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Sample records for e-prescribing cds-ep adoption

  1. General practitioners' attitudes and preparedness towards Clinical Decision Support in e-Prescribing (CDS-eP adoption in the West of Ireland: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic clinical decision support (CDS is increasingly establishing its role in evidence-based clinical practice. Considerable evidence supports its enhancement of efficiency in e-Prescribing, but some controversy remains. This study evaluated the practicality and identified the perceived benefits of, and barriers to, its future adoption in the West of Ireland. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out by means of a 27-part questionnaire sent to 262 registered general practitioners in Counties Galway, Mayo and Roscommon. The survey domains encompassed general information of individual's practice, current use of CDS and the practitioner's attitudes towards adoption of CDS-eP. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed to analyse the data collected. Results The overall response rate was 37%. Nearly 92% of respondents employed electronic medical records in their practice. The majority acknowledged the value of electronic CDS in improving prescribing quality (71% and reducing prescribing errors (84%. Despite a high degree of unfamiliarity (73%, the practitioners were open to the use of CDS-eP (94% and willing to invest greater resources for its implementation (62%. Lack of a strategic implementation plan (78% is the main perceived barrier to the incorporation of CDS-eP into clinical practice, followed by i lack of financial incentives (70%, ii lack of standardized product software (61%, iii high sensitivity of drug-drug interaction or medication allergy markers (46%, iv concern about overriding physicians' prescribing decisions(44% and v lack of convincing evidence on the systems' effectiveness (22%. Conclusions Despite favourable attitudes towards the adoption of CDS-eP, multiple perceived barriers impede its incorporation into clinical practice. These merit further exploration, taking into consideration the structure of the Irish primary health care system, before CDS-eP can be recommended for routine

  2. Medication errors with electronic prescribing (eP): Two views of the same picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantitative prospective methods are widely used to evaluate the impact of new technologies such as electronic prescribing (eP) on medication errors. However, they are labour-intensive and it is not always feasible to obtain pre-intervention data. Our objective was to compare the eP medication error picture obtained with retrospective quantitative and qualitative methods. Methods The study was carried out at one English district general hospital approximately two years after implementation of an integrated electronic prescribing, administration and records system. Quantitative: A structured retrospective analysis was carried out of clinical records and medication orders for 75 randomly selected patients admitted to three wards (medicine, surgery and paediatrics) six months after eP implementation. Qualitative: Eight doctors, 6 nurses, 8 pharmacy staff and 4 other staff at senior, middle and junior grades, and 19 adult patients on acute surgical and medical wards were interviewed. Staff interviews explored experiences of developing and working with the system; patient interviews focused on experiences of medicine prescribing and administration on the ward. Interview transcripts were searched systematically for accounts of medication incidents. A classification scheme was developed and applied to the errors identified in the records review. Results The two approaches produced similar pictures of the drug use process. Interviews identified types of error identified in the retrospective notes review plus two eP-specific errors which were not detected by record review. Interview data took less time to collect than record review, and provided rich data on the prescribing process, and reasons for delays or non-administration of medicines, including "once only" orders and "as required" medicines. Conclusions The qualitative approach provided more understanding of processes, and some insights into why medication errors can happen. The method is cost-effective and

  3. Emerging and encouraging trends in e-prescribing adoption among providers and pharmacies.

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    Gabriel, Meghan E; Furukawa, Michael F; Vaidya, Varun

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the growth in provider (physician, nurse practitioner, and physician assistant) adoption of e-prescribing and the growth in pharmacies actively accepting e-prescriptions using nationally representative data from December 2008 to December 2012. Additionally, this study explored e-prescribing adoption variation by urban and rural counties. Descriptive analysis of nationally representative, transactional e-prescribing data. Data for this analysis were from Surescripts. Surescripts is a leading e-prescription network utilized by a majority of all chain, franchise, or independently owned pharmacies in the United States routing prescriptions for more than 240 million patients through their network. The total number of prescribers, including physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants e-prescribing via an electronic health record (EHR) on the Surescripts network has increased from 7% to 54%. Additionally, the number of pharmacies actively accepting e-prescriptions is 94%. These increases in pharmacies actively accepting e-prescriptions and the provider's eprescribing mirror the increase in the volume of e-prescriptions sent on the Surescripts network. This analysis shows that the vast majority of pharmacies in the United States are able to accept e-prescriptions and over half of providers are e-prescribing via an EHR.

  4. HIV providers' likelihood to prescribe pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention differs by patient type: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Leah M; Balderson, Benjamin H

    2016-09-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the antiretroviral treatment regimen for HIV-negative people at high risk of acquiring HIV, has demonstrated efficacy across clinical trials in several patient populations. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have released detailed guidelines to aid providers in prescribing PrEP for their high-risk patients, including men who have sex with men (MSM), high-risk heterosexuals, and injection drug users (IDUs). Given that much attention in PrEP has focused on MSM patients, the present study used an online survey to assess factors involved in HIV care providers' (n = 363) decisions about prescribing PrEP, along with their willingness to prescribe PrEP to patients from various risk populations (e.g., MSM, heterosexuals, IDUs). The efficacy of PrEP was an important factor in providers' decisions about prescribing PrEP, as were considerations about patients' adherence to the regimen, regular follow-up for care, and medication costs. This survey's findings also suggest that providers' willingness to prescribe PrEP varies by patient group, with providers most willing to initiate the regimen with MSM who have an HIV-positive partner, and least willing to prescribe to high-risk heterosexuals or IDUs. In the context of the current CDC recommendations for PrEP that include MSM, heterosexuals, and IDUs, examining providers' rationales for and barriers against supporting this HIV prevention strategy across patient groups merits further attention.

  5. Automation bias in electronic prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyell, David; Magrabi, Farah; Raban, Magdalena Z; Pont, L G; Baysari, Melissa T; Day, Richard O; Coiera, Enrico

    2017-03-16

    Clinical decision support (CDS) in e-prescribing can improve safety by alerting potential errors, but introduces new sources of risk. Automation bias (AB) occurs when users over-rely on CDS, reducing vigilance in information seeking and processing. Evidence of AB has been found in other clinical tasks, but has not yet been tested with e-prescribing. This study tests for the presence of AB in e-prescribing and the impact of task complexity and interruptions on AB. One hundred and twenty students in the final two years of a medical degree prescribed medicines for nine clinical scenarios using a simulated e-prescribing system. Quality of CDS (correct, incorrect and no CDS) and task complexity (low, low + interruption and high) were varied between conditions. Omission errors (failure to detect prescribing errors) and commission errors (acceptance of false positive alerts) were measured. Compared to scenarios with no CDS, correct CDS reduced omission errors by 38.3% (p < .0001, n = 120), 46.6% (p < .0001, n = 70), and 39.2% (p < .0001, n = 120) for low, low + interrupt and high complexity scenarios respectively. Incorrect CDS increased omission errors by 33.3% (p < .0001, n = 120), 24.5% (p < .009, n = 82), and 26.7% (p < .0001, n = 120). Participants made commission errors, 65.8% (p < .0001, n = 120), 53.5% (p < .0001, n = 82), and 51.7% (p < .0001, n = 120). Task complexity and interruptions had no impact on AB. This study found evidence of AB omission and commission errors in e-prescribing. Verification of CDS alerts is key to avoiding AB errors. However, interventions focused on this have had limited success to date. Clinicians should remain vigilant to the risks of CDS failures and verify CDS.

  6. Knowledge, Practices, and Barriers to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Prescribing Among Washington State Medical Providers.

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    Wood, Brian R; McMahan, Vanessa M; Naismith, Kelly; Stockton, Jonathan B; Delaney, Lori A; Stekler, Joanne D

    2018-01-04

    We aimed to assess HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and prescribing practices among Washington State medical providers from diverse professional disciplines and practice types. In May 2016, we administered an anonymous online survey to licensed medical practitioners who provide primary, longitudinal, walk-in, emergency, obstetric, gynecologic, sexually transmitted infection (STI), or family planning care. Of 735 eligible providers, 64.8% had heard of PrEP. Younger providers and providers with a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree were more likely to be aware of PrEP compared to older providers (p=0.0001) and providers of other training backgrounds (Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner [ARNP], Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine [DO], or Physician Assistant [PA]) (p=0.04). Among providers aware of PrEP, most frequent reported concerns about prescribing were adherence (46.0%) and costs (42.9%). Providers felt very (20.1%) or somewhat (33.8%) comfortable discussing PrEP overall, but very (26.8%) or somewhat (44.7%) uncomfortable discussing cost and insurance issues. The 124 PrEP prescribers reported a median of 2 (range 1-175, total 1,142) patients prescribed PrEP. Prior authorizations and insurance denials had prevented prescriptions for 28.7% and 12.1% of prescribers, respectively. Interventions to improve PrEP access should include education to inform medical providers about PrEP, with particular attention to provider types less likely to be aware. Continued efforts to eliminate cost and insurance barriers and educate providers regarding financial resources would help improve PrEP access.

  7. An e-p facility for Europe. Weak interactions in e-p physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlay, R.

    1979-01-01

    We first present the recent development on an e-p collider in Europe occuring in the last year. Then a review of physics motivations for an e-p ring is discussed and developed with the latest work presented at the meeting on 'Study for an e-p Facility for Europe' held at Hamburg on April 2-3, 1979

  8. A Cross-Sectional Online Survey of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Adoption Among Primary Care Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Oni J; Moore, Brent A; Berkenblit, Gail V; Calabrese, Sarah K; Cunningham, Chinazo O; Fiellin, David A; Patel, Viraj V; Phillips, Karran A; Tetrault, Jeanette M; Shah, Minesh; Edelman, E Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Among health care providers, prescription of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been low. Little is known specifically about primary care physicians (PCPs) with regard to PrEP awareness and adoption (i.e., prescription or referral), and factors associated with adoption. To assess PrEP awareness, PrEP adoption, and factors associated with adoption among PCPs. Cross-sectional online survey conducted in April and May 2015. Members of a national professional organization for academic primary care physicians (n = 266). PrEP awareness, PrEP adoption (ever prescribed or referred a patient for PrEP [yes/no]), provider and practice characteristics, and self-rated knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs associated with adoption. The survey response rate was 8.6 % (266/2093). Ninety-three percent of respondents reported prior awareness of PrEP. Of these, 34.9 % reported PrEP adoption. In multivariable analysis of provider and practice characteristics, compared with non-adopters, adopters were more likely to provide care to more than 50 HIV-positive patients (vs. 0, aOR = 6.82, 95 % CI 2.06-22.52). Compared with non-adopters, adopters were also more likely to report excellent, very good, or good self-rated PrEP knowledge (15.1 %, 33.7 %, 30.2 % vs. 2.5 %, 18.1 %, 23.8 %, respectively; p < 0.001) and to perceive PrEP as extremely safe (35.1 % vs. 10.7 %; p = 0.002). Compared with non-adopters, adopters were less likely to perceive PrEP as being moderately likely to increase risk behaviors ("risk compensation") (12.8 % vs. 28.8 %, p = 0.02). While most respondents were aware of PrEP, only one-third of PrEP-aware PCPs reported adoption. Adopters were more likely to have experience providing HIV care and to perceive PrEP as extremely safe, and were less likely to perceive PrEP use as leading to risk compensation. To enhance PCP adoption of PrEP, educational efforts targeting PCPs without HIV care experience should be considered, as well as training

  9. Primary care clinicians' experiences prescribing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis at a specialized community health centre in Boston: lessons from early adopters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakower, Douglas S; Maloney, Kevin M; Grasso, Chris; Melbourne, Katherine; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 1.2 million Americans have indications for using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV acquisition. For many of these at-risk individuals, the best opportunity to learn about and receive PrEP will be during routine visits to their generalist primary care clinicians. However, few generalist clinicians have prescribed PrEP, primarily because of practical concerns about providing PrEP in primary care settings. The experiences of specialized primary care clinicians who have prescribed PrEP can inform the feasibility of PrEP provision by generalists. During January to February 2015, 35 primary care clinicians at a community health centre in Boston that specializes in the care of sexual and gender minorities completed anonymous surveys about their experiences and practices with PrEP provision. Responses were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Thirty-two clinicians (response rate=91%) completed the surveys. Nearly all clinicians (97%) had prescribed PrEP (median 20 patients, interquartile range 11-33). Most clinicians reported testing and risk-reduction counselling practices concordant with U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for PrEP. Clinicians indicated that patients using PrEP experienced medication toxicities infrequently and generally reported high adherence. However, some clinicians' practices differed from guideline recommendations, and some clinicians observed patients with increased risk behaviours. Most clinicians (79%) rated PrEP provision as easy to accomplish, and 97% considered themselves likely to prescribe PrEP in the future. In a primary care clinic with specialized expertise in HIV prevention, clinicians perceived that PrEP provision to large numbers of patients was safe, feasible and potentially effective. Efforts to engage generalist primary care clinicians in PrEP provision could facilitate scale-up of this efficacious intervention.

  10. Corporate actions for the climate - Greenhouse gas reduction practices at EpE member companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalendar, Pierre-Andre de

    2012-11-01

    Corporate awareness of the reality of climate change and the impact of human activity on global warming goes back some twenty years. It was at this time that EpE members decided to take voluntary action towards lowering greenhouse gas emissions. EpE member companies started out by measuring their emissions (see EpE publication entitled 'Measuring and Controlling Greenhouse Gas Emissions'), then worked to identify initiatives easiest to implement and those that would have the best reduction potential. This booklet is prepared to contribute to other businesses improving their knowledge and understanding of the best practices identified and implemented by EpE members, in order to speed up the reduction of global emissions, without hampering their competitiveness. The practices showcased here have intentionally been detailed so that they can be easier to adopt. (authors)

  11. Factors influencing pharmacists' adoption of prescribing: qualitative application of the diffusion of innovations theory.

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    Makowsky, Mark J; Guirguis, Lisa M; Hughes, Christine A; Sadowski, Cheryl A; Yuksel, Nese

    2013-09-14

    In 2007, Alberta became the first Canadian jurisdiction to grant pharmacists a wide range of prescribing privileges. Our objective was to understand what factors influence pharmacists' adoption of prescribing using a model for the Diffusion of Innovations in healthcare services. Pharmacists participated in semi-structured telephone interviews to discuss their prescribing practices and explore the facilitators and barriers to implementation. Pharmacists working in community, hospital, PCN, or other settings were selected using a mix of random and purposive sampling. Two investigators independently analyzed each transcript using an Interpretive Description approach to identify themes. Analyses were informed by a model explaining the Diffusion of Innovations in health service organizations. Thirty-eight participants were interviewed. Prescribing behaviours varied from non-adoption through to product, disease, and patient focused use of prescribing. Pharmacists' adoption of prescribing was dependent on the innovation itself, adopter, system readiness, and communication and influence. Adopting pharmacists viewed prescribing as a legitimization of previous practice and advantageous to instrumental daily tasks. The complexity of knowledge required for prescribing increased respectively in product, disease and patient focused prescribing scenarios. Individual adopters had higher levels of self-efficacy toward prescribing skills. At a system level, pharmacists who were in practice settings that were patient focused were more likely to adopt advanced prescribing practices, over those in product-focused settings. All pharmacists stated that physician relationships impacted their prescribing behaviours and individual pharmacists' decisions to apply for independent prescribing privileges. Diffusion of Innovations theory was helpful in understanding the multifaceted nature of pharmacists' adoption of prescribing. The characteristics of the prescribing model itself which

  12. Highlights from e-EPS: EPS and EuChems are joining forces

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    e-EPS News is an addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   On the occasion of the EPS Council 2013 in Strasbourg, a memorandum of understanding was signed between the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Societies (EuCheMS) and the European Physical Society (EPS) by presidents Ulrich Schubert and Luisa Cifarelli. EuCheMS and EPS share many objectives, such as community building, scientific excellence, communication and representation of their respective members to European policy makers. The two societies recognise that issues in many fields such as education, publication, support for basic sciences and frontier research are similar in their respective disciplines. They wish to combine efforts in developing and presenting common standpoints to their mutual benefit as European representatives in chemistry ...

  13. Intimacy motivations and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adoption intentions among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Golub, Sarit A

    2015-04-01

    In the USA, men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary partnerships are at elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new biomedical prevention strategy, has potential to reduce HIV transmission. This study examined predictors of PrEP adoption intentions among HIV-negative MSM in primary partnerships. The sample included HIV-negative MSM (n = 164) who participated in an ongoing cross-sectional study with an in-person interview examining PrEP adoption intentions. Higher HIV risk perception, intimacy motivations for condomless sex, recent condomless anal sex with outside partners, education, and age were each independently associated with PrEP adoption intentions. In a multivariate model, only age, education, and intimacy motivations for condomless sex were significantly associated with PrEP adoption intentions. Intimacy motivations may play a central role in PrEP adoption for MSM couples. Incorporating relationship dynamics into biomedical strategies is a promising avenue for research and intervention.

  14. Adoption of electronic prescribing for controlled substances among providers and pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufstader Gabriel, Meghan; Yang, Yi; Vaidya, Varun; Wilkins, Tricia Lee

    2014-11-01

    Electronic prescribing for Schedule II through V controlled substances was legalized in the United States by the Drug Enforcement Administration in June 2010. However, little information exists about adoption and use of the electronic prescribing of controlled substances (EPCS) at the national level. Therefore, the objective of this study is to present the first information about national trends surrounding the adoption and use of the newly allowed EPCS by providers and pharmacies in the United States. Trends of EPCS adoption and use were examined for the number of EPCS, number of pharmacies enabled to accept EPCS, and the number of providers prescribing controlled substances electronically. Using nationally representative transactional Surescripts data from July 2012 to December 2013, we examined EPCS trends. During the study period, the total number of EPCS increased from 1535 to 52,423, and the number and percentage of all pharmacies enabled for EPCS increased from 8768 (13%) to 20,498 pharmacies (30%). The proportion of all providers prescribing controlled substances electronically is currently 1%, but increasing steadily each month. There is a positive national growth for EPCS in pharmacy preparedness to accept EPCS, the number of EPCS prescriptions sent each month, and the number of providers with the ability to send EPCS.

  15. e-EPS News: Light for Development

    CERN Multimedia

    e-EPS

    2011-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles by the e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   A central goal of the EPS International Year of Light project will be to promote optical technologies and optics education to improve the quality of life in the developing world – under the theme of ‘Light for Development’. Light plays a central role in human activities in science, technology and culture. On a fundamental scientific level, light is necessary for the existence of life itself, whilst on a more technical level, light-based technologies will underpin the future development of human society. The systematic study of the physics of light and electromagnetic waves has been central to the evolution of modern science and – in the 20th century alone – there have been many fundamental ...

  16. A Closer Look at Racism and Heterosexism in Medical Students' Clinical Decision-Making Related to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Implications for PrEP Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Krakower, Douglas S; Underhill, Kristen; Vincent, Wilson; Magnus, Manya; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2018-04-01

    Social biases among healthcare providers could limit PrEP access. In this survey study of 115 US medical students, we examined associations between biases (racism and heterosexism) and PrEP clinical decision-making and explored prior PrEP education as a potential buffer. After viewing a vignette about a PrEP-seeking MSM patient, participants reported anticipated patient behavior (condomless sex, extra-relational sex, and adherence), intention to prescribe PrEP to the patient, biases, and background characteristics. Minimal evidence for racism affecting clinical decision-making emerged. In unadjusted analyses, heterosexism indirectly affected prescribing intention via all anticipated behaviors, tested as parallel mediators. Participants expressing greater heterosexism more strongly anticipated increased risk behavior and adherence problems, which were associated with lower prescribing intention. The indirect effect via condomless sex remained significant adjusting for background characteristics. Prior PrEP education did not buffer any indirect effects. Heterosexism may compromise PrEP provision to MSM and should be addressed in PrEP-related medical education.

  17. Prescriber and staff perceptions of an electronic prescribing system in primary care: a qualitative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittig Dean F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States (US Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 has spurred adoption of electronic health records. The corresponding meaningful use criteria proposed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services mandates use of computerized provider order entry (CPOE systems. Yet, adoption in the US and other Western countries is low and descriptions of successful implementations are primarily from the inpatient setting; less frequently the ambulatory setting. We describe prescriber and staff perceptions of implementation of a CPOE system for medications (electronic- or e-prescribing system in the ambulatory setting. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we conducted eight focus groups at three primary care sites in an independent medical group. Each site represented a unique stage of e-prescribing implementation - pre/transition/post. We used a theoretically based, semi-structured questionnaire to elicit physician (n = 17 and staff (n = 53 perceptions of implementation of the e-prescribing system. We conducted a thematic analysis of focus group discussions using formal qualitative analytic techniques (i.e. deductive framework and grounded theory. Two coders independently coded to theoretical saturation and resolved discrepancies through discussions. Results Ten themes emerged that describe perceptions of e-prescribing implementation: 1 improved availability of clinical information resulted in prescribing efficiencies and more coordinated care; 2 improved documentation resulted in safer care; 3 efficiencies were gained by using fewer paper charts; 4 organizational support facilitated adoption; 5 transition required time; resulted in workload shift to staff; 6 hardware configurations and network stability were important in facilitating workflow; 7 e-prescribing was time-neutral or time-saving; 8 changes in patient interactions enhanced patient care but required education; 9 pharmacy

  18. Highlights from e-EPS: Jean-Michel Raimond wins EPS Edison-Volta Prize 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    Martina Knoop, e-EPS News

    2014-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   The European Physical Society has the pleasure to announce that the 2014 EPS Edison-Volta Prize is awarded to Jean-Michel Raimond for “seminal contribution to physics (that) have paved the way for novel explorations of quantum mechanics and have opened new routes in quantum information processing”. J.-M. Raimond’s PhD thesis was supervised by Serge Haroche at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, France, in the early 1980′s, and together S. Haroche, M. Brune and J.-M. Raimond have built an extremely successful research group since then. J.-M. Raimond has made seminal contributions to the development of cavity QED experiments, in particular involving circular Rydberg atoms interacting with very high-Q superc...

  19. Probing the fungicidal property of CdS quantum dots on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis using MALDI-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, Muthu; Wu, Hui-Fen, E-mail: hwu@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [National Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Chemistry (China)

    2013-07-15

    For the first time, we report the successful application of inhouse synthesized CdS quantum dots (QDs) with particle sizes between 1 and 7 nm exhibiting excellent fungicidal activity based on the interactions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis. The growth curves and the growth rates of both fungi were established in the presence of three varying concentrations of CdS QDs. It was observed that the CdS QDs were highly inhibitory even at the lowest concentration of 10 mg/L used in this study, while the untreated control cells followed a normal growth pattern in the cases of both Saccharomyces and Candida. MALDI-MS was applied to substantiate the observations obtained by direct cell count method. It was observed that the trend observed in the case of Saccharomyces and Candida was well-represented in the MALDI-MS spectra. This study proposes a mechanism for the first time based on MALDI-MS results, that the CdS QDs interact with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and remove small molecules from EPS layer; on the other hand, it was observed that CdS QDs at all concentrations lead to enrichment of protein signals in MALDI-MS. We have substantiated these results by quantifying the EPS in the control and treated cells and also using TEM to further confirm the results.

  20. Probing the fungicidal property of CdS quantum dots on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis using MALDI-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikandan, Muthu; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, we report the successful application of inhouse synthesized CdS quantum dots (QDs) with particle sizes between 1 and 7 nm exhibiting excellent fungicidal activity based on the interactions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis. The growth curves and the growth rates of both fungi were established in the presence of three varying concentrations of CdS QDs. It was observed that the CdS QDs were highly inhibitory even at the lowest concentration of 10 mg/L used in this study, while the untreated control cells followed a normal growth pattern in the cases of both Saccharomyces and Candida. MALDI-MS was applied to substantiate the observations obtained by direct cell count method. It was observed that the trend observed in the case of Saccharomyces and Candida was well-represented in the MALDI-MS spectra. This study proposes a mechanism for the first time based on MALDI-MS results, that the CdS QDs interact with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and remove small molecules from EPS layer; on the other hand, it was observed that CdS QDs at all concentrations lead to enrichment of protein signals in MALDI-MS. We have substantiated these results by quantifying the EPS in the control and treated cells and also using TEM to further confirm the results

  1. A survey exploring National Health Service ePrescribing Toolkit use and perceived usefulness amongst English hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Cresswell

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Interactive elements and learning lessons from early adopter sites that had accumulated experiences of implementing systems was viewed as the most helpful aspect of the ePrescribing Toolkit. The Toolkit now needs to be further developed to facilitate the continuing implementation/optimisation of ePrescribing and other health information technology across the NHS.

  2. Highlights from e-EPS: Hetland to receive EPS-PED Award for Secondary School Teaching

    CERN Multimedia

    Urbaan Titulaer

    2013-01-01

    e-EPS News is an addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   The EPS Physics Education Division selected Karl Thorstein Hetland, West Telemark Secondary School, Norway, as this year’s recipient of its Secondary School Teaching Award. K.T. Hetland developed the Energy Network, which aims to make students energy conscious and focus on renewable energy. The Energy Network, created in 2005, consists of 15 local networks, each involving an upper secondary school and several lower secondary schools, 55 schools in all. Material from the Network is used in physics classes in a large number of schools at national level and plays a major role in recruiting university physics students. K.T. Hetland will receive his award at the International Physics Education Conference, held together with the European Physics Educati...

  3. Beam-strahlung effects in e-p collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.

    1982-09-01

    The electromagnetic fields produced by one beam in an interaction point of a colliding-beam facility cause to the emission of synchrotron radiation by the other beam. This effect, the beam strahlung, for the e+e - colliders has been considered by several authors, and they have pointed out that the effect is very important consideration at very-high-energy e+e - colliders. At the first glance, the beam-strahlung effect can play an important role in the e-p collision due to the fact that the circulating currents in the collider are much higher than those of the e+e - machine. However the detailed study shows that is not the case because of the collision geometry involved. What follows in this note is the beam-strahlung derivations using the method previously used by Hofmann and Keil. The difference between this note and that of Hofman and Keil is that in the case of e+e - collider, equal mass particles are involved in the consideration and, in the e-p case, the electrons radiate and the protons provide the electromagnetic fields

  4. Primary Care Physicians' Willingness to Prescribe HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for People who Inject Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, E Jennifer; Moore, Brent A; Calabrese, Sarah K; Berkenblit, Gail; Cunningham, Chinazo; Patel, Viraj; Phillips, Karran; Tetrault, Jeanette M; Shah, Minesh; Fiellin, David A; Blackstock, Oni

    2017-04-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV (PrEP) is recommended for people who inject drugs (PWID). Despite their central role in disease prevention, willingness to prescribe PrEP to PWID among primary care physicians (PCPs) is largely understudied. We conducted an online survey (April-May 2015) of members of a society for academic general internists regarding PrEP. Among 250 respondents, 74% (n = 185) of PCPs reported high willingness to prescribe PrEP to PWID. PCPs were more likely to report high willingness to prescribe PrEP to all other HIV risk groups (p's < 0.03 for all pair comparisons). Compared with PCPs delivering care to more HIV-infected clinic patients, PCPs delivering care to fewer HIV-infected patients were more likely to report low willingness to prescribe PrEP to PWID (Odds Ratio [95% CI] = 6.38 [1.48-27.47]). PCP and practice characteristics were not otherwise associated with low willingness to prescribe PrEP to PWID. Interventions to improve PCPs' willingness to prescribe PrEP to PWID are needed.

  5. PGE2 receptor EP3 inhibits water reabsorption and contributes to polyuria and kidney injury in a streptozotocin-induced mouse model of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Ramzi; Nasrallah, Rania; Zimpelmann, Joe; Gutsol, Alex; Eckert, David; Ghossein, Jamie; Burns, Kevin D; Hébert, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    The first clinical manifestation of diabetes is polyuria. The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor EP3 antagonises arginine vasopressin (AVP)-mediated water reabsorption and its expression is increased in the diabetic kidney. The purpose of this work was to study the contribution of EP3 to diabetic polyuria and renal injury. Male Ep 3 (-/-) (also known as Ptger3 (-/-)) mice were treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to generate a mouse model of diabetes and renal function was evaluated after 12 weeks. Isolated collecting ducts (CDs) were microperfused to study the contribution of EP3 to AVP-mediated fluid reabsorption. Ep 3 (-/-)-STZ mice exhibited attenuated polyuria and increased urine osmolality compared with wild-type STZ (WT-STZ) mice, suggesting enhanced water reabsorption. Compared with WT-STZ mice, Ep 3 (-/-)-STZ mice also had increased protein expression of aquaporin-1, aquaporin-2, and urea transporter A1, and reduced urinary AVP excretion, but increased medullary V2 receptors. In vitro microperfusion studies indicated that Ep 3 (-/-) and WT-STZ CDs responded to AVP stimulation similarly to those of wild-type mice, with a 60% increase in fluid reabsorption. In WT non-injected and WT-STZ mice, EP3 activation with sulprostone (PGE2 analogue) abrogated AVP-mediated water reabsorption; this effect was absent in mice lacking EP3. A major finding of this work is that Ep 3 (-/-)-STZ mice showed blunted renal cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression, reduced renal hypertrophy, reduced hyperfiltration and reduced albuminuria, as well as diminished tubular dilation and nuclear cysts. Taken together, the data suggest that EP3 contributes to diabetic polyuria by inhibiting expression of aquaporins and that it promotes renal injury during diabetes. EP3 may prove to be a promising target for more selective management of diabetic kidney disease.

  6. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis: A Narrative Review of Provider Behavior and Interventions to Increase PrEP Implementation in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silapaswan, Andrew; Krakower, Douglas; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-02-01

    Since FDA approval of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention, attention has been focused on PrEP implementation. The CDC estimates that 1.2 million U.S. adults might benefit from PrEP, but only a minority are using PrEP, so there is a significant unmet need to increase access for those at risk for HIV. Given the large numbers of individuals who have indications for PrEP, there are not enough practicing specialists to meet the growing need for providers trained in providing PrEP. Moreover, since PrEP is a preventive intervention for otherwise healthy individuals, primary care providers (PCPs) should be primary prescribers of PrEP. There are important clinical considerations that providers should take into account when planning to prescribe PrEP, which are highlighted in the clinical case discussed. A growing body of research also suggests that some providers may be cautious about prescribing PrEP because of concerns regarding its "real-world" effectiveness, anticipated unintended consequences associated with its use, and ambiguity as to who should prescribe it. This review summarizes findings from studies that have assessed prescriber behavior regarding provision of PrEP, and offers recommendations on how to optimize PrEP implementation in primary care settings. Development and dissemination of educational interventions for PCPs and potential PrEP users are needed, including improved methods to assist clinicians in identifying appropriate PrEP candidates, and programs to promote medication adherence and access to social and behavioral health services. PCPs are well-positioned to prescribe PrEP and coordinate health-related services to improve the sexual health of their patients, but tailored educational programs are needed.

  7. Evaluation of prescriber responses to pharmacogenomics clinical decision support for thiopurine S-methyltransferase testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubanyionwu, Samuel; Formea, Christine M; Anderson, Benjamin; Wix, Kelly; Dierkhising, Ross; Caraballo, Pedro J

    2018-02-15

    Results of a study of prescribers' responses to a pharmacogenomics-based clinical decision support (CDS) alert designed to prompt thiopurine S -methyltransferase (TPMT) status testing are reported. A single-center, retrospective, chart review-based study was conducted to evaluate prescriber compliance with a pretest CDS alert that warned of potential thiopurine drug toxicity resulting from deficient TPMT activity due to TPMT gene polymorphism. The CDS alert was triggered when prescribers ordered thiopurine drugs for patients whose records did not indicate TPMT status or when historical thiopurine use was documented in the electronic health record. The alert pop-up also provided a link to online educational resources to guide thiopurine dosing calculations. During the 9-month study period, 500 CDS alerts were generated: in 101 cases (20%), TPMT phenotyping or TPMT genotyping was ordered; in 399 cases (80%), testing was not ordered. Multivariable regression analysis indicated that documentation of historical thiopurine use was the only independent predictor of test ordering. Among the 99 patients tested subsequent to CDS alerts, 70 (71%) had normal TPMT activity, 29 (29%) had intermediate activity, and none had deficient activity. The online resources provided thiopurine dosing recommendations applicable to 24 patients, but only 3 were prescribed guideline-supported doses after CDS alerts. The pretest CDS rule resulted in a large proportion of neglected alerts due to poor alerting accuracy and consequent alert fatigue. Prescriber usage of online thiopurine dosing resources was low. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HIV Care Providers' Intentions to Prescribe and Actual Prescription of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis to At-Risk Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Tanya L Kowalczyk; Zimet, Gregory; Lally, Michelle; Xu, Jiahong; Thornton, Sarah; Kahn, Jessica A

    2017-12-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is indicated for use in US adults, and little is known about clinician intentions to prescribe and actual prescription of PrEP to adolescents younger than 18. Fifty-six clinicians who care for HIV-infected and at-risk youth completed an anonymous online survey in 2014. Primary outcomes were (1) intentions to prescribe PrEP to adolescents and adults in four risk categories [men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women, heterosexuals with multiple partners of unknown HIV status, heterosexuals with HIV-infected partners]; and (2) actual prescription of PrEP to adolescents and adults in these risk groups. Independent variables included clinician characteristics, experience prescribing nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis, familiarity with and knowledge of PrEP and PrEP guidance, attitudes toward PrEP, and facilitating factors for prescribing PrEP and incorporation of PrEP guidance into practice. Variables associated with intention to prescribe ("very likely to prescribe" vs. other responses) and actual prescription of PrEP stratified by age and risk category were identified in logistic regression models. Mean age was 45.9 years (standard deviation 10.7); 64% were physicians. More clinicians reported high intention to prescribe PrEP to adult versus adolescent MSM (p = 0.02) and transgender women (p = 0.001). Variables associated with intention to prescribe and prescription of PrEP differed by age and risk category. In adolescents, those variables included positive beliefs, higher number of facilitating factors, and fewer barriers to PrEP prescription. Designing strategies based on these findings that address both facilitating factors and barriers to PrEP prescription may improve PrEP uptake by at-risk youth.

  9. Electronic prescribing in pediatrics: toward safer and more effective medication management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin B; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2013-04-01

    This technical report discusses recent advances in electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) systems, including the evidence base supporting their limitations and potential benefits. Specifically, this report acknowledges that there are limited but positive pediatric data supporting the role of e-prescribing in mitigating medication errors, improving communication with dispensing pharmacists, and improving medication adherence. On the basis of these data and on the basis of federal statutes that provide incentives for the use of e-prescribing systems, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the adoption of e-prescribing systems with pediatric functionality. This report supports the accompanying policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics recommending the adoption of e-prescribing by pediatric health care providers.

  10. e-EPS News: Consultation on European Research, Innovation & Gender

    CERN Document Server

    e-EPS

    2011-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing an article by the e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a new collaboration between the two publications.   EPS members have been invited to take part in a Public Consultation on the Future of Gender and Innovation in Europe. The consultation, which is intended to complement the EC Green Paper ‘From Challenges to Opportunities: Towards a Common Strategic Framework for EU Research and Innovation Funding’, will be published and discussed during the first European Gender Summit in Brussels on 8-9 November this year. It is hoped that the consultation – which is being coordinated by genSET and the organisers of the European Gender Summit – will create a better understanding of how Europe might benefit from a more effective mainstreaming of the gender dimension in research, innovation and scientific systems. Responses from the co...

  11. e-Learning initiatives to support prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Simon; Mucklow, John

    2012-01-01

    Preparing medical students to prescribe is a major challenge of undergraduate education. They must develop an understanding of clinical pharmacology and acquire knowledge about drugs and therapeutics, as well as the skills to prescribe for individual patients in the face of multiple variables. The task of delivering the learning required to achieve these attributes relies upon limited numbers of teachers, who have increasingly busy clinical commitments. There is evidence that training is currently insufficient to meet the demands of the workplace. e-Learning provides an opportunity to improve the learning experience. The advantages for teachers are improved distribution of learning content, ease of update, standardization and tracking of learner activities. The advantages for learners are ease of access, greater interactivity and individual choice concerning the pace and mix of learning. Important disadvantages are the considerable resource required to develop e-Learning projects and difficulties in simulating some aspects of the real world prescribing experience. Pre-requisites for developing an e-Learning programme to support prescribing include academic expertise, institutional support, learning technology services and an effective virtual learning environment. e-Learning content might range from complex interactive learning sessions through to static web pages with links. It is now possible to simulate and provide feedback on prescribing decisions and this will improve with advances in virtual reality. Other content might include a student formulary, self-assessment exercises (e.g. calculations), a glossary and an on-line library. There is some evidence for the effectiveness of e-Learning but better research is required into its potential impact on prescribing. PMID:22509885

  12. e-Learning initiatives to support prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Simon; Mucklow, John

    2012-10-01

    Preparing medical students to prescribe is a major challenge of undergraduate education. They must develop an understanding of clinical pharmacology and acquire knowledge about drugs and therapeutics, as well as the skills to prescribe for individual patients in the face of multiple variables. The task of delivering the learning required to achieve these attributes relies upon limited numbers of teachers, who have increasingly busy clinical commitments. There is evidence that training is currently insufficient to meet the demands of the workplace. e-Learning provides an opportunity to improve the learning experience. The advantages for teachers are improved distribution of learning content, ease of update, standardization and tracking of learner activities. The advantages for learners are ease of access, greater interactivity and individual choice concerning the pace and mix of learning. Important disadvantages are the considerable resource required to develop e-Learning projects and difficulties in simulating some aspects of the real world prescribing experience. Pre-requisites for developing an e-Learning programme to support prescribing include academic expertise, institutional support, learning technology services and an effective virtual learning environment. e-Learning content might range from complex interactive learning sessions through to static web pages with links. It is now possible to simulate and provide feedback on prescribing decisions and this will improve with advances in virtual reality. Other content might include a student formulary, self-assessment exercises (e.g. calculations), a glossary and an on-line library. There is some evidence for the effectiveness of e-Learning but better research is required into its potential impact on prescribing. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. E&P data lifecycle: a case study in Petrobras Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastella, Laura; Campinho, Vania; Alonso, João

    2013-04-01

    Petrobras, the biggest Brazilian Petroleum Company, has been studying and working on Brazilian sedimentary basins for nearly 60 years. The corporate database currently registers over 25000 wells and all their associated products (geophysical logs, cores, sidewall samples) and analyses. There are thousands of samples, descriptions, pictures, measures, and other scientific data resulted from petroleum exploration and production. This data constitutes a huge scientific database which is applied to support Petrobras economic strategy. Geological models built during the exploration phase continue to be refined during both the development and production phases: data should be continually manipulated, correlated and integrated. As E&P assets reach maturity, a new cycle starts: data is re-analyzed and new hypotheses are made in order to increase hydrocarbon productivity. Initial geological models then evolve from accumulated knowledge throughout all the E&P phases. Therefore the quality control must be performed in the first phases of data acquisition, i.e., during the exploration phase, to avoid reworking and loss of information. The last decade witnessed a great evolution in petroleum industry technology. As a consequence, the complexity and particulars of the information generated have increased accordingly. Current technology has also facilitated access to networks and databases, making it possible to store large amounts of information. This scenario makes available a large mass of information from difference sources, which uses heterogeneous vocabulary as well as different scales and measurement units. In this context, knowledge might be diluted and the total amount of information cannot be applied in E&P process. In order to provide adequate data governance, data input is controlled by rules, standards and policies, implemented by corporate software systems. Petrobras' integrated E&P database is a centralized repository to which all E&P systems can have access. The

  14. Provider perspectives on PrEP for adolescent girls and young women in Tanzania: The role of provider biases and quality of care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanlesta Pilgrim

    Full Text Available Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP has the potential to reduce HIV acquisition among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW in sub-Saharan Africa. However, health care providers' (HCPs perspectives and interactions with potential clients can substantially influence effective provision of quality health services. We examine if HCPs' knowledge, attitude, and skills, as well as their perceptions of facility readiness to provide PrEP are associated with their willingness to provide PrEP to AGYW at high risk of HIV in Tanzania.A self-administered questionnaire was given to 316 HCPs from 74 clinics in two districts and 24 HCPs participated in follow-up in-depth interviews (IDIs. We conducted bivariate and multivariable Poisson regression to assess factors associated with willingness to provide PrEP to AGYW. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze the IDIs, which expanded upon the quantitative results.Few HCPs (3.5% had prior PrEP knowledge, but once informed, 61.1% were willing to prescribe PrEP to AGYW. Higher negative attitudes toward adolescent sexuality and greater concerns about behavioral disinhibition due to PrEP use were associated with lower willingness to prescribe PrEP. Qualitatively, HCPs acknowledged that biases, rooted in cultural norms, often result in stigmatizing and discriminatory care toward AGYW, a potential barrier for PrEP provision. However, better training to provide HIV services was associated with greater willingness to prescribe PrEP. Conversely, HCPs feared the potential negative impact of PrEP on the provision of existing HIV services (e.g., overburdened staff, and suggested the integration of PrEP into non-HIV services and the use of paramedical professionals to facilitate PrEP provision.Preparing for PrEP introduction requires more than solely training HCPs on the clinical aspects of providing PrEP. It requires a two-pronged strategy: addressing HCPs' biases regarding sexual health services to AGYW; and preparing

  15. Highlights from e-EPS: Physics for fun

    CERN Multimedia

    e-EPS

    2013-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   For many who measure time according to a university calendar, summer is a time to unwind. My experience, however, is that it is rare to find physics departments empty over the summer break. Many of us use the vacation period without classes to catch up with research, and I imagine that a colleague of mine speaks for many when he says that summer provides him with the freedom to do the physics he wants to do, and this is all the break needed to prepare for the next academic year! This reminds me a little of the Wobbling Plate story in “Surely You’re Joking Mr Feynman”? When Richard Feynman had just started at Cornell following his time at Los Alamos, he felt burned out, and was wondering why he did not feel the same enthusiasm for physics t...

  16. GEP/GMP ratio by polarization transfer in (rvec e)pe(rvec p)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark Jones; Konrad Aniol; Baker, F.; Berthot, J.; Pierre Bertin; William Bertozzi; Auguste Besson; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Edward Brash; Brown, D.; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Chang, C.; Jian-Ping Chen; Eugene Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; Evaristo Cisbani; Daniel Dale; Raffaele De Leo; Alexandre Deur; Brian Diederich; John Domingo; Martin Epstein; Lars Ewell; Kevin Fissum; Fleck, A.; Helene Fonvieille; Salvatore Frullani; Juncai Gao; Franco Garibaldi; Ashot Gasparian; Gerstner, G. M.; Shalev Gilad; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Alphonza Green; Jens-Ole Hansen; Calvin Howell; Garth Huber; Mauro Iodice; Cornelis de Jager; Stephanie Jaminion; Xiaodong Jiang; Kahl, William E.; James Kelly; Mohammad Khayat; Laird Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Michael Kuss; Lakuriki, E.; Geraud Laveissiere; John LeRose; Meihua Liang; Richard Lindgren; Nilanga Liyanage; George Lolos; Macri, R.; Richard Madey; Sergey Malov; Demetrius Margaziotis; Pete Markowitz; Kathy McCormick; Justin McIntyre; Meer, Rob van der; Robert Michaels; Brian Milbrath; Jean Mougey; Sirish Nanda; Ed Offermann; Zisis Papandreou; Charles Perdrisat; Gerassimos Petratos; Nikolai Piskunov; Roman Pomatsalyuk; David Prout; Vina Punjabi; Gilles Quemener; Ronald Ransome; Brian Raue; Yves Roblin; Julie Roche; Gary Rutledge; Paul Rutt; Arunava Saha; Teijiro Saito; Adam Sarty; Smith, T. P.; Sorokin, P.; Steffen Strauch; Riad Suleiman; Kazunori Takahashi; Jeffrey Templon; Luminita Todor; Paul Ulmer; Guido Urciuoli; Pascal Vernin; Branislav Vlahovic; Voskanian, H.; Krishni Wijesooriya; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Rhett Woo; Feng Xiong; Dan Zainea; Zilu Zhou

    2000-01-01

    The ratio of the proton's elastic electromagnetic form factors, G(E p )/G(M p ) was obtained by measuring P i and P l , the transverse and the longitudinal recoil proton polarization, respectively. For elastic ep to ep, G(E p )/G(M p ) is proportional to P t /P l . Simultaneous measurement of P t and P l in a polarimeter provides good control of the systematic uncertainty. The results for the ratio G(E p )/G(M p ) show a systematic decrease as Q 2 increases from 0.5 to 3.5 GeV 2 , indicating for the first time a definite difference in the spatial distribution of charge and magnetization currents in the proton

  17. Barriers to accepting e-prescribing in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D

    2006-01-01

    e-prescribing process in the U.S.A., the sample size and region studied are only one slice of the general population. Practical implications - Unfortunately, the adoption of e-prescribing has been difficult to attain owing to numerous barriers throughout the industry. Such acceptance barriers include lack of technology trust, associated system costs, and risk of un-securing patient health and medical information. This article documents that increasing numbers of pharmacies today are building their IT-infrastructures to accept electronic prescriptions and it may soon be the preferred method for physicians to write prescriptions. It is with great anticipation that this technology will also enhance the prescription-writing abilities of prescribing physicians globally, giving them electronic access to patient medical records and resources that will assist them in prescribing the correct drug for the patient.

  18. Damping the e-p instability in the SNS accumulator ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N. J.; Deibele, C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Xie, Z.

    2018-03-01

    A broadband, digital damper system for both transverse planes developed for the SNS accumulator ring has recently damped the first indications of the broadband 50-150 MHz e-p instability in a 1.2 MW neutron production beam. This paper presents details of the design and operation of the SNS damper system as well as results of active damping of the e-p instability in the SNS ring showing a reduction in power of betatron oscillation over the 10-300 MHz band of up to 70%. The spectral content of the beam during operation, with and without the damper system is presented and performance of the damper system is evaluated.

  19. VCS-SSA Mainz Experiment. Measurement of the beam spin asymmetry in (e polarized p {yields} ep{gamma}) and (e polarized p {yields} ep{pi}{sup 0}). Final analysis - MEMO I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonvieille, H.; Bensafa, I. [LPC-Clermont-Fd, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63170 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2006-02-15

    This note gives details on the final analysis of the VCS-SSA experiment in terms of Beam Spin Asymmetry. It summarizes the changes between the first and second pass analysis. Then the measured asymmetry is presented for both channels e polarized p {yields} ep{gamma} and e polarized p {yields} ep{pi}{sup 0} including systematic studies. The final experimental result is briefly compared to some model predictions. (authors)

  20. Connecting primary care clinics and community pharmacies through a nationwide electronic prescribing network: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Gagnon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of medication is at the heart of primary care, but is also the cause for major health concerns. It is therefore important to examine the prescription of medication process.Objective This study identifies the barriers and facilitators perceived by community pharmacists and primary care physicians concerning the adoption of a nationwide electronic prescribing (e-prescribing network in the province of Quebec, Canada.Methods We used purposive sampling to identify the most intensive users of the e-prescribing network. We conducted phone and in-person interviews. Interviews were transcribed, and we analysed their content with NVivo, using the clinical adoption framework (CAF for the codification of the data.Results We interviewed 33 pharmacists, 2 pharmacy technicians, 11 physicians and 3 clinic managers. Adoption of the e-prescribing network was fairly low. The respondents underlined adaptation of their work environment, openness to change and perception of benefits as facilitators to the adoption of the network. However, important barriers were perceived, including system quality issues and paper prescriptions being the only legal document in the prescribing process. Even if respondents recognised that the e-prescribing network can offer substantial benefits to the prescribing process, issues still persisted and raised barriers to the full use of such a network, especially in a context where different local information systems are connected within a nationwide e-prescribing network.Conclusion This study, based on the CAF, provides a better understanding of the factors related to the adoption of a nationwide e-prescribing network connecting primary care clinics and community pharmacies. 

  1. Risk Perception, Sexual Behaviors, and PrEP Adherence Among Substance-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storholm, Erik D; Volk, Jonathan E; Marcus, Julia L; Silverberg, Michael J; Satre, Derek D

    2017-08-01

    The antiretroviral drug combination emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF/FTC) taken as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective in preventing HIV infection, yet it also requires adherence and potentially decreases condom use. This study sought to examine these issues among a key population at risk of HIV infection, substance-using men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted semi-structured interviews with an ethnically diverse sample of 30 young (aged 20-35) MSM prescribed PrEP within a large integrated healthcare system in San Francisco, who had reported recent drug use or hazardous drinking and one or more missed doses of PrEP. We explored participants' risk perception and sexual risk behavior, drug and alcohol use, and PrEP adherence in the context of substance use. Interviews were transcribed and coded using a directed content analysis approach to identify key categories and commonalities, and differences across participants. Salient subcategories included positive psychological effects of being on PrEP (e.g., decreased anxiety, feelings of empowerment), social effects (e.g., reduced HIV stigma), and reduction in overall perceptions of HIV risk. While overall reported use of condoms went down and many reported a brief period of increased condomless sex following PrEP initiation, others continued condom use with most of their sexual partners. Contextual factors influencing their decision to engage in condomless sex included how well they knew the partner and whether the partner was on PrEP or HIV antiretroviral treatment. Factors associated with poor adherence included disruptions in daily routine and use of alcohol and methamphetamine. PrEP-prescribing clinicians should support their patients in making informed decisions about condom use and identifying strategies to maximize adherence in the context of substance use.

  2. Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Hyperosmolar-Induced Human Mast Cell Activation through Prostanoid Receptors EP2 and EP4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Atencio, Ivonne; Ainsua-Enrich, Erola; de Mora, Fernando; Picado, César; Martín, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Background Mast cells play a critical role in allergic and inflammatory diseases, including exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in asthma. The mechanism underlying EIB is probably related to increased airway fluid osmolarity that activates mast cells to the release inflammatory mediators. These mediators then act on bronchial smooth muscle to cause bronchoconstriction. In parallel, protective substances such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are probably also released and could explain the refractory period observed in patients with EIB. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of PGE2 on osmotically activated mast cells, as a model of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Methods We used LAD2, HMC-1, CD34-positive, and human lung mast cell lines. Cells underwent a mannitol challenge, and the effects of PGE2 and prostanoid receptor (EP) antagonists for EP1–4 were assayed on the activated mast cells. Beta-hexosaminidase release, protein phosphorylation, and calcium mobilization were assessed. Results Mannitol both induced mast cell degranulation and activated phosphatidyl inositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, thereby causing de novo eicosanoid and cytokine synthesis. The addition of PGE2 significantly reduced mannitol-induced degranulation through EP2 and EP4 receptors, as measured by beta-hexosaminidase release, and consequently calcium influx. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 phosphorylation were diminished when compared with mannitol activation alone. Conclusions Our data show a protective role for the PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 following osmotic changes, through the reduction of human mast cell activity caused by calcium influx impairment and MAP kinase inhibition. PMID:25329458

  3. e-EPS News: Highlights from the European Physical Society

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   European Physical Society Physics Education Division Since 2000, the European Physical Society’s Physics Education Division has been contributing to awareness of the relevance of physics in everyday culture, to interaction amongst schools and universities and to a better quality of physics teaching at all levels. The Physics Education Division achieves this by addressing and promoting physics, the continued education of teachers, large scale educational changes – such as the Bologna process – and successful new teaching methods, taking into account differences and similarities in the European education systems. Since 2008, their More Understanding with Simple Experiments (MUSE) project has offered teachers and researchers a set of nine research-bas...

  4. e-EPS News: Highlights from the European Physical Society

    CERN Multimedia

    e-EPS

    2011-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   Conseil de Physique Solvay centenary One hundred years ago the celebrated first Conseil de Physique Solvay took place in Brussels, with the participation of the leading physicists of the time. It marked a profound rupture between the old classical physics and the new quantum physics that described the strange behaviour of Nature at the microscopic level. The conference was one of the most important events in the advent of the quantum revolution; no such physics conference since has acquired the same legendary status. To celebrate the centenary of this unique conference, the International Solvay Institutes are organizing a series of exceptional events that will make Brussels the world capital of physics for ten days in October. For more information, please visit the S...

  5. e-EPS News: Highlights from the European Physical Society

    CERN Multimedia

    e-EPS News

    2011-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   DESY and INFN physicists win 2011 Enrico Fermi prize The 2011 Enrico Fermi prize of the Italian Physical Society (Società Italiana di Fisica, SIF) has been awarded, for work in the field of experimental particle physics, to Dieter Haidt of the DESY Laboratory at Hamburg and to Antonino Pullia of the University of Milano Bicocca and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, “for their fundamental contribution to the discovery of weak neutral currents with the Gargamelle bubble chamber at CERN”. The Enrico Fermi Prize is awarded yearly to members of the society who especially honour physics by their discoveries. For more information on the prize, please visit the Italian Physical Society website.   Consultation on the future of European Uni...

  6. Production Of The ADD Type Kaluza-Klein Excitations At Future e+e-, ep And pp Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billur, A. A.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Inan, S. C.; Sultansoy, S.

    2007-01-01

    Possible production of ADD type Kaluza-Klein excitations are investigated at future high energy e+e-, ep and pp colliders. Discovery limits and signatures of such excitations are discussed at above colliders comparatively

  7. Prostaglandin E2-Induced COX-2 Expressions via EP2 and EP4 Signaling Pathways in Human LoVo Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Hsien Hsu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the most dangerous risk faced by patients with hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs has been observed in several types of human cancers and regulates the efficacy of many therapies. Here, we show that treatment with various concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2; 0, 1, 5 or 10 μM promotes the migration ability of the human LoVo colon cancer cell line. As demonstrated by mRNA and protein expression analyses, EP2 and EP4 are the major PGE2 receptors expressed on the LoVo cell membrane. The Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway was upregulated by EP2 and EP4 activation. Following the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, β-catenin translocated into the nucleus and triggered COX2 transcription via LEF-1 and TCF-4 and its subsequent translation. COX2 expression correlated with the elevation in the migration ability of LoVo cells. The experimental evidence shows a possible mechanism by which PGE2 induces cancer cell migration and further suggests PGE2 to be a potential therapeutic target in colon cancer metastasis. On inhibition of PGE2, in order to determine the downstream pathway, the levels of PI3K/Akt pathway were suppressed and the β-catenin expression was also modulated. Inhibition of EP2 and EP4 shows that PGE2 induces protein expression of COX-2 through EP2 and EP4 receptors in LoVo colon cancer cells.

  8. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this project is to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by exploration and production (E&P) operators to significantly lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. The project team takes considerable advantage of the emissions control research and development efforts and practices that have been underway in the gas pipeline industry for the last 12 years. These efforts and practices are expected to closely interface with the E&P industry to develop cost-effective options that apply to widely-used field and gathering engines, and which can be readily commercialized. The project is separated into two phases. Phase 1 work establishes an E&P industry liaison group, develops a frequency distribution of installed E&P field engines, and identifies and assesses commercially available and emerging engine emissions control and monitoring technologies. Current and expected E&P engine emissions and monitoring requirements are reviewed, and priority technologies are identified for further development. The identified promising technologies are tested on a laboratory engine to confirm their generic viability. In addition, a full-scale field test of prototype emissions controls will be conducted on at least ten representative field engine models with challenging emissions profiles. Emissions monitoring systems that are integrated with existing controls packages will be developed. Technology transfer/commercialization is expected to be implemented through compressor fleet leasing operators, engine component suppliers, the industry liaison group, and the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. This topical report discusses work completed during Phase 1 of the project Cost Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines. In this report information, data, and results are compiled and summarized from quarterly

  9. Highlights from e-EPS: Physics league… for kick-ass students

    CERN Multimedia

    Bénédicte Huchet

    2013-01-01

    e-EPS News is an addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   The International Association of Physics Students (IAPS), the Dutch umbrella organisation for physics study associations (SPIN) and the physics students association in Utrecht (A–Eskwadraat) have launched a new contest challenging physics undergraduate students. The first edition of the Physics League Across Numerous Countries for Kick-ass Students (PLANCKS) will be organised in April 2014 in Utrecht, the Netherlands. The competition focuses on theoretical physics problems to be solved by participating teams. Some sample exercises are already available on the PLANCKS website. The goal of the competition is to increase the international collaboration, social activities and personal development of individual contestants. By bringing together physics students from dif...

  10. E-Prescribing Errors in Community Pharmacies: Exploring Consequences and Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore types of e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies and their potential consequences, as well as the factors that contribute to e-prescribing errors. Methods Data collection involved performing 45 total hours of direct observations in five pharmacies. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 20 study participants. Transcripts from observations and interviews were subjected to content analysis using NVivo 10. Results Pharmacy staff detected 75 e-prescription errors during the 45 hour observation in pharmacies. The most common e-prescribing errors were wrong drug quantity, wrong dosing directions, wrong duration of therapy, and wrong dosage formulation. Participants estimated that 5 in 100 e-prescriptions have errors. Drug classes that were implicated in e-prescribing errors were antiinfectives, inhalers, ophthalmic, and topical agents. The potential consequences of e-prescribing errors included increased likelihood of the patient receiving incorrect drug therapy, poor disease management for patients, additional work for pharmacy personnel, increased cost for pharmacies and patients, and frustrations for patients and pharmacy staff. Factors that contribute to errors included: technology incompatibility between pharmacy and clinic systems, technology design issues such as use of auto-populate features and dropdown menus, and inadvertently entering incorrect information. Conclusion Study findings suggest that a wide range of e-prescribing errors are encountered in community pharmacies. Pharmacists and technicians perceive that causes of e-prescribing errors are multidisciplinary and multifactorial, that is to say e-prescribing errors can originate from technology used in prescriber offices and pharmacies. PMID:24657055

  11. Vacuolar Localization of Endoproteinases EP(1) and EP(2) in Barley Mesophyll Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, S S; Huffaker, R C

    1984-05-01

    The localization of two previously characterized endoproteinases (EP(1) and EP(2)) that comprise more than 95% of the protease activity in primary Hordeum vulgare L. var Numar leaves was determined. Intact vacuoles released from washed mesophyll protoplasts by gentle osmotic shock and increase in pH, were purified by flotation through a four-step Ficoll gradient. These vacuoles contained endoproteinases that rapidly degraded purified barley ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) substrate. Breakdown products and extent of digestion of RuBPCase were determined using 12% polyacrylamide-sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. Coomassie brilliant blue- or silver-stained gels were scanned, and the peaks were integrated to provide quantitative information. The characteristics of the vacuolar endoproteinases (e.g. sensitivity to various inhibitors and activators, and the molecular weights of the breakdown products, i.e. peptide maps) closely resembled those of purified EP(1) and partially purified EP(2). It is therefore concluded that EP(1) and EP(2) are localized in the vacuoles of mesophyll cells.

  12. Highlights from e-EPS: New milestone for ELI Beamlines facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Jorge Rivero González, e-EPS News

    2013-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   On 16 September 2013, the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) Beamlines facility awarded a contract worth approximately €34.5m to Lawrence Livermore National Security LLC (LLNS, California, USA) to develop and deliver a state-of-the-art laser system that will be at the heart of the ELI Beamlines user facility. Located in the village of Dolní Břežany, Czech Republic, the ELI Beamlines facility aims to pioneer work in a number of research fields using ultra-high intensity lasers. The facility will host a cutting-edge research laser, around 100 times more powerful than any other laser in operation today. In particular, it will focus on providing users with ultra-short energetic particle beams (10 GeV) and radiation beams (up to a few MeV), produced by...

  13. Production of the Randall-Sundrum Type Kaluza-Klein Excitations at Future e+e-, ep and pp Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billur, A. A.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Inan, S. C.; Sultansoy, S.

    2007-01-01

    Possible production of Randall-Sundrum type Kaluza-Klein excitations are investigated at future high energy e+e-, ep and pp colliders. Discovery limits and signatures of such excitations are discussed at above colliders comparatively

  14. C. pneumoniae CdsL regulates CdsN ATPase activity, and disruption with a peptide mimetic prevents bacterial invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Blair Stone

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that likely require type III secretion (T3S to invade cells and replicate intracellulary within a cytoplasmic vacuole called an inclusion body. C. pneumoniae possess a YscL ortholog, CdsL, that has been shown to interact with the T3S ATPase (CdsN. In this report we demonstrate that CdsL down-regulates CdsN enzymatic activity in a dose-dependent manner. Using PepScan epitope mapping we identified two separate binding domains to which CdsL binds viz. CdsN 221-229 and CdsN265-270. We confirmed the binding domains using a pull-down assay and showed that GST-CdsN221-270, which encompasses these peptides, co-purified with His-CdsL. Next, we used orthology modeling based on the crystal structure of a T3S ATPase ortholog from E. coli, EscN, to map the binding domains on the predicted three dimensional structure of CdsN. The CdsL binding domains mapped to the catalytic domain of the ATPase, one in the central channel of the ATPase hexamer and one on the outer face. Since peptide mimetics have been used to disrupt essential protein interactions of the chlamydial T3S system and inhibit T3S-mediated invasion of HeLa cells, we hypothesized that if CdsL – CdsN binding is essential for regulating T3S then a CdsN peptide mimetic could be used to potentially block T3S and Chlamydial invasion. Treatment of EBs with a CdsN peptide mimetic inhibited C. pneumoniae invasion into HeLa cells in a dose-dependent fashion. This report represents the first use of Pepscan technology to identify binding domains for specific T3S proteins viz. CdsL on the ATPase, CdsN, and demonstrates that peptide mimetics can be used as anti-virulence factors to block bacterial invasion.

  15. Role of the Prostaglandin E2 EP1 Receptor in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakov, Alexander V.; Fazal, Jawad A.; Narumiya, Shuh; Doré, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Brain injuries promote upregulation of so-called proinflammatory prostaglandins, notably prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leading to overactivation of a class of its cognate G-protein-coupled receptors, including EP1, which is considered a promising target for treatment of ischemic stroke. However, the role of the EP1 receptor is complex and depends on the type of brain injury. This study is focused on the investigation of the role of the EP1 receptor in a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model, a preclinical model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The therapeutic effects of post-treatments with a widely studied EP1 receptor antagonist, SC-51089, were examined in wildtype and EP1 receptor knockout C57BL/6 mice. Neurological deficit scores (NDS) were assessed 24 and 48 h following CCI or sham surgery, and brain immunohistochemical pathology was assessed 48 h after surgery. In wildtype mice, CCI resulted in an obvious cortical lesion and localized hippocampal edema with an associated significant increase in NDS compared to sham-operated animals. Post-treatments with the selective EP1 receptor antagonist SC-51089 or genetic knockout of EP1 receptor had no significant effects on cortical lesions and hippocampal swelling or on the NDS 24 and 48 h after CCI. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed CCI-induced gliosis and microglial activation in selected ipsilateral brain regions that were not affected by SC-51089 or in the EP1 receptor-deleted mice. This study provides further clarification on the respective contribution of the EP1 receptor in TBI and suggests that, under this experimental paradigm, the EP1 receptor would have limited effects in modulating acute neurological and anatomical pathologies following contusive brain trauma. Findings from this protocol, in combination with previous studies demonstrating differential roles of EP1 receptor in ischemic, neurotoxic, and hemorrhagic conditions, provide scientific background and further clarification of potential therapeutic

  16. Analysis of Quasi-Elastic e-n and e-p Scattering from Deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Alexander; Gilfoyle, Gerard; CLAS12 Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    One of Jefferson Lab's goals is to unravel the quark-gluon structure of nuclei. We will use the ratio, R, of electron-neutron to electron-proton scattering on deuterium to probe the magnetic form factor of the neutron. We have developed an end-to-end analysis from simulation to extraction of R in quasi-elastic kinematics for an approved experiment with the CLAS12 detector. We focus on neutrons detected in the CLAS12 calorimeters and protons measured with the CLAS12 forward detector. Events were generated with the Quasi-Elastic Event Generator (QUEEG) and passed through the Monte Carlo code gemc to simulate the CLAS12 response. These simulated events were reconstructed using the latest CLAS12 Common Tools. We first match the solid angle for e-n and e-p events. The electron information is used to predict the path of both a neutron and proton through CLAS12. If both particles interact in CLAS12 the e-n and e-p events have the same solid angle. We select QE events by searching for nuclei near the predicted position. An angular cut between the predicted 3-momentum of the nucleon and the measured value, θpq, separates QE and inelastic events. We will show the simulated R as a function of the four-momentum transfer Q2. Work supported by the University of Richmond and the US Department of Energy.

  17. Beam-helicity associated electroproduction of real photons ep {yields} e{gamma}{pi}N in the {Delta}-resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Argentina); Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Collaboration

    2013-10-15

    The beam-helicity asymmetry in associated electroproduction of real photons, ep {yields} e{gamma}{pi}N, in the {Delta}(1232)-resonance region is measured using the longitudinally polarized HERA positron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target. Azimuthal Fourier amplitudes of this asymmetry are extracted separately for two channels, ep {yields} e{gamma}{pi}{sup 0}p and ep {yields} e{gamma}{pi}{sup +}n, from a data set collected with a recoil detector. All asymmetry amplitudes are found to be consistent with zero.

  18. Highlights from e-EPS: Neutrino Oscillation / DPG President / Outreach Database

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   Asian experiments unlock neutrino oscillation mystery Two reactor experiments, China’s Daya Bay and Korea’s RENO, have made the best measurement of the neutrino mixing angle, θ13, an essential property for neutrino research. The discovery of a non-zero θ13 at approximately 9˚ – which was published in March and April this year – completes our picture of neutrino mixing. This quite large value for the mixing angle will make it easier to conduct future long baseline neutrino experiments. This, in turn, may lead to a better understanding of the matter-antimatter asymmetry seen in the Universe. Neutrino oscillations – the change in flavour&a...

  19. Highlights from e-EPS: Gender Manifesto / Energy Conference / ERASMUS Anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    Hendrik Ferdinande and Ian Randall

    2012-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   Manifesto on the Gender Dimension in Research Interested parties are encouraged to sign the Manifesto for Integrated Action on the Gender Dimension in Research and Innovation. The manifesto discusses potential actions to enhance research and innovation by addressing gender equality issues. The manifesto follows on from the European Commission public consultation on the green paper “What actions should be taken at EU level to further strengthen the role of women in science and innovation?”, which received 300 responses, and the subsequent 2011 European Gender Summit, which was attended by over 400 stakeholders. To date, over 2,800 people have signed the manifesto. For more information, and to sign the manifesto, please visit the gender summit website. Seco...

  20. Single Anomalous Production of the Fourth SM Family Quarks at Future e+e-, ep, and pp Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Sultansoy, S.; Yildiz, H. Duran

    2007-01-01

    Possible single productions of fourth SM family u4 and d4 quarks via anomalous interactions at the e+e-, ep, and pp colliders are investigated. Signatures of such anomalous processes are discussed at above colliders comparatively

  1. An example of e-p colliding machine experiments at TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This is a design report of a possible detector system of the e-p colliding machine experiment at TRISTAN. The aim of this note is to know what kind of detectors should be developed and what kind of requirements the TRISTAN machines and the environmental supporting facilities should fulfill. (author)

  2. 30 CFR 250.235 - If a State objects to the EP's coastal zone consistency certification, what can I do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If a State objects to the EP's coastal zone... EP's coastal zone consistency certification, what can I do? If an affected State objects to the coastal zone consistency certification accompanying your proposed EP within the timeframe prescribed in...

  3. E6 exotic quark production in ep collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, J.L.

    1987-06-01

    We examine the possibility of producing exotic quarks from E 6 theories via flavor changing couplings in high energy ep collisions at HERA and the proposed LEP x LHC. We find that the rate is rather small and very mixing angle dependent. Assuming maximal mixing, the production rates are ≅10 to 30 events per year at HERA (for masses up to 100 GeV) and ≅200 events per year at LEP x LHC (for masses up to 300 GeV)

  4. Inhibitors of e-Government adoption: Determinants of habit and adoption intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rey-Moreno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Explanatory models of e-Government adoption are based on the premise that user behavior results from users’ intentions, which derive from users’ beliefs and attitudes. According to such models, citizens’ high intentions to use e-Government tools should have led to the widespread adoption of these tools. Yet this has not occurred. Therefore, existing models fail to explain the adoption of e-Government. These models must be complemented to explain the cause of citizens’ failure to adopt e-Government. Attempts to build a satisfactory model include the design of dual models (jointly analyzing facilitators and inhibitors and integrating models (jointly analyzing the interaction between intention and habit in prompting behavior. This study identified several inhibitors of e-Government adoption. Organizational support, self-efficacy, benefits, loss aversion, regret aversion, control, transition costs, sunk costs/switching costs, uncertainty, habit, resistance, and inertia were found to inhibit citizens’ adoption of e-Government.

  5. PrEP adopted by the brazilian national health system: What is the size of the demand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Paula M; Benzaken, Adele; Alencar, Tatianna M de; Pimenta, Cristina; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2018-05-01

    Brazil's response to the HIV epidemic now includes free access to preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to populations at substantial risk for HIV infection including men who have sex with men (MSM). We used nationally representative demographic, epidemiologic, and surveillance data to offer estimates for the number of MSM at substantial risk for HIV infection who might be eligible and willing to use PrEP in Brazil. Starting from the age/sex-stratified population, we calculated the number of men aged 15 to 64 years, in 5-year age groups, and the proportion of those who report sex with other men during their lifetime. We focused on 11 cities (representing all regions) that are responsible for a significant fraction of the HIV burden of the country and used city-specific HIV prevalence estimates to infer the fraction of MSM who are HIV-negative. We then derived the proportion of HIV-negative MSM under substantial risk for HIV infection defined as having unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the 6 months before study participation. Finally, PrEP uptake among the eligible was inferred from the PrEP Brazil study. Our results show that PrEP demand in these 11 cities is of 66,120 men aged 15 to 64 years. When we consider the lower and upper bounds for the available parameters, we find that PrEP demand in these 11 cities might vary from 33,378 to 97,962 men. If PrEP is restricted to those aged 15 to 49 years, demand drops by 20%. PrEP demand varies considerably by city, mostly because of the differences in population size and city-specific HIV prevalence. We have shed light on the probable size of PrEP demand in Brazil certain that the incorporation of PrEP as part of Brazil's combination prevention for populations at substantial risk for HIV infection is a necessary challenge. PrEP will not only prevent HIV infections, it will also expand testing among the most vulnerable with the added benefit of offering combination prevention for the uninfected and immediate treatment for

  6. Prostaglandin E2 EP2 Receptor Deletion Attenuates Intracerebral Hemorrhage-Induced Brain Injury and Improves Functional Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna L. Leclerc

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a devastating type of stroke characterized by bleeding into the brain parenchyma and secondary brain injury resulting from strong neuroinflammatory responses to blood components. Production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is significantly upregulated following ICH and contributes to this inflammatory response in part through its E prostanoid receptor subtype 2 (EP2. Signaling through the EP2 receptor has been shown to affect outcomes of many acute and chronic neurological disorders; although, not yet explored in the context of ICH. Wildtype (WT and EP2 receptor knockout (EP2−/− mice were subjected to ICH, and various anatomical and functional outcomes were assessed by histology and neurobehavioral testing, respectively. When compared with age-matched WT controls, EP2−/− mice had 41.9 ± 4.7% smaller ICH-induced brain lesions and displayed significantly less ipsilateral hemispheric enlargement and incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage. Anatomical outcomes correlated with improved functional recovery as identified by neurological deficit scoring. Histological staining was performed to begin investigating the mechanisms involved in EP2-mediated neurotoxicity after ICH. EP2−/− mice exhibited 45.5 ± 5.8% and 41.4 ± 8.1% less blood and ferric iron accumulation, respectively. Furthermore, significantly less striatal and cortical microgliosis, striatal and cortical astrogliosis, blood–brain barrier breakdown, and peripheral neutrophil infiltration were seen in EP2−/− mice. This study is the first to suggest a deleterious role for the PGE2-EP2 signaling axis in modulating brain injury, inflammation, and functional recovery following ICH. Targeting the EP2 G protein-coupled receptor may represent a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of hemorrhagic stroke.

  7. HIV-negative male couples' attitudes about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and using PrEP with a sexual agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W; Lee, Ji-Young; Woodyatt, Cory; Bauermeister, José; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-08-01

    One efficacious strategy to help prevent HIV is oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a daily regimen of antiretroviral treatment taken by HIV-negative individuals. Two of the recommendations of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for PrEP pertain to being in a relationship (i.e., male couples). Despite the recognition of how primary partners in male couples' relationships shape HIV risk and CDC's PrEP guidelines, there is a paucity of data that examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and using PrEP with a sexual agreement. A sexual agreement is an explicit agreement made between two individuals about what sex and other related behaviors may occur within and outside of their relationship. In this qualitative study, we examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and whether they thought PrEP could be integrated into a sexual agreement. Data for this study are drawn from couple-level interviews conducted in 2014 with 29 HIV-negative male couples who had a sexual agreement and were from Atlanta or Detroit. Both passive (e.g., flyers) and active (e.g., targeted Facebook advertisements) recruitment methods were used; the sample was stratified by agreement type. Thematic analysis was applied to identify the following themes regarding HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use: (1) PrEP and condom use; (2) concerns about PrEP (e.g., effectiveness, side effects, and promoting sexually risky behavior); and (3) accessibility of PrEP. Some thought PrEP could be a part of couples' agreement because it could help reduce sexual anxiety and sexual risk, and would help keep the couple safe. Others described PrEP use with an agreement as something for "others". Some were also concerned that incorporating PrEP could usurp the need for a sexual agreement in a couples' relationship. These themes highlight the need to improve informational messaging and promotion efforts about PrEP among HIV-negative male couples

  8. A Search for Excited Neutrinos in e-p Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, A.W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, M.U.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wegener, D.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2008-01-01

    A search for excited neutrinos is performed using the full $e^{-}p$ data sample collected by the H1 experiment at HERA at a centre-of-mass energy of 319 GeV, corresponding to a total luminosity of 184 pb$^{-1}$.The electroweak decays of excited neutrinos ${\

  9. The Proton Coulomb Form Factor from Polarized Inclusive e-p Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Christopher Matthew [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The proton form factors provide information on the fundamental properties of the proton and provide a test for models based on QCD. In 1998 at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) in Newport News, VA, experiment E93026 measured the inclusive e-p scattering cross section from a polarized ammonia (15NH3) target at a four momentum transfer squared of Q2 = 0.5 (GeV/c)2. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered from the polarized target and the scattered electron was detected. Data has been analyzed to obtain the asymmetry from elastically scattered electrons from hydrogen in 15NH3. The asymmetry, Ap, has been used to determine the proton elastic form factor GEp. The result is consistent with the dipole model and data from previous experiments. However, due to the choice of kinematics, the uncertainty in the measurement is large.

  10. A qualitative study of provider thoughts on implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in clinical settings to prevent HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Arnold

    Full Text Available A recent clinical trial demonstrated that a daily dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabrine (TDF-FTC can reduce HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender (TG women by 44%, and up to 90% if taken daily. We explored how medical and service providers understand research results and plan to develop clinical protocols to prescribe, support and monitor adherence for patients on PrEP in the United States.Using referrals from our community collaborators and snowball sampling, we recruited 22 healthcare providers in San Francisco, Oakland, and Los Angeles for in-depth interviews from May-December 2011. The providers included primary care physicians seeing high numbers of MSM and TG women, HIV specialists, community health clinic providers, and public health officials. We analyzed interviews thematically to produce recommendations for setting policy around implementing PrEP. Interview topics included: assessing clinician impressions of PrEP and CDC guidance, considerations of cost, office capacity, dosing schedules, and following patients over time.Little or no demand for PrEP from patients was reported at the time of the interviews. Providers did not agree on the most appropriate patients for PrEP and believed that current models of care, which do not involve routine frequent office visits, were not well suited for prescribing PrEP. Providers detailed the need to build capacity and were concerned about monitoring side effects and adherence. PrEP was seen as potentially having impact on the epidemic but providers also noted that community education campaigns needed to be tailored to effectively reach specific vulnerable populations.While PrEP may be a novel and clinically compelling prevention intervention for MSM and TG women, it raises a number of important implementation challenges that would need to be addressed. Nonetheless, most providers expressed optimism that they eventually could prescribe and monitor PrEP

  11. A qualitative study of provider thoughts on implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in clinical settings to prevent HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Emily A; Hazelton, Patrick; Lane, Tim; Christopoulos, Katerina A; Galindo, Gabriel R; Steward, Wayne T; Morin, Stephen F

    2012-01-01

    A recent clinical trial demonstrated that a daily dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabrine (TDF-FTC) can reduce HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender (TG) women by 44%, and up to 90% if taken daily. We explored how medical and service providers understand research results and plan to develop clinical protocols to prescribe, support and monitor adherence for patients on PrEP in the United States. Using referrals from our community collaborators and snowball sampling, we recruited 22 healthcare providers in San Francisco, Oakland, and Los Angeles for in-depth interviews from May-December 2011. The providers included primary care physicians seeing high numbers of MSM and TG women, HIV specialists, community health clinic providers, and public health officials. We analyzed interviews thematically to produce recommendations for setting policy around implementing PrEP. Interview topics included: assessing clinician impressions of PrEP and CDC guidance, considerations of cost, office capacity, dosing schedules, and following patients over time. Little or no demand for PrEP from patients was reported at the time of the interviews. Providers did not agree on the most appropriate patients for PrEP and believed that current models of care, which do not involve routine frequent office visits, were not well suited for prescribing PrEP. Providers detailed the need to build capacity and were concerned about monitoring side effects and adherence. PrEP was seen as potentially having impact on the epidemic but providers also noted that community education campaigns needed to be tailored to effectively reach specific vulnerable populations. While PrEP may be a novel and clinically compelling prevention intervention for MSM and TG women, it raises a number of important implementation challenges that would need to be addressed. Nonetheless, most providers expressed optimism that they eventually could prescribe and monitor PrEP in their

  12. Combined electron/photon (E/P) postoperative radiotherapy (RT) for early breast cancer based on central lung distance (CLD) values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Keiko; Takahashi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Michiko

    2008-01-01

    Combined electron/photon (E/P) method has been introduced since 1999 in the postoperative radiotherapy (RT) for 27 early breast cancer patients out of 491, whose central lung disease (CLD) exceeded over 2.5 cm. Several parameters were analyzed between the conventional method and E/P method. Remarkable improvement was established as follows, CLD 2.64 vs. 1.26 cm, maximum lung distance (MLD) 2.75 vs. 1.40 cm and maximum heart distance (MHD) 1.81 vs. 0.58 cm, respectively (p<0.0001). Combined E/P method would be valid to avoid lung complications and long-term cardiac mortality. (author)

  13. Product Plan of New Generation System Camera "OLYMPUS PEN E-P1"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruo

    "OLYMPUS PEN E-P1", which is new generation system camera, is the first product of Olympus which is new standard "Micro Four-thirds System" for high-resolution mirror-less cameras. It continues good sales by the concept of "small and stylish design, easy operation and SLR image quality" since release on July 3, 2009. On the other hand, the half-size film camera "OLYMPUS PEN" was popular by the concept "small and stylish design and original mechanism" since the first product in 1959 and recorded sale number more than 17 million with 17 models. By the 50th anniversary topic and emotional value of the Olympus pen, Olympus pen E-P1 became big sales. I would like to explain the way of thinking of the product plan that included not only the simple functional value but also emotional value on planning the first product of "Micro Four-thirds System".

  14. Highlights from e-EPS: Cosmic Day / FEL for SuperB / Assessment Assessed

    CERN Multimedia

    Ian Randall, Bénédicte Huchet and EPS

    2012-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   International Cosmic Day The first International Cosmic Day will be held on 26 September this year. During this event, students and teachers worldwide will come together in research institutions, universities and classrooms to learn about cosmic particle research. The event will celebrate the centenary of Victor Franz Hess’ discovery of cosmic rays – particles which originate in outer space and spread through the whole universe, often at extremely high energies. On the day, students will tackle such questions as: what are cosmic particles? … where do they come from? … and how can they be measured? Participants will be encouraged to undertake their own cosmic particle experiments: analysing and evaluating the...

  15. Prostaglandin E2 EP2 and EP4 receptor activation mediates cAMP-dependent hyperpolarization and exocytosis of renin in juxtaglomerular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulla Glenert; Stubbe, Jane; Uhrenholt, Torben Rene

    2005-01-01

    /l), AE1-259-01 (1 nmol/l), EP4-selective agonist AE1-329 (1 nmol/l), and IP agonist iloprost (1 micromol/l) significantly increased C(m) mediated by PKA. The EP4 antagonist AE3-208 (10 nmol/l) blocked the effect of EP4 agonist but did not alter the response to PGE(2). Application of both EP4 antagonist....... The membrane potential hyperpolarized significantly after PGE(2), butaprost, AE1-329 and AE1-259 and outward current was augmented in a PKA-dependent fashion. PGE(2)-stimulated outward current, but not C(m) change, was abolished by the BK(Ca) channel inhibitor iberiotoxin (300 nmol/l). EP2 and EP4 m......RNA was detected in sampled JG cells, and the preglomerular and glomerular vasculature was immunopositive for EP4. Thus IP, EP2, and EP4 receptors are associated with JG cells, and their activation leads to rapid PKA-mediated exocytotic fusion and release of renin granules....

  16. Family planning providers' role in offering PrEP to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Dominika; Weber, Shannon; Carlson, Kimberly; Witt, Jacki

    2018-03-09

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) provides a radically different HIV prevention option for women. Not only is PrEP the first discrete, woman-controlled method that is taken in advance of exposure, but it is both safe and highly effective, offering over 90% protection if taken daily. While multiple modalities of PrEP are in development ranging from vaginal rings to injectables and implants, only PrEP with oral tenofovir/emtricitabine is currently FDA-approved. Family planning clinics provide key access points for many women to learn about and obtain PrEP. By incorporating PrEP services into family planning care, family planning providers have the opportunity to meet women's expectations, ensure women are aware of and offered comprehensive HIV prevention options, and reverse emerging disparities in PrEP access. Despite real and perceived barriers to integrating PrEP into family planning care, providing PrEP services, ranging from education to onsite provision, is not only possible but an important component of providing high-quality sexual and reproductive healthcare to women. Lessons learned from early adopters will help guide those in family planning settings initiating or enhancing PrEP services. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Using Think Aloud Protocols to Assess E-Prescribing in Community Pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunmilola K. Odukoya, BPharm, MS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Think aloud protocol has rarely been used as a method of data collection in community pharmacies.Purpose: The aim of the report is to describe how think aloud protocols were used to identify issues that arise when using e-prescribing technology in pharmacies. In this paper, we report on the benefits and challenges of using think aloud protocols in pharmacies to examine the use of e-prescribing systems.Methods: Sixteen pharmacists and pharmacy technicians were recruited from seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin. Data were collected using direct observation alongside think aloud protocol. Direct observations and think aloud protocols took place between January-February, 2011. Participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they process electronic prescriptions.Results: Participants identified weaknesses in e-prescribing that they had previously not conceived. This created heightened awareness for vigilance when processing e-prescriptions. The main challenge with using think aloud protocols was due to interruptions in the pharmacies. Also, a few participants found it challenging to remember to continue verbalizing their thought process during think aloud sessions.Conclusion: The use of think aloud protocols as method of data collection is a new way for understanding the issues related to technology use in community pharmacy practice. Think aloud protocol was beneficial in providing objective information on e-prescribing use not solely based on pharmacist’s or technician’s opinion of the technology. This method provided detailed information on a wide variety of real time challenges with e-prescribing technology use in community pharmacies. Using this data collection method can help identify potential patient safety issues when using e-prescribing and suggestions for redesign.

  18. Preliminary evidence of HIV seroconversion among HIV-negative men who have sex with men taking non-prescribed antiretroviral medication for HIV prevention in Miami, Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P

    2017-04-01

    Background Limited information suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) are informally obtaining antiretroviral medication (ARVs) and using them for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Data are drawn from an on-going study examining the use of non-prescribed ARVs for PrEP. To date, 24 qualitative interviews have been conducted with HIV-negative, substance-using MSM living in Miami, Florida, USA. Data are presented from two participants who reported HIV seroconversion while using non-prescribed ARVs for PrEP. Preliminary data indicate that some young MSM: (i) lack awareness of and accurate information about the efficacious use of PrEP; (ii) obtain non-prescribed ARVs from HIV-positive sex partners and use these medications for PrEP in a way that does not provide adequate protection against HIV infection or cohere with established guidelines; and (iii) engage in multiple HIV transmission risk behaviours, including condomless anal sex and injection drug use. The informal, non-prescribed and non-medically supervised use of ARVs for HIV prevention has the potential to undermine the protective benefits of PrEP and leave men unprotected against HIV transmission and at risk for ARV resistance.

  19. Anodic Titania Nanotube Arrays Sensitized with Mn- or Co-Doped CdS Nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, York R.; Gakhar, Ruchi; Merwin, Augustus; Mohanty, Swomitra K.; Chidambaram, Dev; Misra, Mano

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mn or Co doped CdS where synthesized and deposited onto TiO 2 nanotubular arrays. • Synthesis and deposition were achieved simultaneously using SILAR method. • Various characterization techniques demonstrate lattice incorporation of dopant. • Photoelectrochemical performance was analyzed using AM 1.5 irradiation. • Dopants increases depletion width of CdS and increase photoelectrochemical responses. - Abstract: The use of doped luminescent nanocrystals or quantum dots have mainly been explored for imaging applications; however, recently they have gained interest in solar energy conversion applications due to long electron lifetimes, tunable band gaps and emission by compositional control. In this study, we have examined the application of Mn or Co doped CdS nanocrystals as a sensitizing layer over titania nanotubular arrays synthesized via electrochemical anodization in photoelectrochemical applications. The doped and undoped CdS nanocrystals were simultaneously synthesized and deposited onto the titania surface by adoption of a successive ion layer adsorption-reaction (SILAR) method. Various characterization methods indicate lattice incorporation of the dopant within CdS. The addition of dopants to CdS was found to improve the photoelectrochemical performance by increasing the depletion width of the CdS nanocrystals and reducing recombination losses of charge carriers

  20. Highlights from e-EPS: New milestone reached for the European XFEL construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Jorge Rivero González

    2013-01-01

    e-EPS News is an addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   In June 2013 an important milestone was reached for the European X-ray free-electron laser [XFEL] with the completion of its underground portion. Located in the Hamburg area (Germany), the European XFEL is one of the largest and most ambitious European projects to date. Starting full operations in 2016, the European XFEL is expected to generate intensive, ultrashort X-ray flashes that will open up entirely new areas of research with X-rays that are currently inaccessible. Organisations from 12 European countries, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland are members of the European XFEL consortium, with the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron [DESY] as the main shareholder. The total length of the facility will be 3.4km and ...

  1. Dynamic Modeling of CDS Index Tranche Spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    This paper provides a Market Model which implies a dynamics for standardized CDS index tranche spreads, i.e. tranches which securitise CDS index series and dispose of predefined subordination. This model is useful for pricing options on tranches with future Issue Dates as well as for modeling...... options on structured credit derivatives. With the upcoming regulation of the CDS market in perspective, the model presented here is also an attempt to face the effects on pricing approaches provoked by an eventual Clearing Chamber . It becomes also possible to calibrate Index Tranche Options with bespoke...... tenors/tranche subordination to market data obtained by more liquid Index Tranche Options with standard characteristics....

  2. CERN Document Server (CDS): Introduction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Costa, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    A short online tutorial introducing the CERN Document Server (CDS). Basic functionality description, the notion of Revisions and the CDS test environment. Links: CDS Production environment CDS Test environment  

  3. Calibrating the CERN ATLAS Experiment with $E/p$

    CERN Document Server

    Froeschl, R; Aleksa, M

    2009-01-01

    Inside the ATLAS experiment two proton beams will collide with a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. These proton beams will be delivered with unprecedented high collision rates by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Center of Particle Physics, CERN. For important parts of the physics program of ATLAS, e.g. the search for the Higgs boson, the performance of the electromagnetic calorimeter, whose primary task is to measure the energy of electrons and photons, is crucial. The main topic of this thesis is the intercalibration of the energy scale of the electromagnetic calorimeter and the momentum scale of the inner detector. This is an important consistency test for these two detectors. The intercalibration is performed by investigating the ratio E/p for electrons, i.e. the ratio of the energy E measured by the electromagnetic calorimeter and the momentum p measured by the inner detector. The starting point is the Combined Test Beam (CTB) 2004, where a segment of the ATLAS detector was exposed to differ...

  4. Highlights from e-EPS: the 2015 EPS High Energy Physics Prize winners

    CERN Multimedia

    Thomas Lohse, e-EPS News

    2015-01-01

    The EPS High Energy Physics Division announces the winners of its 2015 prizes, which will be awarded at the Europhysics Conference on High-Energy Physics (EPS-HEP 2015), Vienna (Austria) 22−29 July. Many people from CERN were among the winners.   The 2015 High Energy and Particle Physics Prize, for an outstanding contribution to High Energy Physics, is awarded to James D. Bjorken “for his prediction of scaling behaviour in the structure of the proton that led to a new understanding of the b interaction”, and to Guido Altarelli, Yuri L. Dokshitzer, Lev Lipatov, and Giorgio Parisi “for developing a probabilistic field theory framework for the dynamics of quarks and gluons, enabling a quantitative understanding of high-energy collisions involving hadrons”. The 2015 Giuseppe and Vanna Cocconi Prize, for an outstanding contribution to Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology in the past 15 years, is awarded to Francis Halzen “for his visiona...

  5. ORF Alignment: cds [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cds gnl|CMER >1e79I 1 47 1 47 1e-07 ... pdb|1E79|I Chain I, Bovine F1-Atpase Inhibite...d By Dccd ... (Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide) pdb|1H8E|I Chain I, ... (Adp.Alf4)2(Adp.So4) Bovine F1-Atpase

  6. Toxicity of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles against Escherichia coli and HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Sk Tofajjen; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Toxic effect of CdS NPs on the growth and cell division in E. coli was studied. • CdS NPs affected cell surface topology and cell division. • Downregulation of both FtsZ and FtsQ was observed due to NPs exposure. • CdS NPs affected HeLa cell morphology with fragmented nuclei. • All such effects might be due to elevated oxidative stress. -- Abstract: The present study endeavours to assess the toxic effect of synthesized CdS nanoparticles (NPs) on Escherichia coli and HeLa cells. The CdS NPs were characterized by DLS, XRD, TEM and AFM studies and the average size of NPs was revealed as ∼3 nm. On CdS NPs exposure bacterial cells changed morphological features to filamentous form and damage of the cell surface was found by AFM study. The expression of two conserved cell division components namely ftsZ and ftsQ in E. coli was decreased both at transcriptional and translational levels upon CdS NPs exposure. CdS NPs inhibited proper cell septum formation without affecting the nucleoid segregation. Viability of HeLa cells declined with increasing concentration of CdS NPs and the IC 50 value was found to be 4 μg/mL. NPs treated HeLa cells showed changed morphology with condensed and fragmented nuclei. Increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found both in E. coli and HeLa cells on CdS NPs exposure. The inverse correlation between declined cell viabilities and elevated ROS level suggested that oxidative stress seems to be the key event by which NPs induce toxicity both in E. coli and HeLa cells

  7. Perceptions of and intentions to adopt HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among black men who have sex with men in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ronald A; Landovitz, Raphael J; Regan, Rotrease; Lee, Sung-Jae; Allen, Vincent C

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed perceptions of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and their association with PrEP adoption intention among a convenience sample of 224 low socioeconomic status black men who have sex with men (BMSM) residing in Los Angeles. Participants received educational information about PrEP and completed an in-person interview. More than half (60%) of the participants indicated a high intention to adopt PrEP. Younger BMSM (18-29 years) were twice as likely to report a high intention to adopt PrEP compared to older BMSM (30+ years). Only 33% of participants were aware of PrEP and no participant had ever used PrEP. Negative perceptions were associated with a lower PrEP adoption intention and included being uncomfortable taking an HIV medicine when HIV-negative and not knowing if there are long-term side effects of taking an HIV medication. These findings suggest that BMSM may adopt PrEP but that negative perceptions may limit its uptake among this population. In order to facilitate PrEP adoption among BMSM targeted educational and community awareness programmes are needed to provide accurate information on the benefits of PrEP and to address the negative perceptions of PrEP held by local BMSM populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. E-P instability in the NSNS accumulator ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, A.G.; Blaskiewicz, M.

    1997-08-01

    It has been speculated that the intensity limitation observed in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) is caused by a coherent instability induced by the presence of pockets of electrons generated by scattering with the molecules of the vacuum residual gas. A theoretical explanation of the e-p instability of course does exist, and is similar to the one developed for the ion-induced instability in electron storage rings. Considering the large beam power (3 MW) involved in the NSNS Accumulator Ring, and the consequences caused by even a small amount of beam loss, we need to carefully assess the effects of electrons that may be generated in the vacuum chamber.

  9. Synthesis of CdS nanorods in soft template under gamma-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Wang, Yanli; Zhang, Haijiao; Jiao, Zheng; Wang, Haobo; Ding, Guoji; Wu, Minghong

    2009-02-01

    CdS nano material which has a band gap of 2.42 eV at room temperature is a typical II-VII semiconductor having many commercial or potential applications, e.g., light-emitting diodes, solar cell and optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we use a new strategy to synthesize CdS nanorods. CdS nanorods were prepared in soft template under gamma-irradiation though the reaction of cadmium sulphide and thiacetamide (TAA). The formation process and characters of CdS nanorods was investigated in detail by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED) pattern, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UV) and photoluminescence spectrophotometer (PL). In the experiment we proposed that the irradiation of gamma-ray accelerated the formation of S(2-) under acidic condition (pH = 3) and vinyl acetate (VAc) monomer formed pre-organized nano polymer tubules which were used as both templates and nanoreacters for the growth of CdS nanorods. In this process, we have obtained the CdS polycrystal nanorods with PVAc nano tubules and CdS single-crystal nanorods. The result of X-ray powder diffraction confirms that the crystal type of CdS nanorods is cubic F-43 m (216). The results from transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction show that the concentrations of reactants and the dose rate of gamma-ray are key to produce appropriate CdS nanorods. Relatively low concentrations (Cd2+: 0.008-0.02 mol/L, Cd2+ : S(2-) = 1 : 2) of reactants and long time (1-2 d) of irradiation in low dose rate (6-14 Gy/min) are propitious to form CdS single-crystal nanorods with small diameter (less than 100 nm) and well length (2-5 microm). UV and PL characterizations show the sample have well optical properties.

  10. The Prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Regulates Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Mediated NLRC4 Inflammasome Activation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, X.; Shaw, D.K.; Hammond, H.L.; Sutterwala, F.S.; Rayamajhi, M.; Shirey, K.A.; Perkins, D.J.; Bonventre, J.V.; Velayutham, T.S.; Evans, S.M.; Rodino, K.G.; VieBrock, L.; Scanlon, K.M.; Carbonetti, N.H.; Carlyon, J.A.; Miao, E.A.; McBride, J.W.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 8 (2016), č. článku e1005803. E-ISSN 1553-7374 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Rickettsial agents * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.003, year: 2015

  11. Physicians' attitudes towards ePrescribing – evaluation of a Swedish full-scale implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montelius Emelie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The penetration rate of Electronic Health Record (EHR systems in health care is increasing. However, many different EHR-systems are used with varying ePrescription designs and functionalities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate experienced ePrescribers' attitudes towards ePrescribing for suggesting improvements. Methods Physicians (n = 431 from seven out of the 21 Swedish health care regions, using one of the six most widely implemented EHR-systems with integrated electronic prescribing modules, were recruited from primary care centers and hospital clinics of internal medicine, orthopaedics and surgery. The physicians received a web survey that comprised eight questions on background data and 19 items covering attitudes towards ePrescribing. Forty-two percent (n = 199 of the physicians answered the questionnaire; 90% (n = 180 of the respondents met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Results A majority of the respondents regarded their EHR-system easy to use in general (81%, and for the prescribing of drugs (88%. Most respondents believed they were able to provide the patients better service by ePrescribing (92%, and regarded ePrescriptions to be time saving (91% and to be safer (83%, compared to handwritten prescriptions. Some of the most frequently reported weaknesses were: not clearly displayed price of drugs (43%, complicated drug choice (21%, and the perception that it was possible to handle more than one patient at a time when ePrescribing (13%. Moreover, 62% reported a lack of receipt from the pharmacy after successful transmission of an ePrescription. Although a majority (73% of the physicians reported that they were always or often checking the ePrescription a last time before transmitting, 25% declared that they were seldom or never doing a last check. The respondents suggested a number of improvements, among others, to simplify the drug choice and the cancellation of e

  12. Effects of bacteria on CdS thin films used in technological devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpdoğan, S.; Adıgüzel, A. O.; Sahan, B.; Tunçer, M.; Metin Gubur, H.

    2017-04-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films were fabricated on glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition method at 70 {}^\\circ \\text{C} considering deposition times ranging from 2 h to 5 h. The optical band gaps of CdS thin films were found to be in the 2.42-2.37 eV range. CdS thin films had uniform spherical nano-size grains which had polycrystalline, hexagonal and cubic phases. The films had a characteristic electrical resistivity of the order of {{10}5} Ω \\text{cm} and n-type conductivity at room condition. CdS thin films were incubated in cultures of B.domonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which exist abundantly in the environment, and form biofilms. SEM images showed that S. aureus and K. pneumonia were detected significantly on the film surfaces with a few of P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis cells attached. CdS thin film surface exhibits relatively good resistance to the colonization of P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. Optical results showed that the band gap of CdS thin films which interacted with the bacteria is 2.42 \\text{eV} . The crystal structure and electrical properties of CdS thin films were not affected by bacterial adhesion. The antimicrobial effect of CdS nanoparticles was different for different bacterial strains.

  13. New developments on the e-p instability at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.; Browman, A.; Fitzgerald, D.H.; McCrady, R.; Plum, M.; Spickermann, T.

    2001-01-01

    New results are reported from an R and D program aimed greater understanding and control of the e-p instability observed at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Rings (PSR). Numerous characteristics of the electron cloud for both stable and unstable beams in PSR were measured with ANL electron analyzers and various collection plates. Strong suppression of the electron flux density by TiN coating of the vacuum chamber in a straight section was also observed, thereby confirming an essential role for secondary emission at the walls. Landau Damping by a variety of techniques including higher rf voltage, transverse coupling, multipole fields in the lattice, and the use of inductive inserts has been effective in controlling the e-p instability. By these methods, the instability threshold has been raised significantly to 9.7 micro Coulombs per stored pulse. (author)

  14. A 256×256 low-light-level CMOS imaging sensor with digital CDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Mei; Chen, Nan; Zhong, Shengyou; Li, Zhengfen; Zhang, Jicun; Yao, Li-bin

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve high sensitivity for low-light-level CMOS image sensors (CIS), a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) pixel circuit with a small integration capacitor is used. As the pixel and the column area are highly constrained, it is difficult to achieve analog correlated double sampling (CDS) to remove the noise for low-light-level CIS. So a digital CDS is adopted, which realizes the subtraction algorithm between the reset signal and pixel signal off-chip. The pixel reset noise and part of the column fixed-pattern noise (FPN) can be greatly reduced. A 256×256 CIS with CTIA array and digital CDS is implemented in the 0.35μm CMOS technology. The chip size is 7.7mm×6.75mm, and the pixel size is 15μm×15μm with a fill factor of 20.6%. The measured pixel noise is 24LSB with digital CDS in RMS value at dark condition, which shows 7.8× reduction compared to the image sensor without digital CDS. Running at 7fps, this low-light-level CIS can capture recognizable images with the illumination down to 0.1lux.

  15. Right-handed currents and heavy neutrinos in high energy ep and e+e- scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.; Greub, C.

    1992-03-01

    Heavy Dirac or Majorana neutrinos can be produced via right-handed charged currents which occur in extensions of the standard model with SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) B-L gauge symmetry. Low energy processes, Z precision experiments and direct search experiments in pp collisions are consistent with W R bosons heavier than 300 GeV, if the right-handed neutrinos are heavy. We study the production of heavy neutrinos via right-handed currents in e + e - annihilation and ep scattering which appears particularly promising. At HERA heavy neutrinos and W R bosons can be discovered with masses up to 170 GeV and 700 GeV, respectively. (orig.)

  16. Investigating personal characteristics on e-banking adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arfaeian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been increasing interests on doing banking transactions using online services through internet. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to study the role of personal and social characteristics on acceptance of e-banking adoption. The proposed study designs two questionnaires and distributes them among 384 randomly selected people who use online banking in province of Alborz, Iran. The proposed study examines the effects of five factors including Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness on e-banking adoption. Using regression techniques, the study has confirmed that Neuroticism and Agreeableness have negative and meaningful impact on e-banking adoption while Conscientiousness has positive and meaningful relationship with e-banking adoption.

  17. E.P.S. HUAYCO: DECLARACIONES

    OpenAIRE

    Falla, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    EL ARTISTA Y LA ÉPOCA: UN «HUAYCO» DE CREACIÓN COLECTIVA» RICARDO FALLA Hace aproximadamente 3 años [sic], apareció en Barranco el Taller de Arte «Huayco» EPS con el deliberado propósito de mostrar las esencias de nuestro ser nacional. Francisco Mariotti (36), María Luy (30), Charo Noriega (23), Mariela Zevallos (21), Herbert Rodríguez (21), Armando Williams (24) y juan Javier Salazar (25), integrantes de esta singular experiencia, decidieron apoyarse mutuamente para «crear una alternativa o ...

  18. SMEs' E-commerce Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - Proposes providing an insight about factors affecting business-to-business e-commerce adoption and implementation in small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), highlighting similarities and differences between Danish and Australian SMEs.    Design/methodology/approach - The research...... conducted in Danish and Australian companies. Findings - The findings both corroborate previous results about significant factors affecting SMEs' b-to-b e-commerce adoption and implementation and provide new, interesting insights. The study also finds many similarities and differences between Denmark...... and Australia.  Research limitations/implications - The main limitation relates to the difficulty of generalization of the findings to a larger population of SMEs.  To overcome this, a statistical survey is planned to be conducted in the future. Practical implications - The results of the empirical research...

  19. Implementering av TCO-konseptet: En casestudie i ENGIE E&P Norge

    OpenAIRE

    Raaen, Henrik; Fagernes, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Executive MBA I denne masteroppgaven ønsker vi å undersøke hvordan Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) som konsept for anskaffelser er implementert i ENGIE E&P Norge (ENGIE). Vi har strukturert disse betraktningene gjennom en analysemodell. Analysemodellen deler relevante teoretiske bidrag i flere begrep for å forstå hvordan TCO-konseptet er implementert i ENGIE. Hensikten med oppgaven er å identifisere hvordan det teoretiske grunnlaget for TCO som konsept og implementering...

  20. A Conceptual Model of eLearning Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Abbad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Internet-based learning systems are being used in many universities and firms but their adoption requires a solid understanding of the user acceptance processes. The technology acceptance model (TAM has been used to test the acceptance of various technologies and software within an e-learning context. This research aims to discuss the main factors of a successful e-learning adoption by students. A conceptual research framework of e-learning adoption is proposed based on the TAM model.

  1. ORF Alignment: cds [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cds gnl|CMER >1wfiA 3 125 209 328 1e-34 ... ref|NP_705268.1| nuclear movement protein..., putative [Plasmodium falciparum 3D7] ... emb|CAD52505.1| nuclear movement protein, putative ...

  2. A maladaptive role for EP4 receptors in mouse mesangial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-xia Yang

    Full Text Available Roles of the prostaglandin E2 E-prostanoid 4 receptor (EP4 on extracellular matrix (ECM accumulation induced by TGF-β1 in mouse glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs remain unknown. Previously, we have identified that TGF-β1 stimulates the expression of FN and Col I in mouse GMCs. Here we asked whether stimulation of EP4 receptors would exacerbate renal fibrosis associated with enhanced glomerular ECM accumulation. We generated EP4(Flox/Flox and EP4(+/- mice, cultured primary WT, EP4(Flox/Flox and EP4(+/- GMCs, AD-EP4 transfected WT GMCs (EP4 overexpression and AD-Cre transfected EP4(Flox/Flox GMCs (EP4 deleted. We found that TGF-β1-induced cAMP and PGE2 synthesis decreased in EP4 deleted GMCs and increased in EP4 overexpressed GMCs. Elevated EP4 expression in GMCs augmented the coupling of TGF-β1 to FN, Col I expression and COX2/PGE2 signaling, while TGF-β1 induced FN, Col I expression and COX2/PGE2 signaling were down-regulated in EP4 deficiency GMCs. 8 weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx, WT and EP4(+/- mice exhibited markedly increased accumulation of ECM compared with sham-operated controls. Albuminuria, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine (BUN and Cr concentrations were significantly increased in WT mice as compared to those of EP4(+/- mice. Urine osmotic pressure was dramatically decreased after 5/6 Nx surgery in WT mice as compared to EP4(+/- mice. The pathological changes in kidney of EP4(+/- mice was markedly alleviated compared with WT mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed significant reductions of Col I and FN in the kidney of EP4(+/- mice compared with WT mice. Collectively, this investigation established EP4 as a potent mediator of the pro-TGF-β1 activities elicited by COX2/PGE2 in mice GMCs. Our findings suggested that prostaglandin E2, acting via EP4 receptors contributed to accumulation of ECM in GMCs and promoted renal fibrosis.

  3. ORF Alignment: cds [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cds gnl|CMER >1sg6B 30 343 72 371 7e-54 ... dbj|BAD07382.1| putative 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthase [Actinopla...nes sp. A40644] ... Length = 300 ... Query: 89 ... SRRFCVVDDSVWAIYGEKLKAYFDERNIASK

  4. TiO2-CdS Nanocomposites: Effect of CdS Oxidation on the Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites TiO2-CdS with different relative contents of CdS (molar ratios Cd/Ti = 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 were studied. The structural, photophysical, and chemical properties were investigated using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, GSDR, and LIL. XRD and Raman results confirmed the presence of TiO2 and CdS with intensities dependent on the ratio Cd/Ti. The presence of CdSO4 was detected by XPS at the surface of all TiO2-CdS composites. The relative amount of sulphate was dependent on the CdS loading. Luminescence time-resolved spectra clearly proved the existence of an excitation transfer process from CdS to TiO2 through the luminescence emission from TiO2 after excitation of CdS at λexc=410 nm, where no direct excitation of TiO2 occurs. Photodegradation of a series of aromatic carboxylic acids—benzoic, salicylic, 4-bromobenzoic, 3-phenylpropionic, and veratric acids—showed a great enhancement in the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2-CdS composites, which is due, mainly, to the effect of the charge carriers’ increased lifetime. In addition, it was shown that the oxidation of CdS to CdSO4 did not result in the deactivation of the photocatalytic properties and even contributed to enhance the degradation efficiency.

  5. Qualitative analysis of multi-disciplinary round-table discussions on the acceleration of benefits and data analytics through hospital electronic prescribing (ePrescribing) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin; Coleman, Jamie; Smith, Pam; Swainson, Charles; Slee, Ann; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-07-04

    Electronic systems that facilitate prescribing, administration and dispensing of medicines (ePrescribing systems) are at the heart of international efforts to improve the safety, quality and efficiency of medicine management. Considering the initial costs of procuring and maintaining ePrescribing systems, there is a need to better understand how to accelerate and maximise the financial benefits associated with these systems. We sought to investigate how different sectors are approaching the realisation of returns on investment from ePrescribing systems in U.K. hospitals and what lessons can be learned for future developments and implementation strategies within healthcare settings. We conducted international, multi-disciplinary, round-table discussions with 21 participants from different backgrounds including policy makers, healthcare organisations, academic researchers, vendors and patient representatives. The discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and then thematically analysed with the qualitative analysis software NVivo10. There was an over-riding concern that realising financial returns from ePrescribing systems was challenging. The underlying reasons included substantial fixed costs of care provision, the difficulties in radically changing the medicines management process and the lack of capacity within NHS hospitals to analyse and exploit the digital data being generated. Any future data strategy should take into account the need to collect and analyse local and national data (i.e. within and across hospitals), setting comparators to measure progress (i.e. baseline measurements) and clear standards guiding data management so that data are comparable across settings. A more coherent national approach to realising financial benefits from ePrescribing systems is needed as implementations progress and the range of tools to collect information will lead to exponential data growth. The move towards more sophisticated closed-loop systems that integrate

  6. Qualitative analysis of multi-disciplinary round-table discussions on the acceleration of benefits and data analytics through hospital electronic prescribing (ePrescribing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Cresswell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic systems that facilitate prescribing, administration and dispensing of medicines (ePrescribing systems are at the heart of international efforts to improve the safety, quality and efficiency of medicine management. Considering the initial costs of procuring and maintaining ePrescribing systems, there is a need to better understand how to accelerate and maximise the financial benefits associated with these systems. Objectives: We sought to investigate how different sectors are approaching the realisation of returns on investment from ePrescribing systems in U.K. hospitals and what lessons can be learned for future developments and implementation strategies within healthcare settings. Methods: We conducted international, multi-disciplinary, round-table discussions with 21 participants from different backgrounds including policy makers, healthcare organisations, academic researchers, vendors and patient representatives. The discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and then thematically analysed with the qualitative analysis software NVivo10. Results: There was an over-riding concern that realising financial returns from ePrescribing systems was challenging. The underlying reasons included substantial fixed costs of care provision, the difficulties in radically changing the medicines management process and the lack of capacity within NHS hospitals to analyse and exploit the digital data being generated. Any future data strategy should take into account the need to collect and analyse local and national data (i.e. within and across hospitals, setting comparators to measure progress (i.e. baseline measurements and clear standards guiding data management so that data are comparable across settings. Conclusions: A more coherent national approach to realising financial benefits from ePrescribing systems is needed as implementations progress and the range of tools to collect information will lead to exponential data growth. The

  7. Fabrication of CdS films with superhydrophobicity by the microwave assisted chemical bath deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tan, T; Wang, B; Zhai, R; Song, X; Li, E; Wang, H; Yan, H

    2008-04-15

    A simple method of microwave assisted chemical bath deposition (MA-CBD) was adopted to fabricate cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films. The superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle (CA) of 151 degrees was obtained. Via a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, the film was proved having a porous micro/nano-binary structure which can change the property of the surface and highly enhance the hydrophobicity of the film. A possible mechanism was suggested to describe the growth of the porous structure, in which the microwave heating takes an important role in the formation of two distinct characteristic dimensions of CdS precipitates, the growth of CdS sheets in micro-scale and sphere particles in nano-scale. The superhydrophobic films may provide novel platforms for photovoltaic, sensor, microfluidic and other device applications.

  8. Discovering Citizens Reaction Toward E-Government: Factors in E-Government Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kamel Alomari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available E-government has been considered as one approach for changing the face of government in the eyes of the citizenry. Therefore, citizens’ socialization in relation to their engagement with e-government should be explored. This study argues that citizens played a significant role in determining the success of an e-government project in the Middle Eastern country of Jordan. This paper aims to provide insight and evaluation into the factors that could influence e-government’s effective functioning in the Jordanian social community through its interaction with citizens. The study collected data from 356 Jordanian citizens via a survey, to ascertain their understanding of 10 factors that may influence their intention to use e-government services. To investigate the adoption of e-government services in depth, two departments in Jordan were selected: the Jordanian Government’s Income and Sales Tax Department (ISTD and its Driver and Vehicle Licenses Department (DVDL. The factor analysis technique was used to identify the main factors related to e-government services’ adoption. The results indicated that trust in the internet, website design, religious beliefs, internet and computer skill confidence, word of mouth, resistance to change, perceived usefulness, relative advantage and complexity are the main factors that should be considered when addressing the topic of e-government services’ adoption in Jordan. This study is different from most existing studies on e-government adoption as it empirically investigated the impact of word of mouth (WOM, wasta (favoritism, and resistance to change on e-government adoption. This study highlights the importance of considering the social cohesion of the Jordanian community when exploring factors related to e-government adoption.

  9. Operational and customer relationship management considerations of electronic prescribing among pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D; Motley, Darlene

    2009-01-01

    Technology in healthcare environments has increasingly become a vital way to communicate vital information in a safe, reliable, precise and secure manner. Healthcare is an arena that is constantly changing and very fast paced, but adoption of electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) has been comparatively slow and painful in the USA. Medical professionals need a system to communicate medications and diagnosis, with patients' safety as the major consideration, especially with the many complexities associated with drug-interactions and allergies. Via multivariate analysis and linear regression analysis, it was found that degree of e-prescribing acceptance is highly predictable by constructs of Technological Sophistication, Operational Factors and Maturity Factors, which are very stable ease-of-use variables derived from the TAM Model by Davis (1989).

  10. Influences on physicians' adoption of electronic detailing (e-detailing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Doucette, William R

    2009-01-01

    E-detailing means using digital technology: internet, video conferencing and interactive voice response. There are two types of e-detailing: interactive (virtual) and video. Currently, little is known about what factors influence physicians' adoption of e-detailing. The objectives of this study were to test a model of physicians' adoption of e-detailing and to describe physicians using e-detailing. A mail survey was sent to a random sample of 2000 physicians practicing in Iowa. Binomial logistic regression was used to test the model of influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. On the basis of Rogers' model of adoption, the independent variables included relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, peer influence, attitudes, years in practice, presence of restrictive access to traditional detailing, type of specialty, academic affiliation, type of practice setting and control variables. A total of 671 responses were received giving a response rate of 34.7%. A total of 141 physicians (21.0%) reported using of e-detailing. The overall adoption model for using either type of e-detailing was found to be significant. Relative advantage, peer influence, attitudes, type of specialty, presence of restrictive access and years of practice had significant influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. The model of adoption of innovation is useful to explain physicians' adoption of e-detailing.

  11. ORF Alignment: cds [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cds gnl|CMER >1g8pA 7 306 385 684 6e-05 ... emb|CAD25272.1| DNA REPLICATION LICENSING... FACTOR MCM2 [Encephalitozoon cuniculi ... GB-M1] ref|NP_584768.1| DNA REPLICATION LICENSING FACTOR ...

  12. A study of identified hadron fragmentation on eP collisions at HERA using the H1 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turney, Jonathan Edward

    2002-07-01

    Deep inelastic scattering events from ep collisions, recorded in 1996 and 1997 by the H1 detector at HERA, are used to study the fragmentation properties of identified hadrons in the Breit frame of reference. A review of the theory relevant to this analysis is also presented, together with a description of the H1 detector. Using dE/dx information and neutral secondary particle invariant mass spectra, it is possible to identify samples of {pi}{sup {+-}}, K{sup {+-}}, protons and antiprotons, K{sub S}{sup 0}, and {lambda} hadrons in the Breit frame current hemisphere and measure corresponding exclusive fragmentation functions. The evolution of the fragmentation function peak position and width are studied as a function of hadronic mass and four-momentum transfer, Q. Comparison is made to published results from e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments, models of the hadronic final state, and to predictions from MLLA/LPHD theory. The fragmentation properties of identified hadrons in ep data compare well with those in e{sup +}e{sup -} data, giving further evidence for the universality of quark fragmentation. By applying a MLLA/LPHD calculation using parameters derived from fitting H1 data, it is possible to describe the peak evolution in e{sup +}e{sup -} data as a function of energy, hadronic mass, and the parton shower cut-off parameter, Q{sub 0}{sup h}. However, the MLLA/LPHD calculation is unable to describe the data fully, particularly the e{sup +}e{sup -} -derived width evolution. Furthermore, the Monte Carlo models of the hadronic final state are shown to be incompatible with the detailed parameterisation of MLLA/LPHD, but follow the observed trends in ep data well. (author)

  13. A study of identified hadron fragmentation on eP collisions at HERA using the H1 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, Jonathan Edward

    2002-01-01

    Deep inelastic scattering events from ep collisions, recorded in 1996 and 1997 by the H1 detector at HERA, are used to study the fragmentation properties of identified hadrons in the Breit frame of reference. A review of the theory relevant to this analysis is also presented, together with a description of the H1 detector. Using dE/dx information and neutral secondary particle invariant mass spectra, it is possible to identify samples of π ± , K ± , protons and antiprotons, K S 0 , and Λ hadrons in the Breit frame current hemisphere and measure corresponding exclusive fragmentation functions. The evolution of the fragmentation function peak position and width are studied as a function of hadronic mass and four-momentum transfer, Q. Comparison is made to published results from e + e - experiments, models of the hadronic final state, and to predictions from MLLA/LPHD theory. The fragmentation properties of identified hadrons in ep data compare well with those in e + e - data, giving further evidence for the universality of quark fragmentation. By applying a MLLA/LPHD calculation using parameters derived from fitting H1 data, it is possible to describe the peak evolution in e + e - data as a function of energy, hadronic mass, and the parton shower cut-off parameter, Q 0 h . However, the MLLA/LPHD calculation is unable to describe the data fully, particularly the e + e - -derived width evolution. Furthermore, the Monte Carlo models of the hadronic final state are shown to be incompatible with the detailed parameterisation of MLLA/LPHD, but follow the observed trends in ep data well. (author)

  14. Values and Preferences on the Use of Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Among Multiple Populations: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koechlin, Florence M; Fonner, Virginia A; Dalglish, Sarah L; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Baggaley, Rachel; Grant, Robert M; Rodolph, Michelle; Hodges-Mameletzis, Ioannis; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2017-05-01

    Daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the use of antiretroviral drugs by HIV-negative people to prevent HIV infection. WHO released new guidelines in 2015 recommending PrEP for all populations at substantial risk of HIV infection. To prepare these guidelines, we conducted a systematic review of values and preferences among populations that might benefit from PrEP, women, heterosexual men, young women and adolescent girls, female sex workers, serodiscordant couples, transgender people and people who inject drugs, and among healthcare providers who may prescribe PrEP. A comprehensive search strategy reviewed three electronic databases of articles and HIV-related conference abstracts (January 1990-April 2015). Data abstraction used standardised forms to categorise by population groups and relevant themes. Of 3068 citations screened, 76 peer-reviewed articles and 28 conference abstracts were included. Geographic coverage was global. Most studies (N = 78) evaluated hypothetical use of PrEP, while 26 studies included individuals who actually took PrEP or placebo. Awareness of PrEP was low, but once participants were presented with information about PrEP, the majority said they would consider using it. Concerns about safety, side effects, cost and effectiveness were the most frequently cited barriers to use. There was little indication of risk compensation. Healthcare providers would consider prescribing PrEP, but need more information before doing so. Findings from a rapidly expanding evidence base suggest that the majority of populations most likely to benefit from PrEP feel positively towards it. These same populations would benefit from overcoming current implementation challenges with the shortest possible delay.

  15. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for MSM and transgender persons in early adopting countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoornenborg, Elske; Krakower, Douglas S.; Prins, Maria; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2017-01-01

    : Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a potent and underutilized HIV prevention tool. In this paper we review the state of knowledge regarding PrEP implementation for men who have sex with men and transgender persons in early adopting countries. We focus on implementation of PrEP in demonstration

  16. A comparative study on CdS: PEO and CdS: PMMA nanocomposite solid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmaja, S. [Thin film centre, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore (India); Jayakumar, S., E-mail: s_jayakumar_99@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, PSG Institute of Technology and Applied Research, Coimbatore (India); Balaji, R.; Vaideki, K. [Thin film centre, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore (India)

    2016-08-15

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles were reinforced in Poly(ethylene Oxide) (PEO) and Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrices by in situ technique. The presence of CdS in PEO and PMMA matrix was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis disclosed the co-ordination of CdS in the matrices. Thermal analysis of the nanocomposites was carried out using Differential Scanning calorimetric studies (DSC). The optical studies using UV–vis spectroscopy were carried out to find the band gap of the materials and the absorption onset. The CdS particle size in the matrices was found by Effective Mass Approximation (EMA) model using the band gap values and was confirmed by TEM studies. The surface trapped emissions of the nanocomposites were observed from the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The distribution of CdS particles in the polymer matrices were presented by Atomic force microscopic studies (AFM).

  17. A comparative study on CdS: PEO and CdS: PMMA nanocomposite solid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaja, S.; Jayakumar, S.; Balaji, R.; Vaideki, K.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles were reinforced in Poly(ethylene Oxide) (PEO) and Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrices by in situ technique. The presence of CdS in PEO and PMMA matrix was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis disclosed the co-ordination of CdS in the matrices. Thermal analysis of the nanocomposites was carried out using Differential Scanning calorimetric studies (DSC). The optical studies using UV–vis spectroscopy were carried out to find the band gap of the materials and the absorption onset. The CdS particle size in the matrices was found by Effective Mass Approximation (EMA) model using the band gap values and was confirmed by TEM studies. The surface trapped emissions of the nanocomposites were observed from the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The distribution of CdS particles in the polymer matrices were presented by Atomic force microscopic studies (AFM).

  18. The evolution of the market for commercial computerized physician order entry and computerized decision support systems for prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffar, Hajar; Williams, Robin; Cresswell, Kathrin; Morrison, Zoe; Bates, David W; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-03-01

    To understand the evolving market of commercial off-the-shelf Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) and Computerized Decision Support (CDS) applications and its effects on their uptake and implementation in English hospitals. Although CPOE and CDS vendors have been quick to enter the English market, uptake has been slow and uneven. To investigate this, the authors undertook qualitative ethnography of vendors and adopters of hospital CPOE/CDS systems in England. The authors collected data from semi-structured interviews with 11 individuals from 4 vendors, including the 2 most entrenched suppliers, and 6 adopter hospitals, and 21 h of ethnographic observation of 2 user groups, and 1 vendor event. The research and analysis was informed by insights from studies of the evolution of technology fields and the emergence of generic COTS enterprise solutions. Four key themes emerged: (1) adoption of systems that had been developed outside of England, (2) vendors' configuration and customization strategies, (3) localized adopter practices vs generic systems, and (4) unrealistic adopter demands. Evidence for our over-arching finding concerning the current immaturity of the market was derived from vendors' strategies, adopters' reactions to the technology, and policy makers' incomplete insights. The CPOE/CDS market in England is still in an emergent phase. The rapid entrance of diverse products, triggered by federal policy initiatives, has resulted in premature adoption of systems that do not yet adequately meet the needs of hospitals. Vendors and adopters lacked understanding of how to design and implement generic solutions to meet diverse user needs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Design of decision support interventions for medication prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsky, Jan; Phansalkar, Shobha; Desai, Amrita; Bell, Douglas; Middleton, Blackford

    2013-06-01

    Describe optimal design attributes of clinical decision support (CDS) interventions for medication prescribing, emphasizing perceptual, cognitive and functional characteristics that improve human-computer interaction (HCI) and patient safety. Findings from published reports on success, failures and lessons learned during implementation of CDS systems were reviewed and interpreted with regard to HCI and software usability principles. We then formulated design recommendations for CDS alerts that would reduce unnecessary workflow interruptions and allow clinicians to make informed decisions quickly, accurately and without extraneous cognitive and interactive effort. Excessive alerting that tends to distract clinicians rather than provide effective CDS can be reduced by designing only high severity alerts as interruptive dialog boxes and less severe warnings without explicit response requirement, by curating system knowledge bases to suppress warnings with low clinical utility and by integrating contextual patient data into the decision logic. Recommended design principles include parsimonious and consistent use of color and language, minimalist approach to the layout of information and controls, the use of font attributes to convey hierarchy and visual prominence of important data over supporting information, the inclusion of relevant patient data in the context of the alert and allowing clinicians to respond with one or two clicks. Although HCI and usability principles are well established and robust, CDS and EHR system interfaces rarely conform to the best known design conventions and are seldom conceived and designed well enough to be truly versatile and dependable tools. These relatively novel interventions still require careful monitoring, research and analysis of its track record to mature. Clarity and specificity of alert content and optimal perceptual and cognitive attributes, for example, are essential for providing effective decision support to clinicians

  20. Prostaglandin E2 produced by Entamoeba histolytica binds to EP4 receptors and stimulates interleukin-8 production in human colonic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Indranil; Chadee, Kris

    2008-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis in the colon occurs in a stepwise fashion. It begins with colonization of the mucin layer, which is followed by stimulation of a proinflammatory response that causes nonspecific tissue damage that may facilitate parasite invasion of the underlying colonic mucosa. Unfortunately, the parasite and/or host factors that stimulate a proinflammatory response in the gut are poorly understood. In this study, we found that live E. histolytica or secretory or proteins (SP) and soluble ameba components (SAP) can markedly increase interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA expression and protein production in colonic epithelial cells. The IL-8-stimulating molecule produced by live amebae was identified as prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) as trophozoites treated with cyclooxygenase inhibitors inhibited the biosynthesis of PGE(2) and eliminated IL-8 production induced by live parasites or ameba components. Moreover, using specific prostaglandin EP2 and EP4 receptor agonists and antagonists, we found that PGE(2) binds exclusively through EP4 receptors in colonic epithelial cells to stimulate IL-8 production. Silencing of EP4 receptors with EP4 small interfering RNA completely eliminated SP- and SAP-induced IL-8 production. These studies identified bioactive PGE(2) as a one of the major virulence factors produced by E. histolytica that can stimulate the potent neutrophil chemokine and activator IL-8, which can trigger an acute host inflammatory response. Thus, the induction of IL-8 production in response to E. histolytica-derived PGE(2) may be a mechanism that explains the initiation and amplification of acute inflammation associated with intestinal amebiasis.

  1. Influence of Marketing on Consumer's Adoption of E-Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Ganimete Podvorica

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The financial system plays an extraordinary role in developing and enriching the domestic economy. E-banking service as an innovative software product and service for customers was introduced few years ago in the country from variety of national and international banks: ProCredit Bank, Raiffeissen Bank, Teb Bank, NLB Bank etc., enabling consumers to have access to their bank accounts over the internet. Since internet usage grows rapidly in the country even adoption of e-banking is expected to flourish. Behavior of customers toward adoption is explained using different behavioral model. The objective of this study is to analyze the consumer-adoption process toward e-banking. The survey is used in this respect, to find out the way they learn, try, and adopt or reject e-banking service. Furthermore, the hypothesis those females are significantly different from males on adoption of e-banking services, it prevails the null hypothesis that gender doesn’t affect adoption of e-banking services. The study reveals the characteristics of the consumers toward ebanking adoption process, such as differences in individual readiness to try new product; the information searching; advertisement and direct marketing influence; and speed rates of adoption and non adoption among genders.

  2. PrEP Chicago: A randomized controlled peer change agent intervention to promote the adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among young Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay E; Schumm, Phil; Alon, Leigh; Bouris, Alida; Ferreira, Matthew; Hill, Brandon; Khanna, Aditya S; Valente, Thomas W; Schneider, John A

    2018-02-01

    Advances in biomedical prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) represent a new opportunity for reducing HIV incidence among young Black men who have sex with men, for whom the number of new HIV infections continues to rise. However, studies have documented low rates of PrEP uptake in this community. Research suggests that the peer networks of young Black men who have sex with men play important roles in their sexual health decisions. PrEP Chicago is a randomized controlled trial network intervention designed to increase PrEP uptake among young Black men who have sex with men living in Chicago. The aims of this study are twofold. Aim 1 is to estimate the effectiveness of a peer change agent intervention for (1) increasing the number of referrals made to a PrEP information line, (2) increasing the rate of PrEP adoption among non-participant peers, and (3) increasing PrEP knowledge, attitudes, and intentions among participants. Aim 2 is to determine the individual and network variables that explain peer change agent effectiveness. PrEP Chicago is a social network intervention that utilizes the influence of peer change agents to link young Black men who have sex with men in Chicago to PrEP. Young Black men who have sex with men were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Once screened for eligibility, participants were randomly assigned to either one of two treatment sequences: (1) intervention treatment in Year 1 followed by a minimal contact attention control in Year 2 or (2) the minimal contact attention control in Year 1 followed by treatment in Year 2. The treatment consists of a PrEP/peer change agent training workshop followed by booster calls for 12 months. The attention control consists of a sex diary activity designed to help participants assess sexual risk. Psychosocial, sexual health, and network data are collected from all participants at baseline and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. In total, 423 participants aged 18-35 have

  3. Neuropharmacology and mental health nurse prescribers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skingsley, David; Bradley, Eleanor J; Nolan, Peter

    2006-08-01

    prescribe coupled with the information they provide to service users can be improved as a result of specific educational support. It would appear that adopting a prescribing dimension to one's role requires nurses to revisit a number of skills that are integral to the work of the mental health nurse, e.g. good communication, establishing empathy, listening to what clients say, responding to what is required and involving clients in their own care. Mental health nurses from one particular Trust in the West Midlands were provided with a 'top-up' course in neuropharmacology and, although they found this challenging, ultimately they found this to be helpful. As nurse prescribing is 'rolled out' to other nursing specialities it is important that local Trusts and Workforce Development Directorates maintain a dialogue about nurse prescriber training to ensure that nurse prescribers receive the appropriate time and support for their ongoing Continued Professional Development. As increasing numbers of nurses from different specialities qualify as nurse prescribers it is vital that they are supported by their employing organizations and given the opportunity to maintain their competency and confidence in their prescribing practice.

  4. HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs and intention to adopt preexposure prophylaxis among black men who have sex with men in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ronald A; Allen, Vincent C; Regan, Rotrease; Mutchler, Matt G; Cervantes-Tadeo, Ramon; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2018-03-01

    In the United States, black men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group most affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an important new HIV prevention strategy that may help reduce new HIV infections among black MSM. This analysis examined the association between HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs and intentions to adopt PrEP among 224 black MSM. The likelihood of adopting PrEP was assessed and more than half (60%) of the study population indicated a high intention to adopt PrEP. HIV/AIDS genocidal and treatment-related conspiracies were assessed using scales previously validated with black MSM. Almost two-thirds (63%) endorsed at least one of eight HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs presented. In multivariable analyses, black MSM who agreed with the genocidal or treatment-related conspiracy beliefs scales had a lower intention to adopt PrEP (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54, 0.99 and AOR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.23, 0.55, respectively). Our findings indicate that preexisting HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs may deter some black MSM from adopting PrEP. We suggest strategies PrEP implementers may want to employ to address the influence that HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs may have on the adoption of PrEP among black MSM, a population disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS.

  5. Synthesis, optical, structural, and electrical properties of single-crystalline CdS nanobelts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alqahtani, Mohammed S. [King Saud University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Hadia, N.M.A.; Mohamed, S.H. [Sohag University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag (Egypt)

    2017-04-15

    CdS nanobelts (NBs) were synthesized by vapor transport of CdS powders. The growth was carried out without any catalyst on quartz and Si (100) substrates. The synthesized CdS NBs were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy dispersion analysis of X-ray (EDAX), spectrophotometer, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. CdS NBs were indexed as hexagonal wurtzite structure. The growth was via vapor-solid growth mechanism and along the [100] direction. The refractive index was evaluated in the transparent region, as suggested by Swanepoel, using the envelope method. The refractive index values and the extinction coefficient were decreased by increasing the wavelength. The calculated optical band gap was 2.50 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the synthesized CdS NBs exhibited a green emission peak at 510 nm and a broad red emission peak at 696 nm. The conductivity measurements were achieved, in the temperature range from 300 to 600 K, using the conventional two-probe technique. Two different slopes with different activation energies of 0.618 and 0.215 eV were obtained. The CdS NBs are likely being novel functional materials. Thus, they can be used in the manufacture of innovative optoelectronic nanodevices. (orig.)

  6. What Does ePrescribing Mean for Patients? A Case Study of the Perspectives of Hospital Renal Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hospital ePrescribing systems are expected to improve quality of care for patients, yet the perspectives of patients themselves have seldom been explored in the context of ePrescribing deployments.OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand the significance of ePrescribing for patients through a case study of renal in-patients on a hospital ward, before and after the introduction of an ePrescribing system.METHODS: Three data sources were drawn on as part of the case study: interviews with representatives from national patient groups (n = 10, in-patients on a renal ward (n = 11 pre-implementation; n = 12 post-implementation and fieldnotes (n = 25 of observations made on the case study ward. Data were analysed thematically focusing on: (1 perceived benefits of ePrescribing; (2 patient awareness and understanding of the medications prescribed and (3 patient views on medicines reconciliation at admission and discharge.RESULTS: While ePrescribing was viewed positively overall, its implementation in the case study site failed to address the lack of patient involvement in the prescribing process and poor medication counselling upon discharge. Importantly, the limited impact of the ePrescribing system in these particular areas appeared to be the result of institutional and cultural practices rather than solely technological factors.CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of ePrescribing systems offers new opportunities to improve sharing of knowledge and communication with all those involved in the patient’s care pathways, including patients, carers and healthcare professionals across diverse care settings. Achieving this will, first and foremost, require significant cultural and policy shifts in how the patient’s role is perceived by clinicians in relation to medicines management.

  7. Teaching young GPs to cope with psychosocial consultations without prescribing: a durable impact of an e-module on determinants of benzodiazepines prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creupelandt, Hanne; Anthierens, Sibyl; Habraken, Hilde; Declercq, Tom; Sirdifield, Coral; Siriwardena, Aloysius Niroshan; Christiaens, Thierry

    2017-12-19

    Despite guidelines and campaigns to change prescribing behavior, General Practitioners (GPs) continue to overprescribe benzodiazepines (BZDs). New approaches to improve prescribing are needed. Using behavior change techniques and tailoring interventions to user characteristics are vital to promote behavior change. This study evaluated the impact of an e-module on factors known to determine BZD prescribing practice. A tailored e-module that focuses on avoiding initial BZD prescriptions (and using psychological interventions as an alternative) was developed and offered to GPs in vocational training. Three self-report assessments took place: at baseline, immediately after the module (short term) and at least six months after completion (long term). Assessed determinants include GPs' attitudes concerning treatment options, perceptions of the patient and self-efficacy beliefs. Readiness to adhere to prescribing guidelines was evaluated through assessing motivation, self-efficacy and implementability of non-pharmacological interventions. Changes in determinants were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Changes in readiness to adhere to guidelines was analyzed using the nonparametric McNemar Bowker test. A desirable, significant and durable impact on determinants of BZD prescribing was observed. GPs (n = 121) underwent desirable changes in their attitudes, perceptions and self-efficacy beliefs and these changes remained significant months after the intervention. Barriers to using a non-pharmacological approach often cited in literature remained absent and were not highlighted by the intervention. Furthermore a significant impact on GPs' readiness to adhere to guidelines was observed. Participants reported change in their ability to cope with psychosocial consultations and to have tried using non-pharmacological interventions. Tailoring an e-intervention to target group (GPs) characteristics appears to be successful in promoting behavioral change in GPs

  8. Explaining e-business adoption - Innovation & entrepreneurship in Dutch SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Explaining e-business adoptionThis dissertation deals with the explanation of e-business adoption in Dutch small and medium sized enterprises. The adoption of e-business plays an important part in making existing business more efficient and effective. Moreover, it is a tool for business development

  9. Using stakeholder perspectives to develop an ePrescribing toolkit for NHS Hospitals: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lisa; Cresswell, Kathrin; Slee, Ann; Slight, Sarah P; Coleman, Jamie; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate how an online toolkit may support ePrescribing deployments in National Health Service hospitals, by assessing the type of knowledge-based resources currently sought by key stakeholders. Questionnaire-based survey of attendees at a national ePrescribing symposium. 2013 National ePrescribing Symposium in London, UK. Eighty-four delegates were eligible for inclusion in the survey, of whom 70 completed and returned the questionnaire. Estimate of the usefulness and type of content to be included in an ePrescribing toolkit. Interest in a toolkit designed to support the implementation and use of ePrescribing systems was high (n = 64; 91.4%). As could be expected given the current dearth of such a resource, few respondents (n = 2; 2.9%) had access or used an ePrescribing toolkit at the time of the survey. Anticipated users for the toolkit included implementation (n = 62; 88.6%) and information technology (n = 61; 87.1%) teams, pharmacists (n = 61; 87.1%), doctors (n = 58; 82.9%) and nurses (n = 56; 80.0%). Summary guidance for every stage of the implementation (n = 48; 68.6%), planning and monitoring tools (n = 47; 67.1%) and case studies of hospitals' experiences (n = 45; 64.3%) were considered the most useful types of content. There is a clear need for reliable and up-to-date knowledge to support ePrescribing system deployments and longer term use. The findings highlight how a toolkit may become a useful instrument for the management of knowledge in the field, not least by allowing the exchange of ideas and shared learning.

  10. Morphology, structure and optical properties of hydrothermally synthesized CeO2/CdS nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Biswajyoti; Nayak, J.

    2018-04-01

    CeO2/CdS nanocomposites were synthesized using a two-step hydrothermal technique. The effects of precursor concentration on the optical and structural properties of the CeO2/CdS nanoparticles were systematically studied. The morphology, composition and the structure of the CeO2/CdS nanocomposite powder were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrum analysis (EDXA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The optical properties of CeO2/CdS nanocomposites were studied by UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The optical band gaps of the CeO2/CdS nanopowders ranged from 2.34 eV to 2.39 eV as estimated from the UV-vis absorption. In the room temperature photoluminescence spectrum of CeO2/CdS nanopowder, a strong blue emission band was observed at 400 nm. Since the powder shows strong visible luminescence, it may be used as a blue phosphor in future. The original article published with this DOI was submitted in error. The correct article was inadvertently left out of the original submission. This has been rectified and the correct article was published online on 16 April 2018.

  11. Simulation of final states in ep and eA collisions at the LHeC using DPMJET-III

    CERN Document Server

    Armesto, N

    2010-01-01

    $e$p and $e$Pb collisions at the LHeC are simulated using DPMJET-III. Four events classes: inclusive, inelastic non-diffractive, single diffractive on the photon side and coherently diffractive, are generated. Particle and energy pseudorapidity distributions, and distributions on forward neutron multiplicity and rapidity gap existence, are shown.

  12. Safe-haven CDS Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingler, Sven; Lando, David

    We argue that Credit Default Swap (CDS) premia for safe-haven sovereigns, like Germany and the United States, are driven to a large extent by regulatory requirements under which derivatives dealing banks have an incentive to buy CDS to hedge counterparty credit risk of their counterparties. We...

  13. Knowledge, Beliefs and Practices Regarding Antiretroviral Medications for HIV Prevention: Results from a Survey of Healthcare Providers in New England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S Krakower

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infection before immunologic decline (early ART and pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP can prevent HIV transmission, but routine adoption of these practices by clinicians has been limited.Between September and December 2013, healthcare practitioners affiliated with a regional AIDS Education and Training Center in New England were invited to complete online surveys assessing knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding early ART and PrEP. Multivariable models were utilized to determine characteristics associated with prescribing intentions and practices.Surveys were completed by 184 practitioners. Respondent median age was 44 years, 58% were female, and 82% were white. Among ART-prescribing clinicians (61% of the entire sample, 64% were aware that HIV treatment guidelines from the Department of Health and Human Services recommended early ART, and 69% indicated they would prescribe ART to all HIV-infected patients irrespective of immunologic status. However, 77% of ART-prescribing clinicians would defer ART for patients not ready to initiate treatment. Three-fourths of all respondents were aware of guidance from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommending PrEP provision, 19% had prescribed PrEP, and 58% of clinicians who had not prescribed PrEP anticipated future prescribing. Practitioners expressed theoretical concerns and perceived practical barriers to prescribing early ART and PrEP. Clinicians with higher percentages of HIV-infected patients (aOR 1.16 per 10% increase in proportion of patients with HIV-infection, 95% CI 1.01-1.34 and infectious diseases specialists (versus primary care physicians; aOR 3.32, 95% CI 0.98-11.2 were more likely to report intentions to prescribe early ART. Higher percentage of HIV-infected patients was also associated with having prescribed PrEP (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.34, whereas female gender (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10-0.71 was associated with having not

  14. Barriers and facilitators to recovering from e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Stone, Jamie A; Chui, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    To explore barriers and facilitators to recovery from e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies and to explore practical solutions for work system redesign to ensure successful recovery from errors. Cross-sectional qualitative design using direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. Five community pharmacies in Wisconsin. 13 pharmacists and 14 pharmacy technicians. Observational field notes and transcribed interviews and focus groups were subjected to thematic analysis guided by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) work system and patient safety model. Barriers and facilitators to recovering from e-prescription errors in community pharmacies. Organizational factors, such as communication, training, teamwork, and staffing levels, play an important role in recovering from e-prescription errors. Other factors that could positively or negatively affect recovery of e-prescription errors include level of experience, knowledge of the pharmacy personnel, availability or usability of tools and technology, interruptions and time pressure when performing tasks, and noise in the physical environment. The SEIPS model sheds light on key factors that may influence recovery from e-prescribing errors in pharmacies, including the environment, teamwork, communication, technology, tasks, and other organizational variables. To be successful in recovering from e-prescribing errors, pharmacies must provide the appropriate working conditions that support recovery from errors.

  15. Solving the E-waste problem (StEP) green paper. E-waste country study Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhart, Andreas [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Amera, Tadesse; Belay, Mehari [PAN (Ethiopia)

    2013-04-10

    The generation and management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste) is an increasing concern in many African countries. Attempts to bridge the digital divide as well as rapid economic development continue to boost the market penetration of many types of electricity powered devices. This also leads to rapidly increasing e-waste volumes, which are mostly not yet managed in an environmentally sound manner. In order to build a strong foundation for the development of Ethiopia's e-waste management strategy, it was deemed necessary to generate reliable data on e-waste volumes and current management practices and options, as well as to investigate possibilities for improved e-waste management and other relevant aspects. This study, financed by the Solving the E-waste Problem (StEP) Initiative under a grant of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA), was jointly carried out by the Oeko-Institut e.V. and PAN-Ethiopia. It aims to fill key knowledge gaps and provide a more solid base for further decision making for both, national decision-makers and co-operation projects in this field. The information contained in this report is derived from existing literature sources and statistics, interviews conducted in Ethiopia, and field assessments in Addis Ababa in August 2012.

  16. Adoption and use of e-invoicing in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinagi, C., E-mail: marinagi@teihal.gr, E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com, E-mail: preklitis@yahoo.com; Trivellas, P., E-mail: marinagi@teihal.gr, E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com, E-mail: preklitis@yahoo.com; Reklitis, Panagiotis, E-mail: marinagi@teihal.gr, E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com, E-mail: preklitis@yahoo.com [Technological Educational Institute of Sterea Ellada, Department of Logistics Management, 1st km of Old National Roal Thiva-Elefsis-32200, Thiva (Greece); Skourlas, C., E-mail: cskourlas@teiath.gr [Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Department of Informatics, Ag. Spyridonos, Aigaleo-12210, Athens (Greece)

    2015-02-09

    This paper investigates the adoption and use of electronic invoices (e-invoices) in Greek organizations. The study attempts to evaluate current practices applied in implementing e-invoicing. A field research has been conducted, which is based on a structured questionnaire. The target sample consisted of 42 Greek enterprises. The main issues of the investigation include the existing invoice processing practices, the barriers that prevent the extended adoption and use of e-invoicing, the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the strategic drivers for transition to e-invoicing. Currently, the use of e-invoicing in Greece is low. However, the research results testify that the adoption of e-invoicing in Greece is promising. Even though, a number of enterprises state that benefits of e-invoicing are not clear yet, the majority of enterprises agree that there are crucial financial priorities that e-invoicing is expected to support.

  17. Adoption and use of e-invoicing in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinagi, C.; Trivellas, P.; Reklitis, Panagiotis; Skourlas, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the adoption and use of electronic invoices (e-invoices) in Greek organizations. The study attempts to evaluate current practices applied in implementing e-invoicing. A field research has been conducted, which is based on a structured questionnaire. The target sample consisted of 42 Greek enterprises. The main issues of the investigation include the existing invoice processing practices, the barriers that prevent the extended adoption and use of e-invoicing, the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the strategic drivers for transition to e-invoicing. Currently, the use of e-invoicing in Greece is low. However, the research results testify that the adoption of e-invoicing in Greece is promising. Even though, a number of enterprises state that benefits of e-invoicing are not clear yet, the majority of enterprises agree that there are crucial financial priorities that e-invoicing is expected to support

  18. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40-98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants' adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0-M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1-max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9-35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2-18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8-29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2-68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3-79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3-75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4-max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency toward decrease (p = .19) of the

  19. Electronic and optical properties of CdS films deposited by evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, L.; Wei, Z.L.; Zhang, F.M.; Wu, X.S., E-mail: xswu@nju.edu.cn

    2015-11-05

    CdS films grown by thermal evaporation on glass substrate under ultra-high vacuum are prepared with varying the growth temperature and atmosphere environment. The minimum resistivity of the films is as low as 2.0 Ω·cm, and the carrier density even reaches 1.6 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}, which is much less than that prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The transmittance and band gap increase with the set the argon atmosphere and the growth temperature in the optimum value. Our results indicate the CdS films grown by evaporation at high vacuum may be more suitable for the application in optoelectronic devices, such as the solar cell materials. - Highlights: • CdS films are grown by the ultra-high vacuum evaporation. • CdS film here with the high carrier density reaches to 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} is obtained. • The film has low resistivity, which is as low as 2 Ω∙ cm. • The optical band gap become wider from 2.42 eV to 2.54 eV.

  20. Economic impact of electronic prescribing in the hospital setting: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zamzam; Barber, Nick; Jani, Yogini; Garfield, Sara; Franklin, Bryony Dean

    2016-04-01

    To examine evidence on the economic impact of electronic prescribing (EP) systems in the hospital setting. We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, the NHS Economic Evaluation Database, the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Database and Web of Science from inception to October 2013. Full and partial economic evaluations of EP or computerized provider order entry were included. We excluded studies assessing prescribing packages for specific drugs, and monetary outcomes that were not related to medicines. A checklist was used to evaluate risk of bias and evidence quality. The search yielded 1160 articles of which three met the inclusion criteria. Two were full economic evaluations and one a partial economic evaluation. A meta-analysis was not appropriate as studies were heterogeneous in design, economic evaluation method, interventions and outcome measures. Two studies investigated the financial impact of reducing preventable adverse drug events. The third measured savings related to various aspects of the system including those related to medication. Two studies reported positive financial effects. However the overall quality of the economic evidence was low and key details often not reported. There seems to be some evidence of financial benefits of EP in the hospital setting. However, it is not clear if evidence is transferable to other settings. Research is scarce and limited in quality, and reported methods are not always transparent. Further robust, high quality research is required to establish if hospital EP is cost effective and thus inform policy makers' decisions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Inventory contains descriptions of past and present CDS projects across the Federal Government. It includes Federal projects,...

  2. Surface modification effects on defect-related photoluminescence in colloidal CdS quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, TaeGi; Shimura, Kunio; Kim, DaeGwi

    2018-05-03

    We investigated the effects of surface modification on the defect-related photoluminescence (PL) band in colloidal CdS quantum dots (QDs). A size-selective photoetching process and a surface modification technique with a Cd(OH)2 layer enabled the preparation of size-controlled CdS QDs with high PL efficiency. The Stokes shift of the defect-related PL band before and after the surface modification was ∼1.0 eV and ∼0.63 eV, respectively. This difference in the Stokes shifts suggests that the origin of the defect-related PL band was changed by the surface modification. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the surface of the CdS QDs before and after the surface modification was S rich and Cd rich, respectively. These results suggest that Cd-vacancy acceptors and S-vacancy donors affect PL processes in CdS QDs before and after the surface modification, respectively.

  3. A Precision Measurement of the Inclusive ep Scattering Cross Section at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Asmone, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wallny, R.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zus, R.

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of the inclusive deep-inelastic neutral current e+p scattering cross section is reported in the region of four-momentum transfer squared, 12<=Q^2<=150 GeV^2, and Bjorken x, 2x10^-4<=x<=0.1. The results are based on data collected by the H1 Collaboration at the ep collider HERA at positron and proton beam energies of E_e=27.6 GeV and E_p=920 GeV, respectively. The data are combined with previously published data, taken at E_p=820 GeV. The accuracy of the combined measurement is typically in the range of 1.3-2%. A QCD analysis at next-to-leading order is performed to determine the parton distributions in the proton based on H1 data.

  4. Safe Haven CDS Premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingler, Sven; Lando, David

    Credit Default Swaps can be used to lower capital requirements of dealer banks who enter into uncollateralized derivatives positions with sovereigns. We show in a model that the regulatory incentive to obtain capital relief makes CDS contracts valuable to dealer banks and empirically that...... support that CDS contracts are used for capital relief....

  5. Chemical synthesis of porous web-structured CdS thin films for photosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosavi, S.R., E-mail: srgosavi.taloda@gmail.com [C. H. C. Arts, S. G. P. Commerce, and B. B. J. P. Science College, Taloda, Dist., Nandurbar 425413, M. S. (India); Nikam, C.P. [B.S.S.P.M.S. Arts, Commerce and Science College, Songir, Dist., Dhule 424309, M. S. (India); Shelke, A.R.; Patil, A.M. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, M.S. (India); Ryu, S.-W. [Department of Physics, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Bhat, J.S. [Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580003 (India); Deshpande, N.G., E-mail: nicedeshpande@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, M.S. (India)

    2015-06-15

    The photo-activity of chemically deposited cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin film has been studied. The simple chemical route nucleates the CdS films with size up to the mean free path of the electron. Growth Kinematics of crystalline hexagonal CdS phase in the thin film form was monitored using X-ray diffraction. The time limitation set for the formation of the amorphous/nano-crystalline material is 40 and 60 min. Thereafter enhancement of the crystalline orientation along the desired plane was identified. Web-like porous structured surface morphology of CdS thin film over the entire area is observed. With decrease in synthesis time, increase of band gap energy i.e., a blue spectral shift was seen. The activation energy of CdS thin film at low and high temperature region was examined. It is considered that this activation energy corresponds to the donor levels associated with shallow traps or surface states of CdS thin film. The photo-electrochemical performance of CdS thin films in polysulphide electrolyte showed diode-like characteristics. Exposure of light on the CdS electrode increases the photocurrent. This suggests the possibility of production of free carriers via excited ions and also the light harvesting mechanism due to porous web-structured morphology. These studies hint that the obtained CdS films can work as a photosensor. - Highlights: • Photoactivity of chemically synthesized cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films was studied. • Web-like porous structured surface morphology of CdS thin film over the entire area was observed. • Blue spectral shift with lowering of the synthesis time suggests films can act as a window layer over the absorber layer. • Porous web-structured CdS thin films can be useful in light harvesting.

  6. Chemical synthesis of porous web-structured CdS thin films for photosensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosavi, S.R.; Nikam, C.P.; Shelke, A.R.; Patil, A.M.; Ryu, S.-W.; Bhat, J.S.; Deshpande, N.G.

    2015-01-01

    The photo-activity of chemically deposited cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin film has been studied. The simple chemical route nucleates the CdS films with size up to the mean free path of the electron. Growth Kinematics of crystalline hexagonal CdS phase in the thin film form was monitored using X-ray diffraction. The time limitation set for the formation of the amorphous/nano-crystalline material is 40 and 60 min. Thereafter enhancement of the crystalline orientation along the desired plane was identified. Web-like porous structured surface morphology of CdS thin film over the entire area is observed. With decrease in synthesis time, increase of band gap energy i.e., a blue spectral shift was seen. The activation energy of CdS thin film at low and high temperature region was examined. It is considered that this activation energy corresponds to the donor levels associated with shallow traps or surface states of CdS thin film. The photo-electrochemical performance of CdS thin films in polysulphide electrolyte showed diode-like characteristics. Exposure of light on the CdS electrode increases the photocurrent. This suggests the possibility of production of free carriers via excited ions and also the light harvesting mechanism due to porous web-structured morphology. These studies hint that the obtained CdS films can work as a photosensor. - Highlights: • Photoactivity of chemically synthesized cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films was studied. • Web-like porous structured surface morphology of CdS thin film over the entire area was observed. • Blue spectral shift with lowering of the synthesis time suggests films can act as a window layer over the absorber layer. • Porous web-structured CdS thin films can be useful in light harvesting

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK068433 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068433 J013156D16 At1g20620.2 catalase 3 (SEN2) almost identical to catalase 3 SP...:Q42547, GI:3123188 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; identical to catalase 3 (SEN2) mRNA, partial cds GI:3158369 1e-63 ...

  8. E-business adoption in Nigerian Small Business Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Olayinka, Olakunle; Wynn, Martin G; Bechkoum, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Within the last decade, there has been a global increase in the use of e-business by both large and small companies. Today, it is generally acknowledged that e-business provides a range of opportunities for small businesses to operate and compete effectively; however, in developing countries such as Nigeria, there is very limited research on e-business adoption in the small business sector. This paper reviews existing literature on e-business adoption in developing countries, identifies key i...

  9. ORF Alignment: cds [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cds gnl|CMER >1a320 1 85 35 119 3e-17 ... gb|AAK39926.1| plastidal 30S ribosomal prot...ein S15 [Guillardia theta] pir||G90099 ... plastidal 30S ribosomal protein S15 [imported] - ... ... ... Guillardia theta nucleomorph ref|NP_113370.1| plastidal ... 30S ribosomal protein S15 [Guillardia t

  10. Greek National E-Prescribing System: Preliminary Results of a Tool for Rationalizing Pharmaceutical Use and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos; Kastanioti, Catherine; Zilidis, Christos; Mavridoglou, George; Karakolias, Stefanos; Litsa, Panagiota; Menegakis, Valantis; Kani, Chara

    2016-10-01

    In Greece, due to the ongoing economic crisis a number of measures aiming at rationalising expenditure implemented. A new e-prescribing system, under a unified healthcare fund was the main pillar of these reforms focus on monitoring and auditing prescribing patterns. Main objective of this study was to document the Greek experience with the new national e-prescribing system. We analyse the dispensed prescriptions over the period 2013-2014, stratified into four levels: therapeutic subgroup, patent status, physician's specialty and geographical region. Data analysis offered a comprehensive insight into pharmaceutical expenditure over the timeframe and revealed discrepancies regarding composition of spending, brand-generic substitution within certain therapeutic subgroups, physicians' prescribing behaviour based on medical specialty, therapeutic subgroup as well as regional per capita measures. E-prescribing system is a valuable tool providing sound information to health policymakers in order to monitor and rationalize pharmaceutical expenditure, in value and volume terms.

  11. Government Intervention in SMEs E-Commerce Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hugger, Ada Scupola

    2005-01-01

    Institutional involvement, and especially the role of government, has historically been determinant in the adoption and diffusion of technological innovations. This study investigates the role of government in the adoption and diffusion of e-commerce in small and medium size enterprises. King et ...

  12. ep possibility for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of adding an electron ring to ISABELLE is discussed in terms of cost, physics goals, count rate estimates, the detector requirements, and the possibility of producing intermediate bosons. The purpose of adding an electron ring to ISABELLE must be considered to be the study of e + p → e + x, e - p → νx, and e + p → anti νx. Other processes, such as W production, are less interesting for an ep ring than for a pp ring. However, there may be other new particles--such as leptonic quarks--that only turn up here. These processes are, however, exciting. In a 30 day run at L = 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 300 neutrino events are expected at q 2 > 5000 GeV 2 where the propagator is expected to be less than 1 / 4 . Thus the value of the mass in the propagator can be measured to 5%. The ep cross section would be measured over the momentum transfer range 1 2 2 ). This range is large enough that a logarithmic deviation from scaling can be distinguished easily from a power law approach to scaling

  13. South African physicians’ acceptance of e-prescribing technology: an empirical test of a modified UTAUT model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Cohen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available E-prescribing systems hold promise for improving the quality and efficiency of the scripting process. Yet, the use of the technology has been associated with a number of challenges. The diffusion of e-prescribing into physician practices and the consequent realisation of its potential benefits will depend on whether physicians are willing to accept and engage with the technology. This study draws on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT and recent literature on user trust in technology to develop and test a model of the factors influencing South African physicians’ acceptance of e-prescribing. Data was collected from a sample of 72 physicians. Results indicate a general acceptance of e-prescribing amongst physicians who on average reported strong intentions to use e-prescribing technologies if given the opportunity. PLS analysis revealed that physicians’ performance expectancies and perceptions of facilitating conditions had significant direct effects on acceptance whilst trust and effort expectancy had important indirect effects. Social influence and price value perceptions did not add additional explanatory power. The model explained 63% of the variation in physician acceptance.

  14. Barriers and Strategies on Adoption of E-Learning in Tanzanian Higher Learning Institutions: Lessons for Adopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisanga, Dalton; Ireson, Gren

    2015-01-01

    Tanzanian Higher learning institutions (HLIs) are faced with challenges of adopting e-learning in education. This study involved experts in e-learning to examine barriers of adopting e-learning and the best strategies to address them. Data were gathered from a series of semi-structured interviews with e-learning experts from two HLIs in Tanzania.…

  15. A Conceptual Model Of E-Government Adoption in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Darmawan Napitupulu

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine various factors are related with the process of e-Government adoption. Many researchers have traced the success factors of e-Government but are still partial. This research contributes not only in terms of technological factors but also the attitudes and behaviors of its users (personality traits) which is also influential in the process of technology adoption. In this research, will be developed an adoption model of technology in the context of e-Government. This...

  16. A Study of E-services Adoption Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2011-01-01

    University Library (RUB). The conclusion of this research is that both external environmental factors and internal organizational factors are important factors in adoption of e-services at Roskilde University Library. However the study shows that external factors such as government intervention...... and technological development might have been having a more important role than other external factors and that top management might have more influence on radical e-services adoption than other factors in the organizational context....

  17. Study on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between CdS quantum dots and Eosin Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Zhang, Zhengwei; Yu, Yan; Chen, Jianqiu

    2015-03-01

    Water-soluble CdS quantum dots (QDs) were prepared using mercaptoacetic acid (TGA) as the stabilizer in an aqueous system. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system was constructed between water-soluble CdS QDs (donor) and Eosin Y (acceptor). Several factors that impacted the fluorescence spectra of the FRET system, such as pH (3.05-10.10), concentration of Eosin Y (2-80 mg/L) and concentration of CdS QDs (2-80 mg/L), were investigated and refined. Donor-to-acceptor ratios, the energy transfer efficiency (E) and the distance (r) between CdS QDs and Eosin Y were obtained. The results showed that a FRET system could be established between water-soluble CdS QDs and Eosin Y at pH 5.0; donor-to-acceptor ratios demonstrated a 1: 8 proportion of complexes; the energy transfer efficiency (E) and the distance (r) between the QDs and Eosin Y were 20.07% and 4.36 nm,respectively. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Home-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP services for gay and bisexual men: An opportunity to address barriers to PrEP uptake and persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A John

    Full Text Available Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. Despite the promise of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in reducing HIV transmission risk, barriers for uptake and persistence exist. We sought to identify whether GBM in a nationwide cohort who have not yet initiated PrEP (n = 906 would prefer to get PrEP-related care from a primary care provider (PCP compared to a specialist clinic or provider. We then sought to identify their level of interest and factors associated with preference for using home-based PrEP services (i.e., HB-PrEP, defined to participants as conducting HIV/STI self-testing from home with PrEP prescription mailing after an initial in-person clinic visit. We examined the associations of demographics, sexual HIV transmission risk, concern about frequent medical checkups associated with PrEP, health care access, and PrEP intentions with preferences for healthcare provider type and HB-PrEP. Concern about frequent medical checkups were associated with preferring a PCP for PrEP-related care, but men who perceived a barrier to bringing up the topic of PrEP with a doctor preferred a specialist clinic or provider more than a PCP. HB-PrEP was more appealing for younger men and those engaged in sexual HIV transmission risk, suggesting HB-PrEP could help reach GBM most vulnerable to HIV and in need of PrEP. HB-PrEP expansion has potential to increase PrEP uptake and persistence among GBM, particularly for men with barriers to clinic-based care and higher intentions to initiate PrEP. Clinical guidelines regarding HB-PrEP are needed to expand its use.

  19. Optimization of deposition conditions of CdS thin films using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yücel, Ersin, E-mail: dr.ersinyucel@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Güler, Nuray [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Yücel, Yasin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Statistical methods used for optimization of CdS deposition parameters. • The morphology of the films was smooth, homogeneous and continuous. • Optimal conditions found as pH 11, stirring speed:361 rpm and deposition time: 55 min. • CdS thin film band gap value was 2.72 eV under the optimum conditions. -- Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique under different pH, stirring speed and deposition time. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Central Composite Design (CCD) were used to optimization of deposition parameters of the CdS thin films. RSM and CCD were also used to understand the significance and interaction of the factors affecting the film quality. Variables were determined as pH, stirring speed and deposition time. The band gap was chosen as response in the study. Influences of the variables on the band gap and the film quality were investigated. 5-level-3-factor central composite design was employed to evaluate the effects of the deposition conditions parameters such as pH (10.2–11.8), stirring speed (132–468 rpm) and deposition time (33–67 min) on the band gap of the films. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) measurements. The optimal conditions for the deposition parameters of the CdS thin films have been found to be: pH 11, 361 of stirring speed and 55 min of deposition time. Under the optimal conditions theoretical (predicted) band gap of CdS (2.66 eV) was calculated using optimal coded values from the model and the theoretical value is good agreement with the value (2.72 eV) obtained by verification experiment.

  20. Highlights from e-EPS: Coordinated Access to Light sources

    CERN Multimedia

    e-EPS News

    2014-01-01

    The CALIPSO project, which runs until May 2015, will contribute to the effective exploitation of European synchrotrons and free electron lasers. CALIPSO (Coordinated Access to Light sources to Promote Standards and Optimisation) includes 20 partners forming one of the largest Research Networks in the world.   e-EPS interviewed M. Bertolo, CALIPSO project manager and his assistant C. Blasetti. Which challenges are addressed by CALIPSO? CALIPSO’s goal is to optimize the exploitation of the European synchrotrons and Free Electron Lasers. With respect to previous projects funded by the European Commission, it foresees significant improvements in integration, innovation and user-friendliness in all three areas of networking, transnational access and instrumentation. The Transnational Access program potentially benefits a community of 25,000 estimated users offering free open access to 12 synchrotrons and 5 free electron lasers solely based on scientific merit. In ad...

  1. Solution precursor plasma deposition of nanostructured CdS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tummala, Raghavender; Guduru, Ramesh K.; Mohanty, Pravansu S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Inexpensive process with capability to produce large scale nanostructured coatings. ► Technique can be employed to spray the coatings on any kind of substrates including polymers. ► The CdS coatings developed have good electrical conductivity and optical properties. ► Coatings possess large amount of particulate boundaries and nanostructured grains. -- Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are used in solar cells, sensors and microelectronics. A variety of techniques, such as vapor based techniques, wet chemical methods and spray pyrolysis are frequently employed to develop adherent CdS films. In the present study, rapid deposition of CdS thin films via plasma spray route using a solution precursor was investigated, for the first time. Solution precursor comprising cadmium chloride, thiourea and distilled water was fed into a DC plasma jet via an axial atomizer to create ultrafine droplets for instantaneous and accelerated thermal decomposition in the plasma plume. The resulting molten/semi-molten ultrafine/nanoparticles of CdS eventually propel toward the substrate to form continuous CdS films. The chemistry of the solution precursor was found to be critical in plasma pyrolysis to control the stoichiometry and composition of the films. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed hexagonal α-CdS structure. Surface morphology and microstructures were investigated to compare with other synthesis techniques in terms of process mechanism and structural features. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed nanostructures in the atomized particulates. Optical measurements indicated a decreasing transmittance in the visible light with increasing the film thickness and band gap was calculated to be ∼2.5 eV. The electrical resistivity of the films (0.243 ± 0.188 × 10 5 Ω cm) was comparable with the literature values. These nanostructured polycrystalline CdS films could be useful in sensing and solar applications.

  2. Solution precursor plasma deposition of nanostructured CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tummala, Raghavender [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Guduru, Ramesh K., E-mail: rkguduru@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Mohanty, Pravansu S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inexpensive process with capability to produce large scale nanostructured coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technique can be employed to spray the coatings on any kind of substrates including polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CdS coatings developed have good electrical conductivity and optical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coatings possess large amount of particulate boundaries and nanostructured grains. -- Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are used in solar cells, sensors and microelectronics. A variety of techniques, such as vapor based techniques, wet chemical methods and spray pyrolysis are frequently employed to develop adherent CdS films. In the present study, rapid deposition of CdS thin films via plasma spray route using a solution precursor was investigated, for the first time. Solution precursor comprising cadmium chloride, thiourea and distilled water was fed into a DC plasma jet via an axial atomizer to create ultrafine droplets for instantaneous and accelerated thermal decomposition in the plasma plume. The resulting molten/semi-molten ultrafine/nanoparticles of CdS eventually propel toward the substrate to form continuous CdS films. The chemistry of the solution precursor was found to be critical in plasma pyrolysis to control the stoichiometry and composition of the films. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed hexagonal {alpha}-CdS structure. Surface morphology and microstructures were investigated to compare with other synthesis techniques in terms of process mechanism and structural features. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed nanostructures in the atomized particulates. Optical measurements indicated a decreasing transmittance in the visible light with increasing the film thickness and band gap was calculated to be {approx}2.5 eV. The electrical resistivity of the films (0.243 {+-} 0.188 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} {Omega} cm) was comparable with the literature

  3. Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center (CDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Genova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Centre de Donnees astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS, created in 1972, has been a pioneer in the dissemination of digital scientific data. Ensuring sustainability for several decades has been a major issue because science and technology evolve continuously and the data flow increases endlessly. The paper briefly describes CDS activities, major services, and its R&D strategy to take advantage of new technologies. The next frontiers for CDS are the new Web 2.0/3.0 paradigm and, at a more general level, global interoperability of astronomical on-line resources in the Virtual Observatory framework.

  4. The factors that influence customer e-services adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamisha Persad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the investigation into customer e-service adoption. The investigation includes a qualitative survey and observation of participants using e-services. E-services are used to attract customers and persuade them to transact online and the customer’s perception of an e-service contributes greatly to e-service adoption or rejection. This paper describes the factors that influence customer perception towards e-services. Relationships between the identified factors were also considered in order to build a conceptual framework. Grounded theory was used for its flexibility, repetitive comparisons of data, and emergence of concepts and theories.

  5. Prostaglandin E2 activates the mTORC1 pathway through an EP4/cAMP/PKA- and EP1/Ca2+-mediated mechanism in the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Hua; Young, Steven H; Sinnett-Smith, James; Chou, Caroline Ei Ne; Moro, Aune; Hertzer, Kathleen M; Hines, Oscar Joe; Rozengurt, Enrique; Eibl, Guido

    2015-11-15

    Obesity, a known risk factor for pancreatic cancer, is associated with inflammation and insulin resistance. Proinflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and elevated insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1), related to insulin resistance, are shown to play critical roles in pancreatic cancer progression. We aimed to explore a potential cross talk between PGE2 signaling and the IGF-1/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in pancreatic cancer, which may be a key to unraveling the obesity-cancer link. In PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells, we showed that PGE2 stimulated mTORC1 activity independently of Akt, as evaluated by downstream signaling events. Subsequently, using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we demonstrated that PGE2-induced mTORC1 activation is mediated by the EP4/cAMP/PKA pathway, as well as an EP1/Ca(2+)-dependent pathway. The cooperative roles of the two pathways were supported by the maximal inhibition achieved with the combined pharmacological blockade, and the coexistence of highly expressed EP1 (mediating the Ca(2+) response) and EP2 or EP4 (mediating the cAMP/PKA pathway) in PANC-1 cells and in the prostate cancer line PC-3, which also robustly exhibited PGE2-induced mTORC1 activation, as identified from a screen in various cancer cell lines. Importantly, we showed a reinforcing interaction between PGE2 and IGF-1 on mTORC1 signaling, with an increase in IL-23 production as a cellular outcome. Our data reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism of PGE2-stimulated mTORC1 activation mediated by EP4/cAMP/PKA and EP1/Ca(2+) signaling, which may be of great importance in elucidating the promoting effects of obesity in pancreatic cancer. Ultimately, a precise understanding of these molecular links may provide novel targets for efficacious interventions devoid of adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Exploring Leadership in E-commerce Adoption in Australian SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of a study investigating leadership and leadership styles in e-commerce adoption in small and medium size enterprises in Australia. The results show that top management and CEO' leadership have a key role in small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in developing...... a vision for e-commerce adoption and that the dominant leadership style is directive with some signs of consultative. Furthermore the study shows that e-commerce adoption is becoming a strategic process and in this process top management is taking into consideration both the organizational knowledge...

  7. EpCAM-Independent Enrichment of Circulating Tumor Cells in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, Helen; Gierke, Berthold; Uppenkamp, Frauke; Behrens, Bianca; Niederacher, Dieter; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Templin, Markus F.; Pawlak, Michael; Fehm, Tanja; Neubauer, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are the potential precursors of metastatic disease. Most assays established for the enumeration of CTCs so far–including the gold standard CellSearch—rely on the expression of the cell surface marker epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). But, these approaches may not detect CTCs that express no/low levels of EpCAM, e.g. by undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here we present an enrichment strategy combining different antibodies specific for surface proteins and extracellular matrix (ECM) components to capture an EpCAMlow/neg cell line and EpCAMneg CTCs from blood samples of breast cancer patients depleted for EpCAM-positive cells. The expression of respective proteins (Trop2, CD49f, c-Met, CK8, CD44, ADAM8, CD146, TEM8, CD47) was verified by immunofluorescence on EpCAMpos (e.g. MCF7, SKBR3) and EpCAMlow/neg (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines. To test antibodies and ECM proteins (e.g. hyaluronic acid (HA), collagen I, laminin) for capturing EpCAMneg cells, the capture molecules were first spotted in a single- and multi-array format onto aldehyde-coated glass slides. Tumor cell adhesion of EpCAMpos/neg cell lines was then determined and visualized by Coomassie/MitoTracker staining. In consequence, marginal binding of EpCAMlow/neg MDA-MB-231 cells to EpCAM-antibodies could be observed. However, efficient adhesion/capturing of EpCAMlow/neg cells could be achieved via HA and immobilized antibodies against CD49f and Trop2. Optimal capture conditions were then applied to immunomagnetic beads to detect EpCAMneg CTCs from clinical samples. Captured CTCs were verified/quantified by immunofluorescence staining for anti-pan-Cytokeratin (CK)-FITC/anti-CD45 AF647/DAPI. In total, in 20 out of 29 EpCAM-depleted fractions (69%) from 25 metastatic breast cancer patients additional EpCAMneg CTCs could be identified [range of 1–24 CTCs per sample] applying Trop2, CD49f, c-Met, CK8 and/or HA magnetic enrichment. Ep

  8. Radiative recombination process of high density excitons in CdS crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dneprovskij, V.S.; Klimov, V.I.; Martynenko, E.D.; Stadnik, V.A.

    1983-11-01

    The behaviour of the P-, E-, L- and Q-lines of luminescence in CdS is compared with calculated results for the processes of exciton-exciton scattering, exciton-electron scattering, annihilation of equilibrium electron-hole fluid (EHF), annihilation of electron-hole plasma (processes of amplification and reabsorption are taken into account). The comparison permitted to determine parameters of high density exciton gas and EHF. Spectral-kinetic properties of generation are investigated, and amplification factor in CdS is estimated.

  9. E-commerce adoption by SMEs in developing countries: evidence from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahayu, Rita; Day, John

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to provide an overview of e-commerce adoption by SMEs in developing countries and, in particular, the extent of the adoption of e-commerce by Indonesian SMEs. It identifies the e-commerce benefits realized by these SMEs and investigates the relationship between the levels of e-commerce adoption and the benefits thus realized. The study was motivated by the limited studies related to e-commerce adoption by SMEs, especially in developing countries. In addition, it seems that mos...

  10. Attitudial Belief on Adoption of E-MBA Program in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hasmi Abu Hassan ASAARI

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Attitudial Belief on Adoption of E-MBA Program in Malaysia Noornina DAHLANT. RAMAYAHRamzah MAHMODNoorliza KARIAMuhammad Hasmi Abu Hassan ASAARIUniversiti Sains Malaysia PENANG , MALAYSIA ABSTRACT E-learning describes the use of information communications technology for learning beyond the boundaries of the conventional classroom. The objective of this paper is to determine what are the factors that are significant in explaining intention towards e-learning, particularly e-MBA adoption in Malaysia . Results indicated that trialability and image were significant influencing behavior intention towards e-MBA adoption.

  11. Adoption of computer-assisted learning in medical education: the educators' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Karen E; Berman, Norm B; Fall, Leslie H; Fischer, Martin R

    2012-11-01

    Computer-assisted learning (CAL) in medical education has been shown to be effective in the achievement of learning outcomes, but requires the input of significant resources and development time. This study examines the key elements and processes that led to the widespread adoption of a CAL program in undergraduate medical education, the Computer-assisted Learning in Paediatrics Program (CLIPP). It then considers the relative importance of elements drawn from existing theories and models for technology adoption and other studies on CAL in medical education to inform the future development, implementation and testing of CAL programs in medical education. The study used a mixed-methods explanatory design. All paediatric clerkship directors (CDs) using CLIPP were recruited to participate in a self-administered, online questionnaire. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with a random sample of CDs to further explore the quantitative results. Factors that facilitated adoption included CLIPP's ability to fill gaps in exposure to core clinical problems, the use of a national curriculum, development by CDs, and the meeting of CDs' desires to improve teaching and student learning. An additional facilitating factor was that little time and effort were needed to implement CLIPP within a clerkship. The quantitative findings were mostly corroborated by the qualitative findings. This study indicates issues that are important in the consideration and future exploration of the development and implementation of CAL programs in medical education. The promise of CAL as a method of enhancing the process and outcomes of medical education, and its cost, increase the need for future CAL funders and developers to pay equal attention to the needs of potential adopters and the development process as they do to the content and tools in the CAL program. Important questions that remain on the optimal design, use and integration of CAL should be addressed in order to adequately inform

  12. Motivators, concerns, and barriers to adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among gay and bisexual men in HIV serodiscordant male relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ronald A.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Lieber, Eli; Landovitz, Raphael J.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Leibowitz, Arleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that may facilitate or impede future adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among gay and bisexual men in HIV-serodiscordant relationships. This qualitative study utilized semi-structured interviews conducted with a multi-racial/ethnic sample of 25 gay and bisexual HIV serodiscordant male couples (n=50 individuals) recruited from community settings in Los Angeles, California. A modified grounded theory approach was employed to identify major themes relating to future adoption of PrEP for HIV prevention. Motivators for adoption included protection against HIV infection, less concern and fear regarding HIV transmission, the opportunity to engage in unprotected sex, and endorsements of PrEP’s effectiveness. Concerns and barriers to adoption included the cost of PrEP, short- and long-term side effects, adverse effects of intermittent use or discontinuing PrEP, and accessibility of PrEP. The findings suggest the need for a carefully planned implementation program along with educational and counseling interventions in the dissemination of an effective PrEP agent. PMID:21476147

  13. Highlights from e-EPS: Fusion experiment nears completion, nominations open for prize, and technology transfer group launched

    CERN Multimedia

    e-EPS News

    2012-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   Core of fusion experiment completed The last major part of the Wendelstein 7-X fusion experiment was installed on 21 December last year. The addition of the 14 tonne final part of the device – the lid of the thermally insulating outer shell – sees the completion of the ring-like base machine at the Greifswald branch of the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics, which will begin operation in 2014. Fusion research aims to draw energy from the fusion of atomic nuclei. To achieve this, hydrogen plasma must be superheated to temperatures above 100 million degrees, within the confines of a restricting magnetic field. The Wendelstein 7-X – which will be the largest fusion device of its type – will investigate the feasibility of such a power pl...

  14. Preparation of flower-like CdS with SDBS as surfactant by hydrothermal method and its optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yongqian, E-mail: cugwyq@126.com [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang, Xiande; Ma, Qun; Kong, Junhan; Jia, Hanxiang; Wang, Zhengshu [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yu, Meihua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: FESEM image of the CdS obtained by 0.01 mol Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O, 0.03 mol thiourea and 0.5 g SDBS at 160 °C for 24 h. - Highlights: • The role of SDBS is to assemble CdS crystals together to form flower-like structures. • Both reaction time and temperature affect the morphology of flower-like structures. • The growth mechanism of flower-like structures is reasonable, clear and concise. • Its optical energy band gap is 2.50 eV, and it has absorption in visible region. • PL result of flower-like structures shows the max emission wavelength is 508.6 nm. - Abstract: In this article, the flower-like CdS have been prepared by hydrothermal method with thiourea as sulfur source and SDBS as surfactant. The effects of different experimental conditions on the morphology of CdS have been investigated. The performances of CdS have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and UV–vis. The result of XRD indicates that CdS we prepared are highly crystallized, which are of hexagonal phase. The FE-SEM results indicate that the main role of SDBS is to make the CdS crystals assemble together to form the flower-like structures, and the reaction time affects the morphology of CdS, and the suitable reaction temperature is 160 °C. Its optical energy band gap is observed at 2.50 eV. The fluorescence spectrum shows that the flower-like CdS have a broad absorption peak and the max emission wavelength is 508.6 nm. The growth mechanism for the formation of CdS with flower-like structures is also described.

  15. Mn2+ anchored CdS polymer nanocomposites: An efficient alternative for Mn2+ doped CdS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, Bhaskar Jyoti; Nath, Bikash Chandra; Borah, Chandramika; Dolui, Swapan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A chelating bi-functional polymer brushes was prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization using grafting-from methodology. Mn 2+ -anchored CdS-polymer nanocomposites were synthesized using this graft copolymer by simple chelation method resulting in emission at about 620 nm which originates from the fluorescence of manganese ions embedded on the surface of CdS nanoparticles. This method provides an efficient straightforward substitute of Mn 2+ dopped CdS nanoparticles. Optical properties of the composites were investigated which indicates that simple Mn 2+ chelation and subsequent binding of CdS in a polymer matrix can have similar effect in the luminescence property as those synthesized via complex doping methods. Moreover this methodology can be applied for synthesis of any metal anchored nanocomposites proficiently and cost effectively in large-scale production. - Highlights: • A chelating bifunctional copolymer brush was synthesized via ATRP. • CdS nanoparticles and Mn 2+ were coupled with the bifunctional polymer. • Composites showed emission properties similar to Mn 2+ doped CdS nanoparticles. • Side chain length of the polymers also affect the emission properties of the composites.

  16. Investigation of the photoluminescence properties of thermochemically synthesized CdS nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Molaei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have synthesized CdS nanocrystals with thermochemical method. CdSO4 and Na2S2O3 were used as the precursors and thioglycolic acid (TGA was used as capping agent molecule. The structure and optical property of the nanocrystals were characterized by means of XRD, TEM, UV-visible optical spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL. X-ray diffraction (XRD and TEM analyses demonstrated hexagonal phase CdS nanocrystals with an average size around 2 nm. Synthesized nanocrystals exhibited band gap of about 3.2 eV and showed a broad band emission from 400-750 nm centered at 504 nm with a (0.27, 0.39 CIE coordinate. This emission can be attributed to recombination of an electron in conduction band with a hole trapped in Cd vacancies near to the valance band of CdS. The best attained photoluminescence quantum yield of the nanocrystals was about 12%, this amount is about 20 times higher than that for thioglycerol (TG capped CdS nanocrystals.

  17. Dispatch from the non-HITECH-incented Health IT world: electronic medication history adoption and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Meghan Hufstader; Smith, Jaime Y; Sow, Max; Charles, Dustin; Joseph, Seth; Wilkins, Tricia Lee

    2016-05-01

    To document national trends of electronic medication history use in the ambulatory setting and describe the characteristics and predicting factors of providers who regularly use medication history transaction capabilities through their e-prescribing systems. The study used provider-initiated medication history data requests, electronically sent over an e-prescribing network from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data from 138,000 prescribers were evaluated using multivariate analyses from 2007 to 2013. Medication history use showed significant growth, increasing from 8 to 850 million history requests during the study period. Prescribers on the network for histories more often than those in large and small cities, these findings were not significant in multivariate analyses. Providers in orthopedic surgery and internal medicine had a higher likelihood of more requests than family practice prescribers, with 12% and 7% higher likelihood, respectively. Early adopters of e-prescribing have remained medication history users and have continually increased their volume of requests for medication histories. Despite the fact that the use of medication histories through e-prescribing networks in the ambulatory care setting has not been encouraged through federal incentive programs, there has been substantial growth in the use of medication histories offered through e-prescribing networks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Living with encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS): the patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Helen; Summers, Angela; Beaver, Kinta; Caress, Ann-Louise

    2014-01-01

    Although relatively rare, encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is nonetheless a major concern within the renal community. Risk of developing EPS is associated with long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD). High mortality was previously reported, although surgery has since improved outcomes. Research into EPS focuses on imaging and early detection methods, genetics, biomarkers and preventive strategies. No previous studies have examined patients' experiences of EPS. The aim of the present study was to explore the experience of patients who have undergone surgery for EPS in one center in the North of England. A qualitative phenomenological approach, involving in-depth interviews, was adopted. Nine participants were recruited out of a total of 18 eligible. Most participants were interviewed twice over a 12-month period (October 2009 to October 2010). Interpretive data analysis was conducted, following the philosophical tradition of hermeneutics, to draw out themes from the data. Data collection and analysis took place concurrently and participants were sent a summary of their first interview to allow a period of reflection prior to the subsequent interview. EPS presented the most serious challenge participants had faced since developing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Three major themes were identified, each with subcategories. The key issues for patients were related to identification of early symptoms and lack of understanding. The patients' sense of 'not being heard' by health care professionals led to a loss of trust and enhanced their feelings of uncertainty. The enormity of the surgery, the suffering, and what they had to endure had an enormous impact, but an overriding aspect of this experience was also the loss they felt for their independence and for the PD therapy over which they had control. The findings of this study highlight a number of important issues relevant to clinical practice, including lack of information and understanding of EPS, particularly its

  19. A Search for Leptoquark Bosons in e^-p Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Becker, J.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boehme, J.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; Zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    A search for scalar and vector leptoquarks coupling to first generation fermions is performed in the H1 experiment at the ep collider HERA. The analysis uses e^- p data collected in 1998 and 1999 at a centre-of-mass energy of 320 GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 15 pb^-1. No evidence for the direct production of such particles is found in a data sample with a large transverse momentum final state electron or with large missing transverse momentum, and constraints on leptoquark models are established. For a Yukawa coupling of electromagnetic strength leptoquarks are excluded for masses up to 290 GeV. This analysis complements the leptoquark searches performed previously using data collected whilst HERA was operating with positrons instead of electrons.

  20. Understanding the determinants of antimicrobial prescribing within hospitals: the role of "prescribing etiquette".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charani, E; Castro-Sanchez, E; Sevdalis, N; Kyratsis, Y; Drumright, L; Shah, N; Holmes, A

    2013-07-01

    There is limited knowledge of the key determinants of antimicrobial prescribing behavior (APB) in hospitals. An understanding of these determinants is required for the successful design, adoption, and implementation of quality improvement interventions in antimicrobial stewardship programs. Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with doctors (n = 10), pharmacists (n = 10), and nurses and midwives (n = 19) in 4 hospitals in London. Interviews were conducted until thematic saturation was reached. Thematic analysis was applied to the data to identify the key determinants of antimicrobial prescribing behaviors. The APB of healthcare professionals is governed by a set of cultural rules. Antimicrobial prescribing is performed in an environment where the behavior of clinical leaders or seniors influences practice of junior doctors. Senior doctors consider themselves exempt from following policy and practice within a culture of perceived autonomous decision making that relies more on personal knowledge and experience than formal policy. Prescribers identify with the clinical groups in which they work and adjust their APB according to the prevailing practice within these groups. A culture of "noninterference" in the antimicrobial prescribing practice of peers prevents intervention into prescribing of colleagues. These sets of cultural rules demonstrate the existence of a "prescribing etiquette," which dominates the APB of healthcare professionals. Prescribing etiquette creates an environment in which professional hierarchy and clinical groups act as key determinants of APB. To influence the antimicrobial prescribing of individual healthcare professionals, interventions need to address prescribing etiquette and use clinical leadership within existing clinical groups to influence practice.

  1. Epônimos e o consórcio intelectual entre ciência e literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio F. Guerra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2178-4582.2010v44n2p485 Alguns escritores recorrem ao conhecimento cientifico para descrever as doenças e enfermidades mentais de seus personagens. Tal procedimento  melhora a qualidade literária dos textos, como atestam obras clássicas de  Leon Tolstoi (A morte de Ivan Ilitch, 1886 e Thomas Mann (The black  swan, 1953, por exemplo; alguns escritores brasileiros também descreveram distúrbios da personalidade, efeitos sociais de doenças tropicais e a gênese do fanatismo religioso (e.g., Lima Barreto, J. Guimarães Rosa e Euclydes da Cunha. Por outro lado, nomes de autores ou personagens fictícios às vezes são utilizados para designar doenças e fenômenos científicos (epônimos, como síndrome de Münchhausen ou de  Stendhal, alucinações lilliputianas (Jonathan Swift, síndrome do Sr. Pickwick (Charles Dickens e doença do chapeleiro maluco (Lewis Carroll. Boa ciência e boa literatura não são incompatíveis, mas o oposto é verdadeiro. Nós postulamos que textos literários podem ser usados para o treinamento de habilidades profissionais, uma vez que tais recursos permitem o aperfeiçoamento dos relatórios técnicos e amplia a capacidade observacional em relação assim como preserva a empatia dos  profissionais aos sintomas de uma enfermidade, dos serviços de saúde em relação ao sofrimento humano.

  2. A CDO option market model on standardized CDS index tranches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    We provide a market model which implies a dynamic for standardized CDS index tranche spreads. This model is useful for pricing options on tranches with future Issue Dates as well as for modeling emerging options on struc- tured credit derivatives. With the upcoming regulation of the CDS market...... in perspective, the model presented here is also an attempt to face the e ects on pricing approaches provoked by an eventual Clearing Chamber . It becomes also possible to calibrate Index Tranche Options with bespoke tenors/tranche subordination to market data obtained by more liquid Index Tranche Options...

  3. Eco-friendly intracellular biosynthesis of CdS quantum dots without changing Escherichia coli's antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng-Yu; Du, Qing-Qing; Qian, Jing; Wan, Dong-Yu; Wu, Sheng-Mei

    2017-01-01

    In the paper, a green and efficient biosynthetical technique was reported for preparing cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots, in which Escherichia coli (E. coli) was chosen as a biomatrix. Fluorescence emission spectra and fluorescent microscopic photographs revealed that as-produced CdS quantum dots had an optimum fluorescence emission peak located at 470nm and emitted a blue-green fluorescence under ultraviolet excitation. After extracted from bacterial cells and located the nanocrystals' foci in vivo, the CdS quantum dots showed a uniform size distribution by transmission electron microscope. Through the systematical investigation of the biosynthetic conditions, including culture medium replacement, input time point of cadmium source, working concentrations of raw inorganic ions, and co-cultured time spans of bacteria and metal ions in the bio-manufacture, the results revealed that CdS quantum dots with the strongest fluorescence emission were successfully prepared when E. coli cells were in stationary phase, with the replacement of culture medium and following the incubation with 1.0×10 -3 mol/L cadmium source for 2 days. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing indicated that the sensitivities to eight types of antibiotics of E. coli were barely changed before and after CdS quantum dots were prepared in the mild temperature environment, though a slight fall of antibiotic resistance could be observed, suggesting hinted the proposed technique of producing quantum dots is a promising environmentally low-risk protocol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Slepton and squark production and decay in ep collision at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, A.; Majerotto, W.; Oshimo, N.; Moesslacher, B.

    1991-06-01

    We present a detailed study of e+pe+q+X and e+p → v+q+X and the subsequent decays of e,v, and q at the LHC (√s = 1.4 TeV). We explore the relevant supersymmetry parameter range. We calculate the cross section as well as the rates for interesting signatures such as the production of one or two leptons on the lepton side. (authors)

  5. The EP4 receptor antagonist, L-161,982, blocks prostaglandin E2-induced signal transduction and cell proliferation in HCA-7 colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherukuri, Durga Prasad; Chen, Xiao B.O.; Goulet, Anne-Christine; Young, Robert N.; Han, Yongxin; Heimark, Ronald L.; Regan, John W.; Meuillet, Emmanuelle; Nelson, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that elevated levels of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) can increase intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, and thus play a role in colorectal tumorigenesis. PGE 2 exerts its effects through four G-protein-coupled PGE receptor (EP) subtypes, named the EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4. Increased phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2) is required for PGE 2 to stimulate cell proliferation of human colon cancer cells. However, the EP receptor(s) that are involved in this process remain unknown. We provide evidence that L-161,982, a selective EP4 receptor antagonist, completely blocks PGE 2 -induced ERK phosphorylation and cell proliferation of HCA-7 cells. In order to identify downstream target genes of ERK1/2 signaling, we found that PGE 2 induces expression of early growth response gene-1 (EGR-1) downstream of ERK1/2 and regulates its expression at the level of transcription. PGE 2 treatment induces phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) at Ser133 residue and CRE-mediated luciferase activity in HCA-7 cells. Studies with dominant-negative CREB mutant (ACREB) provide clear evidence for the involvement of CREB in PGE 2 driven egr-1 transcription in HCA-7 cells. In conclusion, this study reveals that egr-1 is a target gene of PGE 2 in HCA-7 cells and is regulated via the newly identified EP4/ERK/CREB pathway. Finally our results support the notion that antagonizing EP4 receptors may provide a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of colon cancer

  6. The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bass, K.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited by two different processes, chemical bath deposition (CBD), and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) on fluorine doped-tin oxide coated glass to assess the potential advantages of the pulsed DC magnetron sputtering process. The structural, optical and morphological properties of films obtained by CBD and PDCMS were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The as-grown films were studied and comparisons were drawn between their morphology, uniformity, crystallinity, and the deposition rate of the process. The highest crystallinity is observed for sputtered CdS thin films. The absorption in the visible wavelength increased for PDCMS CdS thin films, due to the higher density of the films. The band gap measured for the as-grown CBD-CdS is 2.38 eV compared to 2.34 eV for PDCMS-CdS, confirming the higher density of the sputtered thin film. The higher deposition rate for PDCMS is a significant advantage of this technique which has potential use for high rate and low cost manufacturing. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) of CdS films • Chemical bath deposition of CdS films • Comparison between CdS thin films deposited by chemical bath and PDCMS techniques • High deposition rate deposition for PDCMS deposition • Uniform, pinhole free CdS thin films.

  7. The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisco, F.; Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bass, K.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G.; Losurdo, M.; Walls, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited by two different processes, chemical bath deposition (CBD), and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) on fluorine doped-tin oxide coated glass to assess the potential advantages of the pulsed DC magnetron sputtering process. The structural, optical and morphological properties of films obtained by CBD and PDCMS were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The as-grown films were studied and comparisons were drawn between their morphology, uniformity, crystallinity, and the deposition rate of the process. The highest crystallinity is observed for sputtered CdS thin films. The absorption in the visible wavelength increased for PDCMS CdS thin films, due to the higher density of the films. The band gap measured for the as-grown CBD-CdS is 2.38 eV compared to 2.34 eV for PDCMS-CdS, confirming the higher density of the sputtered thin film. The higher deposition rate for PDCMS is a significant advantage of this technique which has potential use for high rate and low cost manufacturing. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) of CdS films • Chemical bath deposition of CdS films • Comparison between CdS thin films deposited by chemical bath and PDCMS techniques • High deposition rate deposition for PDCMS deposition • Uniform, pinhole free CdS thin films

  8. Attitudial Belief on Adoption of E-MBA Program in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmah MAHMOD

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available E-learning describes the use of information communications technology for learning beyond the boundaries of the conventional classroom. The objective of this paper is to determine what are the factors that are significant in explaining intention towards e-learning, particularly e-MBA adoption in Malaysia . Results indicated that trialability and image were significant influencing behavior intention towards e-MBA adoption.

  9. eHealth adoption factors in medical hospitals: A focus on the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Sander; van Geenhuizen, Marina; de Reuver, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Despite strong policy interest in eHealth, actual adoption in many European hospitals is low. This study develops and tests in a preliminary way an organisational eHealth adoption model rooted in several adoption frameworks to improve understanding of this phenomenon. The model is explored through a survey among hospitals in the Netherlands using a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach. Specific attention is paid to measurement of organisational readiness and to adoption as a process including different stages. Our results suggest a sharp decrease in the adoption process by hospitals after the stage of interest/commitment. Adoption tends to be significantly affected by size of the hospital, organisational readiness including technical aspects, and top management support. eHealth adoption tends to be not a linear process nor a linear function of contextual antecedents. Organisational readiness is an important antecedent for eHealth adoption. The paper concludes with organisational strategies and policies to foster eHealth adoption in hospitals and suggestions for future study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural features of subtype-selective EP receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovič, Tijana; Jakopin, Žiga; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Mlinarič-Raščan, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 is a potent endogenous molecule that binds to four different G-protein-coupled receptors: EP1-4. Each of these receptors is a valuable drug target, with distinct tissue localisation and signalling pathways. We review the structural features of EP modulators required for subtype-selective activity, as well as the structural requirements for improved pharmacokinetic parameters. Novel EP receptor subtype selective agonists and antagonists appear to be valuable drug candidates in the therapy of many pathophysiological states, including ulcerative colitis, glaucoma, bone healing, B cell lymphoma, neurological diseases, among others, which have been studied in vitro, in vivo and in early phase clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibiotic prescribing in patients with acute rhinosinusitis is not in agreement with European recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars Christian; Friis Christensen, Sarah; Cordoba Currea, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the potential overprescribing in patients with acute rhinosinusitis across six countries with different antibiotic prescribing rates and different prevalence of antibiotic resistance. Design, setting and subjects. A cross-sectional study including GPs from two Nordic...... tract infections" (HAPPY AUDIT). Main outcome measures. Use of antibiotics for acute rhinosinusitis based on the recommendations in the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2007 (EP3OS). Results. In total, 618 participating GPs registered 33 273 patients with RTI of whom 1150 (3...... overprescribing) and 23% had symptoms recommendations (EP3OS guidelines). To prevent overprescribing, efforts should be made to implement...

  12. Formation mechanism of CdS nanoparticles with tunable luminescence via a non-ionic microemulsion route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelescu, Daniel G.; Munteanu, Gabriel; Anghel, Dan F.; Peretz, Sandu; Maraloiu, Adrian V.; Teodorescu, Valentin S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles via an optimized water-in-oil microemulsion route that used the non-ionic surfactant-based system H 2 O–n-octane–Brij30/1-octanol. For that purpose, a microemulsion that contained Cd(II) ions (μe1) and another microemulsion that contained S 2− ions (μe2) were combined. To investigate the ways in which the non-ionic microemulsion characteristics controlled the size and emission properties of colloidal CdS quantum dots, μe1 and μe2 with tunable and robust similar structure were prepared. This requirement was fulfilled by matching the water emulsification failure boundary (wefb) of the two microemulsions and carrying out synthesis along this boundary. Dynamic light scattering and fluorescence probe techniques were used to investigate the size and interfacial organization of the microemulsion water droplets, and the CdS nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Vis and static fluorescence spectrometry, TEM and HRTEM. Nanoparticles of diameter 4.5–5.5 nm exhibiting enhanced band edge emission were produced by increasing the water content of the precursor microemulsions. The experimental results were combined with a Monte Carlo simulation approach to demonstrate that growth via coagulation of seed nuclei represented the driving mechanism for the CdS nanoparticle formation in the water-in-oil microemulsion.

  13. Formation mechanism of CdS nanoparticles with tunable luminescence via a non-ionic microemulsion route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelescu, Daniel G., E-mail: dangelescu@hotmail.com; Munteanu, Gabriel [Quantum Chemistry and Molecular Structure Laboratory, Romanian Academy, ' Ilie Murgulescu' Institute of Physical Chemistry (Romania); Anghel, Dan F.; Peretz, Sandu [Romanian Academy, ' Ilie Murgulescu' Institute of Physical Chemistry, Colloidal Laboratory (Romania); Maraloiu, Adrian V.; Teodorescu, Valentin S. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Institute of Atomic Physics (Romania)

    2013-01-15

    We investigated the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles via an optimized water-in-oil microemulsion route that used the non-ionic surfactant-based system H{sub 2}O-n-octane-Brij30/1-octanol. For that purpose, a microemulsion that contained Cd(II) ions ({mu}e1) and another microemulsion that contained S{sup 2-} ions ({mu}e2) were combined. To investigate the ways in which the non-ionic microemulsion characteristics controlled the size and emission properties of colloidal CdS quantum dots, {mu}e1 and {mu}e2 with tunable and robust similar structure were prepared. This requirement was fulfilled by matching the water emulsification failure boundary (wefb) of the two microemulsions and carrying out synthesis along this boundary. Dynamic light scattering and fluorescence probe techniques were used to investigate the size and interfacial organization of the microemulsion water droplets, and the CdS nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis and static fluorescence spectrometry, TEM and HRTEM. Nanoparticles of diameter 4.5-5.5 nm exhibiting enhanced band edge emission were produced by increasing the water content of the precursor microemulsions. The experimental results were combined with a Monte Carlo simulation approach to demonstrate that growth via coagulation of seed nuclei represented the driving mechanism for the CdS nanoparticle formation in the water-in-oil microemulsion.

  14. Towards a fair consideration of PrEP as part of combination HIV prevention in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasi, Giovanni; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Baruch, Ricardo; Guanira, Juan Vicente; Luque, Ricardo; Cáceres, Carlos F; Ghidinelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in scaling up antiretroviral treatment, HIV prevention strategies have not been successful in significantly curbing HIV incidence in Latin America. HIV prevention interventions need to be expanded to target the most affected key populations with a combination approach, including new high impact technologies. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as additional prevention choice for individuals at higher risk of infection and could become a cost-effective prevention tool. We discuss the barriers and solutions for a fair consideration of PrEP as part of combination HIV prevention strategies in Latin America. Although demonstration projects are ongoing or being planned in a number of countries, to date no Latin American country has implemented a public PrEP programme. The knowledge of policymakers about PrEP implementation needs to be strengthened, and programmatic guidance and cost estimate tools need to be developed to support adequate planning. Despite high levels of awareness among health providers, especially if engaged in HIV or key population care, willingness to prescribe PrEP is still low due to the lack of national policies and guidelines. Key populations, especially men who have sex with men, transgender women and sex workers, have been engaged in demonstration projects, and qualitative research shows high awareness and willingness to use PrEP, especially if accessible in the public sector for free or at affordable price. Concerns of safety, adherence, effectiveness and risk compensation need to be addressed through targeted social communication strategies to improve PrEP knowledge and stimulate demand. Alliance among policymakers, civil society and representatives from key populations, healthcare providers and researchers will be critical for the design and successful implementation of PrEP demonstration projects of locally adapted delivery models. The use of mechanisms of joint negotiation and procurement of antiretrovirals

  15. Factors influencing e-Procurement adoption in the Nigerian building industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eziyi Offia Ibem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of increasing adoption of e-Procurement in supply chain management, there is a need for adequate knowledge of the factors that influence the decision by organizations in the building industry to use e-Procurement. This study aims to fill the knowledge gap through investigating the factors influencing e-Procurement adoption based on the data sourced in a questionnaire survey involving 213 organizations in the building industry. The survey was conducted between June and November 2015 in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics, factor and categorical regression analyses were used to analyze the data. The results show that the three most important factors influencing the adoption of e-Procurement amongst the participants, in order of importance, were: the benefits of e-Procurement in enhancing efficiency in project delivery; eliminating geographic barriers and effective communication among project team members. The 29 factors were investigated in seven different dimensions - the benefits of e-Procurement use; level of awareness on e-Procurement in construction; and the availability and cost of e-Procurement applications emerged as the three most significant predictors of e-Procurement adoption in the survey. The study concludes by identifying strategies that should be engaged in increasing the uptake and maximizing the benefits of e-Procurement in the Nigerian building industry.

  16. Dense CdS thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass by high-rate microreactor-assisted solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yu-Wei, E-mail: suyuweiwayne@gmail.com [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Ramprasad, Sudhir [Energy Processes and Materials Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Corvallis, OR 9730 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Han, Seung-Yeol; Wang, Wei [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Ryu, Si-Ok [School of Display and Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1 Dae-dong, Gyeonsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Palo, Daniel R. [Barr Engineering Co., Hibbing, MN 55747 (United States); Paul, Brian K. [School of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Chang, Chih-hung [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Continuous microreactor-assisted solution deposition is demonstrated for the deposition of CdS thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass. The continuous flow system consists of a microscale T-junction micromixer with the co-axial water circulation heat exchanger to control the reacting chemical flux and optimize the heterogeneous surface reaction. Dense, high quality nanocrystallite CdS thin films were deposited at an average rate of 25.2 nm/min, which is significantly higher than the reported growth rate from typical batch chemical bath deposition process. Focused-ion-beam was used for transmission electron microscopy specimen preparation to characterize the interfacial microstructure of CdS and FTO layers. The band gap was determined at 2.44 eV by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. X-ray photon spectroscopy shows the binding energies of Cd 3d{sub 3/2}, Cd 3d{sub 5/2}, S 2P{sub 3/2} and S 2P{sub 1/2} at 411.7 eV, 404.8 eV, 162.1 eV and 163.4 eV, respectively. - Highlights: ► CdS films deposited using continuous microreactor-assisted solution deposition (MASD) ► Dense nanocrystallite CdS films can be reached at a rate of 25.2 [nm/min]. ► MASD can approach higher film growth rate than conventional chemical bath deposition.

  17. Simple and green synthesis of protein-conjugated CdS nanoparticles and spectroscopic study on the interaction between CdS and zein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Dezhi, E-mail: dezhiqin@163.com; Zhang, Li; Du, Xian; Wang, Yabo; Zhang, Qiuxia [Pingdingshan University, College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering (China)

    2016-09-15

    The present study demonstrates the role of zein molecules in synthesizing CdS nanoassemblies through protein-directed, green synthetic approach. Zein molecules can as capping ligand and stabilizing agent to regulate the nucleation and growth of CdS nanocrystals, and the obtained products are organic–inorganic nanocomposites. The analysis of surface charge and conductivity indicates that strong electrostatic force restricts mobility of ions, which creates a local supersaturation surrounding the binding sites of zein and reduces the activated energy of nucleation. The interaction between Cd{sup 2+}/CdS and zein molecules was systematically investigated through spectroscopy techniques. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra were used to envisage the binding of the functional groups of zein with the surface of CdS nanoparticles. Ultraviolet visible (UV–Vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra results show that Cd{sup 2+}/CdS might interact with the aromatic amino acids of protein molecules and change its chemical microenvironment. The quantum-confined effect of nanocrystals is confirmed by optical absorption spectrum due to the small size (3–5 nm) of CdS particles. The data of circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicate that the formation of CdS nanocrystals could lead to the conformational change of zein molecules. Moreover, the possible mechanism of CdS nanocrystals growth in zein solution was also discussed. The weak interactions such as Van der Waals, hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds in zein molecules should play a crucial factor in the self-assembly of small nanoparticles.

  18. Photoelectrochemical and Raman characterization of nanocrystalline CdS grown on ZnO by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozytskiy, A.V. [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 Nauky Av., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Stroyuk, O.L., E-mail: stroyuk@inphyschem-nas.kiev.ua [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 Nauky Av., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kuchmiy, S.Ya. [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 Nauky Av., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Mazanik, A.V.; Poznyak, S.K. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Streltsov, E.A., E-mail: streltea@bsu.by [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Kulak, A.I., E-mail: kulak@igic.bas-net.by [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Surganova str., 9/1, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Korolik, O.V. [Belarusian State University, Nezalezhnastsi Av. 4, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Dzhagan, V.M., E-mail: dzhagan@isp.kiev.ua [V.E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 41 Nauky Av., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Properties of CdS nanoparticles (NPs) grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on the surface of electrodeposited ZnO films were studied by Raman, photocurrent and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopies. The CdS nanoparticles deposited at a SILAR cycle number (N) from 5 to 10 exhibit a broadening of the band gap (E{sub g}) by 0.17–0.31 eV as compared with that of the CdS particles grown at N = 30. The size quantization of the interband transition energy in CdS nanoparticles is in accordance with the Raman spectroscopic data demonstrating a considerable increase in the LO peak intensity with increasing the N from 5 to 10 as a result of transition to resonant light scattering. The spectral width of the LO peak decreases from 50 to 15 cm{sup −1} as the N increases from 5 to 30 reflecting a less pronounced effect of the nanoparticle surface on the phonon scattering. A large spectral width of the Raman peaks is assumed to originate from a complex structure of the CdS nanoparticles comprising crystallinity domains that can affect the phonon confinement. The photocurrent spectroscopy of ZnO/CdS heterostructures showed that the band gap of CdS NPs deposited at N > 20 is smaller by ∼ 0.08 eV than that of bulk cadmium sulfide. It was concluded that this effect is not associated with photoexcitation of structural defects but rather reflects intrinsic electronic properties of SILAR-deposited CdS nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Visible-light-sensitive ZnO/CdS heterostructures were prepared by SILAR. • A large Raman peak width originates from a complex structure of CdS nanoparticles. • Vibrational properties of CdS nanoparticles depend on SILAR cycle number.

  19. Photoelectrochemical and Raman characterization of nanocrystalline CdS grown on ZnO by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozytskiy, A.V.; Stroyuk, O.L.; Kuchmiy, S.Ya.; Mazanik, A.V.; Poznyak, S.K.; Streltsov, E.A.; Kulak, A.I.; Korolik, O.V.; Dzhagan, V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Properties of CdS nanoparticles (NPs) grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on the surface of electrodeposited ZnO films were studied by Raman, photocurrent and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopies. The CdS nanoparticles deposited at a SILAR cycle number (N) from 5 to 10 exhibit a broadening of the band gap (E g ) by 0.17–0.31 eV as compared with that of the CdS particles grown at N = 30. The size quantization of the interband transition energy in CdS nanoparticles is in accordance with the Raman spectroscopic data demonstrating a considerable increase in the LO peak intensity with increasing the N from 5 to 10 as a result of transition to resonant light scattering. The spectral width of the LO peak decreases from 50 to 15 cm −1 as the N increases from 5 to 30 reflecting a less pronounced effect of the nanoparticle surface on the phonon scattering. A large spectral width of the Raman peaks is assumed to originate from a complex structure of the CdS nanoparticles comprising crystallinity domains that can affect the phonon confinement. The photocurrent spectroscopy of ZnO/CdS heterostructures showed that the band gap of CdS NPs deposited at N > 20 is smaller by ∼ 0.08 eV than that of bulk cadmium sulfide. It was concluded that this effect is not associated with photoexcitation of structural defects but rather reflects intrinsic electronic properties of SILAR-deposited CdS nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Visible-light-sensitive ZnO/CdS heterostructures were prepared by SILAR. • A large Raman peak width originates from a complex structure of CdS nanoparticles. • Vibrational properties of CdS nanoparticles depend on SILAR cycle number

  20. A Clinical Decision Support Engine Based on a National Medication Repository for the Detection of Potential Duplicate Medications: Design and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Yi; Lo, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Ray-Jade; Liu, Chien-Tsai

    2018-01-19

    prescribing using the CDS engine, the median encounter time was 4.3 (IQR 2.3-7.3) min, longer than that without using the CDS engine (median 3.6, IQR 2.0-6.3 min). From the physicians' responses, we found that 42.06% (1908/4536) of the potential duplicate medications were recognized by the physicians and the medication orders were canceled. The CDS engine could easily extend functions for detection of adverse drug reactions when more and more electronic health record systems are adopted. Moreover, the CDS engine can retrieve more updated and completed medication histories in the PharmaCloud, so it can have better performance for detection of duplicate medications. Although our CDS engine approach could enhance medication safety, it would make for a longer encounter time. This problem can be mitigated by careful evaluation of adopted solutions for implementation of the CDS engine. The successful key component of a CDS engine is the completeness of the patient's medication history, thus further research to assess the factors in increasing the PharmaCloud consent rate is required. ©Cheng-Yi Yang, Yu-Sheng Lo, Ray-Jade Chen, Chien-Tsai Liu. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 19.01.2018.

  1. Heavy quark physics in ep collisions at LEP+LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Barreiro, F.; Troconiz, J.F. de; Schuler, G.A.; Bij, J.J. van der

    1990-12-01

    We study electroweak production of heavy quarks - charm, beauty, and top - in deep inelastic electron-proton collisions at the proposed LEP+LHC collider at CERN. The assumed energy for the collisions is E e =50 GeV, E p =8000 GeV, providing an ep center of mass energy, √s≅1.26 TeV. We invoke the boson-gluon fusion model to estimate theoretical cross sections and distributions for the heavy quarks. Higher order QCD corrections are only approximately taken into account, by assuming a (normalization) K-factor of 2 for the charm and beauty quark production rates and incorporating the parton shower cascades. With these assumptions and the parameterization of Eichten et al. for the structure functions (EHLQ, set 1), we find the following cross sections: σ(ep→c+X)≅O(3 μb), σ(ep→b+X)≅O(40 nb), and σ(ep→t+X)≅4 pb for m t =120 GeV, decreasing to 0.5 pb for m t =250 GeV. These cross sections would provide O(6x10 9 ) charmed hadrons, O(8x10 7 ) beauty hadrons, and O(10 3 ) top hadrons, for an integrated ep luminosity of 1000 pb -1 . The heavy quark rates in ep collisions are considerably smaller than the corresponding rates in pp collisions at LHC, with √s=16 TeV. This gives a clear advantage to pp collisions for top searches. However, for the charmed and beauty quarks only a tiny fraction of the cross sections in p+p→Q+X can be triggered in comparison to the corresponding cross sections in e+p→Q+X, resulting in comparable number of measured heavy quark events in the ep and pp mode. We sketch the energy-momentum profile of heavy quark events in ep collisions and illustrate the kind of analyses that experiments at the LEP+LHC collider would undertake to quantitatively study heavy quark physics. In particular, prospects of measuring the particle-antiparticle mixing parameter x s =ΔM/Γ for the B s 0 -anti B s 0 meson system are evaluated, and search strategies for the top quark in ep collisions are presented. (orig.)

  2. Chemical Bath Deposition and Characterization of CdS layer for CZTS Thin Film Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Tasnim; Parvez, Sheikh; Matin, Rummana; Bashar, Mohammad Shahriar; Hossain, Tasnia; Sarwar, Hasan; Rashid, Mohammad Junaebur

    2016-01-01

    CZTS is a new type of an absorber and abundant materials for thin film solar cells (TFSC). Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is the n-type buffer layer of it with band gap of 2.42 eV. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) buffer layer of CZTS solar cell was deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the Chemical Bath Deposition(CBD) method, using anhydrous Cadmium chloride(CdCl_2) and Thiourea (CS(NH_2)_2). Deposition of CdS using CBD is based on the slow release of Cd^ ions and S^ ions in an alkaline bath which is achi...

  3. Diffusion mediated agglomeration of CdS nanoparticles via Langmuir–Blodgett technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Nayan Mani; Roy, Dhrubojyoti; Gupta, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Diffusion mediated agglomeration of CdS nanoparticles are discussed. • Formation of CdS nanoparticles are confirmed by the change of chain length in XRD. • AFM shows the agglomeration of particles with a film swelling of about 5 Å. • UV–vis absorbance suggests that the grown particles show quantum confinement. • Hexagonal form of particle was confirmed by UV–vis reflectivity. - Abstract: We have reported a diffusion mediated agglomeration of cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles within cadmium arachidate (CdA 2 ) film matrix. The structural morphology and formation of CdS nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show a change in bilayer difference from 53.04 Å to 43 Å after the sulphidation. An epitaxial growth of the films by ∼5 Å after sulphidation is confirmed from atomic force microscopy studies. The particle size calculated form UV–vis absorption edges are found to be varying from 2.6 nm to 3.3 nm for the different layers. A lateral dimension of 72–80 nm from AFM measurements and a size of 2.6–3.3 nm have confirmed one side flat pseudo two-dimensional disk-like nanoparticles. UV–vis reflectivity peak at E 1 (A) confirms the formation of hexagonal CdS nanoparticles along the c-axis

  4. What do we know about speculation in the CDS market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Norden (Lars); K. Radoeva (Kristina)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe measure speculation in the CDS market and investigate its determinants. The CDS volume on a firm that exceeds its outstanding debt (= naked CDS) indicates speculation since hedging can be ruled out. Using weekly CDS trading volume data for actively traded U.S. firms during 2008-2012,

  5. A configurable CDS for the production laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Meek, Irish

    2003-01-01

    Various aspects of a configurable chromatography data system (CDS) for the production laboratory are discussed. The Atlas CDS can be configured extensively to fit the production laboratory work flow and meet the needs of analysts. The CDS can also be configured to automatically create a sample sequence with the required number of injections and download methods to the dedicated instrument. The Atlas Quick Start wizard offers uses quick way of generating a sequence from a predefined template and starting a run. (Edited abstract).

  6. Pharmacy and primary care perspectives on e-prescribing in a rural community: A focused ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooienga, Sarah; Singh, Reshmi L

    Electronic prescribing (ERx) is the ability for prescriber to send a digital prescription directly to a pharmacist through a dedicated secure network. A number of federally funded incentives such as the health information technology for economic and clinical health (HITECH) and Meaningful Use standards have led to ERx implementation. ERx is an integral part of primary care practice and today most community pharmacies are enabled to accept e-prescriptions. Little is known about the experience of rural pharmacists, primary care providers and patients regarding e-prescribing. This paper reports on the results of ERx from their perspectives. The findings are a portion of a larger qualitative descriptive study focused on the meaning of Meaningful Use in remote rural communities. One remote rural community in the Pacific Northwest was used for this research endeavor. Explore understandings of e-prescribing from both pharmacist and primary care provider perspective. Explore patients' understandings and experiences of e-prescribing. The conceptual model for this research was the Ecological Transactional Model. This model informed the research design, interview questions and analysis. A qualitative descriptive methodology - focused ethnography was used for this study. Six key informant interviews, 14 patient interviews and 15 hours of participant observation provided the data. Data analysis occurred collectively between a social pharmacy researcher, a primary care nurse practitioner-researcher and pharmacy graduate students. The research qualitatively identified contextual understandings and dimensions of ERx in this setting. Based on a focused ethnographic methodology, contextual understandings of rurality and role identity, both pharmacist and primary care provider, were explored. Perspectives on ERx of patients, clinic manager and RN staff were also elicited. Three dimensions of ERx were identified - technological, structural and communication. The structural

  7. Search for excited electrons in ep collisions at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    H1 Collaboration; Aaron, F. D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Bacchetta, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deák, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Mudrinic, M.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Pejchal, O.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J. E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wegener, D.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wünsch, E.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2008-08-01

    A search for excited electrons is performed using the full ep data sample collected by the H1 experiment at HERA, corresponding to a total luminosity of 475 pb-1. The electroweak decays of excited electrons e→eγ, e→eZ and e→νW with subsequent hadronic or leptonic decays of the W and Z bosons are considered. No evidence for excited electron production is found. Mass dependent exclusion limits on e production cross sections and on the ratio f/Λ of the coupling to the compositeness scale are derived within gauge mediated models. These limits extend the excluded region compared to previous excited electron searches. The e production via contact interactions is also addressed for the first time in ep collisions.

  8. Structural and optical properties of nano-structured CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Rekha, E-mail: rekha.mittal07@gmail.com; Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K. [Thin Film Laboratory, Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been deposited on conducting glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effect of precursor concentration on the structural, morphological, compositional, and optical properties of the CdS films has been studied. Crystal structure of these CdS films is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it reveals polycrystalline structure with mixture of cubic and wurtzite phases with grain size decreasing as precursor concentration is increased. Optical studies reveal that the CdS thin films have high transmittance in visible spectral region reaching 90% and the films possess direct optical band gap that decreases from 2.46 to 2.39 eV with decreasing bath concentration. Our study suggests that growth is nucleation controlled.

  9. Structural and optical properties of nano-structured CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Rekha; Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been deposited on conducting glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effect of precursor concentration on the structural, morphological, compositional, and optical properties of the CdS films has been studied. Crystal structure of these CdS films is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it reveals polycrystalline structure with mixture of cubic and wurtzite phases with grain size decreasing as precursor concentration is increased. Optical studies reveal that the CdS thin films have high transmittance in visible spectral region reaching 90% and the films possess direct optical band gap that decreases from 2.46 to 2.39 eV with decreasing bath concentration. Our study suggests that growth is nucleation controlled.

  10. PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than 70%. Your risk of getting HIV from sex can be even lower if you combine PrEP with condoms and other prevention methods. Download PrEP 101 Consumer Info Sheet Vital Signs Fact Sheet on Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV (PrEP) Expand All Collapse All Video Introductions to PrEP What is PrEP? A Brief ...

  11. A Quality, Benefit, Cost, and Financial Framework for Health Information Technology, E-Prescribing: A Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuro, Paul R; Ash, Joan; Middleton, Blackford; Fletcher, Justin; Madison, Cecelia J

    2017-01-01

    Little research has been conducted about the quality, benefits, costs, and financial considerations associated with health information technology (HIT), particularly informatics technologies, such as e-prescribing, from the perspective of all its stakeholders. This research effort sought to identify the stakeholders involved in e-prescribing and to identify and rank-order the positives and the negatives from the perspective of the stakeholders to create a framework to assist in the development of incentives and payment mechanisms which result in better managed care. The Delphi method was employed by enlisting a panel of experts. They were presented with the results of initial research in an online survey of questions which sought to prioritize the quality, benefit, cost, and financial effects of e-prescribing from the perspective of each stakeholder. From the results of this study, a framework was presented to framework experts. The experts added stakeholders and positives and negatives to the initial lists and rank-ordered the positives and negatives of e-prescribing from the perspective of each stakeholder. The aggregate results were summarized by category of stakeholder. The framework experts evaluated the framework. Positives and negatives can be rank-ordered from the perspective of each stakeholder. A useful framework was created.

  12. Exploring the roots of unintended safety threats associated with the introduction of hospital ePrescribing systems and candidate avoidance and/or mitigation strategies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffar, Hajar; Cresswell, Kathrin M; Williams, Robin; Bates, David W; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-09-01

    Hospital electronic prescribing (ePrescribing) systems offer a wide range of patient safety benefits. Like other hospital health information technology interventions, however, they may also introduce new areas of risk. Despite recent advances in identifying these risks, the development and use of ePrescribing systems is still leading to numerous unintended consequences, which may undermine improvement and threaten patient safety. These negative consequences need to be analysed in the design, implementation and use of these systems. We therefore aimed to understand the roots of these reported threats and identify candidate avoidance/mitigation strategies. We analysed a longitudinal, qualitative study of the implementation and adoption of ePrescribing systems in six English hospitals, each being conceptualised as a case study. Data included semistructured interviews, observations of implementation meetings and system use, and a collection of relevant documents. We analysed data first within and then across the case studies. Our dataset included 214 interviews, 24 observations and 18 documents. We developed a taxonomy of factors underlying unintended safety threats in: (1) suboptimal system design, including lack of support for complex medication administration regimens, lack of effective integration between different systems, and lack of effective automated decision support tools; (2) inappropriate use of systems-in particular, too much reliance on the system and introduction of workarounds; and (3) suboptimal implementation strategies resulting from partial roll-outs/dual systems and lack of appropriate training. We have identified a number of system and organisational strategies that could potentially avoid or reduce these risks. Imperfections in the design, implementation and use of ePrescribing systems can give rise to unintended consequences, including safety threats. Hospitals and suppliers need to implement short- and long-term strategies in terms of the

  13. 77 FR 45327 - Petition for Rulemaking To Adopt Revised Competitive Switching Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Chapter X [Docket No. EP-711] Petition for Rulemaking To Adopt Revised Competitive Switching Rules AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board... evidence about the impact of the proposal, if it were to be adopted. Specifically, the Board is seeking...

  14. 78 FR 49721 - Petition for Rulemaking To Adopt Revised Competitive Switching Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Chapter X [Docket No. EP 711] Petition for Rulemaking To Adopt Revised Competitive Switching Rules AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board... Board sought empirical information about the impact of the proposal if it were to be adopted. The Board...

  15. Functional and bioinformatics analysis of an exopolysaccharide-related gene (epsN) from Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingrui; Tang, Wei; Zheng, Yongna; Xing, Zhuqing; Wang, Yanping

    2016-09-01

    A novel lactic acid bacteria strain Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 exhibited the characteristics of high production of exopolysaccharide (EPS). The epsN gene, located in the eps gene cluster of this strain, is associated with EPS biosynthesis. Bioinformatics analysis of this gene was performed. The conserved domain analysis showed that the EpsN protein contained MATE-Wzx-like domains. Then the epsN gene was amplified to construct the recombinant expression vector pMG36e-epsN. The results showed that the EPS yields of the recombinants were significantly improved. By determining the yields of EPS and intracellular polysaccharide, it was considered that epsN gene could play its Wzx flippase role in the EPS biosynthesis. This is the first time to prove the effect of EpsN on L. kefiranofaciens EPS biosynthesis and further prove its functional property.

  16. Biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles in banana peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guang Ju; Li, Shuo Hao; Zhang, Yu Cang; Fu, Yun Zhi

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using banana peel extract as a convenient, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green' capping agent. Cadmium nitrate and sodium sulfide are main reagents. A variety of CdS NPs are prepared through changing reaction conditions (banana extracts, the amount of banana peel extract, solution pH, concentration and reactive temperature). The prepared CdS colloid displays strong fluorescence spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the successful formation of CdS NPs. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrogram indicates the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the formation of CdS NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) result reveals that the average size of the NPs is around 1.48 nm.

  17. Adoption of e-health technology by physicians: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Grood C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chloe de Grood,1 Aida Raissi,2 Yoojin Kwon,3 Maria Jose Santana1 1Department of Community Health Sciences, W21C Research and Innovation Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, 2University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, 3Toronto Public Library, Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: The goal of this scoping review was to summarize the current literature identifying barriers and opportunities that facilitate adoption of e-health technology by physicians.Design: Scoping review.Setting: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases as provided by Ovid were searched from their inception to July 2015. Studies captured by the search strategy were screened by two reviewers and included if the focus was on barriers and facilitators of e-health technology adoption by physicians.Results: Full-text screening yielded 74 studies to be included in the scoping review. Within those studies, eleven themes were identified, including cost and liability issues, unwillingness to use e-health technology, and training and support.Conclusion: Cost and liability issues, unwillingness to use e-health technology, and training and support were the most frequently mentioned barriers and facilitators to the adoption of e-health technology. Government-level payment incentives and privacy laws to protect health information may be the key to overcome cost and liability issues. The adoption of e-health technology may be facilitated by tailoring to the individual physician’s knowledge of the e-health technology and the use of follow-up sessions for physicians and on-site experts to support their use of the e-health technology. To ensure the effective uptake of e-health technologies, physician perspectives need to be considered in creating an environment that enables the adoption of e-health strategies. Keywords: medical informatics, electronic medical records, diffusion of innovation, attitude of health personnel, information seeking behavior

  18. PrEP implementation: moving from trials to policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Carlos F; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Mayer, Kenneth H; Baggaley, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that the HIV response will not be sustainable if the number of infections is not significantly reduced. For two decades, research has been ongoing to identify new behavioural and biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. In the past few years, the efficacy of several new strategies has been demonstrated, including oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP; i.e. daily use of tenofovir/emtricitabine). Because several social, political and logistic barriers remain, however, optimal PrEP implementation will require a better dissemination of new evidence in a number of areas and additional implementation research from various disciplinary perspectives (i.e. social science, policy and ethics; health systems; and economics, including cost-effectiveness studies). Discussion of new evidence on those topics, as well as case studies of potential PrEP implementation in diverse environments, can improve the understanding of the role that PrEP may play in addressing the global HIV/AIDS epidemic.In light of these needs, the Network for Multidisciplinary Studies in ARV-based HIV Prevention (NEMUS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) were honoured to co-organize a special issue of JIAS aimed at contributing to a scholarly discussion of current conditions surrounding PrEP implementation, potential impact and efficiency, social science concerns and the study of PrEP implementation in specific country cases. The papers included in this monograph identify and cover many of the main aspects of the complex yet promising discussions around PrEP implementation today. This is a collection of timely contributions from global leaders in HIV research and policy that addresses geographic diversity, uses a trans-disciplinary approach and covers a variety of the complex issues raised by PrEP. As this publication will become accessible to all, we hope that it will remain a valuable resource for policy makers, programme managers, researchers and activists around the

  19. Selective inhibition of prostaglandin E2 receptors EP2 and EP4 induces apoptosis of human endometriotic cells through suppression of ERK1/2, AKT, NFkappaB, and beta-catenin pathways and activation of intrinsic apoptotic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Sakhila K; Lee, JeHoon; Speights, V O; Starzinski-Powitz, Anna; Arosh, Joe A

    2009-08-01

    Endometriosis is a benign chronic gynecological disease of reproductive-age women characterized by the presence of functional endometrial tissues outside the uterine cavity. It is an estrogen-dependent disease. Current treatment modalities to inhibit biosynthesis and actions of estrogen compromise menstruation, pregnancy, and the reproductive health of women and fail to prevent reoccurrence of disease. There is a critical need to identify new specific signaling modules for non-estrogen-targeted therapies for endometriosis. In our previous study, we reported that selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 prevented survival, migration, and invasion of human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells, which was due to decreased prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production. In this study, we determined mechanisms through which PGE(2) promoted survival of human endometriotic cells. Results of the present study indicate that 1) PGE(2) promotes survival of human endometriotic cells through EP2 and EP4 receptors by activating ERK1/2, AKT, nuclear factor-kappaB, and beta-catenin signaling pathways; 2) selective inhibition of EP2 and EP4 suppresses these cell survival pathways and augments interactions between proapoptotic proteins (Bax and Bad) and antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2/Bcl-XL), facilitates the release of cytochrome c, and thus activates caspase-3/poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathways; and 3) these PGE(2) signaling components are more abundantly expressed in ectopic endometriosis tissues compared with eutopic endometrial tissues during the menstrual cycle in women. These novel findings may provide an important molecular framework for further evaluation of selective inhibition of EP2 and EP4 as potential therapy, including nonestrogen target, to expand the spectrum of currently available treatment options for endometriosis in women.

  20. Pathophysiological role of prostaglandin E2-induced up-regulation of the EP2 receptor in motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells and lumbar motor neurons in ALS model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Miyagishi, Hiroko; Yoneoka, Yuki; Yoneda, Keiko; Nango, Hiroshi; Ishige, Kumiko; Ito, Yoshihisa

    2017-07-04

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective degeneration of motor neurons. The primary triggers for motor neuronal death are still unknown, but inflammation is considered to be an important factor contributing to the pathophysiology of ALS both clinically and in ALS models. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its corresponding four E-prostanoid receptors play a pivotal role in the degeneration of motor neurons in human and transgenic models of ALS. It has also been shown that PGE2-EP2 signaling in glial cells (astrocytes or microglia) promotes motor neuronal death in G93A mice. The present study was designed to investigate the levels of expression of EP receptors in the spinal motor neurons of ALS model mice and to examine whether PGE2 alters the expression of EP receptors in differentiated NSC-34 cells, a motor neuron-like cell line. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that EP2 and EP3 immunoreactivity was localized in NeuN-positive large cells showing the typical morphology of motor neurons in mice. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that the immunoreactivity of EP2 in motor neurons was significantly increased in the early symptomatic stage in ALS model mice. In contrast, the level of EP3 expression remained constant, irrespective of age. In differentiated NSC-34 cells, bath application of PGE2 resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease of MTT reduction. Although PGE2 had no effect on cell survival at concentrations of less than 10 μM, pretreatment with 10 μM PGE2 significantly up-regulated EP2 and concomitantly potentiated cell death induced by 30 μM PGE2. These results suggest that PGE2 is an important effector for induction of the EP2 subtype in differentiated NSC-34 cells, and that not only EP2 up-regulation in glial cells but also EP2 up-regulation in motor neurons plays a pivotal role in the vulnerability of motor neurons in ALS model mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Barriers to Access and Adoption of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in a Relatively Rural State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubach, Randolph D; Currin, Joseph M; Sanders, Carissa A; Durham, André R; Kavanaugh, Katherine E; Wheeler, Denna L; Croff, Julie M

    2017-08-01

    Biomedical intervention approaches, including antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), have been demonstrated to reduce HIV incidence among several at-risk populations and to be cost effective. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP access and uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in relatively rural states. Twenty semistructured interviews were conducted (August-November 2016) to assess opinions of and perceived barriers to accessing and adopting PrEP among MSM residing in Oklahoma. Participants perceived substantial barriers to accessing PrEP including a stigmatizing environment and less access to quality, LGBT-sensitive medical care. Overall, geographic isolation limits access to health providers and resources that support sexual health for Oklahoma MSM. Addressing stigma situated across ecological levels in an effort to increase adoption of PrEP by MSM residing in rural states remains necessary. Without this, social determinants may continue to negatively influence PrEP adoption and sexual health outcomes.

  2. Production of Z0 bosons in elastic and quasi-elastic ep collisions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.

    2012-10-01

    The production of Z 0 bosons in the reaction epeZ 0 p (*) , where p (*) stands for a proton or a low-mass nucleon resonance, has been studied in ep collisions at HERA using the ZEUS detector. The analysis is based on a data sample collected between 1996 and 2007, amounting to 496 pb -1 of integrated luminosity. The Z 0 was measured in the hadronic decay mode. The elasticity of the events was ensured by a cut on η max max is the maximum pseudorapidity of energy deposits in the calorimeter defined with respect to the proton beam direction. A signal was observed at the Z 0 mass. The cross section of the reaction epeZ 0 p (*) was measured to be σ (epeZ 0 p (*) ) = 0.13 ± 0.06 (stat.) ± 0.01 (syst.) pb, in agreement with the Standard Model prediction of 0.16 pb. This is the first measurement of Z 0 production in ep collisions.

  3. The effects of coulomb distortion on the first, second, and third sturcture functions for (e, e'p) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. S.; Cheoun, Myung Ki; Cheon, Il Tong; Chung, Yeun Gun

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we study the electron Coulomb distortion effects on the first, second, and third structure functions for the exclusive reaction (e, e'p) in the quasielastic region. For a heavy target ( 208 Pb) or a light nucleus ( 16 O), these structure functions calculated using the distorted wave Born approximation for the electron Coulomb distortion have shapes similar to those calculated using the plane wave Born approximation, but the effects are changed in magnitude. We use the approximate Moeller potential which has a 'plane-wave-like' form and hence permits the separation of the cross section into five structure functions. We investigate the dependence of the azimuthal angle for the outgoing proton on each structure functions. In this calculation, we use the Dirac-Hartree single particle wave functions for the ground state and the relativistic optical wave functions for the continuum proton

  4. Structural, morphological and optical properties of Na and K dual doped CdS thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageswari, S.; Dhivya, L.; Palanivel, Balan; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of incorporation of Na, K and Na,K dual dopants into CdS thin film was investigated. ► Thin films were prepared by simple chemical bath deposition technique. ► The XRD analysis revealed cubic phase for all the investigated films. ► AFM analysis revealed uniform surface with crack free and densely packed morphology for CdS:Na,K film. ► The band gap value increases for CdS:Na, CdS:K and CdS:Na,K thin films compared to CdS film. - Abstract: CdS, sodium doped CdS (CdS:Na), potassium doped CdS (CdS:K) and sodium and potassium dual doped CdS (CdS:Na,K) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the as-grown films were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet visible (UV–VIS) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis revealed cubic phase for ‘as-deposited’ CdS, CdS:Na, CdS:K and CdS:Na,K dual doped thin films. AFM analysis revealed uniform film surface with crack free and densely packed morphology for CdS:Na,K film. The absorption edge in the optical absorption spectra shifts towards the shorter wavelength for CdS:Na, CdS:K and CdS:Na,K thin films compared to CdS film. The optical band gap of CdS, CdS:Na, CdS:K and CdS:Na,K thin films was found to be 2.31, 2.35, 2.38 and 2.34 eV, respectively.

  5. Technical training: CERN Document Server (CDS), Inspire and Library Services

    CERN Multimedia

    IT & GS Departments

    2012-01-01

    A new training course, “CERN Document Server (CDS), Inspire and Library Services”, is available since the beginning of the year. The training course is given by members of CERN’s CDS Team (IT-CIS group) and the Library Services (GIS SIS group) and is intended for all members of personnel of CERN. This course will present CDS and inspirehep.net and the content, scope and scientific information available in or with CDS, as much as the classification and organization of the documents. It is intended to give you the training needed to know how to use CDS most efficiently and in particular covers: the main characteristics and advanced features for the search of documents (scientific, multimedia, etc). the collaborative tools : baskets, alerts, comments, evaluation, etc. the submission of documents in CDS and examples of workflows. An important part of the training is composed of various exercises, designed to acquire practical ability to work with CDS in cases similar to re...

  6. Synthesis of CdS nanoparticles based on DNA network templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yong; Song Yonghai; Wang Li

    2008-01-01

    CdS nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by using DNA networks as templates. The synthesis was carried out by first dropping a mixture of cadmium acetate and DNA on a mica surface for the formation of the DNA network template and then transferring the sample into a heated thiourea solution. The Cd 2+ reacted with thiourea at high temperature and formed CdS nanoparticles on the DNA network template. UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence, x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the CdS nanoparticles in detail. AFM results showed that the resulted CdS nanoparticles were directly aligned on the DNA network templates and that the synthesis and assembly of CdS nanoparticles was realized in one step. CdS nanoparticles fabricated with this method were smaller than those directly synthesized in a thiourea solution and were uniformly aligned on the DNA networks. By adjusting the density of the DNA networks and the concentration of Cd 2+ , the size and density of the CdS nanoparticles could be effectively controlled and CdS nanoparticles could grow along the DNA chains into nanowires. The possible growth mechanism has also been discussed in detail

  7. Abnormal placental development and early embryonic lethality in EpCAM-null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nagao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EpCAM (CD326 is encoded by the tacstd1 gene and expressed by a variety of normal and malignant epithelial cells and some leukocytes. Results of previous in vitro experiments suggested that EpCAM is an intercellular adhesion molecule. EpCAM has been extensively studied as a potential tumor marker and immunotherapy target, and more recent studies suggest that EpCAM expression may be characteristic of cancer stem cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain insights into EpCAM function in vivo, we generated EpCAM -/- mice utilizing an embryonic stem cell line with a tacstd1 allele that had been disrupted. Gene trapping resulted in a protein comprised of the N-terminus of EpCAM encoded by 2 exons of the tacstd1 gene fused in frame to betageo. EpCAM +/- mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no obvious abnormalities. Examination of EpCAM +/- embryos revealed that betageo was expressed in several epithelial structures including developing ears (otocysts, eyes, branchial arches, gut, apical ectodermal ridges, lungs, pancreas, hair follicles and others. All EpCAM -/- mice died in utero by E12.5, and were small, developmentally delayed, and displayed prominent placental abnormalities. In developing placentas, EpCAM was expressed throughout the labyrinthine layer and by spongiotrophoblasts as well. Placentas of EpCAM -/- embryos were compact, with thin labyrinthine layers lacking prominent vascularity. Parietal trophoblast giant cells were also dramatically reduced in EpCAM -/- placentas. CONCLUSION: EpCAM was required for differentiation or survival of parietal trophoblast giant cells, normal development of the placental labyrinth and establishment of a competent maternal-fetal circulation. The findings in EpCAM-reporter mice suggest involvement of this molecule in development of vital organs including the gut, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, eyes, and limbs.

  8. Abnormal placental development and early embryonic lethality in EpCAM-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Keisuke; Zhu, Jianjian; Heneghan, Mallorie B; Hanson, Jeffrey C; Morasso, Maria I; Tessarollo, Lino; Mackem, Susan; Udey, Mark C

    2009-12-31

    EpCAM (CD326) is encoded by the tacstd1 gene and expressed by a variety of normal and malignant epithelial cells and some leukocytes. Results of previous in vitro experiments suggested that EpCAM is an intercellular adhesion molecule. EpCAM has been extensively studied as a potential tumor marker and immunotherapy target, and more recent studies suggest that EpCAM expression may be characteristic of cancer stem cells. To gain insights into EpCAM function in vivo, we generated EpCAM -/- mice utilizing an embryonic stem cell line with a tacstd1 allele that had been disrupted. Gene trapping resulted in a protein comprised of the N-terminus of EpCAM encoded by 2 exons of the tacstd1 gene fused in frame to betageo. EpCAM +/- mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no obvious abnormalities. Examination of EpCAM +/- embryos revealed that betageo was expressed in several epithelial structures including developing ears (otocysts), eyes, branchial arches, gut, apical ectodermal ridges, lungs, pancreas, hair follicles and others. All EpCAM -/- mice died in utero by E12.5, and were small, developmentally delayed, and displayed prominent placental abnormalities. In developing placentas, EpCAM was expressed throughout the labyrinthine layer and by spongiotrophoblasts as well. Placentas of EpCAM -/- embryos were compact, with thin labyrinthine layers lacking prominent vascularity. Parietal trophoblast giant cells were also dramatically reduced in EpCAM -/- placentas. EpCAM was required for differentiation or survival of parietal trophoblast giant cells, normal development of the placental labyrinth and establishment of a competent maternal-fetal circulation. The findings in EpCAM-reporter mice suggest involvement of this molecule in development of vital organs including the gut, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, eyes, and limbs.

  9. COX-2 and Prostaglandin EP3/EP4 Signaling Regulate the Tumor Stromal Proangiogenic Microenvironment via CXCL12-CXCR4 Chemokine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Hosono, Kanako; Ito, Yoshiya; Suzuki, Tatsunori; Ogawa, Yasufumi; Kubo, Hidefumi; Kamata, Hiroki; Mishima, Toshiaki; Tamaki, Hideaki; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Narumiya, Shuh; Watanabe, Masahiko; Majima, Masataka

    2010-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM)–derived hematopoietic cells, which are major components of tumor stroma, determine the tumor microenvironment and regulate tumor phenotypes. Cyclooxygenase (COX)−2 and endogenous prostaglandins are important determinants for tumor growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis; however, their contributions to stromal formation and angiogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we observed that Lewis lung carcinoma cells implanted in wild-type mice formed a tumor mass with extensive stromal formation that was markedly suppressed by COX-2 inhibition, which reduced the recruitment of BM cells. Notably, COX-2 inhibition attenuated CXCL12/CXCR4 expression as well as expression of several other chemokines. Indeed, in a Matrigel model, prostaglandin (PG) E2 enhanced stromal formation and CXCL12/CXCR4 expression. In addition, a COX-2 inhibitor suppressed stromal formation and reduced expression of CXCL12/CXCR4 and a fibroblast marker (S100A4) in a micropore chamber model. Moreover, stromal formation after tumor implantation was suppressed in EP3−/− mice and EP4−/− mice, in which stromal expression of CXCL12/CXCR4 and S100A4 was reduced. The EP3 or EP4 knockout suppressed S100A4+ fibroblasts, CXCL12+, and/or CXCR4+ stromal cells as well. Immunofluorescent analyses revealed that CXCL12+CXCR4+S100A4+ fibroblasts mainly comprised stromal cells and most of these were recruited from the BM. Additionally, either EP3- or EP4-specific agonists stimulated CXCL12 expression by fibroblasts in vitro. The present results address the novel activities of COX-2/PGE2-EP3/EP4 signaling that modulate tumor biology and show that CXCL12/CXCR4 axis may play a crucial role in tumor stromal formation and angiogenesis under the control of prostaglandins. PMID:20110411

  10. Improving the Formatting Tools of CDS Invenio

    CERN Document Server

    Caffaro, J; Pu Faltings, Pearl

    2006-01-01

    CDS Invenio is the web-based integrated digital library system developed at CERN. It is a strategical tool that supports the archival and open dissemination of documents produced by CERN researchers. This paper reports on my Master’s thesis work done on BibFormat, a module in CDS Invenio, which formats documents metadata. The goal of this project was to implement a completely new formatting module for CDS Invenio. In this report a strong emphasis is put on the user-centered design of the new BibFormat. The bibliographic formatting process and its requirements are discussed. The task analysis and its resulting interaction model are detailed. The document also shows the implemented user interface of BibFormat and gives the results of the user evaluation of this interface. Finally the results of a small usability study of the formats included in CDS Invenio are discussed.

  11. Surface dependent behaviour of CdS LO-phonon mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Contreras, J R; Medina-Gutierrez, C; Frausto-Reyes, C; Trejo-Vazquez, R; Villalobos-Pina, F J; Romo-Luevano, G; Calixto, S

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a sensitive optical method to monitor the surface roughness in the investigation of surfaces. By applying this method to measure the RMS surface roughness of various surfaces, we found RMS values which are comparable to those obtained by atomic force microscopy measurements. In addition, we present a simple empirical model to calculate the RMS surface roughness which shows very good agreement with the surface roughness measurements taken by the method reported in this paper. Finally, the application of our method to the study of the LO-phonon mode of CdS suggests that its intensity is dominated by the surface roughness. This roughness dependent behaviour of the CdS LO-phonon mode is experimentally confirmed by using an excitation wavelength near its E 0 transition

  12. EPS-SJ exopolisaccharide produced by the strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8 is involved in adhesion to epithelial intestinal cells and decrease on E. coli association to Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica eZivkovic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the role of an exopolysaccharide produced by natural dairy isolate Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8, in the adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and a decrease in E. coli’s association with Caco-2 cells. Annotation of the BGSJ2-8 genome showed the presence of a gene cluster, epsSJ, which encodes the biosynthesis of the strain-specific exopolysaccharide EPS-SJ, detected as two fractions (P1 and P2 by size exclusion chromatography (SEC coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS detection. SEC-MALLS analysis revealed that an EPS-SJ‒ mutant (EPS7, obtained by insertion mutagenesis of the glps_2198 gene encoding primary glycosyltransferase does not produce the P2 fraction of EPS-SJ. Transmission electron microscopy showed that EPS7 mutant has a thinner cell wall compared to the EPS-SJ+ strain BGSJ2-83 (a plasmid free-derivative of BGSJ2-8. Interestingly, strain BGSJ2-83 showed higher adhesion to Caco-2 epithelial intestinal cell line than the EPS7 mutant. Accordingly, BGSJ2-83 effectively reduced E. coli ATCC25922’s association with Caco-2 cells, while EPS7 did not show statistically significant differences. In addition, the effect of EPS-SJ on the proliferation of lymphocytes in gastrointestinal associated lymphoid tissue (GALT was tested and the results showed that the reduction of GALT lymphocyte proliferation was higher by BGSJ2-83 than by the mutant. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report indicating that the presence of EPS (EPS-SJ on the surface of lactobacilli can improve communication between bacteria and intestinal epithelium, implying its possible role in gut colonization.

  13. Microarray evaluation of EP4 receptor-mediated prostaglandin E2 suppression of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Tsuboi, Hiroaki; Okuno, Yasushi; Tamba, Shigero; Tsuchiya, Soken; Tsujimoto, Gozo; Ichikawa, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) has been shown to negatively regulate adipogenesis. To explore to what extent PGE 2 inhibits the differentiation of cells to adipocytes and to examine whether its effect could be due to EP4 receptor signaling, we used microarrays to analyze the gene expression profiles of 3T3-L1 cells exposed to a differentiation cocktail supplemented with PGE 2 , AE1-329 (an EP4 agonist), or vehicle. The differentiation-associated responses in genes such as adipocytokines and enzymes related to lipid metabolism were largely weakened upon PGE 2 treatment. In particular, the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α, genes playing a central role in adipogenesis, was greatly suppressed. PGE 2 appears to be ineffective to a subclass of insulin target genes such as hexokinase 2 and phosphofructokinase. Similar responses were produced in the differentiation-associated genes upon AE1-329 treatment. These results suggest that PGE 2 inhibits a crucial step of the adipocyte differentiation process by acting on the EP4 receptor in 3T3-L1 cells

  14. Awareness and Willingness to Use Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Brenda; De Boni, Raquel B; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Madruga, José Valdez; Kallas, Esper G; Goulart, Silvia Pereira; Cerqueira, Natalia; Torres, Thiago S; Luz, Paula M; Fernandes, Nilo Martinez; Liu, Albert Y; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdilea G

    2017-05-01

    Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended to prevent HIV infection among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) though not available in Brazil where the HIV epidemic persists unabated in this group. This cross-sectional study describes PrEP awareness and willingness and associated factors among MSM and transvestite/transgender women (trans women) pre-screened for the PrEP Brasil study. Awareness was reported by 61.3 % of the participants and was associated with age, education, site, study period and prior HIV testing. Most participants (82.1 %) were willing to use PrEP, which was associated with site, study period, number of male condomless anal sexual partners and anal sex with HIV positive/unknown partners. PrEP information is need among young and less educated individuals. Willingness to use PrEP was high and future studies should be conducted to confirm PrEP acceptability and the characteristics of the population who chose to adopt this intervention.

  15. Isospin effect in the (e, e'p) reaction on Zr-isotopes and others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, K.J.F.; Davison, A.; Thompson, M.N.

    1974-01-01

    A considerable amount of work concerning 90 Zr and 91 Zr has been carried out by both the Melbourne and Tohoku groups. This interest largely originated from the observance of marked structure about the giant resonance region in early (p, γ 0 ) experiments on 90 Zr. A result of these studies so far is the proposal of a weak coupling core excitation model to explain the change in character of the isotopes 90 and 91. This has been successful with one major exception -- the lack of strength about Ep=7.9 MeV in 91 Zr. In order to further test this model and possibly arrive at some explanation for the above mentioned anomaly, the obvious progression to the isotopes 92 and 94 constitutes the basic theme of the present series of experiments. For protons from 92 Zr, to determine the nature of the proton groups seen in spectra obtained with Esub(e)=30 MeV, a series of runs with Esub(e) ranging from 22.5 to 15.0 MeV were taken with the end points differing by 0.5 MeV. It should be possible to obtain the estimates of P 0 , P 1 , and possibly P 2 cross-sections from these data. As to protons from 94 Zr, although it was not possible to make the investigation as detailed as that for 92 Zr, it will be possible to establish the nature of some of the decay scheme. (Tai, I.)

  16. Nonlinearity of the refractive index due to an excitonic molecule resonance state in CdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, R.; Broser, I.; Buschick, K.

    1986-01-01

    The authors report the observation of an intensity-dependent refractive-index nonlinearity in CdS due to a resonance state where an excitonic molecule is created by induced absorption of light. The refractive index n as a function of the incident laser photon energy E is measured directly by light refraction in thin crystal prisms. A renormalized dielectric function describes the measured n(E) spectra well. This strong refractive-index nonlinearity is well suited to produce an optical bistability and to further strengthen the evidence of CdS to be an important material for laser-induced dynamic gratings

  17. Prostaglandin E2 stimulates Fas ligand expression via the EP1 receptor in colon cancer cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Callaghan, G

    2012-02-03

    Fas ligand (FasL\\/CD95L) is a member of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily that triggers apoptosis following crosslinking of the Fas receptor. Despite studies strongly implicating tumour-expressed FasL as a major inhibitor of the anti-tumour immune response, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate FasL expression in tumours. In this study, we show that the cyclooxygenase (COX) signalling pathway, and in particular prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), plays a role in the upregulation of FasL expression in colon cancer. Suppression of either COX-2 or COX-1 by RNA interference in HCA-7 and HT29 colon tumour cells reduced FasL expression at both the mRNA and protein level. Conversely, stimulation with PGE(2) increased FasL expression and these cells showed increased cytotoxicity against Fas-sensitive Jurkat T cells. Prostaglandin E(2)-induced FasL expression was mediated by signalling via the EP1 receptor. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis using serial sections of human colon adenocarcinomas revealed a strong positive correlation between COX-2 and FasL (r=0.722; P<0.0001) expression, and between EP1 receptor and FasL (r=0.740; P<0.0001) expression, in the tumour cells. Thus, these findings indicate that PGE(2) positively regulates FasL expression in colon tumour cells, adding another pro-neoplastic activity to PGE(2).

  18. How Stakeholder Assessment of E-Prescribing Can Help Determine Incentives to Facilitate Management of Care: A Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuro, Paul R; Ash, Joan; Middleton, Blackford; Fletcher, Justin; Madison, Cecelia J

    2017-11-01

    Little research has been conducted on the quality, benefits, costs, and financial considerations associated with health information technology (HIT), particularly informatics technologies such as e-prescribing, from the perspective of all of its stakeholders. To (a) identify the stakeholders involved in e-prescribing and (b) identify and rank order the positives and negatives of e-prescribing from the perspective of stakeholders in order to create a framework for payers, integrated delivery systems, policymakers and legislators, and those who influence public policy to assist them in the development of incentives and payment mechanisms that result in the better management of care. The Delphi method was used to enlist a panel of experts in e-prescribing, informatics, and/or HIT who have published in the field. This panel was presented with the results of initial research and an online survey of questions that sought to prioritize the quality, benefit, cost, and financial effects of e-prescribing from the perspective of each stakeholder. Eleven experts completed the first survey, which contained a list of stakeholders and positives and negatives associated with e-prescribing. Nine of the 11 experts completed the second survey, and 7 experts completed the final survey. From the results of these 3 surveys, a framework was presented to 5 framework experts, who were representatives from payers, integrated delivery systems, policymakers and legislators, and those who influence public policy. These framework experts were interviewed regarding the usefulness of the framework from their perspectives. The experts added stakeholders and many positives and negatives to the initial list and rank ordered the positives and negatives of e-prescribing from the perspective of each stakeholder. The aggregate results were summarized by stakeholder category. The positives and negatives were categorized as health, finance, effort, time, management, or data concerns. The framework experts

  19. EpCAM nuclear localization identifies aggressive Thyroid Cancer and is a marker for poor prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralhan, Ranju; Cao, Jun; Lim, Terence; MacMillan, Christina; Freeman, Jeremy L; Walfish, Paul G

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain (EpEx) of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and nuclear signaling by its intracellular oncogenic domain Ep-ICD has recently been implicated in increased proliferation of cancer cells. The clinical significance of Ep-ICD in human tumors remains an enigma. EpEx, Ep-ICD and β-catenin immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies was conducted on 58 archived thyroid cancer (TC) tissue blocks from 34 patients and correlated with survival analysis of these patients for up to 17 years. The anaplastic (ATC) and aggressive thyroid cancers showed loss of EpEx and increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD. In contrast, the low grade papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) showed membranous EpEx and no detectable nuclear Ep-ICD. The ATC also showed concomitant nuclear expression of Ep-ICD and β-catenin. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis revealed reduced overall survival (OS) for TC patients showing nuclear Ep-ICD expression or loss of membranous EpEx (p < 0.0004), median OS = 5 months as compared to 198 months for patients who did not show nuclear Ep-ICD or demonstrated only membranous EpE. We report reciprocal loss of membrane EpEx but increased nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD in aggressive TC; nuclear Ep-ICD correlated with poor OS of TC patients. Thus nuclear Ep-ICD localization may serve as a useful biomarker for aggressive TC and may represent a novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic target for aggressive TC

  20. Size-dependent photodegradation of CdS particles deposited onto TiO2 mesoporous films by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Rasin; Will, Geoffrey; Bell, John; Wang Hongxia

    2012-01-01

    The particle size, size distribution and photostability of CdS nanoparticles incorporated onto mesoporous TiO 2 films by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, UV–Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). High-resolution TEM indicated that the synthesized CdS particles were hexagonal phase and the particle sizes were less than 5 nm for up to nine SILAR deposition cycles. Quantum size effect was found with the CdS-sensitized TiO 2 films prepared with up to nine SILAR cycles. The band gap of CdS nanoparticles decreased from 2.65 to 2.37 eV with the increase of the SILAR cycles from 1 to 11. The investigation of the stability of the CdS/TiO 2 films in air under illumination (440.6 μW/cm 2 ) showed that the photodegradation rate was up to 85 % per day for the sample prepared with three SILAR cycles. XPS analysis indicated that the photodegradation was due to the oxidation of CdS, leading to the transformation from sulphide to sulphate (CdSO 4 ). Furthermore, the degradation rate was strongly dependent upon the particle size of CdS. Smaller particles showed faster degradation rate. The size-dependent photo-induced oxidization was rationalized with the variation of size-dependent distribution of surface atoms of CdS particles. Molecular dynamics-based theoretical calculation has indicated that the surface sulphide anion of a large CdS particle such as CdS made with 11 cycles (CdS × 11, average particle size = 5.6 nm) accounts for 9.6 % of the material whereas this value is increased to 19.2 % for (CdS × 3)-based smaller particles (average particle size = 2.7 nm). The photostability of CdS nanoparticles was significantly enhanced when coated with ZnS particles deposited with four SILAR cycles. The growth mechanism of ZnS upon CdS nanoparticles was discussed.

  1. Acceptability of Daily Use of Free Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among Transgender Women Sex Workers in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph T F; Yang, Xueying; Cai, Yong; Gross, Danielle L; Ma, Tiecheng; Liu, Yan

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the acceptability of daily use of free oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and associated factors among transgender women sex workers in Shenyang, China, following a briefing on PrEP. A total of 183 HIV negative or sero-status unknown participants completed the cross-sectional survey. The prevalence of acceptability of daily use of free oral PrEP was 61.2%. Adjusting for education level and monthly income, variables on negative attitudes toward PrEP (i.e., having concerns about the side-effects of PrEP) [Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 0.26], perceived subjective norms (i.e., perceiving support from male partners to take PrEP) (AOR: 2.08), and perceived behavioral control (e.g., perceiving complete control over using PrEP) (AOR: 2.10-16.72) were significantly associated with acceptability of daily use of free oral PrEP. In addition, experiencing violence during sex work, perceived risk of contracting HIV from clients and probable anxiety were also significant. Future PrEP promotion campaigns should consider these factors.

  2. Multi-Lepton Production at High Transverse Momenta in ep Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Bacchetta, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wegener, D.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2008-01-01

    Processes leading to a final state with at least two high transverse momentum leptons (electrons or muons) are studied using the full ep data sample collected by the H1 experiment at HERA. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 463 pb-1. Di-lepton and tri-lepton event classes are investigated. Cross sections of the production of e+e- and mu+mu- pairs are derived in a restricted phase space dominated by photon-photon collisions. In general, good agreement is found with Standard Model predictions. Events are observed with a total scalar sum of lepton transverse momenta above 100 GeV where the Standard Model expectation is low. In this region, combining di-lepton and tri-lepton classes, five events are observed in e+p collisions, compared to a Standard Model expectation of 0.96+-0.12, while no such event is observed in e-p data for 0.64+-0.09 expected.

  3. Defects in Cu(InGa)Se2/CdS heterostructure films induced by hydrogen ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakushev, M.V.; Tomlinson, R.D.; Hill, A.E.; Pilkington, R.D.; Mudryi, A.V.; Bondar, I.V.; Victorov, I.A.; Gremenok, V.F.; Shakin, I.A.; Patuk, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of H + ion implantation on the photoluminescence properties of Cu(InGa)Se 2 /CdS heterostructures has been studied. This treatment was found to increase the photoluminescence intensity of donor-acceptor band at 1.13 eV because of the passivation by hydrogen atoms of the non-radiative recombination centers on the boundary of Cu(InGa)Se 2 and CdS layers. Two broad bands peaks at 0.96 eV and at 0.82 eV in photoluminescence spectra of ion-implanted Cu(InGa)Se 2 films have been found. The tentative model to explain the origin of the broad photoluminescence bands has been discussed

  4. Socioeconomic determinants of e-government adoption in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored the impact of socioeconomic factors on e-government adoption, specifically addressing the digital divide in Tanzania. A survey was administered on 450 citizens, in order to examine the effect of demographic characteristics on e-government usage. The findings of this study revealed that income, age, ...

  5. To prescribe codeine or not to prescribe codeine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Marc L; Wanat, Matthew A

    2014-09-01

    A recently published study in Pediatrics by Kaiser et al. (2014; Epub April 21, DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3171) reported that on average, over the past decade, children aged 3 to 17 were prescribed approximately 700,000 prescriptions for codeine-containing products each year in association with emergency department (ED) visits. Although, guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics issued warnings in 1997 and reaffirmed their concerns regarding the safety and effectiveness of codeine in 2006, it is still often prescribed for pain and cough associated with upper respiratory infection. With the impending rescheduling of hydrocodone combination products to Schedule II, physicians and mid-level prescribers may be compelled to prescribe codeine-containing products (e.g., with acetaminophen) due to reduced administrative burden and limits on Schedule II prescriptive authority for nurse practitioners and physician assistants in some states. This commentary expounds on the safety and effectiveness concerns of codeine, with a primary focus on patients in the ED setting.

  6. The use of prescribed and non-prescribed medication by Dutch children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, L. van; Lindert, H. van

    2002-01-01

    Background: Most research on the use of medication focuses on adults. Children, however, use medication too, most of which is prescribed by GP's. Children also use non-prescribed medication (f.e. bought in the drugstore), but the extent to which is not known. Moreover, it is not known to what extent

  7. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING E-COMMERCE ADOPTION BY SMES INDONESIA: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Triandini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce present different prospect to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs andprovides benefits to SMEs. At this stage, there are a number of studies focused on SMEs indeveloped countries. For developing countries, the situation is quite different. Furthermore, thereis still limited number of researches on e-commerce adoption by SMEs in Indonesia. SMEs playa vital role in reducing the rate of poverty and unemployment in Indonesian economy. In 2009,micro, small and medium enterprises in Indonesia consist of 52.7 million units or 99.99% of thetotal business enterprises, and employ 96.21 million people or 97% of the total labor forces. SMEsin Indonesia faced internal and external problems. This study explores various factors influencinge-commerce adoption by SMEs in several countries and projecting it to Indonesia. Results showsthat there are a number of perceived opportunities presented by e-commerce adoption inIndonesia, i.e. extending market-reach and even global, increasing customer personalizeservices, and improving its competitiveness. Furthermore, this study also proposes six potentialfactors influenced the adoption of e-commerce by SMEs in Indonesia, i.e. perceived usefulness,perceived ease of use, relative advantage, perceived risk, perceived trust, and compatibility.

  9. Diffractive Jet Production in Deep-Inelastic $e^{+}p$ Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burkhardt, H.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Chabert, E.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Riess, S.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.I.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sievers, P.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Solovev, Y.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement is presented of dijet and 3-jet cross sections in low-|t| diffractive deep-inelastic scattering interactions of the type ep -> eXY, where the system X is separated by a large rapidity gap from a low-mass baryonic system Y. Data taken with the H1 detector at HERA, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.0 pb^(-1), are used to measure hadron level single and double differential cross sections for 44 GeV. The energy flow not attributed to jets is also investigated. The measurements are consistent with a factorising diffractive exchange with trajectory intercept close to 1.2 and tightly constrain the dominating diffractive gluon distribution. Viewed in terms of the diffractive scattering of partonic fluctuations of the photon, the data require the dominance of qqbarg over qqbar states. Soft colour neutralisation models in their present form cannot simultaneously reproduce the shapes and the normalisations of the differential cross sections. Models based on 2-gluon exchange are able to reprod...

  10. EPR and photoluminescence properties of Mn2+ doped CdS nanoparticles synthesized via co-precipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Atul K; Kripal, Ram

    2012-10-01

    The structural properties of Mn doped CdS (Mn:CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Photoluminescence (PL), Raman and Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. XRD analysis shows the nanostructure with 2-4 nm of average crystallite size. The planes (110), (103) and (112) in XRD pattern distinguish the wurtzite structure of the Mn:CdS NPs. The intensity of the plane (102) increases as the doping concentration of Mn(2+) increases. UV-vis absorption spectra show blue shift as compared to bulk CdS. The optical band gap energy of Mn(2+) (0, 0.35, 0.70 and 1.35 at.%) doped CdS NPs corresponding to absorption edge are found to be 5.29, 5.28, 5.25 and 5.21 eV, respectively. The intensity of luminescence is changing with the concentration of Mn(2+) doped in CdS NPs. Raman spectra show blue shift in fundamental optical phonon mode (1LO) as well as second optical phonon mode (2LO) as compared to bulk CdS. The intensity ratio of the 2LO to 1LO modes slightly decreases as Mn(2+) concentration increases. EPR shows the existence of Mn(2+) with different local structures in CdS nanoparticles. The values of spectroscopic splitting factor (g) and hyperfine interaction constant (A) decrease as Mn(2+) concentration increases in CdS NPs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. EP4 as a Therapeutic Target for Aggressive Human Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Majumder

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, also called seven-transmembrane or heptahelical receptors are a superfamily of cell surface receptor proteins that bind to many extracellular ligands and transmit signals to an intracellular guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein. When a ligand binds, the receptor activates the attached G-protein by causing the exchange of Guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP for guanosine diphosphate (GDP. They play a major role in many physiological functions, as well as in the pathology of many diseases, including cancer progression and metastasis. Only a few GPCR members have been exploited as targets for developing drugs with therapeutic benefit in cancer. Present review briefly summarizes the signaling pathways utilized by the EP (prostaglandin E receptor family of GPCR, their physiological and pathological roles in carcinogenesis, with special emphasis on the roles of EP4 in breast cancer progression. We make a case for EP4 as a promising newer therapeutic target for treating breast cancer. We show that an aberrant over-expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2, which is an inflammation-associated enzyme, occurring in 40–50% of breast cancer patients leads to tumor progression and metastasis due to multiple cellular events resulting from an increased prostaglandin (PG E2 production in the tumor milieu. They include inactivation of host anti-tumor immune cells, such as Natural Killer (NK and T cells, increased immuno-suppressor function of tumor-associated macrophages, promotion of tumor cell migration, invasiveness and tumor-associated angiogenesis, due to upregulation of multiple angiogenic factors including Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF-A, increased lymphangiogenesis (due to upregulation of VEGF-C/D, and a stimulation of stem-like cell (SLC phenotype in cancer cells. All of these events were primarily mediated by activation of the Prostaglandin (PG E receptor EP4 on tumor or host cells. We show that

  12. Critical Factors of E-Learning Adoption and Acceptance in Pakistan: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kanwal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This review paper examines the prior studies on critical factors of e-learning adoption in Pakistan. The search terms identified 40 papers reporting 25 conceptual and qualitative and 15 quantitative evidence about the e-learning adoption and critical factors that may influence the adoption of e-learning in Pakistan. The findings revealed that modern paradigm shift requires the in-depth analysis of government policies, institutional and management role, students and faculty attitude, social norms, cultural values as well as technological advancement. These factors may directly or indirectly affect the intention of students towards e-learning adoption. The lack of quantitative evidences illustrate that policy makers, practitioners and researchers need to pay attention for further research of identifying and analyzing the critical factors which enhances the e-learning adoption in Pakistan.

  13. Search for Lepton Flavour Violation in ep Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Trevino, A.Vargas; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-01-01

    A search for the lepton flavour violating processes ep->mu X and ep -> tau X is performed with the H1 experiment at HERA. Final states with a muon or tau and a hadronic jet are searched for in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 66.5 pb-1 for e^+ p collisions and 13.7 pb^-1 for e^- p collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 319 GeV. No evidence for lepton flavour violation is found. Limits are derived on the mass and the couplings of leptoquarks inducing lepton flavour violation in an extension of the Buchm"uller-R"uckl-Wyler effective model. Leptoquarks produced in ep collisions with a coupling strength of lambda=0.3 and decaying with the same coupling strength to a muon-quark pair or a tau-quark pair are excluded at 95% confidence level up to masses of 459 GeV and 379 GeV, respectively.

  14. Search for lepton flavour violation in ep collisions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, A. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)]|[National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2007-02-15

    A search for the lepton flavour violating processes ep{yields}{mu}X and ep{yields}{tau}X is performed with the H1 experiment at HERA. Final states with a muon or tau and a hadronic jet are searched for in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 66.5 pb{sup -1} for e{sup +}p collisions and 13.7 pb{sup -1} for e{sup -}p collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 319 GeV. No evidence for lepton flavour violation is found. Limits are derived on the mass and the couplings of leptoquarks inducing lepton flavour violation in an extension of the Buchmueller-Rueckl-Wyler effective model. Leptoquarks produced in ep collisions with a coupling strength of {lambda}=0.3 and decaying with the same coupling strength to a muon-quark pair or a tau-quark pair are excluded at 95% confidence level up to masses of 459 GeV and 379 GeV, respectively. (orig.)

  15. Search for lepton flavour violation in ep collisions at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, L.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, T.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, C.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-12-01

    A search for the lepton flavour violating processes ep→μX and ep→τX is performed with the H1 experiment at HERA. Final states with a muon or tau and a hadronic jet are searched for in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 66.5 pb-1 for e+p collisions and 13.7 pb-1 for e-p collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 319 GeV. No evidence for lepton flavour violation is found. Limits are derived on the mass and the couplings of leptoquarks inducing lepton flavour violation in an extension of the Buchmüller Rückl Wyler effective model. Leptoquarks produced in ep collisions with a coupling strength of λ=0.3 and decaying with the same coupling strength to a muon quark pair or a tau quark pair are excluded at 95% confidence level up to masses of 459 GeV and 379 GeV, respectively.

  16. Search for Leptoquark Bosons in ep Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, W.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Goyon, C.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kuckens, J.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Leiner, B.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxeld, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Vujicic, B.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wigmore, C.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2005-01-01

    A search for scalar and vector leptoquarks coupling to first generation fermions is performed using the e^+p and e^-p scattering data collected by the H1 experiment between 1994 and 2000. The data correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 117 pb^{-1}. No evidence for the direct or indirect production of such particles is found in data samples with a large transverse momentum final state electron or with large missing transverse momentum. Constraints on leptoquark models are established. For leptoquark couplings of electromagnetic strength, leptoquarks with masses up to 275-325 GeV are ruled out. These limits improve and supercede earlier H1 limits based on subsamples of the data used here.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2/CdS core–shell nanorod arrays and their photoelectrochemical property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Chunlan; Hu Chenguo; Shen Weidong; Wang, Shuxia; Tian Yongshu; Wang Xue

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TiO 2 /CdS core–shell nanorod arrays were fabricated by spin-SILAR method. ► The enhanced photocurrent was found in the TiO 2 /CdS core–shell nanorod arrays. ► The CdS coated on TiO 2 increases the e-h separation and enlarges light absorption range. - Abstract: TiO 2 /CdS core–shell nanorod arrays have been fabricated via a two-step method. Vertically aligned TiO 2 nanorod arrays (NRs) were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, and followed by depositing CdS nanoparticles on TiO 2 NRs by spin-coating successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (spin-SILAR) method. The surface morphology, structure, optical and photoelectrochemical behaviors of the core–shell NRs films are considered. The UV–vis absorption spectrum results suggested that the absorption peak of the TiO 2 /CdS core–shell NRs shifts from the ultraviolet region to the visible region in comparison to that of the pure TiO 2 NRs. The obviously enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of the heterojunction NRs were found under illumination of the simulated sunlight in comparison with that of the TiO 2 NRs. The enhanced PEC performance and formation mechanism of TiO 2 /CdS core–shell NRs were discussed in detail.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of CdS Nanoparticles with Strong Electrolyte Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu; Fu, Degang; Liu Juzheng

    2000-01-01

    The CdS nanoparticles whose structure is similar to a strong electrolyte were synthesized by the colloidal chemical method. The CdS nanoparticles with Cd 2+ -rich surface are capped by the electrically neutral ligand of 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), and the counterion, BPh 4 - , is adsorbed around the particle as balance charge. The ω donation from 2,2'-bipyridine at 2-position to the Cd 2+ -rich surface of the CdS nanoparticles was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These CdS nanoparticles can redisperse in pyridine (py) or DMF, and have high stability. The determination of electroconductivity and the electrophoresis deposition in dilute solution containing the CdS nanoparticles further prove the rationality of the above electrolyte structure of the CdS nanoparticles

  19. Effect of annealing time on optical and electrical properties of CdS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliya, Vanshika; Tandel, Digisha; Patel, Chandani; Patel, Kinjal

    2018-05-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is semiconductor compound of II-VI group. Thin film of CdS widely used in the applications such as, a buffer layer in copper indium diselenide (CIS) hetrojunction based solar cells, transistors, photo detectors and light emitting diodes. Because of the ease of making like chemical bath deposition (CBD), screen printing and thermal evaporation. It is extensively used in the CIS based solar cells as a buffer layers. The buffer layers usually used for reducing the interface recombination of the photo generated carriers by means of improving the lattice mismatch between the layers. The optimum thickness and the optoelectronics properties of CdS thin films like, optical band gap, electrical resistivity, structure, and composition etc., are to be considering for its use as a buffer layer. In the present study the CdS thin film were grown by simple dip coating method. In this method we had prepared 0.1M Cadmium-thiourea precursor solution. Before the deposition process of CdS, glass substrate has been cleaned using Methanol, Acetone, Trichloroethylene and De-ionized (DI) water. After coating of precursor layer, it was heated at 200 °C for themolysis. Then after CdS films were annealed at 200 °C for different time and studied its influence on the optical transmission, band gap, XRD, raman and the electrical resistivity. As increasing the annealing time we had observed the average transmission of the films was reduce after the absorption edge. In addition to the blue shift of absorption edge was observed. The observed optimum band gap was around 2.50 eV. XRD and raman analysis confirms the cubuc phase of CdS. Hot probe method confirms the n-type conductivity of the CdS film. Hall probe data shows the resistivity of the films was in the order of 103 Ωcm. Observed data signifies its future use in the many optoelectronics devices.

  20. Exploring Factors That Influence Adoption of e-Learning within Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Emma; Boyatt, Russell

    2015-01-01

    E-learning is increasingly adopted in the workplace for supporting professional development and continuing education; however, in higher education, the use of e-learning is predominantly used as a tool support teaching. As a relatively new priority for universities, this paper explores what influences its adoption. Challenges identified in the…

  1. Electrophysical properties of CdS layers obtained by pulverization method and annealed in hydrogen ambience; Proprietati electrofizice ale straturilor de CdS obtinute prin metoda pulverizarii cu tratare termica in hidrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botnariuc, Vasile; Gorceac, Leonid; Coval, Andrei; Cinic, Boris; Chetrus, Petru; Raevschi, Semion; Banu, Semion [Univ. de Stat din Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    CdS layers were grown from the aqueous solution of CdCl{sub 2}/(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} CS having a molarity of 0,1 M by pulverization method in the temperature range of (250-450) degrees Celsius. The layers were heat treated in a hydrogen flow during 20 min at the temperatures of 350 degrees Celsius and 450 degrees Celsius. Electro- physical properties and photoluminescence of these layers were studied. For the layers deposited at 450 degrees Celsius a slight decrease of charge carriers concentration is observed with the increase of treatment temperature up to 450 degrees Celsius. The photoluminescence spectrum consists of a large band in the energy interval from 1,6 eV to 2,6 eV. A photoluminescence peak with the energy of 1,95 eV is observed, which is shifting with CdS layer growth temperature increase and if reaches the value of 2,5 eV for the layers grown at the temperature of 450 degrees Celsius. (authors)

  2. Significant Factors Determining E-government Adoption in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Mohd Idris

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that low adoption rate among citizens has been hindering the optimization of e-Government services especially in developing countries. Hence, one of the critical measures that has to be undertaken is to identify and overcome possible barriers to further facilitate a higher rate of adoption. A multistage stratified sampling was used in this study to collect data from 1000 respondents, both user and non-user residing in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. This state was chosen as to provide a better understanding of low adoption when issues of basic facilities have been successfully overcome. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify latent constructs and seven key factors were identified. A multiple regression model was subsequently used to analyze significant factors in determining the willingness to use e-Government services. The determinants are language barrier, educational level, secure, format, easy to use, enjoyable, reliable, visual appeal and infrastructure. The result shows significant variables that act as barriers to adoption are reliable, enjoyable, easy to use, secure, and language used. The constraints pointed out in the open ended questions mainly focus on the issue of accessibility, ease of use and awareness. Overcoming these obstacles is therefore crucial in order to enhance the usage of e-Government services which consequently will improve the quality of public administration in Malaysia.

  3. Understanding E-Learning Adoption in Brazil: Major Determinants and Gender Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Shintaro; dos Santos, Luiz Miguel Renda

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine factors influencing e-learning adoption and the moderating role of gender. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) by adding attitude and social interaction. The new construct of social interaction is applied to the South American context. Gender effects on e-learning adoption from…

  4. Size-dependent photodegradation of CdS particles deposited onto TiO{sub 2} mesoporous films by SILAR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rasin; Will, Geoffrey; Bell, John; Wang Hongxia, E-mail: hx.wang@qut.edu.au [Queensland University of Technology, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering (Australia)

    2012-09-15

    The particle size, size distribution and photostability of CdS nanoparticles incorporated onto mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). High-resolution TEM indicated that the synthesized CdS particles were hexagonal phase and the particle sizes were less than 5 nm for up to nine SILAR deposition cycles. Quantum size effect was found with the CdS-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films prepared with up to nine SILAR cycles. The band gap of CdS nanoparticles decreased from 2.65 to 2.37 eV with the increase of the SILAR cycles from 1 to 11. The investigation of the stability of the CdS/TiO{sub 2} films in air under illumination (440.6 {mu}W/cm{sup 2}) showed that the photodegradation rate was up to 85 % per day for the sample prepared with three SILAR cycles. XPS analysis indicated that the photodegradation was due to the oxidation of CdS, leading to the transformation from sulphide to sulphate (CdSO{sub 4}). Furthermore, the degradation rate was strongly dependent upon the particle size of CdS. Smaller particles showed faster degradation rate. The size-dependent photo-induced oxidization was rationalized with the variation of size-dependent distribution of surface atoms of CdS particles. Molecular dynamics-based theoretical calculation has indicated that the surface sulphide anion of a large CdS particle such as CdS made with 11 cycles (CdS Multiplication-Sign 11, average particle size = 5.6 nm) accounts for 9.6 % of the material whereas this value is increased to 19.2 % for (CdS Multiplication-Sign 3)-based smaller particles (average particle size = 2.7 nm). The photostability of CdS nanoparticles was significantly enhanced when coated with ZnS particles deposited with four SILAR cycles. The growth mechanism of ZnS upon CdS nanoparticles was discussed.

  5. The CDS and the Government Bonds Markets During the Last Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Križanič France

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial market had developed a special instrument to insure the buyers of bonds. This instrument is so called Credit Default Swap (CDS. The CDS price is a kind of insurance premium that the buyer of CDS pays to the seller of CDS in exchange for compensation of possible loss in operation. Paper analyses causality between CDS price and dynamics of bond yields and influence of macroeconomic factors on it in four selected countries during the last financial crisis. Analysis results show that there is no important macroeconomic variable included in the analysis that preceded the CDS prices connected with German government bonds. Sellers of CDS were apparently aware of the systemic nature of the financial crisis in the euro area. In the case of the United Kingdom, Russia and Slovenia we can observe the unemployment rate as the most important macroeconomic variable that preceded the CDS prices for government bonds.

  6. Perceived infrastructural factors afffecting adoption of e-recruitment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived infrastructural factors afffecting adoption of e-recruitment among Human ... The emerging Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a vital tool in the conduct of staff recruitment. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Sulfonsuccinate (AOT Capped Pure and Mn-Doped CdS Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Venkatesan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CdS nanoparticles and thin films are well known for their excellent semiconducting properties. When transition metal ions are doped into the CdS, it exhibits magnetic properties in addition to semiconducting properties and they are termed as dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMSs. In this paper, we discuss the preparation of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl sulfonsuccinate (AOT capped CdS nanoparticles and thin films doped with magnetic impurity Mn. Sodium bis(2-ethulexyl sulfonsuccinate (AOT, capping agent promotes the uniform formation of nanoparticles. Optical characterizations are made using the UV-Vis spectrometer, PL, and FTIR. XRD shows the hexagonal structure of the CdS. SEM images and EDS measurements were made for the thin films. EPR shows the clear hyperfine lines corresponding to Mn2+ ion in the CdS nanoparticles.

  8. Production of Z{sup 0} bosons in elastic and quasi-elastic ep collisions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] [and others; Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration

    2012-10-15

    The production of Z{sup 0} bosons in the reaction ep {yields} eZ{sup 0}p{sup (*)}, where p{sup (*)} stands for a proton or a low-mass nucleon resonance, has been studied in ep collisions at HERA using the ZEUS detector. The analysis is based on a data sample collected between 1996 and 2007, amounting to 496 pb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. The Z{sup 0} was measured in the hadronic decay mode. The elasticity of the events was ensured by a cut on {eta}{sub max} < 3.0, where {eta}{sub max} is the maximum pseudorapidity of energy deposits in the calorimeter defined with respect to the proton beam direction. A signal was observed at the Z{sup 0} mass. The cross section of the reaction ep {yields} eZ{sup 0}p{sup (*)} was measured to be {sigma} (ep {yields} eZ{sup 0}p{sup (*)}) = 0.13 {+-} 0.06 (stat.) {+-} 0.01 (syst.) pb, in agreement with the Standard Model prediction of 0.16 pb. This is the first measurement of Z{sup 0} production in ep collisions.

  9. In situ generated CdS nanostructure induced enhanced photoluminescence from Dy{sup 3+} ions doped dielectric nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Chirantan; Karmakar, Basudeb [Glass Science and Technology Section, Glass Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2017-08-15

    We report CdS nanostructure induced enhanced photoluminescence (PL) from Dy{sup +3}:CdS co-doped dielectric-nanocomposites synthesized by the conventional melt-quench technique. CdS nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized as in situ within the dielectric medium and their growth was controlled by heat treatment duration. Nanoparticles were investigated with absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The experimentally obtained sizes of the NCs are found to increase from 5-11 nm to 50-80 nm. Bandgap enhancement for the carrier confinement was found to alter within the range of 0.20-0.38 eV. Phonon confinement effect has been confirmed by blue shifting of Raman peak for CdS NCs at 303 cm{sup -1}. Enhanced highly intense sharp PL peak at 576 nm was detected, and different parameters associated with the PL enhancement including energy transfer from CdS NCs to Dy{sup 3+} ions have been studied. This PL enhancement was steered by varying CdS NC sizes. Enhanced PL of these nanocomposites finds their potential applications as gain medium in the field of solid state lasers. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. The use of CDS/ISIS software in Africa | Abboy | Innovation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CDS/ISIS is free-of-charge software that has been developed by UNESCO and is distributed through a network of country distributors and more recently through the World Wide Web. CDS/ISIS is ideally suited for the manipulation of bibliographic data. Literature sources reveal that the use of CDS/ISIS is widespread in Africa ...

  11. Photoelectrochemical and Raman characterization of In2O3 mesoporous films sensitized by CdS nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikalai V. Malashchonak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The method of successive ion layer adsorption and reaction was applied for the deposition of CdS nanoparticles onto a mesoporous In2O3 substrate. The filling of the nanopores in In2O3 films with CdS particles mainly occurs during the first 30 cycles of the SILAR deposition. The surface modification of In2O3 with CdS nanoparticles leads to the spectral sensitization of photoelectrochemical processes that manifests itself in a red shift of the long-wavelength edge in the photocurrent spectrum by 100–150 nm. Quantum-confinement effects lead to an increase of the bandgap from 2.49 to 2.68 eV when decreasing the number of SILAR cycles from 30 to 10. The spectral shift and the widening of the Raman line belonging to CdS evidences the lattice stress on the CdS/In2O3 interfaces and confirms the formation of a close contact between the nanoparticles.

  12. PrEP Whores and HIV Prevention: The Queer Communication of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieldenner, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been introduced as another biomedical tool in HIV prevention. Whereas other such tools-including post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and interruption of perinatal transmission-have been embraced by those impacted by HIV, PrEP has been met with more conflict, especially within the gay community and HIV organizations. The "PrEP whore" has come to designate the social value and personal practices of those taking PrEP. This study examines the "PrEP whore" discourse by using queer theory and quare theory. Within these theoretical vantage points, the study explicates four discursive areas: slut shaming, dirty/clean binaries, mourning the loss of condoms, and reclaiming the inner whore. The study illuminates possible discursive strategies that lie outside of the domains of public health and within the individual and community.

  13. Vulnerable infected populations and street markets for ARVs: Potential implications for PrEP rollout in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven P; Buttram, Mance E; Surratt, Hilary L

    2014-04-01

    Widespread diversion of antiretroviral (ARV) medications to illicit markets has recently been documented among indigent patients in South Florida. The recent approval of ARVs for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has the potential to broaden these illicit markets, as high-risk individuals seek ARVs without a prescription or medical supervision. Nonadherence among diverters and unsupervised use of ARVs for treatment or PrEP increase risks of treatment failure, drug resistance, and disease transmission. We report the scope of ARV diversion among substance-using men who have sex with men in South Florida. Structured interviews (N = 515) queried demographics, HIV status, mental distress, substance dependence, and sexual risks. HIV-positive participants answered questions about medical care, treatment, and ARV adherence and diversion. Median age was 39. Of 46.4% who were HIV-positive, 79.1% were prescribed ARVs. Of these, 27% reported selling/trading ARVs. Reasons for diversion were sharing/trading with friends, sale/trade for money/drugs, and sale/trade of unused medications. ARV diverters, compared to nondiverters, were more likely to be substance dependent (74.5% vs. 58.7%, p = 0.046) and have traded sex for money/drugs (60.8% vs. 32.6%, p increased risks of treatment failure, disease transmission, and PrEP failure should be carefully considered in developing policy and behavioral supports to scaling up treatment as prevention and PrEP.

  14. Exploring the underlying factors influencing e-learning adoption in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit dit Dariel, Odessa; Wharrad, Heather; Windle, Richard

    2013-06-01

    To report a study undertaken to explore the underlying factors influencing e-learning adoption in nurse education. Despite e-learning's high profile it has not been readily integrated into teaching practice in nurse education. Previous research has identified generic, cross-disciplinary factors but has left out 'soft' factors. The study adopted an exploratory descriptive design. Q-methodology was used to explore e-learning adoption in a Division of Nursing located in an institution of Higher Education in the UK. Between September-December 2009, 38 participants were recruited to participate in Q-sorts and post-sort interviews. The Q-sort data were factor analysed and the interviews were coded to their respective factors to develop in-depth narratives. Four factors were identified: 'E-learning advocates' saw e-learning's potential to improve nurse education and prepare future nurses for their evolving role; the 'Humanists' had avoided e-learning because they valued human interaction; the 'Sceptics' doubted that technology could improve learning outcomes; and the 'Pragmatics,' only used e-learning as a tool to post lecture notes online to supplement what they covered in class. The findings point to the variety of responses existing among nurse academics faced with integrating e-learning into their teaching. Moving beyond the binary labels commonly attributed to those considered either 'early adopters' or 'laggards,' the findings contribute to the literature by revealing a wider breadth of views and responses towards technology. Acknowledging these views can inform future e-learning strategies and lead to improvement in e-learning use in nurse education. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. CERN's LHC is awarded the 2012 EPS Edison Volta Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The European Physical Society (EPS), the Centro di Cultura Scientifica “Alessandro Volta” and Edison S.p.A. have awarded the 2012 EPS Edison Volta Prize for outstanding contributions to physics to three CERN physicists.   The award was given to: • Rolf-Dieter Heuer, CERN Director-General, • Sergio Bertolucci, CERN Director for Research and Computing, • Stephen Myers, CERN Director for Accelerators and Technology, for having led - building on decades of dedicated work by their predecessors - the culminating efforts in the direction, research and operation of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which resulted in many significant advances in high energy particle physics, in particular, the first evidence of a Higgs-like boson in July 2012. To learn more, check out e-EPS News.

  16. E-learning on antibiotic prescribing-the role of autonomous motivation in participation: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caris, Martine G; Sikkens, Jonne J; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; van Agtmael, Michiel A

    2018-05-10

    E-learning is increasingly used in education on antimicrobial stewardship, but participation rates are often low. Insight into factors that affect participation is therefore needed. Autonomous motivation is associated with higher achievements in medical education and could also play a role in e-learning participation. We therefore aimed to investigate the role of residents' autonomous motivation in their participation in e-learning on antibiotic prescribing. We performed a multicentre cohort study in two academic and two teaching hospitals. Residents who filled out questionnaires on antibiotic knowledge, the perceived importance of antibiotics and motivation [Self-Regulation Questionnaire - Academic (SRQ-a)] received e-learning access. We used the SRQ-a to calculate relative autonomous motivation (RAM), an index that estimates the amount of autonomous motivation compared with the amount of controlled motivation. We then analysed associations between RAM and participation in e-learning with logistic regression. Eighty-six residents participated (74% female, mean age 30 years). Overall e-learning participation was 58% (n = 50). Participation was 41% in residents with negative RAM (i.e. more controlled motivation) and 62% in residents with positive RAM (i.e. more autonomous motivation). RAM was positively associated with participation, adjusted for residency in an academic hospital (adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.6). Participation in non-obligatory e-learning on antibiotic prescribing is higher in residents with more autonomous motivation. Interventions to increase autonomous motivation could improve participation. Preceding e-learning on antibiotic prescribing with face-to-face education, to explain the importance of the subject, could enhance autonomous motivation and thus optimize e-learning efficiency.

  17. The EUMETSAT Polar System - Second Generation (EPS-SG) micro-wave imaging (MWI) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkov, B. R.; Accadia, C.; Klaes, D.; Canestri, A.; Cohen, M.

    2017-12-01

    The EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) will be followed by a second generation system called EPS-SG. This new family of missions will contribute to the Joint Polar System being jointly set up with NOAA in the timeframe 2020-2040. These satellites will fly, like Metop (EPS), in a sun synchronous, low earth orbit at 830 km altitude and 09:30 local time descending node, providing observations over the full globe with revisit times of 12 hours. EPS-SG consists of two different satellites configurations, the EPS-SGa series dedicated to IR and MW sounding, and the EPS-SGb series dedicated to microwave imaging and scatterometry. The EPS-SG family will consist of three successive launches of each satellite-type. The Microwave Imager (MWI) will be hosted on Metop-SGb series of satellites, with the primary objective of supporting Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) at regional and global scales. Other applications will be observation of surface parameters such as sea ice concentration and hydrology applications. The 18 MWI instrument frequencies range from 18.7 GHz to 183 GHz. All MWI channels up to 89 GHz will measure V- and H polarizations. The MWI was also designed to provide continuity of measurements for select heritage microwave imager channels (e.g. SSM/I, AMSR-E). The additional sounding channels such as the 50-55 and 118 GHz bands will provide additional cloud and precipitation information over sea and land. This combination of channels was successfully tested on the NPOESS Aircraft Sounder Testbed - Microwave Sounder (NAST-M) airborne radiometer, and it is the first time that will be implemented in a conical scanning configuration in a single instrument. An overview of the EPS-SG programme and the MWI instrument will be presented.

  18. Mechanistic aspects of biogenic synthesis of CdS nanoparticles using Bacillus licheniformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R. M.; Singh Bhadwal, Akhshay; Singh, Priti; Shrivastav, Archana; Singh, M. P.; Shrivastav, B. R.

    2014-06-01

    A novel eco-friendly effort has been made for the synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using bacterial biomass. Although some articles have been reported on CdS nanoparticles synthesis by bacteria, here we have synthesized CdS nanoparticles using non-pathogenic bacteria Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 9555. UV-Vis spectroscopy was carried out to confirm the formation of CdS nanoparticles; the peak occurring at 368 nm gives the indication of synthesis of CdS nanoparticles. The size and morphology of the synthesized CdS nanoparticles were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the nanoparticles are found to have a narrow size of 5.1 ± 0.5 nm with spherical morphology. Further, the nanoparticles were examined by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy to identify the presence of elements and confirmed the existence of Cd and S in single nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis exhibited 2θ values corresponding to CdS nanocrystals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) provides the evidence for the presence of proteins as possible biomolecules responsible for the stabilization of the synthesized CdS nanoparticles.

  19. A comparative study of CdS thin films deposited by different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Hernández, G., E-mail: german.perez@ujat.mx [Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Avenida Universidad s/n, Col. Magisterial, Villahermosa, Tabasco 86040 (Mexico); Pantoja-Enríquez, J. [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Energías Renovables, UNICACH, Libramiento Norte No 1150, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas 29039 (Mexico); Escobar-Morales, B. [Instituto Tecnológico de Cancún, Avenida Kábah Km 3, Cancún, Quintana Roo 77500 (Mexico); Martinez-Hernández, D.; Díaz-Flores, L.L.; Ricardez-Jiménez, C. [Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Avenida Universidad s/n, Col. Magisterial, Villahermosa, Tabasco 86040 (Mexico); Mathews, N.R.; Mathew, X. [Centro de Investigación en Energía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico)

    2013-05-01

    Cadmium sulfide thin-films were deposited on glass slides and SnO{sub 2}:F coated glass substrates by chemical bath deposition, sputtering and close-spaced sublimation techniques. The films were studied for the structural and opto-electronic properties after annealing in an ambient identical to that employed in the fabrication of CdTe/CdS devices. Quantum efficiency of the CdTe/CdS solar cells fabricated with CdS buffer films prepared by the three methods were investigated to understand the role of CdS film preparation method on the blue response of the devices. The higher blue response observed for the devices fabricated with chemical bath deposited CdS film is discussed. - Highlights: ► CdS films were prepared by different techniques. ► Role of CdS on the blue response of device was studied. ► Structural and optical properties of CdS were analyzed. ► Chemically deposited CdS has high blue transmittance. ► CdS deposition method influences diffusion of S and Te.

  20. A DFT study of the effects of Sc doping on electronic and optical properties of CdS nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ur Rehman Shafiq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a systematic study was carried out to understand the influence of Sc doping on electronic and optical properties of CdS nanoparticles. The geometry optimization and symmetry computation for CdS and Sc doped CdS nanoparticles using Density Functional Theory (DFT on B3LYP level with the QZ4P for Cd and DZ2P for sulphur and Sc were performed by Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF. The results show that HOMO-LUMO gap as well as electronic and optical properties of CdS clusters vary with Sc doping. The HOMO-LUMO gap is affected by the dopant and its value decreases to 0.6 eV. Through considering the numerical integration scheme in the ADF package, we investigated different vibrational modes and our calculated Raman and IR spectra are consistent with the reported result. The calculated IR and Raman peaks of CdS and Sc doped CdS clusters were in the range of 100 to 289 cm−1, 60 cm−1 to 350 cm−1 and 99 cm−1 to 282 cm−1, 60 cm−1 to 350 cm−1, respectively, which was also confirmed by experiment as well as a blue shift occurrence. Subsequently, for deeper research of pure and doped CdS clusters, their absorption spectra were calculated using time-dependent DFT method.

  1. Conceptualizing Competences in E-Services Adoption and Assimilation in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    2008-01-01

    -service system, a web-based travel reservation system, was conducted. The results show that three main competences, namely vision, value and control, are important at top management level for the primary adoption of e-services. For secondary adoption and assimilation,  three categories of competences were...

  2. Enriching The Metadata On CDS

    CERN Document Server

    Chhibber, Nalin

    2014-01-01

    The project report revolves around the open source software package called Invenio. It provides the tools for management of digital assets in a repository and drives CERN Document Server. Primary objective is to enhance the existing metadata in CDS with data from other libraries. An implicit part of this task is to manage disambiguation (within incoming data), removal of multiple entries and handle replications between new and existing records. All such elements and their corresponding changes are integrated within Invenio to make the upgraded metadata available on the CDS. Latter part of the report discuss some changes related to the Invenio code-base itself.

  3. Implementing nurse prescribing: a case study in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Karen; Carey, Nicola; Courtenay, Molly

    2010-03-01

    This paper is a report of a study exploring the views of nurses and team members on the implementation of nurse prescribing in diabetes services. Nurse prescribing is adopted as a means of improving service efficiency, particularly where demand outstretches resources. Although factors that support nurse prescribing have been identified, it is not known how these function within specific contexts. This is important as its uptake and use varies according to mode of prescribing and area of practice. A case study was undertaken in nine practice settings across England where nurses prescribed medicines for patients with diabetes. Thematic analysis was conducted on qualitative data from 31 semi-structured interviews undertaken between 2007 and 2008. Participants were qualified nurse prescribers, administrative staff, physicians and non-nurse prescribers. Nurses prescribed more often following the expansion of nurse independent prescribing rights in 2006. Initial implementation problems had been resolved and few current problems were reported. As nurses' roles were well-established, no major alterations to service provision were required to implement nurse prescribing. Access to formal and informal resources for support and training were available. Participants were accepting and supportive of this initiative to improve the efficiency of diabetes services. The main factors that promoted implementation of nurse prescribing in this setting were the ability to prescribe independently, acceptance of the prescribing role, good working relationships between doctors and nurses, and sound organizational and interpersonal support. The history of established nursing roles in diabetes care, and increasing service demand, meant that these diabetes services were primed to assimilate nurse prescribing.

  4. Importance of organized energy efficiency introduction and improvement in PE EPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management system (EnMS introduction into companies that are significant energy consumers has been initiated after adoption of the Law of efficient energy usage. Due to the fact that sectors for production, transmission and distribution of electrical and heat energy are also implied by this law, it is clear that PE EPS is also obligated to implement EnMS and to carry out the requirements defined by legislation. In this paper, the results of first-phase introduction of the system for supervision and improvement of energy efficiency in PE EPS in production of coal, and production and distribution of electrical and heat energy, are given. Recommended measures for energy efficiency improvement with stress on larger energy, financial savings and a lower rate of investment return are emphasised. Such systematic measures should also serve as a good basis for further stages of energy management introduction and implementation.

  5. Characterisation of the exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11 and its non-EPS producing derivative strains as potential probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Milica; López, Patricia; Strahinic, Ivana; Suárez, Ana; Kojic, Milan; Fernández-García, María; Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Golic, Natasa; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2012-08-17

    Traditional fermented foods are the best source for the isolation of strains with specific traits to act as functional starters and to keep the biodiversity of the culture collections. Besides, these strains could be used in the formulation of foods claimed to promote health benefits, i.e. those containing probiotic microorganisms. For the rational selection of strains acting as probiotics, several in vitro tests have been proposed. In the current study, we have characterized the probiotic potential of the strain Lactobacillus paraplantarum BGCG11, isolated from a Serbian soft, white, homemade cheese, which is able to produce a "ropy" exopolysaccharide (EPS). Three novobiocin derivative strains, which have lost the ropy phenotype, were characterized as well in order to determine the putative role of the EPS in the probiotic potential. Under chemically gastrointestinal conditions, all strains were able to survive around 1-2% (10(6)-10(7)cfu/ml cultivable bacteria) only when they were included in a food matrix (1% skimmed milk). The strains were more resistant to acid conditions than to bile salts and gastric or pancreatic enzymes, which could be due to a pre-adaptation of the parental strain to acidic conditions in the cheese habitat. The ropy EPS did not improve the survival of the producing strain. On the contrary, the presence of an EPS layer surrounding the strain BGCG11 hindered its adhesion to the three epithelial intestinal cell lines tested, since the adhesion of the three non-ropy derivatives was higher than the parental one and also than that of the reference strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Aiming to propose a potential target application of these strains as probiotics, the cytokine production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was analyzed. The EPS-producing L. paraplantarum BGCG11 strain showed an anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressor profile whereas the non-ropy derivative strains induced higher pro-inflammatory response. In addition, when

  6. MODELING STUDENTS' INTENTION TO ADOPT E-LEARNING A CASE FROM EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gad abdel-WAHAB

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTE-learning is becoming increasingly prominent in higher education, with universities increasing provision and more students signing up. This paper examines factors that predict students' intention to adopt e-learning at the Egyptian University of Mansourra. Understanding the nature of these factors may assist Egyptian universities in promoting the use of information and communication technology in teaching and learning. The main focus of the paper is on the university students, whose decision supports effective implementation of e-learning. Data was collected through a survey of 258 first year business students at the University of Mansoura in Egypt. The technology adoption model put forward by Davis is utilized in this study. Two more independent variables are added to the original model, namely, the pressure to act and resources availability. The results show that there are five factors that can be used in modeling students' intentions to adopt e-learning. These factors are attitudes toward e-learning, perceived usefulness of e-learning, perceived ease of e-learning use, pressure to use e-learning, and the availability of resources needed to use e-learning.

  7. Improving antibiotic prescribing skills in medical students: the effect of e-learning after 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkens, Jonne J; Caris, Martine G; Schutte, Tim; Kramer, Mark H H; Tichelaar, Jelle; van Agtmael, Michiel A

    2018-05-09

    Antimicrobial prescribing behaviour is first established during medical study, but teachers often cite lack of time as an important problem in the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship in the medical curriculum. The use of electronic learning (e-learning) is a potentially time-efficient solution, but its effectiveness in changing long-term prescribing behaviour in medical students is as yet unknown. We performed a prospective controlled intervention study of the long-term effects of a short interactive e-learning course among fourth year medical students in a Dutch university. The e-learning was temporarily implemented as a non-compulsory course during a 6 week period. Six months later, all students underwent an infectious disease-based objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) aimed at simulating postgraduate prescribing. If they passed, each student did the OSCE only once. We created a control group of students from a period when the e-learning was not implemented. Main outcomes were the OSCE pass percentage and knowledge, drug choice and overall scores. We used propensity scores to create equal comparisons. We included 71 students in the intervention group and 285 students in the control group. E-learning participation in the intervention group was 81%. The OSCE pass percentage was 86% in the control group versus 97% in the intervention group (+11%, OR 5.9, 95% CI 1.7-20.0). OSCE overall, knowledge and drug choice grades (1-10) were also significantly higher in the intervention group (differences +0.31, +0.31 and +0.51, respectively). E-learning during a limited period can significantly improve medical students' performance of an antimicrobial therapeutic consultation in a situation simulating clinical practice 6 months later.

  8. Concreto leve com pérolas de EPS: estudo de dosagens e de características mecânicas

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Pereira Moreira Ozório

    2016-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o comportamento do concreto leve com pérolas de poliestireno expandido (expanded polystyrene – EPS), para posterior utilização em estruturas pré-moldadas constituídas, por exemplo, por painéis de paredes e lajes sujeitas a ações mecânicas. Também foram considerados parâmetros de durabilidade e mecanismos de redução da porosidade. Dentre um universo de solicitações a que as estruturas de concreto leve podem estar submetidas, analisaram-se, para d...

  9. Production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by Serratia sp.1 using wastewater sludge as raw material and flocculation activity of the EPS produced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezawada, J; Hoang, N V; More, T T; Yan, S; Tyagi, N; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2013-10-15

    Growth profile and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production of Serratia sp.1 was studied in shake flask fermentation for 72 h using wastewater sludge as raw material. Maximum cell concentration of 6.7 × 10(9) cfu/mL was obtained at 48 h fermentation time. EPS dry weight, flocculation activity and dewaterability of different EPS (tightly bound or TB-EPS, loosely bound or LB-EPS and broth-EPS or B-EPS) were also measured. The highest concentration of LB-EPS (2.45 g/L) and TB-EPS (0.99 g/L) were attained at 48 h of fermentation. Maximum flocculation activity and dewaterability (ΔCST) of TB-EPS (76.4%, 14.5s and 76.5%, 15.5s), LB-EPS (67.8%, 8.1s and 64.7%, 7.6s) and broth EPS (61%, 6.1s and 70.4%, 6.8s) were obtained at 36 and 48 h of growth. Higher flocculation activity and dewaterability were achieved with TB-EPS than with the two other EPS. Characterization of TB-EPS and LB-EPS was done in terms of their protein and carbohydrate content. Protein content was much higher in TB-EPS where as carbohydrate content was only slightly higher in TB-EPS than LB-EPS. Morphology of the Serratia strain after fermentation in sludge and TSB was observed under a scanning electron microscope and the cell size was found to be bigger in the sludge medium than the TSB medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Collaborative Learning with Sustainability-driven Projects: A Summary of the EPS@ISEP Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Silva

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the collaborative learning environment, aligned with the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, provided by the European Project Semester (EPS. EPS is a one semester capstone project programme offered by eighteen European engineering schools as part of their student ex-change programme portfolio. In this international programme, students are organized in teams, grouping individuals from diverse academic backgrounds and nationalities. The teams, after choosing a project proposal, become fully responsible for the conduction of their projects. By default, project proposals refer to open multidisciplinary real problems. The purpose of the project is to expose students to problems of a greater dimension and complexity than those faced throughout the degree programme as well as to put them in con-tact with the so-called real world, in opposition to the academic world. EPS provides an integrated framework for undertaking capstone projects, which is focused on multicultural and multidisciplinary teamwork, communication, problem-solving, creativity, leadership, entrepreneurship, ethical reasoning and global contextual analysis. Specifically, the design and development of sustainable systems for growing food allow students not only to reach the described objectives, but to foster sustainable development practices. As a re-sult, we recommend the adoption of this category of projects within EPS for the benefit of engineering students and of the society as a whole.

  11. Factors influencing the adoption of E-learning in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdekhoda, Mohammadhiwa; Dehnad, Afsaneh; Ghazi Mirsaeed, Sayd Javad; Zarea Gavgani, Vahideh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electronic Learning (E-learning), is the use of electronic technology in education via computer and the internet. Despite its slow adoption by faculty members, e-learning provides several benefits to individuals and organizations. This study was conducted to determine the factors influencing the adoption of e-learning by faculty members in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This was a cross- sectional study, in which a sample of 190 faculty members of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences was randomly selected, using stratified sampling. A Conceptual Path Model of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) was applied to assess the faculty members’ attitude towards e-learning. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS16, using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The model was tested by structural equation modeling (SEM) and was finally represented by Analysis of Moment Structures. Results: The results evidenced that UTAUT model explains about 56% of the variance for adoption of elearning. The findings also revealed that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences and behavior indentation had direct and significant effects on faculty members’ behavior towards the use of e-learning. However, facilitated condition had no significant effects on the use of e-learning. Conclusion: The authorized model provides considerable insight for perception and anticipation of faculty members’ behaviors in adopting e-learning. The survey clearly identified significant and non-significant factors that may affect the adoption of e-learning. The results of this study could help the policy makers when successful adoption of e-learning is in their agenda. PMID:28491832

  12. Factors influencing the adoption of E-learning in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdekhoda, Mohammadhiwa; Dehnad, Afsaneh; Ghazi Mirsaeed, Sayd Javad; Zarea Gavgani, Vahideh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electronic Learning (E-learning), is the use of electronic technology in education via computer and the internet. Despite its slow adoption by faculty members, e-learning provides several benefits to individuals and organizations. This study was conducted to determine the factors influencing the adoption of e-learning by faculty members in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This was a cross- sectional study, in which a sample of 190 faculty members of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences was randomly selected, using stratified sampling. A Conceptual Path Model of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) was applied to assess the faculty members' attitude towards e-learning. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS16, using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The model was tested by structural equation modeling (SEM) and was finally represented by Analysis of Moment Structures. Results: The results evidenced that UTAUT model explains about 56% of the variance for adoption of elearning. The findings also revealed that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences and behavior indentation had direct and significant effects on faculty members' behavior towards the use of e-learning. However, facilitated condition had no significant effects on the use of e-learning. Conclusion: The authorized model provides considerable insight for perception and anticipation of faculty members' behaviors in adopting e-learning. The survey clearly identified significant and non-significant factors that may affect the adoption of e-learning. The results of this study could help the policy makers when successful adoption of e-learning is in their agenda.

  13. Synthesis of CdS flower-like hierarchical microspheres as electrode material for electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaviyarasu, K.; Manikandan, E.; Maaza, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report in this paper, a facile hydrothermal route for the preparation of CdS nanocrystals at room temperature (RT). Composition, structure and morphology of the products were analyzed and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that the hydrothermal treatment at 180 °C for periods ranging from 0 to 1440 min caused no significant modification of the long range order structure subjected to hydrothermal treatment. From the XRD analysis the diffraction peaks pertaining to 26.75°, 43.89° and 52.34° are attributed to the (111), (220) and (311) planes of cubic zinc blende structure. The Photoluminescence (PL) spectra are dominated by a strong narrow band edge emission tunable in the blue region of the visible spectra indicating the narrow size distribution of CdS nanocrystals. TEM observation shows that the CdS nanocrystals synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis are well dispersed and the average crystallite size was found to be ∼10 nm. The confocal microscopic studies reveal that each flower like spheres is due to Ostwald's ripening with numerous nanoparticles aggregating a surface. - Highlights: • The adjacent particle coalesces together forming spherical particles. • The average crystalline size of CdS nanoparticles was found to be ∼3 nm. • In the case of spherical crystallite, is given by L = 3/4 D. • The CdS nanocrystal exhibits a direct band gap of 2.4 eV. • The microspheres are dispersed with good monodispersity

  14. Ultrasonic/surfactant assisted of CdS nano hollow sphere synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafati, Amir Abbas; Borujeni, Ahmad Reza Afraz; Najafi, Mojgan; Bagheri, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    CdS hollow nanospheres with diameters ranging from 40 to 150 nm have been synthesized by a surfactant-assisted sonochemical route. The successful vesicle templating indicates that the outer leaflet of the bilayer is the receptive surface in the controlled growth of CdS nanoparticles which provide the unique reactor for the nucleation and mineralization growth of CdS nanoparticles. The CdS nanostructures obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Structural characterization of hollow CdS nanospheres indicates that these products packed with square subunits having sizes between 5 and 7 nm in diameter. The formation of the hollow nanostructure was explained by a vesicle template mechanism, in which sonication and surfactant play important roles. The band-edge emission and surface luminescence of the CdS nanoparticles were observed. -Research Highlights: → CdS hollow nanospheres with diameters of 40-150 nm were synthesized. → Nanoparticles were characterized by UV/Vis and photoluminescence. → Nanospheres are composed of smaller nanocrystals with the average size of 6.8 nm. → The band gap energy of the CdS nanoparticles is higher than its bulk value.

  15. Mechanistic aspects of biogenic synthesis of CdS nanoparticles using Bacillus licheniformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R M; Shrivastav, Archana; Bhadwal, Akhshay Singh; Singh, Priti; Singh, M P; Shrivastav, B R

    2014-01-01

    A novel eco-friendly effort has been made for the synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using bacterial biomass. Although some articles have been reported on CdS nanoparticles synthesis by bacteria, here we have synthesized CdS nanoparticles using non-pathogenic bacteria Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 9555. UV-Vis spectroscopy was carried out to confirm the formation of CdS nanoparticles; the peak occurring at 368 nm gives the indication of synthesis of CdS nanoparticles. The size and morphology of the synthesized CdS nanoparticles were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the nanoparticles are found to have a narrow size of 5.1 ± 0.5 nm with spherical morphology. Further, the nanoparticles were examined by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy to identify the presence of elements and confirmed the existence of Cd and S in single nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis exhibited 2θ values corresponding to CdS nanocrystals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) provides the evidence for the presence of proteins as possible biomolecules responsible for the stabilization of the synthesized CdS nanoparticles. (papers)

  16. Drivers and barriers to e-invoicing adoption in Greek large scale manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinagi, Catherine, E-mail: marinagi@teihal.gr, E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com, E-mail: preklitis@yahoo.com; Trivellas, Panagiotis, E-mail: marinagi@teihal.gr, E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com, E-mail: preklitis@yahoo.com; Reklitis, Panagiotis, E-mail: marinagi@teihal.gr, E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com, E-mail: preklitis@yahoo.com [Technological Educational Institute of Sterea Ellada, Department of Logistics management, 1st km of Old National Road Thiva-Elefsis-32200, Thiva (Greece); Skourlas, Christos, E-mail: cskourlas@teiath.gr [Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Department of Informatics, Ag. Spyridonos, Aigaleo-12210, Athens (Greece)

    2015-02-09

    This paper attempts to investigate the drivers and barriers that large-scale Greek manufacturing industries experience in adopting electronic invoices (e-invoices), based on three case studies with organizations having international presence in many countries. The study focuses on the drivers that may affect the increase of the adoption and use of e-invoicing, including the customers demand for e-invoices, and sufficient know-how and adoption of e-invoicing in organizations. In addition, the study reveals important barriers that prevent the expansion of e-invoicing, such as suppliers’ reluctance to implement e-invoicing, and IT infrastructures incompatibilities. Other issues examined by this study include the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the financial priorities of the organizations assumed to be supported by e-invoicing.

  17. Drivers and barriers to e-invoicing adoption in Greek large scale manufacturing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinagi, Catherine; Trivellas, Panagiotis; Reklitis, Panagiotis; Skourlas, Christos

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the drivers and barriers that large-scale Greek manufacturing industries experience in adopting electronic invoices (e-invoices), based on three case studies with organizations having international presence in many countries. The study focuses on the drivers that may affect the increase of the adoption and use of e-invoicing, including the customers demand for e-invoices, and sufficient know-how and adoption of e-invoicing in organizations. In addition, the study reveals important barriers that prevent the expansion of e-invoicing, such as suppliers’ reluctance to implement e-invoicing, and IT infrastructures incompatibilities. Other issues examined by this study include the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the financial priorities of the organizations assumed to be supported by e-invoicing

  18. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK--A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankis, Jamie; Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM), whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK), using a mixed methods design. Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social and sociosexual media were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. In addition, n = 10 in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM were analysed thematically. Under one third (29.7%) of MSM had heard of PrEP, with awareness related to living in large cities, degree level education, commercial gay scene use and reporting an HIV test in the last year. Just under half of participants (47.8%) were likely to use PrEP if it were available but there was no relationship between PrEP acceptability and previous PrEP awareness. Younger men (18-25 years) and those who report higher risk UAI were significantly more likely to say they would use PrEP. Qualitative data described specific PrEP scenarios, illustrating how risk, patterns of sexual practice and social relationships could affect motivation for and nature of PrEP use. These findings suggest substantial interest PrEP amongst MSM reporting HIV risk behaviours in Scotland. Given the Proud results, there is a strong case to investigate PrEP implementation within the UK. However, it appears that disparities in awareness have already emerged along traditional indicators of inequality. Our research identifies the need for comprehensive support when PrEP is introduced, including a key online component, to ensure equity of awareness across diverse MSM communities (e.g. by geography, education, gay scene use and HIV proximity), as well as to responding to the diverse informational and sexual health needs of all MSM communities.

  19. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK--A Mixed Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Frankis

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM, whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK, using a mixed methods design.Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social and sociosexual media were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. In addition, n = 10 in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM were analysed thematically.Under one third (29.7% of MSM had heard of PrEP, with awareness related to living in large cities, degree level education, commercial gay scene use and reporting an HIV test in the last year. Just under half of participants (47.8% were likely to use PrEP if it were available but there was no relationship between PrEP acceptability and previous PrEP awareness. Younger men (18-25 years and those who report higher risk UAI were significantly more likely to say they would use PrEP. Qualitative data described specific PrEP scenarios, illustrating how risk, patterns of sexual practice and social relationships could affect motivation for and nature of PrEP use.These findings suggest substantial interest PrEP amongst MSM reporting HIV risk behaviours in Scotland. Given the Proud results, there is a strong case to investigate PrEP implementation within the UK. However, it appears that disparities in awareness have already emerged along traditional indicators of inequality. Our research identifies the need for comprehensive support when PrEP is introduced, including a key online component, to ensure equity of awareness across diverse MSM communities (e.g. by geography, education, gay scene use and HIV proximity, as well as to responding to the diverse informational and sexual health needs of all MSM communities.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of fast electrons and heavy particles in the CDS of nitrogen dc glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.; Zhang, L.Z.; Wang, J.L.; Han, L.; Fu, G.S.

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of fast electrons (e - ) and heavy particles (N 2 + , N + , N 2f , N f ) in the cathode dark space (CDS) of nitrogen dc glow discharge are simultaneously studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The calculated energy and angular distributions of these particles at different positions from the cathode provide a clear picture of their transport behaviours within the CDS. The density and mean energy of these particles indicate that the electrons and the atomic ions (N + ) are the main high-energy species and the molecular ions (N 2 + ) are the major ions in the CDS. It can be seen from the energy distributions of the bombarding particles at the cathode surface that the molecular ions and the fast atoms (N f ) are the main active species participating in the cathode nitride material synthesis process. The influence of the backscattering of the electrons from the negative glow to the CDS is also investigated. All the calculated results provide good information on the spatial characteristics of the particles considered in this paper and also their internal connections in the CDS of nitrogen dc glow discharge. (author)

  1. Materiais compósitos particulados em matriz epóxi reforçados com serragem, cimento e silicato de magnésio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria Velloso Missagia

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo investigar propriedades físicas (densidade volumétrica e absorção de água e mecânicas (módulo de elasticidade e resistência à compressão de materiais compósitos particulados em matriz epóxi reforçados com serragem de madeira, cimento Portland e silicato de magnésio. Um planejamento experimental inicial foi elaborado envolvendo apenas a resina epóxi e a serragem de madeira. Posteriormente, elegeu-se o tratamento que forneceu os maiores valores para o módulo de elasticidade na compressão. Sobre a condição escolhida, foram desenvolvidas outras quatro, incorporando-se 10% e 20% em frações mássicas de partículas de silicato de magnésio e cimento Portland sobre a resina. Os compostos com 30% de serragem de madeira Eucalyptus grandis e faixa granulométrica 50-80 US-Tyler apresentaram os melhores valores para o módulo de elasticidade na compressão, sendo utilizados como condição de referência para a inclusão das partículas de cimento e do talco. O emprego do cimento nos compostos conferiu aumentos significativos no módulo de elasticidade à compressão, densidade e redução na absorção de água.

  2. INVESTIGATING THE Ep, i –Eiso CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Amati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between the spectral peak photon energy, Ep, and the radiated energy or luminosity (i.e., the “Amati relation” and other correlations derived from it is one of the central and most debated topics in GRB astrophysics, with implications for physics and the geometry of prompt emission, the identification and understanding of various classes of GRBs (short/long, XRFs,sub-energetic, and GRB cosmology. Fermi is exceptionally suited to provide, also in conjunction with Swift observations, a significant step forward in this field of research. Indeed, one of the main goals of Fermi/GBM is to make accurate measurements of Ep, by exploiting its unprecedented broad energy band from ~8 keV to ~30MeV; in addition, for a small fraction of GRBs, the LAT can extend the spectral measurements up to the GeV energy range, thus allowing a reliable estimate of the bolometric radiated energy/luminosity. We provide a review, an update and a discussion of the impact of Fermi observations in the investigation, understanding and testing of the Ep,i –Eiso (“Amati” relation.

  3. Factors affecting e-Commerce adoption in Danish and Australian SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating environmental, organizational and technological factors influencing adoption of electronic commerce in small and medium size enterprises in Denmark and Australia. A total of eight companies have been interviewd, four located in the area....... The main organizational factors affecting e-commerce adoption in the two countries are the CEO and employees' knowledge and attitude. Finally a number of technology related factors affect e-commerce adoption in the two countries as for example the ability to stream information out to the clients...... of Copenhagen, Denamrk and four in Brisbane area, Australia. The results show many interesting similarities and few differences between the two countries. For example, in both countries the external environment has an influence mainly through customer pressure and availability of ICT consulting services...

  4. The Prostaglandin E2-EP3 Receptor Axis Regulates Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Mediated NLRC4 Inflammasome Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsial agents are sensed by pattern recognition receptors but lack pathogen-associated molecular patterns commonly observed in facultative intracellular bacteria. Due to these molecular features, the order Rickettsiales can be used to uncover broader principles of bacterial immunity. Here, we used the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, to reveal a novel microbial surveillance system. Mechanistically, we discovered that upon A. phagocytophilum infection, cytosolic phospholipase A2 cleaves arachidonic acid from phospholipids, which is converted to the eicosanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 via cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 and the membrane associated prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1. PGE2-EP3 receptor signaling leads to activation of the NLRC4 inflammasome and secretion of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Importantly, the receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIPK2 was identified as a major regulator of the immune response against A. phagocytophilum. Accordingly, mice lacking COX2 were more susceptible to A. phagocytophilum, had a defect in IL-18 secretion and exhibited splenomegaly and damage to the splenic architecture. Remarkably, Salmonella-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation was not affected by either chemical inhibition or genetic ablation of genes associated with PGE2 biosynthesis and signaling. This divergence in immune circuitry was due to reduced levels of the PGE2-EP3 receptor during Salmonella infection when compared to A. phagocytophilum. Collectively, we reveal the existence of a functionally distinct NLRC4 inflammasome illustrated by the rickettsial agent A. phagocytophilum.

  5. The Adoption of e-Learning: An Institutional Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Pi-Tzong; Lu, Hsi-Peng; Chou, Tzu-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Several models have been proposed in the literature to understand e-learning acceptance in which social environmental factors are not primarily addressed. This paper aims to improve understanding of what social forces influence employee's attitude and intention of e-learning adoption within an organizational context. Drawing upon the institutional…

  6. Synthesis and characterization of TiO{sub 2}/CdS core-shell nanorod arrays and their photoelectrochemical property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Chunlan [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Power Engineer, Chongqing Communication College, Chongqing 400035 (China); Hu Chenguo, E-mail: hucg@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Shen Weidong [Department of Power Engineer, Chongqing Communication College, Chongqing 400035 (China); Wang, Shuxia [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Tian Yongshu [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Power Engineer, Chongqing Communication College, Chongqing 400035 (China); Wang Xue [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}/CdS core-shell nanorod arrays were fabricated by spin-SILAR method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enhanced photocurrent was found in the TiO{sub 2}/CdS core-shell nanorod arrays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CdS coated on TiO{sub 2} increases the e-h separation and enlarges light absorption range. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/CdS core-shell nanorod arrays have been fabricated via a two-step method. Vertically aligned TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays (NRs) were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, and followed by depositing CdS nanoparticles on TiO{sub 2} NRs by spin-coating successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (spin-SILAR) method. The surface morphology, structure, optical and photoelectrochemical behaviors of the core-shell NRs films are considered. The UV-vis absorption spectrum results suggested that the absorption peak of the TiO{sub 2}/CdS core-shell NRs shifts from the ultraviolet region to the visible region in comparison to that of the pure TiO{sub 2} NRs. The obviously enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of the heterojunction NRs were found under illumination of the simulated sunlight in comparison with that of the TiO{sub 2} NRs. The enhanced PEC performance and formation mechanism of TiO{sub 2}/CdS core-shell NRs were discussed in detail.

  7. Consumer Opinions of Health Information Exchange, e-Prescribing, and Personal Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Gary L; Lander, Lina; Morien, Marsha; Lomelin, Daniel E; Brittin, Jeri; Reker, Celeste; Klepser, Donald G

    2015-01-01

    Consumer satisfaction is a crucial component of health information technology (HIT) utilization, as high satisfaction is expected to increase HIT utilization among providers and to allow consumers to become full participants in their own healthcare management. The primary objective of this pilot study was to identify consumer perspectives on health information technologies including health information exchange (HIE), e-prescribing (e-Rx), and personal health records (PHRs). Eight focus groups were conducted in seven towns and cities across Nebraska in 2013. Each group consisted of 10-12 participants. Discussions were organized topically in the following categories: HIE, e-Rx, and PHR. The qualitative analysis consisted of immersion and crystallization to develop a coding scheme that included both preconceived and emergent themes. Common themes across focus groups were identified and compiled for each discussion category. The study had 67 participants, of which 18 (27 percent) were male. Focus group findings revealed both perceived barriers and benefits to the adoption of HIT. Common HIT concerns expressed across focus groups included privacy and security of medical information, decreases in quality of care, inconsistent provider participation, and the potential cost of implementation. Positive expectations regarding HIT included better accuracy and completeness of information, and improved communication and coordination between healthcare providers. Improvements in patient care were expected as a result of easy physician access to consolidated information across providers as well as the speed of sharing and availability of information in an emergency. In addition, participants were optimistic about patient empowerment and convenient access to and control of personal health data. Consumer concerns focused on privacy and security of the health information, as well as the cost of implementing the technologies and the possibility of an unintended negative impact on the

  8. Uso indicado e uso referido de medicamentos durante a gravidez Prescribed and reported drug use during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Poucos estudos descrevem a utilização de medicamentos na gravidez com detalhamento de práticas prescritivas. A pesquisa integra grande inquérito sobre atenção perinatal em hospitais do Município do Rio de Janeiro. A natureza do hospital - se pública, contratada/conveniada ao SUS ou privada - determinou estratificação de 10.072 puérperas internadas. A coleta de dados se deu por entrevista e por consulta a prontuários, cobrindo medicamentos utilizados durante a gravidez e prescritos durante a internação hospitalar quando do parto. Medicamentos foram classificados pela ATC e outro sistema para casos especiais de uso referido. Houve média de 2,08 medicamentos prescritos no parto e 2,3 usados durante a gestação, sendo os mais prescritos anestésicos, antibióticos, ocitocina e analgésicos, com diferenças significativas entre estratos, e os mais referidos sulfato ferroso, vitaminas, escopolamina e paracetamol. Para interromper a gravidez, 49,7% relatam o uso de chás e 9,2% de misoprostol. O perfil de utilização é corroborado pela literatura. A pesquisa oferece oportunidade de conhecimento de padrões de prescrição ao parto e de uso referido durante a gestação nos setores público e privado.Few studies describe drug utilization in pregnancy focusing on prescribing practices. This study is part of a larger survey on perinatal care in the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The type of hospital (public, contracted out by the Unified National Health System, or private determined the stratification of 10,072 hospitalized post-partum women, who were asked about medication used during pregnancy. Hospital records supplied information on drugs prescribed during labor. Drugs were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC system. Another system was used for specific cases of referred use. A mean of 2.08 drugs was prescribed during labor, and a mean of 2.3 was reported during pregnancy. Anesthetics, antibiotics

  9. ORF Sequence: cds [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KGSWTFYIMLLASFRIFFGLGLSLSPMESWTIMNVVHAGVTFIVFHWIKGNPFHTPWVDMMGKGEKQTWWEQIDGSVQNTPSRKFLICVVVFLYLAAVHSTPFERQFFFVHAVNLIAFLVVFVAKLPFMHGVRIFGINR ... cds gnl|CMER >gnl|CMER|CMQ020C hypothetical protein, conserved MQSGHGETRFDVGVEWLRA

  10. Profiling CPU-bound workloads on Intel Haswell-EP platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Guerri, Marco; Cristovao, Cordeiro; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of public and private cloud resources to support the demands in terms of computing capacity of the WLCG, the HEP community has begun studying several benchmarking applications aimed at continuously assessing the performance of virtual machines procured from commercial providers. In order to characterise the behaviour of these benchmarks, in-depth profiling activities have been carried out. In this document we outline our experience in profiling one specific application, the ATLAS Kit Validation, in an attempt to explain an unexpected distribution in the performance samples obtained on systems based on Intel Haswell-EP processors.

  11. EPS-LASSO: Test for High-Dimensional Regression Under Extreme Phenotype Sampling of Continuous Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Fang, Jian; Shen, Hui; Wang, Yu-Ping; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2018-01-25

    Extreme phenotype sampling (EPS) is a broadly-used design to identify candidate genetic factors contributing to the variation of quantitative traits. By enriching the signals in extreme phenotypic samples, EPS can boost the association power compared to random sampling. Most existing statistical methods for EPS examine the genetic factors individually, despite many quantitative traits have multiple genetic factors underlying their variation. It is desirable to model the joint effects of genetic factors, which may increase the power and identify novel quantitative trait loci under EPS. The joint analysis of genetic data in high-dimensional situations requires specialized techniques, e.g., the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). Although there are extensive research and application related to LASSO, the statistical inference and testing for the sparse model under EPS remain unknown. We propose a novel sparse model (EPS-LASSO) with hypothesis test for high-dimensional regression under EPS based on a decorrelated score function. The comprehensive simulation shows EPS-LASSO outperforms existing methods with stable type I error and FDR control. EPS-LASSO can provide a consistent power for both low- and high-dimensional situations compared with the other methods dealing with high-dimensional situations. The power of EPS-LASSO is close to other low-dimensional methods when the causal effect sizes are small and is superior when the effects are large. Applying EPS-LASSO to a transcriptome-wide gene expression study for obesity reveals 10 significant body mass index associated genes. Our results indicate that EPS-LASSO is an effective method for EPS data analysis, which can account for correlated predictors. The source code is available at https://github.com/xu1912/EPSLASSO. hdeng2@tulane.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2018). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  12. The fluorescence quenching mechanism of coumarin 120 with CdS nanoparticles in aqueous suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acar, Murat; Bozkurt, Ebru; Meral, Kadem; Arık, Mustafa; Onganer, Yavuz, E-mail: yonganer@atauni.edu.tr

    2015-01-15

    The interaction of coumarin 120 (C120) with CdS nanoparticles (CdS NPs) in aqueous suspension was examined by using UV–vis absorption, steady-state, time-resolved fluorescence, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy techniques. The fluorescence intensity of C120 was quenched with increasing the amount of CdS NPs in the aqueous suspension. The spectroscopic data revealed that the C120 molecules adsorbed on CdS NPs via electrostatic interactions. The apparent association constant (K{sub app}) and the degree of association (α) for C120/CdS NPs were determined as 130.3 M{sup −1} and 0.51 for 4 nm CdS NPs and 624.3 M{sup −1} and 0.71 for 8 nm CdS NPs, respectively. The photoinduced EPR studies exhibited that no electron transfers between CdS and C120 taking place. The results revealed that the fluorescence quenching of C120 with different CdS NPs is due to the formation of a non-fluorescent complex. - Highlights: • Interaction of C120 with CdS NPs in aqueous solution was spectroscopically examined. • Nonfluorescent C120–CdS NPs complexes in aqueous solution were formed. • In the system, CdS NPs in aqueous solution acted as a fluorescence quencher.

  13. The fluorescence quenching mechanism of coumarin 120 with CdS nanoparticles in aqueous suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acar, Murat; Bozkurt, Ebru; Meral, Kadem; Arık, Mustafa; Onganer, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of coumarin 120 (C120) with CdS nanoparticles (CdS NPs) in aqueous suspension was examined by using UV–vis absorption, steady-state, time-resolved fluorescence, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy techniques. The fluorescence intensity of C120 was quenched with increasing the amount of CdS NPs in the aqueous suspension. The spectroscopic data revealed that the C120 molecules adsorbed on CdS NPs via electrostatic interactions. The apparent association constant (K app ) and the degree of association (α) for C120/CdS NPs were determined as 130.3 M −1 and 0.51 for 4 nm CdS NPs and 624.3 M −1 and 0.71 for 8 nm CdS NPs, respectively. The photoinduced EPR studies exhibited that no electron transfers between CdS and C120 taking place. The results revealed that the fluorescence quenching of C120 with different CdS NPs is due to the formation of a non-fluorescent complex. - Highlights: • Interaction of C120 with CdS NPs in aqueous solution was spectroscopically examined. • Nonfluorescent C120–CdS NPs complexes in aqueous solution were formed. • In the system, CdS NPs in aqueous solution acted as a fluorescence quencher

  14. Fosforihapon epäpuhtauksien uuttaminen

    OpenAIRE

    Sengström, Heli

    2012-01-01

    Fosforihappoa tuotetaan yleisesti sekä märkäprosessilla että termisellä prosessilla. Märkäprosessilla tuotettuun fosforihappoon jää erilaisia epäpuhtauksia, joita ei happoa käytettäessä saisi olla. Yleisimmät epäpuhtaudet ovat erilaiset fluoridit, kloridit ja metallit. Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää, kuinka hyvin nämä epäpuhtaudet saadaan poistettua uuttamalla happoa liuottimella, jossa on 80 % tributyylifosfaattia (TBP) ja 20 % ExxsolTM D80 -laimenninta. Työn kokeellisessa ...

  15. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Winarto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  16. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK – A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankis, Jamie; Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM), whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK), using a mixed methods design. Methods Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social and sociosexual media were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. In addition, n = 10 in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM were analysed thematically. Results Under one third (29.7%) of MSM had heard of PrEP, with awareness related to living in large cities, degree level education, commercial gay scene use and reporting an HIV test in the last year. Just under half of participants (47.8%) were likely to use PrEP if it were available but there was no relationship between PrEP acceptability and previous PrEP awareness. Younger men (18–25 years) and those who report higher risk UAI were significantly more likely to say they would use PrEP. Qualitative data described specific PrEP scenarios, illustrating how risk, patterns of sexual practice and social relationships could affect motivation for and nature of PrEP use. Conclusion These findings suggest substantial interest PrEP amongst MSM reporting HIV risk behaviours in Scotland. Given the Proud results, there is a strong case to investigate PrEP implementation within the UK. However, it appears that disparities in awareness have already emerged along traditional indicators of inequality. Our research identifies the need for comprehensive support when PrEP is introduced, including a key online component, to ensure equity of awareness across diverse MSM communities (e.g. by geography, education, gay scene use and HIV proximity), as well as to responding to the diverse informational and sexual health

  17. THE LARVAL DEVELOPMENT AND POPULATION DYNAMICS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rocks and harbour areas, stippled area denotes beach. Depth contour in m. R ep rod u ced b y Sa b in et G a tew a. y u n d er licen ce gra n ted b y th e P u b ..... and recent ilIhtl1lces with emphosis on plant parasites and soil forms. cds. J. N. Sasser & W. R. Jenkins. Chapel Hill: Univ. North. Carolina Press. R ep rod u ced b.

  18. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline CdS by SILAR and Their Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Protim Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and cost effective chemical technique has been utilized to prepare cadmium sulphide (CdS nanoparticles at room temperature. The sample is characterized with XRD (X-ray diffractometer, SEM (scanning electron microscope, TEM (transmission electron microscope, FTIR (Fourier transform infrared, EDX (energy dispersive X-rays, and UV-VIS (ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer. The particle size estimated using X-ray line broadening method is ~21.5 nm. While particle size estimation, both instrumental and strain broadening was taken into account. The lattice strain was evaluated using Williamson-Hall equation. SEM illustrates formation of submicron size crystallites and TEM image gives a particle size of ~23.5 nm. The characteristic stretching vibration frequency of CdS was observed in the absorption band in FTIR spectrum. Optical absorption study exhibits a band gap energy value of about 2.44 eV.

  19. ORF Sequence: cds [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cds gnl|CMER >gnl|CMER|CME069C hypothetical protein MQSGSSEERVSSHMEARDSAPTASSMPSLRLTATATATATAR...LTYAHVSRPRPPAHLPRSDAYGGSPSASTTSSSTATARPTCAHEAAHPPQVHHLGSGACGGSPSASTTSSSTATARPTCAHEAAHPPQVHHLGSGACDGSPSASTTSSSTATAR...PTCAHEAAHPPQVHRLGSGACGGSPSASTTSSSTATARPTCAHEAAHPPQVHRLGSGACGGSPSASTTSSSTATARPTCAHEADHPPQVHRQGSDVSHINHTTKKLLSLWLLARPTATVKATVKVLRSDARRCGPDLSTTAEQARCNCREQCRSRTHR

  20. Complex and Conflicting Social Norms: Implications for Implementation of Future HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP Interventions in Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Knight

    Full Text Available HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP has been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV acquisition among seronegative individuals in a variety of risk groups, including men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs. To date, however, it remains unclear how socio-cultural norms (e.g., attitudes towards HIV; social understandings regarding HIV risk practices may influence the scalability of future PrEP interventions. The objective of this study is to assess how socio-cultural norms may influence the implementation and scalability of future HIV PrEP interventions in Vancouver, Canada.We conducted 50 interviews with young men (ages 18-24 with a variety of HIV risk behavioural profiles (e.g., young men who inject drugs; MSM. Interviews focused on participants' experiences and perceptions with various HIV interventions and policies, including PrEP.While awareness of PrEP was generally low, perceptions about the potential personal and public health gains associated with PrEP were interconnected with expressions of complex and sometimes conflicting social norms. Some accounts characterized PrEP as a convenient form of reliable protection against HIV, likening it to the female birth control pill. Other accounts cast PrEP as a means to facilitate 'socially unacceptable' behaviour (e.g., promiscuity. Stigmatizing rhetoric was used to position PrEP as a tool that could promote some groups' proclivities to take 'risks'.Stigma regarding 'risky' behaviour and PrEP should not be underestimated as a serious implementation challenge. Pre-implementation strategies that concomitantly aim to improve knowledge about PrEP, while addressing associated social prejudices, may be key to effective implementation and scale-up.

  1. Measurement of charged and neutral current e-p deep inelastic scattering cross sections at high Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Mikunas, D.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Stanek, R.; Talaga, R.L.; Zhang, H.; Ayad, R.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; Gialas, I.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Nemoz, C.; Palmonari, F.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Timellini, R.; Zamora Garcia, Y.; Zichichi, A.; Bargende, A.; Crittenden, J.; Desch, K.; Diekmann, B.; Doeker, T.; Eckert, M.; Feld, L.; Frey, A.; Geerts, M.; Geitz, G.; Grothe, M.; Haas, T.; Hartmann, H.; Haun, D.; Heinloth, K.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.; Katz, U.F.; Mari, S.M.; Mass, A.; Mengel, S.; Mollen, J.; Paul, E.; Rembser, C.; Schattevoy, R.; Schramm, D.; Stamm, J.; Wedemeyer, R.; Campbell-Robson, S.; Cassidy, A.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; George, S.; Gilmore, R.; Heath, G.P.; Heath, H.F.; Llewellyn, T.J.; Morgado, C.J.S.; Norman, D.J.P.; O'Mara, J.A.; Tapper, R.J.; Wilson, S.S.; Yoshida, R.; Rau, R.R.; Arneodo, M.; Iannotti, L.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Bernstein, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Parsons, J.A.; Ritz, S.; Sciulli, F.; Straub, P.B.; Wai, L.; Yang, S.; Zhu, Q.; Borzemski, P.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Zachara, M.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bednarek, B.; Jelen, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowalski, T.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Zajac, J.; Kotanski, A.; Przybycien, M.; Bauerdick, L.A.T.; Behrens, U.; Beier, H.; Bienlein, J.K.; Coldewey, C.; Deppe, O.; Desler, K.; Drews, G.; Flasinski, M.; Gilkinson, D.J.; Glasman, C.; Goettlicher, P.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gutjahr, B.; Hain, W.; Hasell, D.; Hessling, H.; Hultschig, H.; Iga, Y.; Joos, P.; Kasemann, M.; Klanner, R.; Koch, W.; Koepke, L.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labs, J.; Ladage, A.; Loehr, B.; Loewe, M.; Lueke, D.; Manczak, O.; Ng, J.S.T.; Nickel, S.; Notz, D.; Ohrenberg, K.; Roco, M.; Rohde, M.

    1995-01-01

    Deep inelastic e - p scattering has been studied in both the charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) reactions at momentum transfers squared Q 2 above 400GeV 2 using the ZEUS detector at the HERA ep collider. The CC and NC total cross sections, the NC to CC cross section ratio, and the differential cross sections dσ/dQ 2 are presented. From the Q 2 dependence of the CC cross section, the mass term in the CC propagator is determined to be M W =76±16±13 GeV

  2. One-pot solvothermal route to self-assembly of cauliflower-shaped CdS microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge Ming [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Cui Yao [Institute of New Energy Material Chemistry, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu Lu, E-mail: liul@nankai.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhou Zhen, E-mail: zhouzhen@nankai.edu.cn [Institute of New Energy Material Chemistry, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Nearly monodispersed cauliflower-shaped CdS microspheres were prepared through a simple one-step solvothermal route on a large scale by employing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the surfactant. Images by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicate that cauliflower-shaped CdS microspheres with diameters in the range from 1.3 to 4.5 {mu}m are assembled by nanoparticles with an average diameter of approximately 30 nm. The possible formation mechanism of the cauliflower-shaped CdS microspheres was also proposed. The photovoltaic activity of cauliflower-shaped CdS architectures has been investigated, indicating that the as-obtained CdS microspheres exhibited higher photovoltaic performance in comparison with CdS nanoparticles.

  3. HDR-Clinical Data Service (CDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — CDS is a SOAP/REST web service interface that supports Create, Retrieve, Update, and Delete (CRUD) operations against HDR data stores over secure Hypertext Transfer...

  4. Usability evaluation of pharmacogenomics clinical decision support aids and clinical knowledge resources in a computerized provider order entry system: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Emily Beth; Lee, Chia-Ju; Overby, Casey L; Abernethy, Neil; McCune, Jeannine; Smith, Joe W; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is positioned to have a widespread impact on the practice of medicine, yet physician acceptance is low. The presentation of context-specific PGx information, in the form of clinical decision support (CDS) alerts embedded in a computerized provider order entry (CPOE) system, can aid uptake. Usability evaluations can inform optimal design, which, in turn, can spur adoption. The study objectives were to: (1) evaluate an early prototype, commercial CPOE system with PGx-CDS alerts in a simulated environment, (2) identify potential improvements to the system user interface, and (3) understand the contexts under which PGx knowledge embedded in an electronic health record is useful to prescribers. Using a mixed methods approach, we presented seven cardiologists and three oncologists with five hypothetical clinical case scenarios. Each scenario featured a drug for which a gene encoding drug metabolizing enzyme required consideration of dosage adjustment. We used Morae(®) to capture comments and on-screen movements as participants prescribed each drug. In addition to PGx-CDS alerts, 'Infobutton(®)' and 'Evidence' icons provided participants with clinical knowledge resources to aid decision-making. Nine themes emerged. Five suggested minor improvements to the CPOE user interface; two suggested presenting PGx information through PGx-CDS alerts using an 'Infobutton' or 'Evidence' icon. The remaining themes were strong recommendations to provide succinct, relevant guidelines and dosing recommendations of phenotypic information from credible and trustworthy sources; any more information was overwhelming. Participants' median rating of PGx-CDS system usability was 2 on a Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly agree) to 7 (strongly disagree). Usability evaluation results suggest that participants considered PGx information important for improving prescribing decisions; and that they would incorporate PGx-CDS when information is presented in relevant and

  5. An optimized multilayer structure of CdS layer for CdTe solar cells application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Junfeng; Liao Cheng; Jiang Tao; Spanheimer, C.; Haindl, G.; Fu, Ganhua; Krishnakumar, V.; Zhao Kui; Klein, A.; Jaegermann, W.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Two different methods to prepare CdS films for CdTe solar cells. → A new multilayer structure of window layer for the CdTe solar cell. → Thinner CdS window layer for the solar cell than the standard CdS layer. → Higher performance of solar cells based on the new multilayer structure. - Abstract: CdS layers grown by 'dry' (close space sublimation) and 'wet' (chemical bath deposition) methods are deposited and analyzed. CdS prepared with close space sublimation (CSS) has better crystal quality, electrical and optical properties than that prepared with chemical bath deposition (CBD). The performance of CdTe solar cell based on the CSS CdS layer has higher efficiency than that based on CBD CdS layer. However, the CSS CdS suffers from the pinholes. And consequently it is necessary to prepare a 150 nm thin film for CdTe/CdS solar cell. To improve the performance of CdS/CdTe solar cells, a thin multilayer structure of CdS layer (∼80 nm) is applied, which is composed of a bottom layer (CSS CdS) and a top layer (CBD CdS). That bi-layer film can allow more photons to pass through it and significantly improve the short circuit current of the CdS/CdTe solar cells.

  6. Growth of CdS nanoparticles by chemical method and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carbon film supported on the copper grid and was kept for some time for drying. Transmission electron ... Wang et al obtained CdS nanoparticles having a band gap of. 2.79 eV [21]. .... [16] S Yu, Y Wu, J Yang, Z Han, Y Quan, X Liu and Y Xie, Chem. Matter 10 ... [22] U K Gautam, R Seshadri and C N R Rao, Chem. Phys. Lett.

  7. Attitudinal Belief on Adoption of e-MBA Program in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmod, Razmah; Dahlan, Noornina; Ramayah, T.; Karia, Noorliza; Asaari, Muhammad Hasmi Abu Hassan

    2005-01-01

    E-learning describes the use of information communications technology for learning beyond the boundaries of the conventional classroom. The objective of this paper is to determine what are the factors that are significant in explaining intention towards e-learning, particularly e-MBA adoption in Malaysia. Results indicated that trialability and…

  8. Re-dispersible Li+ and Eu3+ co-doped CdS nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Also, it can be used as sensor for drug delivery in our body [12,13]. In the present work, we prepare re-dispersible CdS, Li+- and Eu3+-doped CdS nanoparticles in organic solvent by urea hydrolysis at 170◦C and their lumines- cence properties are studied. We propose the mechanism of re-dispersion of CdS nanoparticles ...

  9. Preparation of CdS Nanoparticles by First-Year Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Noviello, Thomas; Brooks, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The first year undergraduates use a simple method to synthesize 5-nm CdS nanoparticles in a water-in-oil microemulsion. The quantum size effect, the relationship between colors, optical absorbance, band-gap energy and the CdS particles affected by the formation of micelles are observed.

  10. Broad spectral response photodetector based on individual tin-doped CdS nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichang Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High purity and tin-doped 1D CdS micro/nano-structures were synthesized by a convenient thermal evaporation method. SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM were used to examine the morphology, composition, phase structure and crystallinity of as-prepared samples. Raman spectrum was used to confirm tin doped into CdS effectively. The effect of impurity on the photoresponse properties of photodetectors made from these as-prepared pure and tin-doped CdS micro/nano-structures under excitation of light with different wavelength was investigated. Various photoconductive parameters such as responsivity, external quantum efficiency, response time and stability were analyzed to evaluate the advantage of doped nanowires and the feasibility for photodetector application. Comparison with pure CdS nanobelt, the tin-doped CdS nanowires response to broader spectral range while keep the excellect photoconductive parameters. Both trapped state induced by tin impurity and optical whispering gallery mode microcavity effect in the doped CdS nanowires contribute to the broader spectral response. The micro-photoluminescence was used to confirm the whispering gallery mode effect and deep trapped state in the doped CdS nanowires.

  11. Influence of wide band gap oxide substrates on the photoelectrochemical properties and structural disorder of CdS nanoparticles grown by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malashchonak, Mikalai V; Mazanik, Alexander V; Korolik, Olga V; Streltsov, Еugene А; Kulak, Anatoly I

    2015-01-01

    The photoelectrochemical properties of nanoheterostructures based on the wide band gap oxide substrates (ZnO, TiO2, In2O3) and CdS nanoparticles deposited by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method have been studied as a function of the CdS deposition cycle number (N). The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) passes through a maximum with the increase of N, which is ascribed to the competition between the increase in optical absorption and photocarrier recombination. The maximal IPCE values for the In2O3/CdS and ZnO/CdS heterostructures are attained at N ≈ 20, whereas for TiO2/CdS, the appropriate N value is an order of magnitude higher. The photocurrent and Raman spectroscopy studies of CdS nanoparticles revealed the occurrence of the quantum confinement effect, demonstrating the most rapid weakening with the increase of N in ZnO/CdS heterostructures. The structural disorder of CdS nanoparticles was characterized by the Urbach energy (E U), spectral width of the CdS longitudinal optical (LO) phonon band and the relative intensity of the surface optical (SO) phonon band in the Raman spectra. Maximal values of E U (100-120 meV) correspond to СdS nanoparticles on a In2O3 surface, correlating with the fact that the CdS LO band spectral width and intensity ratio for the CdS SO and LO bands are maximal for In2O3/CdS films. A notable variation in the degree of disorder of CdS nanoparticles is observed only in the initial stages of CdS growth (several tens of deposition cycles), indicating the preservation of the nanocrystalline state of CdS over a wide range of SILAR cycles.

  12. Microwave assisted synthesis of CdS nanoparticles and their size evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, I. A.; Vazquez, A.; Gomez, I.

    2013-01-01

    The study of the size evolution of CdS nanoparticles in aqueous dispersion is presented in this paper. The sodium citrate was employed as stabilizer of CdS nanoparticles synthesized by microwave assisted synthesis. Analysis of this study was carried out by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, by comparison of the band gap energy using theoretical and empirical models. Results obtained show that the synthesis conditions produce CdS nanoparticles with diameters below of 6 nm, which remains stabilized by at least 14 days. These characteristics were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms cubic phase of the CdS nanoparticles. (Author)

  13. Microwave assisted synthesis of CdS nanoparticles and their size evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, I. A.; Vazquez, A.; Gomez, I., E-mail: idaliagomezmx@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Laboratorio de Materiales I, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria, 66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2013-05-01

    The study of the size evolution of CdS nanoparticles in aqueous dispersion is presented in this paper. The sodium citrate was employed as stabilizer of CdS nanoparticles synthesized by microwave assisted synthesis. Analysis of this study was carried out by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, by comparison of the band gap energy using theoretical and empirical models. Results obtained show that the synthesis conditions produce CdS nanoparticles with diameters below of 6 nm, which remains stabilized by at least 14 days. These characteristics were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms cubic phase of the CdS nanoparticles. (Author)

  14. Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using culture supernatants of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Lactobacillus ... The process of extracellular and fast biosynthesis may help in the development of an easy and eco-friendly route for the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles.

  15. Regime-dependent determinants of Euro area sovereign CDS spreads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommestein, H.J.; Eijffinger, Sylvester; Qian, Zongxin

    We study the determinants of sovereign CDS spreads of five Euro area countries (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain) after the collapse of Lehman Brothers. We find that global and/or European Monetary Union (EMU)-wide factors are the main drivers of changes in the sovereign CDS spreads in

  16. Diffractive jet production in deep-inelastic e+p collisions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, C.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement is presented of dijet and 3-jet cross sections in low- vertical stroke t vertical stroke diffractive deep-inelastic scattering interactions of the type epeXY, where the system X is separated by a large rapidity gap from a low-mass baryonic system Y. Data taken with the H1 detector at HERA, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.0 pb -1 , are used to measure hadron level single and double differential cross sections for 4 2 2 , x P T,jet >4 GeV. The energy flow not attributed to jets is also investigated. The measurements are consistent with a factorising diffractive exchange with trajectory intercept close to 1.2 and tightly constrain the dominating diffractive gluon distribution. Viewed in terms of the diffractive scattering of partonic fluctuations of the photon, the data require the dominance of qqg over qq states. Soft colour neutralisation models in their present form cannot simultaneously reproduce the shapes and the normalisations of the differential cross sections. Models based on 2-gluon exchange are able to reproduce the shapes of the cross sections at low x P values. (orig.)

  17. Summer Student Project: Collecting and disseminating CDS KPIs

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez Perez, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    CDS (CERN Document Server) stores over 900,000 bibliographic records, including 360,000 fulltext documents, of interest to people working in particle physics and related areas. My project consisted on extracting KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) from it and feeding them to a central IT KPI system. To achieve this, I learned the CDS-Invenio open source digital library software, and worked with its statistic module.

  18. Nanostructured CdS thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerimova, A.; Bagiyev, E.; Aliyeva, E.; Bayramov, A. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2017-06-15

    Influence of solution pH on the structural and optical properties of CdS films deposited by conventional spray pyrolysis technique was studied. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PLS), and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) methods were used for the characterization of the deposited films. PL spectrum of the film deposited from the solution with pH = 10.2 shows broad-band PL emission located at 460 nm (2.7 eV), which can be attributed to the quantum size effect at grain sizes of <10 nm. No shifts of ε{sub 1} and ε{sub 2} due to the quantum size effect are observed in dielectric function spectra, what can be caused by low concentration of nano-sized (<10 nm) CdS grains. The change in the film properties with the pH of the solution was analyzed in terms of variation of grain sizes of the polycrystalline films. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Development of the nuclear weapons complex EP architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C.; Halbleib, L.

    1996-07-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Guidance Team is an interagency committee led by Earl Whiteman, DOE that chartered the generation of EP40100, Concurrent Qualification and its successor EP401099, Concurrent Engineering and Qualification. As this new philosophy of concurrent operations has evolved and as implementation has been initiated, conflicts and insufficiencies in the remaining Engineering Procedures (EPs) have become more apparent. At the Guidance Team meeting in November 1995, this issue was explored and several approaches were considered. It was concluded at this meeting, that a smaller set of interagency EPs described in a hierarchical system could provide the necessary interagency direction to support complex-wide implementation. This set consolidates many existing EP processes where consistency and commonality are critical to success of the extended enterprise. The Guidance Team subsequently chartered an interagency team to initiate development activity associated with the envisioned new EP set. This team had participation from seven Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) sites as well as DOE/AL and DP-14 (team members are acknowledged later in this report). Per the Guidance Team, this team, referred to as the Architecture Subcommittee, was to map out and define an EP Architecture for the interagency EPs, make recommendations regarding a more agile process for EP approval and suggest an aggressive timeline to develop the combined EPs. The Architecture Subcommittee was asked to brief their output at the February Guidance Team meeting. This SAND report documents the results of the Architecture Subcommittee`s recommendations.

  20. E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: adoption and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Sait

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.

  1. Effect of silver doping on the elastic properties of CdS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, P. C.; Das, R.

    2018-05-01

    CdS and Ag doped CdS (CdS/Ag) nanoparticles have been prepared via chemical method from a Cadmium acetate precursor and Thiourea. The synthesized CdS and CdS/Ag nanoparticles have been characterized by the X-ray Diffraction and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope. Here, these nanoparticles have been synthesized at room temperature and all the characterization have also been done at room temperature only. The XRD results reveal that the products are crystalline with cubic zinc blende structure. HRTEM images show that the prepared nanoparticles are nearly spherical in shape. Williamson-Hall method and Size-Strain Plot (SSP) have been used to study the individual contribution of crystalline sizes and lattice strain on the peak broadening of the CdS and CdS/Ag nanoparticles. The different modified model of Williamson-Hall method such as, uniform deformation model, uniform stress deformation model and uniform energy density deformation model and SSP method have been used to calculate the different physical parameter such as lattice strain, stress and energy density for all diffraction peaks of the XRD, corresponding to the CdS and silver doped CdS (CdS/Ag). The obtained results reveal that the average particle size of the prepared CdS and CdS/Ag nanoparticles estimated from the HRTEM images, Williamson-Hall analysis and SSP method are highly correlated with each other. Further, all these result confirms that doping of Ag significantly affects the elastic properties of CdS.

  2. Small Companies Innovations in Emerging Countries: E-Business Adoption and its Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Novaes Zilber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Organizations have been taking advantage of e-business as an innovative opportunity to improve business results, but small companies have not been adopting this tool as quickly as large corporations. There are several studies on the adoption of e-business in developed countries, but there are fewer studies in emerging Latin American countries. Thus, the goal of this study was to describe the business model of small companies that have adopted e-business (an innovation to this segment in an emerging Latin American country. For that, we used a quantitative approach trough a survey data. Main results: the owners/shareholders play a central role in making decisions about the adoption of e-business; the main value delivered from using the internet was improved brand and/or product awareness. The companies using e-business achieved increase in business and an expanded geographic scope of sales. The main difficulties encountered were training personnel to work on the internet and defining which web activities can lead to achieve strategic objectives.

  3. 48 CFR 504.570 - Procedures for using the EPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 504.570 Procedures for using the EPS. (a... [Identify address block in the solicitation]. (e) The Electronic Posting System Manual provides detailed... that electronic access to a solicitation will result in adequate competition, distribute the...

  4. Electronic prescribing: criteria for evaluating handheld prescribing systems and an evaluation of a new, handheld, wireless wide area network (WWAN) prescribing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblum, O M

    2001-02-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to establish criteria for evaluating handheld computerized prescribing systems; and 2) to evaluate out-of-box performance and features of a new, Palm Operating System (OS)-based, handheld, wireless wide area network (WWAN) prescribing system. The system consisted of a Palm Vx handheld organizer, a Novatel Minstrel V wireless modem, OmniSky wireless internet access and ePhysician ePad 1.1, the Palm OS electronic prescribing software program. A dermatologist familiar with healthcare information technology conducted an evaluation of the performance and features of a new, handheld, WWAN electronic prescribing system in an office practice during a three-month period in 2000. System performance, defined as transmission success rate, was determined from data collected during the three-month trial. Evaluation criteria consisted of an analysis of features found in electronic prescribing systems. All prescriptions written for all patients seen during a three-month period (August - November, 2000) were eligible for inclusion. Prescriptions written for patients who intended to fill them at pharmacies without known facsimile receiving capabilities were excluded from the study. The performance of the system was evaluated using data collected during the study. Criteria for evaluating features of electronic prescribing systems were developed and used to analyze the system employed in this study. During this three-month trial, 200 electronic prescriptions were generated for 132 patients included in the study. Of these prescriptions, 92.5 percent were successfully transmitted to pharmacies. Transmission failures resulted from incorrect facsimile numbers and non-functioning facsimile machines. Criteria established for evaluation of electronic prescribing systems included System (Hardware & Software), Costs, System Features, Printing & Transmission, Formulary & Insurance, Customization, Drug Safety and Security. This study is the first effort to

  5. A decision making framework for SOA adoption in e-banking: a case study approach

    OpenAIRE

    Basias, Nikolaus; Themistocleous, Marinos; Morabito, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    E-banking grows rapidly due to the numerous potential benefits associated with it and integration is one of the most important challenges for e-banking success. In addressing integration issues, SOA has emerged and adopted by many banks. Nevertheless, numerous banks fail to achieve successful SOA adoption for various reasons. One of the main reasons is attributed to the lack of a methodological framework that would (a) explain factors affecting SOA adoption in e-banking and (b) define the SOA...

  6. Investigations on structural, vibrational, morphological and optical properties of CdS and CdS/Co films by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksay, S.; Polat, M.; Ozer, T.; Koese, S.; Guerbuez, G.

    2011-01-01

    CdS and CdS/Co films have been deposited on glass substrates by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The effects of Co incorporation on the structural, optical, morphological, elemental and vibrational properties of these films were investigated. XRD analysis confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of all films and had no impurity phase. While CdS film has (0 0 2) as the preferred orientation, CdS/Co films have (1 1 0) as the preferred orientation. The direct optical band gap was found to decrease from 2.42 to 2.39 eV by Co incorporation. The decrease of the direct energy gaps by increasing Co contents is mainly due to the sp-d exchange interaction between the localized d-electrons of Co 2+ ions and band electrons of CdS. After the optical investigations, it was seen that the transmittance of CdS films decreased by Co content. The Raman measurements revealed two peaks corresponding to the 1LO and 2LO modes of hexagonal CdS. The vibrational modes of Cd-S were obtained in the wavenumber range (590-715 cm -1 ) using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The elemental analysis of the film was done by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry.

  7. Investigations on structural, vibrational, morphological and optical properties of CdS and CdS/Co films by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksay, S.; Polat, M.; Özer, T.; Köse, S.; Gürbüz, G.

    2011-09-01

    CdS and CdS/Co films have been deposited on glass substrates by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The effects of Co incorporation on the structural, optical, morphological, elemental and vibrational properties of these films were investigated. XRD analysis confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of all films and had no impurity phase. While CdS film has (0 0 2) as the preferred orientation, CdS/Co films have (1 1 0) as the preferred orientation. The direct optical band gap was found to decrease from 2.42 to 2.39 eV by Co incorporation. The decrease of the direct energy gaps by increasing Co contents is mainly due to the sp-d exchange interaction between the localized d-electrons of Co2+ ions and band electrons of CdS. After the optical investigations, it was seen that the transmittance of CdS films decreased by Co content. The Raman measurements revealed two peaks corresponding to the 1LO and 2LO modes of hexagonal CdS. The vibrational modes of Cd-S were obtained in the wavenumber range (590-715 cm-1) using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The elemental analysis of the film was done by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry.

  8. Raman spectroscopy of optical properties in CdS thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajić J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of CdS thin films were investigated applying atomic force microscopy (AFM and Raman spectroscopy. CdS thin films were prepared by using thermal evaporation technique under base pressure 2 x 10-5 torr. The quality of these films was investigated by AFM spectroscopy. We apply Raman scattering to investigate optical properties of CdS thin films, and reveal existence of surface optical phonon (SOP mode at 297 cm-1. Effective permittivity of mixture were modeled by Maxwell - Garnet approximation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45003

  9. The Efficacy of Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring Using Transcranial Electrically Stimulated Muscle-evoked Potentials (TcE-MsEPs) for Predicting Postoperative Segmental Upper Extremity Motor Paresis After Cervical Laminoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yasushi; Manabe, Hideki; Izumi, Bunichiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Kazumi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Prospective study. To investigate the efficacy of transcranial electrically stimulated muscle-evoked potentials (TcE-MsEPs) for predicting postoperative segmental upper extremity palsy following cervical laminoplasty. Postoperative segmental upper extremity palsy, especially in the deltoid and biceps (so-called C5 palsy), is the most common complication following cervical laminoplasty. Some papers have reported that postoperative C5 palsy cannot be predicted by TcE-MsEPs, although others have reported that it can be predicted. This study included 160 consecutive cases that underwent open-door laminoplasty, and TcE-MsEP monitoring was performed in the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, abductor digiti minimi, tibialis anterior, and abductor hallucis. A >50% decrease in the wave amplitude was defined as an alarm point. According to the monitoring alarm, interventions were performed, which include steroid administration, foraminotomies, etc. Postoperative deltoid and biceps palsy occurred in 5 cases. Among the 155 cases without segmental upper extremity palsy, there were no monitoring alarms. Among the 5 deltoid and biceps palsy cases, 3 had significant wave amplitude decreases in the biceps during surgery, and palsy occurred when the patients awoke from anesthesia (acute type). In the other 2 cases in which the palsy occurred 2 days after the operation (delayed type), there were no significant wave decreases. In all of the cases, the palsy was completely resolved within 6 months. The majority of C5 palsies have been reported to occur several days after surgery, but some of them have been reported to occur immediately after surgery. Our results demonstrated that TcE-MsEPs can predict the acute type, whereas the delayed type cannot be predicted. A >50% wave amplitude decrease in the biceps is useful to predict acute-type segmental upper extremity palsy. Further examination about the interventions for monitoring alarm will be essential for preventing palsy.

  10. Environmental Regulation of Offshore (E&P Waste Management in Nigeria: How Effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwuli Irene Ofuani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of technology has led to the rapid development of the offshore oil and gas industry and a corresponding increase in the amount of wastes generated from the industry. These wastes must be properly managed so as to curtail their potential to negatively affect human health and the environment. As a result, environmental regulation of offshore oil and gas operations is becoming more stringent worldwide. The Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN were issued to ensure that oil and gas industry operators do not degrade the environment in the course of their operations in Nigeria. Nonetheless, more attention has been focused on the economic aspects of offshore oil and gas industry rather than environmental aspects such as waste management. This article examines the legal aspects of offshore oil and gas waste management in Nigeria. It assesses the effectiveness of the mechanisms for the management of offshore E&P wastes in Nigeria as provided under EGASPIN in relation to other jurisdictions.

  11. An alternative route towards monodisperse CdS quantum dots for hybrid solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Fengfeng; Wang, Hao; Xia, Zhouhui; Dai, Xiao; Cong, Shan; Dong, Chao; Sun, Baoquan; Lou, Yanhui; Sun, Yinghui; Zhao, Jie; Zou, Guifu

    2015-01-01

    Monodisperse CdS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by thermal decomposition of organic complexes in the system of the cost-effective commercial 0 # diesel at 200 °C. The prepared CdS QDs have a good dispersion and high crystallization. When the CdS QDs are doped into the blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6, 6)C61 (PCBM) for hybrid solar cells (HSCs), the HSCs achieve about 25% increase of power conversion efficiency in comparison to the reference device without the CdS QDs. The improvement of the cell performance mainly attributes to the increased short-circuit current density arising from the absorption enhancement in the wavelength range of 350–550 nm by introducing the synthesized CdS QDs into the P3HT: PCBM active layer. - Highlights: • Monodisperse CdS quantum dots. • A cost-effective route to synthesize crystalline CdS quantum dots. • CdS quantum dots based hybrid solar cells with power conversion efficiency enhancement

  12. An alternative route towards monodisperse CdS quantum dots for hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Fengfeng; Wang, Hao [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Xia, Zhouhui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Dai, Xiao; Cong, Shan [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Dong, Chao [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of New Mexico, ABQ 87120 (United States); Sun, Baoquan [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Lou, Yanhui, E-mail: yhlou@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Sun, Yinghui; Zhao, Jie [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zou, Guifu, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Monodisperse CdS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by thermal decomposition of organic complexes in the system of the cost-effective commercial 0{sup #} diesel at 200 °C. The prepared CdS QDs have a good dispersion and high crystallization. When the CdS QDs are doped into the blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6, 6)C61 (PCBM) for hybrid solar cells (HSCs), the HSCs achieve about 25% increase of power conversion efficiency in comparison to the reference device without the CdS QDs. The improvement of the cell performance mainly attributes to the increased short-circuit current density arising from the absorption enhancement in the wavelength range of 350–550 nm by introducing the synthesized CdS QDs into the P3HT: PCBM active layer. - Highlights: • Monodisperse CdS quantum dots. • A cost-effective route to synthesize crystalline CdS quantum dots. • CdS quantum dots based hybrid solar cells with power conversion efficiency enhancement.

  13. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A.; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K.; Shaji, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties

  14. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties.

  15. ZnS, CdS and HgS nanoparticles via alkyl-phenyl dithiocarbamate complexes as single source precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwudiwe, Damian C; Ajibade, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles obtained by the thermolysis of certain group 12 metal complexes as precursors is reported. Thermogravimetric analysis of the single source precursors showed sharp decomposition leading to their respective metal sulfides. The structural and optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the prepared ZnS nanoparticles have a cubic sphalerite structure; the CdS indicates a hexagonal phase and the HgS show the presence of metacinnabar phase. The TEM image demonstrates that the ZnS nanoparticles are dot-shaped, the CdS and the HgS clearly showed a rice and spherical morphology respectively. The UV-Vis spectra exhibited a blue-shift with respect to that of the bulk samples which is attributed to the quantum size effect. The band gap of the samples have been calculated from absorption spectra and werefound to be about 4.33 eV (286 nm), 2.91 eV (426 nm) and 4.27 eV (290 nm) for the ZnS, CdS and HgS samples respectively.

  16. ZnS, CdS and HgS Nanoparticles via Alkyl-Phenyl Dithiocarbamate Complexes as Single Source Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Ajibade

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles obtained by the thermolysis of certain group 12 metal complexes as precursors is reported. Thermogravimetric analysis of the single source precursors showed sharp decomposition leading to their respective metal sulfides. The structural and optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the prepared ZnS nanoparticles have a cubic sphalerite structure; the CdS indicates a hexagonal phase and the HgS show the presence of metacinnabar phase. The TEM image demonstrates that the ZnS nanoparticles are dot-shaped, the CdS and the HgS clearly showed a rice and spherical morphology respectively. The UV-Vis spectra exhibited a blue-shift with respect to that of the bulk samples which is attributed to the quantum size effect. The band gap of the samples have been calculated from absorption spectra and werefound to be about 4.33 eV (286 nm, 2.91 eV (426 nm and 4.27 eV (290 nm for the ZnS, CdS and HgS samples respectively.

  17. Control of invasive weeds with prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Allen, Edith B.; Minnich, Ralph; Rice, Peter M.; Kyser, Guy B.

    2006-01-01

    Prescribed burning has primarily been used as a tool for the control of invasive late-season annual broadleaf and grass species, particularly yellow starthistle, medusahead, barb goatgrass, and several bromes. However, timely burning of a few invasive biennial broadleaves (e.g., sweetclover and garlic mustard), perennial grasses (e.g., bluegrasses and smooth brome), and woody species (e.g., brooms and Chinese tallow tree) also has been successful. In many cases, the effectiveness of prescribed burning can be enhanced when incorporated into an integrated vegetation management program. Although there are some excellent examples of successful use of prescribed burning for the control of invasive species, a limited number of species have been evaluated. In addition, few studies have measured the impact of prescribed burning on the long-term changes in plant communities, impacts to endangered plant species, effects on wildlife and insect populations, and alterations in soil biology, including nutrition, mycorrhizae, and hydrology. In this review, we evaluate the current state of knowledge on prescribed burning as a tool for invasive weed management.

  18. Growth, characterization and estimation of lattice strain and size in CdS nanoparticles: X-ray peak profile analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Rekha Garg; Rajaram, Poolla; Bajpai, P. K.

    2018-05-01

    This work is based on the growth, characterization and estimation of lattice strain and crystallite size in CdS nanoparticles by X-ray peak profile analysis. The CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by a non-aqueous solvothermal method and were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy. XRD confirms that the CdS nanoparticles have the hexagonal structure. The Williamson-Hall (W-H) method was used to study the X-ray peak profile analysis. The strain-size plot (SSP) was used to study the individual contributions of crystallite size and lattice strain from the X-rays peaks. The physical parameters such as strain, stress and energy density values were calculated using various models namely, isotropic strain model, anisotropic strain model and uniform deformation energy density model. The particle size was estimated from the TEM images to be in the range of 20-40 nm. The Raman spectrum shows the characteristic optical 1LO and 2LO vibrational modes of CdS. UV-visible absorption studies show that the band gap of the CdS nanoparticles is 2.48 eV. The results show that the crystallite size estimated from Scherrer's formula, W-H plots, SSP and the particle size calculated by TEM images are approximately similar.

  19. Production of Z0 bosons in elastic and quasi-elastic ep collisions at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramowicz, H.; Kooijman, P.; Zotkin, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    The production of Z0 bosons in the reaction epeZ0 p(∗), where p(∗) stands for a proton or a lowmass nucleon resonance, has been studied in ep collisions at HERA using the ZEUS detector. The analysis is based on a data sample collected between 1996 and 2007, amounting to 496 pb−1 of integrated

  20. Australian SMES' And E-Commerce adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of a study on factors affecting adoption of e-commerce in small and medium size enterprises in Australia. The Tornatsky and Fleischer (1990) model is used in the investigation therefore the main group of factors taken into consideration are environmental...... that the external environment has an influence mainly through customers' requirements and pressure and availability of IT services, contrary to other studies that found that government and public administration have a big role. The organizational and technological contexts have also much relevance and include...... factors such as employees and CEO attitude....

  1. Looking under the Bonnet: Factors Affecting Student Adoption of E-Learning Systems in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Mahmood Abbad, David Morris, Carmel de Nahlik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary questions addressed in this paper are the following: what are the factors that affect students’ adoption of an e-learning system and what are the relationships among these factors?This paper investigates and identifies some of the major factors affecting students’ adoption of an e-learning system in a university in Jordan. E-learning adoption is approached from the information systems acceptance point of view. This suggests that a prior condition for learning effectively using e-learning systems is that students must actually use them. Thus, a greater knowledge of the factors that affect IT adoption and their interrelationships is a pre-cursor to a better understanding of student acceptance of e-learning systems. In turn, this will help and guide those who develop, implement, and deliver e-learning systems.In this study, an extended version of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM was developed to investigate the underlying factors that influence students’ decisions to use an e-learning system. The TAM was populated using data gathered from a survey of 486 undergraduate students using the Moodle based e-learning system at the Arab Open University. The model was estimated using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. A path model was developed to analyze the relationships between the factors to explain students’ adoption of the e-learning system. Whilst findings support existing literature about prior experience affecting perceptions, they also point to surprising group effects, which may merit future exploration.

  2. Synthesis of CdS Nanocrystals with Different Shapes via a Colloidal Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Jie; Liu, Changsong; Niu, Jinzhong; Wang, Hongzhe; Xu, Shasha; Shen, Huaibin; Li, Lin Song [Henan Univ., Henan (China)

    2014-02-15

    Size- and shape-controlled monodisperse wurtzite structured CdS nanorods have been successfully synthesized using a facile solution-based colloidal method. Depending on the control of injection/growth temperatures and the variation of Cd-to-S molar ratios, the morphology of the CdS nanocrystals (NCs) can be adjusted into bullet-like, rod-like, and dot-like shapes. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transition electron microscopy (TEM), and absorption spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure, morphology, and optical properties of as-synthesized CdS NCs. It was found that uniform CdS nanorods could be successfully synthesized when the injection and growth temperatures were very high (> 360 .deg. C). The aspect ratios of different shaped (bullet-like or rod-like) CdS NCs could be controlled by simply adjusting the molar ratios between Cd and S.

  3. Synthesis of CdS Nanocrystals with Different Shapes via a Colloidal Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Jie; Liu, Changsong; Niu, Jinzhong; Wang, Hongzhe; Xu, Shasha; Shen, Huaibin; Li, Lin Song

    2014-01-01

    Size- and shape-controlled monodisperse wurtzite structured CdS nanorods have been successfully synthesized using a facile solution-based colloidal method. Depending on the control of injection/growth temperatures and the variation of Cd-to-S molar ratios, the morphology of the CdS nanocrystals (NCs) can be adjusted into bullet-like, rod-like, and dot-like shapes. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transition electron microscopy (TEM), and absorption spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure, morphology, and optical properties of as-synthesized CdS NCs. It was found that uniform CdS nanorods could be successfully synthesized when the injection and growth temperatures were very high (> 360 .deg. C). The aspect ratios of different shaped (bullet-like or rod-like) CdS NCs could be controlled by simply adjusting the molar ratios between Cd and S

  4. Effects of precursors on the crystal structure and photoluminescence of CdS nanocrystalline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Zuoling; Zhou Shihong; Shi Jinsheng; Zhang Siyuan

    2005-01-01

    A series of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanocrystalline were synthesized by precipitation from a mixture of aqueous solutions of cadmium salts and sulfur salts without adding any surface-termination agent. Their crystal structures and particle sizes were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The CdS nanocrystalline precipitated from different precursors exhibited three cases: cubic phase, hexagonal phase and a hybrid of cubic and hexagonal phases. The photoluminescence (PL) of cadmium salt precursors and CdS nanocrystalline is also analyzed. Similar spectral band structure of cadmium salt precursors and CdS nanocrystalline is found. The PL of 3.4, 2.4 and 2.0 nm sized CdS nanocrystalline with the same crystal structure indicated quantum confinement effect

  5. FACILITATORS OF INTERNET PROMOTION (E-BROCHURE ADOPTION BY NON-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Oly Ndubisi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet promotion, otherwise e-brochure (EB or partial e-commerce adoption by non-profit organisations denotes the use of the Internet to provide business and service related information by academic institutions (as in the present study, non-profit organisations, religious organisations, and government agencies to reduce their expenses or to improve their operations and customer service. A field survey of Malaysian universities was conducted to determine the key factors that facilitate the adoption of non-business EB. Since EB adoption decision is a strategic one, a comprehensive list of potential facilitators for the strategic use of information technology (IT was derived from extant literature and used in collecting data from 65 schools and centres in five public universities in Kota Kinabalu and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The data were factor-analysed to determine the key underlying dimensions of facilitators. On the basis of the resulting five dimensions namely, relative advantage orientation, network orientation, information efficiency orientation, innovativeness orientation, and competitiveness orientation, regression analysis was done to determine the impact of the five dimensions on non-business EB adoption.

  6. Phenotype-dependent effects of EpCAM expression on growth and invasion of human breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martowicz, Agnieszka; Spizzo, Gilbert; Gastl, Guenther; Untergasser, Gerold

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) has been shown to be overexpressed in breast cancer and stem cells and has emerged as an attractive target for immunotherapy of breast cancer patients. This study analyzes the effects of EpCAM on breast cancer cell lines with epithelial or mesenchymal phenotype. For this purpose, shRNA-mediated knockdown of EpCAM gene expression was performed in EpCAM high breast cancer cell lines with epithelial phenotype (MCF-7, T47D and SkBR3). Moreover, EpCAM low breast carcinoma cell lines with mesenchymal phenotype (MDA-MB-231, Hs578t) and inducible overexpression of EpCAM were used to study effects on proliferation, migration and in vivo growth. In comparison to non-specific silencing controls (n/s-crtl) knockdown of EpCAM (E#2) in EpCAM high cell lines resulted in reduced cell proliferation under serum-reduced culture conditions. Moreover, DNA synthesis under 3D culture conditions in collagen was significantly reduced. Xenografts of MCF-7 and T47D cells with knockdown of EpCAM formed smaller tumors that were less invasive. EpCAM low cell lines with tetracycline-inducible overexpression of EpCAM showed no increased cell proliferation or migration under serum-reduced growth conditions. MDA-MB-231 xenografts with EpCAM overexpression showed reduced invasion into host tissue and more infiltrates of chicken granulocytes. The role of EpCAM in breast cancer strongly depends on the epithelial or mesenchymal phenotype of tumor cells. Cancer cells with epithelial phenotype need EpCAM as a growth- and invasion-promoting factor, whereas tumor cells with a mesenchymal phenotype are independent of EpCAM in invasion processes and tumor progression. These findings might have clinical implications for EpCAM-based targeting strategies in patients with invasive breast cancer

  7. Impact of generic substitution decision support on electronic prescribing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Shane P; Chen, Qingxia; Johnson, Kevin B

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of generic substitution decision support on electronic (e-) prescribing of generic medications. The authors analyzed retrospective outpatient e-prescribing data from an academic medical center and affiliated network for July 1, 2005-September 30, 2008 using an interrupted time-series design to assess the rate of generic prescribing before and after implementing generic substitution decision support. To assess background secular trends, e-prescribing was compared with a concurrent random sample of hand-generated prescriptions. Proportion of generic medications prescribed before and after the intervention, evaluated over time, and compared with a sample of prescriptions generated without e-prescribing. The proportion of generic medication prescriptions increased from 32.1% to 54.2% after the intervention (22.1% increase, 95% CI 21.9% to 22.3%), with no diminution in magnitude of improvement post-intervention. In the concurrent control group, increases in proportion of generic prescriptions (29.3% to 31.4% to 37.4% in the pre-intervention, post-intervention, and end-of-study periods, respectively) were not commensurate with the intervention. There was a larger change in generic prescribing rates among authorized prescribers (24.6%) than nurses (18.5%; adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.63). Two years after the intervention, the proportion of generic prescribing remained significantly higher for e-prescriptions (58.1%; 95% CI 57.5% to 58.7%) than for hand-generated prescriptions ordered at the same time (37.4%; 95% CI 34.9% to 39.9%) (p<0.0001). Generic prescribing increased significantly in every specialty. Implementation of generic substitution decision support was associated with dramatic and sustained improvements in the rate of outpatient generic e-prescribing across all specialties.

  8. Dynamic Mechanical Properties of PMN/CNFs/EP Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Minxian; Huang Zhixiong; Qin Yan

    2011-01-01

    In this research, piezoelectric ceramic PMN(lead magnesium niobate-lead zirconate-lead titanate)/carbon nano-fibers(CNFs)/epoxy resin(EP) ccomposites were prepared and the dynamic mechanical properties and damping mechanism of PMN/CNFs/EP composites were investigated. The addition of CNFs into PMN/EP composite results in decrease of volume resistivity of the composite. When the concentration of CNFs is 0.6% weight of epoxy resin the volume resistivity of PMN/CNFs/EP composite is about 10 8 Ω·m. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicates that the loss factor, loss area, and damping temperature range of PMN/CNFs/EP composites increase with the CNFs content increasing till to 0.6% of weight of epoxy resin. When the CNFs content is more than 0.6% the damping properties of composites decrease oppositely. In PMN/CNFs/EP composites, the CNFs content 0.6% and the volume resistivity of PMN/CNFs/EP composites about 10 8 Ω·m just satisfy the practicing condition of piezo-damping, so the composites show optimal damping property.

  9. Electronic prescribing reduces prescribing error in public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Rahman, Nisar-Ur; Ahmad, Mahmood; Debray, Marcel; Yliperttula, Marjo; Declèves, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    To examine the incidence of prescribing errors in a main public hospital in Pakistan and to assess the impact of introducing electronic prescribing system on the reduction of their incidence. Medication errors are persistent in today's healthcare system. The impact of electronic prescribing on reducing errors has not been tested in developing world. Prospective review of medication and discharge medication charts before and after the introduction of an electronic inpatient record and prescribing system. Inpatient records (n = 3300) and 1100 discharge medication sheets were reviewed for prescribing errors before and after the installation of electronic prescribing system in 11 wards. Medications (13,328 and 14,064) were prescribed for inpatients, among which 3008 and 1147 prescribing errors were identified, giving an overall error rate of 22·6% and 8·2% throughout paper-based and electronic prescribing, respectively. Medications (2480 and 2790) were prescribed for discharge patients, among which 418 and 123 errors were detected, giving an overall error rate of 16·9% and 4·4% during paper-based and electronic prescribing, respectively. Electronic prescribing has a significant effect on the reduction of prescribing errors. Prescribing errors are commonplace in Pakistan public hospitals. The study evaluated the impact of introducing electronic inpatient records and electronic prescribing in the reduction of prescribing errors in a public hospital in Pakistan. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Measuring the Acceptance and Adoption of E-Learning by Academic Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheer A. Al-alak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate Jordanian lecturers' attitudes towards the adoption of e-learning system. A number of hypotheses were formulated for this purpose. The findings of the study show that there existed positive relationship between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, computer knowledge, management support and intention to adopt. Whereas there existed negative relationship between normative pressure, computer anxiety and intention to adopt. Based on the results a number of recommendations were proposed, and suggestions for future studies were made.

  11. Hexagonal pencil-like CdS nanorods: Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Liang; Wang, Guanghui; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Yong; Gao, Fang; Cheng, Yang

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, hexagonal pencil-like CdS nanorods have been successfully synthesized through a typical facile and economical one-step hydrothermal method without using any surfactant or template. The product was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX). The results revealed that the prepared CdS photocatalyst consisted of a large quantity of straight and smooth solid hexagonal nanorods and a few nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activities of CdS nanorods and commercial CdS powders were investigated by the photodegradation of Orange II (OII) in aqueous solution under visible light, and the CdS nanorods presented the highest photocatalytic activity. Its photocatalytic efficiency enhancement was attributed to the improved transmission of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the CdS nanostructures. The present findings may provide a facile approach to synthesize high efficient CdS photocatalysts.

  12. Clinical guideline representation in a CDS: a human information processing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilsdonk, Ellen; Riezebos, Rinke; Kremer, Leontien; Peute, Linda; Jaspers, Monique

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) has developed evidence-based guidelines for screening childhood cancer survivors for possible late complications of treatment. These paper-based guidelines appeared to not suit clinicians' information retrieval strategies; it was thus decided to communicate the guidelines through a Computerized Decision Support (CDS) tool. To ensure high usability of this tool, an analysis of clinicians' cognitive strategies in retrieving information from the paper-based guidelines was used as requirements elicitation method. An information processing model was developed through an analysis of think aloud protocols and used as input for the design of the CDS user interface. Usability analysis of the user interface showed that the navigational structure of the CDS tool fitted well with the clinicians' mental strategies employed in deciding on survivors screening protocols. Clinicians were more efficient and more complete in deciding on patient-tailored screening procedures when supported by the CDS tool than by the paper-based guideline booklet. The think-aloud method provided detailed insight into users' clinical work patterns that supported the design of a highly usable CDS system.

  13. Not All on the Same Page: E-Book Adoption and Technology Exploration by Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan-Haase, Anabel; Martin, Kim; Schreurs, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper aims to understand the adoption of e-books and e-readers by persons aged sixty and above. This includes an investigation into where seniors are in the stages of e-book adoption. Method: Data were collected through semi-structured interviews in a mid-size city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Analysis: Interviews were…

  14. Assessing the Adoption of e-Government Services by Teachers in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Vrana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments and governments’ understanding of what citizens need usually determine the design of public online services. For successful implementation of e-Government services, governments have to place the user in the center of future developments, understand what citizens need and measure what increases citizens’ willingness to adopt e-government services. The paper uses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM, the extended TAM, the Diffusion of Innovations (DOI theory and the important determinants of user acceptance perceived risk and trust, in order to describe teachers’ behavioral intensions to adopt e-Government services. A model containing trust and risk, along with cognitive, social and intrinsic factors is used to study the intentions of e-Government use by Greek primary and secondary education teachers. Two hundred and thirty teachers responded to an online survey. Findings reveal that cognitive and intrinsic factors have significant effects on intentions to use e-Government websites.

  15. EpCAM as multi-tumour target for near-infrared fluorescence guided surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driel, P. B. A. A. van; Boonstra, M. C.; Prevoo, H. A. J. M.; Giessen, M. van de; Snoeks, T. J. A.; Tummers, Q. R. J. G.; Keereweer, S.; Cordfunke, R. A.; Fish, A.; Eendenburg, J. D. H. van; Lelieveldt, B. P. F.; Dijkstra, J.; Velde, C. J. H. van de; Kuppen, P. J. K.; Vahrmeijer, A. L.; Löwik, C. W. G. M.; Sier, C. F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of resection margins during cancer surgery can be challenging, often resulting in incomplete tumour removal. Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) aims to aid the surgeon to visualize tumours and resection margins during surgery. FGS relies on a clinically applicable imaging system in combination with a specific tumour-targeting contrast agent. In this study EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) is evaluated as target for FGS in combination with the novel Artemis imaging system. The NIR fluorophore IRDye800CW was conjugated to the well-established EpCAM specific monoclonal antibody 323/A3 and an isotype IgG1 as control. The anti-EpCAM/800CW conjugate was stable in serum and showed preserved binding capacity as evaluated on EpCAM positive and negative cell lines, using flow cytometry and cell-based plate assays. Four clinically relevant orthotopic tumour models, i.e. colorectal cancer, breast cancer, head and neck cancer, and peritonitis carcinomatosa, were used to evaluate the performance of the anti-EpCAM agent with the clinically validated Artemis imaging system. The Pearl Impulse small animal imaging system was used as reference. The specificity of the NIRF signal was confirmed using bioluminescence imaging and green-fluorescent protein. All tumour types could clearly be delineated and resected 72 h after injection of the imaging agent. Using NIRF imaging millimetre sized tumour nodules were detected that were invisible for the naked eye. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated the distribution and tumour specificity of the anti-EpCAM agent. This study shows the potential of an EpCAM specific NIR-fluorescent agent in combination with a clinically validated intraoperative imaging system to visualize various tumours during surgery

  16. Molecular and preclinical basis to inhibit PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 as a novel nonsteroidal therapy for endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosh, Joe A.; Lee, JeHoon; Balasubbramanian, Dakshnapriya; Stanley, Jone A.; Long, Charles R.; Meagher, Mary W.; Osteen, Kevin G.; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Starzinski-Powitz, Anna; Banu, Sakhila K.

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a debilitating, estrogen-dependent, progesterone-resistant, inflammatory gynecological disease of reproductive age women. Two major clinical symptoms of endometriosis are chronic intolerable pelvic pain and subfertility or infertility, which profoundly affect the quality of life in women. Current hormonal therapies to induce a hypoestrogenic state are unsuccessful because of undesirable side effects, reproductive health concerns, and failure to prevent recurrence of disease. There is a fundamental need to identify nonestrogen or nonsteroidal targets for the treatment of endometriosis. Peritoneal fluid concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are higher in women with endometriosis, and this increased PGE2 plays important role in survival and growth of endometriosis lesions. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of pharmacological inhibition of PGE2 receptors, EP2 and EP4, on molecular and cellular aspects of the pathogenesis of endometriosis and associated clinical symptoms. Using human fluorescent endometriotic cell lines and chimeric mouse model as preclinical testing platform, our results, to our knowledge for the first time, indicate that selective inhibition of EP2/EP4: (i) decreases growth and survival of endometriosis lesions; (ii) decreases angiogenesis and innervation of endometriosis lesions; (iii) suppresses proinflammatory state of dorsal root ganglia neurons to decrease pelvic pain; (iv) decreases proinflammatory, estrogen-dominant, and progesterone-resistant molecular environment of the endometrium and endometriosis lesions; and (v) restores endometrial functional receptivity through multiple mechanisms. Our novel findings provide a molecular and preclinical basis to formulate long-term nonestrogen or nonsteroidal therapy for endometriosis. PMID:26199416

  17. Polifonia e “realismo no sentido superior”: o epílogo de Crime e castigo / Polyphony and “realism in a higher sense”: the epilogue of Crime and Punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Nascimento Marques

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O presente artigo tem por objetivo apresentar uma análise do epílogo de Crime e castigo que leve em conta a elaboração bakhtiniana acerca do romance dostoievskiano, bem como outras vertentes críticas, mais ou menos congruentes com essa elaboração. Considerando o conceito de romance polifônico e as ressalvas de Bakhtin sobre suaaplicabilidade aos desfechos dos romances de Dostoiévski, buscaremos verificar a força desse conceito nesse epílogo em particular, por meio de um diálogo com diferentes posições críticas. ABSTRACT: This paper aims at presenting an analysis of the epilogue of Crime and Punishment which takes into account Bakhtin’s elaboration on Dostoevsky’s novels as well as other critical trends more or less congruent with it. Considering the concept of polyphonic novel and Bakhtin’s reserves in using it to analyze the endings of Dostoevsky’s novels, we intend to verify the strength of this concept on this epilogue in particular through a dialogue with different critical standpoints.

  18. Inhibition of the prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 prevents status epilepticus-induced deficits in the novel object recognition task in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Asheebo; Ganesh, Thota; Manji, Zahra; O’neill, Theon; Dingledine, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Survivors of exposure to an organophosphorus nerve agent may develop a number of complications including long-term cognitive deficits (Miyaki et al., 2005; Nishiwaki et al., 2001). We recently demonstrated that inhibition of the prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP2, attenuates neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration caused by status epilepticus (SE) induced by the soman analog, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), which manifest within hours to days of the initial insult. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DFP exposure leads to a loss of cognitive function in rats that is blocked by early, transient EP2 inhibition. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered vehicle or the competitive EP2 antagonist, TG6-10-1, (ip) at various times relative to DFP-induced SE. DFP administration resulted in prolonged seizure activity as demonstrated by cortical electroencephalography (EEG). A single intraperitoneal injection of TG6-10-1 or vehicle 1 h prior to DFP did not alter the development of seizures, the latency to SE or the duration of SE. Rats administered six injections of TG6-10-1 starting 90 min after the onset of DFP-induced SE could discriminate between a novel and familiar object 6–12 weeks after SE, unlike vehicle treated rats which showed no preference for the novel object. By contrast, behavioral changes in the light-dark box and open field assays were not affected by TG6-10-1. Delayed mortality after DFP was also unaffected by TG6-10-1. Thus, selective inhibition of the EP2 receptor may prevent SE-induced memory impairment in rats caused by exposure to a high dose of DFP. PMID:27477533

  19. Virtual Compton scattering off the proton at Jefferson Lab (experiment E93050): preliminary results of the cross-sections of the reaction (ep{yields}ep{gamma}) in order to find out the generalized polarizabilities (GPs) of the proton at Q{sup 2} = 1.9 GeV{sup 2}; Diffusion compton virtuelle a jefferson lab (experience E93050): resultat preliminaire des sections efficaces (ep{yields}ep{gamma}) en vue d'extraire les polarisabilites generalisees du proton a Q{sup 2} = 1.9 GEV{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaminion, St

    2000-12-01

    Virtual Compton Scattering off the proton ({gamma}{sup *}p {yields} {gamma}p) at low energy is accessible via the reaction (ep {yields} ep{gamma}), and contains 6 new observables: Generalized Polarizabilities (GPs). Their extraction needs the measurement of absolute five fold differential cross sections for photon electroproduction off the proton. The determination of GPs will put new constraints on models of nucleon structure in the non-perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics region. Following the Mainz experiment realized at four momentum transfer Q{sup 2} = 0.33 GeV{sup 2}, the E93050 experiment which was performed in the Hall A of Jefferson Lab during march-april 1998, will allow the measurement of combinations of generalized polarizabilities at Q{sup 2}=1 and 1.9 GeV{sup 2}. The final electron and proton were detected in coincidence in the Hall A high resolution spectrometers. The final photon is reconstructed like a missing particle, and all its variables can be determined. We had to optimize optics tensor of each spectrometer in order to have the best reconstruction at vertex point. We created an acceptance function, which is included in the software simulating solid angle. We determined different cuts to substract our background dominating (ep {yields} ep{gamma}) reaction. This work allows to carry out our first photon electro-production cross section measurement at Q{sup 2}=1.9 GeV{sup 2}. The results seem to indicate a measurable effect of generalized polarizabilities, which remains however to be confirmed. (author)

  20. Selected engineering properties and applications of EPS geofoam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elragi, Ahmed Fouad

    Expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam is a lightweight material that has been used in engineering applications since at least the 1950s. Its density is about a hundredth of that of soil. It has good thermal insulation properties with stiffness and compression strength comparable to medium clay. It is utilized in reducing settlement below embankments, sound and vibration damping, reducing lateral pressure on substructures, reducing stresses on rigid buried conduits and related applications. This study starts with an overview on EPS geofoam. EPS manufacturing processes are described followed by a review of engineering properties found in previous research work done so far. Standards and design manuals applicable to EPS are presented. Selected EPS geofoam-engineering applications are discussed with examples. State-of-the-art of experimental work is done on different sizes of EPS specimens under different loading rates for better understanding of the behavior of the material. The effects of creep, sample size, strain rate and cyclic loading on the stress strain response are studied. Equations for the initial modulus and the strength of the material under compression for different strain rates are presented. The initial modulus and Poisson's ratio are discussed in detail. Sample size effect on creep behavior is examined. Three EPS projects are shown in this study. The creep behavior of the largest EPS geofoam embankment fill is shown. Results from laboratory tests, mathematical modeling and field records are compared to each other. Field records of a geofoam-stabilized slope are compared to finite difference analysis results. Lateral stress reduction on an EPS backfill retaining structure is analyzed. The study ends with a discussion on two promising properties of EPS geofoam. These are the damping ability and the compressibility of this material. Finite element analysis, finite difference analysis and lab results are included in this discussion. The discussion with the

  1. Chemically deposited TiO2/CdS bilayer system for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FTO/TiO2/CdS bilayers system showed improved performance of PEC properties over individual ... form distribution of nanocrystalline CdS on TiO2 and this is unfavourable for the ... (TEA), the pH of the solution maintained at 12·0 by drop.

  2. VALUE RELEVANCE DAN IFRS ADOPTION DI INDONESIA: INVESTIGASI PADA PERUSAHAAN LQ-45 BURSA EFEK INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triandi ,

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Value relevance is being defined as the ability of information disclosed by financial statements to capture and summarize firm value. earnings per share (EPS and book value of shares (BVS and stock market price (SMP, both before and after IFRS adoption. Based on theresult,test there the valuerelevancebefore and after IFRS adoptio. The value relevance after IFRS adoption decreased. These findings differ from the findings in several countries have adopted IFRS. In many countries have adopted IFRS tends to increase the value relevance. Keyword : value relevance, earning per share, book value of equity, stock price, IFRS adoption, LQ-45

  3. The Nature of E-Learning Adoption by Stakeholders of a University in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, Eric; Boateng, Richard; Boateng, Sheena L.; Anderson, Augustus B.

    2017-01-01

    Studies looking at the nature of technology adoption from a multi-dimensional perspective have remained below expectation especially in African countries. This study, therefore, sought to explore the nature of e-learning adoption in the University of Ghana using a multi-stakeholder approach. A quantitative survey approach was adopted for this…

  4. In situ coating multiwalled carbon nanotubes with CdS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yangqiao; Gao Lian

    2005-01-01

    CdS nanoparticles were homogeneously coated on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by an in situ method through introducing thiol groups onto the tube wall using a novel method. A cationic polyelectrolyte containing reactive imine groups, polyethyleneimine (PEI), was firstly adsorbed on the surface of nanotubes. 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) was then anchored by an amidation reaction between its carboxyl group and the imine group of the polyelectrolyte under the activation of carbodiimide reagents. These -SH terminated MWCNTs were coated with CdS nanoparticles by an in situ method. The phase composition, microstructure, and the UV-vis properties of the CdS coated MWCNTs were characterized. The addition of the carbodiimide reagents played an important role in linking the MPA with PEI covalently and subsequently coating the MWCNTs with CdS homogeneously. A blue shift in the absorption edge was observed for the MWCNTs-CdS hybrid material due to the quantum size effect

  5. Nanoniobia modification of CdS photoanode for an efficient and stable photoelectrochemical cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Alka; Paik, Pradip; Borse, Pramod H

    2014-12-30

    Herein we report the surface modification of a CdS film by niobia nanoparticles via thioglycerol as an organic linker and thus fabricate an efficient and a stable photoanode for a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell. We have synthesized three differenly sized (∼3, ∼6 ,and ∼9 nm) niobia nanoparticles by a hydrothermal synthesis approach and have further investigated the particle-size-dependent PEC performance of the nanoparticle-modified CdS photoanode. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirm the formation of Nb2O5 nanoparticles that are prepared via decomposition of the niobium peroxo complex during the hydrothermal reaction and reveal the presence of surface OH(-) groups over niobia nanoparticles that impart a high catalytic property to a material. The nano-Nb2O5-modified photoanode displayed a 23-fold higher power conversion efficiency compared to that of CdS. This modified structure increases the open circuit voltage (OCV) from 0.65 to 0.77 V, which is attributed to the nano-Nb2O5-induced surface passivation effect over bare CdS. Linking of nanoparticles on the CdS surface improves the photocorrosion stability of the CdS photoanode for even longer than 4 h in contrast to the tens of minutes for the base CdS surface. The uniform coverage of the CdS photoanode surface by niobia nanoparticles is thus found to be the controlling parameter for achieving a higher PEC performance and stability of the photoanode. This finding directed us to design an improved CdS photoanode for efficient and prolonged PEC hydrogen generation from a PEC cell.

  6. Case Studies of E-commerce Adoption in Indonesian SMEs: The Evaluation of Strategic Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kartiwi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of e-commerce in small medium-sized enterprises (SMEs has become an important topic in information systems research. At present, there is a large number of well-documented benefits derived from e-commerce for small-medium enterprises (SMEs both in theoretical and practical literature. Despite the enormous attention given to encourage SMEs to adopt e-commerce both by academics as well as governments, little research has been carried out in identifying strategies of e-commerce adoption for SMEs in developing countries, especially Indonesia. It is, therefore, the aim of this paper to understand the factors and combinations of factors that SMEs need to be considered before embracing e-commerce into their business by providing a closer look at actual experience of Indonesian SMEs. Case study research was carried out to analyse and explain the underlying factors that are likely to determine the varying extent of e-commerce adoption in SMEs, especially the service sector. The findings of the case studies have further extended into the development of proposed practical framework to illustrate how e-commerce adoption should be carried out from a strategic perspective.

  7. Mutation of a vitelline membrane protein, BmEP80, is responsible for the silkworm "Ming" lethal egg mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anli; Gao, Peng; Zhao, Qiaoling; Tang, Shunming; Shen, Xingjia; Zhang, Guozheng; Qiu, Zhiyong; Xia, Dingguo; Huang, Yongping; Xu, Yunmin; He, Ningjia

    2013-02-25

    The egg stage is an important stage in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) life cycle. Normal silkworm eggs are usually short, elliptical, and laterally flattened, with a sometimes hollowed surface on the lateral side. However, the eggs laid by homozygous recessive "Ming" lethal egg mutants (l-e(m)) lose water and become concaved around 1h, ultimately exhibiting a triangular shape on the egg surfaces. We performed positional cloning, and narrowed down the region containing the gene responsible for the l-e(m) mutant to 360 kb on chromosome 10 using 2287 F(2) individuals. Using expression analysis and RNA interference, the best l-e(m) candidate gene was shown to be BmEP80. The results of the inverse polymerase chain reaction showed that an ~1.9 kb region from the 3' untranslated region of BmVMP23 to the forepart of BmEP80 was replaced by a >100 kb DNA fragment in the l-e(m) mutant. Several eggs laid by the normal moths injected with BmEP80 small interfering RNAs were evidently depressed and exhibited a triangular shape on the surface. The phenotype exhibited was consistent with the eggs laid by the l-e(m) mutant. Moreover, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that the BmEP80 protein was expressed in the ovary from the 9th day of the pupa stage to eclosion in the wild-type silkworm, but was absent in the l-e(m) mutant. These results indicate that BmEP80 is responsible for the l-e(m) mutation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. W- and Z-boson production at ep colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, U.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of W and Z production in high energy ep collisions are briefly summarized. The processes ep→eW ± X, ep→νW - X, ep→eZX and ep→νZX are investigated. The region of small momentum transfer in eW and eZ production, with a fermion exchanged in the u-channel, is treated using the photon structure function approach, and carefully matched to the deep inelastic region. Low momentum photon exchange contributions to νW and eZ production, are calculated using form factors and structure functions fitted directly to experimental data. (author) 9 refs.; 1 tab

  9. An Investigation of Benefits Affecting SOA Adoption in e-Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Basias, Nikolaos; Marinos, Themistocleous; Morabito, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Banking is a leading industry in the development of e-business and e-banking grows rapidly due to the numerous potential benefits associated with it. E-banking brings up unique types of challenges and requires innovative integration solutions as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Integration is one of the most important challenges for e-banking success and many issues related to this area remain unexplored. In addressing integration issues, SOA has emerged and adopted by many banks. Neverth...

  10. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I.; Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl 2 , KOH, NH 4 NO 3 and CS(NH 2 ) 2 as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  11. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I., E-mail: aoliva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl{sub 2}, KOH, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} and CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  12. Prostaglandin receptor EP3 regulates cell proliferation and migration with impact on survival of endometrial cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junyan; Trillsch, Fabian; Mayr, Doris; Kuhn, Christina; Rahmeh, Martina; Hofmann, Simone; Vogel, Marianne; Mahner, Sven; Jeschke, Udo; von Schönfeldt, Viktoria

    2018-01-02

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor 3 (EP3) regulates tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in numerous cancers. The role of EP3 as a prognostic biomarker in endometrial cancer remains unclear. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic significance of EP3 expression in endometrial cancer. We analyzed the EP3 expression of 140 endometrial carcinoma patients by immunohistochemistry. RL95-2 endometrial cancer cell line was chosen from four endometrial cancer cell lines (RL95-2, Ishikawa, HEC-1-A, and HEC-1-B) according to EP3 expression level. Treated with PGE2 and EP3 antagonist, RL95-2 cells were investigated by MTT, BrdU, and wound healing assay for functional assessment of EP3. EP3 staining differed significantly according to WHO tumor grading in both whole cohort (p = 0.01) and the subgroup of endometrioid carcinoma (p = 0.01). Patients with high EP3 expression in their respective tumors had impaired progression-free survival as well as overall survival in both cohorts above. EP3 expression in the overall cohort was identified as an independent prognostic marker for progression-free survival (HR 1.014, 95%CI 1.003-1.024, p = 0.01) when adjusted for age, stage, grading, and recurrence. Treatment with EP3 antagonists induced upregulation of estrogen receptor β and decreased activity of Ras and led to attenuated proliferation and migration of RL95-2 cells. EP3 seems to play a crucial role in endometrial cancer progression. In the context of limited systemic treatment options for endometrial cancer, this explorative analysis identifies EP3 as a potential target for diagnostic workup and therapy.

  13. New session of “CERN Document Server (CDS), Inspire and Library Services”

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training

    2013-01-01

    The training course is given by members of CERN’s CDS Team (IT-CIS group) and the Library Services (GIS SIS group) and is intended for all CERN members of personnel.   This course will present CDS, inspirehep.net, and the content, scope and scientific information available in or with CDS, as well as the classification and organisation of the documents. It is intended to give you the training to use CDS efficiently and, in particular, covers:
 the main characteristics and advanced features for the search of documents (scientific, multimedia, etc)
, the collaborative tools: baskets, alerts, comments, evaluation, etc.
 the submission of documents in CDS and examples of workflows.   An important part of the training will be the various exercises, designed to give participants the ability to work with CDS in real life cases, including with the most advanced features. Don’t wait! Sign up for the training course directly through the CERN Training Catal...

  14. Mesoporous structured MIPs@CDs fluorescence sensor for highly sensitive detection of TNT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shoufang; Lu, Hongzhi

    2016-11-15

    A facile strategy was developed to prepare mesoporous structured molecularly imprinted polymers capped carbon dots (M-MIPs@CDs) fluorescence sensor for highly sensitive and selective determination of TNT. The strategy using amino-CDs directly as "functional monomer" for imprinting simplify the imprinting process and provide well recognition sites accessibility. The as-prepared M-MIPs@CDs sensor, using periodic mesoporous silica as imprinting matrix, and amino-CDs directly as "functional monomer", exhibited excellent selectivity and sensitivity toward TNT with detection limit of 17nM. The recycling process was sustainable for 10 times without obvious efficiency decrease. The feasibility of the developed method in real samples was successfully evaluated through the analysis of TNT in soil and water samples with satisfactory recoveries of 88.6-95.7%. The method proposed in this work was proved to be a convenient and practical way to prepare high sensitive and selective fluorescence MIPs@CDs sensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Mn diffusion-doped CdS thin films prepared by vacuum evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksu, S. [SoloPower, Inc., 5981 Optical Ct., San Jose, CA 95138 (United States); Bacaksiz, E., E-mail: eminb@ktu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Parlak, M. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Yilmaz, S.; Polat, I.; Altunbas, M. [Department of Physics, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Tuerksoy, M.; Topkaya, R. [Department of Physics, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, K. [Department of Physics, Yildiz Technical University, 34210 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-10-17

    percent. Band gap energy of the undoped sample decreased from 2.42 to 2.36 eV upon Mn diffusion at 400 deg. C. The magnetization of films as a function of magnetic field and temperature were measured. Clear ferromagnetic loops were observed for the Mn diffusion-doped CdS films prepared by annealing above 350 deg. C.

  16. Intensity modulation of cutaneous electrical stimulation: : EPs and subjective ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, E.M.; Buitenweg, Jan R.; Marani, Enrico; Rutten, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Chronic pain research is increasingly focused on the neuroplastic mechanisms underlying subjective pain experience. The latter is often measured using reported pain intensity, e.g. using a numeric rating scale (NRS). Evoked Potentials (EPs) reflect the cortical representation of applied stimuli and

  17. Investigating and learning lessons from early experiences of implementing ePrescribing systems into NHS hospitals: a questionnaire study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Cresswell

    Full Text Available ePrescribing systems have significant potential to improve the safety and efficiency of healthcare, but they need to be carefully selected and implemented to maximise benefits. Implementations in English hospitals are in the early stages and there is a lack of standards guiding the procurement, functional specifications, and expected benefits. We sought to provide an updated overview of the current picture in relation to implementation of ePrescribing systems, explore existing strategies, and identify early lessons learned.A descriptive questionnaire-based study, which included closed and free text questions and involved both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data generated.We obtained responses from 85 of 108 NHS staff (78.7% response rate. At least 6% (n = 10 of the 168 English NHS Trusts have already implemented ePrescribing systems, 2% (n = 4 have no plans of implementing, and 34% (n = 55 are planning to implement with intended rapid implementation timelines driven by high expectations surrounding improved safety and efficiency of care. The majority are unclear as to which system to choose, but integration with existing systems and sophisticated decision support functionality are important decisive factors. Participants highlighted the need for increased guidance in relation to implementation strategy, system choice and standards, as well as the need for top-level management support to adequately resource the project. Although some early benefits were reported by hospitals that had already implemented, the hoped for benefits relating to improved efficiency and cost-savings remain elusive due to a lack of system maturity.Whilst few have begun implementation, there is considerable interest in ePrescribing systems with ambitious timelines amongst those hospitals that are planning implementations. In order to ensure maximum chances of realising benefits, there is a need for increased guidance in relation to implementation strategy

  18. Single-Source Molecular Precursor for Synthesis of CdS Nanoparticles and Nanoflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Sobhani, Azam

    2012-04-01

    CdS Semiconductor nanostructures were synthesized by using two different methods. Using triphenylphosphine (C18H15P) and oleylamine (C18H37N) as surfactant, CdS semiconductor nanocrystals with a size ranging from 30 to 90 nm can be synthesized by thermal decomposition of precursor [bis(thiosemicarbazide)cadmium(II)]. CdS nanoflowers were synthesized via hydrothermal decomposition of [bis(thiosemicarbazide) cadmium(II)] without any surfactant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirm that the resulting samples were a pure hexagonal phase of CdS. The optical property test indicates that the absorption peak of the samples shifts towards short wavelength, and the blue shift phenomenon might be ascribed to the quantum effect.

  19. Fullerene (C{sub 60})/CdS nanocomposite with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Hu, Zhuofeng, E-mail: st04hzhf@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, Qian; Li, Boyuan [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Shen, Zhurui, E-mail: shenzhurui@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • C{sub 60}/CdS nanocomposite has been fabricated as a novel visible-light-driven photocatalyst. • It exhibits enhanced photocatalytic activity and photostability than that of pure CdS reference. • The C{sub 60} improved the charge separation and transfer of nanocomposite due to its high electron affinity. - Abstract: Herein, the fullerene (C{sub 60})/CdS nanocomposite has been fabricated by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. Its photocatatlytic hydrogen (H{sub 2}) evolution rate and degradation efficiency of Rhodamine B (Rh B) are evaluated under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm). The content of C{sub 60} has been changed from 0.4 wt% to 8 wt%, and the optimal value for photocatalytic activity is determined to be 0.4 wt%. The H{sub 2} evolution rate over this optimal sample reaches 1.73 mmol h{sup −1} g{sup −1} and its apparent degradation rate of Rh B is 0.089 min{sup −1} (degradation efficiency of 97% within 40 min), which is 2.3 times and 1.5 times compared to that of pure CdS reference. Moreover, the photocorrosion of CdS in composite is effectively suppressed, and its photocatalytic activity can be well maintained after three recycles (97.8% retaining for composite vs. 84.4% retaining for CdS). Then, the enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability of C{sub 60}/CdS nanocomposite are further studied by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. Results show that the C{sub 60} species covering on the surface of CdS can efficiently accelerate the separation and transfer of photoexcited charge carriers, which can improve its activity, and reduce the photocorrosion of CdS.

  20. Simulation of sovereign CDS market based on interaction between market participant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bonggyun; Kim, Kyungwon

    2017-08-01

    A research for distributional property of financial asset is the subject of intense interest not only for financial theory but also for practitioner. Such respect is no exception to CDS market. The CDS market, which began to receive attention since the global financial debacle, is not well researched despite of the importance of research necessity. This research introduces creation of CDS market and use Ising system utilizing occurrence characteristics (to shift risk) as an important factor. Therefore the results of this paper would be of great assistance to both financial theory and practice. From this study, not only distributional property of the CDS market but also various statistics like multifractal characteristics could promote understanding about the market. A salient point in this study is that countries are mainly clustering into 2 groups and it might be because of market situation and geographical characteristics of each country. This paper suggested 2 simulation parameters representing this market based on understanding such CDS market situation. The estimated parameters are suitable for high and low risk event of CDS market respectively and these two parameters are complementary and can cover not only basic statistics but also multifractal properties of most countries. Therefore these estimated parameters can be used in researches preparing for a certain event (high or low risk). Finally this research will serve as a momentum double-checking indirectly the performance of Ising system based on these results.

  1. The effect of different pH modifier on formation of CdS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xiaoxiao; Zhao Gaoling; Li Hong; Wu Wei; Han Gaorong

    2008-01-01

    CdS nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method. The effects of pH modifier on the properties of CdS particles were studied. NaOH and NH 4 OH were chosen as the pH modifier. The morphology and optical properties of CdS particles were characterized by transmitted electron microscope (TEM) and optical absorption spectra analysis, respectively. The particle size of the samples whose pH modifier is NaOH was smaller than that of the CdS samples with NH 4 OH at the same pH value. Optical absorption edge of CdS shifted to longer wavelength with increasing pH value. Optical absorption edge of the samples with NH 4 OH as pH modifier shifted to the longer wavelength more significantly than that of those samples with NaOH as pH modifier. When CdS particles were adsorbed to the TiO 2 electrodes, the photoelectrochemical property of CdS-sensitized TiO 2 electrode showed that the samples with NH 4 OH as pH modifier had higher photocurrent than those samples with NaOH

  2. Dissemination of Evidence-Based Antipsychotic Prescribing Guidelines to Nursing Homes: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjia, Jennifer; Field, Terry; Mazor, Kathleen; Lemay, Celeste A; Kanaan, Abir O; Donovan, Jennifer L; Briesacher, Becky A; Peterson, Daniel; Pandolfi, Michelle; Spenard, Ann; Gurwitz, Jerry H

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of efforts to translate and disseminate evidence-based guidelines about atypical antipsychotic use to nursing homes (NHs). Three-arm, cluster randomized trial. NHs. NHs in the state of Connecticut. Evidence-based guidelines for atypical antipsychotic prescribing were translated into a toolkit targeting NH stakeholders, and 42 NHs were recruited and randomized to one of three toolkit dissemination strategies: mailed toolkit delivery (minimal intensity); mailed toolkit delivery with quarterly audit and feedback reports about facility-level antipsychotic prescribing (moderate intensity); and in-person toolkit delivery with academic detailing, on-site behavioral management training, and quarterly audit and feedback reports (high intensity). Outcomes were evaluated using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Toolkit awareness of 30% (7/23) of leadership of low-intensity NHs, 54% (19/35) of moderate-intensity NHs, and 82% (18/22) of high-intensity NHs reflected adoption and implementation of the intervention. Highest levels of use and knowledge among direct care staff were reported in high-intensity NHs. Antipsychotic prescribing levels declined during the study period, but there were no statistically significant differences between study arms or from secular trends. RE-AIM indicators suggest some success in disseminating the toolkit and differences in reach, adoption, and implementation according to dissemination strategy but no measurable effect on antipsychotic prescribing trends. Further dissemination to external stakeholders such as psychiatry consultants and hospitals may be needed to influence antipsychotic prescribing for NH residents. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Prostaglandin E1 and Its Analog Misoprostol Inhibit Human CML Stem Cell Self-Renewal via EP4 Receptor Activation and Repression of AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengyin; He, Bing; Ma, Xiaoke; Yu, Shuyang; Bhave, Rupali R; Lentz, Steven R; Tan, Kai; Guzman, Monica L; Zhao, Chen; Xue, Hai-Hui

    2017-09-07

    Effective treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) largely depends on the eradication of CML leukemic stem cells (LSCs). We recently showed that CML LSCs depend on Tcf1 and Lef1 factors for self-renewal. Using a connectivity map, we identified prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) as a small molecule that partly elicited the gene expression changes in LSCs caused by Tcf1/Lef1 deficiency. Although it has little impact on normal hematopoiesis, we found that PGE1 treatment impaired the persistence and activity of LSCs in a pre-clinical murine CML model and a xenograft model of transplanted CML patient CD34 + stem/progenitor cells. Mechanistically, PGE1 acted on the EP4 receptor and repressed Fosb and Fos AP-1 factors in a β-catenin-independent manner. Misoprostol, an FDA-approved EP4 agonist, conferred similar protection against CML. These findings suggest that activation of this PGE1-EP4 pathway specifically targets CML LSCs and that the combination of PGE1/misoprostol with conventional tyrosine-kinase inhibitors could provide effective therapy for CML. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains of municipal wastewater sludge: isolation, molecular identification, EPS characterization and performance for sludge settling and dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala Subramanian, S; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plants often face the problems of sludge settling mainly due to sludge bulking. Generally, synthetic organic polymer and/or inorganic coagulants (ferric chloride, alum and quick lime) are used for sludge settling. These chemicals are very expensive and further pollute the environment. Whereas, the bioflocculants are environment friendly and may be used to flocculate the sludge. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by sludge microorganisms play a definite role in sludge flocculation. In this study, 25 EPS producing strains were isolated from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Microorganisms were selected based on EPS production properties on solid agar medium. Three types of EPS (slime, capsular and bacterial broth mixture of both slime and capsular) were harvested and their characteristics were studied. EPS concentration (dry weight), viscosity and their charge (using a Zetaphoremeter) were also measured. Bioflocculability of obtained EPS was evaluated by measuring the kaolin clay flocculation activity. Six bacterial strains (BS2, BS8, BS9, BS11, BS15 and BS25) were selected based on the kaolin clay flocculation. The slime EPS was better for bioflocculation than capsular EPS and bacterial broth. Therefore, extracted slime EPS (partially purified) from six bacterial strains was studied in terms of sludge settling [sludge volume index (SVI)] and dewatering [capillary suction time (CST)]. Biopolymers produced by individual strains substantially improved dewaterability. The extracted slime EPS from six different strains were partially characterized. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of chlorine doping on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of spray deposited CdS thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sivaraman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available CdS and chlorine doped CdS (CdS:Cl thin films with different Cl-doping levels (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 at% have been deposited on glass substrates by a spray pyrolysis technique using a perfume atomizer. The effect of Cl doping on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films was investigated. XRD patterns revealed that all the films exhibit hexagonal crystal structure with a preferential orientation along the (0 0 2 plane irrespective of the Cl doping level. The particle size value decreases from 22.03 nm to 18.12 nm with increase in Cl concentration. Optical band gap is blue-shifted from 2.48 eV to 2.73 eV with increase in Cl doping concentration. All the films have resistivity in the order of 104 Ω cm. The obtained results confirm that chlorine as an anionic dopant material can enhance the physical properties of CdS thin films to a large extent.

  6. Understanding E-Learning Adoption in Brazil: Major Determinants and Gender Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Okazaki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine factors influencing e-learning adoption and the moderating role of gender. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM by adding attitude and social interaction. The new construct of social interaction is applied to the South American context. Gender effects on e-learning adoption from educators’ perspectives have seldom been explored. The data collection takes place in three major Brazilian universities. In total, 446 faculty members responded to the questionnaire. Our structural equation modeling reveals that ease of use and perceived usefulness are significant antecedents of attitude, which in turn affects intention. However, unlike the original TAM, perceived usefulness is not a direct driver of intention. In terms of moderation, gender affects three relationships: (1 ease of use –› perceived usefulness; (2 perceived usefulness –› attitude, and (3 intention –› actual behavior. The analysis is carried out in a single country; thus, caution should be taken in generalization of the results. The findings will help academics, educators, and policy makers to better understand the mechanism of e-learning adoption in Brazil.

  7. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of comb-like CdS nanobelt/ZnO nanorod heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Changyong; Gong Jiangfeng; Liu Chunming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Comb-like CdS nanobelt/ZnO nanorod heterostructures were synthesized. ► ZnO nanorods epitaxially grew on the (1 0 0) surface of the CdS nanobelts along [1 0 0]. ► A preliminary growth mechanism was proposed. - Abstract: Comb-like CdS nanobelt/ZnO nanorod heterostructures were synthesized by a two-stage method. X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize and analyze the as-synthesized products. The results demonstrate that the CdS nanobelt backbones grow along [2 1 0] and the ZnO nanorod branches epitaxially grow on the (0 0 1) surface of the CdS nanobelt with a growth direction of [0 0 1]. The as-prepared heterostructures exhibit an important feature of single-crystallinity. At room temperature, the comb-like CdS nanobelt/ZnO nanorod heterostructures show strong green emission.

  8. Influence of Marketing on Consumer's Adoption of E-Banking

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Ganimete Podvorica; Dr.Sc. Nail Reshidi

    2014-01-01

    The financial system plays an extraordinary role in developing and enriching the domestic economy. E-banking service as an innovative software product and service for customers was introduced few years ago in the country from variety of national and international banks: ProCredit Bank, Raiffeissen Bank, Teb Bank, NLB Bank etc., enabling consumers to have access to their bank accounts over the internet. Since internet usage grows rapidly in the country even adoption of e-banking is expected to...

  9. Perceived Compatibility and the Adoption of B2C E-Commerce by Non-buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-García, Ángel; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago; Chaparro-Peláez, Julián; Pascual-Miguel, Félix

    The purpose of this article is to study the factors which affect the intention to buy online for users who have never made any prior purchase using the electronic channel, with special focus to the role of perceived compatibility. To do so, an adoption model for e-commerce was proposed on the basis of the Technology Adoption Model (TAM) and the Innovations Diffusion Theory (IDT). In order to validate the model, data gathered amongst Spanish consumers who had no experience using e-commerce, were analyzed using the partial least squares (PLS) method. The results have demonstrated the importance of perceived compatibility as a significant factor to foster non-buyers' adoption of electronic business-to-consumer e-commerce (eB2C).

  10. Co+ -ion implantation induced doping of nanocrystalline CdS thin films: structural, optical, and vibrational properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandramohan, S.; Sarangi, S.N.; Majumder, S.; Som, T.; Kanjilal, A.; Sathyamoorthy, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Transition metal (Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) doped CdS nanostructures and nanocrystalline thin films have attracted much attention due to their anticipated applications in magneto-optical, non-volatile memory and future spintronics devices. Introduction of impurities in substitutional positions is highly desirable for such applications. Ion implantation is known to provide many advantages over conventional methods for efficient doping and possibility of its seamless integration with device processing steps. It is not governed by equilibrium thermodynamics and offers the advantages of high spatial selectivity and to overcome the solubility limits. In this communication, we report on modifications of structural morphological, optical, and vibrational properties of 90 keV Co + -ion implanted CdS thin films grown by thermal evaporation. Co + -ion implantation was performed in the fluence range of 0.1-3.6x10 16 ions cm -2 These fluences correspond to Co concentration in the range of 0.34-10.8 at % at the peak position of profile. Implantation was done at an elevated temperature of 573 K in order to avoid amorphization and to enhance the solubility of Co ions in the CdS lattice. Films were characterized by glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical absorption, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Implantation does not lead to any secondary phase formation either in the form of impurity or the metallic clusters. However, implantation improves the crystalline quality of the samples and leads to supersaturation of Co ions in the CdS lattice. Thus, nanocrystalline CdS thin films can be considered as a good radiation- resistant material, which can be employed for prolonged use in solar cells for space applications. The optical band gap is found to decrease systematically with increasing ion fluence from 2.39 to 2.28 eV. Implantation leads to agglomeration of grains and a systematic increase in the surface roughness. Both GAXRD and micro

  11. Building America's Low-e Storm Window Adoption Program Plan (FY2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-23

    Low emissivity (low-e) storm windows/panels appear to hold promise for effectively reducing existing home heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) consumption. Due to the affordability of low-e storm windows and the large numbers of existing homes that have low-performing single-pane or double-pane clear windows, a tremendous opportunity exists to provide energy savings by transforming the low-e storm window market and increasing market adoption. This report outlines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America’s planned market transformation activities in support of low-e storm window adoption during fiscal year (FY) 2014.

  12. A study on the effect of different factors on e-Commerce adoption among SMEs of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Mahroeian

    2012-01-01

    The Internet's World Wide Web has become the prime driver of modern E-commerce that can be an important source of competitive advantage for most business organizations, especially small and medium sized (SMEs) businesses. In recent years, researchers have focused on e-commerce adoption both in the United States and other countries. This study examines the factors influencing e-commerce adoption among Malaysian SMEs. There are only a few studies which have examined the adoption of e-commerce a...

  13. Uncomplicated E Coli Urinary Tract Infection in College Women: A Follow-Up Study of E Coli Sensitivities to Commonly Prescribed Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansbach, Robert K.; Dybus, Karen; Bergeson, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) has changed in the past few years with researchers advocating empiric treatment for shorter periods of time without the use of cultures. Researchers report that antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli (E coli) to commonly prescribed antibiotics in uncomplicated UTIs has been increasing.…

  14. The prostaglandin EP1 receptor potentiates kainate receptor activation via a protein kinase C pathway and exacerbates status epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Asheebo; Gueorguieva, Paoula; Lelutiu, Nadia; Quan, Yi; Shaw, Renee; Dingledine, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) regulates membrane excitability, synaptic transmission, plasticity, and neuronal survival. The consequences of PGE2 release following seizures has been the subject of much study. Here we demonstrate that the prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1, or Ptger1) modulates native kainate receptors, a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. Global ablation of the EP1 gene in mice (EP1-KO) had no effect on seizure threshold after kainate injection but reduced the likelihood to enter status epilepticus. EP1-KO mice that did experience typical status epilepticus had reduced hippocampal neurodegeneration and a blunted inflammatory response. Further studies with native prostanoid and kainate receptors in cultured cortical neurons, as well as with recombinant prostanoid and kainate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, demonstrated that EP1 receptor activation potentiates heteromeric but not homomeric kainate receptors via a second messenger cascade involving phospholipase C, calcium and protein kinase C. Three critical GluK5 C-terminal serines underlie the potentiation of the GluK2/GluK5 receptor by EP1 activation. Taken together, these results indicate that EP1 receptor activation during seizures, through a protein kinase C pathway, increases the probability of kainic acid induced status epilepticus, and independently promotes hippocampal neurodegeneration and a broad inflammatory response. PMID:24952362

  15. Optimal Financing with CDS Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matta, R.

    2013-01-01

    One could argue that CDSs improve risk sharing, hence credit supply and financing terms for firms. Accordingly, one would expect risky borrowers to benefit the most from CDS insurance. This is in contrast, however, with recent empirical evidence (Ashcraft and Santos (2009) and Hirtle (2009)). This

  16. Improving the optical and crystalline properties on CdS thin films growth on small and large area by using CBD technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albor A, M. L.; Flores M, J. M.; Hernandez V, C.; Contreras P, G.; Mejia G, C.; Rueda M, G. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Fisica, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Gonzalez T, M. A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Computo, Departamento de Formacion Basica, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-11-01

    CdS polycrystalline thin films have been used as window layer in solar cells; the optical and crystalline quality of the CdS-partner plays and important role in the photovoltaic device performance. CdS thin films were deposited by using Chemical Bath Deposition. The SnO{sub 2}:F substrates used were chemically treated with HCl (0.1 M) and others were thermally annealed in different atmospheres (Ar and O{sub 2}). The physical properties of CdS thin films were influenced by the HCl treatment, position, size and the substrates movement inside the reaction beaker. The CdS samples were deposited in areas of 4 cm{sup 2}, 50 cm{sup 2} and 100 cm{sup 2}. Finally CdS thin films with thickness of 35-300 nm with good optical and crystalline quality on a uniform morphology were obtained. Transmittance values were obtained for all samples about 85-90 % with an average of gap energy of 2.5 eV. The structural characteristics of the samples were determined by the X-ray diffraction patterns, by means of a D-500 Siemens X-ray system. (Author)

  17. Older people's adoption of e-learning services: a qualitative study of facilitators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue; He, Yiqin; Kohlbacher, Florian

    2018-05-14

    This research investigates the facilitators and barriers for older people to adopt e-learning services using qualitative data of older people in a Chinese city. A qualitative approach was applied to explore the perceived facilitators and obstacles toward e-learning adoption with 10 older Chinese aged over 50. The results indicate the following: (1a) Age-related changes and cohort effects were found to be the internal barriers for the adoption of e-learning. (1b) Equipment problems, lack of time, and the availability of alternatives were found to have negative effects on the acceptance of e-learning services. It is notable that alternatives including the University of the Third Age (U3A) were found to be more attractive for older Chinese. (2a) Work requirements and flexibility of e-learning services were found to have direct effects on the acceptance of services. (2b) User-friendly design and stimulation from family would facilitate older people to adopt. Practical implications of this research include that policymakers should consider investing more in education in later life and introducing e-learning services in public lectures and tutorials and that the age-related barrier should be taken into consideration in the design phase of e-learning services. U3As should consider integrating e-learning approaches and cooperating with the community.

  18. A study on the effect of different factors on e-Commerce adoption among SMEs of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Mahroeian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet's World Wide Web has become the prime driver of modern E-commerce that can be an important source of competitive advantage for most business organizations, especially small and medium sized (SMEs businesses. In recent years, researchers have focused on e-commerce adoption both in the United States and other countries. This study examines the factors influencing e-commerce adoption among Malaysian SMEs. There are only a few studies which have examined the adoption of e-commerce among SMEs, its development, challenges, and future prospects. The results show that the major reason behind e-commerce non-adoption is that the organization is not ready to make that change because of external pressure and cultural reasons. Furthermore, organizational readiness strongly influences e-commerce implementation, and managerial support and financial, logistical, and technological factors weigh heavily in determining if an SME in Malaysia can pursue e-commerce implementation. The study is based on 100 samples taken from Cyberjaya. 100 sets of administrated questionnaires were sent and conducted. The data analysis shows e-commerce adoption was significantly influenced by its organizational readiness, perceived ease of use, and also perceived usefulness factors.

  19. Development of a Higher Fidelity Model for the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to the ACM model of the CDS, enabling accurate predictions of dynamic operations with fewer assumptions. The model has been utilized to predict how CDS performance would be impacted by changing operating parameters, revealing performance trade-offs and possibilities for improvement. CDS efficiency is driven by the THP coefficient of performance, which in turn is dependent on heat transfer within the system. Based on the remaining limitations of the simulation, priorities for further model development include: center dot Relaxing the assumption of total condensation center dot Incorporating dynamic simulation capability for the buildup of dissolved inert gasses in condensers center dot Examining CDS operation with more complex feeds center dot Extending heat transfer analysis to all surfaces

  20. Adoptive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ADOPTION OF E-BANKING IN ROMANIA: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosu Anca Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available E-banking, or banking via the Internet, is revolutionising the business, having multiple benefits both for the financial institutions and for clients. E-bankers offer better customer service, creating opportunities for customers and providing added value. They treat customers as individuals, making masss customisation possible and creating customer loyalty. E-banking is an opportunity for banks to leverage their strenghts and create a totally new banking experience. The present paper investigates and analyses the adoption and evolution of electronic banking in Romania, and the appropriate strategies for development of online banking services in the Romanian context.

  2. Magnetodielectric effect in CdS nanosheets grown within Na-4 mica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Amrita; Mitra, Sreemanta; Datta, Anindya; Banerjee, Sourish; Chakravorty, Dipankar

    2012-04-01

    CdS nanosheets of thickness 0.6 nm were grown within the interlayer spaces of Na-4 mica. Magnetization measurements carried out in the temperature range 2-300 K showed the composites to have weak ferromagnetic-like properties even at room temperature. The saturation magnetization (MS) at room temperature was found to be higher than that reported for CdS nanoparticles. The higher value of MS may be ascribed to the presence of a large number defects in the present CdS system, due to a large surface to volume ratio in the nanosheets as compared to that of CdS nanoparticles. The nanocomposites exhibited a magnetodielectric effect with a dielectric constant change of 5.3% for a magnetic field of 0.5 T. This occurred due to a combination of magnetoresistance and Maxwell-Wagner effect as delineated in the model developed by Catalan.

  3. E-travel Adoption by Small Travel Enterprises (STEs: An Initial Study in Indonesia and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Pujani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate e-travel adoption of tourism industries in Indonesia and Malaysia particularly by STEs. The qualitative research was undertaken using case analysis from in-depth interviews of 10-STEs as intial study both in Indonesia and Malaysia. The finding result of e-travel adoption by STEs in a cross-cultural study was identified from the findings present in the initial study based on personal, organizational and website characteristics. The majority of personal characteristics were relatively similar in both countries. However, few differences are present in organizational and website characteristics. E-travel adoption in both countries is influenced by the business experiences of owners/managers, various technological aspects, and the nature of use and benefits. The following study, the user-based survey would be undertaken to complete The e-travel adoption model in Indonesia and Malaysia.

  4. Optical sensor based on a single CdS nanobelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Yang, Shuming; Han, Feng; Wang, Liangjun; Zhang, Xiaotong; Jiang, Zhuangde; Pan, Anlian

    2014-04-23

    In this paper, an optical sensor based on a cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanobelt has been developed. The CdS nanobelt was synthesized by the vapor phase transportation (VPT) method. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results revealed that the nanobelt had a hexagonal wurtzite structure of CdS and presented good crystal quality. A single nanobelt Schottky contact optical sensor was fabricated by the electron beam lithography (EBL) technique, and the device current-voltage results showed back-to-back Schottky diode characteristics. The photosensitivity, dark current and the decay time of the sensor were 4 × 10⁴, 31 ms and 0.2 pA, respectively. The high photosensitivity and the short decay time were because of the exponential dependence of photocurrent on the number of the surface charges and the configuration of the back to back Schottky junctions.

  5. Cellulose acetate fibers covered by CdS nanoparticles for hybrid solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina, Hugo; Martinez-Alonso, Claudia [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Priv. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico); Castillo-Ortega, Monica [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Hu, Hailin, E-mail: hzh@cie.unam.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Priv. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico)

    2012-09-20

    In this work cellulose acetate (CA) fibers with a diameter of approximately 1 {mu}m were immersed in a cadmium sulfide (CdS) precursor solution. After 3 h the original white color CA fibers became yellow and maintained the same form, suggesting the deposition of CdS on fiber surface. SEM images showed that CA fibers were covered by uniformly sized CdS nanoparticles of approximately 100 nm. XRD and optical absorption spectra indicated that they contained mostly cubic crystalline phase with the optical band gap of 2.43 eV. CdS coated CA fibers, called CdS(CA) fibers, were dispersed in a polar dispersant (dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO) and then mixed with a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) solution in a non-polar solvent (dichlorobenzene, DCB). The mixture was cast onto a transparent conductive glass substrate (Indium-Tin-Oxide, ITO), and after solvent evaporation a thin layer of CdS(CA)-P3HT composite was formed. It is observed that the volume relation between the polar dispersant and non-polar solvent influences the solubility of the P3HT product in the composite coating and the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding cell as well. The mass ratio between CdS(CA) fibers and P3HT in the composite layer affects the optical absorption of the composite. The best photovoltaic performance was obtained in CdS(CA)-P3HT based cells with a volume relation between DCB and DMSO of 3.5-1, a mass ratio between CdS(CA) and P3HT of 1:1, and a rapid drying process for composite coatings.

  6. Compton profiles and band structure calculations of CdS and CdTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heda, N.L.; Mathur, S.; Ahuja, B.L.; Sharma, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the isotropic Compton profiles of zinc-blende CdS and CdTe measured at an intermediate resolution of 0.39 a.u. using our 20 Ci 137 Cs Compton spectrometer. The electronic band structure calculations for both the zinc-blende structure compounds and also wurtzite CdS have been undertaken using various schemes of ab-initio linear combination of atomic orbitals calculations implemented in CRYSTAL03 code. The band structure and Mulliken's populations are reported using density functional scheme. In case of wurtzite CdS, our theoretical anisotropies in directional Compton profiles are compared with available experimental data. In case of both the zinc-blende compounds, the isotropic experimental profiles are found to be in better agreement with the present Hartree-Fock calculations. A study of the equal-valence-electron-density experimental profiles of zinc-blende CdS and CdTe shows that the CdS is more ionic than CdTe. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Benefits of nurse prescribing for patients in pain: nurses' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Karen; Courtenay, Molly

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore nurses' views on the benefits of adopting the role of prescribing for patients with acute and chronic pain. It was envisioned that the advent of nurse prescribing would be beneficial to the efficiency and effectiveness of the United Kingdom National Health Service. Research to date does indeed indicate that nurse prescribing can be beneficial to patients, nurses and the health service in general. Despite the expansion of nurse prescribing, there is little evidence of its impact according to nurses working in specialist areas, such as with patients in acute and chronic pain. Interviews were conducted during 2006 and 2007 with 26 nurses qualified to prescribe medicines for patients in acute and chronic pain. This was a qualitative study and a thematic analysis was conducted. Nurses reported a number of benefits, including faster access to treatment, improved quality of care, more appropriate prescribing of medication, improved safety, improved relations and communication with patients, greater efficiency and cost effectiveness. Nurses benefited from increased job satisfaction, credibility with patients and healthcare professionals and also gained knowledge through prescribing. There is potential for the benefits of nurse prescribing to be expanded beyond the United Kingdom in settings where nurses hold similar roles in the treatment of pain, although further research using a wider range of research methods is recommended to substantiate these findings.

  8. Different populations of prostaglandin EP3 receptor-expressing preoptic neurons project to two fever-mediating sympathoexcitatory brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y; Nakamura, K; Morrison, S F

    2009-06-30

    The central mechanism of fever induction is triggered by an action of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) on neurons in the preoptic area (POA) through the EP3 subtype of prostaglandin E receptor. EP3 receptor (EP3R)-expressing POA neurons project directly to the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and to the rostral raphe pallidus nucleus (rRPa), key sites for the control of thermoregulatory effectors. Based on physiological findings, we hypothesize that the febrile responses in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and those in cutaneous vasoconstrictors are controlled independently by separate neuronal pathways: PGE(2) pyrogenic signaling is transmitted from EP3R-expressing POA neurons via a projection to the DMH to activate BAT thermogenesis and via another projection to the rRPa to increase cutaneous vasoconstriction. In this case, DMH-projecting and rRPa-projecting neurons would constitute segregated populations within the EP3R-expressing neuronal group in the POA. Here, we sought direct anatomical evidence to test this hypothesis with a double-tracing experiment in which two types of the retrograde tracer, cholera toxin b-subunit (CTb), conjugated with different fluorophores were injected into the DMH and the rRPa of rats and the resulting retrogradely labeled populations of EP3R-immunoreactive neurons in the POA were identified with confocal microscopy. We found substantial numbers of EP3R-immunoreactive neurons in both the DMH-projecting and the rRPa-projecting populations. However, very few EP3R-immunoreactive POA neurons were labeled with both the CTb from the DMH and that from the rRPa, although a substantial number of neurons that were not immunoreactive for EP3R were double-labeled with both CTbs. The paucity of the EP3R-expressing neurons that send collaterals to both the DMH and the rRPa suggests that pyrogenic signals are sent independently to these caudal brain regions from the POA and that such pyrogenic outputs from the POA reflect different control mechanisms for BAT

  9. E-commerce adoption in Malaysian Small and Medium Enterprises Practitioner Firms: A revisit on Rogers' model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHDI M. POORANGI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current climate of business necessitates competitions that are often tough and unpredictable. All organizations, regardless their size and scope of operation, are facing severe competitive challenges. In order to cope with this phenomenon, managers are turning to e-commerce in their respective organizations. The present study hinges upon exploring and explaining the different dimensions of the adoption of e-commerce among Small and medium enterprises, based on the Five Factors of Diffusion of Innovation Model derived by Rogers. In this study, however, we employed the survey methods. A questionnaire was distributed to 1,200 managers and employees in the manufacturing, service and agricultural sectors by email; with a response rate of 10%. The results gleamed from this study posits that relative advantage is influential vis-à-vis e-commerce adoption. Trialability and Observability factors affect the level of confidence of management, which in turn, influences e-commerce adoption. Meanwhile, the existing culture of a company affects the resistance of employees, which in turn negatively effects the e-commerce adoption, while complexity does not significantly influence the e-commerce adoption.

  10. Thermal and optical properties of polycrystalline CdS thin films deposited by the gradient recrystallization and growth (GREG) technique using photoacoustic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albor-Aguilera, M.L.; Gonzalez-Trujillo, M.A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Tufino-Velazquez, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report the study of the thermal and optical properties of polycrystalline CdS thin films deposited by the gradient recrystallization and growth technique. CdS films were grown on pyrex glass substrates. These studies were carried out using an open photoacoustic cell made out of an electret microphone. From X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope and photoluminescence measurements we observed polycrystalline CdS films with good morphology and crystalline quality. We obtained a thermal diffusivity coefficient of our samples with values ranging from 3.15 to 3.89 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s. For comparison, we measured a value of 1.0 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s for the thermal diffusivity coefficient of a CdS single crystal. We measured an energy gap value of 2.42 eV for our samples by using a photoacoustic spectroscopy system

  11. SU-E-T-15: A Comparison of COMS and EP917 Eye Plaque Applicators Using Different Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryal, P; Molloy, JA [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Rivard, MJ [Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of plaque design and radionuclides on eye plaque dosimetry. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-particle Code version 6 (MCNP6) was used for radiation transport simulations. The 14 mm and 16 mm diameter COMS plaques and the model EP917 plaque were simulated using brachytherapy seeds containing I-125, Pd-103, and Cs-131 radionuclides. The origin was placed at the scleral inner surface. The central axis (CAX) doses of both COMS plaques at −1 mm, 0 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, 20 mm, and 22.6 mm were compared to the model EP917 plaque. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) were also created for both COMS plaques for the tumor and outer sclera then compared to results for the model EP917 plaque. Results: For all radionuclides, the EP917 plaque delivered higher dose (max 343%) compared to the COMS plaques, except for the 14 mm COMS plaque with Cs-131 at 1 mm and 2 mm depths from outer sclera surface. This could be due to source design. For all radionuclides, the 14 mm COMS plaque delivered higher doses compared to the 16 mm COMS plaque for the depths up to 5 mm. Dose differences were not significant beyond depths of 10 mm due to ocular lateral scatter for the different plaque designs. Tumor DVHs for the 16 mm COMS plaque with Cs-131 provided better dose homogeneity and conformity compared to other COMS plaques with I-125 and Pd-103. Using Pd-103, DVHs for the 16 mm COMS plaque delivered less dose to outer sclera compared to other plaques. Conclusion: This study identified improved tumor homogeneity upon considering radionuclides and plaque designs, and found that scleral dose with the model EP917 plaque was higher than for the 16 mm COMS plaque for all the radionuclides studied.

  12. The effect of different pH modifier on formation of CdS nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoxiao, Ren [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhao Gaoling [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)], E-mail: glzhao@zju.edu.cn; Hong, Li; Wei, Wu; Gaorong, Han [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2008-10-06

    CdS nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method. The effects of pH modifier on the properties of CdS particles were studied. NaOH and NH{sub 4}OH were chosen as the pH modifier. The morphology and optical properties of CdS particles were characterized by transmitted electron microscope (TEM) and optical absorption spectra analysis, respectively. The particle size of the samples whose pH modifier is NaOH was smaller than that of the CdS samples with NH{sub 4}OH at the same pH value. Optical absorption edge of CdS shifted to longer wavelength with increasing pH value. Optical absorption edge of the samples with NH{sub 4}OH as pH modifier shifted to the longer wavelength more significantly than that of those samples with NaOH as pH modifier. When CdS particles were adsorbed to the TiO{sub 2} electrodes, the photoelectrochemical property of CdS-sensitized TiO{sub 2} electrode showed that the samples with NH{sub 4}OH as pH modifier had higher photocurrent than those samples with NaOH.

  13. Impacts of prescribed fire on soil loss and soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakesby, Richard A.; Martins Bento, Celia; Ferreira, Carla S.S.; Ferreira, António J.D.; Stoof, C.R.; Urbanek, Emilia; Walsh, Rory P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Prescribed (controlled) fire has recently been adopted as an important wildfire-fighting strategy in the Mediterranean. Relatively little research, however, has assessed its impacts on soil erosion and soil quality. This paper investigates hillslope-scale losses of soil, organic matter and

  14. Social Capital Framework in the Adoption of E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Siew Mee

    2013-01-01

    This is a study of the influence of social and cultural factors on the adoption of e-learning in higher education in Malaysia, Indonesia, Turkey, Singapore and Australia. Particular attention in each case was given to factors relating to social capital, attitudes and patterns of behavior in leadership, entrepreneurialism, and teaching and to…

  15. Stakeholder views on the impact of nurse prescribing on dermatology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicola; Stenner, Karen; Courtenay, Molly

    2010-02-01

    To explore stakeholder views on the impact of nurse prescribing on dermatology services. Nurse led care enhances the services that dermatology patients receive. Research indicates that care delivered by nurse prescribers can improve efficiency and access to medicines. There is no evidence exploring the impact of nurse prescribing on the configuration of dermatology services. Case study. A collective case study of 10 practice settings across England where nurses prescribed medicines for dermatology patients. A thematic analysis of semi-structured interview data collected during 2006 and 2007. Participants were qualified nurse prescribers, administrative staff, doctors and non-nurse prescribers. Nurse prescribing was reported to support and facilitate the modernisation of dermatology services. It enabled nurses to make effective use of their knowledge and skills, overcome delays in treatment and provide faster access to medicines. However several organisational issues restricted the success of the initiative. Nurse prescribing is successfully being used to support and deliver a range of services to dermatology patients. Stakeholders reported that both patients and staff had benefited by the adoption of this role by nurses. However issues over support and access to CPD and capacity of the workforce were identified as potential barriers which could affect the contribution of nurse prescribing to dermatology patients. Nurse prescribing contributes to the services provided to dermatology patients; Nurse supplementary prescribing contributes to the ability of dermatology nurse specialists to work in teams and prescribe complex medicines; Provision of adequate support and strategic planning are essential if the impact of nurse prescribing is to be fully realised.

  16. Nano-architecture based photoelectrochemical water oxidation efficiency enhancement by CdS photoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Alka; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Paik, Pradip; Joardar, Joydip; Borse, Pramod H.

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, 2D nanostructuring has been utilized to impart an efficiency improvement to the hexagonal phase CdS films for the photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells those were deposited by spray pyrolysis technique. By controlling the aerosol droplet- size, population and impingement time during the spray pyrolysis deposition, various nano-features viz. randomly aligned nanorods, nanotubes and nanowires of CdS has been demonstrated for the first time. A growth mechanism has been proposed to predict the temporal evolution of the nanostructures. The prominent nanoscale structures show improved optical properties in the visible range of solar spectrum. The structural studies validate the morphological differences of nanostructures in terms of the texture coefficient analysis as well as 2D micro x-ray diffraction imaging. Electrochemical characterization is carried out to understand the effect of nanostructuring on the PEC performance of the CdS photoanodes in the sulphide (0.1 M Na2S  +  0.02 M Na2SO3) electrolyte at applied bias of 0.2 V (versus SCE). The evolution of morphology from randomly aligned rods to nanowire is responsible for improved photocurrent (3.5 times). CdS film morphology can be tuned to nanotubes, nano- rose buds and nanorod bunches even by doping Zn2+ ions in CdS lattice. Nano-structuring of doped CdS has shown enhanced performance of the photoanodes. The nanotubes structures yielded highest photocurrent density of 1.6 mA cm-2. Whereas modifying the 2D-nanostructured CdS film by simple MoO3 spray coating yields the photocurrent enhancement to 2.1 mA cm-2.

  17. PGE2 maintains the tone of the guinea pig trachea through a balance between activation of contractile EP1 receptors and relaxant EP2 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säfholm, J; Dahlén, S-E; Delin, I; Maxey, K; Stark, K; Cardell, L-O; Adner, M

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The guinea pig trachea (GPT) is commonly used in airway pharmacology. The aim of this study was to define the expression and function of EP receptors for PGE2 in GPT as there has been ambiguity concerning their role. Experimental Approach Expression of mRNA for EP receptors and key enzymes in the PGE2 pathway were assessed by real-time PCR using species-specific primers. Functional studies of GPT were performed in tissue organ baths. Key Results Expression of mRNA for the four EP receptors was found in airway smooth muscle. PGE2 displayed a bell-shaped concentration–response curve, where the initial contraction was inhibited by the EP1 receptor antagonist ONO-8130 and the subsequent relaxation by the EP2 receptor antagonist PF-04418948. Neither EP3 (ONO-AE5-599) nor EP4 (ONO-AE3-208) selective receptor antagonists affected the response to PGE2. Expression of COX-2 was greater than COX-1 in GPT, and the spontaneous tone was most effectively abolished by selective COX-2 inhibitors. Furthermore, ONO-8130 and a specific PGE2 antibody eliminated the spontaneous tone, whereas the EP2 antagonist PF-04418948 increased it. Antagonists of other prostanoid receptors had no effect on basal tension. The relaxant EP2 response to PGE2 was maintained after long-term culture, whereas the contractile EP1 response showed homologous desensitization to PGE2, which was prevented by COX-inhibitors. Conclusions and Implications Endogenous PGE2, synthesized predominantly by COX-2, maintains the spontaneous tone of GPT by a balance between contractile EP1 receptors and relaxant EP2 receptors. The model may be used to study interactions between EP receptors. PMID:22934927

  18. White light emitting device based on single-phase CdS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Nie, Chao; You, Lai; Jin, Xiao; Zhang, Qin; Qin, Yuancheng; Zhao, Feng; Song, Yinglin; Chen, Zhongping; Li, Qinghua

    2018-05-01

    White light emitting diodes (WLEDs) based on quantum dots (QDs) are emerging as robust candidates for white light sources, however they are suffering from the problem of energy loss resulting from the re-absorption and self-absorption among the employed QDs of different peak wavelengths. It still remains a challenging task to construct WLEDs based on single-phase QD emitters. Here, CdS QDs with short synthesis times are introduced to the fabrication of WLEDs. With a short synthesis time, on one hand, CdS QDs with a small diameter with blue emission can be obtained. On the other hand, surface reconstruction barely has time to occur, and the surface is likely defect-ridden, which enables the existence of a broad emission covering the range of green, yellow and red regions. This is essential for the white light emission of CdS QDs, and is very important for WLED applications. The temporal evolution of the PL spectra for CdS QDs was obtained to investigate the influence of growth time on the luminescent properties. The CdS QDs with a growth time of 0.5 min exhibited a colour rendering index (CRI) of 79.5 and a correlated colour temperature (CCT) of 6238 K. With increasing reaction time, the colour coordinates of the CdS QDs will move away from the white light region in the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. By integrating the as prepared white light emission CdS QDs with a violet GaN chip, WLEDs were fabricated. The fabricated WLEDs exhibited a CRI of 87.9 and a CCT of 4619 K, which satisfy the demand of general illumination. The luminous flux and the luminous efficiency of the fabricated WLEDs, being less advanced than current commercial white light sources, can be further improved, meaning there is a need for much more in-depth studies on white light emission CdS QDs.

  19. A randomized matched-pairs study of feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of systems consultation: a novel implementation strategy for adopting clinical guidelines for Opioid prescribing in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbeck, Andrew; Brown, Randall T; Zgierska, Aleksandra E; Jacobson, Nora; Robinson, James M; Johnson, Roberta A; Deyo, Brienna M; Madden, Lynn; Tuan, Wen-Jan; Alagoz, Esra

    2018-01-25

    This paper reports on the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of an innovative implementation strategy named "systems consultation" aimed at improving adherence to clinical guidelines for opioid prescribing in primary care. While clinical guidelines for opioid prescribing have been developed, they have not been widely implemented, even as opioid abuse reaches epidemic levels. We tested a blended implementation strategy consisting of several discrete implementation strategies, including audit and feedback, academic detailing, and external facilitation. The study compares four intervention clinics to four control clinics in a randomized matched-pairs design. Each systems consultant aided clinics on implementing the guidelines during a 6-month intervention consisting of monthly site visits and teleconferences/videoconferences. The mixed-methods evaluation employs the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework. Quantitative outcomes are compared using time series analysis. Qualitative methods included focus groups, structured interviews, and ethnographic field techniques. Seven clinics were randomly approached to recruit four intervention clinics. Each clinic designated a project team consisting of six to eight staff members, each with at least one prescriber. Attendance at intervention meetings was 83%. More than 80% of staff respondents agreed or strongly agreed with the statements: "I am more familiar with guidelines for safe opioid prescribing" and "My clinic's workflow for opioid prescribing is easier." At 6 months, statistically significant improvements were noted in intervention clinics in the percentage of patients with mental health screens, treatment agreements, urine drug tests, and opioid-benzodiazepine co-prescribing. At 12 months, morphine-equivalent daily dose was significantly reduced in intervention clinics compared to controls. The cost to deliver the strategy was $7345 per clinic. Adaptations were

  20. Thermal and Optical Properties of CdS Nanoparticles in Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Monomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Alnot

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new mesogenic monomers, namely 3,3’-dimethoxy-4,4’-di(hydroxyhexoxy-N-benzylidene-o-Tolidine (Ia and 4,4’-di(6-hydroxyhexoxy-N-benzylidene-o-Tolidine (IIa, were reacted with cadmium sulfide (CdS via an in situ chemical precipitation method in ethanol to produce CdS nanocomposites. A series of different mass compositions of CdS with Ia and IIa ranging from 0.1:1.0 to 1.0:1.0 (w/w were prepared and characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Polarizing Optical Microscopy (POM and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy (PL. XRD showed that the broad peaks are ascribed to the formation of cubic CdS nanoparticles in both Ia and IIa. The average particle size for both nanocomposites was less than 5 nm with a narrower size distribution when compared with pure CdS nanoparticles. The analyses from POM and DSC demonstrated that mass composition from 0.1:1.0 up to 0.5:1.0 of CdS:Ia nanocomposites showed their enantiotropic nematic phase. On the other hand, polarizing optical microscopy (POM for IIa nanocomposites showed that the liquid crystal property vanished completely when the mass composition was at 0.2:1.0. PL emissions for CdS: Ia or IIa nanocomposites indicated deep trap defects occurred in these both samples. The PL results revealed that addition of CdS to Ia monomers suppressed the photoluminescence intensity of Ia. However, the introduction of CdS to IIa monomers increased the photoluminescence and was at a maximum when the mass composition was 0.3:1.0, then decreased in intensity as more CdS was added. The XPS results also showed that the stoichiometric ratios of S/Cd were close to 1.0:1.0 for both types of nanocomposites for a mass composition of 1.0:1.0 (CdS:matrix.

  1. Mixed-solvothermal synthesis of CdS micro/nanostructures and their optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shengliang; Zhang Linfei; Huang Zhenzhong; Wang Shangping

    2011-01-01

    Several novel cadmium sulfide (CdS) micro/nanostructures, including cauliflower-like microspheres, football-like microspheres, tower-like microrods, and dendrites were controllably prepared via an oxalic acid-assisted solvothermal route using ethylene glycol (EG) and H 2 O as pure and mixed solvents with different S sources. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometer (UV). It was found that CdS micro/nanostructures can be selectively obtained by varying the composition of solvent, concentration of oxalic acid, and sulfur sources. UV-vis absorption spectra reveal that their absorption properties are shape-dependent. The possible formation process of the CdS micro/nanostructures was briefly discussed. This route provides a facile way to tune the morphologies of CdS over a wide range.

  2. Rapid synthesis of triangular CdS nanocrystals without any trap emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulose, Aby Cheruvathoor; Veeranarayanan, Srivani; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Sakthi Kumar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystals (NCs) with anisotropic dimensions display polarized emission compared to nano dots. Triangular prisms are good candidates for polarized optical properties and monodisperse triangular NCs are ideal for developing building blocks for novel three-dimensional superlattices due to its anisotropic dimension. Among triangular nanocrystals, CdS nanocrystals are less discussed for the past one decade of research due to the difficulty in its processing method. Though well studied very few methods for developing CdS triangular nanocrystals have been reported, and most are having drawbacks either due to the time consuming process or the products are combination of triangular as well as many other shaped NC or with trap emissions due to defects which are comparable to band emissions limits its applications in full scale. Here, we are presenting a novel method to develop 7 nm CdS triangular NCs that can solve the above mentioned problems, which would augment the usage of CdS triangular crystals for many applications, based on its anisotropic properties.

  3. Differing Experiences with Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in Boston Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Specialists and Generalists in Primary Care: Implications for Scale-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakower, Douglas S; Ware, Norma C; Maloney, Kevin M; Wilson, Ira B; Wong, John B; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-07-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that one in four sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) could decrease their HIV risk by using HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Because many MSM access healthcare from primary care providers (PCPs), these clinicians could play an important role in providing access to PrEP. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 PCPs in Boston, MA, to explore how they approach decisions about prescribing PrEP to MSM and their experiences with PrEP provision. Purposive sampling included 12 PCPs from an urban community health center specializing in the care of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons ("LGBT specialists") and 19 PCPs from a general academic medical center ("generalists"). Analyses utilized an inductive approach to identify emergent themes. Both groups of PCPs approached prescribing decisions about PrEP as a process of informed decision-making with patients. Providers would defer to patients' preferences if they were unsure about the appropriateness of PrEP. LGBT specialists and generalists were at vastly different stages of adopting PrEP into practice. For LGBT specialists, PrEP was a disruptive innovation that rapidly became normative in practice. Generalists had limited experience with PrEP; however, they desired succinct decision-support tools to help them achieve proficiency, because they considered preventive medicine to be central to their professional role. As generalists vastly outnumber LGBT specialists in the United States, interventions to support PrEP provision by generalists could accelerate the scale-up of PrEP for MSM nationally, which could in turn decrease HIV incidence for this priority population.

  4. Optical Sensor Based on a Single CdS Nanobelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optical sensor based on a cadmium sulfide (CdS nanobelt has been developed. The CdS nanobelt was synthesized by the vapor phase transportation (VPT method. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM results revealed that the nanobelt had a hexagonal wurtzite structure of CdS and presented good crystal quality. A single nanobelt Schottky contact optical sensor was fabricated by the electron beam lithography (EBL technique, and the device current-voltage results showed back-to-back Schottky diode characteristics. The photosensitivity, dark current and the decay time of the sensor were 4 × 104, 31 ms and 0.2 pA, respectively. The high photosensitivity and the short decay time were because of the exponential dependence of photocurrent on the number of the surface charges and the configuration of the back to back Schottky junctions.

  5. Clinical implications of patient-provider agreements in opioid prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Carl N; Baldwin, Alan T; Curro, Frederick A; McAllister, R G

    2015-01-01

    In June, 2012 the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed a "blueprint" for prescriber education as a means of directing Certified Medical Education (CME) activities that included content which would meet the regulatory requirements of the class-wide, longacting/ extended-release (LA-ER) opioid Risk Evaluation Mitigation Strategies (REMS). Within the blueprint is the suggested adoption of Patient-Provider Agreements (PPAs) to be used in association with opioid prescribing, but, to our knowledge, there have been no reported evaluations of the role played by opioid-agent PPAs in clinical practice, or of the perceptions of this regulatory mandate by clinicians. Therefore, we conducted a survey regarding PPA perceptions by opioid prescribers that was posted for five weeks on a well-trafficked online CME service provider (Medscape). Of the 1,232 respondents (reflecting a 99.5% completion rate), 52.4% treat acute or chronic pain with opioids. The survey identified an improvement of opioid safe-use education (21% of respondents) as the most frequently selected beneficial element of PPAs. Conversely, the challenges to adoption included time constraints (21% of physicians) as well as lack of evidence that PPAs will reduce drug misuse, and the lack of a uniform, patient-friendly PPA. Based on our survey, clinicians consider the PPA of potential value, but data regarding the utility of such an instrument are lacking.

  6. Awareness and attitudes of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among physicians in Guatemala: Implications for country-wide implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ian; Mejia, Carlos; Melendez, Johanna; Chan, Philip A; Nunn, Amy C; Powderly, William; Goodenberger, Katherine; Liu, Jingxia; Mayer, Kenneth H; Patel, Rupa R

    2017-01-01

    HIV continues to be a major health concern with approximately 2.1 million new infections occurring worldwide in 2015. In Central America, Guatemala had the highest incident number of HIV infections (3,700) in 2015. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was recently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an efficacious intervention to prevent HIV transmission. PrEP implementation efforts are underway in Guatemala and success will require providers that are knowledgeable and willing to prescribe PrEP. We sought to explore current PrEP awareness and prescribing attitudes among Guatemalan physicians in order to inform future PrEP implementation efforts. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adult internal medicine physicians at the main teaching hospital in Guatemala City in March 2015. The survey included demographics, medical specialty, years of HIV patient care, PrEP awareness, willingness to prescribe PrEP, previous experience with post-exposure prophylaxis, and concerns about PrEP. The primary outcome was willingness to prescribe PrEP, which was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale for different at-risk population scenarios. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors for willingness to prescribe PrEP. Eighty-seven physicians completed the survey; 66% were male, 64% were internal medicine residency trainees, and 10% were infectious disease (ID) specialists. Sixty-nine percent of physicians were PrEP aware, of which 9% had previously prescribed PrEP. Most (87%) of respondents were willing to prescribe PrEP to men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers, injection drug users, or HIV-uninfected persons having known HIV-positive sexual partners. Concerns regarding PrEP included development of resistance (92%), risk compensation (90%), and cost (64%). Univariate logistic regression showed that younger age, being a resident trainee, and being a non-ID specialist were significant predictors for

  7. Beyond the basics: refills by electronic prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Roberta E; Dubé, Catherine; Lapane, Kate L

    2010-07-01

    E-prescribing is part of a new generation of electronic solutions for the medical industry that may have great potential for improving work flow and communication between medical practices and pharmacies. In the US, it has been introduced with minimal monitoring of errors and general usability. This paper examines refill functionality in e-prescribing software. A mixed method study including focus groups and surveys was conducted. Qualitative data were collected in on-site focus groups or individual interviews with clinicians and medical office staff at 64 physician office practices. Focus group participants described their experiences with the refill functionality of e-prescribing software, provided suggestions for improving it, and suggested improvements in office procedures and software functionality. Overall, approximately 50% reduction in time spent each day on refills was reported. Overall reports of refill functionality were positive; but clinicians and staff identified numerous difficulties and glitches associated managing prescription refills. These glitches diminished over time. Benefits included time saved as well as patient convenience. Potential for refilling without thought because of the ease of use was noted. Clinicians and staff appreciated the ability to track whether patients are filling and refilling prescriptions. E-prescribing software for managing medication refills has not yet reached its full potential. To reduce work flow barriers and medication errors, software companies need to develop error reporting systems and response teams to deal effectively with problems experienced by users. Examining usability issues on both the medical office and pharmacy ends is required to identify the behavioral and cultural changes that accompany technological innovation and ease the transition to full use of e-prescribing software. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Performative Actions in E-Adoption Processes: Strategic Efforts in a Local Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the concept of performative action is introduced to address how individuals can engage in IT adoption processes. The study investigates how local government employees adopt and localize ideas from a Danish National IT initiative called eDay3. Particularly the actions of a project...... and variance of the specific local government. Second, a feedback loop re-attaching the localized project to the national reform program in order to maintain and protect the newly formed local practices. The study concludes that individuals actively struggle for social positions in IT adoption processes...

  9. Awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among women who inject drugs in NYC: the importance of networks and syringe exchange programs for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Suzan M; Reilly, Kathleen H; Neaigus, Alan; Braunstein, Sarah

    2017-06-29

    Women who inject drugs (WWID) are at heightened risk for HIV due to biological, behavioral, and structural factors. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could aid in HIV prevention for WWID. However, little is known about WWID awareness of PrEP, which is a necessary step that must occur before PrEP uptake. We report factors associated with greater awareness among WWID to identify efficient means of awareness dissemination. Data from the 2015 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system cycle on injection drug use collected in New York City (NYC) were used. Bivariable analyses, using chi-squared statistics, were conducted to examine correlates of awareness of PrEP with socio-demographic, behavioral, and health care variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted associations and determine differences in awareness of PrEP. The analysis consisted of 118 WWID. Awareness of PrEP was relatively low (31%), and risk factors were high. In the last 12 months, almost two thirds (65%) reported condomless sex, approximately one third (31%) reported transactional sex, and one third (32%) reported sharing injection equipment. In multivariable logistic regression, increased PrEP awareness was associated with reported transactional sex (AOR 3.32, 95% CI 1.22-9.00) and having a conversation about HIV prevention at a syringe exchange program (SEP) (AOR 7.61, 95% CI 2.65-21.84). We did not find race, education, household income, age, binge drinking, or sexual identity to be significantly associated with PrEP awareness. Large proportions of WWID were unaware of PrEP. These findings suggest that social networks (specifically sex work and SEP networks) are an efficient means for disseminating messaging about prevention materials such as PrEP. We recommend that SEP access increase, SEP processes be adopted in other health care settings, and WWID networks be utilized to increase PrEP awareness.

  10. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K.; Shaji, S.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  11. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2011-08-31

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  12. Optical characterization of CdS nanoparticles embedded into the comb-type amphiphilic graft copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaycı, Özlem A.; Duygulu, Özgür; Hazer, Baki

    2013-01-01

    This study refers to the synthesis and characterization of a novel organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite material containing cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles. For this purpose, a series of polypropylene (PP)-g-polyethylene glycol (PEG), PP-g-PEG comb-type amphiphilic graft copolymers were synthesized. PEGs with Mn = 400, 2000, 3350, and 8000 Da were used and the graft copolymers obtained were coded as PPEG400, PPEG2000, PPEG3350, and PPEG8000. CdS nanoparticles were formed in tetrahydrofuran solution of PP-g-PEG amphiphilic comb-type copolymer by the reaction between aqueous solutions of Na2S and Cd(CH3COO)2 simultaneously. Micelle formation of PPEG2000 comb-type amphiphilic graft copolymer in both solvent/non-solvent (petroleum ether-THF) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical characteristics, size morphology, phase analysis, and dispersion of CdS nanoparticles embedded in PPEG400, PPEG2000, PPEG3350, and PPEG8000 comb-type amphiphilic graft copolymer micelles were determined by high resolution TEM (HRTEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and fluorescence emission spectroscopy techniques. The aggregate size of PPEG2000-CdS is between 10 and 50 nm; however, in the case of PPEG400-CdS, PPEG3350-CdS, and PPEG8000-CdS samples, it is up to approximately 100 nm. The size of CdS quantum dots in the aggregates for PPEG2000 and PPEG8000 samples was observed as 5 nm by HRTEM analysis, and this result was also supported by UV-vis absorbance spectra and fluorescence emission spectra.

  13. Optical characterization of CdS nanoparticles embedded into the comb-type amphiphilic graft copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalayc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Oezlem A. [Bulent Ecevit University, Department of Physics (Turkey); Duygulu, Oezguer [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Materials Institute (Turkey); Hazer, Baki, E-mail: bkhazer@karaelmas.edu.tr [Bulent Ecevit University, Department of Chemistry (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    This study refers to the synthesis and characterization of a novel organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite material containing cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles. For this purpose, a series of polypropylene (PP)-g-polyethylene glycol (PEG), PP-g-PEG comb-type amphiphilic graft copolymers were synthesized. PEGs with Mn = 400, 2000, 3350, and 8000 Da were used and the graft copolymers obtained were coded as PPEG400, PPEG2000, PPEG3350, and PPEG8000. CdS nanoparticles were formed in tetrahydrofuran solution of PP-g-PEG amphiphilic comb-type copolymer by the reaction between aqueous solutions of Na{sub 2}S and Cd(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} simultaneously. Micelle formation of PPEG2000 comb-type amphiphilic graft copolymer in both solvent/non-solvent (petroleum ether-THF) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical characteristics, size morphology, phase analysis, and dispersion of CdS nanoparticles embedded in PPEG400, PPEG2000, PPEG3350, and PPEG8000 comb-type amphiphilic graft copolymer micelles were determined by high resolution TEM (HRTEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and fluorescence emission spectroscopy techniques. The aggregate size of PPEG2000-CdS is between 10 and 50 nm; however, in the case of PPEG400-CdS, PPEG3350-CdS, and PPEG8000-CdS samples, it is up to approximately 100 nm. The size of CdS quantum dots in the aggregates for PPEG2000 and PPEG8000 samples was observed as 5 nm by HRTEM analysis, and this result was also supported by UV-vis absorbance spectra and fluorescence emission spectra.

  14. Optical characterization of CdS nanoparticles embedded into the comb-type amphiphilic graft copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaycı, Özlem A.; Duygulu, Özgür; Hazer, Baki

    2013-01-01

    This study refers to the synthesis and characterization of a novel organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite material containing cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles. For this purpose, a series of polypropylene (PP)-g-polyethylene glycol (PEG), PP-g-PEG comb-type amphiphilic graft copolymers were synthesized. PEGs with Mn = 400, 2000, 3350, and 8000 Da were used and the graft copolymers obtained were coded as PPEG400, PPEG2000, PPEG3350, and PPEG8000. CdS nanoparticles were formed in tetrahydrofuran solution of PP-g-PEG amphiphilic comb-type copolymer by the reaction between aqueous solutions of Na 2 S and Cd(CH 3 COO) 2 simultaneously. Micelle formation of PPEG2000 comb-type amphiphilic graft copolymer in both solvent/non-solvent (petroleum ether–THF) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical characteristics, size morphology, phase analysis, and dispersion of CdS nanoparticles embedded in PPEG400, PPEG2000, PPEG3350, and PPEG8000 comb-type amphiphilic graft copolymer micelles were determined by high resolution TEM (HRTEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy, and fluorescence emission spectroscopy techniques. The aggregate size of PPEG2000-CdS is between 10 and 50 nm; however, in the case of PPEG400-CdS, PPEG3350-CdS, and PPEG8000-CdS samples, it is up to approximately 100 nm. The size of CdS quantum dots in the aggregates for PPEG2000 and PPEG8000 samples was observed as 5 nm by HRTEM analysis, and this result was also supported by UV–vis absorbance spectra and fluorescence emission spectra.

  15. Study of optical phonon modes of CdS nanoparticles using Raman

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we report the study of optical phonon modes of nanoparticles of CdS using Raman spectroscopy. Nanoparticle sample for the present study was synthesized through chemical precipitation technique. The CdS nanoparticles were then subjected to heat treatment at low temperature (150°C) for extended time ...

  16. CDS User survey

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Document Service

    2011-01-01

      The CERN Document Server is launching a user survey in order to collect information relative to its search engine, submission interfaces, collaborative features and content organisation. With the view of re-shaping its collections and interfaces and to better integrate with the new INSPIRE platform that serves all HEP literature, CERN Document Server team invites you to take part in the survey. Your input is essential to provide us with useful information before setting up the new service and improve your interactions with CDS. Thanks for participating !  

  17. Mixed-solvothermal synthesis of CdS micro/nanostructures and their optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Shengliang, E-mail: zslxhx@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022 (China); Zhang Linfei; Huang Zhenzhong; Wang Shangping [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Several novel cadmium sulfide (CdS) micro/nanostructures, including cauliflower-like microspheres, football-like microspheres, tower-like microrods, and dendrites were controllably prepared via an oxalic acid-assisted solvothermal route using ethylene glycol (EG) and H{sub 2}O as pure and mixed solvents with different S sources. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometer (UV). It was found that CdS micro/nanostructures can be selectively obtained by varying the composition of solvent, concentration of oxalic acid, and sulfur sources. UV-vis absorption spectra reveal that their absorption properties are shape-dependent. The possible formation process of the CdS micro/nanostructures was briefly discussed. This route provides a facile way to tune the morphologies of CdS over a wide range.

  18. Proneoplastic effects of PGE2 mediated by EP4 receptor in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doherty, Glen A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the major product of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to assess PGE2 cell surface receptors (EP 1-4) to examine the mechanisms by which PGE2 regulates tumour progression. METHODS: Gene expression studies were performed by quantitative RT-PCR. Cell cycle was analysed by flow cytometry with cell proliferation quantified by BrdU incorporation measured by enzyme immunoassay. Immunohistochemistry was employed for expression studies on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumour tissue. RESULTS: EP4 was the most abundant subtype of PGE2 receptor in HT-29 and HCA7 cells (which show COX-2 dependent PGE2 generation) and was consistently the most abundant transcript in human colorectal tumours (n = 8) by qRT-PCR (ANOVA, p = 0.01). G0\\/G1 cell cycle arrest was observed in HT-29 cells treated with SC-236 5 microM (selective COX-2 inhibitor) for 24 hours (p = 0.02), an effect abrogated by co-incubation with PGE2 (1 microM). G0\\/G1 arrest was also seen with a specific EP4 receptor antagonist (EP4A, L-161982) (p = 0.01). Treatment of HT-29 cells with either SC-236 or EP4A caused reduction in intracellular cAMP (ANOVA, p = 0.01). Early induction in p21WAF1\\/CIP1 expression (by qRT-PCR) was seen with EP4A treatment (mean fold increase 4.4, p = 0.04) while other genes remained unchanged. Similar induction in p21WAF1\\/CIP1 was also seen with PD153025 (1 microM), an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, suggesting EGFR transactivation by EP4 as a potential mechanism. Additive inhibition of HCA7 proliferation was observed with the combination of SC-236 and neutralising antibody to amphiregulin (AR), a soluble EGFR ligand. Concordance in COX-2 and AR localisation in human colorectal tumours was noted. CONCLUSION: COX-2 regulates cell cycle transition via EP4 receptor and altered p21WAF1\\/CIP1 expression. EGFR pathways appear important. Specific targeting of the EP4 receptor or downstream targets may offer a safer alternative

  19. Microwave Synthesized Monodisperse CdS Spheres of Different Size and Color for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Rodríguez-Castañeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse CdS spheres of size of 40 to 140 nm were obtained by microwave heating from basic solutions. It is observed that larger CdS spheres were formed at lower solution pH (8.4–8.8 and smaller ones at higher solution pH (10.8–11.3. The color of CdS products changed with solution pH and reaction temperature; those synthesized at lower pH and temperature were of green-yellow color, whereas those formed at higher pH and temperature were of orange-yellow color. A good photovoltage was observed in CdS:poly(3-hexylthiophene solar cells with spherical CdS particles. This is due to the good dispersion of CdS nanoparticles in P3HT solution that led to a large interface area between the organic and inorganic semiconductors. Higher photocurrent density was obtained in green-yellow CdS particles of lower defect density. The efficient microwave chemistry accelerated the hydrolysis of thiourea in pH lower than 9 and produced monodisperse spherical CdS nanoparticles suitable for solar cell applications.

  20. Systemic EP4 Inhibition Increases Adhesion Formation in a Murine Model of Flexor Tendon Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Geary

    Full Text Available Flexor tendon injuries are a common clinical problem, and repairs are frequently complicated by post-operative adhesions forming between the tendon and surrounding soft tissue. Prostaglandin E2 and the EP4 receptor have been implicated in this process following tendon injury; thus, we hypothesized that inhibiting EP4 after tendon injury would attenuate adhesion formation. A model of flexor tendon laceration and repair was utilized in C57BL/6J female mice to evaluate the effects of EP4 inhibition on adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon repair. Systemic EP4 antagonist or vehicle control was given by intraperitoneal injection during the late proliferative phase of healing, and outcomes were analyzed for range of motion, biomechanics, histology, and genetic changes. Repairs treated with an EP4 antagonist demonstrated significant decreases in range of motion with increased resistance to gliding within the first three weeks after injury, suggesting greater adhesion formation. Histologic analysis of the repair site revealed a more robust granulation zone in the EP4 antagonist treated repairs, with early polarization for type III collagen by picrosirius red staining, findings consistent with functional outcomes. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated accelerated peaks in F4/80 and type III collagen (Col3a1 expression in the antagonist group, along with decreases in type I collagen (Col1a1. Mmp9 expression was significantly increased after discontinuing the antagonist, consistent with its role in mediating adhesion formation. Mmp2, which contributes to repair site remodeling, increases steadily between 10 and 28 days post-repair in the EP4 antagonist group, consistent with the increased matrix and granulation zones requiring remodeling in these repairs. These findings suggest that systemic EP4 antagonism leads to increased adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon healing. Counter to our hypothesis that EP4 antagonism

  1. Challenges Affecting Adoption of E-Learning in Public Universities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutisya, Dorothy N.; Makokha, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Public universities in Kenya are, today, turning to the use of e-learning in an attempt to cope with the rapidly increasing demand for university education. This research was conducted between February 2012 and February 2014 to determine the challenges affecting the adoption of e-learning in these institutions of higher learning. Data were…

  2. Determinants associated with E-cigarette adoption and use intention among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiao-Yun; Lin, Hsien-Chang; Seo, Dong-Chul; Lohrmann, David K

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated characteristics of potential and current e-cigarette users based on four different levels of use acceptability along with the determinants that promote e-cigarette use acceptability among college students. College students (N=1198) aged 18-25years at a Midwestern university were surveyed in September-October 2015. Participants were categorized into four groups based on e-cigarette use acceptability adapted from the Diffusion of Innovation Theory (i.e., laggards, late majority, early majority, and adopters). Multinomial logistic regressions and Heckman two-step selection procedures were performed to examine the determinants that promote e-cigarette use acceptability. Approximately 40% of the participants reported ever using e-cigarettes. E-cigarette adopters agreed that e-cigarettes are more socially acceptable than traditional tobacco cigarettes (relative risk ratio [RRR]=1.43, preason for e-cigarette use (pse-cigarette use. Study findings indicate a possible explosive increase in e-cigarette experimentation or use among college students. Unique features of e-cigarettes such as flavor and USB rechargeability appear to be strong factors making e-cigarettes more acceptable and appealing to young adults regardless of their smoking status. Concerted efforts should be initiated to effectively counter or eliminate attractive features that lure young adults to experiment with e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterisation of nanocrystalline CdS thin films deposited by CBD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, R.; Sarma, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline thin films of CdS are deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix solution. Crystallite sizes of the films are determined from X-ray diffraction and are found to vary from 5.4 nm to 7 nm. The band gaps of the nanocrystalline material is determined from the U-V spectrograph and are found to be within the range from 2.6 eV to 2.8 eV as grain size decreases. The band gaps are also determined from the dependence of electrical conductivity of the films with temperature. An increase of molarity decreases the grain size which in turn increases the band gap. (author)

  4. Visible Light-Induced Degradation of Methylene Blue in the Presence of Photocatalytic ZnS and CdS Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Vaziri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ZnS and CdS nanoparticles were prepared by a simple microwave irradiation method under mild conditions. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, TEM and EDX. The results indicated that high purity of nanosized ZnS and CdS was successfully obtained with cubic and hexagonal crystalline structures, respectively. The band gap energies of ZnS and CdS nanoparticles were estimated using UV-visible absorption spectra to be about 4.22 and 2.64 eV, respectively. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was carried out using physical mixtures of ZnS and CdS nanoparticles under a 500-W halogen lamp of visible light irradiation. The residual concentration of methylene blue solution was monitored using UV-visible absorption spectrometry. From the study of the variation in composition of ZnS:CdS, a composition of 1:4 (by weight was found to be very efficient for degradation of methylene blue. In this case the degradation efficiency of the photocatalyst nanoparticles after 6 h irradiation time was about 73% with a reaction rate of 3.61 × 10−3 min−1. Higher degradation efficiency and reaction rate were achieved by increasing the amount of photocatalyst and initial pH of the solution.