in both the scalar field profile and the extrinsic curvature on different inflationary models. In particular, we compare the robustness of small field inflation to that of large field inflation, using numerical simulations with Einstein gravity in 3+1 dimensions. We find that small field inflation can fail in the presence of subdominant gradient energies, suggesting that it is much less robust to inhomogeneities than large field inflation, which withstands dominant gradient energies. However, we also show that small field inflation can be successful even if some regions of spacetime start out in the region of the potential that does not support inflation. In the large field case, we confirm previous results that inflation is robust if the inflaton occupies the inflationary part of the potential. Furthermore, we show that increasing initial scalar gradients will not form sufficiently massive inflation-ending black holes if the initial hypersurface is approximately flat. Finally, we consider the large field case with a varying extrinsic curvature K , such that some regions are initially collapsing. We find that this may again lead to local black holes, but overall the spacetime remains inflationary if the spacetime is open, which confirms previous theoretical studies.

  14. Effects of forest cover changes in European Russia on regional weather conditions: results of numerical experiments with the COSMO-CLM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, Alexander; Kuzmina, Ekaterina; Rozinkina, Inna; Nikitin, Mikhail; Rivin, Gdaly S.

    2017-04-01

    The forests have a significant effect on the climatic system. They capture CO2 from the atmosphere, regulate the surface evaporation and runoff, and influence the radiation and thermal conditions of the land surface. It is obvious, that their influence depends on many different factors including regional climate conditions, land use and vegetation structure, surface topography, etc. The main goal of the study is to assess the possible influence of forest cover changes (under deforestation and/or afforestation) on regional weather conditions in the central part of European Russia using the results of modeling experiments provided by the meso-scale COSMO-CLM model. The need of the study lies in a lack of the experimental and modeling data characterizing the influence of the forest and land-use changes on regional weather conditions in European part of Russia. The forest ecosystems in the study region play a very important biosphere role that is significantly increased in the last decades due to considerable strengthening of anthropogenic activity in the area of European Russia. The area selected for the study is located in the central part of European Russia between 55 and 59N and 28 and 37E. It comprises several geographical zones including dark-coniferous forests of the South-European taiga in the north, the mixed forests in the central part and the broad-leaved forests in the south. The forests within the study area are very heterogeneous. The total area covered by forests according to recent remote sensing data is about 50%. The numerical experiments were provided using the COSMO-CLM model with the spatial resolution 13.2 km. As initial and boundary conditions for the numerical experiments the global reanalysis ERA Interim (with the 6-hour resolution in time and 0.75° × 0.75° in space) were used. The weather conditions were simulated in a continuous cycle for several months for the entire area of European Russia using the results of global reanalysis on

  15. Effect of baculovirus infection on the mRNA and protein levels of the Spodoptera frugiperda eukaryotic initiation factor 4E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Veken, van der L.T.J.N.; Vlak, J.M.; Thomas, A.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The cDNA sequence of eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E was derived from a Spodoptera frugiperda cDNA library. Eight tryptophan residues, typical for eIF4E, are strictly conserved in the encoded 210 amino acid protein. A polyclonal antiserum detected a 26 kDa protein in lepidopteran cell

  16. Phosphorylation and interactions associated with the control of the Leishmania Poly-A Binding Protein 1 (PABP1) function during translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Neto, Osvaldo P; da Costa Lima, Tamara D C; Merlo, Kleison C; Romão, Tatiany P; Rocha, Pollyanna O; Assis, Ludmila A; Nascimento, Larissa M; Xavier, Camila C; Rezende, Antonio M; Reis, Christian R S; Papadopoulou, Barbara

    2018-03-23

    The Poly-A Binding Protein (PABP) is a conserved eukaryotic polypeptide involved in many aspects of mRNA metabolism. During translation initiation, PABP interacts with the translation initiation complex eIF4F and enhances the translation of polyadenylated mRNAs. Schematically, most PABPs can be divided into an N-terminal RNA-binding region, a non-conserved linker segment and the C-terminal MLLE domain. In pathogenic Leishmania protozoans, three PABP homologues have been identified, with the first one (PABP1) targeted by phosphorylation and shown to co-immunoprecipitate with an eIF4F-like complex (EIF4E4/EIF4G3) implicated in translation initiation. Here, PABP1 phosphorylation was shown to be linked to logarithmic cell growth, reminiscent of EIF4E4 phosphorylation, and coincides with polysomal association. Phosphorylation targets multiple serine-proline (SP) or threonine-proline (TP) residues within the PABP1 linker region. This is an essential protein, but phosphorylation is not needed for its association with polysomes or cell viability. Mutations which do impair PABP1 polysomal association and are required for viability do not prevent phosphorylation, although further mutations lead to a presumed inactive protein largely lacking phosphorylated isoforms. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments were carried out to investigate PABP1 function further, identifying several novel protein partners and the EIF4E4/EIF4G3 complex, but no other eIF4F-like complex or subunit. A novel, direct interaction between PABP1 and EIF4E4 was also investigated and found to be mediated by the PABP1 MLLE binding to PABP Interacting Motifs (PAM2) within the EIF4E4 N-terminus. The results shown here are consistent with phosphorylation of PABP1 being part of a novel pathway controlling its function and possibly translation in Leishmania.

  17. Search Results | Page 14 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 131 - 140 of 257 ... Filter by region .... Resilient Cities Initiative on Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean. This joint initiative between IDRC and the Climate and Development Knowledge Network will help strengthen ...

  18. Auditory properties in the parabelt regions of the superior temporal gyrus in the awake macaque monkey: an initial survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Frey, Stephen; Ross, Deborah; Falchier, Arnaud; Hackett, Troy A; Schroeder, Charles E

    2015-03-11

    The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is on the inferior-lateral brain surface near the external ear. In macaques, 2/3 of the STG is occupied by an auditory cortical region, the "parabelt," which is part of a network of inferior temporal areas subserving communication and social cognition as well as object recognition and other functions. However, due to its location beneath the squamous temporal bone and temporalis muscle, the STG, like other inferior temporal regions, has been a challenging target for physiological studies in awake-behaving macaques. We designed a new procedure for implanting recording chambers to provide direct access to the STG, allowing us to evaluate neuronal properties and their topography across the full extent of the STG in awake-behaving macaques. Initial surveys of the STG have yielded several new findings. Unexpectedly, STG sites in monkeys that were listening passively responded to tones with magnitudes comparable to those of responses to 1/3 octave band-pass noise. Mapping results showed longer response latencies in more rostral sites and possible tonotopic patterns parallel to core and belt areas, suggesting the reversal of gradients between caudal and rostral parabelt areas. These results will help further exploration of parabelt areas. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354140-11$15.00/0.

  19. Thermokarst dynamics and soil organic matter characteristics controlling initial carbon release from permafrost soils in the Siberian Yedoma region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Niels; Blok, Daan; Elberling, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This study relates soil organic matter (SOM) characteristics to initial soil incubation carbon release from upper permafrost samples in Yedoma region soils of northeastern Siberia, Russia. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, carbon to nitrogen ratios (C:N), δ13C and δ15N values show clear trends...

  20. An isoform of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E from Chrysanthemum morifolium interacts with Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E plays an important role in plant virus infection as well as the regulation of gene translation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the isolation of a cDNA encoding CmeIF(iso4E (GenBank accession no. JQ904592, an isoform of eIF4E from chrysanthemum, using RACE PCR. We used the CmeIF(iso4E cDNA for expression profiling and to analyze the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein (CVBCP. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the sequence similarity of CmeIF(iso4E with other reported plant eIF(iso4E sequences varied between 69.12% and 89.18%, indicating that CmeIF(iso4E belongs to the eIF(iso4E subfamily of the eIF4E family. CmeIF(iso4E was present in all chrysanthemum organs, but was particularly abundant in the roots and flowers. Confocal microscopy showed that a transiently transfected CmeIF(iso4E-GFP fusion protein distributed throughout the whole cell in onion epidermis cells. A yeast two hybrid assay showed CVBCP interacted with CmeIF(iso4E but not with CmeIF4E. BiFC assay further demonstrated the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and CVBCP. Luminescence assay showed that CVBCP increased the RLU of Luc-CVB, suggesting CVBCP might participate in the translation of viral proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results inferred that CmeIF(iso4E as the cap-binding subunit eIF(iso4F may be involved in Chrysanthemum Virus B infection in chrysanthemum through its interaction with CVBCP in spatial.

  1. Introduction of Open E-Learning System as a Factor of Regional Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Yuryevna Bystrova; Viola Anatoylevna Larionova; Michael Osborne; Anatoly Mikhaylovich Platonov

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the economic and socio-cultural premises for introducing the open e-learning in the universities of the Ural region, as well as the potential economic effect of this type of educational activity. The article strives to prove a regular pattern of the universities’ transition to e-learning, also in connection with the changes of the educational paradigm and the nature of the educational system management. The hypothesis of the paper is connected with bringing the economic d...

  2. Aspect sensitive E- and F-region SPEAR-enhanced incoherent backscatter observed by the EISCAT Svalbard radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Dhillon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of the aspect sensitivity of heater-enhanced incoherent radar backscatter in the high-latitude ionosphere have demonstrated the directional dependence of incoherent scatter signatures corresponding to artificially excited electrostatic waves, together with consistent field-aligned signatures that may be related to the presence of artificial field-aligned irregularities. These earlier high-latitude results have provided motivation for repeating the investigation in the different geophysical conditions that obtain in the polar cap ionosphere. The Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR facility is located within the polar cap and has provided observations of RF-enhanced ion and plasma line spectra recorded by the EISCAT Svalbard UHF incoherent scatter radar system (ESR, which is collocated with SPEAR. In this paper, we present observations of aspect sensitive E- and F-region SPEAR-induced ion and plasma line enhancements that indicate excitation of both the purely growing mode and the parametric decay instability, together with sporadic E-layer results that may indicate the presence of cavitons. We note consistent enhancements from field-aligned, vertical and also from 5° south of field-aligned. We attribute the prevalence of vertical scatter to the importance of the Spitze region, and of that from field-aligned to possible wave/irregularity coupling.

  3. National Studies as a Component of the World Health Organization Initiative to Estimate the Global and Regional Burden of Foodborne Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin J Lake

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases established the Foodborne Diseases Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG in 2007. In addition to global and regional estimates, the initiative sought to promote actions at a national level. This involved capacity building through national foodborne disease burden studies, and encouragement of the use of burden information in setting evidence-informed policies. To address these objectives a FERG Country Studies Task Force was established and has developed a suite of tools and resources to facilitate national burden of foodborne disease studies. This paper describes the process and lessons learned during the conduct of pilot country studies under the WHO FERG initiative.Pilot country studies were initiated in Albania, Japan and Thailand in 2011 and in Uganda in 2012. A brief description of each study is provided. The major scientific issue is a lack of data, particularly in relation to disease etiology, and attribution of disease burden to foodborne transmission. Situation analysis, knowledge translation, and risk communication to achieve evidence-informed policies require specialist expertise and resources.The FERG global and regional burden estimates will greatly enhance the ability of individual countries to fill data gaps and generate national estimates to support efforts to reduce the burden of foodborne disease.

  4. Going the distance: early results of a distributed medical education initiative for Royal College residencies in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Douglas L; Hohman, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    There is a shortage of specialty physicians practising in rural Canada: only 2.4% of Canadian specialist physicians practise rurally. Numerous strategies have been proposed and attempted that aim to increase the number of rural physicians. These include undergraduate and postgraduate distributed medical education opportunities. The Distributed Royal College Initiative at the University of Calgary is increasing the exposure of specialty residents to rural medicine through regional rotations and electives. An assessment of the initial impacts of this programme was made. Specialty residents were sent a voluntary survey following their regional rotation in academic year 2010-2011. The survey measured each resident's satisfaction with the experience, interest in undertaking another rotation and the impact of the rotation on potential rural practice location. The survey asked for written comments on the rotation. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. A total of 73% (29) of the 40 eligible residents completed the survey that was distributed upon completion of the rotation. In the survey, 45% of respondents indicated they would have been likely to practise in a regional community prior to the experience. This changed to 76% following the rotation. Analysis of the comments revealed strong positive characteristics of the experience across all disciplines. Specialty-based, rural distributed programmes were perceived by the residents as educationally valuable and may be crucial in helping shift attitudes towards rural practice. Specific successful characteristics of the rotations provide direction to increase their quality further. These findings need to be verified in a larger sample.

  5. Transcriptional activation by the E1A regions of adenovirus types 40 and 41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.E. van; Gilardi, P.; Perricaudet, M.; Rozijn, Th. H.; Sussenbach, J.S.

    In order to establish whether the poor growth of the two fastidious adenoviruses types 40 and 41 (Ad40 and Ad41) in HeLa cells is due to a reduced trans-activation by the early region to (E1A), we have determined the trans-activating effect of this region on the expression of the chloramphenicol

  6. ERK 1/2 kinase metabolic pathway is responsible for phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF4E during in vitro maturation of pig oocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ellederová, Zdeňka; Cais, Ondřej; Šušor, Andrej; Uhlířová, Kateřina; Kovářová, Hana; Jelínková, Lucie; Tomek, W.; Kubelka, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2008), s. 309-317 ISSN 1040-452X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0104 Grant - others:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) 463 TSE 113/28 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : meiosis * translation initiation * eIF4E Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.287, year: 2008

  7. GOVERNANÇA METROPOLITANA: DEBATE E EXPERIÊNCIA REGIONAL DA REGIÃO METROPOLITANA DE MARINGÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Romano Reschilian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Maringá, município localizado no Norte do Paraná, diferencia-se de outros municípios brasileiros por seu planejamento urbano-regional caracterizar-se em sua organização espacial pelo modelo de cidade-jardim de inspiração inglesa. O artigo pretende abordar como constituíram as regiões metropolitanas brasileiras (instituição federal a estadual, partindo de um breve histórico da instituição da Região Metropolitana de Maringá e análises do processo de constituição dessa configuração regional. Verifica-se assim, que a cidade planejada reflete o “urbanismo à brasileira” e a urbanização desigual da maioria das cidades brasileiras, apresentando a realidade e os desafios quanto à questão metropolitana.

  8. Regionalização e novos rumos para o SUS: a experiência de um colegiado regional Regionalization and new courses to SUS: the experience of a regional college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Assis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Em que pese todos os avanços no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS desde a sua implantação, são também notórias as suas fragilidades e seus limites. Um deles, não obstante a diretriz constitucional de regionalização, é que até recentemente não havia uma política concreta de estímulo de integração entre os municípios e, consequentemente, de regiões de saúde, tão necessárias à garantia da integralidade da atenção. Nos últimos três anos, entretanto, o Ministério da Saúde, com a implementação do Pacto pela Saúde, na sua dimensão da gestão, iniciou esse processo, que tem se mostrado promissor para o desenvolvimento e crescimento do SUS nacional. Este trabalho apresenta a experiência positiva de implantação de um Colegiado Regional no Estado de São Paulo, na região de Campinas, através da qual gestores e técnicos das secretarias de saúde estão se tornando sujeitos mais "empoderados" da construção da Saúde na região.Despite all the advances that have occurred in Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - National Health System since its implementation, its weaknesses and limits are also remarkable. One of them, in spite of the constitutional guideline for regionalization, is that, until recently, there had been no concrete policy to stimulate integration between municipalities and, consequently, between health regions, which are necessary to ensure integral care. In the last three years, however, the Ministry of Health, with the implementation of the Health Pact in its management dimension, started this process, which has been promising to the development and growth of the national SUS. This study presents the positive experience of implementation of a Regional College in the State of São Paulo, in the region of Campinas, through which managers and technicians of the health departments are becoming empowered subjects of the construction of Health in the region.

  9. U.S. Department of Energy's regional carbon sequestration partnership initiative: Update on validation and development phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodosta, T.; Litynski, J.; Plasynski, S.; Spangler, L.; Finley, R.; Steadman, E.; Ball, D.; Gerald, H.; McPherson, B.; Burton, E.; Vikara, D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead federal agency for the development and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) are the mechanism DOE utilizes to prove the technology and to develop human capital, stakeholder networks, information for regulatory policy, best practices documents and training to work toward the commercialization of carbon capture and storage (CCS). The RCSPs are tasked with determining the most suitable technologies, regulations, and infrastructure for carbon capture, transport, and storage in their respective geographic areas of responsibility. The seven partnerships include more than 400 state agencies, universities, national laboratories, private companies, and environmental organizations, spanning 43 states and four Canadian provinces. The Regional Partnerships Initiative is being implemented in three phases: Characterization, Validation, and Development. The initial Characterization Phase began in 2003 and was completed in 2005 and focused on characterization of CO2 storage potential within each region. It was followed by the Validation Phase, which began in 2005 and is nearing completion in 2011. The focus of the Validation Phase has been on small-scale field tests throughout the seven partnerships in various formation types such as saline, oil-bearing, and coal seams. The Validation Phase has characterized suitable CO2 storage reservoirs and identified the need for comprehensive legal and regulatory frameworks to enable commercial-scale CCS deployment. Finally, the Development Phase will consist of a series of large-scale, one-million-ton, injection tests throughout the United States and Canada. The objective of these large-scale tests is to identify the regulatory path or challenges in permitting CCS projects, to demonstrate the technology can inject CO2 safely, and to verify its permanence in geologic formations in preparation for the commercialization of geologic

  10. Association Between Initial Use of e-Cigarettes and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Wills, Thomas A; Leventhal, Adam M; Unger, Jennifer B; Gibson, Laura A; Yang, JaeWon; Primack, Brian A; Andrews, Judy A; Miech, Richard A; Spindle, Tory R; Dick, Danielle M; Eissenberg, Thomas; Hornik, Robert C; Dang, Rui; Sargent, James D

    2017-08-01

    The public health implications of e-cigarettes depend, in part, on whether e-cigarette use affects the risk of cigarette smoking. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies that assessed initial use of e-cigarettes and subsequent cigarette smoking. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, the 2016 Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 22nd Annual Meeting abstracts, the 2016 Society of Behavioral Medicine 37th Annual Meeting & Scientific Sessions abstracts, and the 2016 National Institutes of Health Tobacco Regulatory Science Program Conference were searched between February 7 and February 17, 2017. The search included indexed terms and text words to capture concepts associated with e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes in articles published from database inception to the date of the search. Longitudinal studies reporting odds ratios for cigarette smoking initiation associated with ever use of e-cigarettes or past 30-day cigarette smoking associated with past 30-day e-cigarette use. Searches yielded 6959 unique studies, of which 9 met inclusion criteria (comprising 17 389 adolescents and young adults). Study quality and risk of bias were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions tool, respectively. Data and estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Among baseline never cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation between baseline and follow-up. Among baseline non-past 30-day cigarette smokers who were past 30-day e-cigarette users, past 30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up. Among 17 389 adolescents and young adults, the ages ranged between 14 and 30 years at baseline, and 56.0% were female. The pooled probabilities of cigarette smoking initiation were 30.4% for baseline ever e-cigarette users and 7.9% for baseline never e-cigarette users. The pooled probabilities of past 30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up were 21.5% for baseline

  11. Retornos da educação e o desequilíbrio regional no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Manso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O problema do desequilíbrio regional brasileiro normalmente tem sido tratado na literatura nacional a partir de investigações que utilizam a renda e/ou PIB per capita como variáveis de análise. Para sociedades com baixos níveis de desigualdade, esse procedimento é uma boa representação do bem-estar social. Entretanto, para economias com elevados níveis de pobreza e desigualdade, a utilização da renda ou PIB pode não ser apropriada. Nesse sentido, esse artigo discute se a aproximação da renda per capita existente entre o Nordeste e o Sudeste brasileiro também vem ocorrendo em termos de bem-estar social. Para esse objetivo, duas medidas de bem-estar social são utilizadas: Sen (1977 e Kakwani e Son (2008. Os resultados apontam que, assim como ocorre com a renda per capita, também está havendo aproximação de bemestar considerando a medida de Sen. Entretanto, quando se leva em conta o movimento da renda dos mais pobres, presente no segundo índice, constata-se um afastamento entre as duas regiões. As análises são feitas para o período de 1995 a 2007. Por fim, identificou-se que foram os ganhos de produtividade dos trabalhadores pertencentes a famílias pobres no Sudeste os principais responsáveis por esse distanciamento.The problem of Brazilian regional disequilibrium has usually been treated in the national literature from investigations using income and/or GDP percapita as a variable of analysis. For communities with low levels of inequality, this procedure is a good representation of the social welfare. However, for economies with high levels of poverty and inequality, the use of income or GDP cannot be appropriate. Accordingly, this article discusses if the approximation of per capita income between the Northeast and Southeast Brazil has also occurred in terms of social welfare. To this, two measures of social welfare are used: Sen (1977 and Kakwani e Son (2008. The results suggest as occurs with per capita income, there

  12. E-Cigarettes: Implications for Health Promotion in the Asian Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancey, Jonine; Maycock, Bruce; McCausland, Kahlia; Howat, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Since their introduction to the United States in 2007, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use has grown exponentially. This rapid growth in e-cigarette use has been heralded by some as a potential important public health measure that could ultimately replace tobacco cigarettes, while others recommend a cautionary approach until there is clear evidence they will not become "new tobacco" bringing a possible myriad of other problems. E-cigarettes may have real benefits, however they do expose users and those nearby to organic compounds, solvents and particulate matter, with there being limited data relating to their health impact. It is unclear as to whether this relatively new device has the potential to exacerbate nicotine addictions, or play a part in reducing harm and smoking cessation. The fundamental requirement of public health practice is to do no harm and from the inconclusive evidence we have to date on e-cigarettes, it appears a cautious approach is warranted. This commentary reviews evidence that supports a cautious approach to e-cigarette availability in Australia and the Asian Pacific region.

  13. Risky business: a longitudinal study examining cigarette smoking initiation among susceptible and non-susceptible e-cigarette users in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleyan, Sarah; Cole, Adam; Qian, Wei; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2018-05-26

    Given that many adolescent e-cigarette users are never-smokers, the possibility that e-cigarettes may act as a gateway to future cigarette smoking has been discussed in various studies. Longitudinal data are needed to explore the pathway between e-cigarette and cigarette use, particularly among different risk groups including susceptible and non-susceptible never-smokers. The objective of this study was to examine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among a sample of never-smoking youth predicted cigarette smoking initiation over a 2-year period. Longitudinal cohort study. 89 high schools across Ontario and Alberta, Canada. A sample of grade 9-11 never-smoking students at baseline (n=9501) who participated in the COMPASS study over 2 years. Participants completed in-class questionnaires that assessed smoking susceptibility and smoking initiation. Among the baseline sample of non-susceptible never-smokers, 45.2% of current e-cigarette users reported trying a cigarette after 2 years compared with 13.5% of non-current e-cigarette users. Among the baseline sample of susceptible never-smokers, 62.4% of current e-cigarette users reported trying a cigarette after 2 years compared with 36.1% of non-current e-cigarette users. Overall, current e-cigarette users were more likely to try a cigarette 2 years later. This association was stronger among the sample of non-susceptible never-smokers (AOR=5.28, 95% CI 2.81 to 9.94; pe-cigarette use may contribute to the development of a new population of cigarette smokers. They also support the notion that e-cigarettes are expanding the tobacco market by attracting low-risk youth who would otherwise be unlikely to initiate using cigarettes. Careful consideration will be needed in developing an appropriate regulatory framework that prevents e-cigarette use among youth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  14. Circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS) measurements in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (∼16 eV to 500 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestre, M.F.; Bustamante, C.; Snyder, P.; Rowe, E.; Hansen, R.

    1991-03-01

    We propose the use of recently developed techniques of circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS), as extended to the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (16 eV to 500 eV), to study the higher order organization of the eukaryotic chromosome. CIDS is the difference in scattering power of an object when illuminated by right circularly polarized vs. left circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary wavelength. CIDS has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of the helical organization of the scattering object eg. the eukaryotic chromosome. Preliminary results of measurements of samples of bacteriophages and octopus sperm done at SRC, Wisconsin, show the technique to be very sensitive to the dimensional parameters of the particles interrogated by circularly polarized light. 7 refs., 5 figs

  15. VHF and HF radar measurements of E and R region plasma drifts at the magnetic equator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, K.S.; Namboothiri, S.P.; Rao, P.B.

    1992-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of E region horizontal irregularity drifts by VHF backscatter radar and of F region vertical plasma drift by HF Doppler radar conducted during daytime on a few magnetically quiet days at Trivandrum (dip 0.2 degree N) are presented. A comparative study of the two measurements indicates broadly (1) a resemblance in the daytime changes of the E-W component between the electric field and (2) evidence of quasi-periodic electric field variations with periods ranging mostly from 1 to 2 hours. The electric fields derived from HF Doppler radar observations are somewhat lower than those deduced by HVHF radar observations. The correlation coefficient for the variations of the electric fields measured by the two experimental techniques is found to be in the range of about 0.5 to 0.9. The observed difference in the E and F region electric fields at the magnetic equator is discussed in terms of the measurement uncertainties and the limitations involved in deriving E-W electric fields. The observations are suggestive of a latitudinal variation in the E-W component of the electric field in the equatorial ionosphere

  16. Citizen Perceptions of E-Government in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Mohammad Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing investment by governments globally, citizens in some countries are less willing to engage with e-government innovations. While previous studies have examined what might encourage citizens to adopt e-government services more broadly, further research is required to understand those factors that impede or enable e government adoption in countries that have, or are in the process of, transitioning to democratic self-rule. This study is the first to investigate citizen attitudes to e-government adoption in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq and thus provides insight into the factors affecting the adoption of e-government within an emerging democratic state. This study also distinguishes between two types of e-government services; informational and transactional. Thus a research model with two elements is developed and tested; one for intention to use informational e government and one for intention to use transactional e-government. Data were collected through a survey administered to university students and non-academic employees in Arbil the capital city of Kurdistan, and analysed using structural equation modelling. Perceived usefulness, social influence, trust in government and perceived risk were found to be significantly and directly associated with the intention to use both kinds of e-government services. However perceptions of ease of use, information quality and trust in the Internet were not significant.

  17. An Assessment of Dialysis Provider's Attitudes towards Timing of Dialysis Initiation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikaramjit S Mann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physicians' perceptions and opinions may influence when to initiate dialysis. Objective: To examine providers' perspectives and opinions regarding the timing of dialysis initiation. Design: Online survey. Setting: Community and academic dialysis practices in Canada. Participants: A nationally-representative sample of dialysis providers. Measurements and Methods: Dialysis providers opinions assessing reasons to initiate dialysis at low or high eGFR. Responses were obtained using a 9-point Likert scale. Early dialysis was defined as initiation of dialysis in an individual with an eGFR greater than or equal to 10.5 ml/min/m 2 . A detailed survey was emailed to all members of the Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN in February 2013. The survey was designed and pre-tested to evaluate duration and ease of administration. Results: One hundred and forty one (25% response rate physicians participated in the survey. The majority were from urban, academic centres and practiced in regionally administered renal programs. Very few respondents had a formal policy regarding the timing of dialysis initiation or formally reviewed new dialysis starts (N = 4, 3.1%. The majority of respondents were either neutral or disagreed that late compared to early dialysis initiation improved outcomes (85–88%, had a negative impact on quality of life (89%, worsened AVF or PD use (84–90%, led to sicker patients (83% or was cost effective (61%. Fifty-seven percent of respondents felt uremic symptoms occurred earlier in patients with advancing age or co-morbid illness. Half (51.8% of the respondents felt there was an absolute eGFR at which they would initiate dialysis in an asymptomatic patient. The majority of respondents would initiate dialysis for classic indications for dialysis, such as volume overload (90.1% and cachexia (83.7% however a significant number chose other factors that may lead them to early dialysis initiation including avoiding an emergency (28

  18. e-Learning initiatives to support prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Simon; Mucklow, John

    2012-01-01

    Preparing medical students to prescribe is a major challenge of undergraduate education. They must develop an understanding of clinical pharmacology and acquire knowledge about drugs and therapeutics, as well as the skills to prescribe for individual patients in the face of multiple variables. The task of delivering the learning required to achieve these attributes relies upon limited numbers of teachers, who have increasingly busy clinical commitments. There is evidence that training is currently insufficient to meet the demands of the workplace. e-Learning provides an opportunity to improve the learning experience. The advantages for teachers are improved distribution of learning content, ease of update, standardization and tracking of learner activities. The advantages for learners are ease of access, greater interactivity and individual choice concerning the pace and mix of learning. Important disadvantages are the considerable resource required to develop e-Learning projects and difficulties in simulating some aspects of the real world prescribing experience. Pre-requisites for developing an e-Learning programme to support prescribing include academic expertise, institutional support, learning technology services and an effective virtual learning environment. e-Learning content might range from complex interactive learning sessions through to static web pages with links. It is now possible to simulate and provide feedback on prescribing decisions and this will improve with advances in virtual reality. Other content might include a student formulary, self-assessment exercises (e.g. calculations), a glossary and an on-line library. There is some evidence for the effectiveness of e-Learning but better research is required into its potential impact on prescribing. PMID:22509885

  19. Salvage treatment for local or local-regional recurrence after initial breast conservation treatment with radiation for ductal carcinoma in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solin, Lawrence J.; Fourquet, Alain; Vicini, Frank A.; Taylor, Marie; Haffty, Bruce; Strom, Eric A.; Wai, Elaine; Pierce, Lori J.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Bartelink, Harry; Campana, Francois; McNeese, Marsha D.; Jhingran, Anuja; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Bijker, Nina; Hwang, Wei-Ting

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the outcome of salvage treatment for women with local or local-regional recurrence after initial breast conservation treatment with radiation for mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; intraductal carcinoma) of the breast. The study cohort consisted of

  20. Assessing the Coverage of E-Health Services in Sub-Saharan Africa. A Systematic Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeloye, Davies; Adigun, Taiwo; Misra, Sanjay; Omoregbe, Nicholas

    2017-05-18

    E-Health has attracted growing interests globally. The relative lack of facilities, skills, funds and information on existing e-Health initiatives has affected progress on e-Health in Africa. To review publicly available literature on e-Health in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) towards providing information on existing and ongoing e-Health initiatives in the region. Searches of relevant literature were conducted on Medline, EMBASE and Global Health, with search dates set from 1990 to 2016. We included studies on e-Health initiatives (prototypes, designs, or completed projects) targeting population groups in sSA. Our search returned 2322 hits, with 26 studies retained. Included studies were conducted in 14 countries across the four sub-regions in sSA (Central, East, South and West) and spreading over a 12-year period, 2002-2014. Six types of e-Health interventions were reported, with 17 studies (65 %) based on telemedicine, followed by mHealth with 5 studies (19 %). Other e-Health types include expert system, electronic medical records, e-mails, and online health module. Specific medical specialties covered include dermatology (19 %), pathology (12 %) and radiology (8 %). Successes were 'widely reported' (representing 50 % overall acceptance or positive feedbacks in a study) in 10 studies (38 %). The prominent challenges reported were technical problems, poor internet and connectivity, participants' selection biases, contextual issues, and lack of funds. E-Health is evolving in sSA, but with poorly published evidence. While we call for more quality research in the region, it is also important that population-wide policies and on-going e-Health initiatives are contextually feasible, acceptable, and sustainable.

  1. Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A-M; Genzer, M; Kemppinen, O; Gomez-Elvira, J; Haberle, R; Polkko, J; Savijärvi, H; Rennó, N; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J A; Schmidt, W; Richardson, M; Siili, T; Paton, M; Torre-Juarez, M De La; Mäkinen, T; Newman, C; Rafkin, S; Mischna, M; Merikallio, S; Haukka, H; Martin-Torres, J; Komu, M; Zorzano, M-P; Peinado, V; Vazquez, L; Urqui, R

    2014-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers. Atmospheric water mixing ratio at Gale crater varies from 30 to 140 ppmMSL relative humidity observation provides good dataHighest detected relative humidity reading during first MSL 100 sols is RH75.

  2. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is essential for HIF-1α activation in hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, Mohammad [Chemical Genetics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 645 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Ito, Akihiro, E-mail: akihiro-i@riken.jp [Chemical Genetics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Chemical Genomics Research Group, RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, AMED-CREST, 1-7-1 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-0004 (Japan); Ishfaq, Muhammad; Bradshaw, Elliot [Chemical Genetics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 645 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Yoshida, Minoru [Chemical Genetics Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Chemical Genomics Research Group, RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 645 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, AMED-CREST, 1-7-1 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-0004 (Japan)

    2016-02-05

    The eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is an essential protein involved in translation elongation and cell proliferation. eIF5A undergoes several post-translational modifications including hypusination and acetylation. Hypusination is indispensable for the function of eIF5A. On the other hand, the precise function of acetylation remains unknown, but it may render the protein inactive since hypusination blocks acetylation. Here, we report that acetylation of eIF5A increases under hypoxia. During extended hypoxic periods an increase in the level of eIF5A acetylation correlated with a decrease in HIF-1α, suggesting involvement of eIF5A activity in HIF-1α expression under hypoxia. Indeed, suppression of eIF5A by siRNA oligo-mediated knockdown or treatment with GC7, a deoxyhypusine synthase inhibitor, led to significant reduction of HIF-1α activity. Furthermore, knockdown of eIF5A or GC7 treatment reduced tumor spheroid formation with a concomitant decrease in HIF-1α expression. Our results suggest that functional, hypusinated eIF5A is necessary for HIF-1α expression during hypoxia and that eIF5A is an attractive target for cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Hypoxia induces acetylation of eIF5A. • Active eIF5A is necessary for HIF-1α activation in hypoxia. • Active eIF5A is important for tumor spheroid growth.

  3. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is essential for HIF-1α activation in hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, Mohammad; Ito, Akihiro; Ishfaq, Muhammad; Bradshaw, Elliot; Yoshida, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    The eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is an essential protein involved in translation elongation and cell proliferation. eIF5A undergoes several post-translational modifications including hypusination and acetylation. Hypusination is indispensable for the function of eIF5A. On the other hand, the precise function of acetylation remains unknown, but it may render the protein inactive since hypusination blocks acetylation. Here, we report that acetylation of eIF5A increases under hypoxia. During extended hypoxic periods an increase in the level of eIF5A acetylation correlated with a decrease in HIF-1α, suggesting involvement of eIF5A activity in HIF-1α expression under hypoxia. Indeed, suppression of eIF5A by siRNA oligo-mediated knockdown or treatment with GC7, a deoxyhypusine synthase inhibitor, led to significant reduction of HIF-1α activity. Furthermore, knockdown of eIF5A or GC7 treatment reduced tumor spheroid formation with a concomitant decrease in HIF-1α expression. Our results suggest that functional, hypusinated eIF5A is necessary for HIF-1α expression during hypoxia and that eIF5A is an attractive target for cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Hypoxia induces acetylation of eIF5A. • Active eIF5A is necessary for HIF-1α activation in hypoxia. • Active eIF5A is important for tumor spheroid growth.

  4. A relação inseparável entre o Regional e o Nacional: Monteiro Lobato e a Paulistanidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyllo Di Giorgio Martins da Mota

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem como objetivo discutir a definição conceitual da idéia de Paulistanidade e sua presença na obra de Monteiro Lobato durante a década de 1920, sobretudo no livro Mr. Slang e o Brasil de 1927. A valorização do estado de São Paulo como lugar de modernidade e modernização se relacionou, a partir do final do século XIX, com a construção de imagens do estado paulista como símbolo a ser seguido pelo Brasil. Nesses debates, o trabalho de Monteiro Lobato acaba por expor a relação indissociável entre as esferas regional e nacional.

  5. e-Learning initiatives to support prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Simon; Mucklow, John

    2012-10-01

    Preparing medical students to prescribe is a major challenge of undergraduate education. They must develop an understanding of clinical pharmacology and acquire knowledge about drugs and therapeutics, as well as the skills to prescribe for individual patients in the face of multiple variables. The task of delivering the learning required to achieve these attributes relies upon limited numbers of teachers, who have increasingly busy clinical commitments. There is evidence that training is currently insufficient to meet the demands of the workplace. e-Learning provides an opportunity to improve the learning experience. The advantages for teachers are improved distribution of learning content, ease of update, standardization and tracking of learner activities. The advantages for learners are ease of access, greater interactivity and individual choice concerning the pace and mix of learning. Important disadvantages are the considerable resource required to develop e-Learning projects and difficulties in simulating some aspects of the real world prescribing experience. Pre-requisites for developing an e-Learning programme to support prescribing include academic expertise, institutional support, learning technology services and an effective virtual learning environment. e-Learning content might range from complex interactive learning sessions through to static web pages with links. It is now possible to simulate and provide feedback on prescribing decisions and this will improve with advances in virtual reality. Other content might include a student formulary, self-assessment exercises (e.g. calculations), a glossary and an on-line library. There is some evidence for the effectiveness of e-Learning but better research is required into its potential impact on prescribing. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Factors to Consider in Selecting an Organisational Improvement Initiative: Survey Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Musli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisations should select the appropriate improvement initiative that will fit with the context of organisation and provide value to the organisation. This paper presents 18 factors to be considered when selecting an organisational improvement initiative. Organisational improvement initiatives are approaches, management systems, tools and/or techniques that can be used for managing and improving organisations, such as Lean, ISO9001, Six Sigma and Improvement Team. A survey was conducted to identify the level of importance of these 18 factors as criteria for selecting an improvement initiative. Purposive sampling was used for this survey involving practitioners, managers, engineers, executives, consultants and/or academicians, who have been involved in the selection and/or implementation of organisational improvement initiatives in Malaysia. Two factors were rated as ‘very high importance’, which involve: (1 The ability to gain top management commitment and support to introduce and implement the initiative successfully, and (2 The initiative is aligned to the vision, mission and/or purpose of the organisation. All these factors can be adopted by the organisations as decision criteria to assist in the selection of the most appropriate improvement initiative based on rational decision making.

  7. Control of eIF4E cellular localization by eIF4E-binding proteins, 4E-BPs

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Liwei; Livingstone, Mark; Sukarieh, Rami; Petroulakis, Emmanuel; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Crosby, Katherine; Smith, Bradley; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Pelletier, Jerry; Ferraiuolo, Maria A.; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E, the mRNA 5′-cap-binding protein, mediates the association of eIF4F with the mRNA 5′-cap structure to stimulate cap-dependent translation initiation in the cytoplasm. The assembly of eIF4E into the eIF4F complex is negatively regulated through a family of repressor proteins, called the eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs). eIF4E is also present in the nucleus, where it is thought to stimulate nuclear-cytoplasmic transport of certain mRNAs. eIF4E is transported...

  8. Partial wave analysis of KKPI system in D and E/IOTA region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S.U.; Fernow, R.; Kirk, H.

    1985-01-01

    A partial wave analysis and a Dalitz plot analysis of high-statistics data from reaction π - p → K + K/sub S/π - n at 8.0 GeV/c show that the D(1285) is a J/sup PG/ = 1 ++ state and the E(1420) a J/sup PG/ = 0 -+ state both with a substantial deltaπ decay mode. The 1 ++ K*anti K wave exhibits a rapid rise near threshold but no evidence of a resonance in the E region. The assignment of J/sup PG/ = O -+ to the E is confirmed from a Dalitz-plot analysis of the reaction pp → K + K/sub S/π - X 0 . 11 refs., 5 figs

  9. Crescimento inicial de duas cultivares de cafeeiro em diferentes regimes hídricos e dosagens de fertirrigação Initial growth of two coffee cultivars in different hydric regimes and fertigation dosages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rezende

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Centro Técnico de Irrigação (CTI, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM, tendo como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes regimes hídricos (irrigado e não irrigado e fertirrigação, combinados com diferentes doses de adubo para N (15; 30; 45 e 60 g m-1, P (3; 6; 9 e 12 g m-1 e K (15; 30; 45 e 60 g m-1, na fase de crescimento inicial de duas cultivares de café, na região noroeste do Paraná. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis de crescimento da cultura: diâmetro de copa, altura de planta e número de ramos plagiotrópicos totais. Observou-se que a fertirrigação e a irrigação influenciaram no desenvolvimento inicial do cafeeiro, aumentando os valores de todas as variáveis avaliadas. A interação entre regimes hídricos e fertirrigação versus doses de NPK foi significativa para algumas variáveis de crescimento, porém esses resultados não apresentaram tendência comum, que permitisse constatar qual a dose mais indicada para cada regime hídrico na fase de crescimento inicial do cafeeiro.The experiment was conducted at the Technical Center for Irrigation, Maringá State University. The objective was to evaluate the effects of different water regimes (irrigation and no irrigation and fertilization-irrigation, combined with different manure doses for N (15; 30; 45 and 60 g m-1, P (3; 6; 9 and 12 g m-1 and K (15; 30; 45 and 60 g m-1, during the initial growth phase of two coffee cultivars, in the north-western region of the state of Paraná. The following culture growth variables were evaluated: top diameter, height of plant and number of total plagiotropic branches. Fertilization-irrigation and irrigation affected the initial development of coffee, increasing the values of all evaluated variables. Interaction between water regimes and fertilization-irrigation with NPK doses was significant for certain growth variables, however results didn't present a common trend, that would indicate which

  10. Wind effect on the motion of medium-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances in the E region of the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikvilashvili, G.B.; Sharadze, Z.S.; Mosashvili, N.V.

    1988-01-01

    Madium-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (MSTID) in the ionosphere E region in Tbilisi area are investigated by means of spectral analysis of f 0 E s and f b E s variations, synchronously recorded in the three scattered points. The winds at the E s layers formation heights were measured simultaneously by D1 method in one of these points. It is established, that the MSTID motion direction in summer-time E region is controlled by the background thermospheric winds: disturbances mostly more across and against the wind. Tidal winds make the main contribution into the MSTID rate day variations

  11. Fractional Differential Equations in Terms of Comparison Results and Lyapunov Stability with Initial Time Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Yakar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative behavior of a perturbed fractional-order differential equation with Caputo's derivative that differs in initial position and initial time with respect to the unperturbed fractional-order differential equation with Caputo's derivative has been investigated. We compare the classical notion of stability to the notion of initial time difference stability for fractional-order differential equations in Caputo's sense. We present a comparison result which again gives the null solution a central role in the comparison fractional-order differential equation when establishing initial time difference stability of the perturbed fractional-order differential equation with respect to the unperturbed fractional-order differential equation.

  12. O FENÔMENO TURISMO: REFLEXÕES SOBRE A COMPLEXIDADE DA CADEIA PRODUTIVA DO TURISMO E DO DESENVOLVIMENTO REGIONAL ENDÓGENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Sandra Guerra Ashton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta como objetivo principal uma reflexão em torno da problemática relacionada ao desenvolvimento regional endógeno e à cadeia produtiva do turismo. Apóia-se na necessidade de compreender como estas relações podem contribuir para o desempenho de sistemas sociais e econômicos. Para tanto, busca sustentação teórica nas noções de desenvolvimento regional endógeno, desenvolvida por Sen, Veiga e Barquero, e da cadeia produtiva do turismo, a partir de autores como Beni e Leiper, bem como na compreensão do fenômeno turismo conforme De La Torre e Fúster. Pressupõe-se que a atividade turística organizada por meio do enfoque sistêmico e sua implantação em nível municipal ou regional, a partir das potencialidades locais e do conjunto dessas relações, podem resultar em contribuições para o desenvolvimento das regiões. Palavras-chave: Turismo. Fenômeno Social. Cadeia Produtiva do Turismo. Desenvolvimento Regional. Endogenia.

  13. Association between the MHC gene region and variation of serum IgE levels against specific mould allergens in the horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curik Ino

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate whether the equine major histocompatibility complex (MHC gene region influences the production of mould-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE, alleles of the equine leukocyte antigen (ELA-A locus and three microsatellite markers (UM-011, HTG-05 and HMS-42 located on the same chromosome as the equine MHC were determined in 448 Lipizzan horses. Statistical analyses based on composite models, showed significant associations of the ELA-A and UM-011 loci with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 7 antigen (rAsp f 7. UM-011 was also significantly associated with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 8 antigen (rAsp f 8. In addition to the loci mentioned above, the MHC class II DQA and DRA loci were determined in 76 Lipizzans from one stud. For IgE levels against rAsp f 7, the composite model showed the strongest association for DQA (P rAsp f 8 specific IgE levels, similarly to the results found with all 448 horses, the strongest association was found with UM-011 (P = 0.01, which is closely linked with the MHC class II DRB locus. These results suggest that the equine MHC gene region and possibly MHC class II loci, influence the specific IgE response in the horse. However, although the strongest associations were found with DQA and UM-011, this study did not distinguish if the observed effects were due to the MHC itself or to other tightly linked genes.

  14. Application of a complex assessment of landslide hazards in mountain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna E. Boyko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main regional factors of occurrence and activation of landslides within the mountain region were examined. As a result of study of recommendations made by experts, geologists, and gap analysis of existing methods of forecasting the landslide process, an algorithm of comprehensive assessment of landslide hazard areas based on the construction of models in a GIS environment was proposed. These models describe the spatial patterns of landslides. All factors determining the tendency of the studies area to the landslide process development were divided into actual factors, reflecting the regional peculiarities of the territory and forming the landslide-prone slopes (static model, as well as triggering factors, initiating the landslide process and determining its activity (dynamic model. The first cartographic model was built, showing the distribution of the deterministic indirect indicator of landslide hazard, i.e. stability index.

  15. Possible experimental studies of the t anti t threshold region at 250--500 GeV e+e- collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komamiya, Sachio.

    1991-01-01

    A possible measurement of the top quark mass by an energy scan of the t anti t threshold region at e + e - colliders of √s = 250--500 GeV is discussed. With an integrated luminosity of 1 fb -1 devoted to the energy scan, a top quark mass of about 150 GeV can be determined with an accuracy of ∼0.3 GeV, with a comparable systematic uncertainty arising from the few % errors in the α s measurement at LEP-I. The possibilities of studying Γ t and Higgs boson effects are also discussed. 10 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Crescimento e integração regional no Sudeste Asiático

    OpenAIRE

    Vendeirinho, Sónia Patrícia da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Desenvolvimento e Cooperação Internacional Esta dissertação tem como principal objectivo analisar a seguinte questão: "A Integração Regional (Triângulos de Crescimento) é um factor para o Crescimento Económico no Sudeste Asiático?". Para analisar esta hipótese apresenta-se um modelo de crescimento que inclui a variável Integração Regional. O modelo é testado a partir de um Panel Data dinâmico, usando os dados dos nove países escolhidos para o estudo - Austrália, Cambodja, Indon...

  17. UV mutagenesis in E. coli with excision repair initiated by uvrABC or denV gene products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockrath, R; Hodes, M Z; Mosbaugh, P; Valerie, K; de Riel, J K

    1988-03-01

    Mutation frequency responses produced by ultraviolet light are compared in 4 closely related strains of E.coli B/r having the same tyr(Oc) allele and different excision-repair capabilities. The production of Tyr/sup +/ prototrophic mutants is classified into back-mutations and de novo or converted glutamine tRNA suppressor mutations to indicate different mutation events. Cells transformed with the plasmid pdenV-7 require larger exposures than the parent strains to produce comparable mutation frequency responses, indicating that DenV activity can repair mutatagenic photoproducts. When damage reduction by UvrABC or DenV is compared for each of the specific categories of mutation, the results are consistent with the idea that pyrimidine dimers infrequently or never target back-mutations of this allele, frequently target the de novo suppressor mutations, and extensively or exclusively target the converted suppressor mutations. This analysis is based on the distinction that UvrABC-initiated excision repair recognizes dimer and non-dimer photoproducts but that DenV-initiated repair recognizes only pyrimidine dimers. 44 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs.

  18. Compact Multipurpose Mobile Laser Scanning System — Initial Tests and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Glennie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a prototype compact mobile laser scanning system that may be operated from a backpack or unmanned aerial vehicle. The system is small, self-contained, relatively inexpensive, and easy to deploy. A description of system components is presented, along with the initial calibration of the multi-sensor platform. The first field tests of the system, both in backpack mode and mounted on a helium balloon for real-world applications are presented. For both field tests, the acquired kinematic LiDAR data are compared with highly accurate static terrestrial laser scanning point clouds. These initial results show that the vertical accuracy of the point cloud for the prototype system is approximately 4 cm (1σ in balloon mode, and 3 cm (1σ in backpack mode while horizontal accuracy was approximately 17 cm (1σ for the balloon tests. Results from selected study areas on the Sacramento River Delta and San Andreas Fault in California demonstrate system performance, deployment agility and flexibility, and potential for operational production of high density and highly accurate point cloud data. Cost and production rate trade-offs place this system in the niche between existing airborne and tripod mounted LiDAR systems.

  19. E and F region study of the evening sector auroral oval: A Chatanika/Dynamics Explorer 2/NOAA 6 comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, C.; Sharber, J.R.; Winningham, J.D.; De La Beaujardiere, O.; Heelis, R.A.; Evans, D.S.; Sugiura, M.; Hoegy, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous data obtained with the Chatanika incoherent scatter radar and the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) and NOAA 6 satellites are used to relate the locations of the precipitating particles, field-aligned currents, and E and F region ionization structures in the evening-sector auroral oval. The auroral E layer observed by the radar extends about 2 degree equatorward of the electron precipitation region, and its equatorward edge coincides with the equatorward edges of the region 2 field-aligned current and intense convection region (E ≅ 50 mV/m). It is shown that precipitating protons are responsible for part of the E region ionization within the electron precipitation region as well as south of it. E region density profiles calculated from ion spectra measured by the DE 2 and NOAA 5 satellites are in fairly good agreement with the Chatanika data. in the F region, a channel of enhanced ionization density, elongated along the east-west direction and having a width of about 100 km, marks the poleward edge of the main trough. it is colocated with the equatorward boundary of the electron precipitation from the central plasma sheet. Although enhanced fluxes of soft electrons are observed at this boundary, the energy input to the ionospheric electron gas, calculated from the radar data, shows that this ionization channel is not locally produced by this soft precipitation, but that it is rather a convected feature. In fact, both the trough and the ionization channel are located in a region where the plasma flows sunward at high speed, but the flux tubes associated with theses two features have different convective time histories. Keeping in mind that several processes operate together in the F region, the data set is consistent with the included trough and ionization channel formation mechanisms

  20. Eurasian Economic Union: A Regional Economic Hegemony Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar YILMAZ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It can be assumed that international relations terminology has not mentioned enough about the significance of the Eurasian Economic Union in territorial as well as in economic terms during a period of growing geopolitical risks and high interdependence between the member countries and the rest. According to Kazakhstan’s President Nursultan Nazarbayev, it is truly difficult for states to overcome economic, political and security issues and therefore, states need to act together against the problems in a globalizing world by establishing regional and international organisations. This article thus examines the Eurasian Economic Union integration proces, which is driven by political and economic factors that consolidate regional security and create an effective economic system, whether it in the long term will become successful or not. The author also analyses the Kazakh economic and strategic interests in the region as well as the motivation, power and influence of other members in deepening the cooperation with international arena and the limits in the economic-security integration.

  1. Remote sensing of auroral E region plasma structures by radio, radar, and UV techniques at solar minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.; Valladares, C.E.; Basu, S.; Eastes, R.; Huffman, R.E.; Daniell, R.E.; Chaturvedi, P.K.; Livingston, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The unique capability of the Polar BEAR satellite to simultaneously image auroral luminosities at multiple ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and to remote sense large-scale (hundreds to tens of kilometers) and small-scale (kilometers to hundreds of meters) plasma density structures with its multifrequency beacon package is utilized to probe the auroral E region in the vicinity of the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) facility near Sondrestrom. In particular, we present coordinated observations on two nights obtained during the sunspot minimum (sunspot number < 10) January-February 1987 period when good spatial and temporal conjunction was obtained between Polar BEAR overflights and Sondrestrom ISR measurements. With careful coordinated observations we were able to confirm that the energetic particle precipitation responsible for the UV emissions causes the electron density increases in the E region. The integrations up to the topside of these ISR electron density profiles were consistent with the total electron content (TEC) measured by the Polar BEAR satellite. An electron transport model was utilized to determine quantitatively the electron density profiles which could be produced by the particle precipitation, which also produced multiple UV emissions measured by the imager; these profiles were found to be in good agreement with the observed ISR profiles in the E region. This outer scale size is also consistent with the measured phase to amplitude scintillation ratio. An estimate of the linear growth rate of the gradient-drift instability in the E region shows that these plasma density irregularities could have been generated by this process. The mutual consistency of these different sets of measurements provides confidence in the ability of the different techniques to remote sense large- and small-scale plasma density structures in the E region at least during sunspot minimum when the convection-dominated high-latitude F region is fairly weak. 56 refs., 16 figs

  2. Celso Furtado e o desenvolvimento regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélio Campolina Diniz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This text analyzes the contributions by Celso Furtado to interpreting the determinants of regional inequalities and to the formulation of development policies for less developed regions. It uses a backdrop the theoretical antecedents and principal global experiences of regional development policies, which served as a reference for Celso Furtado. It shows Furtado's originality when he linked questions of regional inequality with the nature of underdeveloped structures. It shows the theoretical and empirical foundations in the analysis of the Northeast question, guidelines for the future SUDENE, political pressures and the insufficiencies in the way development policies for the Northeast are carried out. Finally, it shows how Furtado's positions are still relevant, whether in the formulations prior to the creation of SUDENE or in the later theoretical developments. In these, Furtado overcomes the notion of region and begins to examine spatial structures; he introduces the central role of urban nodes, of their hierarchies and articulations; in other words, the role of the urban network in the command and structuring of the territory; of the central role of technology and innovation processes, and finally, of the need for an interdisciplinary effort for both understanding regional problems as well as for the formulation of policies and their implementation.

  3. Virtual enterprise architecture and methodology - Initial results from the Globeman21 project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan; Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper will focus on presenting the initial results from the IMS project Globeman21 regarding generic models for Extended Enterprise Management (EEM). In particular the paper outlines a proposed architecture for the creation of virtual enterprises, industrial requirements regarding the generic...... models, terminology for describing extended enterprises, and initial considerations regarding a methodology for EEM. Globeman21 see the extended enterprise as a concept covering the totality of different concepts dealing with the expansion or extension of enterprise activities. One way of realising...... the concept of extended enterprise is through the creation of virtual enterprise, based on a more or less formalised network. This approach is the basis for the development of the generic EEM model within Globeman21....

  4. Self-initiated actions result in suppressed auditory but amplified visual evoked components in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifsud, Nathan G; Oestreich, Lena K L; Jack, Bradley N; Ford, Judith M; Roach, Brian J; Mathalon, Daniel H; Whitford, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    Self-suppression refers to the phenomenon that sensations initiated by our own movements are typically less salient, and elicit an attenuated neural response, compared to sensations resulting from changes in the external world. Evidence for self-suppression is provided by previous ERP studies in the auditory modality, which have found that healthy participants typically exhibit a reduced auditory N1 component when auditory stimuli are self-initiated as opposed to externally initiated. However, the literature investigating self-suppression in the visual modality is sparse, with mixed findings and experimental protocols. An EEG study was conducted to expand our understanding of self-suppression across different sensory modalities. Healthy participants experienced either an auditory (tone) or visual (pattern-reversal) stimulus following a willed button press (self-initiated), a random interval (externally initiated, unpredictable onset), or a visual countdown (externally initiated, predictable onset-to match the intrinsic predictability of self-initiated stimuli), while EEG was continuously recorded. Reduced N1 amplitudes for self- versus externally initiated tones indicated that self-suppression occurred in the auditory domain. In contrast, the visual N145 component was amplified for self- versus externally initiated pattern reversals. Externally initiated conditions did not differ as a function of their predictability. These findings highlight a difference in sensory processing of self-initiated stimuli across modalities, and may have implications for clinical disorders that are ostensibly associated with abnormal self-suppression. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Energy Interplay in the Regions of Diffuse Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Glocer, A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Tripathi, A. K.; Detweiler, L.G.; Avanov, L. A.; Singhal, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    Both electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves and whistler mode chorus waves resonate with electrons of the Earths plasma sheet in the energy range from tens of eV to several keV and produce the electron diffuse aurora at ionospheric altitudes. Interaction of these superthermal electrons with the neutral atmosphere leads to the production of secondary electrons (E500600 eV) and, as a result, leads to the activation of lower energy superthermal electron spectra that can escape back to the magnetosphere and contribute to the thermal electron energy deposition processes in the magnetospheric plasma. The ECH and whistler mode chorus waves, however, can also interact with the secondary electrons that are coming from both of the magnetically conjugated ionospheres after they have been produced by initially precipitated high-energy electrons that came from the plasma sheet. After their degradation and subsequent reflection in magnetically conjugate atmospheric regions, both the secondary electrons and the precipitating electrons with high (E600 eV) initial energies will travel back through the loss cone, become trapped in the magnetosphere, and redistribute the energy content of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Thus, scattering of the secondary electrons by ECH and whistler mode chorus waves leads to an increase of the fraction of superthermal electron energy deposited into the core magnetospheric plasma.

  6. Recent results from Fermilab E769

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, C.

    1990-01-01

    Fermilab Experiment E769 obtained a data sample of 400M events during the 1987-88 Fixed Target run using a 250 GeV hadron beam incident on a target consisting of thin foils of W, Cu, Al and Be. Preliminary results on the atomic number, Feynman x and p t 2 dependence of D + production based on 25% of the total data sample are presented

  7. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R., E-mail: jbrodie@ucsc.edu [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  8. Report on Transparency. Final version CWE. IG Transparency. Electricity Regional Initiative Central Western Regional Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    The Central Western Electricity Regional Energy Market (REM), which is a part of ERGEG's Electricity Regional Initiative, is engaged in harmonizing congestion management and transparency in the Central Western electricity market consisting of Belgium, France, Germany, Luxemburg and The Netherlands. his report contains transparency requirements based on the Congestion Management Guidelines (Commission Decision of 9 November 2006, 2006/770/EC, amending the Annex to Regulation (EC) 1228/2003 on conditions for access to transmission network for cross-border exchanges in electricity, hereinafter cited as CM Guidelines) but taking also into account ERGEG Guidelines of Good Practice on Information Management and Transparency (GGP-IMT). Generally, the basis for harmonization of the transparency rules within the Central Western REM is provided by this report. However, there are some restrictions, it has to be stressed that the report only refers to the information requirements set out in the CM Guidelines that are regularly updated. Also, national publication requirements which might go beyond what is prescribed here are not touched. Furthermore, the change of the market design or the legal background might require adoptions of the publication requirements foreseen in this report. One of the main impediments identified by the regulators was the data delivery from generation and consumption units located in the distribution grids. Market participants concerned (also generators and significant consumption units) are obliged to provide the TSOs responsible for publication of all relevant data concerning cross-border trade according to point 5.5 CM Guidelines, with the relevant data. Therefore, TSOs shall be able to get data from generators and significant consumption units connected to the transmission network. Consequently, it is proposed here that each NRA or other competent authority could oblige DSOs to provide data on generation connected to distribution grids to the TSOs

  9. simulation du climat futur et des rendements agricoles en region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    REGION SOUDANO-SAHELIENNE EN REPUBLIQUE DU BENIN. S. KATE, O. TEKA1, ... La présente étude a été initiée pour déterminer les caractéristiques des rendements des principales ..... Climate change in cities due to global warming ...

  10. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    important in terms of the success of the initiatives. It's also essential to bring to the fore the various themes, such as regional delicacies, safe production methods, human and environmental health, regionalism, regional artisanship, and biodiversity to cultivate a successful marketing strategy in promotional activities of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives.

  11. Brief Report: Randomized, Double-Blind Comparison of Tenofovir Alafenamide (TAF) vs Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF), Each Coformulated With Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, and Emtricitabine (E/C/F) for Initial HIV-1 Treatment: Week 144 Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, José R; Thompson, Melanie; Sax, Paul E; Haas, Bernhard; McDonald, Cheryl; Wohl, David A; DeJesus, Edwin; Clarke, Amanda E; Guo, Susan; Wang, Hui; Callebaut, Christian; Plummer, Andrew; Cheng, Andrew; Das, Moupali; McCallister, Scott

    2017-06-01

    In 2 double-blind phase 3 trials, 1733 antiretroviral-naive adults were randomized to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), each coformulated with elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine (E/C/F). At 144 weeks, TAF was superior to TDF in virologic efficacy, with 84.2% vs 80.0% having HIV-1 RNA TAF had less impact than TDF on bone mineral density and renal biomarkers. No participants on TAF had renal-related discontinuations vs 12 on TDF (P TAF vs 4 for TDF. There were greater increases in lipids with TAF vs TDF, with no difference in the total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein ratio. For initial HIV therapy, E/C/F/TAF is superior to E/C/F/TDF in efficacy and bone and renal safety.

  12. 77 FR 42276 - Certain Cased Pencils From the People's Republic of China: Initiation and Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... product. In response to ThinkGeek's request, the Department of Commerce (the Department) is initiating a... or not decorated and whether or not tipped (e.g., with erasers, etc.) in any fashion, and either... respect to this product. Section 782(h)(2) of the Act and 19 CFR 351.222(g)(1)(i) provide that the...

  13. The Association of Individual and Regional Socioeconomic Status on Initial Peritonitis and Outcomes in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Hu, Ke-Jie; Ren, Ye-Ping; Dong, Jie; Han, Qing-Feng; Zhu, Tong-Ying; Chen, Jiang-Hua; Zhao, Hui-Ping; Chen, Meng-Hua; Xu, Rong; Wang, Yue; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Mei; Tian, Na; Wang, Hai-Yan

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Research indicates that the socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals and the area where they live are related to initial peritonitis and outcomes in peritoneal dialysis (PD). We conducted a retrospective, multi-center cohort study in China to examine these associations. ♦ Data on 2,171 PD patients were collected from 7 centers, including baseline demographic, socioeconomic, and laboratory data. We explored the potential risk factors for initial peritonitis and outcomes using univariate Cox regression and unadjusted binary logistic regression. Then, we used propensity score matching to balance statistically significant risk factors for initial peritonitis and outcomes, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to compare differences in peritonitis-free rates between different groups of participants after matching. ♦ A total of 563 (25.9%) initial episodes of peritonitis occurred during the study period. The Kaplan-Meier peritonitis-free rate curve showed high-income patients had a significantly lower risk than low-income patients (p = 0.007) after matching for age, hemoglobin, albumin, and regional SES and PD center. The risk of treatment failure was significantly lower in the high-income than the low-income group after matching for the organism causing peritonitis and PD center: odds ratio (OR) = 0.27 (0.09 - 0.80, p = 0.018). Regional SES and education were not associated with initial peritonitis and outcomes. ♦ Our study demonstrates low individual income is a risk factor for the initial onset of peritonitis and treatment failure after initial peritonitis. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  14. X-Ray Processing of ChaMPlane Fields: Methods and Initial Results for Selected Anti-Galactic Center Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, JaeSub; van den Berg, Maureen; Schlegel, Eric M.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Koenig, Xavier; Laycock, Silas; Zhao, Ping

    2005-12-01

    We describe the X-ray analysis procedure of the ongoing Chandra Multiwavelength Plane (ChaMPlane) Survey and report the initial results from the analysis of 15 selected anti-Galactic center observations (90degusing custom-developed analysis tools appropriate for Galactic sources but also of general use: optimum photometry in crowded fields using advanced techniques for overlapping sources, rigorous astrometry and 95% error circles for combining X-ray images or matching to optical/IR images, and application of quantile analysis for spectral analysis of faint sources. We apply these techniques to 15 anti-Galactic center observations (of 14 distinct fields), in which we have detected 921 X-ray point sources. We present logN-logS distributions and quantile analysis to show that in the hard band (2-8 keV) active galactic nuclei dominate the sources. Complete analysis of all ChaMPlane anti-Galactic center fields will be given in a subsequent paper, followed by papers on sources in the Galactic center and bulge regions.

  15. Initial results from beam commissioning of the LHC beam dump system

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Carlier, E; Ducimetière, L; Gallet, E; Gyr, M; Jensen, L; Jones, R; Kain, V; Kramer, T; Lamont, M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Risselada, Thys; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Weterings, W

    2010-01-01

    Initial commissioning of the LHC beam dump system with beam took place in August and September 2008. The preparation, setting-up and the tests performed are described together with results of the extractions of beam into the dump lines. Analysis of the first detailed aperture measurements of the extraction channels and kicker performance derived from dilution sweep shapes are presented. The performance of the other equipment subsystems is summarised, in particular that of the dedicated dump system beam instrumentation.

  16. Regional radiation protection initiatives by Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, J.

    1993-01-01

    Australia both through the auspices of the IAEA and from Government Aid Grants has contributed to the improvement of radiation protection throughout the Asia/Pacific region. The assistance has been in the form of training and improvement to radiation protection infrastructures. The presentation describes the objectives, scope and diversity of the radiation protection infrastructure program and the benefits to the large number of persons included in the program. An outline of the current IAEA program is also discussed together with an explanation of how the program will assist national regulators in the education of radiation workers, in hazardous operations such as industrial radiography

  17. The Thirty Years’ Results of Radiation Hygienic Monitoring of Tula Region territories contaminated due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Boldyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of Tula Region areas were contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The article provides the thirty years’ results of radiation hygienic monitoring of the Chernobyl accidental fallout - affected areas in Tula Region. The radiation situation is assessed at the initial accidental period and at the current stage. The initial levels of gamma - radiation dose intensity (up to 35 mcSv/hr are identified for the period of the “iodine” hazard along with the tabular data on the dose intensity relative stabilization by the beginning of August 1986 due to iodine-131 decay. The information is presented regarding iodine-131 tentative maximum permissible level exceedance in the dairy products of the two most contaminated regional areas - Plavskoye and Arsenievskoye. The article also provides the laboratory data on the total beta - activity in the foodstuffs in 1986-1987 and cesium-137 maximum permissible level exceedence in 1986. The radionuclide maximum permissible level exceedances in foodstuffs were registered only in 1986 due to the plants surface contamination whereas in the forest mushrooms those exceedances were repeatedly found until 2004. The black earths and grey forest soils had a benign impact upon the intensity of the radionuclide transfer into plants which resulted in the formation of internal radiation doses.At the current stage, the content of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the foodstuffs can only be quantified by a radiochemical method. The table covers all the districts within the boundaries of radiation contaminated zones. The radiochemical studies indicate the main dose - forming products. The article contains the table of internal and external radiation doses of the population in Plavsk town over 1986-1990 and displays the factors impacting population’s internal and external exposure. The Chernobyl - affected exposure dose of the population is mostly attributed to the external radiation and, for over twenty years, it

  18. Initial results from the StratoClim aircraft campaign in the Asian Monsoon in summer 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Asian Monsoon System is one of the Earth's largest and most energetic weather systems. Monsoon rainfall is critical to feeding over a billion people in Asia and the monsoon circulation affects weather patterns over the entire northern hemisphere. The Monsoon also acts like an enormous elevator, pumping vast amounts of air and pollutants from the surface up to the tropopause region at levels above 16km altitude, from where air can ascend into the stratosphere, where it spreads globally. Thus the monsoon affects the chemical composition of the global tropopause region and the stratosphere, and hence plays a key role for the composition of the UTS. Dynamically the monsoon circulation leads to the formation of a large anticyclone at tropopause levels above South Asia - the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone (AMA). Satellite images show a large cloud of aerosols directly above the monsoon, the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL). In July to August 2017 the international research project StratoClim carried out the first in-situ aircraft measurements in the AMA and the ATAL with the high altitude research aircraft M55-Geophysica. Around 8 scientific flights took place in the airspaces of Nepal, India and Bangladesh and have horizontally and vertically probed the AMA and have well characterized the ATAL along flight patterns that have been carefully designed by a theory, modelling and satellite data analysing team in the field. The aircraft campaign has been complemented by launches of research balloons from ground stations in Nepal, Bangladesh, China and Palau. The presentation will give an overview of the StratoClim project, the aircraft and balloon activities and initial results from the StratoClim Asian Monsoon campaign in summer 2017.

  19. Impact of Pre-Initiators on PSA in Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochirbat, Chimedtseren [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sok Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Most of nuclear power plants had already conducted PSA work to examine their plant safety for identifying vulnerability and preparing the mitigating strategies for severe accident. However, the PSA for research reactor has been conducted limitedly comparing with nuclear power plants due to lack of awareness and resources. Most of PSA results demonstrated that human failure events (HFEs) take a major role of risk contributor in terms of core damage frequency. HFEs are categorized as the following three types: pre-initiating event interaction (e.g., maintenance of errors, testing errors, calibration errors), initiating event related interactions (e.g., human error causing loss of power, human error causing system trip), and post-initiating event (e.g., all action actuating manual safety system backup of an automatic system). Lack of resources and utilization of research reactor calls a vicious circle in terms of safety degradation. The safety degradation poses the vulnerability of human failure during research reactor utilization process. Typically, evaluation of pre-initiators related to test and maintenance are not taking into account in PSA for research reactors. This paper aims to investigate the impact of pre-initiating events related to test and maintenance activities on PSA results in terms of core damage frequency for a research reactor.

  20. Impact of Pre-Initiators on PSA in Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochirbat, Chimedtseren; Kim, Sok Chul

    2014-01-01

    Most of nuclear power plants had already conducted PSA work to examine their plant safety for identifying vulnerability and preparing the mitigating strategies for severe accident. However, the PSA for research reactor has been conducted limitedly comparing with nuclear power plants due to lack of awareness and resources. Most of PSA results demonstrated that human failure events (HFEs) take a major role of risk contributor in terms of core damage frequency. HFEs are categorized as the following three types: pre-initiating event interaction (e.g., maintenance of errors, testing errors, calibration errors), initiating event related interactions (e.g., human error causing loss of power, human error causing system trip), and post-initiating event (e.g., all action actuating manual safety system backup of an automatic system). Lack of resources and utilization of research reactor calls a vicious circle in terms of safety degradation. The safety degradation poses the vulnerability of human failure during research reactor utilization process. Typically, evaluation of pre-initiators related to test and maintenance are not taking into account in PSA for research reactors. This paper aims to investigate the impact of pre-initiating events related to test and maintenance activities on PSA results in terms of core damage frequency for a research reactor

  1. Artificial E-region field-aligned plasma irregularities generated at pump frequencies near the second electron gyroharmonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available E region ionospheric modification experiments have been performed at HAARP using pump frequencies about 50 kHz above and below the second electron gyroharmonic frequency. Artificial E region field-aligned plasma density irregularities (FAIs were created and observed using the imaging coherent scatter radar near Homer, Alaska. Echoes from FAIs generated with pump frequencies above and below 2Ωe did not appear to differ significantly in experiments conducted on summer afternoons in 2008, and the resonance instability seemed to be at work in either case. We argue that upper hybrid wave trapping and resonance instability at pump frequencies below the second electron gyroharmonic frequency are permitted theoretically when the effects of finite parallel wavenumbers are considered. Echoes from a sporadic E layer were observed to be somewhat weaker when the pump frequency was 50 kHz below the second electron gyroharmonic frequency. This may indicate that finite parallel wavenumbers are inconsistent with wave trapping in thin sporadic E ionization layers.

  2. Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) contribution in strengthening public health laboratories systems in the African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumede, Nicksy; Coulibaly, Sheick Oumar; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Ndihokubwayo, Jean-Bosco; Nsubuga, Peter; Okeibunor, Joseph; Dosseh, Annick; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal; Byabamazima, Charles

    2016-10-10

    The laboratory has always played a very critical role in diagnosis of the diseases. The success of any disease programme is based on a functional laboratory network. Health laboratory services are an integral component of the health system. Efficiency and effectiveness of both clinical and public health functions including surveillance, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, research and health promotion are influenced by reliable laboratory services. The establishment of the African Regional polio laboratory for the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) has contributed in supporting countries in their efforts to strengthen laboratory capacity. On the eve of the closing of the program, we have shown through this article, examples of this contribution in two countries of the African region: Côte d'Ivoire and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Descriptive studies were carried out in Côte d'Ivoire (RCI) and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) from October to December 2014. Questionnaires and self-administered and in-depth interviews and group discussions as well as records and observation were used to collect information during laboratory visits and assessments. The PEI financial support allows to maintain the majority of the 14 (DRC) and 12 (RCI) staff involved in the polio laboratory as full or in part time members. Through laboratory technical staff training supported by the PEI, skills and knowledge were gained to reinforce laboratories capacity and performance in quality laboratory functioning, processes and techniques such as cell culture. In the same way, infrastructure was improved and equipment provided. General laboratory quality standards, including the entire laboratory key elements was improved through the PEI accreditation process. The Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) is a good example of contribution in strengthening public health laboratories systems in the African region. It has established strong Polio Laboratory network that contributed to the

  3. Regulation of protein translation initiation in response to ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivigno Donatella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proliferating tumor cells require continuous protein synthesis. De novo synthesis of most proteins is regulated through cap-dependent translation. Cellular stress such as ionizing radiation (IR blocks cap-dependent translation resulting in shut-down of global protein translation which saves resources and energy needed for the stress response. At the same time, levels of proteins required for stress response are maintained or even increased. The study aimed to analyze the regulation of signaling pathways controlling protein translation in response to IR and the impact on Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic and radioprotective protein, which levels rapidly decline upon IR. Methods Protein levels and processing were analyzed by Western blot. The assembly of the translational pre-initiation complex was examined by Immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments with 7-methyl GTP agarose. To analyze IR-induced cell death, dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation were determined by flow cytometry. Protein levels of the different initiation factors were down-regulated using RNA interference approach. Results IR induced caspase-dependent cleavage of the translational initiation factors eIF4G1, eIF3A, and eIF4B resulting in disassembly of the cap-dependent initiation complex. In addition, DAP5-dependent initiation complex that regulates IRES-dependent translation was disassembled in response to IR. Moreover, IR resulted in dephosphorylation of 4EBP1, an inhibitor of cap-dependent translation upstream of caspase activation. However, knock-down of eIF4G1, eIF4B, DAP5, or 4EBP1 did not affect IR-induced decline of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Conclusion Our data shows that cap-dependent translation is regulated at several levels in response to IR. However, the experiments indicate that IR-induced Mcl-1 decline is not a consequence of translational inhibition in Jurkat cells.

  4. Project CONVERGE: Initial Results From the Mapping of Surface Currents in Palmer Deep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statscewich, H.; Kohut, J. T.; Winsor, P.; Oliver, M. J.; Bernard, K. S.; Cimino, M. A.; Fraser, W.

    2016-02-01

    The Palmer Deep submarine canyon on the Western Antarctic Peninsula provides a conduit for upwelling of relatively warm, nutrient rich waters which enhance local primary production and support a food web productive enough to sustain a large top predator biomass. In an analysis of ten years of satellite-tagged penguins, Oliver et al. (2013) showed that circulation features associated with tidal flows may be a key driver of nearshore predator distributions. During diurnal tides, the penguins feed close to their breeding colonies and during semi-diurnal tides, the penguins make foraging trips to the more distant regions of Palmer Deep. It is hypothesized that convergent features act to concentrate primary producers and aggregate schools of krill that influence the behavior of predator species. The initial results from a six month deployment of a High Frequency Radar network in Palmer Deep are presented in an attempt to characterize and quantify convergent features. During a three month period from January through March 2015, we conducted in situ sampling consisting of multiple underwater glider deployments, small boat acoustic surveys of Antarctic krill, and penguin ARGOS-linked satellite telemetry and time-depth recorders (TDRs). The combination of real-time surface current maps with adaptive in situ sampling introduces High Frequency Radar to the Antarctic in a way that allows us to rigorously and efficiently test the influence of local tidal processes on top predator foraging ecology.

  5. The interaction between stratospheric monthly mean regional winds and sporadic-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çetin, Kenan; Korlaelçi, Serhat; Özcan, Osman

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, a statistical investigation is carried out to explore whether there is a relationship between the critical frequency (foEs) of the sporadic-E layer that is occasionally seen on the E region of the ionosphere and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) that flows in the east–west direction in the equatorial stratosphere. Multiple regression model as a statistical tool was used to determine the relationship between variables. In this model, the stationarity of the variables (foEs and QBO) was firstly analyzed for each station (Cocos Island, Gibilmanna, Niue Island, and Tahiti). Then, a co-integration test was made to determine the existence of a long-term relationship between QBO and foEs. After verifying the presence of a long-term relationship between the variables, the magnitude of the relationship between variables was further determined using the multiple regression model. As a result, it is concluded that the variations in foEs were explainable with QBO measured at 10 hPa altitude at the rate of 69%, 94%, 79%, and 58% for Cocos Island, Gibilmanna, Niue Island, and Tahiti stations, respectively. It is observed that the variations in foEs were explainable with QBO measured at 70 hPa altitude at the rate of 66%, 69%, 53%, and 47% for Cocos Island, Gibilmanna, Niue Island, and Tahiti stations, respectively. (paper)

  6. Regional aerosol emissions and temperature response: Local and remote climate impacts of regional aerosol forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinschal, Anna; Ekman, Annica; Hansson, Hans-Christen

    2017-04-01

    (RTP) coefficients, which directly link regional aerosol or aerosol precursor emissions to the temperature response in different regions. These RTP coefficients can provide a simplified way to perform an initial evaluation of climate impacts of e.g. different emission policy pathways and pollution abatement strategies.

  7. Long-term Results of the Patients with Regional Transient Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Akgün

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient regional osteoporosis is an uncommon cause of hip pain. It affects mostly healthy middle-aged men, and women in the third trimester of pregnancy. The aetiology is unknown. Eight patients (3 females, 5males who were diagnosed as transient regional osteoporosis of hip were included in the study. Long-term results of all the patients were evaluated. Their mean follow-up duration was 5.1 years. Following every hip involvement, after a mean duration of 6.6 months, all the patients were asymptomatic and returned to full activitiy without residual effects. Both hips were affected in 5 patients, in 4 of which the involvement was migratory. Migratory involvement duration ranged from 3 months to 4 years. In conclusion, Transient regional osteoporosis is self-limiting and resolves symptomatically and radiologically within some months of presentation.

  8. Integração regional e constitucionalismo: análise do Tratado de Lisboa e estudo comparativo das perspectivas para o Mercosul

    OpenAIRE

    Mineiro de Aguiar Barbosa Pereira, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho oferece uma perspectiva interdisciplinar, abordando temas do direito constitucional, do direito internacional e das ciências econômicas, sendo o objeto desta pesquisa o estudo do desenvolvimento do direito constitucional comum nos processos de integração regional europeu e mercosulino. A partir desse tema, abordar-se-á a tese do Estado constitucional cooperativo e do direito constitucional comum como respostas ao enfraquecimento do Estado-nação tradicional. Tal análise per...

  9. Possible interaction between thermal electrons and vibrationally excited N2 in the lower E-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-I. Oyama

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As one of the tasks to find the energy source(s of thermal electrons, which elevate(s electron temperature higher than neutral temperature in the lower ionosphere E-region, energy distribution function of thermal electron was measured with a sounding rocket at the heights of 93–131 km by the applying second harmonic method. The energy distribution function showed a clear hump at the energy of ~0.4 eV. In order to find the reason of the hump, we conducted laboratory experiment. We studied difference of the energy distribution functions of electrons in thermal energy range, which were measured with and without EUV radiation to plasma of N2/Ar and N2/O2 gas mixture respectively. For N2/Ar gas mixture plasma, the hump is not clearly identified in the energy distribution of thermal electrons. On the other hand for N2/O2 gas mixture, which contains vibrationally excited N2, a clear hump is found when irradiated by EUV. The laboratory experiment seems to suggest that the hump is produced as a result of interaction between vibrationally excited N2 and thermal electrons, and this interaction is the most probable heating source for the electrons of thermal energy range in the lower E-region. It is also suggested that energy distribution of the electrons in high energy part may not be Maxwellian, and DC probe measures the electrons which are non Maxwellian, and therefore "electron temperature" is calculated higher.

  10. FFTF initial fuel loading, preanalyses, and comparison with preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothrock, R.B.; Daughtry, J.W.; Zimmerman, B.D.; Petrowicz, N.E.; Bennett, R.A.; Ombrellaro, P.A.

    1980-02-01

    Disadvantages of conventional loading from the center out were circumvented by loading one trisector at a time, and connecting the control rod drivelines in each sector after it was loaded so that the rods could be operated during the loading of subsequent trisectors. This sequence was interrupted once during the loading of the final sector, to achieve initial criticality at an approximately minimum critical loading and to measure absolute subcriticality by the rod drop technique. An in-core detector was preferable to the standard FTR ex-core detectors for monitoring the initial fuel loading. Consequently, special fission chambers were installed in an instrument thimble near the core center to monitor the initial fuel loading

  11. Coordinating across scales: Building a regional marsh bird monitoring program from national and state Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, G.W.; Sauer, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Salt marsh breeding bird populations (rails, bitterns, sparrows, etc.) in eastern North America are high conservation priorities in need of site specific and regional monitoring designed to detect population changes over time. The present status and trends of these species are unknown but anecdotal evidence of declines in many of the species has raised conservation concerns. Most of these species are listed as conservation priorities on comprehensive wildlife plans throughout the eastern U.S. National Wildlife Refuges, National Park Service units, and other wildlife conservation areas provide important salt marsh habitat. To meet management needs for these areas, and to assist regional conservation planning, survey designs are being developed to estimate abundance and population trends for these breeding bird species. The primary purpose of this project is to develop a hierarchical sampling frame for salt marsh birds in Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 30 that will provide the ability to estimate species population abundances on 1) specific sites (i.e. National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges), 2) within states or regions, and 3) within BCR 30. The entire breeding range of Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed and Coastal Plain Swamp sparrows are within BCR 30, providing an opportunity to detect population trends within the entire breeding ranges of two priority species.

  12. Mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate efficiently kills breast tumour-initiating cells in a complex II-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Bing; Stantic, Marina; Zobalova, Renata; Bezawork-Geleta, Ayenachew; Stapelberg, Michael; Stursa, Jan; Prokopova, Katerina; Dong, Lanfeng; Neuzil, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that breast cancer involves tumour-initiating cells (TICs), which play a role in initiation, metastasis, therapeutic resistance and relapse of the disease. Emerging drugs that target TICs are becoming a focus of contemporary research. Mitocans, a group of compounds that induce apoptosis of cancer cells by destabilising their mitochondria, are showing their potential in killing TICs. In this project, we investigated mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate (MitoVES), a recently developed mitocan, for its in vitro and in vivo efficacy against TICs. The mammosphere model of breast TICs was established by culturing murine NeuTL and human MCF7 cells as spheres. This model was verified by stem cell marker expression, tumour initiation capacity and chemotherapeutic resistance. Cell susceptibility to MitoVES was assessed and the cell death pathway investigated. In vivo efficacy was studied by grafting NeuTL TICs to form syngeneic tumours. Mammospheres derived from NeuTL and MCF7 breast cancer cells were enriched in the level of stemness, and the sphere cells featured altered mitochondrial function. Sphere cultures were resistant to several established anti-cancer agents while they were susceptible to MitoVES. Killing of mammospheres was suppressed when the mitochondrial complex II, the molecular target of MitoVES, was knocked down. Importantly, MitoVES inhibited progression of syngeneic HER2 high tumours derived from breast TICs by inducing apoptosis in tumour cells. These results demonstrate that using mammospheres, a plausible model for studying TICs, drugs that target mitochondria efficiently kill breast tumour-initiating cells. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1394-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  13. An advanced analysis method of initial orbit determination with too short arc data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binzhe; Fang, Li

    2018-02-01

    This paper studies the initial orbit determination (IOD) based on space-based angle measurement. Commonly, these space-based observations have short durations. As a result, classical initial orbit determination algorithms give poor results, such as Laplace methods and Gauss methods. In this paper, an advanced analysis method of initial orbit determination is developed for space-based observations. The admissible region and triangulation are introduced in the method. Genetic algorithm is also used for adding some constraints of parameters. Simulation results show that the algorithm can successfully complete the initial orbit determination.

  14. Heat stress-induced loss of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) in a human pancreatic cancer cell line, MIA PaCa-2, analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kana; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Fujimoto, Masanori; Kaino, Seiji; Kondoh, Satoshi; Okita, Kiwamu

    2002-02-01

    Alterations of intracellular proteins during the process of heat stress-induced cell death of a human pancreatic cancer cell line, MIA PaCa-2, were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), agarose gel electrophoresis, and cell biology techniques. Incubation of MIA PaCa-2 at 45 degrees C for 30 min decreased the cell growth rate and cell viability without causing chromosomal DNA fragmentation. Incubation at 51 degrees C for 30 min suppressed cell growth and again led to death without DNA fragmentation. The cell death was associated with the loss of an intracellular protein of M(r) 17,500 and pI 5.2 on 2-DE gel. This protein was determined to be eukaryotic initiation factor SA (eIF-5A) by microsequencing of the N-terminal region of peptide fragments obtained by cyanogen bromide treatment of the protein blotted onto a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane. The sequences detected were QXSALRKNGFVVLKGRP and STSKTGXHGHAKVHLVGID, which were homologous with the sequence of eIF-5A from Gln 20 to Pro 36 and from Ser 43 to Asp 61, respectively. Furthermore, the result of sequencing suggested that the protein was an active form of hypusinated eIF-5A, because Lys 46 could be detected but not Lys 49, which is the site for hypusination. These results suggest that loss of the active form of eIF-5A is an important factor in the irreversible process of heat stress-induced death of MIA PaCa-2 cells.

  15. Geoestatística e avaliação Multicriterial no Processo de Planejamento e Desenvolvimento Local e Regional do Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Eduardo Gregolin Grisotto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver procedimentos metodológicos, apoiando-se em ferramentas geoestatísticas e avaliação multicritério, para avaliar de forma integrada as condições de saúde, saneamento, ambiente e socioeconomia dos municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Foram efetuadas combinações entre análises espaciais, com base em Mapas de Kernel, e avaliação multicriterial para a demonstração de correlações entre índices de morbimortalidade e indicadores associados à cobertura por redes de água, esgoto e lixo, IDH, IPRS, PIB per capita, porte do município e taxa de urbanização. Os resultados indicaram que as ferramentas empregadas se mostraram eficazes na identificação das situações mais críticas e de maior complexidade, coincidentes com as áreas de menor dinamismo econômico situadas nas regiões sul, sudoeste e oeste do Estado. Conclui-se que o estado contribui para o aprimoramento do processo de planejamento municipal e regional, com vistas à redução das desigualdades e, também, ao desenvolvimento das áreas mais precárias.

  16. As assimetrias entre as políticas setoriais e a política de planejamento regional no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Mendes da Rocha Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O modo de conduzir a formulação das políticas de desenvolvimento regional tem se constituído em ampla arena de embates acadêmicos e técnicos e levado a reflexões sobre os rumos das múltiplas políticas que acompanham esse processo de planejamento regional. Isso, em parte, decorre do processo de globalização e das políticas neoliberais que o acompanham, as quais possuem um forte apelo à competitividade. Essa estratégia de buscar espaços "privilegiados" se fez presente de uma forma intensa em alguns setores produtivos, que, ao usar o espaço como mercadoria, utilizam seu conjunto de atributos (naturais e artificiais para realizarem-se e reproduzirem-se como parte do sistema. Assim, a proposta de estudo pretende responder a questão: em que medida as políticas públicas setoriais têm dialogado com as políticas de planejamento e desenvolvimento regional no âmbito do governo federal? No caso das políticas de planejamento regional, o recorte espacial é visto como um instrumento que, ao ser aplicado, pode se mostrar capaz de viabilizar a integração de ações multissetorializadas, o que em certa dimensão apontaria para uma maior eficiência do Estado na busca por restabelecer o equilíbrio esgarçado, tornando mais eficiente o planejamento.

  17. GEOGRAFIA REGIONAL E A INFLUÊNCIA ECONÔMICA DO OURO E DA BORRACHA: dialética escalar na formação do espaço brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Márcia Duarte Queiroz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é tecer discussões sobre a Geografia Regional no Brasil. A análise está focada no estudo da base econômica do Brasil por meio dos seus períodos econômicos, em especial o do Ouro, efetivamente concretizado na porção centro-sul do país, e o da Borracha, pela extração do látex proveniente da Hevea brasiliensis, a Seringueira, distribuída sobre a vastidão amazônica. A metodologia principal foi realizada por meio de análise bibliográfica, trabalho de campo em Ouro Preto-MG, onde foram realizadas observações e fotografias e articulações em torno da análise comparativa e dialética escalar. O contexto da construção da sociedade brasileira permite inferir conexões paralelas e importantes à construção regional articulada às potencialidades econômicas distribuídas no espaço geográfico. Portanto, a análise empreendida permitiu verificar que as regiões do Brasil possuem uma lógica estruturada a partir do uso e da exploração dos recursos naturais em suas várias fases econômicas, as quais foram relevantes para a organização e formação regional no território.   REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY: ECONOMIC INFLUENCE AND DIALECTIC CLIMB ON THE FORMATION OF THE BRAZILIAN SPACE   Abstract The objective of this text is to weave discussions on the regional geography in Brasil. The analysis is focused on the study of Brasil's economic base through its economic periods, in particular gold, effectively realized in the Center-South of Brasil, and rubber based on the extraction of latex from the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, distributed on the vast Amazon rainforest. The main methodology was performed by means of bibliographical analysis, field work in Ouro Preto-MG, where observations were carried out and photographs and joints around the comparative analysis and dialectic. The context of the construction of the Brazilian society allows inferring parallel connections and important to regional economic potential

  18. A three-region conduction-controlled rewetting analysis by the Heat Balance Integral Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Das, P.K.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2009-01-01

    Conduction-controlled rewetting of two-dimensional objects is analyzed by the Heat Balance Integral Method (HBIM) considering three distinct regions: a dry region ahead of wet front, the sputtering region immediately behind the wet front and a continuous film region further upstream. The HBIM yields solutions for wet front velocity, sputtering length and temperature field with respect to wet front. Employing this method, it is seen that heat transfer mechanism is dependent upon two temperature parameters. One of them characterizes the initial wall temperature while the other specifies the range of temperature for sputtering region. Additionally, the mechanism of heat transfer is found to be dependent on two Biot numbers comprising a convective heat transfer in the wet region and a boiling heat transfer in the sputtering region. The present solution exactly matches with the one-dimensional analysis of K.H. Sun, G.E. Dix, C.L. Tien [Cooling of a very hot vertical surface by falling liquid film, ASME J. Heat Transf. 96 (1974) 126-131] for low Biot numbers. Good agreement with experimental results is also observed. (authors)

  19. Auroral zone E-region conductivities during solar minimum derived from EISCAT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, K.

    1988-01-01

    From two years of EISCAT data (1985-1986, a period of low solar activity) 8337 E-region conductivity profiles have been calculated as 5-min averages. From these profiles the height of the conductivity maxima for the Hall and Pedersen conductivities (H max ), the height-integrated Hall and Pedersen conductivities and the ratio of both have been computed. Histograms as well as average values of these quantities are displayed as a function of K p and of magnetic local time. The former results showed quantitatively the increase of the conductivities and the decrease of H max with increasing magnetic activity. The latter results revealed that on the average the conductivities are maximal in the early morning hours due to hard particle precipitation, H max being affected both by the solar zenith angle and by particle precipitation. The solar zenith angle dependence of the conductivities is only significant for low K p -values. Latitudinal profiles of the height-integrated conductivities show quantitatively the southward shift of the average conductivity maximum with increasing magnetic activity

  20. Africa burning: A thematic analysis of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swap, Robert J.; Annegarn, Harold J.; Suttles, J. Timothy; King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Privette, Jeffrey L.; Scholes, Robert J.

    2003-07-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) was a major surface, airborne, and spaceborne field campaign carried out in southern Africa in 2000 and 2001 that addressed a broad range of phenomena related to land-atmosphere interactions and the biogeochemical functioning of the southern African system. This paper presents a thematic analysis and integration of the Journal of Geophysical Research SAFARI 2000 Special Issue, presenting key findings of an intensive field campaign over southern Africa in August and September of 2000. The integrating themes deal with surface emissions characterization; airborne characterizations of aerosols and trace gases; regional haze and trace gas characterization; and radiant measurements by surface, aircraft, and remote sensing platforms. Enhanced regional fuel loads associated with the moist La Niña phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle produced above average biomass burning emissions, which consequently dominated all other aerosol and trace gas emissions during the dry season. Southward transport of a broad plume of smoke originating in equatorial Africa and exiting off the east coast toward the Indian Ocean (the river of smoke) is attributed to unusual synoptic airflows associated the ENSO phase. New and revised biogenic and pyrogenic emission factors are reported, including a number of previously unreported oxygenated organic compounds and inorganic compounds from biomass combustion. Emission factors are scaled up to regional emission surfaces for biogenic species utilizing species specific and light-dependent emission factors. Fire scar estimates reveal contradictory information on the timing of the peak and extent of the biomass-burning season. Integrated tall stack coordinated measurements (between ground, airborne and remotely sensing platforms) of upwelling and downwelling radiation in massive thick aerosol layers covering much of southern Africa yield consistent estimates of large

  1. The stable problem of the black-hole connected region in the Schwarzschild black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Guihua

    2005-01-01

    The stability of the Schwarzschild black hole is studied. Using the Painlev\\'{e} coordinate, our region can be defined as the black-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole or the white-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole. We study the stable problems of the black-hole-connected region. The conclusions are: (1) in the black-hole-connected region, the initially regular perturbation fields must have real frequency or complex frequen...

  2. A Case of Ataxia with Isolated Vitamin E Deficiency Initially Diagnosed as Friedreich’s Ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bonello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency (AVED is a rare autosomal recessive condition that is caused by a mutation in the alpha tocopherol transfer protein gene. It is almost indistinguishable clinically from Friedreich’s ataxia but with appropriate treatment its devastating neurological features can be prevented. Patients can present with a progressive cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal spasticity, and evidence of a neuropathy with absent deep tendon reflexes. It is important to screen for this condition on initial evaluation of a young patient presenting with progressive ataxia and it should be considered in patients with a long standing ataxia without any diagnosis in view of the potential therapeutics and genetic counselling. In this case report we present a patient who was initially diagnosed with Friedreich’s ataxia but was later found to have AVED.

  3. Initial water quantification results using neutron computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, A. K.; Shi, L.; Brenizer, J. S.; Mench, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    Neutron computed tomography is an important imaging tool in the field of non-destructive testing and in fundamental research for many engineering applications. Contrary to X-rays, neutrons can be attenuated by some light materials, such as hydrogen, but can penetrate many heavy materials. Thus, neutron computed tomography is useful in obtaining important three-dimensional information about a sample's interior structure and material properties that other traditional methods cannot provide. The neutron computed tomography system at the Pennsylvania State University's Radiation Science and Engineering Center is being utilized to develop a water quantification technique for investigation of water distribution in fuel cells under normal conditions. A hollow aluminum cylinder test sample filled with a known volume of water was constructed for purposes of testing the quantification technique. Transmission images of the test sample at different angles were easily acquired through the synthesis of a dedicated image acquisition computer driving a rotary table controller and an in-house developed synchronization software package. After data acquisition, Octopus (version 8.2) and VGStudio Max (version 1.2) were used to perform cross-sectional and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sample, respectively. The initial reconstructions and water quantification results are presented.

  4. Transcriptional regulation of the Borrelia burgdorferi antigenically variable VlsE surface protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykowski, Tomasz; Babb, Kelly; von Lackum, Kate; Riley, Sean P; Norris, Steven J; Stevenson, Brian

    2006-07-01

    The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi can persistently infect humans and other animals despite host active immune responses. This is facilitated, in part, by the vls locus, a complex system consisting of the vlsE expression site and an adjacent set of 11 to 15 silent vls cassettes. Segments of nonexpressed cassettes recombine with the vlsE region during infection of mammalian hosts, resulting in combinatorial antigenic variation of the VlsE outer surface protein. We now demonstrate that synthesis of VlsE is regulated during the natural mammal-tick infectious cycle, being activated in mammals but repressed during tick colonization. Examination of cultured B. burgdorferi cells indicated that the spirochete controls vlsE transcription levels in response to environmental cues. Analysis of PvlsE::gfp fusions in B. burgdorferi indicated that VlsE production is controlled at the level of transcriptional initiation, and regions of 5' DNA involved in the regulation were identified. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays detected qualitative and quantitative changes in patterns of protein-DNA complexes formed between the vlsE promoter and cytoplasmic proteins, suggesting the involvement of DNA-binding proteins in the regulation of vlsE, with at least one protein acting as a transcriptional activator.

  5. Regional cholinesterase activity in white-throated sparrow brain is differentially affected by acephate (Orthene®)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Romo, G.A.; Komaragiri, M.V.S.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of a 14-day dietary exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide, acephate (acetylphosphoramidothioic acid O,S-dimethyl ester), were determined on cholinesterase activity in three regions (basal ganglia, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) of the white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, brain. All three regions experienced depressed cholinesterase activity between 0.5–2 ppm acephate. The regions exhibited cholinesterase recovery at 2–16 ppm acephate; however, cholinesterase activity dropped and showed no recovery at higher dietary levels (>16 ppm acephate). Evidence indicates that the recovery is initiated by the magnitude of depression, not the duration. In general, as acephate concentration increased, differences in ChE activity among brain regions decreased. Three terms are introduced to describe ChE response to acephate exposure: 1) ChE resistance threshold, 2) ChE compensation threshold, and 3) ChE depression threshold. It is hypothesized that adverse effects to birds in the field may occur at pesticide exposure levels customarily considered negligible.

  6. Memory and regional identity in Udihara’s cinema Memória e identidade regional no cinema de Udihara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Júlio Cesaro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The cinema produced by the Japanese immigrant Hikoma Udihara, for over 30 years, is a record of the first decades of colonization in Northern of Paraná. The content – a little more than 10 hours of images – constitutes essence of the memory and identity in the region. A file which, in spite of private and institutional efforts for its maintenance, is vanishing and deteriorating quickly. For this reason, urgent action is required for recuperation and preservation. O cinema produzido pelo imigrante japonês Hikoma Udihara, ao longo de mais de 30 anos, documenta as primeiras décadas da colonização do Norte do Paraná. O conteúdo – de pouco mais de dez horas de imagens – constitui-se essência da memória e da identidade da região. Um acervo que, apesar de esforços particulares e institucionais para sua manutenção, está esvaecendo e se desintegrando rapidamente. Em razão disso, necessita de ações urgentes de recuperação e preservação.

  7. Initial CGE Model Results Summary Exogenous and Endogenous Variables Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The following discussion presents initial results of tests of the most recent version of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of this is to test and assess the model’s behavioral properties. The test evaluated whether the predicted impacts are reasonable from a qualitative perspective. This issue is whether the predicted change, be it an increase or decrease in other model variables, is consistent with prior economic intuition and expectations about the predicted change. One of the purposes of this effort is to determine whether model changes are needed in order to improve its behavior qualitatively and quantitatively.

  8. Recent results from E802 and E859

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajc, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    Recent single-particle inclusive measurements and two-particle correlation data from E802 and its successor, E859, are presented. The K + /π + ratio observed for collisions of 14.6 A· 28 Si ions on various targets is presented as a function of both forward and transverse energy. Source sizes are determined via interferometry using π + , π - , K + and proton pairs

  9. Inclusive particle production in e+e- i