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Sample records for dystrophin-gene product dp71

  1. Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy are significantly shorter than those with Becker muscular dystrophy, with the higher incidence of short stature in Dp71 mutated subgroup.

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    Matsumoto, Masaaki; Awano, Hiroyuki; Lee, Tomoko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2017-11-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) are caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene and are characterized by severe and mild progressive muscle wasting, respectively. Short stature has been reported as a feature of DMD in the Western hemisphere, but not yet confirmed in Orientals. Height of young BMD has not been fully characterized. Here, height of ambulant and steroid naive Japanese 179 DMD and 42 BMD patients between 4 and 10 years of age was retrospectively examined using height standard deviation score (SDS). The mean height SDS of DMD was -1.08 SD that was significantly smaller than normal (p < 0.001), indicating short stature of Japanese DMD. Furthermore, the mean height SDS of BMD was -0.27 SD, suggesting shorter stature than normal. Remarkably, the mean height SDS of DMD was significantly smaller than that of BMD (p < 0.0001). In DMD higher incidence of short stature (height SDS < -2.5 SD) was observed in Dp71 subgroup having mutations in dystrophin exons 63-79 than others having mutations in exons 1-62 (27.8% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.017). These suggested that height is influenced by dystrophin in not only DMD but also BMD and that dystrophin Dp71 has a role in height regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuronal differentiation modulates the dystrophin Dp71d binding to the nuclear matrix

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    Rodriguez-Munoz, Rafael; Villarreal-Silva, Marcela; Gonzalez-Ramirez, Ricardo; Garcia-Sierra, Francisco; Mondragon, Monica; Mondragon, Ricardo; Cerna, Joel; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2008-01-01

    The function of dystrophin Dp71 in neuronal cells remains unknown. To approach this issue, we have selected the PC12 neuronal cell line. These cells express both a Dp71f cytoplasmic variant and a Dp71d nuclear isoform. In this study, we demonstrated by electron and confocal microscopy analyses of in situ nuclear matrices and Western blotting evaluation of cell extracts that Dp71d associates with the nuclear matrix. Interestingly, this binding is modulated during NGF-induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells with a twofold increment in the differentiated cells, compared to control cells. Also, distribution of Dp71d along the periphery of the nuclear matrix observed in the undifferentiated cells is replaced by intense fluorescent foci localized in Center of the nucleoskeletal structure. In summary, we revealed that Dp71d is a dynamic component of nuclear matrix that might participate in the nuclear modeling occurring during neuronal differentiation

  3. DP 71 AND BETA DYSTROGLYCAN INTERACTION: A MOLECULAR MODELING APPROACH TO UNDERSTAND DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

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    Simanti Bhattacharya,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dp 71 is the most prevalent and widely expressed non muscle isoform of dystrophin (Dp and its mutations are associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a severe form of muscular disorder. Dp 71 deviates from the canonical Dp by means of its truncated N terminal which also has abolished certain amino acids that comprise WW domain in the canonical form. This WW domain is very crucial for Dp’s interaction with partner proteins to establish a bridge between extra cellular matrices and cellular cytoskeleton. In our current study we have employed molecular modeling technique to understand the structural architecture of the N terminal region of Dp 71 and its deviation from the canonical form. We have further extended our studies to analyze the interaction probabilities between Dp 71 and β-DG applying molecular docking. Our studies for the first time have revealed that in spite of the underlying differences in terms of amino acids and structural organization, Dp 71 can interact with β-DG with its N terminal region which shares the similar molecular surface with the canonical form of Dp. These findings have opened up a platform to investigate the molecular interactions, spatio temporal orientations of the amino acids of Dp 71 and β-DG to understand the onset of DMD in much more greater detail

  4. Exon skipping and translation in patients with frameshift deletions in the dystrophin gene

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    Sherratt, T.G.; Dubowitz, V.; Sewry, C.A.; Strong, P.N. (Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (United Kingdom)); Vulliamy, T. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-11-01

    Although many Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients have a deletion in the dystrophin gene which disrupts the translational reading frame, they express dystrophin in a small proportion of skeletal muscle fibers ([open quotes]revertant fibers[close quotes]). Antibody studies have shown, indirectly, that dystrophin synthesis in revertant fibers is facilitated by a frame-restoring mechanism; in the present study, the feasibility of mRNA splicing was investigated. Dystrophin transcripts were analyzed in skeletal muscle from individuals possessing revertant fibers and a frameshift deletion in the dystrophin gene. In each case a minor in-frame transcript was detected, in which exons adjacent to those deleted from the genome had been skipped. There appeared to be some correlation between the levels of in-frame transcripts and the predicted translation products. Low levels of alternatively spliced transcripts were also present in normal muscle. The results provide further evidence of exon skipping in the dystrophin gene and indicate that this may be involved in the synthesis of dystrophin by revertant fibers. 44 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Sequence characterisation of deletion breakpoints in the dystrophin gene by PCR

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    Abbs, S.; Sandhu, S.; Bobrow, M. [Guy`s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-09-01

    Partial deletions of the dystrophin gene account for 65% of cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A high proportion of these structural changes are generated by new mutational events, and lie predominantly within two `hotspot` regions, yet the underlying reasons for this are not known. We are characterizing and sequencing the regions surrounding deletion breakpoints in order to: (i) investigate the mechanisms of deletion mutation, and (ii) enable the design of PCR assays to specifically amplify mutant and normal sequences, allowing us to search for the presence of somatic mosaicism in appropriate family members. Using this approach we have been able to demonstrate the presence of somatic mosaicism in a maternal grandfather of a DMD-affected male, deleted for exons 49-50. Three deletions, namely of exons 48-49, 49-50, and 50, have been characterized using a PCR approach that avoids any cloning procedures. Breakpoints were initially localized to within regions of a few kilobases using Southern blot restriction analyses with exon-specific probes and PCR amplification of exonic and intronic loci. Sequencing was performed directly on PCR products: (i) mutant sequences were obtained from long-range or inverse-PCR across the deletion junction fragments, and (ii) normal sequences were obtained from the products of standard PCR, vectorette PCR, or inverse-PCR performed on YACs. Further characterization of intronic sequences will allow us to amplify and sequence across other deletion breakpoints and increase our knowledge of the mechanisms of mutation in the dystophin gene.

  6. Analysis of Dystrophin Gene Deletions by Multiplex PCR in Moroccan Patients

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    Aziza Sbiti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD and BMD are X-linked diseases resulting from a defect in the dystrophin gene located on Xp21. DMD is the most frequent neuromuscular disease in humans (1/3500 male newborn. Deletions in the dystrophin gene represent 65% of mutations in DMD/BMD patients. We have analyzed DNA from 72 Moroccan patients with DMD/BMD using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR to screen for exon deletions within the dystrophin gene, and to estimate the frequency of these abnormalities. We found dystrophin gene deletions in 37 cases. Therefore the frequency in Moroccan DMD/BMD patients is about 51.3%. All deletions were clustered in the two known hot-spots regions, and in 81% of cases deletions were detected in the region from exon 43 to exon 52. These findings are comparable to those reported in other studies. It is important to note that in our population, we can first search for deletions of DMD gene in the most frequently deleted exons determined by this study. This may facilitate the molecular diagnosis of DMD and BMD in our country.

  7. Relatively low proportion of dystrophin gene deletions in Israeili Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients

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    Shomrat, R.; Gluck, E.; Legum, C.; Shiloh, Y. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)

    1994-02-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are allelic disorders caused by mutations in the X-linked dystrophin gene. The most common mutations in western populations are deletions that are spread non-randomly throughout the gene. Molecular analysis of the dystrophin gene structure by hybridization of the full length cDNA to Southern blots and by PCR in 62 unrelated Israeli male DMD/BMD patients showed deletions in 23 (37%). This proportion is significantly lower than that found in European and North American populations (55-65%). Seventy-eight percent of the deletions were confined to exons 44-52, half of these exons 44-45, and the remaining 22% to exons 1 and 19. There was no correlation between the size of the deletion and the severity of the disease. All the deletions causing frameshift resulted in the DMD phenotypes. 43 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Detection of new paternal dystrophin gene mutations in isolated cases of dystrophinopathy in females

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    Pegoraro, E.; Wessel, H.B.; Schwartz, L.; Hoffman, E.P. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Schimke, R.N. (Kansas Univ. Medical Center, Kansas City (United States)); Arahata, Kiichi; Hayashi, Yukiko (National Institute of Neurosciences, Tokyo (Japan)); Stern, H. (Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)); Marks, H. (A.I. duPont Institute, Wilmington (United States)); Glasberg, M.R. (Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States)) (and others)

    1994-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is one of the most common lethal monogenic disorders and is caused by dystrophin deficiency. The disease is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait; however, recent biochemical and clinical studies have shown that many girls and women with a primary myopathy have an underlying dystrophinopathy, despite a negative family history for Duchenne dystrophy. These isolated female dystrophinopathy patients carried ambiguous diagnoses with presumed autosomal recessive inheritance (limb-girdle muscular dystrophy) prior to biochemical detection of dystrophin abnormalities in their muscle biopsy. It has been assumed that these female dystrophinopathy patients are heterozygous carries who show preferential inactivation of the X chromosome harboring the normal dystrophin gene, although this has been shown for only a few X:autosome translocations and for two cases of discordant monozygotic twin female carriers. Here the authors study X-inactivation patterns of 13 female dystrophinopathy patients - 10 isolated cases and 3 cases with a positive family history for Duchenne dystrophy in males. They show that all cases have skewed X-inactivation patterns in peripheral blood DNA. Of the nine isolated cases informative in the assay, eight showed inheritance of the dystrophin gene mutation from the paternal germ line. Only a single case showed maternal inheritance. The 10-fold higher incidence of paternal transmission of dystrophin gene mutations in these cases is at 30-fold variance with Bayesian predictions and gene mutation rates. Thus, the results suggest some mechanistic interaction between new dystrophin gene mutations, paternal inheritance, and skewed X inactivation. The results provide both empirical risk data and a molecular diagnostic test method, which permit genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis of this new category of patients. 58 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Targeted Exon Skipping to Address “Leaky” Mutations in the Dystrophin Gene

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    Sue Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-truncating mutations in the dystrophin gene lead to the progressive muscle wasting disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy, whereas in-frame deletions typically manifest as the milder allelic condition, Becker muscular dystrophy. Antisense oligomer-induced exon skipping can modify dystrophin gene expression so that a disease-associated dystrophin pre-mRNA is processed into a Becker muscular dystrophy-like mature transcript. Despite genomic deletions that may encompass hundreds of kilobases of the gene, some dystrophin mutations appear “leaky”, and low levels of high molecular weight, and presumably semi-functional, dystrophin are produced. A likely causative mechanism is endogenous exon skipping, and Duchenne individuals with higher baseline levels of dystrophin may respond more efficiently to the administration of splice-switching antisense oligomers. We optimized excision of exons 8 and 9 in normal human myoblasts, and evaluated several oligomers in cells from eight Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients with deletions in a known “leaky” region of the dystrophin gene. Inter-patient variation in response to antisense oligomer induced skipping in vitro appeared minimal. We describe oligomers targeting exon 8, that unequivocally increase dystrophin above baseline in vitro, and propose that patients with leaky mutations are ideally suited for participation in antisense oligomer mediated splice-switching clinical studies.

  10. Screening of Dystrophin Gene Deletions in Egyptian Patients with DMD/BMD Muscular Dystrophies

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    Laila K. Effat

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD are allelic disorders caused by mutations within the dystrophin gene. Our study has identified 100 Egyptian families collected from the Human Genetics Clinic, National Research Center, Cairo. All cases were subjected to complete clinical evaluation pedigree analysis, electromyography studies, estimation of serum creatine phosphokinase enzyme (CPK levels and DNA analysis. Multiplex PCR using 18 pairs of specific primers were used for screening of deletion mutations within the dystrophin gene. A frequency of 55% among the families. Sixty per cent of detected deletions involved multiple exons spanning the major or the minor hot spot of the dystrophin gene. The remainder 40% which mainly involved exon 45. Comparing these findings with frequencies of other countries it was found that our figures fall within the reported range of 40%– for deletions. The distribution of deletions in our study and other different studies was variable and specific ethnic differences do not apparently account for specific deletions. In addition this study concluded that employment of the 18 exon analysis is a cost effective and a highly accurate (97% to launch a nationwide program.

  11. Protein truncation test: analysis of two novel point mutations at the carboxy-terminus of the human dystrophin gene associated with mental retardation.

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    Tuffery, S; Lenk, U; Roberts, R G; Coubes, C; Demaille, J; Claustres, M

    1995-01-01

    Approximately one-third of the mutations responsible for Duchenne muscular dytrophy (DMD) do not involve gross rearrangements of the dystrophin gene. Methods for intensive mutation screening have recently been applied to this immense gene, which resulted in the identification of a number of point mutations in DMD patients, mostly translation-terminating mutations. A number of data raised the possibility that the C-terminal region of dystrophin might be involved in some cases of mental retardation associated with DMD. Using single-strand conformation analysis of products amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSCA) to screen the terminal domains of the dystrophin gene (exons 60-79) of 20 unrelated patients with DMD or BMD, we detected two novel point mutations in two mentally retarded DMD patients: a 1-bp deletion in exon 70 (10334delC) and a 5' splice donor site alteration in intron 69 (10294 + 1G-->T). Both mutations should result in a premature translation termination of dystrophin. The possible effects on the reading frame were analyzed by the study of reverse transcripts amplified from peripheral blood lymphocytes mRNA and by the protein truncation test.

  12. Identification of residues within the African swine fever virus DP71L protein required for dephosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2α and inhibiting activation of pro-apoptotic CHOP

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    Barber, Claire; Netherton, Chris; Goatley, Lynnette [The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NF (United Kingdom); Moon, Alice; Goodbourn, Steve [Institute for Infection and Immunity, St. George' s, University of London, London SW17 0RE (United Kingdom); Dixon, Linda, E-mail: linda.dixon@pirbright.ac.uk [The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NF (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    The African swine fever virus DP71L protein recruits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to dephosphorylate the translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and avoid shut-off of global protein synthesis and downstream activation of the pro-apoptotic factor CHOP. Residues V16 and F18A were critical for binding of DP71L to PP1. Mutation of this PP1 binding motif or deletion of residues between 52 and 66 reduced the ability of DP71L to cause dephosphorylation of eIF2α and inhibit CHOP induction. The residues LSAVL, between 57 and 61, were also required. PP1 was co-precipitated with wild type DP71L and the mutant lacking residues 52- 66 or the LSAVL motif, but not with the PP1 binding motif mutant. The residues in the LSAVL motif play a critical role in DP71L function but do not interfere with binding to PP1. Instead we propose these residues are important for DP71L binding to eIF2α. - Highlights: •The African swine fever virus DP71L protein recruits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to dephosphorylate translation initiation factor eIF2α (eIF2α). •The residues V{sup 16}, F{sup 18} of DP71L are required for binding to the α, β and γ isoforms of PP1 and for DP71L function. •The sequence LSAVL downstream from the PP1 binding site (residues 57–61) are also important for DP71L function. •DP71L mutants of the LSAVL sequence retain ability to co-precipitate with PP1 showing these sequences have a different role to PP1 binding.

  13. Duchenne muscular dystrophy diagnosed by dystrophin gene deletion test: A case report

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    Rathod Kishor G, Dawre Rahul M, Kamble Milind B,Tambe Saleem H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked recessive disease affecting 1 in 3600—6000 live male births. A muscle biopsy is not necessary if a genetic diagnosis is secured first, particularly as some families might view the procedure as traumatic. DMD occurs as a result of mutations (mainly deletions in the dystrophin gene (DMD; locus Xp21.2. Mutations lead to an absence of or defect in the protein dystrophin, which results in progressive muscle degeneration leading to loss of independent ambulation. Ninety percent of out frame mutations result in DMD, while 90% of in-frame mutations result in BMD. Electron microscopy is not required to confirm DMD. Genetic testing is mandatory irrespective of biopsy results. But the muscle biopsy is not required if the diagnosis is secured first by genetic testing.

  14. Quantitative analysis of the dystrophin gene by real-time PCR

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    Maksimovic Nela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD are severe X-linked neuromuscular disorders caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Our aim was to optimize a quantitative real-time PCR method based on SYBR® Green I chemistry for routine diagnostics of DMD/BMD deletion carriers. Twenty female relatives of DMD/BMD patients with previously detected partial gene deletions were studied. The relative quantity of the target exons was calculated by a comparative threshold cycle method (ΔΔCt. The carrier status of all subjects was successfully determined. The gene dosage ratio for non-carriers was 1.07±0.20, and for carriers 0.56±0.11. This assay proved to be simple, rapid, reliable and cost-effective.

  15. Heteroduplex analysis of the dystrophin gene: Application to point mutation and carrier detection

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    Prior, T.W.; Papp, A.C.; Snyder, P.J.; Sedra, M.S.; Western, L.M.; Bartolo, C.; Mendell, J.R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Moxley, R.T. [Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Approximately one-third of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients have undefined mutations in the dystrophin gene. For carrier and prenatal studies in families without detectable mutations, the indirect restriction fragment length polymorphism linkage approach is used. Using a multiplex amplification and heteroduplex analysis of dystrophin exons, the authors identified nonsense mutations in two DMD patients. Although the nonsense mutations are predicted to severely truncate the dystrophin protein, both patients presented with mild clinical courses of the disease. As a result of identifying the mutation in the affected boys, direct carrier studies by heteroduplex analysis were extended to other relatives. The authors conclude that the technique is not only ideal for mutation detection but is also useful for diagnostic testing. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Screening of point mutations by multiple SSCP analysis in the dystrophin gene

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    Lasa, A.; Baiget, M.; Gallano, P. [Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    1994-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, X-linked neuromuscular disorder. The population frequency of DMD is one in approximately 3500 boys, of which one third is thought to be a new mutant. The DMD gene is the largest known to date, spanning over 2,3 Mb in band Xp21.2; 79 exons are transcribed into a 14 Kb mRNA coding for a protein of 427 kD which has been named dystrophin. It has been shown that about 65% of affected boys have a gene deletion with a wide variation in localization and size. The remaining affected individuals who have no detectable deletions or duplications would probably carry more subtle mutations that are difficult to detect. These mutations occur in several different exons and seem to be unique to single patients. Their identification represents a formidable goal because of the large size and complexity of the dystrophin gene. SSCP is a very efficient method for the detection of point mutations if the parameters that affect the separation of the strands are optimized for a particular DNA fragment. The multiple SSCP allows the simultaneous study of several exons, and implies the use of different conditions because no single set of conditions will be optimal for all fragments. Seventy-eight DMD patients with no deletion or duplication in the dystrophin gene were selected for the multiple SSCP analysis. Genomic DNA from these patients was amplified using the primers described for the diagnosis procedure (muscle promoter and exons 3, 8, 12, 16, 17, 19, 32, 45, 48 and 51). We have observed different mobility shifts in bands corresponding to exons 8, 12, 43 and 51. In exons 17 and 45, altered electrophoretic patterns were found in different samples identifying polymorphisms already described.

  17. A case report: Becker muscular dystrophy presenting with epilepsy and dysgnosia induced by duplication mutation of Dystrophin gene.

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    Miao, Jing; Feng, Jia-Chun; Zhu, Dan; Yu, Xue-Fan

    2016-12-12

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), a genetic disorder of X-linked recessive inheritance, typically presents with gradually progressive muscle weakness. The condition is caused by mutations of Dystrophin gene located at Xp21.2. Epilepsy is an infrequent manifestation of BMD, while cases of BMD with dysgnosia are extremely rare. We describe a 9-year-old boy with BMD, who presented with epilepsy and dysgnosia. Serum creatine kinase level was markedly elevated (3665 U/L). Wechsler intelligence tests showed a low intelligence quotient (IQ = 65). Electromyogram showed slight myogenic changes and skeletal muscle biopsy revealed muscular dystrophy. Immunohistochemical staining showed partial positivity of sarcolemma for dystrophin-N. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification revealed a duplication mutation in exons 37-44 in the Dystrophin gene. The present case report helps to better understand the clinical and genetic features of BMD.

  18. [Clinical features of patients with Becker muscular dystrophy and deletions of the rod domain of dystrophin gene].

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    Wang, Yanyun; Zhu, Yuling; Yang, Juan; Li, Yaqin; Sun, Jiangwen; Zhan, Yixin; Zhang, Cheng

    2018-02-10

    OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical features of patients carrying deletions of the rod domain of the dystrophin gene. METHODS Clinical data of 12 Chinese patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) and such deletions was reviewed. RESULTS Most patients complained of muscle weakness of lower limbs. Two patients had muscle cramps, one had increased creatine kinase (CK) level, and one had dilated cardiomyopathy. CONCLUSION Compared with DMD, the clinical features of BMD are much more variable, particularly for those carrying deletions of the rod domain of the dystrophin gene. Muscular weakness may not be the sole complaint of BMD. The diagnosis of BMD cannot be excluded by moderately elevated CK. For male patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, the possibility of BMD should be considered.

  19. Targeted Exon Skipping to Correct Exon Duplications in the Dystrophin Gene

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    Kane L Greer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a severe muscle-wasting disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that ablate functional protein expression. Although exonic deletions are the most common Duchenne muscular dystrophy lesion, duplications account for 10–15% of reported disease-causing mutations, and exon 2 is the most commonly duplicated exon. Here, we describe the in vitro evaluation of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers coupled to a cell-penetrating peptide and 2′-O-methyl phosphorothioate oligonucleotides, using three distinct strategies to reframe the dystrophin transcript in patient cells carrying an exon 2 duplication. Differences in exon-skipping efficiencies in vitro were observed between oligomer analogues of the same sequence, with the phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer coupled to a cell-penetrating peptide proving the most effective. Differences in exon 2 excision efficiency between normal and exon 2 duplication cells, were apparent, indicating that exon context influences oligomer-induced splice switching. Skipping of a single copy of exon 2 was induced in the cells carrying an exon 2 duplication, the simplest strategy to restore the reading frame and generate a normal dystrophin transcript. In contrast, multiexon skipping of exons 2–7 to generate a Becker muscular dystrophy-like dystrophin transcript was more challenging and could only be induced efficiently with the phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer chemistry.

  20. MLPA based detection of mutations in the dystrophin gene of 180 Polish families with Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy.

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    Zimowski, Janusz G; Massalska, Diana; Holding, Mariola; Jadczak, Sylwia; Fidziańska, Elżbieta; Lusakowska, Anna; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Kamińska, Anna; Zaremba, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) is a recessive, X-linked disorder caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Deletions account for approximately 60-65% of mutations, duplications for 5-10%. The remaining cases are mainly point mutations. According to Monaco theory clinical form of the disease depends on maintaining or disrupting the reading frame. The purpose of the study was to determine frequency and location of deletions and duplications in the dystrophin gene, to determine the compliance between maintaining/disrupting the reading frame and clinical form of the disease and to check the effectiveness of MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) in the detection of these mutations in hemizygous patients and heterozygous female carriers. The material is composed of combined results of molecular diagnosis carried out in years 2009-2012 in 180 unrelated patients referred with the diagnosis of DMD/BMD tested by use of MLPA. We identified 110 deletions, 22 duplication (in one patient two different duplications were detected) and 2 point mutations. Deletions involved mainly exons 45-54 and 3-21, whereas most duplications involved exons 3-18. The compliance with Monaco theory was 95% for deletions and 76% for duplications. Most of mutations in the dystrophin gene were localized in the hot spots - different for deletions and duplications. MLPA enabled their quick identification, exact localization and determination whether or not they maintained or disrupted the reading frame. MLPA was also effective in detection of deletions and duplications in female carriers. Copyright © 2014 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitivity and Frequencies of Dystrophin Gene Mutations in Thai DMD/BMD Patients As Detected by Multiplex PCR

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    Thanyachai Sura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, a lethal X-linked disease affecting 1 in 3500 male births, and its more benign variant, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD, are caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Because of its large size, analysing the whole gene is impractical. Methods have been developed to detect the commonest mutations i.e. the deletions of the exons. Although these tests are highly specific, their sensitivity is inherently limited by the prevalence of deletions, which differs among different populations.

  2. Intellectual Ability in the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Dystrophin Gene Mutation Location

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    Rasic Milic V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common form of muscular dystrophy during childhood. Mutations in dystrophin (DMD gene are also recognized as a cause of cognitive impairment. We aimed to determine the association between intelligence level and mutation location in DMD genes in Serbian patients with DMD. Forty-one male patients with DMD, aged 3 to 16 years, were recruited at the Clinic for Neurology and Psychiatry for Children and Youth in Belgrade, Serbia. All patients had defined DMD gene deletions or duplications [multiplex ligation- dependent probe amplification (MLPA, polymerase chain reaction (PCR] and cognitive status assessment (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Brunet-Lezine scale, Vineland-Doll scale. In 37 patients with an estimated full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ, six (16.22% had borderline intelligence (70Dp71/Dp40 have been associated with more frequent and more severe cognitive impairment. Finally, the same classification of mutations explained the greater proportion of FSIQ variability associated with cumulative loss of dystrophin isoforms. In conclusion, cumulative loss of dystrophin isoforms increases the risk of intellectual impairment in DMD and characterizing the genotype can define necessity of early cognitive interventions in DMD patients.

  3. Dual AAV Gene Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy with a 7-kb Mini-Dystrophin Gene in the Canine Model.

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    Kodippili, Kasun; Hakim, Chady H; Pan, Xiufang; Yang, Hsiao T; Yue, Yongping; Zhang, Yadong; Shin, Jin-Hong; Yang, N Nora; Duan, Dongsheng

    2018-03-01

    Dual adeno-associated virus (AAV) technology was developed in 2000 to double the packaging capacity of the AAV vector. The proof of principle has been demonstrated in various mouse models. Yet, pivotal evidence is lacking in large animal models of human diseases. Here we report expression of a 7-kb canine ΔH2-R15 mini-dystrophin gene using a pair of dual AAV vectors in the canine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The ΔH2-R15 minigene is by far the most potent synthetic dystrophin gene engineered for DMD gene therapy. We packaged minigene dual vectors in Y731F tyrosine-modified AAV-9 and delivered to the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle of a 12-month-old affected dog at the dose of 2 × 10 13 viral genome particles/vector/muscle. Widespread mini-dystrophin expression was observed 2 months after gene transfer. The missing dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex was restored. Treatment also reduced muscle degeneration and fibrosis and improved myofiber size distribution. Importantly, dual AAV therapy greatly protected the muscle from eccentric contraction-induced force loss. Our data provide the first clear evidence that dual AAV therapy can be translated to a diseased large mammal. Further development of dual AAV technology may lead to effective therapies for DMD and many other diseases in human patients.

  4. Characterization of a novel Dp71 dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) present in the nucleus of HeLa cells: Members of the nuclear DAPC associate with the nuclear matrix

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    Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Rodriguez-Munoz, Rafael; Gonzalez-Ramirez, Ricardo; Garcia-Sierra, Francisco; Gonzalez, Everardo; Mornet, Dominique; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2006-01-01

    Dystrophin is an essential component in the assembly and maintenance of the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC), which includes members of the dystroglycan, syntrophin, sarcoglycan and dystrobrevin protein families. Distinctive complexes have been described in the cell membrane of different tissues and cultured cells. In this work, we report the identification and characterization of a novel DAPC present in the nuclei of HeLa cells, which contains dystrophin Dp71 as a key component. Using confocal microscopy and cell fractionation analyses, we found the presence of Dp71, β-sarcoglycan, β-dystroglycan, α- and β-syntrophin, α1- and β-dystrobrevin and nNOS in the nuclei of HeLa cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation experiments that most of these proteins form a complex in the nuclear compartment. Next, we analyze the possible association of the nuclear DAPC with the nuclear matrix. We found the presence of Dp71, β-dystroglycan, nNOS, β-sarcoglycan, α/β syntrophin, α1-dystrobrevin and β-dystrobrevin in the nuclear matrix protein fractions and in situ nuclear matrix preparations from HeLa cells. Moreover, we found that Dp71, β-dystroglycan and β-dystrobrevin co-immunoprecipitated with the nuclear matrix proteins lamin B1 and actin. The association of members of the nuclear DAPC with the nuclear matrix indicates that they may work as scaffolding proteins involved in nuclear architecture

  5. Somatic mosaicism of a point mutation in the dystrophin gene in a patient presenting with an asymmetrical muscle weakness and contractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helderman-van den Enden, A. T. J. M.; Ginjaar, H. B.; Kneppers, A. L. J.; Bakker, E.; Breuning, M. H.; de Visser, M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a patient with somatic mosaicism of a point mutation in the dystrophin gene causing benign muscular dystrophy with an unusual asymmetrical distribution of muscle weakness and contractures. To our knowledge this is the first patient with asymmetrical weakness and contractures in an

  6. More deletions in the 5{prime} region than in the central region of the dystrophin gene were identified among Filipino Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-06

    This report describes mutations in the dystrophin gene and the frequency of these mutations in Filipino pedigrees with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD). The findings suggest the presence of genetic variability among DMD/BMD patients in different populations. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Deletion of exon 26 of the dystrophin gene is associated with a mild Becker muscular dystrophy phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Duno, Morten; Vissing, John

    2011-01-01

    With the possible introduction of exon skipping therapy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, it has become increasingly important to know the role of each exon of the dystrophin gene to protein expression, and thus the phenotype. In this report, we present two related men with an unusually mild BMD...... calf hypertrophy was noted. Creatine kinase was normal or raised maximally to 500 U/l. The muscle biopsy was myopathic with increased fiber size variation and many internal nuclei, but no dystrophy. No comorbidity was found. In both cases, western blot showed a reduced dystrophin band. Genetic...... skipping therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This report also shows that BMD may present with a normal CK....

  8. Evaluation of point mutations in dystrophin gene in Iranian Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients: introducing three novel variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas, Maryam; Akbari, Mohammad Taghi; Karizi, Shohreh Zare; Deilamani, Faravareh Khordadpoor; Nafissi, Shahriar; Salehi, Zivar

    2016-06-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD and BMD) are X-linked neuromuscular diseases characterized by progressive muscular weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles. Approximately two-thirds of the patients have large deletions or duplications in the dystrophin gene and the remaining one-third have point mutations. This study was performed to evaluate point mutations in Iranian DMD/BMD male patients. A total of 29 DNA samples from patients who did not show any large deletion/duplication mutations following multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) screening were sequenced for detection of point mutations in exons 50-79. Also exon 44 was sequenced in one sample in which a false positive deletion was detected by MLPA method. Cycle sequencing revealed four nonsense, one frameshift and two splice site mutations as well as two missense variants.

  9. Deletion of exon 26 of the dystrophin gene is associated with a mild Becker muscular dystrophy phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Duno, Morten; Vissing, John

    2011-01-01

    With the possible introduction of exon skipping therapy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, it has become increasingly important to know the role of each exon of the dystrophin gene to protein expression, and thus the phenotype. In this report, we present two related men with an unusually mild BMD...... skipping therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This report also shows that BMD may present with a normal CK....... associated with an exon 26 deletion. The proband, a 23-year-old man, had slightly delayed motor milestones, walking 1 1/2 years old. He had no complaints of muscle weakness, but had muscle pain. Clinical examination revealed no muscle wasting or loss of power, but his CK was 1500-7000 U/l. Muscle biopsy...

  10. Consecutive analysis of mutation spectrum in the dystrophin gene of 507 Korean boys with Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy in a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Anna; Seong, Moon-Woo; Lim, Byung Chan; Lee, Hwa Jeen; Byeon, Jung Hye; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Choi, Sun Ah; Wong, Ai-Lynn; Lee, Jeongho; Kim, Jon Soo; Ryu, Hye Won; Lee, Jin Sook; Kim, Hunmin; Hwang, Hee; Choi, Ji Eun; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Young Seung; Hong, Ki Ho; Park, Seungman; Cho, Sung Im; Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Hyunwoong; Seo, Soo Hyun; Park, Sung Sup; Chae, Jong Hee

    2017-05-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD and BMD) are allelic X-linked recessive muscle diseases caused by mutations in the large and complex dystrophin gene. We analyzed the dystrophin gene in 507 Korean DMD/BMD patients by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification and direct sequencing. Overall, 117 different deletions, 48 duplications, and 90 pathogenic sequence variations, including 30 novel variations, were identified. Deletions and duplications accounted for 65.4% and 13.3% of Korean dystrophinopathy, respectively, suggesting that the incidence of large rearrangements in dystrophin is similar among different ethnic groups. We also detected sequence variations in >100 probands. The small variations were dispersed across the whole gene, and 12.3% were nonsense mutations. Precise genetic characterization in patients with DMD/BMD is timely and important for implementing nationwide registration systems and future molecular therapeutic trials in Korea and globally. Muscle Nerve 55: 727-734, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Identification of a novel first exon in the human dystrophin gene and of a new promoter located more than 500 kb upstream of the nearest known promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagawa, H.; Nishio, H.; Takeshima, Y. [Kobe Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The dystrophin gene, which is muted in patients with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, is the largest known human gene. Five alternative promoters have been characterized until now. Here we show that a novel dystrophin isoform with a different first exon can be produced through transcription initiation at a previously-unidentified alternative promoter. The case study presented is that of patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who had a deletion extending from 5{prime} end of the dystrophin gene to exon 2, including all promoters previously mapped in the 5{prime} part of the gene. Transcripts from lymphoblastoid cells were found to contain sequences corresponding to exon 3, indicating the presence of new promoter upstream of this exon. The nucleotide sequence of amplified cDNA corresponding to the 5{prime} end of the new transcript indicated that the 5{prime} end of exon 3 was extended by 9 codons, only the last (most 3{prime}) of which codes for methionine. The genomic nucleotide sequence upstream from the new exon, as determined using inverse polymerase chain reaction, revealed the presence of sequences similar to a TATA box, an octamer motif and an MEF-2 element. The identified promoter/exon did not map to intron 2, as might have been expected, but to a position more than 500 kb upstream of the most 5{prime} of the previously-identified promoters, thereby adding 500 kb to the dystrophin gene. The sequence of part of the new promoter region is very similar to that of certain medium reiteration frequency repetitive sequences. These findings may help us understand the molecular evolution of the dystrophin gene.

  12. Evaluation of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis versus multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays in the detection of dystrophin gene rearrangements in an Iranian population subset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayereh Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD gene is located in the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp21. It spans 2.4 Mb of the human genomic DNA and is composed of 79 exons. Mutations in the Dystrophin gene result in DMD and Becker muscular dystrophy. In this study, the efficiency of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA over multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays in an Iranian population was investigated. Materials and Methods: Multiplex PCR assays and MLPA analysis were carried out in 74 patients affected with DMD. Results: Multiplex PCR detected deletions in 51% of the patients with DMD. MLPA analysis could determine all the deletions detected by the multiplex PCR. Additionally, MLPA was able to identify one more deletion and duplication in patients without detectable mutations by multiplex PCR. Moreover, MLPA precisely determined the exact size of the deletions. Conclusion: Although MLPA analysis is more sensitive for detection of deletions and duplications in the dystrophin gene, multiplex PCR might be used for the initial analysis of the boys affected with DMD in the Iranian population as it was able to detect 95% of the rearrangements in patients with DMD.

  13. Life-threatening Arrhythmias in a Becker Muscular Dystrophy Family due to the Duplication of Exons 3-4 of the Dystrophin Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Akiko; Ueyama, Hidetsugu; Nishida, Yasuto; Imamura, Shigehiro; Uchino, Makoto; Ando, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    We herein present a report of three patients with Becker muscular dystrophy in the same family who developed complete atrioventricular block or ventricular tachycardia with severe cardiomyopathy. Our cases became unable to walk in their teens, and were introduced to mechanical ventilation due to respiratory muscle weakness in their twenties and thirties. In all three cases, a medical device such as a permanent cardiac pacemaker or an implantable cardiac defibrillator was considered to be necessary. The duplication of exons 3-4 in the dystrophin gene was detected in two of the patients. In patients with Becker muscular dystrophy, complete atrioventricular block or ventricular tachycardia within a family has rarely been reported. Thus attention should be paid to the possibility of severe arrhythmias in the severe phenotype of Becker muscular dystrophy.

  14. Linkage disequilibria among (CA){sub n} polymorphisms in the human dystrophin gene and their implications in carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis in Duchenne and Becker musclar dystrophies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R.; Zhong, Y.; Andrade, M. de [Univ. of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Four short tandem repeat loci, characterized by length polymorphisms of (CA){sub n} repeats, have been detected within introns 44, 45, 49, and 50 of the human dystrophin gene. The predicted heterozygosites for these loci range from 72 to 93%, and observed allele numbers range from 6 to 19 in 57 normal chromosomes, revealing their high degree of polymorphism. Evidence for significant disequilibria between the loci within introns 49 and 50 is found. These data appear to be consistent with observations of recombination frequencies between these markers and the length of the intron 44 in relation to the entire region. In addition, these four loci are collectively found to be 100% informative in carrier detection/prenatal diagnosis of Becker and Duchenne muscular dystrophies (B/DMD), whereas scoring the (CA){sub n} markers within introns 45 and 49 alone gives a 99.6% success rate. 13 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. A rare subclinical or mild type of Becker muscular dystrophy caused by a single exon 48 deletion of the dystrophin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimowski, Janusz G; Pilch, Jacek; Pawelec, Magdalena; Purzycka, Joanna K; Kubalska, Jolanta; Ziora-Jakutowicz, Karolina; Dudzińska, Magdalena; Zaremba, Jacek

    2017-08-01

    In the material of 227 families with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), we found nine non-consanguineous families with 17 male individuals carrying a rare mutation-a single exon 48 deletion of the dystrophin gene-who were affected with a very mild or subclinical form of BMD. They were usually detected thanks to accidental findings of elevated serum creatine phosphokinase (sCPK). A thorough clinical analysis of the carriers, both children (12) and adults (5), revealed in some of them muscle hypotonia (10/17) and/or very mild muscle weakness (9/17), as well as decreased tendon reflexes (6/17). Adults, apart from very mild muscle weakness and calf hypertrophy in some, had no significant abnormalities on neurological assessments and had good exercise tolerance. Parents of the children carriers of the exon 48 deletion are usually unaware of their children being affected, and possibly at risk of developing life-threatening cardiomyopathy. The same concerns the adult male carriers. Therefore, the authors postulate undertaking preventive measures such as cascade screening of the relatives of the probands. Newborn screening programmes of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)/BMD based on sCPK marked increase may be considered.

  16. Precise correction of the dystrophin gene in duchenne muscular dystrophy patient induced pluripotent stem cells by TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei Lisa; Fujimoto, Naoko; Sasakawa, Noriko; Shirai, Saya; Ohkame, Tokiko; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Tanaka, Michihiro; Amano, Naoki; Watanabe, Akira; Sakurai, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yamanaka, Shinya; Hotta, Akitsu

    2015-01-13

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle-degenerative disease caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Genetic correction of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by TALENs or CRISPR-Cas9 holds promise for DMD gene therapy; however, the safety of such nuclease treatment must be determined. Using a unique k-mer database, we systematically identified a unique target region that reduces off-target sites. To restore the dystrophin protein, we performed three correction methods (exon skipping, frameshifting, and exon knockin) in DMD-patient-derived iPSCs, and found that exon knockin was the most effective approach. We further investigated the genomic integrity by karyotyping, copy number variation array, and exome sequencing to identify clones with a minimal mutation load. Finally, we differentiated the corrected iPSCs toward skeletal muscle cells and successfully detected the expression of full-length dystrophin protein. These results provide an important framework for developing iPSC-based gene therapy for genetic disorders using programmable nucleases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pregnancy after preimplantation diagnosis for a deletion in the dystrophin gene by polymerase chain reaction in embryos obtained after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lissens, W.; Liu, J.; Van Broeckhoven, C. [University Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common X-linked recessive diseases. In order to be able to perform a DMD-specific preimplantation diagnosis (PID) in a female carrier of a deletion of exons 3 to 18 in the dystrophin gene, we have developed a PCR assay to detect the deletion based on sequences of exon 17. The efficiency of this PCR was evaluated on 50 single blastomeres from 12 normal control embryos and on 41 blastomeres for 9 male and 3 female embryos from the female DMD carrier, obtained after a first preimplantation diagnosis by sexing. The exon 17 region was amplified with 100% efficiency, except in all 21 blastomeres from 6 male embryos from the carrier where no PCR signals were observed. The negative results in these blastomeres were interpreted as being found only in male embryos carrying the deletion. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection was carried out on the carrier`s metaphase II oocytes retrieved after ovarian stimulation. Embryos were analyzed for the presence of exon 17 and 2 male embryos were found to be deleted, while 4 embryos showed normal amplification signals. Three of the latter embryos were replaced, resulting in a singleton pregnancy. Amniotic cell analysis showed a normal female karyotype and DNA analysis indicated a non-carrier.

  18. Clinical and molecular characterization of a cohort of patients with novel nucleotide alterations of the Dystrophin gene detected by direct sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corti Stefania

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne and Becker Muscular dystrophies (DMD/BMD are allelic disorders caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which encodes a sarcolemmal protein responsible for muscle integrity. Deletions and duplications account for approximately 75% of mutations in DMD and 85% in BMD. The implementation of techniques allowing complete gene sequencing has focused attention on small point mutations and other mechanisms underlying complex rearrangements. Methods We selected 47 patients (41 families; 35 DMD, 6 BMD without deletions and duplications in DMD gene (excluded by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis. This cohort was investigated by systematic direct sequence analysis to study sequence variation. We focused our attention on rare mutational events which were further studied through transcript analysis. Results We identified 40 different nucleotide alterations in DMD gene and their clinical correlates; altogether, 16 mutations were novel. DMD probands carried 9 microinsertions/microdeletions, 19 nonsense mutations, and 7 splice-site mutations. BMD patients carried 2 nonsense mutations, 2 splice-site mutations, 1 missense substitution, and 1 single base insertion. The most frequent stop codon was TGA (n = 10 patients, followed by TAG (n = 7 and TAA (n = 4. We also analyzed the molecular mechanisms of five rare mutational events. They are two frame-shifting mutations in the DMD gene 3'end in BMD and three novel splicing defects: IVS42: c.6118-3C>A, which causes a leaky splice-site; c.9560A>G, which determines a cryptic splice-site activation and c.9564-426 T>G, which creates pseudoexon retention within IVS65. Conclusion The analysis of our patients' sample, carrying point mutations or complex rearrangements in DMD gene, contributes to the knowledge on phenotypic correlations in dystrophinopatic patients and can provide a better understanding of pre-mRNA maturation defects

  19. A novel point mutation (G[sup [minus]1] to T) in a 5[prime] splice donor site of intron 13 of the dystrophin gene results in exon skipping and is responsible for Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Yoko; Nishio, Hisahide; Kitoh, Yoshihiko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Narita, Naoko; Wada, Hiroko; Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Hajime; Matsuo, Masafumi (Kobe Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    The mutations in one-third of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients remain unknown, as they do not involve gross rearrangements of the dystrophin gene. The authors now report a defect in the splicing of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA), resulting from a maternally inherited mutation of the dystrophin gene in a patient with Becker muscular dystrophy. This defect results from a G-to-T transversion at the terminal nucleotide of exon 13, within the 5[prime] splice site of intron 13, and causes complete skipping of exon 13 during processing of dystrophin pre-mRNA. The predicted polypeptide encoded by the aberrant mRNA is a truncated dystrophin lacking 40 amino acids from the amino-proximal end of the rod domain. This is the first report of an intraexon point mutation that completely inactivates a 5[prime] splice donor site in dystrophin pre-mRNA. Analysis of the genomic context of the G[sup [minus]1]-to-T mutation at the 5[prime] splice site supports the exon-definition model of pre-mRNA splicing and contributes to the understanding of splice-site selection. 48 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from a Becker muscular dystrophy patient carrying a deletion of exons 45-55 of the dystrophin gene (CCMi002BMD-A-9 ∆45-55

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Gowran

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD is a dystrophinopathy caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene on chromosome Xp21. BMD mutations result in truncated semi-functional dystrophin isoforms. Consequently, less severe clinical symptoms become apparent later in life compared to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Dermal fibroblasts from a BMD patient were electroporated with episomal plasmids containing reprogramming factors to create the induced pluripotent stem cell line: CCMi002BMD-A-9 that showed pluripotent markers, were karyotypically normal and capable of trilineage differentiation. MLPA analyses performed on DNA extracted from CCMi002BMD-A-9 showed an in-frame deletion of exons 45 to 55 (CCMi002BMD-A-9 Δ45-55.

  1. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from a Becker muscular dystrophy patient carrying a deletion of exons 45-55 of the dystrophin gene (CCMi002BMD-A-9 ∆45-55).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowran, Aoife; Spaltro, Gabriella; Casalnuovo, Federica; Vigorelli, Vera; Spinelli, Pietro; Castiglioni, Elisa; Rovina, Davide; Paganini, Stefania; Di Segni, Marina; Gervasini, Cristina; Nigro, Patrizia; Pompilio, Giulio

    2018-04-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a dystrophinopathy caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene on chromosome Xp21. BMD mutations result in truncated semi-functional dystrophin isoforms. Consequently, less severe clinical symptoms become apparent later in life compared to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Dermal fibroblasts from a BMD patient were electroporated with episomal plasmids containing reprogramming factors to create the induced pluripotent stem cell line: CCMi002BMD-A-9 that showed pluripotent markers, were karyotypically normal and capable of trilineage differentiation. MLPA analyses performed on DNA extracted from CCMi002BMD-A-9 showed an in-frame deletion of exons 45 to 55 (CCMi002BMD-A-9 Δ45-55). Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ex vivo gene editing of the dystrophin gene in muscle stem cells mediated by peptide nucleic acid single stranded oligodeoxynucleotides induces stable expression of dystrophin in a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik-Ahd, Farnoosh; Bertoni, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which result in the complete absence of dystrophin protein throughout the body. Gene correction strategies hold promise to treating DMD. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated the ability of peptide nucleic acid single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (PNA-ssODNs) to permanently correct single-point mutations at the genomic level. In this study, we show that PNA-ssODNs can target and correct muscle satellite cells (SCs), a population of stem cells capable of self-renewing and differentiating into muscle fibers. When transplanted into skeletal muscles, SCs transfected with correcting PNA-ssODNs were able to engraft and to restore dystrophin expression. The number of dystrophin-positive fibers was shown to significantly increase over time. Expression was confirmed to be the result of the activation of a subpopulation of SCs that had undergone repair as demonstrated by immunofluorescence analyses of engrafted muscles using antibodies specific to full-length dystrophin transcripts and by genomic DNA analysis of dystrophin-positive fibers. Furthermore, the increase in dystrophin expression detected over time resulted in a significant improvement in muscle morphology. The ability of transplanted cells to return into quiescence and to activate upon demand was confirmed in all engrafted muscles following injury. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using gene editing strategies to target and correct SCs and further establish the therapeutic potential of this approach to permanently restore dystrophin expression into muscle of DMD patients. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  3. A translational approach for limb vascular delivery of the micro-dystrophin gene without high volume or high pressure for treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chicoine Louis G

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked recessive disorder with monogenic mutations setting the stage for successful gene therapy treatment. We have completed a study that directly deals with the following key issues that can be directly adapted to a gene therapy clinical trial using rAAV considering the following criteria: 1 A regional vascular delivery approach that will protect the patient from widespread dissemination of virus; 2 an approach to potentially facilitate safe passage of the virus for efficient skeletal muscle transduction; 3 the use of viral doses to accommodate current limitations imposed by vector production methods; 4 and at the same time, achieve a clinically meaningful outcome by transducing multiple muscles in the lower limb to prolong ambulation. Methods The capacity of AAV1, AAV6 or AAV8 to cross the vascular endothelial barrier carrying a micro-dystrophin cDNA was compared under identical conditions with delivery through a catheter placed in the femoral artery of the mdx mouse. Transduction efficiency was assessed by immuno-staining using an antibody (Manex1a that recognizes the N-terminus of micro-dystrophin. The degree of physiologic correction was assessed by measuring tetanic force and protection from eccentric contraction in the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL. The vascular delivery paradigm found successful in the mouse was carried to the non-human primate to test its potential translation to boys with DMD. Results Regional vascular delivery resulted in transduction by rAAV8.micro-dystrophin reaching 94.5 ± 0.9 (1 month, 91.3 ± 3.1 (2 months, and 89.6 ± 1.6% (3 months. rAAV6.micro-dystrophin treated animals demonstrated 87.7 ± 6.8 (1 month, 78.9 ± 7.4 (2 months, and 81.2 ± 6.2% (3 months transduction. In striking contrast, rAAV1 demonstrated very low transduction efficiency [0.9 ± 0.3 (1 month, 2.1 ± 0.8 (2 months, and 2.1 ± 0.7% (3 months] by vascular delivery. Micro

  4. Evaluation of point mutations in dystrophin gene in Iranian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad ... Dystrophin protein is found ... Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy; neuromuscular disorder; point mutation. ..... modern diagnostic techniques to a large cohort.

  5. Characterization of two nonsense mutations in the human dystrophin gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajkusová, L.; Pekařík, V.; Hájek, J.; Kuhrová, V.; Blažková, M.; Fajkus, Jiří

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (1998), s. 183-189 ISSN 0167-7063 R&D Projects: GA MZd IZ3700 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A17/98:Z5-004-9-ii Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.357, year: 1998

  6. Are there ethnic differences in deletions in the dystrophin gene?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, M.; Verma, I.C. [All India Inst. of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    1997-01-20

    We studied 160 cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) drawn from all parts of India, using multiplex PCR of 27 exons. Of these, 103 (64.4%) showed intragenic deletions. Most (69.7%) of the deletions involved exons 45-51. The phenotype of cases with deletion of single exons did not differ significantly from those with deletion of multiple exons. The distribution of deletions in studies from different countries was variable, but this was accounted for either by the small number of cases studied, or by fewer exons analyzed. It is concluded that there is likely to be no ethnic difference with respect to deletions in the DMD gene. 38 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. A BanI RFLP at a deletion hotspot in the human dystrophin gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, A P; Mountford, R [St. Mary' s Hospital, Manchester (England)

    1990-01-25

    Cf56a is a 0.9 kb EcoRI fragment of dystrophin cDNA in pUC13. Cf56a is identical to Kunkel's cDNA probe 8. Constant bands of 14.4, 11.0, 8.1, 6.2 and 1.3 kb correspond to exons I, N, L, N and K respectively. The polymorphic band is exon J (exon 48, 1.2+3.9 kb HindIII bands). This exon is deleted in 25% of all Duchenne/Becker dystrophy boys. Therefore this RFLP is useful for determining carrier status of at-risk females by showing heterozygosity or apparent non-maternity.

  8. Recombinase-mediated reprogramming and dystrophin gene addition in mdx mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Zhao

    Full Text Available A cell therapy strategy utilizing genetically-corrected induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC may be an attractive approach for genetic disorders such as muscular dystrophies. Methods for genetic engineering of iPSC that emphasize precision and minimize random integration would be beneficial. We demonstrate here an approach in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy that focuses on the use of site-specific recombinases to achieve genetic engineering. We employed non-viral, plasmid-mediated methods to reprogram mdx fibroblasts, using phiC31 integrase to insert a single copy of the reprogramming genes at a safe location in the genome. We next used Bxb1 integrase to add the therapeutic full-length dystrophin cDNA to the iPSC in a site-specific manner. Unwanted DNA sequences, including the reprogramming genes, were then precisely deleted with Cre resolvase. Pluripotency of the iPSC was analyzed before and after gene addition, and ability of the genetically corrected iPSC to differentiate into myogenic precursors was evaluated by morphology, immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, FACS analysis, and intramuscular engraftment. These data demonstrate a non-viral, reprogramming-plus-gene addition genetic engineering strategy utilizing site-specific recombinases that can be applied easily to mouse cells. This work introduces a significant level of precision in the genetic engineering of iPSC that can be built upon in future studies.

  9. A BanI RFLP at a deletion hotspot in the human dystrophin gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, A.P.; Mountford, R. (St. Mary' s Hospital, Manchester (England))

    1990-01-25

    Cf56a is a 0.9 kb EcoRI fragment of dystrophin cDNA in pUC13. Cf56a is identical to Kunkel's cDNA probe 8. Constant bands of 14.4, 11.0, 8.1, 6.2 and 1.3 kb correspond to exons I, N, L, N and K respectively. The polymorphic band is exon J (exon 48, 1.2+3.9 kb HindIII bands). This exon is deleted in 25% of all Duchenne/Becker dystrophy boys. Therefore this RFLP is useful for determining carrier status of at-risk females by showing heterozygosity or apparent non-maternity.

  10. Exonization of an Intronic LINE-1 Element Causing Becker Muscular Dystrophy as a Novel Mutational Mechanism in Dystrophin Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana; Oliveira, Jorge; Coelho, Teresa; Taipa, Ricardo; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Sousa, Mário; Santos, Rosário

    2017-10-03

    A broad mutational spectrum in the dystrophin ( DMD ) gene, from large deletions/duplications to point mutations, causes Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (D/BMD). Comprehensive genotyping is particularly relevant considering the mutation-centered therapies for dystrophinopathies. We report the genetic characterization of a patient with disease onset at age 13 years, elevated creatine kinase levels and reduced dystrophin labeling, where multiplex-ligation probe amplification (MLPA) and genomic sequencing failed to detect pathogenic variants. Bioinformatic, transcriptomic (real time PCR, RT-PCR), and genomic approaches (Southern blot, long-range PCR, and single molecule real-time sequencing) were used to characterize the mutation. An aberrant transcript was identified, containing a 103-nucleotide insertion between exons 51 and 52, with no similarity with the DMD gene. This corresponded to the partial exonization of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE-1), disrupting the open reading frame. Further characterization identified a complete LINE-1 (~6 kb with typical hallmarks) deeply inserted in intron 51. Haplotyping and segregation analysis demonstrated that the mutation had a de novo origin. Besides underscoring the importance of mRNA studies in genetically unsolved cases, this is the first report of a disease-causing fully intronic LINE-1 element in DMD , adding to the diversity of mutational events that give rise to D/BMD.

  11. Exonization of an Intronic LINE-1 Element Causing Becker Muscular Dystrophy as a Novel Mutational Mechanism in Dystrophin Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana; Coelho, Teresa; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Sousa, Mário

    2017-01-01

    A broad mutational spectrum in the dystrophin (DMD) gene, from large deletions/duplications to point mutations, causes Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (D/BMD). Comprehensive genotyping is particularly relevant considering the mutation-centered therapies for dystrophinopathies. We report the genetic characterization of a patient with disease onset at age 13 years, elevated creatine kinase levels and reduced dystrophin labeling, where multiplex-ligation probe amplification (MLPA) and genomic sequencing failed to detect pathogenic variants. Bioinformatic, transcriptomic (real time PCR, RT-PCR), and genomic approaches (Southern blot, long-range PCR, and single molecule real-time sequencing) were used to characterize the mutation. An aberrant transcript was identified, containing a 103-nucleotide insertion between exons 51 and 52, with no similarity with the DMD gene. This corresponded to the partial exonization of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE-1), disrupting the open reading frame. Further characterization identified a complete LINE-1 (~6 kb with typical hallmarks) deeply inserted in intron 51. Haplotyping and segregation analysis demonstrated that the mutation had a de novo origin. Besides underscoring the importance of mRNA studies in genetically unsolved cases, this is the first report of a disease-causing fully intronic LINE-1 element in DMD, adding to the diversity of mutational events that give rise to D/BMD. PMID:28972564

  12. Phase 2a study of ataluren-mediated dystrophin production in patients with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S Finkel

    Full Text Available Approximately 13% of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD have a nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene, resulting in a premature stop codon in the corresponding mRNA and failure to generate a functional protein. Ataluren (PTC124 enables ribosomal readthrough of premature stop codons, leading to production of full-length, functional proteins.This Phase 2a open-label, sequential dose-ranging trial recruited 38 boys with nonsense mutation DMD. The first cohort (n = 6 received ataluren three times per day at morning, midday, and evening doses of 4, 4, and 8 mg/kg; the second cohort (n = 20 was dosed at 10, 10, 20 mg/kg; and the third cohort (n = 12 was dosed at 20, 20, 40 mg/kg. Treatment duration was 28 days. Change in full-length dystrophin expression, as assessed by immunostaining in pre- and post-treatment muscle biopsy specimens, was the primary endpoint.Twenty three of 38 (61% subjects demonstrated increases in post-treatment dystrophin expression in a quantitative analysis assessing the ratio of dystrophin/spectrin. A qualitative analysis also showed positive changes in dystrophin expression. Expression was not associated with nonsense mutation type or exon location. Ataluren trough plasma concentrations active in the mdx mouse model were consistently achieved at the mid- and high- dose levels in participants. Ataluren was generally well tolerated.Ataluren showed activity and safety in this short-term study, supporting evaluation of ataluren 10, 10, 20 mg/kg and 20, 20, 40 mg/kg in a Phase 2b, double-blind, long-term study in nonsense mutation DMD.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00264888.

  13. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  14. Download

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    2, Nov. 2009. Copyright: All rights reserved for the Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... Technology, Atomic Energy Authority. Background: ... for the inefficient splicing of dystrophin gene during its expression and can be implicated ... caveolin gene family and many signal- ... of its production in muscle could cause.

  15. Early-progressive dilated cardiomyopathy in a family with Becker muscular dystrophy related to a novel frameshift mutation in the dystrophin gene exon 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Takeshi; Fitzgerald, Kristi; Scavena, Mena; Gidding, Samuel; Cox, Mary O; Marks, Harold; Flanigan, Kevin M; Moore, Steven A

    2015-03-01

    We report a family in which two male siblings with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) developed severe dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and progressive heart failure (HF) at age 11 years; one died at age 14 years while awaiting heart transplant and the other underwent left ventricular assist device implantation at the same age. Genetic analysis of one sibling showed a novel frameshift mutation in exon 27 of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene (c.3779_3785delCTTTGGAinsGG), in which seven base pairs are deleted and two are inserted. Although this predicts an amino-acid substitution and premature termination (p.Thr1260Argfs*8), muscle biopsy dystrophin immunostaining instead indicates that the mutation is more likely to alter splicing. Despite relatively preserved skeletal muscular performance, both the siblings developed progressive HF secondary to early-onset DCM. In addition, their 7-year-old nephew with delayed gross motor development, mild proximal muscle weakness and markedly elevated serum creatine kinase level (>13 000 IU l(-1)) at 16 months was recently demonstrated to have the familial DMD mutation. Here, we report a novel genotype of BMD with early-onset DCM and progressive lethal HF during early adolescence.

  16. Molecular Analysis-Based Genetic Characterization of a Cohort of Patients with Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui-Hui; Sun, Xue-Ping; Shi, Ming-Chao; Yi, Yong-Xiang; Cheng, Hong; Wang, Xing-Xia; Xu, Qing-Cheng; Ma, Hong-Ming; Wu, Hao-Quan; Jin, Qing-Wen; Niu, Qi

    2018-04-05

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are common X-linked recessive neuromuscular disorders caused by mutations in dystrophin gene. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multiplex PCR) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) are the most common methods for detecting dystrophin gene mutations. This study aimed to contrast the two methods and discern the genetic characterization of patients with DMD/BMD in Eastern China. We collected 121 probands, 64 mothers of probands, and 15 fetuses in our study. The dystrophin gene was detected by multiplex PCR primarily in 28 probands, and MLPA was used in multiplex PCR-negative cases subsequently. The dystrophin gene of the remaining 93 probands and 62 female potential carriers was tested by MLPA directly. In fetuses, multiplex PCR and MLPA were performed on 4 fetuses and 10 fetuses, respectively. In addition, sequencing was also performed in 4 probands with negative MLPA. We found that 61.98% of the subjects had genetic mutations including deletions (50.41%) and duplications (11.57%). There were 43.75% of mothers as carriers of the mutation. In 15 fetuses, 2 out of 7 male fetuses were found to be unhealthy and 2 out of 8 female fetuses were found to be carriers. Exons 3-26 and 45-52 have the maximum frequency in mutation regions. In the frequency of exons individually, exon 47 and exon 50 were the most common in deleted regions and exons 5, 6, and 7 were found most frequently in duplicated regions. MLPA has better productivity and sensitivity than multiplex PCR. Prenatal diagnosis should be applied in DMD high-risk fetuses to reduce the disease incidence. Furthermore, it is the responsibility of physicians to inform female carriers the importance of prenatal diagnosis.

  17. Morpholino oligomer-mediated exon skipping averts the onset of dystrophic pathology in the mdx mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Sue; Honeyman, Kaite; Fall, Abbie M; Harding, Penny L; Johnsen, Russell D; Steinhaus, Joshua P; Moulton, Hong M; Iversen, Patrick L; Wilton, Stephen D

    2007-09-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies are allelic disorders arising from mutations in the dystrophin gene. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by an absence of functional protein, whereas Becker muscular dystrophy, commonly caused by in-frame deletions, shows synthesis of partially functional protein. Anti-sense oligonucleotides can induce specific exon removal during processing of the dystrophin primary transcript, while maintaining or restoring the reading frame, and thereby overcome protein-truncating mutations. The mdx mouse has a non-sense mutation in exon 23 of the dystrophin gene that precludes functional dystrophin production, and this model has been used in the development of treatment strategies for dystrophinopathies. A phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) has previously been shown to exclude exon 23 from the dystrophin gene transcript and induce dystrophin expression in the mdxmouse, in vivo and in vitro. In this report, a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-conjugated oligomer targeted to the mouse dystrophin exon 23 donor splice site was administered to mdxmice by intraperitoneal injection. We demonstrate dystrophin expression and near-normal muscle architecture in all muscles examined, except for cardiac muscle. The CPP greatly enhanced uptake of the PMO, resulting in widespread dystrophin expression.

  18. Tissue distribution of the dystrophin-related gene product and expression in the mdx and dy mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, D.R.; Marsden, R.F.; Bloomfield, J.F.; Davies, K.E. (John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (England)); Morris, G.E.; Ellis, J.M. (North East Wales Inst., Deeside, Wales (England)); Fairbrother, U.; Edwards, Y.H. (Univ. College London (England)); Slater, C.P. (Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (England)); Parry, D.J. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-04-15

    The authors have previously reported a dystrophin-related locus (DMDL for Duchenne muscular dystrophy-like) on human chromosome 6 that maps close to the dy mutation on mouse chromosome 10. Here they show that this gene is expressed in a wide range of tissues at varying levels. The transcript is particularly abundant in several human fetal tissues, including heart, placenta, and intestine. Studies with antisera raised against a DMDL fusion protein identify a 400,000 M{sub r} protein in all mouse tissues tested, including those of mdx and dy mice. Unlike the dystrophin gene, the DMDL gene transcript is not differentially spliced at the 3{prime} end in either fetal muscle or brain.

  19. Detection of somatic mosaicism in DMD using computer-assisted laser densitometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J.E.; Allingham-Hawkins, D.J.; MacKenzie, J. [Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Approximately two-thirds of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients have a deletion in the dystrophin gene located at Xp21.1. Two PCR-based multiplex systems have been developed which detect 98% of deletions in affected males. Diagnosis of carrier females requires densitometry of PCR products following gel electrophoresis to calculate dosage of specific exons. We have developed a system in which fluorescently labelled PCR products are analysed using a GENESCANNER automated fragment analyser (ABI). Dosage is determined using computer-assisted laser densitometry (CALD). Recently, we diagnosed somatic mosaicism in the mother of an affected boy using this method. PCR analysis showed that the patient had a deletion that included exons 47-51 of his dystrophin gene. CALD analysis on the patient`s 36-year-old mother revealed a 29-34% reduction in the intensity of the bands corresponding to the deleted region of the gene rather than the 50% reduction normally seen in carrier females. A skin biopsy was obtain and monoclonal fibroblast colonies were tested by CALD for the deletion. Four of the twenty colonies screened were found to be deleted while the remaining colonies had two intact copies of the gene. We conclude that this patient is a somatic mosaic for DMD and that the mutation was the result of a post-zygotic event. This is the only case of somatic mosaicism detected among 800 women from 400 DMD families tested using CALD in our laboratory. At least one other case of possible somatic mosaicism has been reported but not confirmed. Germinal mosaicism is thought to occur in approximately 10% of mothers of sporadic DMD patients. Our findings indicate that somatic mosaicism is a much rarer condition among DMD carriers, thus suggesting that mitotic mutations in the dystrophin gene are more likely to occur later in embryogenesis after differentiation of the germline.

  20. Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Tweet Share Compartir Find Fact Sheets on Products (Cigars, Bidis and Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka) and ...

  1. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here...

  2. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Riis, Jesper

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way...... from more than 40 product configuration projects in companies providing customer tailored products and services........ The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes...

  3. Workforce productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2012-10-26

    Managers who are responsible for delivering the workforce productivity element of the Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention (QIPP) programme can network and share best practice through a dedicated NHS Employers webpage.

  4. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Photosynthetic production in the oceans in relation to light, nutrients and mixing processes is discussed. Primary productivity in the estuarine region is reported to be high in comparison to coastal and oceanic waters. Upwelling phenomenon...

  5. Mutation spectrum analysis of Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy in 68 families in Kuwait: The era of personalized medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawziah Mohammed

    Full Text Available Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD/BMD are X-linked recessive neuromuscular disorders characterized by progressive irreversible muscle weakness and atrophy that affect both skeletal and cardiac muscles. DMD/BMD is caused by mutations in the Dystrophin gene on the X chromosome, leading to the absence of the essential muscle protein Dystrophin in DMD. In BMD, Dystrophin is partially functioning with a shorter protein product. Recent advances in molecular therapies for DMD require precise genetic diagnoses because most therapeutic strategies are mutation-specific. Hence, early diagnosis is crucial to allow appropriate planning for patient care and treatment. In this study, data from DMD/BMD patients who attended the Kuwait Medical Genetic Center during the last 20 years was retrieved from a Kuwait neuromuscular registry and analyzed. We combined multiplex PCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA with Sanger sequencing to detect Dystrophin gene mutations. A total of 35 different large rearrangements, 2 deletion-insertions (Indels and 4 substitution mutations were identified in the 68 unrelated families. The deletion and duplication rates were 66.2% and 4.4%, respectively. The analyzed data from our registry revealed that 11 (16% of the DMD families will benefit from newly introduced therapies (Ataluren and exon 51 skipping. At the time of submitting this paper, two cases have already enrolled in Ataluren (Tranlsarna™ therapy, and one case has been enrolled in exon 51 skipping therapy.

  6. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  7. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  8. Swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  9. Antiproton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaby, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    The basic definitions used in the physics literature on particle production are reviewed. The data on anti p production are interpreted in order to provide an estimate of the yield of anti p's from typical target at the antiproton accumulator, including the effects of re-absorption in the target. (orig.)

  10. Radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The trial production runs started in the previous report period were continued and have been extended to 67 Ga, 81 Rb/ 81m Kr and 111 In, the production of which will be taken over from the Pretoria cyclotron at the end of this year, when that machine is scheduled to be shut down. After commissioning of the target water cooling system and the helium cooling system for beam foil windows at the beginning of this year, these production runs could also be extended to high beam currents (up to 50 μA). Test consignments of a number of products have been supplied to various potential future users, and 123 I, in the form of Na 123 I capsules as well as 123 I-sodium hippurate, and 52 Fe-citrate have actually been used with success in trial diagnostic studies on patients. A procedure for labelling IPPA and 3-IPMPA with 123 I has been developed, while initial work has also been done on the radioiodination of monoclonal antifibrine antibodies. The last major facility needed for the commencement of the routine radioisotope production programme, namely the multiple-target facility, is now ready for installation in the production vault within the next few weeks, and routine production runs are expected to start in November 1988. 4 figs., 18 refs

  11. Ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolleurp, F; Daugulis, A J

    1985-05-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce the effect of end-product inhibition through the use of a water-immiscible phase which removes fermentation products in situ. This has the beneficial effect of not only removing inhibitory products as they are formed (thus keeping reaction rates high) but also has the potential for reducing product recovery costs. We have chosen to examine the ethanol fermentation as a model system for end product inhibition and extractive fermentation, and have developed a computer model predicting the productivity enhancement possible with this technique. The model predicts an ethanol productivity of 82.6 g/L-h if a glucose feed of 750 g/L is fermented with a solvent having a distribution coefficient of 0.5 at a dilution rate of 5.0 h . This is more than 10 times higher than for a conventional chemostat fermentation of a 250 g/L glucose feed. In light of this, a systematic approach to extractive fermentation has been undertaken involving the screening of more than 1,000 solvents for their extractive properties. UNIFAC and UNIQUAC estimates of distribution coefficients and selectivities were compiled and ranked in a database, together with other important physical properties, such as density, surface tension and viscosity. Preliminary shake-flask and chemostat biocompatibility studies on the most promising solvents have been undertaken. The previous predictive, data base and experimental results are discussed.

  12. Product plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Hadley; Hofmann, Heike

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new framework for visualising tables of counts, proportions and probabilities. We call our framework product plots, alluding to the computation of area as a product of height and width, and the statistical concept of generating a joint distribution from the product of conditional and marginal distributions. The framework, with extensions, is sufficient to encompass over 20 visualisations previously described in fields of statistical graphics and infovis, including bar charts, mosaic plots, treemaps, equal area plots and fluctuation diagrams. © 2011 IEEE

  13. Tanning Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... must obtain a signed, FDA-prescribed risk acknowledgement certification before use that states that they have been informed of the risks to health that may result from use of sunlamp products. Using tanning lamps, booths, or beds: If you ...

  14. Bc production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusignoli, M.; Masetti, M.; Petrarca, S.

    1991-01-01

    The pseudoscalar meson B c is the simplest particle containing more than one heavy quark of different flavours. Its production cross sections at accelerators presently running or in project are estimated using the HERWIG parton shower Monte Carlo code. (orig.)

  15. Production models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The Project is co-financed with Nilpeter A/S and investigates the industrialization of build to order production. Project content: - Enterprise engineering - Specification processes - Mass Customization/ Build To Order - Knowledge/information management - Configuration - Supply Chain Management...

  16. Marketplace Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics, within the Centers for Medicare aqnd Medicaid Services (CMS), has developed a set of information products and analytics...

  17. Lean production

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this Bachelor's Thesis is to describe the general principles of lean production and afterwards apply these principles in a particular company. Due to the changing conditions on the world market is among companies growing concern about such innovative business systems. The theoretical part of this work deals with the general characteristics of lean production, including their history and focus on Toyota, as the originator of most lean systems. Mentioned are also the economic aspect...

  18. Productive Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstätter , Ulrich; Sommerer , Christa

    2016-01-01

    Part 4: Short Papers; International audience; Video games can be appropriated for productive purposes. Commercial games and game engines are often used for video productions, and game development companies provide development kits and modding environments to gaming communities and independent developers. With gamification, game principles are deployed in non-game contexts for benefits beyond pure entertainment. Most approaches are more focused on using games and their design elements rather t...

  19. Biocidal Products and Borderline Products

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Biocidal product is defined as preparations sold in ready form to use that contains one or more active substances and has control effect, movement restriction or destruction against harmful organisms which has harmful effect on products that people use or produce or animals or environment. These substances which are composed mostly chemicals and ease our lifes are used in increasingly every areas of our life on the other hand they carry variety of risks and threaten our lives. In terms of env...

  20. Somatodendritic and excitatory postsynaptic distribution of neuron-type dystrophin isoform, Dp40, in hippocampal neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of dystrophin (Dp) shortest isoform, Dp40, is a neuron-type Dp. • Dp40 expression is temporally and differentially regulated in comparison to Dp71. • Somatodendritic and nuclear localization of Dp40. • Dp40 is localized to excitatory postsynapses. • Dp40 might play roles in dendritic and synaptic functions. - Abstract: The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produces multiple dystrophin (Dp) products due to the presence of several promoters. We previously reported the existence of a novel short isoform of Dp, Dp40, in adult mouse brain. However, the exact biochemical expression profile and cytological distribution of the Dp40 protein remain unknown. In this study, we generated a polyclonal antibody against the NH 2 -terminal region of the Dp40 and identified the expression profile of Dp40 in the mouse brain. Through an analysis using embryonic and postnatal mouse cerebrums, we found that Dp40 emerged from the early neonatal stages until adulthood, whereas Dp71, an another Dp short isoform, was highly detected in both prenatal and postnatal cerebrums. Intriguingly, relative expressions of Dp40 and Dp71 were prominent in cultured dissociated neurons and non-neuronal cells derived from mouse hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore, the immunocytological distribution of Dp40 was analyzed in dissociated cultured neurons, revealing that Dp40 is detected in the soma and its dendrites, but not in the axon. It is worthy to note that Dp40 is localized along the subplasmalemmal region of the dendritic shafts, as well as at excitatory postsynaptic sites. Thus, Dp40 was identified as a neuron-type Dp possibly involving dendritic and synaptic functions

  1. Somatodendritic and excitatory postsynaptic distribution of neuron-type dystrophin isoform, Dp40, in hippocampal neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Kyoko, E-mail: kxi14@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: • Identification of dystrophin (Dp) shortest isoform, Dp40, is a neuron-type Dp. • Dp40 expression is temporally and differentially regulated in comparison to Dp71. • Somatodendritic and nuclear localization of Dp40. • Dp40 is localized to excitatory postsynapses. • Dp40 might play roles in dendritic and synaptic functions. - Abstract: The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produces multiple dystrophin (Dp) products due to the presence of several promoters. We previously reported the existence of a novel short isoform of Dp, Dp40, in adult mouse brain. However, the exact biochemical expression profile and cytological distribution of the Dp40 protein remain unknown. In this study, we generated a polyclonal antibody against the NH{sub 2}-terminal region of the Dp40 and identified the expression profile of Dp40 in the mouse brain. Through an analysis using embryonic and postnatal mouse cerebrums, we found that Dp40 emerged from the early neonatal stages until adulthood, whereas Dp71, an another Dp short isoform, was highly detected in both prenatal and postnatal cerebrums. Intriguingly, relative expressions of Dp40 and Dp71 were prominent in cultured dissociated neurons and non-neuronal cells derived from mouse hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore, the immunocytological distribution of Dp40 was analyzed in dissociated cultured neurons, revealing that Dp40 is detected in the soma and its dendrites, but not in the axon. It is worthy to note that Dp40 is localized along the subplasmalemmal region of the dendritic shafts, as well as at excitatory postsynaptic sites. Thus, Dp40 was identified as a neuron-type Dp possibly involving dendritic and synaptic functions.

  2. Environmental products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This volume in the series of directories of Quebec organizations doing research and development involving biomass-based products or processes focused on environmental products and services. The objective of this, and other directories in the series, was to stimulate interaction, and hence more aggressive development, of products and processes capable of being commercialized, to facilitate interaction between those who possess and those who could utilize biomass resources, and in general, to encourage the development of biomass-based industries. A total of 83 organizations were included in standardized format, describing areas of research interest, principal areas of technological expertise, major equipment, personnel and name and address of contact person. In this volume fields of research interest included environmental audits, waste treatment, biodegradation, composting, oxidation, photodegradation, disinfection and combustion. tabs

  3. Uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spriggs, M.

    1980-01-01

    The balance between uranium supply and demand is examined. Should new resources become necessary, some unconventional sources which could be considered include low-grade extensions to conventional deposits, certain types of intrusive rock, tuffs, and lake and sea-bed sediments. In addition there are large but very low grade deposits in carbonaceous shales, granites, and seawater. The possibility of recovery is discussed. Programmes of research into the feasibility of extraction of uranium from seawater, as a by-product from phosphoric acid production, and from copper leach solutions, are briefly discussed. Other possible sources are coal, old mine dumps and tailings, the latter being successfully exploited commercially in South Africa. The greatest constraints on increased development of U from lower grade sources are economics and environmental impact. It is concluded that apart from U as a by-product from phosphate, other sources are unlikely to contribute much to world requirements in the foreseeable future. (U.K.)

  4. Bottom production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

  5. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  6. Phytosanitary products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    One of a series of directories of Quebec universities, industrial and governmental agencies in Quebec actively involved in research and development of phytosanitary products or services derived from or associated with biomass products. This directory contained standardized entries for 79 organizations from the agriculture, forestry and environmental sectors, active in fields ranging from genetic engineering, fertilizers, crop diseases and pest management, forestry management, harvesting methods and bioconversion. Each entry provided information about major fields of research interest, principal technologies utilized, major equipment, personnel, and name and address of person to be contacted for further information. tabs

  7. Aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, B.; Ayers, J.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium is the most important non-ferrous metal by quantity. Aluminium is produced by electrolysis of aluminium oxide (also known as alumina). Alumina is produced by refining bauxite. The quantity of primary and secondary aluminium production in ECE-countries between 1992 and 1998 is shown. The European aluminium industry employs approximately 200 000 employees. The annual aluminium production in the European Union was 3.58 million tonnes in 1994, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. In 1996 3.96 million tonnes of aluminium were produced in the EU, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. (author)

  8. Uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.Q.

    1981-01-01

    The domestic uranium industry is in a state of stagflation. Costs continue to rise while the market for the product remains stagnant. During the last 12 months, curtailments and closures of mines and mills have eliminated over 5000 jobs in the industry, plus many more in those industries that furnish supplies and services. By January 1982, operations at four mills and the mines that furnish them ore will have been terminated. Other closures may follow, depending on cost trends, duration of current contracts, the degree to which mills have been amortized, the feasibility of placing mines on standby, the grade of the ore, and many other factors. Open-pit mines can be placed on standby without much difficulty, other than the possible cost of restoration before all the ore has been removed. There are a few small, dry, underground mines that could be mothballed; however, the major underground producers are wet sandstone mines that in most cases could not be reopened after a prolonged shutdown; mills can be mothballed for several years. Figure 8 shows the location of all the production centers in operation, as well as those that have operated or are on standby. Table 1 lists the same production centers plus those that have been deferred, showing nominal capacity of conventional mills in tons of ore per calendar day, and the industry production rate for those mills as of October 1, 1981

  9. Novolak Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Hiroshi

    Novolak resins are produced by reacting formaldehyde (30-55% concentration) with phenol under acidic conditions, with oxalic acid as the preferred catalyst and in special conditions, sulfuric acid. Depending on the batch size, all raw material components can be introduced into the reactor, or when there is an increase in the batch size as well as in the reactor volume, the reaction exotherm is controlled by a gradual addition of formaldehyde. Modern novolak production facilities are automated and programmed for reduced operational cost. A flow diagram of a general production line for the manufacture of novolak is shown. Recovery of the novolak is accomplished by the removal of water and devolatilization of crude novolak to molten, low-free phenol novolak resin which can be isolated as flake or pastille or dissolved in appropriate solvents. Novolak is stored either in a solid flake or pastille form or in solution. Most production is conducted under atmospheric conditions, but there are some recent, novel activities such as pressure in a hermetically-closed reactor reaching 0.1-10 MPa by using the heat of reaction without reflux to shorten reaction time, accelerating dehydration time by flash distillation, and providing economic benefit in the cost of novolak production.

  10. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  11. Tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, M

    1995-01-01

    Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively.

  12. Lepton production

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment aims to settle open questions in the hadronic production of electrons, muons and neutrinos. Prominent among these are $e/\\mu$ universality, the contribution of charm decay to lepton pair production, and the "anomalous" low mass pairs.\\\\ The experimental design aims to optimize the combination of:\\\\- electron identification\\\\ - muon identification \\\\ - missing energy measurement for neutrinos \\\\ - vertex identification (for $\\tau \\simeq \\tau_{charm}$). \\\\ \\\\ The major components of the apparatus are shown in the figure. In the vertex region a proton beam of transverse size $\\simeq 50 \\mu$ impinges on a beryllium target of diameter $50 \\mu$, and high precision tracking in the vertex region is achieved by silicon strip detectors. Charged particle momenta are measured using a dipole magnet and high resolution drift chambers. Electrons are identified by the combination of the transition radiation detector and the finely segmented front section of the Uranium/Liquid Argon calorimeter. Essentially t...

  13. Product customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This case study deals with the extension, customization, and profitability of two new product lines of a bicycle manufacturer. It can serve both as a discussion basis in class as well as an exam for advanced Master students in management, marketing, and ccounting. The case illustrates how variance...... application of financial analysis can lead to dysfunctional decisions that run counter to a company’s business model....

  14. Isotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Dewi M.

    1995-07-15

    Some 2 0% of patients using radiopharmaceuticals receive injections of materials produced by cyclotrons. There are over 200 cyclotrons worldwide; around 35 are operated by commercial companies solely for the production of radio-pharmaceuticals with another 25 accelerators producing medically useful isotopes. These neutron-deficient isotopes are usually produced by proton bombardment. All commonly used medical isotopes can be generated by 'compact' cyclotrons with energies up to 40 MeV and beam intensities in the range 50 to 400 microamps. Specially designed target systems contain gram-quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes as starting materials. The targets can accommodate the high power densities of the proton beams and are designed for automated remote handling. The complete manufacturing cycle includes large-scale target production, isotope generation by cyclotron beam bombardment, radio-chemical extraction, pharmaceutical dispensing, raw material recovery, and labelling/packaging prior to the rapid delivery of these short-lived products. All these manufacturing steps adhere to the pharmaceutical industry standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Unlike research accelerators, commercial cyclotrons are customized 'compact' machines usually supplied by specialist companies such as IBA (Belgium), EBCO (Canada) or Scanditronix (Sweden). The design criteria for these commercial cyclotrons are - small magnet dimensions, power-efficient operation of magnet and radiofrequency systems, high intensity extracted proton beams, well defined beam size and automated computer control. Performance requirements include rapid startup and shutdown, high reliability to support the daily production of short-lived isotopes and low maintenance to minimize the radiation dose to personnel. In 1987 a major step forward in meeting these exacting industrial requirements came when IBA, together with the University of Louvain-La-Neuve in Belgium, developed the Cyclone-30

  15. Diboson production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans D.L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of diboson production cross sections in pp collisions at the LHC at a centre of mass energy √s = 7 and 8 TeV, and in pp̅ collisions at the Tevatron at √s = 1.96 TeV are reviewed and compared with standard model predictions. Limits on charged and neutral anomalous triple gauge couplings extracted from the selected diboson event samples are also compared.

  16. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products......, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product...... design is carried out by modeling the product based on thermodynamics, kinetics and transport processes, by performing experiments, and by decision making based on rule-based methods The results are product specifications in terms of the type of ingredients, composition, and the structure, form, shape...

  17. New Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    铭瑄

    2012-01-01

    Double Coin Holdings Launch New OTR Tire REM-15 With the increase of the demand for large-scale bulldozer in American market, Double Coin Group Co., Ltd. developed the Double Coin REM-15 OTR tire. This product is applicable for large-scale loader and bulldozer. The most remarkable characteristic is that it has good energy-saving performance and durability with low operating cost while the performances of tires aren't lowered. The new REM-15 is currently offered in the 17.5R25 size, which will be expanded to larger sizes in the future.

  18. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  19. Bottom Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, P.; Schneider, O.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Vikas, P.; Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell'Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-01-01

    We review the prospects for bottom production physics at the LHC. Members of the working group who has contributed to this document are: J. Baines, S.P. Baranov, P. Bartalini, A. Bay, E. Bouhova, M. Cacciari, A. Caner, Y. Coadou, G. Corti, J. Damet, R. Dell'Orso, J.R.T. De Mello Neto, J.L. Domenech, V. Drollinger, P. Eerola, N. Ellis, B. Epp, S. Frixione, S. Gadomski, I. Gavrilenko, S. Gennai, S. George, V.M. Ghete, L. Guy, Y. Hasegawa, P. Iengo, A. Jacholkowska, R. Jones, A. Kharchilava, E. Kneringer, P. Koppenburg, H. Korsmo, M. Kraemer, N. Labanca, M. Lehto, F. Maltoni, M.L. Mangano, S. Mele, A.M. Nairz, T. Nakada, N. Nikitin, A. Nisati, E. Norrbin, F. Palla, F. Rizatdinova, S. Robins, D. Rousseau, M.A. Sanchis-Lozano, M. Shapiro, P. Sherwood, L. Smirnova, M. Smizanska, A. Starodumov, N. Stepanov, R. Vogt

  20. Production management (1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Ryong

    1976-03-01

    This book introduces production management theory, which gives descriptions of production and system, systems approach, development of production management, Taylor system, Ford system, types of production system, measuring ingredients model of production management, decision of production management, selection of production facilities, arrangement of facilities design of work method and task, work measure system, demanding fore casting, production quality system and credibility system.

  1. From Product Models to Product State Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    A well-known technology designed to handle product data is Product Models. Product Models are in their current form not able to handle all types of product state information. Hence, the concept of a Product State Model (PSM) is proposed. The PSM and in particular how to model a PSM is the Research...

  2. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  3. Somatodendritic and excitatory postsynaptic distribution of neuron-type dystrophin isoform, Dp40, in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-09-12

    The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produces multiple dystrophin (Dp) products due to the presence of several promoters. We previously reported the existence of a novel short isoform of Dp, Dp40, in adult mouse brain. However, the exact biochemical expression profile and cytological distribution of the Dp40 protein remain unknown. In this study, we generated a polyclonal antibody against the NH2-terminal region of the Dp40 and identified the expression profile of Dp40 in the mouse brain. Through an analysis using embryonic and postnatal mouse cerebrums, we found that Dp40 emerged from the early neonatal stages until adulthood, whereas Dp71, an another Dp short isoform, was highly detected in both prenatal and postnatal cerebrums. Intriguingly, relative expressions of Dp40 and Dp71 were prominent in cultured dissociated neurons and non-neuronal cells derived from mouse hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore, the immunocytological distribution of Dp40 was analyzed in dissociated cultured neurons, revealing that Dp40 is detected in the soma and its dendrites, but not in the axon. It is worthy to note that Dp40 is localized along the subplasmalemmal region of the dendritic shafts, as well as at excitatory postsynaptic sites. Thus, Dp40 was identified as a neuron-type Dp possibly involving dendritic and synaptic functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Innovation in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2005-01-01

    The course on Innovation in Product Development attempts to identify and understand the nature of innovation and product development and their important factors. The course takes both a theoretical and a practical approach and employs a mix of lectures, project work and group discussion. Format...... insight. Course content The following aspects of innovation in product development are considered: - Humans and products - Needs and products - Product life - Teams creating products - Products creating business - Product development models - Organising product development - Product development tools...... - The future of product development....

  5. SaferProducts API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — On March 11, 2011, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission launched SaferProducts.gov. This site hosts the agency's new Publicly Available Consumer Product...

  6. Product and labour market regulations, production prices, wages and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cette, G.; Lopez, J.; Mairesse, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the effects of product and labour market regulations on industry productivity through their various impacts on changes in production prices and wages. In a first stage, the estimation of a regression equation on an industry*country panel, with controls for

  7. Production management (2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chung Yeong

    2000-08-01

    This book includes basic concept of production management, production system, strategy and mission of production, decision of production management, operation of decision making, life cycle of items and development, value of productions, design for reliability of productions, equipment layout and manufacturing process, quantitative forecast, schedule plan, inventory system, concept, input and output of MRP, Montekalo simulation, quality management, and automation system.

  8. Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems......Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems...

  9. Production monitoring system for understanding product robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    study is used to demonstrate how the monitoring system can be used to efficiently guide corrective action to improve product performance. It is claimed that the monitoring system can be used to dramatically cut the time taken to identify, planand execute corrective action related to typical quality......In the current quality paradigm, the performance of a product is kept within specification by ensuring that its parts are within specification. Product performance is then validated after final assembly. However, this does not control how robust the product performance is, i.e. how much...... it will vary between the specification limits. In this paper, a model for predicting product performance is proposed, taking into account design, assembly and process parameters live from production. This empowers production to maintain final product performance, instead of part quality. The PRECI‐IN case...

  10. Productivity and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Spring, Martin

    This study explores conceptually how performance measurement as discussed in the literature, enables or constrains the ability to manage and improve productivity. It uses an inter-disciplinary literature review to identify five areas of concern relating productivity accounting to the ability...... to improve productivity: “Productivity representation”; “productivity incentives”, “productivity intervention”; “productivity trade-off or synergy” and “productivity strategy and context”. The paper discusses these areas of concern and expands our knowledge of how productivity and performance measurement...

  11. A duchenne muscular dystrophy gene hot spot mutation in dystrophin-deficient cavalier king charles spaniels is amenable to exon 51 skipping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma L Walmsley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, which afflicts 1 in 3500 boys, is one of the most common genetic disorders of children. This fatal degenerative condition is caused by an absence or deficiency of dystrophin in striated muscle. Most affected patients have inherited or spontaneous deletions in the dystrophin gene that disrupt the reading frame resulting in unstable truncated products. For these patients, restoration of the reading frame via antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon skipping is a promising therapeutic approach. The major DMD deletion "hot spot" is found between exons 45 and 53, and skipping exon 51 in particular is predicted to ameliorate the dystrophic phenotype in the greatest number of patients. Currently the mdx mouse is the most widely used animal model of DMD, although its mild phenotype limits its suitability in clinical trials. The Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD model has a severe phenotype, but due to its large size, is expensive to use. Both these models have mutations in regions of the dystrophin gene distant from the commonly mutated DMD "hot spot".Here we describe the severe phenotype, histopathological findings, and molecular analysis of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy (CKCS-MD. The dogs harbour a missense mutation in the 5' donor splice site of exon 50 that results in deletion of exon 50 in mRNA transcripts and a predicted premature truncation of the translated protein. Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated skipping of exon 51 in cultured myoblasts from an affected dog restored the reading frame and protein expression.Given the small size of the breed, the amiable temperament and the nature of the mutation, we propose that CKCS-MD is a valuable new model for clinical trials of antisense oligonucleotide-induced exon skipping and other therapeutic approaches for DMD.

  12. Product Structure, the Heart of Product Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoog, C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the LMMSS Product Definition System (PDS) philosophy and approach were the use of each item parts document or software can be traced to a specific end item (EI) serial/tail number of the product. It explains why a part-oriented approach to data organization and configuration management is required. The definition of part-oriented is that all appropriate product definition data products will be collected. Referenced and managed by their linkage/relationship to parts/items, The paper will touch upon how LMMSS store/controls product definition information under each project's top product designator in a two tiered approach. One tier for each product end item and another tier which contain/controls listings of drawings, documents. Specifications and standards that are required for hardware item definition.

  13. Heavy Flavour Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, Paolo; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1995-01-01

    We review the status of heavy flavour production in QCD. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results for top and bottom production are given. Selected topics in charm production are also discussed.

  14. Animal Product Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Product Safety Information Product Safety Information Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... to report adverse experiences with veterinary drugs. Additional Product Information Questions and Answers: Evanger’s Dog and Cat ...

  15. Urinary incontinence products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003973.htm Urinary incontinence products To use the sharing features on this ... There are many products to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which product to choose based ...

  16. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS FUNCTIONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cottage cheese products holds a significant place among the dairy and milk-containing products. The range of products includes cheese: cheese, pastes, creams, cakes, etc. Such diversity can be attributed to their popularity among the population and benefit brought by the body from regular use. Curd protein is much better and easier to digest by the body than protein fish, meat or milk. Rich curd products lysine and methionine. Minerals contained in cheese products have a positive effect on bone formation and structure of tissues. The composition of curd products, in addition to cheese and dairy ingredients may include non-dairy ingredients origin. Today, for the production of cheese products use the most advanced technologies to further enrich its structure and significantly improve the nutritional value. Pine nut is widely used in the manufacture of many dairy products. But, in most cases, the production of dairy products as a filler used pine nut cake, which deprives the finished product valuable cedar oil. The authors proposed a technology for producing curd product with the addition of pine nuts and honey (pine nuts and fructose. Compatible with cream cheese filling insertion determined sensory organoleptic point scale. he optimum dosage of components: pine nuts – 5 %, honey – 10 % fructose – 7 %. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations training components and their introduction into the finished cheese. Identify indicators of quality of the new product. Production of curd products thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  17. STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to point a set of practical strategies that can be adopted to increase the capacity of constraints resources on production systems, when the constraint is inside the factory and not is in the market. To serve this purpose will be presented strategies based on best practices of the Theory of Constraints, Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This article also presents the mains tools for the deployment of these methodologies. The survey results have provided an objective set of practical strategy that can be used to increase the capacity and productivity of production systems according to the needs of each manufacturing system.

  18. PDT (Product Data Technology), Production and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that products are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce products dramatically....... The use of ICT in engineering of products constitutes product data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking outset in the fundamental elements of knowledge and information work: creation, transformation...

  19. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  20. Intelligent products : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, G.G.; Främling, K.; Holmström, J.

    This paper presents an overview of the field of Intelligent Products. As Intelligent Products have many facets, this paper is mainly focused on the concept behind Intelligent Products, the technical foundations, and the achievable practical goals of Intelligent Products. A novel classification of

  1. Making Product Customization Profitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply...

  2. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  3. Ergonomic Product Design 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Guk

    1996-09-01

    This book explains basic of ergonomic product design with human engineering, image engineering and strategy of that design, ergonomic industrial design, which includes product design to access the human engineering in development of new product and customer satisfaction, application technology of image engineering, industrial design of human engineering item and strategy of human engineering, a good ergonomic design. It also tells of examples of convenient design for human such as hardware product and software product in automobile, telephones for ergonomic product in the future, new goods and new technology, ergonomic product in house and office, and computers and robots in the future.

  4. Product Family Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Morten

    their focus from single products to entire product families and try to incorporate the development of product variety into a future product family. The key is to create fit between the product design and production setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between...... and on the ideas of lean production, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a product variety context, and discussed in relation to product development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss......This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of products...

  5. Designing Product Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Manufacturing companies that operate with products aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect products to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general products based on average customer needs. This trend ha......: Variety, Design Principles, and Product Maturity.......Manufacturing companies that operate with products aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect products to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general products based on average customer needs. This trend has...... led to a new business paradigm, "mass customization", where companies strive to provide highly customized products while still maintaining the efficiency of the classical mass production enterprise. One of the key factors in mass customization has been efficient use of product platforms...

  6. Production Function Geometry with "Knightian" Total Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truett, Dale B.; Truett, Lila J.

    2007-01-01

    Authors of principles and price theory textbooks generally illustrate short-run production using a total product curve that displays first increasing and then diminishing marginal returns to employment of the variable input(s). Although it seems reasonable that a temporary range of increasing returns to variable inputs will likely occur as…

  7. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  8. Software product quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Godliauskas, Eimantas

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses Ruby product quality measures, suggesting three new measures for Ruby product quality measurement tool Rubocop to measure Ruby product quality characteristics defined in ISO 2502n standard series. This paper consists of four main chapters. The first chapter gives a brief view of software product quality and software product quality measurement. The second chapter analyses object oriented quality measures. The third chapter gives a brief view of the most popular Ruby qualit...

  9. Fission products collecting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable fission products trap with no contamination to coolants and cover gas by the provision of a fission products trap above the upper part of a nuclear power plant. Constitution: Upon fuel failures in a reactor core, nuclear fission products leak into coolants and move along the flow of the coolants to the coolants above the reactor core. The fission products are collected in a trap container and guided along a pipeline into fission products detector. The fission products detector monitors the concentration of the fission products and opens the downstream valve of the detector when a predetermined concentration of the fission products is detected to introduce the fission products into a waste gas processing device and release them through the exhaust pipe. (Seki, T.)

  10. BRAND - PRODUCT INTERDEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor NISTORESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we conceptually discussed the brands’ role in the society, the dimensions of branding and the relationship between the brand and the products. We adhere to the main ideas expressed in the literature, that the brand is more than a product. However the product is needed to render the brand tangible. The product is the magic box that delivers the brand experience. Without the product, the brand meaning would have difficulties in attracting customers. More studies are needed to investigate the brand-product relationship.

  11. Emulsified Water Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Tuğçe AKSUN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seafood is very important depending on having high protein rate and easily digestibility by human, for supply to an important part of animal protein needed. Determining the quality of emulsion-type products, emulsion stability, viscosity and gel strength properties are very important. In the production of products specified in this property emulsion; the main protein ratio and properties of raw material used while you; emulsion pH, temperature, ionic violence, mixing speed, type of fat and additives that are used as well. Previous studies show that particularly of products resulting from water emulsified chicken and goat meat emulsified product obtained from a high capacity of emulsified and compared to cattle and sheep meat is close to specifications, preparation of emulsified type products may be appropriate for the use of fish meat. Another quality parameter in the emulsified meat products, viscosity depends on the amount of meat used in direct proportion with the texture. Fish meat animals in connective tissue connective tissue in meat other butchers to rate ratio is quite low. In this respect, the fish meat produced using emulsified products viscosity according to products prepared using other meat products is quite low. Fish meat produced using emulsified fish sausage products based on surimi, sausage and fish pate fish varieties classed emulsion type products. In this review the different types of seafood using emulsified meat product.

  12. Micro Products - Product Development and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Innovation within the field of micro and nano technology is to a great extent characterized by cross-disciplinary skills. The traditional disciplines like e.g. physics, biology, medicine and engineering are united in a common development process that can only take place in the presence of multi......-disciplinary competences. One example is sensors for chemical analysis of fluids, where chemistry, biology and flow mechanics all influence the design of the product and thereby the industrial fabrication of the product [1]. On the technological side the development has moved very fast, primarily driven by the need...... of the electronics industry to create still smaller chips with still larger capacity. Therefore the manufacturing technologies connected with micro/nano products in silicon are relatively highly developed compared to the technologies used for manufacturing micro products in metals, polymers and ceramics. For all...

  13. Productivity and Competitiveness of Sorghum Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    showed that sorghum production in the study areas yielded profitable returns ... Keywords: Sorghum, Profitability, Competitiveness, Investment Potential, .... Guinness Ghana Brewery Limited to estimate cost and returns at the marketing sector ...

  14. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  15. Advances in production technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume contains the selected papers presented at the scientific board meeting of the German Cluster of Excellence on “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”,  held in November 2014. The topical structure of the book is clustered in six sessions: Integrative Production Technology, Individualised Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimising Production Systems and Human Factors in Production Technology. The Aachen perspective on a holistic theory of production is complemented by conference papers from external leading researchers in the fields of production, materials science and bordering disciplines. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  16. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  17. Phenomenology of lepton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, F.M.

    1976-06-01

    The problem of lepton production in hadronic collisions is reviewed. The following subjects are developed: the Drell-Yan model for continuous l + l - production, vector mesons and clusters, and other sources of direct leptons [fr

  18. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  19. Dictionaries for text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    Dictionaries for Text Production are information tools that are designed and constructed for helping users to produce (i.e. encode) texts, both oral and written texts. These can be broadly divided into two groups: (a) specialized text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that only offer...... a small amount of lexicographic data, most or all of which are typically used in a production situation, e.g. synonym dictionaries, grammar and spelling dictionaries, collocation dictionaries, concept dictionaries such as the Longman Language Activator, which is advertised as the World’s First Production...... Dictionary; (b) general text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that offer all or most of the lexicographic data that are typically used in a production situation. A review of existing production dictionaries reveals that there are many specialized text production dictionaries but only a few general...

  20. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product ... control bulbs carpenter ants caterpillars crabgrass control deer dogs dogs/cats fertilizer w/insecticide fertilizer w/weed ...

  1. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  2. Globalization and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Machikita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Recent empirical studies which utilize plant- or establishment-level data to examine globalization's impact on productivity have discovered many causal mechanisms involved in globalization's impact on firms’ productivity. Because these pathways have been broad, there have been few attempts...

  3. Production sharing agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This paper, which was presented at the Production Sharing Agreement seminar, discusses economic rent, negotiations, trends in fiscal system development, and concessionary systems. Production sharing contracts, risk service contracts, joint ventures and the global market are examined. (UK)

  4. Alcohol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reesen, L

    1978-01-01

    The continuous production of ethanol from whey permeate, by fermentation of its lactose with Kluyveromyces fragilis, is described. From whey containing 4.4% lactose, production costs were very competitive with those for alcohol from molasses.

  5. National pulpwood production, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; James W. Bentley; Steven W. Hayes

    2014-01-01

    U.S. pulpwood production amounted to 86.5 million cords in 2010, a decrease of 4 percent from 2008. Roundwood production totaled 65.7 million cords and accounted for 76 percent of the Nation's total pulpwood production. The Southern Region led the Nation in total production with 65.5 million cords, followed by the Northern Region with 12.8 million cords, and the...

  6. National pulpwood production, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Ronald J. Piva; Brian F. Walters; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    United States’ pulpwood production amounted to 89.2 million cords in 2008. Roundwood production totaled 63.0 million cords and accounted for 71 percent of the Nation’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue totaled 26.2 million cords. Georgia led the Nation in total production, with 11.6 million cords. In 2008, 146 mills were operating and drawing wood from...

  7. Southern pulpwood production, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton; James w. Bentley

    2009-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 64.7 million cords in 2006 to 65.7 million cords in 2007. Roundwood production increased 1.2 million cords to 47.6 million cords and accounted for 72 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue declined 1 percent to 18.2 million cords. Alabama led the South in total production at 10.6 million cords...

  8. Nordic Noir Production Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors argue that Nordic noir constitutes a set of production values utilised and conceptualised to make Danish television series attractive in the international market. The idea of production values is embedded into a media industrial context where market principles of target...... by relating the specific Nordic noir production values present in the two series to changing conditions in Danish television drama production, in particular the internationalisation of DR’s Drama Division....

  9. Pomegranate production and marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book is relatively short, with 134 pages, 15 chapters, 52 figures, and 20 tables. It ranges from cultivar descriptions, production, biotic and abiotic challenges to production, to postharvest, aril and juice production, health benefits, and international trade. It contains great information and...

  10. Reconstituted products from oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. C. Lewis; B. G. Heebink

    1971-01-01

    "Reconstituted" describes a family of panel products made from fractionated oak, bonded with either a synthetic resin or a natural lignin bond. Several current commercial fiber panel products from oak are described, and the status of research on experimental products and processes is presented. Recent technological developments are removing the stigma...

  11. Scenario based product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, M.

    2008-01-01

    Creating good products is not an easy thing to do. There are usually many different people who have an interest in the product. People such as the user, of course, but also marketing managers, production engineers, maintenance workers, recycling specialists, and government representatives, just to

  12. Age, Wage and Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same

  13. Polling, production & priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winands, E.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Polling, Production & Priorities The present monograph focuses on the so-called stochastic economic lot scheduling problem (SELSP), which deals with the make-to-stock production of multiple standardized products on a single machine with limited capacity under random demands, possibly random setup

  14. Star Products and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, Mari; Yoshioka, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Star products parametrized by complex matrices are defined. Especially commutative associative star products are treated, and star exponentials with respect to these star products are considered. Jacobi's theta functions are given as infinite sums of star exponentials. As application, several concrete identities are obtained by properties of the star exponentials.

  15. Framework of product experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.; Hekkert, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a general framework for product experience that applies to all affective responses that can be experienced in human-product interaction. Three distinct components or levels of product experiences are discussed: aesthetic experience, experience of meaning, and emotional

  16. Evolving production network structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Gunther, H.O.; Burdenik, H.

    2007-01-01

    When deciding about future production network configurations, the current structures have to be taken into account. Further, core issues such as the maturity of the products and the capacity requirements for test runs and ramp-ups must be incorporated. Our approach is based on optimization...... modelling and assigns products and capacity expansions to production sites under the above constraints. It also considers the production complexity at the individual sites and the flexibility of the network. Our implementation results for a large manufacturing network reveal substantial possible cost...

  17. Product Structuring, an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichem, Marcel; Storm, Ton; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    .In the paper, the field of product structuring is defined and broken down into topics. For each of the topics, results of research are presented. Issues for further research are identified. The references in the paper refer to papers in the proceedings of the workshops.......This paper presents the highlights of two WDK Workshops on Product Structuring. Product structuring plays an important role in creating products which have good functional and life-cycle related properties, in design process management, and in several other company functions like production control...

  18. Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

  19. Product Platform Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus

    for customisation of products. In many companies these changes in the business environment have created a controversy between the need for a wide variety of products offered to the marketplace and a desire to reduce variation within the company in order to increase efficiency. Many companies use the concept...... other. These groups can be varied and combined to form different product variants without increasing the internal variety in the company. Based on the Theory of Domains, the concept of encapsulation in the organ domain is introduced, and organs are formulated as platform elements. Included......This PhD thesis has the title Product Platform Modelling. The thesis is about product platforms and visual product platform modelling. Product platforms have gained an increasing attention in industry and academia in the past decade. The reasons are many, yet the increasing globalisation...

  20. Low income product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Sobral

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

  1. Chlorhexidine in cosmetic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Morten Schjørring; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    or an antimicrobial agent in cosmetic products at a concentration up to 0.3%, as set by the European Cosmetics Directive (now Regulations). OBJECTIVES: To identify cosmetic product types containing chlorhexidine, and to measure the concentration of chlorhexidine in selected products. METHODS: Between February 2013...... and April 2013, we checked for chlorhexidine in cosmetic products in 14 supermarkets, one hairdressing salon and one beauty and retail store in Copenhagen, Denmark by reading the ingredient labels. The chlorhexidine concentration was measured in 10 selected products by high-performance liquid chromatography...... concentrations were 0.01-0.15%. CONCLUSIONS: We found chlorhexidine in various cosmetic product types, predominantly aimed at females, and in hair products. The measured chlorhexidine concentrations were all within the permitted limit. The relevance for allergic sensitization should be further explored....

  2. Play as productionproduction as game?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Play-related products and their export have through recent decades contributed to a certain Danish image on the world level – with Lego bricks at the commercial end and adventure playgrounds at the pedagogical end. The phenomena of toy production and play exports challenge our understanding of what...... “play” and “game” are, and of their social as well as political significance. At the municipal level, the city of Odense – “city of Hans Christian Andersen” – is branding itself as “city of play”. On the international level, Danish play-related products have expanded on the world market. In the field...... of sport, Danish sport is not just elite sport, but also organized in local associations. People meet in mass summer festivals of popular sport. Folk Academies develop sport as personal development, often in an experimental way. Street sports, parkour, play and games are promoted. Civil society is a basis...

  3. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production, production prices and production costs. 229.1204 Section 229.1204 Commodity and Securities... production, production prices and production costs. (a) For each of the last three fiscal years disclose... production cost, not including ad valorem and severance taxes, per unit of production. Instruction 1 to Item...

  4. Nephrotoxicity of Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauffal, Mary; Gabardi, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture and sale of natural products constitute a multi-billion dollar industry. Nearly a third of the American population admit to using some form of complementary or alternative medicine, with many using them in addition to prescription medications. Most patients fail to inform their healthcare providers of their natural product use and physicians rarely inquire. Annually, thousands of natural product-induced adverse events are reported to Poison Control Centers nationwide. Natural product manufacturers are not responsible for proving safety and efficacy, as the FDA does not regulate them. However, concerns exist surrounding the safety of natural products. This review provides details on natural products that have been associated with renal dysfunction. We have focused on products that have been associated with direct renal injury, immune-mediated nephrotoxicity, nephrolithiasis, rhabdomyolysis with acute renal injury, hepatorenal syndrome, and common adulterants or contaminants that are associated with renal dysfunction. The potential for natural products to cause renal dysfunction is justifiable. It is imperative that natural product use be monitored closely in all patients. Healthcare practitioners must play an active role in identifying patients using natural products and provide appropriate patient education. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Fermentative production of isobutene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2012-02-01

    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock.

  6. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    OpenAIRE

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2009-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding...

  7. Leading co-production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tortzen, Anne

    leadership styles executed by public managers affect the quality and public value of co-production processes? The paper argues that publicly initiated co-production initiatives are influenced by conflicting governance logics placing public managers in an institutional cross pressure (Lowndes & Roberts, 2013...... of building networks and relations, developing trust and focusing on empowerment and on the participants' resources to develop innovative solutions Drawing on three qualitative case studies of ‘most likely' co-production cases in Danish municipalities, the study identifies three different leadership styles...... and increase public value (Bovaird & Löffler, 2012; Osborne, 2010). The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the dynamics of co-production can be gained from analyzing the leadership dimension of co-production processes, which has hitherto not been given much attention by co-production researchers...

  8. Product Platform Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Lone

    The aim of this research is to improve understanding of platform-based product development by studying platform performance in relation to internal effects in companies. Platform-based product development makes it possible to deliver product variety and at the same time reduce the needed resources...... engaging in platform-based product development. Similarly platform assessment criteria lack empirical verification regarding relevance and sufficiency. The thesis focuses on • the process of identifying and estimating internal effects, • verification of performance of product platforms, (i...... experienced representatives from the different life systems phase systems of the platform products. The effects are estimated and modeled within different scenarios, taking into account financial and real option aspects. The model illustrates and supports estimation and quantification of internal platform...

  9. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation has enabled companies to globalise their product development process. Today, everything from manufacturing to R&D can be globally distributed. This has led to a more complex and disintegrated product development process. This paper investigates the impacts companies have experienced...... operational solutions to counteract the negative impacts with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a unique look into global product development through an investigation of its impact on the organisation, the product development process, and the product. Furthermore, it shows the solutions...... as a result of this, and how they have been addressed. Data was collected through case studies of five Danish multinational corporations. The findings showed that the companies experienced several challenges when they globalised their product development process. They consequently implemented various...

  10. MICROORGANISMS IN CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková; Miroslava Kačániová

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: coliforms bacteria, microscopic filamentous fungi and yeasts, Salmonella sp. and staphylococci were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremes - honey cube, roll Arabica, roll Rona, roll stuffed with apricot cream, honey cube, pinwheel caramel, Sachovnica cut, Zora cut and curd cake. For microbiological tests 18 samples of confectioner...

  11. Southern pulpwood production, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton; James W. Bentley

    2010-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 65.7 million cords in 2007 to 67.0 million cords in 2008. Roundwood production increased by 1.2 million cords to 48.8 million cords and accounted for 73 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue remained stable at 18.2 million cords. Georgia led the South...

  12. Southern pulpwood production, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper

    2015-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 62.7 million cords in 2011 to 63.7 million cords in 2012. Roundwood production decreased by 770,000 cords to 49.3 million cords and accounted for 78 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue dropped 15 percent to 14.4 million cords in 2012. Georgia and Alabama led the South in total...

  13. Southern pulpwood production, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2013-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood declined from 65.5 million cords in 2010 to 62.7 million cords in 2011. Roundwood production decreased by 878,000 cords to 50.1 million cords and accounted for 80 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue dropped 14 percent to 12.6 million cords in 2011. Georgia and Alabama led the South in total...

  14. Electricity production of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czodor, T.

    2003-01-01

    Here is examined the spatial structure of electric energy production divided in hydropower plants (through-flow and re-pumping), thermal power plants as the most expensive way of electric energy production and nuclear power plants where high difficulty and long-term realisation of construction projects and spent financial resources are pointed out. Work describes present structure of electric energy production and consumption and refers to alternative electric energy sources

  15. Working Hours and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Collewet, Marion; Sauermann, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to estimate the effect of working hours on productivity. We find that as the number of hours worked increases, the average handling time for a call increases, meaning that agents become less productive. Th...

  16. Productivity in Public Services

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Simpson

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses issues arising in the measurement of productivity in public services. Compared to measuring productivity in the private sector difficulties arise because the output of public services is often un-priced and because some public services are consumed collectively. A key problem is measuring the full range of outputs and quality improvements delivered by public sector organisations that are valued by society. Without comprehensive measures of output productivity statistics m...

  17. Ionization of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments [fr

  18. Accounting for productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiyar, Shekhar; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2009-01-01

    The development accounting literature almost always assumes a Cobb-Douglas (CD) production function. However, if in reality the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor deviates substantially from 1, the assumption is invalid, potentially casting doubt on the commonly held view...... that factors of production are relatively unimportant in accounting for differences in labor productivity. We use international data on relative factor shares and capital-output ratios to formulate a number of tests for the validity of the CD assumption. We find that the CD specification performs reasonably...... well for the purposes of cross-country productivity accounting....

  19. Measuring Clinical Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark E; Lebovitz, Evan E

    2018-06-01

    Productivity measurements have been used to evaluate and compare physicians and physician practices. Anesthesiology is unique in that factors outside anesthesiologist control impact opportunity for revenue generation and make comparisons between providers and facilities challenging. This article uses data from the multicenter University of Pittsburgh Physicians Department of Anesthesiology to demonstrate factors influencing productivity opportunity by surgical facility, between department divisions and subspecialties within multispecialty divisions, and by individuals within divisions. The complexities of benchmarking anesthesiology productivity are demonstrated, and the potential value of creating a productivity profile for facilities and groups is illustrated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sustainable hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  1. DESIGN VERSUS PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edu Grieco Mazzini Junior

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Design or product development? The questioning in relation to the employment of such terminology dates back to possible misconceptions regarding interpretation and approach them. Therefore, it can be stated that there are differences between these two terms? In this context, we highlight two views concerning the origin of the design. The first character creative and based on pre-industrial revolution, based on projective and methodologies directed towards the practice of designing products. And second, where design is understood as an industrial process: the development of new products includes, besides a creative procedure are developed, and symbolic formal solutions for products, but also a technical procedure based on the definition of the requirements concerning the product engineering. Is this the most widely accepted interpretation? theoretical studies were conducted from interpretations of the concept of the design proposed by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design – ICSDI (2012, and for the characterization of the process of product development, we sought to develop an analogy between these two terminologies and can be proved that the use of one of terminology will not cause deviations of interpretation, since both deal with the life cycle of the product. The main results obtained until now the definition of design proposed by the ICSID where it is characterized as a creative activity focused on the complete life cycle of products is the more approaches of the concept of product development.

  2. The Internationalisation of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2013-01-01

    practice is further analysed in terms of (1) general information of each case company; (2) motivation of production internationalisation of each case company; (3) limitations as SMEs to internationalise production; (4) operational activities during the internationalization; (5) benefits of joint effort......This paper mainly aims to explore how SMEs internationalise their production. Directed by this objective, a new practice adopted by five Danish SMEs to internationalise their production to China is identified, which to our knowledge has never been reported by any of the existing literature. The new...

  3. Optimizing production under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Svend

    This Working Paper derives criteria for optimal production under uncertainty based on the state-contingent approach (Chambers and Quiggin, 2000), and discusses po-tential problems involved in applying the state-contingent approach in a normative context. The analytical approach uses the concept...... of state-contingent production functions and a definition of inputs including both sort of input, activity and alloca-tion technology. It also analyses production decisions where production is combined with trading in state-contingent claims such as insurance contracts. The final part discusses...

  4. SMART Product Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus L.; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Li, Xuemeng

    2016-01-01

    . The ambition of The Danish Industry Foundation and The Kata Foundation was to develop a method; a robust and specific approach to ensure that product innovation in Danish enterprises in practice would result in products of the highest quality, producible at lower costs and profitable at competitive prices...... products to our neighboring countries continues to suffer. The customers’ financial capacity has been reduced and cheaper products from Asia and other regions have found their way into our local markets. Competition is fierce – especially pricewise. This was the starting point for the SMART project...

  5. PRODUCT STRUCTURE DIGITAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Sineglazov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available  Research results of representation of product structure made by means of CADDS5 computer-aided design (CAD system, Product Data Management Optegra (PDM system and Product Life Cycle Management Wind-chill system (PLM, are examined in this work. Analysis of structure component development and its storage in various systems is carried out. Algorithms of structure transformation required for correct representation of the structure are considered. Management analysis of electronic mockup presentation of the product structure is carried out for Windchill system.

  6. Production control system specified quality sausage products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tokarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of management of production target in technological system of production of sausages of the set quality is considered in article. Decomposition of technological system is considered. Functions of management are allocated: formation of an optimum compounding of forcemeat, expert analysis of a compounding, laboratory analysis of a compounding and its statement. Information technology of interaction of these functions is offered. The mathematical problem definition of finding of an optimum compounding meat product with use of possible substitutes of ingredients is presented. This mathematical problem is a classical linear programming problem whose solution has the standard program. Since the manufacture of the finished product are various nonlinear effects are taken into account at the present time it is practically impossible, the methodology provided in this operation "Expert analysis of the formulation" and "Laboratory analysis of the finished product." An example of calculating the optimum alternative base recipe "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. For an alternative formulation demands were made at a cost of meat, the ingredient composition, as well as the final product organoleptic and physic-chemical indicators should comply with regulatory requirements "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. Indicator acid activity (pH calculated stuffing formulation should be in the range 6.0-6.3. As a partial replacement for the main raw material have been proposed acceptable substitutes. It was necessary to calculate on the basis of the formulation "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002 optimal price and quality alternative formulation. As a result of depreciation of the value of alternative stuffing recipe was 14,5 % when all of the restrictions on the consumer properties. The proposed information technology implemented in the software package "Multi

  7. Industrial production of products like petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baurier, P J.H.

    1925-02-25

    This invention has as its object a process for separating tars, oils, or gases coming from the distillation of carbonaceous materials, such as lignities or shales, to separate all other substances of the same kind and to prepare products like petroleum. The process for present consideration consists essentially in achieving simultaneously hydrogenation of the material (treated for conversion to stable products) and desulfurization of the materials showing the following characteristics: The substances to be treated are fed in the gaseous state, as vapors or pulverized and made to react at a temperature of 300 to 450/sup 0/C in the presence of excess water vapor, on divided metals capable of decomposing the water with release of hydrogen, at a temperature below 450/sup 0/C.

  8. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrio, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. PMID:21326937

  9. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  10. Volatile products controlling Titan's tholins production

    KAUST Repository

    Carrasco, Nathalie

    2012-05-01

    A quantitative agreement between nitrile relative abundances and Titan\\'s atmospheric composition was recently shown with a reactor simulating the global chemistry occurring in Titan\\'s atmosphere (Gautier et al. [2011]. Icarus, 213, 625-635). Here we present a complementary study on the same reactor using an in situ diagnostic of the gas phase composition. Various initial N 2/CH 4 gas mixtures (methane varying from 1% to 10%) are studied, with a monitoring of the methane consumption and of the stable gas neutrals by in situ mass spectrometry. Atomic hydrogen is also measured by optical emission spectroscopy. A positive correlation is found between atomic hydrogen abundance and the inhibition function for aerosol production. This confirms the suspected role of hydrogen as an inhibitor of heterogeneous organic growth processes, as found in Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. (Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. [2010]. Icarus, 209, 704-714). The study of the gas phase organic products is focussed on its evolution with the initial methane amount [CH 4] 0 and its comparison with the aerosol production efficiency. We identify a change in the stationary gas phase composition for intermediate methane amounts: below [CH 4] 0=5%, the gas phase composition is mainly dominated by nitrogen-containing species, whereas hydrocarbons are massively produced for [CH 4] 0>5%. This predominance of N-containing species at lower initial methane amount, compared with the maximum gas-to solid conversion observed in Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. (2010) for identical methane amounts confirms the central role played by N-containing gas-phase compounds to produce tholins. Moreover, two protonated imines (methanimine CH 2NH and ethanamine CH 3CHNH) are detected in the ion composition in agreement with Titan\\'s INMS measurements, and reinforcing the suspected role of these chemical species on aerosol production. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Questionnaire typography and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, M

    1975-06-01

    This article describes the typographic principles and practice which provide the basis of good design and print, the relevant printing processes which can be used, and the graphic designer's function in questionnaire production. As they impose constraints on design decisions to be discussed later in the text, the various methods of printing and production are discussed first.

  12. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-22540S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  13. Training for Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglen, Leo; Hopkins, Sonnie; Burke, Gerald

    An exploratory study was conducted to evaluate the utility of a method to demonstrate that Australian enterprises that invest in the training of their employees gain a return from that investment through an increase in employee productivity. The method, which compares enterprise expenditure on training of personnel with labor productivity across a…

  14. Marketing Novel Fruit Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n =

  15. Heavy-Quark Production

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano; Nason, Paolo; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1997-01-01

    We review the present theoretical and experimental status of heavy quark production in high-energy collisions. In particular, we cover hadro- and photoproduction at fixed target experiments, at HERA and at the hadron colliders, as well as aspects of heavy quark production in e+e- collisions at the Z0 peak.

  16. Products from cottonseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glushenkova,

    1977-01-01

    A review with 41 references is made on the manufacture of oil, protein, and other products from cottonseed, the effects of gossypol on protein yield and quality and technology of gossypol removal. A process eliminating thermal treatment of the kernels and permitting the production of oil, proteins, phytin, gossypol, sugar, sterols, phosphatides, tocopherols, and residual shells and bagasse is described.

  17. Productivity and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovins, H. [Rocky Mountain Inst., Snowmass, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Energy efficient building and office design offers the possibility of significantly increased worker productivity. By improving lighting, heating and cooling, workers can be made more comfortable and productive. An increase of 1 percent in productivity can provide savings to a company that exceed its entire energy bill. Efficient design practices are cost effective just from their energy savings. The resulting productivity gains make them indispensable. This paper documents eight cases in which efficient lighting, heating, and cooling have measurably increased worker productivity, decreased absenteeism, and/or improved the quality of work performed. They also show that efficient lighting can measurably increase work quality by removing errors and manufacturing defects. The case studies presented include retrofit of existing buildings and the design of new facilities, and cover a variety of commercial and industrial settings. Each case study identifies the design changes that were most responsible for increased productivity. As the eight case studies illustrate, energy efficient design may be one of the least expensive ways for a business to improve the productivity of its workers and the quality of its product. (author). 15 refs.

  18. Product Placement in Cartoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Oroz Štancl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Product placement is a marketing approach for integrating products or services into selected media content. Studies have shown that the impact of advertising on children and youth are large, and that it can affect their preferences and attitudes. The aim of this article is to determine the existing level of product placement in cartoons that are broadcast on Croatian television stations. Content analysis of cartoons in a period of one month gave the following results: in 30% of cartoons product placement was found; most product placement were visual ads, in 89%, however, auditory product placement and plot connection was also found. Most ads were related to toys and it is significant that even 65% of cartoons are accompanied by a large amount of products available on the Croatian market. This is the result of two sales strategies: brand licensing (selling popular cartoon characters to toys, food or clothing companies and cartoon production based on existing line of toys with the sole aim of making their sales more effective.

  19. Upgrading uncompetitive products economically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Hua; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    for upgrading an uncompetitive product, and combine the solutions into a single solution. We also propose a spatial join-based solution that assumes P and T are indexed by an R-tree. Given a set of products in the same R-tree node, we derive three lower bounds on their upgrading costs. These bounds are employed...

  20. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  1. Interleaved Product LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Marco; Cancellieri, Giovanni; Chiaraluce, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Product LDPC codes take advantage of LDPC decoding algorithms and the high minimum distance of product codes. We propose to add suitable interleavers to improve the waterfall performance of LDPC decoding. Interleaving also reduces the number of low weight codewords, that gives a further advantage in the error floor region.

  2. Production (information sheets)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Documentation sheets: Geo energy 2 Integrated System Approach Petroleum Production (ISAPP) The value of smartness 4 Reservoir permeability estimation from production data 6 Coupled modeling for reservoir application 8 Toward an integrated near-wellbore model 10 TNO conceptual framework for "E&P

  3. Spectra and strangeness production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miake, Yasuo.

    1990-01-01

    Particle production (π ± , K ± and p ± ) has been measured in p + A and Si + A reactions using the E802 spectrometer. The comparison of the particle production (rapidity distributions, momentum distributions, and the integrated yields ratios) between p + Be, p + Au and central Si + Au collisions and the effects of rescattering is discussed. 14 refs., 6 figs

  4. Marketing technologically advanced products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bender, Horst

    1989-01-01

    This paper calls for a merger of technology and marketing under a customer value perspective; for an enhancement of the traditional technological innovation orientation of the technology-based firm with a market thrust. It establishes technology-based products as product-service offerings that are

  5. Accelerated product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, F.; Seth, J.N.; Malhotra, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated product development is a competitive strategy that seeks to reduce the development cycle time of new products. However, there has been little theoretical advancement and empirical model testing in the identification of the conditions under which cycle time reduction is appropriate, the

  6. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2016-01-01

    Selecting key performance indicators in conventional product development is a challenging task for project management and is compound by global product development. Informed from the findings of two in depth case studies conducted with large Danish manufacturing companies, in this paper we develo...

  7. Production process of VE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This book tells of synopsis of production process of VE(value engineering), object selection method and establishment of target, collection of object information, design of function, write improvement suggestion, evaluation of improvement suggestion, all sorts of worksheets of production process of VE, explanation of IE, explanation of PERT.

  8. Improved wound care product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention pertains to use of sodium diacetate (NaHAc 2) as an antimicrobial agent against bacteria growing in biofilms. The aspects of the invention include a wound care product comprising sodium diacetate, a kit comprising a wound care product,and a methodof treating an infected wound....

  9. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  10. The Productive Programmer

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Neal

    2009-01-01

    Anyone who develops software for a living needs a proven way to produce it better, faster, and cheaper. The Productive Programmer offers critical timesaving and productivity tools that you can adopt right away, no matter what platform you use. Master developer Neal Ford details ten valuable practices that will help you elude common traps, improve your code, and become more valuable to your team.

  11. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  12. Tanzania : Productive Jobs Wanted

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months, the World Bank has been working on a comprehensive plan to address the challenge of productive jobs in Tanzania. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of how to promote job creation in Tanzania. Indeed, the growth of productive jobs is vital for alleviating poverty and promoting shared prosperity - two important goals of Tanzania's economic st...

  13. Risks of Leveraged Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Di Cesare (Antonio)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLeveraged investments have become a fundamental feature of modern economies. The new financial products allow people to take greater-than-usual exposures to risk factors. This thesis analyzes several different aspects of the risks involved by some frequently used leveraged products:

  14. Quarkonia production at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demina, R.

    1996-08-01

    We present the results of J/ψ, ψ', χ c and Υ(1S), Υ(2S), Υ(3S) production in the proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1800 GeV measured with the CDF Detector. Contributions of different production mechanisms are discussed. 10 refs., 7 figs

  15. Optimal Product Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Ling; Matta, Rafael; Popov, Sergey V; Sogo, Takeharu

    2017-01-01

    We model a market, such as an online software market, in which an intermediary connects sellers and buyers by displaying sellers' products. With two vertically-differentiated products, an intermediary can place either: (1) one product, not necessarily the better one, on the first page, and the other hidden on the second page; or (2) both products on the first page. We show that it can be optimal for the intermediary to obfuscate a product-possibly the better one-since this weakens price competition and allows the sellers to extract a greater surplus from buyers; however, it is not socially optimal. The choice of which one to obfuscate depends on the distribution of search costs.

  16. Product Architecture Modularity Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on product architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in product architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral product architectures...... and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of product architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework and propositions are drawn from various academic literature sources. Based on the literature review......, the following key elements of product architecture are identified: components (standard and new-to-the-firm), interfaces (standardization and specification), degree of coupling, and substitutability. A mathematical function, termed modularization function, is introduced to measure the degree of modularization...

  17. Thermophilic Biohydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Dark fermentative hydrogen production at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel production. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen production. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type...... fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen production are organic loading rate (OLR), pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved hydrogen and dissolved carbon dioxide...... concentrations, and soluble metabolic profile (SMP). A number of thermophilic and extreme thermophilic cultures (pure and mixed) have been studied for biohydrogen production from different feedstocks - pure substrates and waste/wastewaters. Variety of process technologies (operational conditions...

  18. Production measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    2017-01-01

    The $\\text{LHC}b$ detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring heavy quark and quarkonia production properties. In addition, the new system of forward shower counters installed upstream and downstream has begun to be used, therefore the experiment is being suited to measure central exclusive production. The $\\text{LHC}b$ measurements of inclusive and differential cross-sections of the production of $J/\\psi$ resonance and $J/\\psi$ pairs, as well bottom quarks and $Z^0$ boson, based on Run 2 datasets are summarized. Finally, results on the prompt production of open charm hadrons and the exclusive production of charmonium are discussed.

  19. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhuri Surabhi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.

  20. Health products inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoltz, M.

    2009-01-01

    To protect public health, the Health Products Inspection is a public service mission where the application of regulations concerning activities on human health products and cosmetic products is verified. This mission permits a global approach to assess the health products risk-based benefit and, in monitoring by laboratory testing and by on site inspections, to verify their compliance with appropriate regulations. The seventy five inspectors perform about eight hundred inspections per year, in France and abroad. These inspections are related to data provided in the health products assessment and also to manufacturing and delivery practices. The French inspection body is also involved in the training of foreign inspectors and in the harmonization of national, European and international practices either for operators than for the competent authorities. (author)

  1. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  2. Exposure from consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, Geetha

    1998-01-01

    Consumer products containing radioactive material, are available in the market place to any member of public as off the shelf item and are intended for unrestricted use by them at home or for their personal use. Radioactivity may be involved in the product for several reasons: 1. ionising radiation from the radioactive material forms the basis of the particular functioning of the product like radioisotopes in smoke detectors, radio-luminous dials, etc.; 2. chemical/spectroscopic characteristics of the radioactive material and not its radioactivity is the basis for the functional property of the product like thoriated gas mantles, uranium in glass enamels, etc. and 3. radioactive materials could be naturally occurring in consumer products, but could increase in concentration after processing like increased uranium or thorium concentrations after the processing of rare earth oxides

  3. Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights for a class of chemical products, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering...... (CAPE) community. The chemical products considered belong to the following types: chemical/biochemical/agrochemical products, coatings and solvents, food (nutraceuticals), HIM (household, industrial and institutional), personal care, pharmaceuticals and drugs. The challenges and opportunities...... are highlighted in terms of the needs for multi-level modeling with emphasis on property models that are suitable for computer-aided applications, flexible solution strategies that are able to solve a large range of chemical product design problems and finally, a systems chemical product design framework...

  4. Petroleum product market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery production and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum products in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery production, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver products to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum products markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase production; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum product supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect product distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian production of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that production in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher

  5. Greenhouse production systems for people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, G.A.; Sase, S.; Cramer, R.; Hoogeboom, J.; McKenzie, A.; Parbst, K.; Sacrascia-Mugnozza, G.; Selina, P.; Sharp, D.A.; Voogt, J.O.; Weel, van P.A.; Mears, D.

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally sound greenhouse production requires that: demand for market products is understood; greenhouse design addresses the climate circum-stances; input resources are available and consumed efficiently, and; there must be a reasonable balance of production products to the environmental

  6. A Framework For Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Robotham, Antony John

    1999-01-01

    -aspect approach to product development; understanding the strategic conditions that affect product development; developing a coherent approach to product quality based on product-life thinking; addressing environmental needs in a proactive manner through innovation techniques; and understanding both...

  7. Product sounds : Fundamentals and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan-Vieira, E.

    2008-01-01

    Products are ubiquitous, so are the sounds emitted by products. Product sounds influence our reasoning, emotional state, purchase decisions, preference, and expectations regarding the product and the product's performance. Thus, auditory experience elicited by product sounds may not be just about

  8. Uranium production from phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzinel, Z.; Folkman, Y.

    1979-05-01

    According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. Production of uranium from phosphates is as a by-product of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid production; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium production costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable production to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid production utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P 2 O 5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium production plant. (author)

  9. Manual of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable

  10. Sicilian potential biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at predicting the Sicilian potential biogas production, using the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, animal manure and food industry by-products, in a region where only one biogas plant using MSW and one co-digestion plant are nowadays available. The statistical data about OFMSW, the number of animals bred in medium and large farms and the amounts of by-products of food processing industries were evaluated, in order to compute the Sicilian potential biogas and energy production. The OFMSW produced in Sicily, that is 0.8 million tons ca. per year (37% of MSW, could be used in a bio-reactor, together with other raw materials, for Anaerobic Digestion (AD process, producing biogas and “digestate”. Moreover, 3.03 million tons ca. of manure, collected in medium and large animal husbandry farms (where cows, pigs and poultry are bred, and 350 thousand tons ca. of by-products, collected in food processing industries (pomace from olive oil mills and grape marc from wineries, might be used for AD process. The Sicilian potential biogas production from the AD of the above raw materials is 170.2 millions of m3, that is equal to 1023.4 GWh of energy per year, of which 484 GWh from animal manure, 303 GWh from OFMSW and 236.4 GWh from food industry by-products. The highest biogas production is in the province of Palermo (35.6 millions of m3, Ragusa (30.8 millions of m3 and Catania (22.8 millions of m3, having a potential energy production of 213.8, 185 and 137 GWh, respectively.

  11. Concurrency in product realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    1994-03-01

    Technology per se does not provide a competitive advantage. Timely exploitation of technology is what gives the competitive edge, and this demands a major shift in the product development process and management of the industrial enterprise. `Teaming to win' is more than a management theme; it is the disciplined engineering practice that is essential to success in today's global marketplace. Teaming supports the concurrent engineering practices required to integrate the activities of people responsible for product realization through achievement of shorter development cycles, lower costs, and defect-free products.

  12. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2007-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  13. Versioning of printed products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2005-01-01

    During the definition of a printed product in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the production process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific product. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the products since this does not have an immediate impact on the production costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed product. Special care must be taken when considering versioned products. With versioned products we here mean distinct products that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned products, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real production costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed product. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer

  14. OPEC's production policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabro, R.

    1989-01-01

    An enlightening study on the workings of OPEC its policies and practices, agreements and disagreements, and how each affects the world petroleum market. The book explores OPEC's production patterns and quota agreements and the relationship between production and pricing policies. Political compromises that have hindered OPEC production agreements and their successful implementation are covered - compromises such as concessions made to the U.A.E. and those resulting from the Gulf war. Notable historical events are cited, and a look into the future at what we can expect of OPEC in coming years concludes the study

  15. Production of Metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A recombinant micro-organism such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae which produces and excretes into culture medium a stilbenoid metabolite product when grown under stilbenoid production conditions, which expresses in above native levels a ABC transporter which transports said stilbenoid out of said...... micro-organism cells to the culture medium. The genome of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces an auxotrophic phenotype which is compensated by a plasmid which also expresses one or more of said enzymes constituting said metabolic pathway producing said stilbenoid, an expression product of the plasmid...

  16. Entropy Production of Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The entropy production (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy production of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy production.

  17. Property Rights and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of land titling on agricultural productivity in Vietnam and the productivity effects of single versus joint titling for husband and wife. Using a plot-fixed-effects approach our results show that obtaining a land title is associated with higher yields, for both...... individually and jointly held titles. We conclude that there is no tradeoff between joint titling and productivity, and so joint titles are potentially an effective way to improve women’s bargaining power within the household with no associated efficiency losses....

  18. SMART product innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus L.; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Li, Xuemeng

    2016-01-01

    Among the inspirations for the SMART process is “design to customer value,” where products are modified based on a thorough understanding of customers that allows product developers to eliminate features that do not affect customer satisfaction while including only the elements and functionality...... that customers really appreciate. The SMART process includes methods to understand product value for the customer and the user; analyse the cost of components and processes; combine customer value and cost reduction potentials into feasible, high-value concepts; and generate prototypes that can be tested...... with users and customers....

  19. Will marine productivity wane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufkötter, Charlotte; Gruber, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    If marine algae are impaired severely by global climate change, the resulting reduction in marine primary production would strongly affect marine life and the ocean's biological pump that sequesters substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the ocean's interior. Most studies, including the latest generation of Earth system models, project only moderate global decreases in biological production until 2100 (1, 2), suggesting that these concerns are unwarranted. But on page 1139 of this issue, Moore et al. (3) show that this conclusion might be shortsighted and that there may be much larger long-term changes in ocean productivity than previously appreciated.

  20. Glocalized Production: The Evolution of Global Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavez, Marianna; Bilberg, Arne

    In light of the challenges of the current globalized production model, four global Danish companies were interviewed with the purpose of exploring “glocalized production” as the new step and solution to the challenges of the “global village.” The research sought to gauge the interest on “glocalized...... production” by key managers of these companies, and test three hypotheses: that a definition could be established from “glocalization” aspects, that it will reduce supply chain complexity, and that it can affect organizational trust levels. The results are presented along with suggestions to pave the way...

  1. Product numerical range in a space with tensor product structure

    OpenAIRE

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Gawron, Piotr; Miszczak, Jarosław Adam; Skowronek, Łukasz; Choi, Man-Duen; Życzkowski, Karol

    2010-01-01

    We study operators acting on a tensor product Hilbert space and investigate their product numerical range, product numerical radius and separable numerical range. Concrete bounds for the product numerical range for Hermitian operators are derived. Product numerical range of a non-Hermitian operator forms a subset of the standard numerical range containing the barycenter of the spectrum. While the latter set is convex, the product range needs not to be convex nor simply connected. The product ...

  2. Soy production and certification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomei, Julia; Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena

    2010-01-01

    With the rising emphasis on biofuels as a potential solution to climate change, this paper asks whether certification schemes, developed to promote sustainable feedstock production, are able to deliver genuine sustainability benefits. The Round Table on Responsible Soy (RTRS) is a certification...... the social and environmental impacts of soybean production can be mitigated by the RTRS. It concludes that at present certification schemes are unlikely to be able to address either the institutional challenges associated with their implementation or the detrimental impacts of the additional demand generated...... scheme that aims to promote responsible soy production through the development of principles and criteria. However, can and does this initiative address the negative impacts associated with the intensive production of soy? Taking the example of soy biodiesel produced in Argentina, this paper asks whether...

  3. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories of com...... and socially optimal levels of competition in the full range of intermediate cases, as well as in the extremum cases of destructive and super-productive competition.......Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories...... of competition create a division of real-world situations into analytical categories that fails to recognize the entire spectrum of competitive activities. Taking the existing models of productive and unproductive competition as benchmark idealizations, this paper explores the relationship between the privately...

  4. Segregation in cast products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The agreement with experimental data is mostly qualitative. The paper also ... For example, a high degree of positive segregation in the central region .... solute in a cast product, important ones being: size of casting, rate of solidification, mode.

  5. Household Products Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your bathroom, and on the shelves in your laundry room? Learn more about what's in these products, ... MD 20894 National Institutes of Health , Health & Human Services Customer Service: tehip@teh.nlm.nih.gov Last ...

  6. PRODUCTIVITY CHARACTERISTICS AND DEVELOPMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-02-23

    Feb 23, 2016 ... The pulp and kernels of the fruit are the only by-products marketed by women and mainly girls who .... characteristics of trees and fruit involved, 30 adult hermaphrodite ..... Ethnobotanical research and traditional health care in.

  7. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania, with the aim of describing the distribution and diversity of ectoparasites on pigs, within confinement and free-range production systems of smallholder farms. A total of 128 farms were surveyed, with 96 practising confinement...... and 32 practising free-range production systems. The prevalence of ectoparasites on pigs within confinement and free-range production systems was 24% and 84%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that keeping pigs in a free-range system and the presence of neighbouring pigs were risk...... although highly prevalent within both production systems. Keeping pigs in a free-range system and contact with neighbouring pigs were main risk factors for the presence of ectoparasites. Confinement was highly effective as a preventive tool against hard ticks....

  8. Peanut Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut products distributed by Peanut Corporation of...

  9. Products by Glycation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ortega

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of sweet and acid whey products were incremented by polymerization of their proteins by glycation of whey protein concentrates (WPC and their hydrolyzates (WPCH with ribose and glucose in individual experiments under similar concentration. Heating at 50°C during 20 h maximum and pH 7 and pH 9 were used in all tests. The higher activity was found in WPC glycosylates products with ribose at pH 7 and heating during 10–15 h. In comparable form, antioxidant activity in WPCH was incremented by prior hydrolysis to glycation with 25–45% of hydrolysis degree. Further functional properties of whey proteins (solubility, emulsion, and foam were also improved by the polymerization with ribose. The color of polymerized products due to Maillard reactions was associated with antioxidant activity of each compound; however comparative color in glycosylates products with glucose and ribose did not show this effect.

  10. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...

  11. NSP Production Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — NSP Production Reports contain cumulative data on units assisted with NSP funds. An NSP grantee reports on the accomplishment of an activity when it meets an End...

  12. OSU Chlorophyll Bloom Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This product was developed for the Oregon coast based on the observed change between running 8-day composite chlorophyll-a (CHL) data obtained by the MODerate...

  13. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  14. Kronecker Products on Preconditioning

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Longfei

    2013-01-01

    techniques have become increasingly popular due to their great potential on large scale computation. In this work, we present preconditioning techniques for linear systems built with tensor product basis functions. Efficient algorithms are designed

  15. Challenges in biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennuit, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AnD) is a sustainable process combining waste treatment, nutrient recycling and energy production which can contribute to limit climate change and environmental problems. However, in order for this technique to be more widely used, production of biogas from available wastes...... from a mixture of pig manure and other waste materials by separating the solid fraction of digestate and recycling it back to the digester. It is shown that separation and recycling of the dry matter rich solid fraction could successfully increase biogas production and a preliminary economic evaluation...... showed a potential increase of 1.9 to 6.8€ per ton of biomass treated. In the second part of this study, a biological treatment to improve energy production from wastewater sludge was investigated. Wastewater sludge was subjected to thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) from 2h to 5d. Increase in biogas...

  16. Proprietary policy and production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    -, č. 287 (2006), s. 1-14 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : proprietary regime * direct production * model Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp287.pdf

  17. Measuring multifactor productivity growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wölfl, A.; Hájková, Dana

    -, 2007/5 (2007), s. 1-45 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multifactor productivity growth * GDP growth * measuring Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/17/39522985.pdf

  18. Products in fusion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henke, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the notion of a product of a normal subsystem with a p-subgroup as defined by Aschbacher (2011) [Asc11, Chapter 8]. In particular, we give a previously unknown, more transparent construction....

  19. From Environment to Production

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Behzad, H.; Archer, John A.C.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Using Metagenomic analysis, computational modeling, single cell and genome editing technologies, we are expressing desired microbial genes and their networks in suitable hosts for mass production of energy, food, and fine chemicals

  20. Top Production at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Santana Rangel, Murilo

    2015-01-01

    Single and pair top production in the forward direction at the LHC allows for precision tests of the Standard Model. The observation of top quarks in 7 and 8 TeV data and prospects for precision measurements are shown.

  1. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  2. Product lifecycle management

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, John

    2016-01-01

    This third edition updates and adds to the successful second edition and gives the reader a thorough description of PLM, providing them with a full understanding of the theory and the practical skills to implement PLM within their own business environment. This new and expanded edition is fully updated to reflect the many technological and management advances made in PLM since the release of the second edition. Describing the environment in which products are developed, manufactured and supported, before addressing the Five Pillars of PLM: business processes, product data, PLM applications, Organisational Change Management (OCM) and Project Management, this book explains what Product Lifecycle Management is, and why it’s needed. The final part of the book addresses the PLM timeline, showing the typical steps and activities of a PLM project or initiative. “Product Lifecycle Management” will broaden the reader’s understanding of PLM, nurturing the skills needed to implement PLM successfully and to achi...

  3. From Environment to Production

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-04-29

    Using Metagenomic analysis, computational modeling, single cell and genome editing technologies, we are expressing desired microbial genes and their networks in suitable hosts for mass production of energy, food, and fine chemicals

  4. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Product Dating "Best if Used By" is a ...

  5. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  6. Forecast Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Forecast Icing Product (FIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The FIP algorithm uses...

  7. Bottonium production at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, K.J.

    1989-03-01

    The production of γ ('3S 1 ) and η b ( 1 S 0 ) with two gluons from Z decay is investigated. It is found that at LEP luminosities experimental detection will hardly be feasible. (author). 9 refs.; 1 fig

  8. Current Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  9. Acetone production by methylobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A W; O'Neill, J G; Wilkinson, J F

    1976-09-01

    An accumulation of acetone was observed during the metabolism of ethane and products of ethane oxidation by washed suspensions of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3B. This strain possessed an acetoacetate decarboxylase and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, and a decline in poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid occurred under the same conditions as acetone formation. A pathway of acetone production from poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid via 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate was suggested.

  10. Pretreated densified biomass products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  11. Productivity Improvement for Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    organization and the likely positions or types of work that will be required of the engineer in the future. There should therefore, be a balance of...Mall, P., Improving Total Productivity, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978. Miller, R.B., Participative Management-Quality of Worklife and Job Enrichment...Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, N.J., 1977. Hughes Aircraft Co., R & D Productivity-Study Report, Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City , California, 1974

  12. Conditions for industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated.......The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated....

  13. Mycotoxins in poultry production

    OpenAIRE

    Resanović Radmila M.; Nešić Ksenija D.; Nesić Vladimir D.; Palić Todor D.; Jaćević Vesna M.

    2009-01-01

    All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and production categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in production performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease i...

  14. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  15. New product pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most uncertain elements in budget planning is estimating production costs of items that have heretofore only been produced in prototype configurations and quantities. This paper examines the design and development of a mathematical model which computes appropriate prices for new and unique products. The resulting model offers a producer a fair return on his investment and the consumer a fair purchase price

  16. Selling new products

    OpenAIRE

    Borgh, van der, W.

    2012-01-01

    As we proceed into the 21st century, companies are facing increasingly complex and dynamic business environments. Many organizations have to deal with intense competition as more products are introduced faster, with shorter life cycles, and less competitive differentiation. Consequently, companies are pushed to not only be more adept in product development but also in capitalizing on these innovative activities. However, while companies have become more successful in inventing and developing ...

  17. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  18. Radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1981-01-01

    Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer products and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer products are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)

  19. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  20. Heavy quark production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, L.; Genoa Univ.

    1992-01-01

    The hadro- and photo-production of charm and beauty particles are reviewed. The most recent experimental results on charm are compared with the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations as a check of the theory. Results on beauty production at hadronic colliders are presented and indicate that these machines may also be regarded as beauty factories. (author) 21 refs.; 18 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. MICROORGANISMS IN CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: coliforms bacteria, microscopic filamentous fungi and yeasts, Salmonella sp. and staphylococci were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremes - honey cube, roll Arabica, roll Rona, roll stuffed with apricot cream, honey cube, pinwheel caramel, Sachovnica cut, Zora cut and curd cake. For microbiological tests 18 samples of confectionery products were used. Numbers of coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from <1x101 to 4x102 cfu.g-1, the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 0 to <1x101 cfu.g-1, the number of yeasts from <1x101 to 5.5x102 cfu.g-1, cells of Salmonella sp. were not detected and the number of staphylococci was from 0 to <1x101 cfu.g-1. All investigated samples of confectionary products were in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic.

  2. Material and energy productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Julia K; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2011-02-15

    Resource productivity, measured as GDP output per resource input, is a widespread sustainability indicator combining economic and environmental information. Resource productivity is ubiquitous, from the IPAT identity to the analysis of dematerialization trends and policy goals. High resource productivity is interpreted as the sign of a resource-efficient, and hence more sustainable, economy. Its inverse, resource intensity (resource per GDP) has the reverse behavior, with higher values indicating environmentally inefficient economies. In this study, we investigate the global systematic relationship between material, energy and carbon productivities, and economic activity. We demonstrate that different types of materials and energy exhibit fundamentally different behaviors, depending on their international income elasticities of consumption. Biomass is completely inelastic, whereas fossil fuels tend to scale proportionally with income. Total materials or energy, as aggregates, have intermediate behavior, depending on the share of fossil fuels and other elastic resources. We show that a small inelastic share is sufficient for the total resource productivity to be significantly correlated with income. Our analysis calls into question the interpretation of resource productivity as a sustainability indicator. We conclude with suggestions for potential alternatives.

  3. Particle production by neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, P.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of particle production by neutrinos in charged-current inclusive and exclusive channels. The production rates for various particles in neutrino-nucleon interactions at a beam energy of 25 GeV are compared. The mesons are, of course, dominated by pion production. The p 0 (760) rate is an order of magnitude smaller. Strange and charm pseudoscalar mesons are a further factor of two down in rate. The strange vector mesons are suppressed by more than an order of magnitude relative to K 0 production; however, the charmed D* + (2010) is only a factor of two smaller in rate than the D 0 (1860). With regards to the baryons, most of them are, of course, nucleons. The Λ 0 and Y*(1385) rates are down by one and two orders of magnitudes, respectively. The lower limit on the charmed Σ/sub c/ ++ baryon rate is similar to the Y*(1385) rate. Finally, the quasielastic and one-pion production exclusive channels have about the same cross section as that of the D* + ; associated production of strange particles in the νn → μ - K + Λ channel and the ΔS = +ΔΩ process νp → μ - pK + are down by factors of five and twenty, respectively, compared to the quasielastic cross section

  4. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets.

  5. Production of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.E.; Shuck, D.L.; Lyon, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    A continuous, four stage fluidized bed process for converting uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) to ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) powder suitable for use in the manufacture of fuel pellets for nuclear reactors is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of first reacting UF 6 with steam in a first fluidized bed, preferably at about 550 0 C, to form solid intermediate reaction products UO 2 F 2 , U 3 O 8 and an off-gas including hydrogen fluoride (HF). The solid intermediate reaction products are conveyed to a second fluidized bed reactor at which the mol fraction of HF is controlled at low levels in order to prevent the formation of uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ). The first intermediate reaction products are reacted in the second fluidized bed with steam and hydrogen at a temperature of about 630 0 C. The second intermediate reaction product including uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) is conveyed to a third fluidized bed reactor and reacted with additional steam and hydrogen at a temperature of about 650 0 C producing a reaction product consisting essentially of uranium dioxide having an oxygen-uranium ratio of about 2 and a low residual fluoride content. This product is then conveyed to a fourth fluidized bed wherein a mixture of air and preheated nitrogen is introduced in order to further reduce the fluoride content of the UO 2 and increase the oxygen-uranium ratio to about 2.25

  6. Product Quality and Worker Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Abowd, John M; Kramarz, Francis

    1995-01-01

    We study the relation between product quality and worker quality using an economic model that, under certain conditions, provides a direct link between product price, product quality and work-force quality. Our measures of product quality are the evolution in the detailed product price relative to its product group, and the level of the product price relative to this group. Our worker quality measures are the firm's average person effect and personal characteristics effect from individual wag...

  7. Product Quality and Worker Quality

    OpenAIRE

    John M. ABOWD; Françis KRAMARZ; Antoine MOREAU

    1996-01-01

    We study the relation between product quality and worker quality using an economic model that, under certain conditions, provides a direct link between product price, product quality and work force quality. Our measures of product quality are the evolution in the detailed product price relative to its product group and the level of the product price relative to this group. Our worker quality measures are the firm's average person effect and personal characteristics effect from individual wage...

  8. Perspectives in production of functional meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, D.; Glišić, M.; Janković, V.; Dimitrijević, M.; Karabasil, N.; Suvajdžić, B.; Teodorović, V.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry has met new challenges since the World Health Organization classified processed meat in carcinogenic Group 1. In relation to this, the functional food concept in meat processing has gained importance, especially in reducing carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an additional imperative, apart from the usual fat and salt reduction and product enrichment with functional ingredients. PAH reduction relies on control of the smoking process, but there is also a possibility they could be degraded by means of probiotic microorganisms or spices. The reduction of N-nitroso compounds could be provided by lowering the amount of added nitrite/nitrate, using substitutes for these chemicals, and/or by preventing conditions for the creation of N-nitroso compounds. Nevertheless, fat and salt reductions still remain topical, and rely mostly on the use of functional ingredients as their substitutes.

  9. Biodiesel production technologies: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemelis Nigatu Gebremariam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a fuel with various benefits over the conventional diesel fuel. It is derived from renewable resources, it has less emission to environment, it is biodegradable so has very limited toxicity and above all its production can be decentralized so that it could have a potential in helping rural economies. However, there are also some worth mentioning challenges associated with production of biodiesel. Among them repeatedly mentioned are the cost of feedstock and the choice of convenient technology for efficient production of the fuel from diverse feedstock types. There are four main routes by which raw vegetable oil and/or animal fat can be made suitable for use as substituent fuel in diesel engines without modification. These are direct use or blending of oils, micro-emulsion, thermal cracking or pyrolysis and transesterification reaction. Due to the quality of the fuel produced, the transesterification method is the most preferred way to produce biodiesel from diverse feedstock types. Through this method, oils and fats (triglycerides are converted to their alkyl esters with reduced viscosity to near diesel fuel levels. There are different techniques to carry out transesterification reaction for biodiesel production. Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages as well as its own specifically convenient feedstock character. There are also some very important reaction conditions to be given due attention in each of this techniques for efficient production of biodiesel, such as molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type and amount of catalyst, reaction temperature, reaction time, reaction medium, type and relative amount of solvents, among others. This review is meant to investigate the main transesterification techniques for biodiesel production in terms of their choice of feedstock character as well as their determinately required reaction conditions for efficient biodiesel production, so that to give an overview on their advantages

  10. Product Knowledge Modelling and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y.; MacCallum, K. J.; Duffy, Alex

    1996-01-01

    function-oriented design. Both Specific Product Knowledge and Product Domain Knowledge are modelled at two levels, a meta-model and an information-level.Following that, a computer-based scheme to manage the proposed product lknowledge models within a dynamically changing environment is presented.......The term, Product Knowledge is used to refer to two related but distinct concepts; the knowledge of a specific product (Specific Product Knowledge) and the knowledge of a product domain (Product Domain Knowledge). Modelling and managing Product Knowlege is an essential part of carrying out design.......A scheme is presented in this paper to model, i.e. classify, structure and formalise the product knowledge for the purpose of supporting function-oriented design. The product design specification and four types of required attributes of a specific product have been identified to form the Specific Product...

  11. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  12. New Product Launching Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiruthika, E.

    2012-09-01

    Launching a new product can be a tense time for a small or large business. There are those moments when you wonder if all of the work done to develop the product will pay off in revenue, but there are many things are can do to help increase the likelihood of a successful product launch. An open-minded consumer-oriented approach is imperative in todayís diverse global marketplace so a firm can identify and serve its target market, minimize dissatisfaction, and stay ahead of competitors. Final consumers purchase for personal, family, or household use. Finally, the kind of information that the marketing team needs to provide customers in different buying situations. In high-involvement decisions, the marketer needs to provide a good deal of information about the positive consequences of buying. The sales force may need to stress the important attributes of the product, the advantages compared with the competition; and maybe even encourage ìtrialî or ìsamplingî of the product in the hope of securing the sale. The final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as ìcognitive dissonance

  13. Hydrogen production by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Lee, M. J.; Jin, J. H.; Park, K. B.; Cho, Y. H.; Jeong, H. S.; Chung, H. H.; Jeong, Y. S.; Ahn, S. S.

    2001-04-01

    In this work, various kinds of catalysts including a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO 2 ) were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 production by gamma rays.The different activity of catalysts was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). A combination of EPR and spin-trapping method was also used to detect unstable radicals such as hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms to investigate the effect of catalysts and additives on the efficiency of H2 production. A nanosize TiO 2 (nTiO 2 ) catalyst that showed an excellent activity in the production of H2 from water by gamma rays were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 production with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes that are main wastes of chemical cleaning wastewater. As a result, among the catalysts examined in this work, a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO 2 ) showed the most efficient H2 production and the efficiency increased upon reapplication. This catalyst was also successfully used to produce H2 with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes

  14. Uranium production in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, S.

    1994-01-01

    The history of uranium production in Sweden is reviewed in the article. The World War II led to an exploitation of the Swedish alum shale on a large scale. In the last phase of the war it also became obvious that the shale might be used for energy production of quite another kind than oil. In 1947 AB Atom energy was founded, an enterprise with one of its purposes to extract uranium for peaceful use. A plant with a yearly capacity of 120 tons of uranium was erected at Ranstad and ready for production by 1965. From the start in Ranstad and for many years to come there was hardly any interest in an immediate large uranium production. It was decided to use the plant for studies on its more effective exploitation in case of an expansion in the future, bearing in mind the reactor programme. In the course of time economical reasons began to speak against the project. The shale seemed to have a future neither as oil nor as uranium resource. The complete termination of the work on uranium production from shale occurred in 1989

  15. Gestion de production

    CERN Document Server

    Courtois, Alain; Pillet, Maurice

    1995-01-01

    n ouvrage de référence pour tous les gestionnaires de production industrielle. Un cas concret d'entreprise fictive, fil rouge de l'ouvrage, pour expliquer et illustrer les différents outils et méthodes utilisés. Toutes les méthodes et tous les outils de gestion de production, des plus traditionnels aux novateurs, explicités, comparés et illustrés. L'ouvrage, entièrement mis à jour, reflète toutes les évolutions liées à la gestion de production. II se divise désormais en deux grandes partes ; la première regroupe les méthodes de base de la gestion de la production ainsi que l'informatisation de celles-ci (chapitres 2 à 10) ; la seconde concerne les méthodes d'amélioration de la production (chapitres 11 à 15), en mettant un accent fort sur la philosophie du Lean Manufacturing : L'entreprise en mouvement avec le Lean ; Les principaux outils du Lean ; Le pilotage d'atelier en flux tirés par la méthode Kanban ; L'implantation d'ateliers ; Les indicateurs de performance. Pour faciliter la le...

  16. Optimizing kaon production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berley, D.

    1976-01-01

    Kaon production data is examined with the view toward producing high quality beams in the future. Emphasis is placed upon the low momentum region, below 1 GeV/c, where the behavior of the kaon momentum spectrum is shown to be dominated by strongly momentum dependent kinematic factors. No complete experimental survey of production cross sections at different incident proton energies exists from a single apparatus. Information on relative production yields for different proton energies is important in the choice of parameters for an accelerator constructed primarily as a source of kaons. Data from different accelerators do exist and have been compiled. The key element in understanding how to present the data from different laboratories in a consistent way is an analysis of the effects of target material, target size, and production angle. This analysis not only enables a unification of the data but also indicates simple, useful and powerful principles about optimizing target efficiency. A summary is presented of existing kaon production facilities in the United States. These are all at proton accelerators. The possibility of using electron accelerators as kaon sources is examined. It is found that secondary beam fluxes can be obtained at electron linacs which are comparable to those obtained at proton synchrotrons

  17. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L; Kokkala, M [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1996-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  18. Product mix retail strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Miloš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The sales of appropriate merchandise is essential for performance of every retail enterprise. The way that products are displayed within retail sales object will be in so much important as the merchandise is considered a pad of the perceived image of that outlet. Thus, assorted products speak to their consumers as far as to what they [the consumers] can expect, and they signal off a number of marketing messages as well. Merchandising is the key element in attracting the consumers and in encouraging of repeated purchases. The question then could be: products or services?, yet the retailer's future will depend on his ability to develop the best sale offers. The selection of appropriate merchandise, and that would be the one [merchandise] that is in accordance with outlet's image, requires careful planning which, again, needs to be related with the direction the seller is following. Managing of the product assortments' dimensions emerges from the retailer's strategic planning, therefore, the decisions made on the inclusion of novel products as well as about deleting of the old stock are deemed (to be strategic.

  19. Oil production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J F

    1983-12-21

    A new oil producing system is proposed which consists of a group of underwater wells, an underwater riser and a floating storage facility for the production of the wells. The group of wells and the riser are interconnected through a manifold system in such a way that the production from any well or from the entire group of wells go to the base (foundation) of the riser. From above the riser is connected with the floating storage facility which is equipped, besides tanks for storing the well products, with a separation device for separating the oil and the accompanying gas. The gas is used as a fuel for producing electric power required by the dynamic positioning systems. The products from each well are tested by means of a regulable coupling controlled by means of a cable, which is passed from the surface through the riser. The wellhead equipment for the unslanted wells is mounted on a template previously installed on the sea floor. From the template the well products enter the riser through the manifold unit system.

  20. Beauty production at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shears, Tara

    2008-01-01

    A review of recent measurements of beauty production, based on proton antiproton collision data at √s = 1.96 TeV and using the CDF detector, is given. Previous measurements of beauty (b) quark production at the Tevatron, carried out at centre-of-mass energies √s = 1.8 TeV, have shown discrepancies when compared to Next to Leading Order (NLO) predictions [1]. Improved predictions and experimental procedures have reduced this discrepancy [2]. Improved parton density functions, better fragmentation functions and more complete theoretical calculations have improved theoretical accuracy. Experimentally, measurements of beauty production at √s = 1.96 TeV are now presented in terms of b hadrons or B mesons, to avoid problems unfolding back to the quark level. In this review [3] measurements of inclusive beauty (where one beauty jet or hadron is reconstructed in the event), and beauty + X (where X can be a boson or another beauty jet or hadron), production will be presented: inclusive beauty jet cross-section; semi and fully reconstructed B meson cross-section; beauty dijet cross-section; semi-reconstructed B B meson cross-section; Z boson + beauty jet cross-section. More information concerning other measurements of heavy quark production can be found elsewhere [4

  1. Application of manufactured products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastri, Sankar; Duke, Michael B.

    1992-01-01

    A wide range of products can be manufactured from the following materials: (1) lunar regolith or basalt; (2) regolith or rock beneficiated to concentrate plagioclase or other minerals; (3) iron, extracted from lunar soil or rocks by various means; (4) naturally occurring or easily obtained materials that have cementitious properties; and (5) byproducts of the above materials. Among the products that can be produced from these materials are the following: beams; plates and sheets; transparent plates (windows); bricks and blocks; pipes and tubes; low-density materials (foams); fiber, wire, and cables; foils and reflective coatings; hermetic seals (coatings); and formed objects. In addition to oxygen, which can be obtained by several processes, either from unbeneficiated regolith or by reduction of concentrated ilmenite, these materials make the simplest requirements of the lunar resource extraction system. A thorough analysis of the impact of these simplest products on the economics of space operations is not possible at this point. Research is necessary both to define optimum techniques and adapt them to space and to determine the probable market for the products so that the priority of various processes can be assessed. Discussions of the following products are presented: aerobraking heat shields; pressurized habitats; lunar photovoltaic farms; and agricultural systems.

  2. ATLAS production system

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei; Golubkov, Dmitry; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Wenaus, Torre; Padolski, Siarhei

    2016-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS production system called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager which used by thousands of physicists to analyze the data remotely, with the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, across a more than hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based on many criterias, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kind of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteering computers. Besides jobs definition Production System also includes flexible web user interface, which implements user-friendly environment for main ATLAS workflows, e.g. simple way of combining different data flows, and real-time monitoring, optimised for using with huge amount of information to present. We present an overview of the ATLAS Production System major components: job and task definition, workflow manager web user i...

  3. Renewable Acrylonitrile Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Karp, Eric M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eaton, Todd R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sanchez i Nogue, Violeta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vorotnikov, Vassili [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brandner, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Manker, Lorenz [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michener, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vardon, Derek R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bratis, Adam D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Rongming [University of Colorado; Gill, Ryan T. [University of Colorado; Gilhespy, Michelle [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Skoufa, Zinovia [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Watson, Michael J. [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Fruchey, O. Stanley [MATRIC; Cywar, Robin M. [Formerly NREL

    2017-12-08

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a petroleum-derived compound used in resins, polymers, acrylics, and carbon fiber. We present a process for renewable ACN production using 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP), which can be produced microbially from sugars. The process achieves ACN molar yields exceeding 90% from ethyl 3-hydroxypropanoate (ethyl 3-HP) via dehydration and nitrilation with ammonia over an inexpensive titanium dioxide solid acid catalyst. We further describe an integrated process modeled at scale that is based on this chemistry and achieves near-quantitative ACN yields (98 +/- 2%) from ethyl acrylate. This endothermic approach eliminates runaway reaction hazards and achieves higher yields than the standard propylene ammoxidation process. Avoidance of hydrogen cyanide as a by-product also improves process safety and mitigates product handling requirements.

  4. STALING OF BAKERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to write down a review article about various aspects connected with staling of bakery products. Shelf life is directly associated with the staling process, which depends on the composition of bakery products and important are storage conditions as well. In the article are described particular components (starch, nonstarch polysacharides, water and how they affect the staling process. Generally during staling of bakery products occur  processes related with starch retrogradation, moisture redistribution from the crumb to the crust and other interactions between components. Staling process could be delayed by using various bakery improvers like enzymes, hydrocolloids, emulgators and other compounds. Also useful is the application of suitable packaging techniques.doi:10.5219/124

  5. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    . These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern product and process modelling theory and practice followed by a series of case studies drawn from a variety......This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models...... to biotechnology applications, food, polymer and human health application areas. The book highlights to important nature of modern product and process modelling in the decision making processes across the life cycle. As such it provides an important resource for students, researchers and industrial practitioners....

  6. Connecting the Production Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Mouritsen, Jan

    &OP process itself is a fluid object, but there is still possibility to organise the messy Production. There are connections between the Production multiple and the managerial technology fluid. The fluid enacted the multiplicity of Production thus making it more difficult to be organised because there were...... in opposite directions. They are all part of the fluid object. There is no single chain of circulating references that makes the object a matter of fact. Accounting fluidity means that references drift back and forth and enact new realities also connected to the chain. In this setting future research may......This paper is about objects. It follows post ANT trajectories and finds that objects are multiple and fluid. Extant classic ANT inspired accounting research largely sees accounting inscriptions as immutable mobiles. Although multiplicity of objects upon which accounting acts has been explored...

  7. Cyanobacterial chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Anna E; Atsumi, Shota

    2016-08-10

    The increase in global temperatures caused by rising CO2 levels necessitates the development of alternative sources of fuel and chemicals. One appealing alternative that has been receiving increased attention in recent years is the photosynthetic conversion of atmospheric CO2 to biofuels and chemical products using genetically engineered cyanobacteria. This can help to not only provide an alternate "greener" source for some of the most popular petroleum based products but it can also help to reduce atmospheric CO2. Utilizing cyanobacteria rather than plants allows for reduced land requirements and reduces competition with food crops. This review discusses advancements in the field since 2012 with a particular emphasis on production of hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Productivity and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gylfi Zoega

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in productivity account for differences in output per capita between countries as well as changes in output and the standard of living for each country over long periods of time. During the first industrial revolution, one could already see the emergence of two groups of countries: the high- and the low-GDP per capita countries. The list of countries belonging to the highproductivity group has not changed much over the past century. Differences in institutions separate the two clubs. The high-productivity group is, amongst many other differences, characterized by less corruption, a better legal system, superior enforcement of contracts, a lower cost of starting a business and lower tariffs. Historical output series for Britain going back to the mid-19th century show that productivity has increased greatly and improved the standard of living.

  9. Remelt Ingot Production Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandfield, J. F.

    The technology related to the production of remelt ingots (small ingots, sows and T-Bar) is reviewed. Open mold conveyors, sow casting, wheel and belt casting and VDC and HDC casting are described and compared. Process economics, capacity, product quality and process problems are listed. Trends in casting machine technology such as longer open mold conveyor lines are highlighted. Safety issues related to the operation of these processes are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of the various machine configurations and options e.g. such as dry filling with the mold out of water and wet filling with the mold in water for open mould conveyors are discussed. The effect of mold design on machine productivity, mold cracking and mold life is also examined.

  10. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  11. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the analysis of the impact of externalities on the host country's total factor productivity by taking into account different dimensions of spillover effects. Namely, engagement in exporting and foreign ownership is generally perceived as being beneficial to individual...... firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... on Hungary. While the country leads the group of post-socialist countries in the amount of attracted foreign direct investments (FDI) the effect of this policy on the economy remains unclear. The research finds that different externalities play a different role in productivity, technological and efficiency...

  12. Antiplasmodial Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio R. Nogueira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a human infectious disease that is caused by four species of Plasmodium. It is responsible for more than 1 million deaths per year. Natural products contain a great variety of chemical structures and have been screened for antiplasmodial activity as potential sources of new antimalarial drugs. This review highlights studies on natural products with antimalarial and antiplasmodial activity reported in the literature from January 2009 to November 2010. A total of 360 antiplasmodial natural products comprised of terpenes, including iridoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, terpenoid benzoquinones, steroids, quassinoids, limonoids, curcubitacins, and lanostanes; flavonoids; alkaloids; peptides; phenylalkanoids; xanthones; naphthopyrones; polyketides, including halenaquinones, peroxides, polyacetylenes, and resorcylic acids; depsidones; benzophenones; macrolides; and miscellaneous compounds, including halogenated compounds and chromenes are listed in this review.

  13. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  14. Sustainable Biocatalytic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güzel, Günduz

    As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase and chemi......As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase...... and chemical equilibria as part of his main sustainable biodiesel project. The transesterification reaction of vegetable oils or fats with an aliphatic alcohol – in most cases methanol or ethanol – yields biodiesel (long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters – FAAE) as the main product in the presence of alkaline...

  15. Real time production optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  16. Radiopharmacy and radiopharmaceutical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy, Gerard; Fraysse, Marc; Hammadi, Akli; Tafani, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    Written by two radio-pharmacist doctors, this book presents all the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to radio-pharmacists in charge of the management, the preparation, the control and the delivery of radiopharmaceutical medicines. It presents the scientific, regulatory and technical foundations for the implementation and operation of radiopharmacy in hospitals, addressing themes such as the fundamentals and theories about nuclear physics and radioactivity (production of artificial radionuclides, detectors and measuring instruments, radio-chemistry), radio-biology and radiation protection (biological effects of ionizing radiations, radioprotection, regulations concerning the use of radiopharmaceutical products by medical personnel), the application domains of radiopharmaceutical medicines and products (diagnosis, therapy, biological assessment), and the management of radiopharmacy in a hospital (design, implementation, organizing, operation)

  17. Improving pension product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Mulvey, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops a pension product that can be oered in a dened contribution pension scheme as a deferred or immediate life annuity. The product is characterized by linking an individual's savings directly to market returns and differs from the products available in the market by being adjusted...... to individual needs. We argue that the asset allocation, the payout prole and the insured sum should not only depend on the plan member's age (or time left to retirement), nor only on her risk preferences, but should capture personal and economical characteristics. Among other factors, we include current wealth...... are optimal under the expected utility function of retirement benets given the individual's characteristics. The problem is solved via a model that combines two optimization approaches: stochastic optimal control and multistage stochastic programming. The rst method is common in nancial and actuarial...

  18. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  19. Production of endogenous pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarello, C A

    1979-01-01

    The production and release of endogenous pyrogen by the host is the first step in the pathogenesis of fever. Endogenous pyrogen is a low-molecular-weight protein released from phagocytic leukocytes in response to several substances of diverse nature. Some of these agents stimulate production of endogenous pyrogen because they are toxic; others act as antigens and interact with either antibody or sensitized lymphocytes in order to induce its production. Some tumors of macrophage origin produce the molecule spontaneously. Whatever the mechanism involved, endogenous pyrogen is synthesized following transcription of new DNA and translation of mRNA into new protein. Once synthesis is completed, the molecule is released without significant intracellular storage. Recent evidence suggests that following release, molecular aggregates form which are biologically active. In its monomer form, endogenous pyrogen is a potent fever-producing substance and mediates fever by its action on the thermoregulatory center.

  20. Product-Marketing Innovation, Skills, and Firm Productivity Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Severgnini, Battista; Sørensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The role of product and marketing innovation for productivity growth is addressed using survey and register data for the Danish economy. It is hypothesized that product and marketing innovation are complementary inputs and that innovation activities are skill-intensive. It is established...... that product and marketing innovation in skill-intensive firms results in significantly faster productivity growth. Moreover, product and marketing innovation have independent roles in productivity growth, which cannot be attributed to organizational changes. Finally, we apply an instrument variable approach...... for firms, innovation choices to study endogeneity. The results strongly support the idea that product–marketing innovation leads to faster productivity growth in skill-intensive firms....

  1. Transdisciplinary product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Savšek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How can transdisciplinary approach increase the product development process in future industry? Purpose: The aim of the research is to develop a model of an effective product development in the automotive industry based on the transdisciplinary approach. Method: We used a qualitative research approach in order to develop a theoretical framework of transdisciplinarity. The framework comprises the concurrent engineering and experts from different disciplines. The framework was represented by a mathematical model which based on stochastic dynamic programming. Results: We developed a theoretical frameworkand a practical case of transdisciplinary product development in the automotive industry. We presented a mathematical model and information environment which supports such a model. Organization: The findings of the research will provide higher productivity, lower operating costs, change in personnel structure, higher added value, lower sales costs, lower administration costs, reduction in growth of expenses, and lower costs of work equipment. Society: The research impact on higher customer’s satisfaction, increased flexibility of operations, better quality of information, improved control of sources, less waste materials and less pollution, improved planning process, more favourable consideration of employees , improved portfolio management, and better corporate presentation of company. Originality: Transdisciplinary framework combines methods of concurrent engineering and interdisciplinary approach in a process of product development. The development of such a framework is a complete novelty and represents an original approach to product development, which will be particularly suitable for the smart factories of the future. Transdisciplinary framework was transformed in to a mathematical model based on stochastic dynamic programming. Model is supported by the existing information warehouse and represents a potential for

  2. Trade and Sectoral Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Fadinger, Harald; Fleiss, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Even though differences in sectoral total factor productivity are at the heart of Ricardian trade theory and many models of growth and development, very little is known about their size and their form. In this paper we try to fill this gap by using a Hybrid-Ricardo-Heckscher-Ohlin trade model and bilateral sectoral trade data to overcome the data problem that has limited previous studies, which have used input and output data to back out productivities, to a small number of OECD economies. We...

  3. Biotechnological production of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priefert, H; Rabenhorst, J; Steinbüchel, A

    2001-08-01

    Vanillin is one of the most important aromatic flavor compounds used in foods, beverages, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals and is produced on a scale of more than 10 thousand tons per year by the industry through chemical synthesis. Alternative biotechnology-based approaches for the production are based on bioconversion of lignin, phenolic stilbenes, isoeugenol, eugenol, ferulic acid, or aromatic amino acids, and on de novo biosynthesis, applying fungi, bacteria, plant cells, or genetically engineered microorganisms. Here, the different biosynthesis routes involved in biotechnological vanillin production are discussed.

  4. Innovativeness in production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Henrik; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    Alignment of market demand and manufacturing capabilities are directly linked to the potential competitive advantage. Pressure for manufacturing companies to customize increase the need for productions systems to handle innovations, especially in SMEs. The paper claims that innovativeness has...... a positive influence of the ability of the manufacturing system to provide specific capabilities that enables the entire production system to positively influence the competitiveness. A comparative case study of three SMEs shows that competitive advantages are obtained through innovative technologies......, but revealed also automation potential in data and information management to be more responsive and cost-effective....

  5. Hadron coherent production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dremin, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    The process of the coherent production of hadrons analogous to Cherenkov radiation of photons is considered. Its appearence and qualitative treatment are possible now because it is known from experiment that the real part of the πp (and pp) forward elastic scattering amplitude is positive at high energies. The threshold behaviour of the process as well as very typical angular and psub(T)-distributions where psub(t)-transverse momentum corresponding to the ring structure of the target diagram at rather large angles and to high-psub(T) jet production are emphasized [ru

  6. Predicting safe sandwich production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Duan, Zhi; Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Time and temperature control is crucial to avoid growth of pathogens during production and serving of cold ready-to-eat meals. The Danish guidelines state that chilled foods, such as sandwiches, should not be outside the cold chain for more than 3 hours including the time for preparation...... and serving. However, Danish sandwich producing companies find it challenging to comply with this and have expressed a need for more flexibility. The Danish guidelines do allow for a prolongation of the acceptable time outside the cold chain, if the safety of the specific production can be documented...

  7. Defect production in ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinoshita, C. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

  8. Product Licenses Database Application

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkovikj, Petar

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to organize and centralize the data about software tools available to CERN employees, as well as provide a system that would simplify the license management process by providing information about the available licenses and their expiry dates. The project development process is consisted of two steps: modeling the products (software tools), product licenses, legal agreements and other data related to these entities in a relational database and developing the front-end user interface so that the user can interact with the database. The result is an ASP.NET MVC web application with interactive views for displaying and managing the data in the underlying database.

  9. Fission product detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liatard, E.; Akrouf, S.; Bruandet, J.F

    1987-01-01

    The response of photovoltaic cells to heavy ions and fission products have been tested on beam. Their main advantages are their extremely low price, their low sensitivity to energetic light ions with respect to fission products, and the possibility to cut and fit them together to any shape without dead zone. The time output signals of a charge sensitive preamplifier connected to these cells allows fast coincidences. A resolution of 12ns (F.W.H.M.) have been measured between two cells [fr

  10. Duration in Production Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J.

    2006-01-01

    We use 2003 and 2004 ARMS data to analyze variations in contract duration among growers of broilers who hold production contracts. Most contracts cover just a single flock, but many extend for 1-2 years, and a significant minority of broiler contracts specify lengths of 5, 10, and even 15 years. We find that grower debt and production volume are inversely related to the choice of a short term (a year or less) contract, while lengthy prior experience with the contractor promotes short term con...

  11. Happiness and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Oswald, Andrew J.; Proto, Eugenio; Sgroi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Some firms say they care about the happiness and ‘well-being’ of their employees. But are such\\ud claims hype? Or might they be scientific good sense? This study provides evidence that happiness\\ud makes people more productive. First, we examine fundamental real-world shocks (bereavement and\\ud family illness) imposed by Nature. We show that lower happiness is associated with lower\\ud productivity. Second, within the laboratory, we design two randomized controlled trials. Some\\ud individuals ...

  12. Production Flexibility and Hedging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Dionne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We extend the analysis on hedging with price and output uncertainty by endogenizing the output decision. Specifically, we consider the joint determination of output and hedging in the case of flexibility in production. We show that the risk-averse firm always maintains a short position in the futures market when the futures price is actuarially fair. Moreover, in the context of an example, we show that the presence of production flexibility reduces the incentive to hedge for all risk averse agents.

  13. Software as quality product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enders, A.

    1975-01-01

    In many discussions on the reliability of computer systems, software is presented as the weak link in the chain. The contribution attempts to identify the reasons for this situation as seen from the software development. The concepts correctness and reliability of programmes are explained as they are understood in the specialist discussion of today. Measures and methods are discussed which are particularly relevant as far as the obtaining of fault-free and reliable programmes is concerned. Conclusions are drawn for the user of software so that he is in the position to judge himself what can be justly expected frm the product software compared to other products. (orig./LH) [de

  14. Charm production in SIBYLL

    CERN Document Server

    Riehn, Felix; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Stanev, Todor

    2015-08-04

    SIBYLL 2.1 is an event generator for hadron interactions at the highest energies. It is commonly used to analyze and interpret extensive air shower measurements. In light of the first detection of PeV neutrinos by the IceCube collaboration the inclusive fluxes of muons and neutrinos in the atmosphere have become very important. Predicting these fluxes requires understanding of the hadronic production of charmed particles since these contribute significantly to the fluxes at high energy through their prompt decay. We will present an updated version of SIBYLL that has been tuned to describe LHC data and extended to include the production of charmed hadrons.

  15. FDG decomposition products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.; Buriova, E.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors present the results of analysis of decomposition products of [ 18 ]fluorodexyglucose. It is concluded that the coupling of liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation is a suitable tool for quantitative analysis of FDG radiopharmaceutical, i.e. assay of basic components (FDG, glucose), impurities (Kryptofix) and decomposition products (gluconic and glucuronic acids etc.); 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) is sufficiently stable and resistant towards autoradiolysis; the content of radiochemical impurities (2-[ 18 F]fluoro-gluconic and 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-glucuronic acids in expired FDG did not exceed 1%

  16. Development of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by......This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by...

  17. IPOs and Product Quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Stoughton, Neal M; Wong, Kit Pong; Zechner, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Given recent public attention paid to high-flying Internet IPOs such as Yahoo and Amazon.com, we explore a product market motive for going public. We develop a model where consumers discern product quality from the stock price. The model predicts that only better-quality firms will go public. Effects of IPO announcements on rival firms' stock prices are related to inferences about market size and market share. The model also predicts that the likelihood of "hot issue" markets depends on the d...

  18. Microbial products II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pape, H; Rehm, H J [eds.

    1986-01-01

    The present volume deals mainly with compounds which have been detected as natural microbial products. Part 1 of this volume introduces the general aspects of the overproduction of metabolites and the concepts and genetics of secondary metabolism. Compounds such as nucleosides, nucleotides, coenzymes, vitamins and lipids are dealt with in part 2. Part 3 then is devoted to products and antibiotics with uses im medicine, veterinary medicine, plant protection and metabolites with antitumor activity. Several secondary metabolites have found uses in human and animal health care. With 244 figs., 109 tabs.

  19. Wavestar Energy Production Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter Bak; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    It is of paramount importance to decrease the Cost of Energy (CoE) from Wavestar wave energy con-verters (WECs) in order to make the WECs competitive to other sources of renewable energy. The CoE can be decreased by reducing the cost of the machines (CAPEX and OPEX) and by increasing the in......-come. The income can most obviously be enlarged by increasing the energy production. The focus of the present note is solely on expectations to the yearly energy production from future Wavestar WECs....

  20. Biological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  1. Structure - materials - production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders; Gammel, Peder; Busch, Jens

    2002-01-01

    For the last six years th Aarhus School of Architecture has introduced the first year students (there are about 200 students admitted each year) to structure, materials, design and production through a five week course in collaboration with a group of local companies.......For the last six years th Aarhus School of Architecture has introduced the first year students (there are about 200 students admitted each year) to structure, materials, design and production through a five week course in collaboration with a group of local companies....

  2. Lean Production : Werkzeuge zur Realisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Binner, Hartmut F.

    2008-01-01

    INHALT: l. Einleitung und Standortbestimmung 2. Japanische Wertvorstellungen 3. Inhalte der Lean Production 4. Fertigungssegmentierung 5. Informationsmanagement mit CIM- und Logistik-Komponenten 6. Logistikgerechte Strukturen der Lean Production 7. Realisierung der Lean Production 8. Zusammenfassung

  3. Radiopharmaceutical production at Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, M.

    1987-01-01

    The difficult problems of operating and maintaining complex equipment, meeting despatch deadlines, ensuring product quality, production scheduling and controlling staff are discussed in relation to Australia's national radioisotope production plant

  4. Modelling of virtual production networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, specialize in a limited field of production. It requires forming virtual production networks of cooperating enterprises to manufacture better, faster and cheaper. Apart from that, some production orders cannot be realized, because there is not a company of sufficient production potential. In this case the virtual production networks of cooperating companies can realize these production orders. These networks have larger production capacity and many different resources. Therefore it can realize many more production orders together than each of them separately. Such organization allows for executing high quality product. The maintenance costs of production capacity and used resources are not so high. In this paper a methodology of rapid prototyping of virtual production networks is proposed. It allows to execute production orders on time considered existing logistic constraints.

  5. Heavy flavour production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Barsuk, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The present write-up reports recent LHCb results on production of quarkonium and open flavour states, as well as selected results on associated production, central exclusive production and pro- duction in heavy ion collisions.

  6. 78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... renewable electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45... resources, and to 2013 sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession...

  7. 77 FR 21835 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45. DATES: The 2012... sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession thereof. Inflation...

  8. The safety of fishery products

    OpenAIRE

    Zugravu Gheorghe, Adrian; Turek Rahoveanu, Maria Magdalena; Turek Rahoveanu, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The paper follows two main objectives: to understand consumers' perception and image of fishery products and to identify communication levers in order to improve the perceived image of fishery products. Orientations in terms of communication are product-focused and aim at enhancing the reputation of products, consequently with impact on product consumption. The present research is focused on the fishery products, regardless of their presentation - fresh, frozen or processed. This paper conduc...

  9. An Explanatory Study of Lean Practices in Job Shop Production/ Special Job Production/ Discrete Production/ Batch Shop Production Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Lavlesh Kumar Sharma; Ravindra Mohan Saxena

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the study explores the benefits and advantages of Lean Practices or Lean Thinking in Job shop production/ Special job production/ Discrete production/ Batch shop production industries. The Lean Practices have been applied more compatible in Job shop production than in the continuous/ mass production because of several barriers and hurdles in the industrial context that influence the whole processes again and again, this happens due to the lack of knowledge about...

  10. RECONSIDERING ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIS A. MIHAI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economy has changed significantly over the past century, in part due to the scientific discoveries, due to the industrial revolution, to the research, development and innovation, but maybe the most important contributor to the economic development is the human resource. We have witnessed significant changes enhancing the levels of productivity, both labor and capital. This paper analyzes productivity in relation to its social and sustainability dimension. The paper follows a previous study, highlighting the most important findings identified and reinterpreting them on the basis of the most recent research papers produced by the scholars in the field. The analysis is focused on the most unsustainable economies worldwide, respectively, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Belgium, Kuwait, Singapore, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Macedonia, Japan and the United States of America – selected by considering their per capita ecological deficit. The research uses statistical data provided by the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank and the Global Footprint Network. The research combines economical, development and environmental indexes in our attempt to evaluate productivity and to adjust it so that it considers the ecological deficit of the nations. The research hypothesis that generated the study is: the levels of economic productivity obtained by countries are not limited by their biocapacities. The empirical analysis will verify the research question advocating for the need to consider the limited capacity of the planet, in term of natural resources, when promoting economic and social development.

  11. TRANSVERSELY POLARIZED Λ PRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BORER, D.

    2000-01-01

    Transversely polarized Λ production in hard scattering processes is discussed in terms of a leading twist T-odd fragmentation function which describes the fragmentation of an unpolarized quark into a transversely polarized Λ. We focus on the properties of this function and its relevance for the RHIC and HERMES experiments

  12. Maintaining productive earthmover performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.

    1992-01-01

    Maintenance management is essential to a productive mining operation. 80-90% of maintenance should be planned, the rest emergency. Many earthmover manufacturers offer extensive services to optimize machine productivity, e.g. equipment management software. Product support agreements (PSA) are becoming more common in open pit operations. These are normally agreements between mines and equipment dealers to provide product support requirements based on who can provide what most efficiently. The advantages for the customer are known servicing, cost effectiveness, minimum capital investment, and the fact PSAs are responsive to change. The operating experience of Round Mountain Gold, USA, Crouch Mining, UK, and Unatrac and Tractor Equipment, Ghana with PSAs is discussed. Crouch Mining operate England's largest open-cast coal operation, the Stobswood mine, Northumberland under contract to British Coal's Opencast-Executive. Crouch has agreed repair and maintenance contracts with 3 different dealer organisations for 3 separate machine fleets i.e. hydraulic excavators, a backhoe and 2 face shovels; 2 blasthole drills; and the 13 caterpillar trucks. These repair and maintenance contracts are described. 4 refs., 6 photos

  13. Forterra Concrete Products, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Forterra Concrete Products, Inc., a business located at 511 E. John Carpenter Freeway, Irving, TX, 75062, for alleged violations at its facility located at 23600 W. 40th St

  14. Canadian heavy water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlinger, A.; Lockerby, W.E.; Rae, H.K.

    1977-05-01

    The paper reviews Canadian experience in the production of heavy water, presents a long-term supply projection, relates this projection to the anticipated long-term electrical energy demand, and highlights principal areas for further improvement that form the bulk of our research and development program on heavy water processes

  15. Optimizing kaon production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berley, D.

    1976-01-01

    Kaon production data are examined with the view toward producing high quality beams in the future. Emphasis is placed upon the low momentum region, below 1 GeV/c, where the behavior of the kaon momentum spectrum is shown to be dominated by strongly momentum dependent kinematic factors. No complete experimental survey of production cross sections at different incident proton energies exists from a single apparatus. Information on relative production yields for different proton energies is important in the choice of parameters for an accelerator constructed primarily as a source of kaons. A summary is presented of existing kaon production facilities in the United States. These are all at proton accelerators. The possibility of using electron accelerators as kaon sources is examined. It is found that secondary beam fluxes can be contained at electron linacs, which are comparable to those obtained at proton synchrotrons. All kaon beam transport systems presently in use employ quadrupole and dipole magnet elements. A superconducting solenoid transport system has the potential advantage of much larger solid angle acceptance than the familiar quadrupole system. The possibility of mass separation by the differential energy loss method appears adaptable to the solenoid system

  16. Hadron production at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitters, R.F.

    1975-01-01

    A report is given of the knowledge obtained from SPEAR about hadron production in e + e - annihilation since the discovery of the new particles. Included are the SPEAR magnetic detector, the total cross sections, mean charged multiplicity and energy, inclusive momentum spectra, and hadron angular distribution

  17. Southern pulpwood production, 1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe F. Christopher; Martha E. Nelson

    1963-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the south rose to an all-time high of 25,586,300 cords in 1962-58 percent of the Nation's total. At the year's end, 80 southern pulpmills were operating; their combined daily pulping capacity was more than 52,000 tons. Nine mills outside the region were using wood grown in the South.

  18. Economics of microalgae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acién, F.G.; Molina, E.; Fernández-Sevilla, J.M.; Barbosa, M.; Gouveia, L.; Sepúlveda, C.; Bazaes, J.; Arbib, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The economic analysis of biomass production is a critical step in ensuring the success of any microalgae-based industry. Until recently, only small-scale facilities of less than 10. ha have been in operation, but now large-scale facilities of more than 200. ha are being built and operated.

  19. Software product family evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, F; Bosch, J; Kamsties, E; Kansala, K; Krzanik, L; Obbink, H; VanDerLinden, F

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a 4-dimensional software product family engineering evaluation model. The 4 dimensions relate to the software engineering concerns of business, architecture, organisation and process. The evaluation model is meant to be used within organisations to determine the status of their

  20. Lazy Productivity via Termination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Hendriks, R.D.A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a procedure for transforming strongly sequential constructor-based term rewriting systems (TRSs) into context-sensitive TRSs in such a way that productivity of the input system is equivalent to termination of the output system. Thereby automated termination provers become available for

  1. Production Farms at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, M.; Rinaldo, F.; Wolbers, S.

    1994-05-01

    UNIX Farms at Fermilab have been used for more than than three years to solve the problem of providing massive amounts of CPU processing power for event reconstruction. System configurations, parallel processing software, administration and allocation issues, production issues and other experiences and plans are discussed

  2. Teaching and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Hersholt C.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a theory of educational productivity that demonstrates the relationship between instructional practices and student outcomes. Identifies and discusses nine factors related to increasing student learning: ability, development, motivation, instructional quality, learning time, home environment, classroom social group, peer group, and use…

  3. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  4. Production Functions Behaving Badly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredholm, Thomas

    This paper reconsiders Anwar Shaikh's critique of the neoclassical theory of growth and distribution based on its use of aggregate production functions. This is done by reconstructing and extending Franklin M. Fisher's 1971 computer simulations, which Shaikh used to support his critique. Together...

  5. Microbial Propionic Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Axayacatl Gonzalez-Garcia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acid (propionate is a commercially valuable carboxylic acid produced through microbial fermentation. Propionic acid is mainly used in the food industry but has recently found applications in the cosmetic, plastics and pharmaceutical industries. Propionate can be produced via various metabolic pathways, which can be classified into three major groups: fermentative pathways, biosynthetic pathways, and amino acid catabolic pathways. The current review provides an in-depth description of the major metabolic routes for propionate production from an energy optimization perspective. Biological propionate production is limited by high downstream purification costs which can be addressed if the target yield, productivity and titre can be achieved. Genome shuffling combined with high throughput omics and metabolic engineering is providing new opportunities, and biological propionate production is likely to enter the market in the not so distant future. In order to realise the full potential of metabolic engineering and heterologous expression, however, a greater understanding of metabolic capabilities of the native producers, the fittest producers, is required.

  6. Working hours and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collewet, Marion; Sauermann, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to

  7. Product development leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Peter Lindgren introducerer i sin artikel begrebet ”Product Development Leadership”, som sætter fokus på produktudviklingens strategiske og markedsmæssige rolle. Begrebet omfatter bl.a. virksomhedens evne til at generere eller indfange ideer og udvikle disse via eksisterende eller nye måder...

  8. Exclusive Production at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Marek

    2016-01-01

    I briefly introduce so-called central exclusive production. I mainly focus on the example analyses that have been performed in the CMS experiment at CERN. I conclude with ideas and perspectives for future work that will be done during Run 2 of the LHC. I pay special attention to the ultraperipheral collisions.

  9. Kronecker Products on Preconditioning

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Longfei

    2013-08-01

    Numerical techniques for linear systems arising from discretization of partial differential equations are nowadays essential for understanding the physical world. Among these techniques, iterative methods and the accompanying preconditioning techniques have become increasingly popular due to their great potential on large scale computation. In this work, we present preconditioning techniques for linear systems built with tensor product basis functions. Efficient algorithms are designed for various problems by exploiting the Kronecker product structure in the matrices, inherited from tensor product basis functions. Specifically, we design preconditioners for mass matrices to remove the complexity from the basis functions used in isogeometric analysis, obtaining numerical performance independent of mesh size, polynomial order and continuity order; we also present a compound iteration preconditioner for stiffness matrices in two dimensions, obtaining fast convergence speed; lastly, for the Helmholtz problem, we present a strategy to `hide\\' its indefiniteness from Krylov subspace methods by eliminating the part of initial error that corresponds to those negative generalized eigenvalues. For all three cases, the Kronecker product structure in the matrices is exploited to achieve high computational efficiency.

  10. IDEA: Stimulating Oral Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Jacob J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents daily activities that facilitate complete sentence response, promote oral production, and aid the learning of vocabulary in foreign-language classes. Because speech is the primary form of communication in the foreign-language classroom, it is important to stimulate students to converse as soon as possible. (Author/CK)

  11. Fermentative Alcohol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín, Mariano; Sánchez, Antonio; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter we present some of key principles of bioreactor design for the production of alcohols by fermentation of sugar and syngas . Due to the different feedstocks, a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics inside the units , bubble columns or stirred tank reactors , the gas-liquid mass...

  12. Production of lentiviral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto-Wilhelm Merten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviral vectors (LV have seen considerably increase in use as gene therapy vectors for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. This review presents the state of the art of the production of these vectors with particular emphasis on their large-scale production for clinical purposes. In contrast to oncoretroviral vectors, which are produced using stable producer cell lines, clinical-grade LV are in most of the cases produced by transient transfection of 293 or 293T cells grown in cell factories. However, more recent developments, also, tend to use hollow fiber reactor, suspension culture processes, and the implementation of stable producer cell lines. As is customary for the biotech industry, rather sophisticated downstream processing protocols have been established to remove any undesirable process-derived contaminant, such as plasmid or host cell DNA or host cell proteins. This review compares published large-scale production and purification processes of LV and presents their process performances. Furthermore, developments in the domain of stable cell lines and their way to the use of production vehicles of clinical material will be presented.

  13. Selling new products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgh, van der W.

    2012-01-01

    As we proceed into the 21st century, companies are facing increasingly complex and dynamic business environments. Many organizations have to deal with intense competition as more products are introduced faster, with shorter life cycles, and less competitive differentiation. Consequently, companies

  14. Means of Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    No one who's worked in higher education will ever confuse the experience with working in the corporate sector. Colleges and universities are simply not geared for the business of manufacturing or marketing products. The focus--as it should be--is on teaching and research. Given the wealth of talent among IT staff and faculty, however, higher ed…

  15. Production of pure metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.; May, C. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A process for depositing elements by irradiating liquids is reported. Ultra pure elements are precipitated from aqueous solutions or suspensions of compounds. A solution of a salt of a metal to be prepared is irradiated, and the insoluble reaction product settles out. Some chemical compounds may also be prepared in this manner.

  16. FORECASTING NEW PRODUCT SALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Siriram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper tests the accuracy of using Linear regression, Logistics regression, and Bass curves in selected new product rollouts, based on sales data. The selected new products come from the electronics and electrical engineering and information and communications technology industries. The eight selected products are: electronic switchgear, electric motors, supervisory control and data acquisition systems, programmable logic controllers, cell phones, wireless modules, routers, and antennas. We compare the Linear regression, Logistics regression and Bass curves with respect to forecasting using analysis of variance. The accuracy of these three curves is studied and conclusions are drawn. We use an expert panel to compare the different curves and provide lessons for managers to improve forecasting new product sales. In addition, comparison between the two industries is drawn, and areas for further research are indicated.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel toets die akkuraatheid van die gebruik van linêere regressie, logistiese regressie en Bass-krommes by die bekendstelling van nuwe produkte gebaseer op verkoopsdata. Die geselekteerde nuwe produkte is uit die elektriese en elektroniese asook informasietegnologie- en kommunikasie bedrywe. Linêere regressie, logistiese regressie en Bass-krommes word vergelyk ten opsigte van vooruitskatting deur variansie te ontleed. Die akkuraatheid word ontleed en gevolgtrekkings gemaak. Die doel is om vooruitskatting van nuwe produkverkope te verbeter.

  17. Driving product stewardship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno-Mantilla, Carlos Eduardo; Romero-Larrahondo, Paulo Andrés; Reyes Rodríguez, Juan Felipe

    , and conventional green competencies related to product development and manufacturing technologies, are related to each other and configure a corporate proactive approach towards the environment. The data used in this study were collected as part of a research project conducted in Bogotá, Colombia, and obtained...

  18. Potato production in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  19. Developing Green Line Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...

  20. Augmented Cellular Meat Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Philipsen, Mark Philip; Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    The project is focused on a collaborative robot cell concept as an alternative to the serial production line that is currently used in major slaughterhouses. With a robot cell, where a robot and an operator share tasks and workload, we get the strength of the robot and the flexibility of the oper...

  1. Mycotoxins in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resanović Radmila M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and production categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in production performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease in body mass, number and quality of eggs, greater food conversion, and immunosuppression. Immunosuppression results in increased sensitivity to infective agents and a bad vaccinal response. Morevover, mycotoxin residues in poultry meat, eggs and products derived from them pose a threat to human health. In order to prevent and reduce the negative implications of mycotoxins in the poultry production, it is necessary to create both global and national strategies for combatting mycotoxins, advance diagnostic techniques and procedures, intensify the control of food quality, introduce new limits on the maximum amount of mycotoxins allowed in food and poultry feed used for certain species and categories of animals, and synchronise it with the European standards.

  2. The productivity of trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Méon, Pierre-Guillaume

    This paper returns to one of the early questions of the literature on social trust, whether trust affects total factor productivity (TFP). Using both development and growth accounting, we find strong evidence of a causal effect of trust on the level and growth of TFP. Using a three-stage least...

  3. Prototypicality in Sentence Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kristine H.; Murphy, Gregory L.; Bock, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Three cued-recall experiments examined the effect of category typicality on the ordering of words in sentence production. Past research has found that typical items tend to be mentioned before atypical items in a phrase--a pattern usually associated with lexical variables (like word frequency), and yet typicality is a conceptual variable.…

  4. Enhancing hospital productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, B.L.

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare expenditure in Western countries is substantial and outpaces economic growth, therefore cost containment in healthcare is high on the political agenda. One option is to increase productivity in healthcare, do more with less. This thesis uses the Dutch hospitals as a case-study and

  5. Entropy Production in Stochastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetris Koutsoyiannis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While the modern definition of entropy is genuinely probabilistic, in entropy production the classical thermodynamic definition, as in heat transfer, is typically used. Here we explore the concept of entropy production within stochastics and, particularly, two forms of entropy production in logarithmic time, unconditionally (EPLT or conditionally on the past and present having been observed (CEPLT. We study the theoretical properties of both forms, in general and in application to a broad set of stochastic processes. A main question investigated, related to model identification and fitting from data, is how to estimate the entropy production from a time series. It turns out that there is a link of the EPLT with the climacogram, and of the CEPLT with two additional tools introduced here, namely the differenced climacogram and the climacospectrum. In particular, EPLT and CEPLT are related to slopes of log-log plots of these tools, with the asymptotic slopes at the tails being most important as they justify the emergence of scaling laws of second-order characteristics of stochastic processes. As a real-world application, we use an extraordinary long time series of turbulent velocity and show how a parsimonious stochastic model can be identified and fitted using the tools developed.

  6. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas

  7. Strangeness production with antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P.D.; Maher, C.J.

    1986-05-01

    New data from LEAR on the production of hyperon-antihyperon pairs in strong interactions is reported. The possibility of checking CP invariance in the anti ΛΛ system is reviewed together with plans to search for the ξ(2230) in the rho + anti rho → K/sub s/ + anti K/sub s/ reaction. 21 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  8. SaferProducts.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sent to your business before they are posted online. Sign up with the Business Portal to get reports quickly. Get Started Do ... Safe: Watch and Share Report an Unsafe Product Business Sign In Search Recalls/Repairs & Reports Advanced Search ... OF USE | PRIVACY | NO FEAR | OPEN GOVERNMENT ...

  9. Information Based Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott

    A digital project undertaken last year at Yale (Connecticut) offers an opportunity to explore productivity matters. The project aimed at improving the quality of library support and of student learning in one of the most heavily enrolled undergraduate courses at Yale, "Introduction to the History of Art, from Prehistory to the…

  10. Modelling Retail Floorspace Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); P. Kooiman

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis research note presents a "switching regime" model to investigate the impact of environmental factors on floorspace productivity of individual retail stores. The model includes independent supply and demand functions, which are incorporated within a sales maximizing framework. Unlike

  11. Zambian charcoal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidumayo, E.N.

    1993-01-01

    The recovery of miombo woodlands following clearance for woodfuel is being monitored at four sites in central Zambia. Charcoal production removes 50% of the total woody biomass and the woodland regenerates from a pool of stunted old seedlings and stumps of cut trees. Productivity is correlated to tree density before felling. Clearing of successive regrowth miombo does not appear to affect productivity. Annual wood biomass increment in unmanaged regrowth miombo is estimated at 2-3 t/ha pa of which about 1.1 t is cord wood suitable for charcoal production. However, the charcoal spots within the deforested area are severely impacted by the carbonization process which destroys soil structure, seedlings and root stocks. Woodland regeneration on such spots is protracted. Fortunately, charcoal spots only cover 2-3% of the deforested area. The concern about land degradation due to deforestation caused by woodfuel harvesting for urban charcoal in the miombo woodland region of central and southern Africa is not supported by the results of this study. (author)

  12. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...

  13. Labeling of Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lionetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics.

  14. GLCF: Data & Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global Land Cover Facility About GLCF Research Publications Data & Products Gallery Library using the Earth Science Data Interface. Users are also asked to consider GLCF data policies, especially Guides * Data Policies * Restricted Access Quick Links * EROS Data Center * Global Change Master

  15. Smallholder Poultry Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Karsten Nellemann; Thomsen, Karin; Whyte, Michael

    Smallholder poultry production is practised by most rural households throughout the developing world; despite the fact that its contribution to livelihoods appears to be of little nominal value when observed by researchers and other outsiders. This paper utilizes a Sustainable Livelihoods Framewo...

  16. Production of yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for the production of yttrium metal, or of an alloy comprising a major proportion of yttrium, in which calcium (metal) and yttrium fluoride are reacted together by use of a submerged electric arc in a molten slag. (author)

  17. Design of resilient consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Consumer product sustainability is a topic that has been of increasing interest to practice and academia in recent decades. In this context, a widely discussed means of achieving sustainability is to design more durable products, thereby reducing the need for the production of new products....... In particular, the emotional perspective on product durability has received attention in recent design literature, since consumer products are often replaced long before they become physically non-functioning. However, the literature does not provide a full account of the causes of product replacement...... for designers to design resilient consumer products and for researchers to engage in further studies....

  18. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  19. Equipartition of entropy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimal design or operation of heat and mass transfer processes and develops the following conjecture: for a given duty, the best configuration of the process is that in which the entropy production rate is most uniformly distributed. This principle is first analyzed in detail on the simple example of tubular heat exchangers, and within the framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics. A main result is established, which states that the total entropy production is minimal when the local production is uniformly distributed (equipartition). Corollaries then result, which relate the entropy production and the variance of its distribution to economic factors such as the duty, the exchange area, the fluid flow-rates, and the temperature changes. The equipartition principle is then extended to multiple independent variables (time and space), multicomponent transfer, and non-linear but concave flux vs force relationship. Chemical Engineering examples are discussed, where the equipartition property has been applied implicitly or explicitly: design of distillation plates, cyclic distillation, optimal state of feed, and flow-sheets in chromatographic separations. Finally, a generalization of the equipartition principle is proposed, for systems with a distributed design variable (such as the size of the various elements of a system). The optimal distribution of investment is such that the investment in each element (properly amortized) is equal to the cost of irreversible energy degradation in this element. This is equivalent to saying that the ratio of these two quantities is uniformly distributed over the system, and reduces to equipartition of entropy production when the cost factors are constant over the whole system

  20. Productivity Sharing Programs: Can They Contribute to Productivity Improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Productivity sharing plans were studied to determine how they operate, what benefits result, and whether long-term increases in productivity can be realized through the program. Thirty-six firms were interviewed that had productivity sharing plans. Nine firms that had either rejected adoption of a productivity sharing plan or were still…

  1. Optimizing the order processing of customized products using product configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Bonev, Martin; Denkena, B.

    2011-01-01

    . Product configuration based on integrated modular product structure and product family architecture has been recognized as an effective means for implementing mass customization. In order to evaluate the effects of product configuration on order processing, a study has been conducted by the Department...... and its benefits for the order processing have been evaluated....

  2. Green product development : What does the country product space imply?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraccascia, Luca; Giannoccaro, Ilaria; Albino, Vito

    This paper contributes to green product development by identifying the green products with the highest potential for growth in a country. To address our aim, we use the concept of product proximity and product space and, borrowing from the results of recent studies on complexity economics, we

  3. Productivity growth patterns in US dairy products manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geylani, P.C.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the productivity growth patterns in the US dairy products industry using the Census Bureau's plant-level data set. We decompose Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth into the scale and technical change components and analyse variability of plants' productivity by constructing transition

  4. Biomimetic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krassen, Henning

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen with outstanding efficiency. An electrode surface which is covered with active hydrogenase molecules becomes a promising alternative to platinum for electrochemical hydrogen production. To immobilize the hydrogenase on the electrode, the gold surface was modified by heterobifunctional molecules. A thiol headgroup on one side allowed the binding to the gold surface and the formation of a self-assembled monolayer. The other side of the molecules provided a surface with a high affinity for the hydrogenase CrHydA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. With methylviologen as a soluble energy carrier, electrons were transferred from carboxy-terminated electrodes to CrHydA1 and conducted to the active site (H-cluster), where they reduce protons to molecular hydrogen. A combined approach of surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and surface plasmon resonance allowed quantifying the hydrogen production on a molecular level. Hydrogen was produced with a rate of 85 mol H{sub 2} min{sup -1} mol{sup -1}. On a 1'- benzyl-4,4'-bipyridinum (BBP)-terminated surface, the electrons were mediated by the monolayer and no soluble electron carrier was necessary to achieve a comparable hydrogen production rate (approximately 50% of the former system). The hydrogen evolution potential was determined to be -335 mV for the BBP-bound hydrogenase and -290 mV for the hydrogenase which was immobilized on a carboxy-terminated mercaptopropionic acid SAM. Therefore, both systems significantly reduce the hydrogen production overpotential and allow electrochemical hydrogen production at an energy level which is close to the commercially applied platinum electrodes (hydrogen evolution potential of -270 mV). In order to couple hydrogen production and photosynthesis, photosystem I (PS1) from Synechocystis PCC 6803 and membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH) from Ralstonia eutropha were bound to each other

  5. Production of GMP certified herbal products in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daryl Jesus Arapoc; Bohari Yaacob; Zainah Adam

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss on up scaling production of herbal product. A pilot scale production plant were developed in Block 37 and equipped with automated and semi-automated production machines which have the capacity to produce 100 thousand pieces of tablet per hour. In order to ensure the quality of the products, raw material inspections, IPQC and FPQC will be done on each batch. Besides that, certification of GMP will be done concurrently. One of the products that will be launch soon is the Mas Cotek tablet. This product is the result of numerous years of researches that had been done in BTP. This includes formulation and production of the product itself. It is hope that more herbal products can be produce in near future. (author)

  6. A model for optimizing the production of pharmaceutical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena Gospodinova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem associated with the optimal production planning is especially relevant in modern industrial enterprises. The most commonly used optimality criteria in this context are: maximizing the total profit; minimizing the cost per unit of production; maximizing the capacity utilization; minimizing the total production costs. This article aims to explore the possibility for optimizing the production of pharmaceutical products through the construction of a mathematical model that can be viewed in two ways – as a single-product model and a multi-product model. As an optimality criterion it is set the minimization of the cost per unit of production for a given planning period. The author proposes an analytical method for solving the nonlinear optimization problem. An optimal production plan of Tylosin tartrate is found using the single-product model.

  7. Method for alignment of product and production concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Kvist, Morten; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The right use of modular product architectures can help companies provide a great variety of customized products at a competitive price level, by reuse of knowledge, components, processes and utilization of economies of scale in many of the activities that are necessary to provide products...... for customers. Modular product architectures often serve as a basis for several products often referred to as product families. One or more product families may constitute a substantial amount of the total product portfolio of a company, and it is, therefore, of the greatest importance that concepts...... and solutions are evaluated thoroughly throughout the design phases because any design fault is likely to propagate to a large part of the business. Developing modular product architectures is therefore also the task of ensuring a fit between the products that can be made on the basis of the architecture...

  8. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  9. Fickle product mix: Exporters adapting their product vectors across markets

    OpenAIRE

    Fontagné, Lionel; Secchi, Angelo; Tomasi, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes how multi-product firms adjust their exported product-mix across desti- nations. Using cross sections of Italian and French data, we show that firms do not follow a rigid ordering in their product mix exported in different markets but rather they adapt their choices to better match with country characteristics. By using metrics based on export shares and on sequences of product names we provide new insights on the extent a firm's products portfolio changes across destinati...

  10. Productivity raising approaches in the logistic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Rakyta

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the productivity of the logistic production system. The aim is to define the intermediate state of the production machines and equipment (OOE, identification of the material flows, idle time and breakdown forecasting, with the following purchase of the required spare parts. The goal of the system is the satisfaction of the customer´s needs and the minimalisation of not fulfilling the required terms for delivery with simultaneous increasing of the logistic production system productivity.

  11. PIGS BREEDING FOR THE PRODUCTION OF TRADITIONAL MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Senčić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fertile Slavonia is known for production of several types of cured meats: kulen, kulen sis, sausage, ham and bacon, and other pork products (“krvavica” - blood sausage, “švargl” - a type of brawn where chopped parts of head are stuffed inside the pig’s stomach, “čvarci” - a variant of pork crisps, fat. These products require “mature pigs” of adequate slaughter quality. Production of pigs intended for traditional meat products may take place in different production systems (open, closed, semi-open, “organic”. Each of these systems provides a specific quality of pigs for slaughter, reflecting on the quality of the final product. Production systems can have a significant impact on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of pigs. This effect arises from the interaction between housing conditions, the amount and composition of food and used pig genotype. The choice of a production system depends on local production conditions, pig genotype, consumer demand (market for a given product quality, and other factors. Due to their quality, the traditional Slavonian meat products can become a recognizable Croatian brand in both domestic and international markets. Production of standard quality products requires standard quality of pigs. Therefore this book is focused on such pigs production.

  12. STATEMENT OF THE OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM OF CARBON PRODUCTS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zhuchenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper formulated optimization problem formulation production of carbon products. The analysis of technical and economic parameters that can be used to optimize the production of carbonaceous products had been done by the author. To evaluate the efficiency of the energy-intensive production uses several technical and economic indicators. In particular, the specific cost, productivity, income and profitability of production. Based on a detailed analysis had been formulated optimality criterion that takes into account the technological components of profitability. The components in detail the criteria and the proposed method of calculating non-trivial, one of them - the production cost of each product. When solving the optimization problem of technological modes of production into account constraints on the variables are optimized. Thus, restrictions may be expressed on the number of each product produced. Have been formulated the method of calculating the cost per unit of product. Attention is paid to the quality indices of finished products as an additional constraint in the optimization problem. As a result have been formulated the general problem of optimizing the production of carbon products, which includes the optimality criterion and restrictions.

  13. Downstream product marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelidis, J.

    1997-01-01

    Petro-Canada's views regarding energy deregulation were presented. Their experience with gasoline retailing and their response to competition was also discussed. Petro-Canada regards deregulation as a good thing in terms of its promotion of fair competition. Industrial and residential consumers of energy will benefit from more efficient and innovative service. Today's consumers are very well informed about existing energy products and while they are incredibly price sensitive, they still want to buy value. The relevance of brand names in a competitive market was examined. One reaction to the demanding customer has been to augment the base product (the fuel) with other things, such as convenience store items, car washes, specialized bay businesses and promotional offerings. Petro-Canada has been successful in improving sales volumes with these sales strategies, and profits achieved indicate good target audience acceptance. Shareholders and the board of directors also appear to be in agreement with the Corporation's performance to date

  14. Production VS. Reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Becker

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available TV newscasts are the product of information with major impact on contemporary society. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationships between production and audience through a quantitative and qualitative comparative analysis, especially observing the communicatory strategies used by newscasters to engage their viewers, and how diverse, socially active individuals are represented in local TV newscasts in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The study also refl ects upon the viability of professional practices more committed to social transformation, off ering information that can contribute to improving the public’s life quality, consolidating journalism as a source of knowledge. The study is supported by journalistic theories, cultural studies and social discourse semiology.

  15. Microalgae: biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Kumari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present day, microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels. The available literature on various aspects of microalgae for e.g. its cultivation, life cycle assessment, and conceptualization of an algal biorefinery, has been done. The evaluation of available information suggests the operational and maintenance cost along with maximization of oil-rich microalgae production is the key factor for successful commercialization of microalgae-based fuels.

  16. TAXATION IN CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Rainier Imaña

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In past decades, the Brazilian tax burden has been the subject of discussion and analysis in the academic, political and social arena. In 2008, Brazilian tax burden reached the tax level from OECD countries, although the social issue in Brazil is in lower level than those countries. This paper has analyzed the tax burden from charcoal production. Eleven kinds of taxes were analyzed: IRPJ, ITR, CSLL, COFINS, PIS, TF, TCFA, TFAMG, ECRRA, INSS and FGTS. The tax burden for the production of charcoal was 9.76%. There was no municipal tax for charcoal. State taxes accounted 10% of the tax burden, the rest are federal taxes. COFINS was responsible for the largest tax burden: 3%, which confirms the Brazilian tax system is very non progressive. In Minas Gerais, Brazilian tax on goods and services (ICMS is deferred, the charcoal buyer has the obligation to collect this tax. This means the steel company accounts for the total burden of ICMS.

  17. GLOBAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The most significant transformations that globalization produces occur in production. Since the '60s, a new division of labor has made its presence felt in the world, arising from the "de-industrialization" of the developed and transfer production capacity of resource-intensive industries and pollutants from these countries to the developing world. "Dislocation" industry had the interim foreign direct investment made in the new industrialized countries, the latter becoming, in turn, sources of direct foreign investment, taking its capital in other countries in developing handsets. Currently, FDI destination is no longer a priority in developing countries, yet they are increasingly leaning towards the developed countries, due to the attractiveness offered by their economies.

  18. Product return management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaharudin, Mohd Rizaimy; Govindan, Kannan; Zailani, Suhaiza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which product returns motivate manufacturing firms to adopt closed-loop supply chain activities that influence the effectiveness of reverse supply chains. The hypotheses have been tested using data from a sample of 150 environmental management...... system ISO 14001 certified manufacturing firms in Malaysia through the census sampling approach. The results of the empirical test using LISREL Version 8.70 for the structural equation modeling support the fundamental explanation of the influence of the institutional forces towards the adoption of closed...... eventually impacts the firm's effectiveness in the reverse supply chain. The findings also help managers to understand the factors that can improve the outcome of the adoption of closed-loop supply chain activities by intensifying the extent of involvement in product returns, which provides a valuable...

  19. Radioisotope production in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Awang, Wan Anuar [Medical Technology Div., Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) (Malaysia)

    1998-10-01

    Production of Mo-99 by neutron activation of Mo-99 in Malaysia began as early as 1984. Regular supply of the Tc-99m extracted from it to the hospitals began in early 1988 after going through formal registration with the Malaysian Ministry of Health. Initially, the weekly demand was about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99 which catered the needs of 3 nuclear medicine centres. Sensitive to the increasing demand of Tc-99m, we have producing our own Tc-99m generator from imported TeO{sub 2} because irradiation TeO{sub 2} with our reactor give low yield of I-131. We have established the production of radioisotope for industrial use. By next year, Sm-153 EDTMP will be produce after we have license from our competent authority. (author)

  20. Cyclotrons for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.; Stevenson, N.R.

    1995-06-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radioisotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, and isotope production, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 100 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  1. Dilepton production theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapusta, J.

    1990-01-01

    Whenever charged particles collide they radiate real and virtual photons, the virtual ones decaying into lepton pairs. The advantage of observing electromagnetic signals from a strongly interacting many-body system is that they travel relatively unscathed from the production point to the detector. Since production rates are rapidly increasing functions of temperature and density these electromagnetic signals are good probes of the early high temperature and density stage of heavy ion collisions. The purpose of this talk is to provide an exploratory study of electron-positron radiation from finite temperature and density nuclear matter, and to make some corresponding comparisons with the p(4.9 GeV) + Be measurements of the DLS group

  2. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research are reviewed. These include various techniques associated with both the qualitative localization and quantitative measurements of isotopes in animals; comparator studies in which measurement of the radioactivity in one part of a system will allow computation of the mass or volume in another part; in vivo and in vitro applications of isotope dilution studies; and the use of isotopes in dynamic systems analyses. The use of stable isotopes in mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance in animal research is also briefly reviewed. Finally some of the successful uses of radiation produced by radioactive sources or various types of generators of electromagnetic radiations in animal production and health studies are described. (U.K.)

  3. Nuclear fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randol, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The production of new fuel for a power plant reactor and its disposition following discharge from the power plant is usually referred to as the ''nuclear fuel cycle.'' The processing of fuel is cyclic in nature since sometime during a power plant's operation old or ''depleted'' fuel must be removed and new fuel inserted. For light water reactors this step typically occurs once every 12-18 months. Since the time required for mining of the raw ore to recovery of reusable fuel materials from discharged materials can span up to 8 years, the management of fuel to assure continuous power plant operation requires simultaneous handling of various aspects of several fuel cycles, for example, material is being mined for fuel to be inserted in a power plant 2 years into the future at the same time fuel is being reprocessed from a discharge 5 years prior. Important aspects of each step in the fuel production process are discussed

  4. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    An outline review is presented of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research. Techniques covered are the qualitative localization of a radioisotope (static and dynamic measurements, detection procedures involving locating concentration sites of labelled toxins, parasites, abnormal blood cells, etc.), quantitative measurement of isotopes (absorption and excretion, transfer across membranes) comparator studies (determination of mass, volume or flow), isotope dilution and related studies (in vivo and in vitro applications, determination of total body red cell or plasma volume), dynamic systems (single compartmental systems such as rumen studies and the suckling lamb or calf, multiple exits from a compartment and multiple doses), stable isotopes and mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the use of internal irradiation (sterile male technique, control of insects and parasites, production of attenuated vaccines etc.). (U.K.)

  5. Hydrogen production methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerli, M.

    1982-07-01

    Old, present and new proceses for producing hydrogen are assessed critically. The emphasis throughout is placed on those processes which could be commercially viable before the turn of the century for large-scale hydrogen manufacture. Electrolysis of water is the only industrial process not dependent on fossil resources for large-scale hydrogen production and is likely to remain so for the next two or three decades. While many new processes, including those utilizing sunlight directly or indirectly, are presently not considered to be commercially viable for large-scale hydrogen production, research and development effort is needed to enhance our understanding of the nature of these processes. Water vapour electrolysis is compared with thermochemical processes: the former has the potential for displacing all other processes for producing hydrogen and oxygen from water

  6. Production competence revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szász, Levente; Demeter, Krisztina; Boer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    to measure production competence as the two-dimensional operational level construct it actually is, and to use Slack’s (1994) importance performance matrix to study its business level performance effects. The three hypotheses developed are tested using a subsample of the International Manufacturing Strategy...... Survey database, which includes 465 manufacturing companies from 21 countries. Findings – The study offers additional empirical support for production competence theory. Going beyond supporting existing theory, the results give more detailed insight by indicating that low operational performance on even...... one important competitive factor leads to lower business performance (order-losing effect); excessive investment in increasing operational performance on any less important competitive factor does not necessarily lead to higher business performance. Practical implications – Using a large empirical...

  7. From prototype to product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Kensing, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper delves into the challenges of engaging patients, clinicians and industry stakeholders in the participatory design of an mHealth platform for patient-clinician collaboration. It follows the process from the development of a research prototype to a commercial software product. In particu......This paper delves into the challenges of engaging patients, clinicians and industry stakeholders in the participatory design of an mHealth platform for patient-clinician collaboration. It follows the process from the development of a research prototype to a commercial software product....... In particular, we draw attention to four major challenges of (a) aligning the different concerns of patients and clinicians, (b) designing according to clinical accountability, (c) ensuring commercial interest, and (d) dealing with regulatory constraints when prototyping safety critical health Information...... Technology. Using four illustrative cases, we discuss what these challenges entail and the implications they pose to Participatory Design. We conclude the paper by presenting lessons learned....

  8. Milk and dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    Gammaspectroscopic measurements are taken as an example to describe the monitoring programme of the FRG for monitoring of milk and dairy products. A table shows the number of milk samples taken every year in the FRG in the general environment, and in the vicinity of nuclear installations, together with the radioactivity data obtained by gammaspectroscopy. Due to the decreasing radioactivity as a result of the nuclear weapons tests fallout, the number of samples taken in the general environment has been cut down to half over the period under review. The monitoring capacity set free by this decision has been used during this period for enhanced monitoring of milk and dairy products in regions where nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants have been operating. The nuclides of interest are Sr-90, Cs-137, J-131. (orig./DG) [de

  9. Nattokinase: production and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Fatemeh; Negahdaripour, Manica; Berenjian, Aydin; Behfar, Abdolazim; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Zamani, Mozhdeh; Irajie, Cambyz; Ghasemi, Younes

    2014-11-01

    Nattokinase (NK, also known as subtilisin NAT) (EC 3.4.21.62) is one of the most considerable extracellular enzymes produced by Bacillus subtilis natto. The main interest about this enzyme is due to its direct fibrinolytic activity. Being stable enough in the gastrointestinal tract makes this enzyme a useful agent for the oral thrombolytic therapy. Thus, NK is regarded as a valuable dietary supplement or nutraceutical. Proven safety and ease of mass production are other advantages of this enzyme. In addition to these valuable advantages, there are other applications attributed to NK including treatment of hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and vitreoretinal disorders. This review tends to bring a brief description about this valuable enzyme and summarizes the various biotechnological approaches used in its production, recovery, and purification. Some of the most important applications of NK, as well as its future prospects, are also discussed.

  10. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Misra, A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. One promising option to meet this goal is direct photoelectrolysis in which light absorbed by semiconductor-based photoelectrodes produces electrical power internally to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Under this program, direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8 % have been demonstrated using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Detailed loss analysis models indicate that solar-to-chemical conversion greater than 10% can be achieved with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, the authors describe the continuing progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, results of outdoor testing, and efforts to develop high efficiency, stable prototype systems.

  11. Exporting and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    different policy stance than typical in Africa. This is especially so in promoting export-oriented industry. If learning by exporting is a key driver of progress, then a fundamental reason for Africa's lack of transformation is likely to be the low policy priority given to export promotion in the past....... To enlarge the body of empirical evidence, we use an extensive 2005–2012 firm-level panel data set from Vietnam and separate out productivity effects of exporting due to self-selection. This allows us to conclude that firms actually learn by exporting. We also examine how this learning takes place. Our...... findings suggest that productivity gains are associated with moving to larger scale for foreign-owned firms with little evidence of subsequent learning on export markets. We find strong evidence to suggest that private domestic firms learn and accumulate knowledge from export markets with learning...

  12. Wine production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    By the end of the former century there were less than 10 commercial vintners producing wine in Denmark. There was widespread acceptance of the view that commercial production of wine in the most northern parts of Europe was impossible. However, the number of commercial wine growers in Denmark grew...... to more than 60 at the end of year 2009 and the Association of Danish Winegrowers now counts more than 1400 members. Denmark can no longer be seen as a non-wine producing country! Formally, the transformation of Denmark to a wine producing country took place in year 2000 when Denmark was accepted...... as a commercial wine producing nation within the European Union. Based on a remarkably detailed micro data set this paper first gives a description of wine production in Denmark and thereafter we address the question whether vineyard characteristics are important for the quality of the wine and/or whether...

  13. Asian Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research, ......, they have written a book on the social practices and cultural attitudes of people producing, reading, watching and listening to different kinds of media in Japan, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore and India....

  14. Contracting for Complex Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    asymmetries, and barriers to market entry and exit (e.g., Mankiw , et al., 2002). Goods may be non-rivalrous or non-excludable so that transferable property...investments. Expenditures are asset specific to the extent they have no economic value outside the product being produced (Williamson, 2005). For...example, some research in the US space program produced economic value outside the contract (e.g., Tang), while other research produced little value

  15. Marketing of Luxury Products

    OpenAIRE

    Shamina, Yana

    2009-01-01

    The world of luxury products for many years was reserved only for the selective and exclusive audience. It looked like it was impossible to experience it or to get in for someone from outside. Marketers of luxury brands have created such an environment where clients could feel exclusivity and enjoy timeless quality, values, history and heritage of the brand. It is very important to maintain the traditional values for luxury brands but in order to stay in touch with the target audience, luxury...

  16. Hadronic production of glueballs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Local Gauge Invariance of SU(3)/sub c/ and color confinement would require that the only hadrons in the world be glueballs. However, when we add the quarks and obtain QCD it is experimentally clear that quark built states mask the expected glueballs. Thus discovery of glueballs is essential for the viability of QCD. Papers presented at the 1983 International Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics on the hadronic production of glueballs and searches for glueballs are reviewed

  17. Water Filtration Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration products which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.

  18. Relaxation from particle production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; Marques-Tavares, Gustavo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We consider using particle production as a friction force by which to implement a “Relaxion” solution to the electroweak hierarchy problem. Using this approach, we are able to avoid superplanckian field excursions and avoid any conflict with the strong CP problem. The relaxation mechanism can work before, during or after inflation allowing for inflationary dynamics to play an important role or to be completely decoupled.

  19. Innovation Production Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamam N. Guseinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the study of the models of production of innovations at enterprise and state levels. The shift towards a new technology wave induces a change in systems of division of labour as well as establishment of new forms of cooperation that are reflected both in theory and practice of innovation policy and management. Within the scope of the research question we have studied different generation of innovation process, starting with simple linear models - "technology push" and "market pull" - and ending with a complex integrated model of open innovations. There are two organizational models of innovation production at the enterprise level: start-ups in the early stages of their development and ambidextrous organizations. The former are prone to linear models of innovation process, while the latter create innovation within more sophisticated inclusive processes. Companies that effectuate reciprocal ambidexterity stand out from all the rest, since together with start-ups, research and development centres, elements of innovation infrastructure and other economic agents operating in the same value chain they constitute the core of most advanced forms of national innovation systems, namely Triple Helix and Quadruple Helix systems. National innovation systems - models of innovation production at the state level - evolve into systems with a more profound division of labour that enable "line production" of innovations. These tendencies are closely related to the advent and development of the concept of serial entrepreneurship that transforms entrepreneurship into a new type of profession. International experience proves this concept to be efficient in various parts of the world. Nevertheless, the use of above mentioned models and concepts in national innovation system should be justified by socioeconomic conditions of economic regions, since they determine the efficiency of implementation of certain innovation processes and

  20. Hadron production near threshold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Final state interaction effects in pp → pΛK+ and pd → 3He η reactions are explored near threshold to study the sensitivity of the cross-sections to the pΛ potential and the ηN scattering matrix. The final state scattering wave functions between Λ and p and η and 3He are described rigorously. The Λ production is ...

  1. Thermodynamics of clan production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, Alberto; Lupia, Sergio; Ugoccioni, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Scenarios for particle production in the GeV and TeV regions are reviewed. The expected increase with the c.m. energy of the average number of clans for the soft component and the decrease for the semihard one indicate possible classical and quantum behavior of gluons, respectively. Clan thermodynamics, discussed in the paper, appears as the natural framework to deal with such phenomena

  2. Leadership for product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn

    1998-01-01

    by nonrecurring processes. Therefore, the general model requires an amplification and adjustment specific to this area. It will be discussed how the model can be suplemented with references to criterion parts and areas to address, especially relevant for a self-assessment of leadership in innovation. What should...... the criterion "leadership" comprise when the focus is on R and D? Eight new criterion parts will be discussed. It is believed, that the recommended approach will improve leadership for product development. Udgivelsesdato: JUL...

  3. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  4. Hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this first Gedepeon workshop on hydrogen production processes are: to stimulate the information exchange about research programs and research advances in the domain of hydrogen production processes, to indicate the domains of interest of these processes and the potentialities linked with the coupling of a nuclear reactor, to establish the actions of common interest for the CEA, the CNRS, and eventually EDF, that can be funded in the framework of the Gedepeon research group. This document gathers the slides of the 17 presentations given at this workshop and dealing with: the H 2 question and the international research programs (Lucchese P.); the CEA's research program (Lucchese P., Anzieu P.); processes based on the iodine/sulfur cycle: efficiency of a facility - flow-sheets, efficiencies, hard points (Borgard J.M.), R and D about the I/S cycle: Bunsen reaction (Colette S.), R and D about the I/S cycle: the HI/I 2 /H 2 O system (Doizi D.), demonstration loop/chemical engineering (Duhamet J.), materials and corrosion (Terlain A.); other processes under study: the Westinghouse cycle (Eysseric C.), other processes under study at the CEA (UT3, plasma,...) (Lemort F.), database about thermochemical cycles (Abanades S.), Zn/ZnO cycle (Broust F.), H 2 production by cracking, high temperature reforming with carbon trapping (Flamant G.), membrane technology (De Lamare J.); high-temperature electrolysis: SOFC used as electrolyzers (Grastien R.); generic aspects linked with hydrogen production: technical-economical evaluation of processes (Werkoff F.), thermodynamic tools (Neveu P.), the reactor-process coupling (Aujollet P.). (J.S.)

  5. Argentinian uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    A profit-making process for the exploitation of low grade uranium is presented. The process of lixiviation will be used, which will make it possible to obtain a final product whose humidity level will not exceed 10% and whose uranium oxide content will be no less than 68%. The operations of the plant are described. The plant can produce between 100 and 150 t of U 3 O 8 /yr in the form of yellow cake

  6. Photochemical hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Both technical and economic factors affect the cost of producing hydrogen by photochemical processes. Technical factors include the efficiency and the capital and operating costs of the renewable hydrogen conversion system; economic factors include discount rates, economic life, credit for co-product oxygen, and the value of the energy produced. This paper presents technical and economic data for a system that generates on-peak electric power form photochemically produced hydrogen

  7. Computer aided product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinou, Leonidas; Bagherpour, Khosrow; Gani, Rafiqul

    1996-01-01

    A general methodology for Computer Aided Product Design (CAPD) with specified property constraints which is capable of solving a large range of problems is presented. The methodology employs the group contribution approach, generates acyclic, cyclic and aromatic compounds of various degrees......-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) and gas solubility. Finally, a computer program based on the extended methodology has been developed and the results from five case studies highlighting various features of the methodology are presented....

  8. Canadian heavy water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlinger, A.; Lockerby, W.E.; Rae, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews Canadian experience in the production of heavy water, presents a long-term supply projection, relates this projection to the anticipated long-term electrical energy demand, and highlights principal areas for further improvement that form the bulk of the Canadian R and D programme on heavy water processes. Six Canadian heavy water plants with a total design capacity of 4000Mg/a are in operation or under construction. All use the Girdler-Sulphide (GS) process, which is based on deuterium exchange between water and hydrogen sulphide. Early operating problems have been overcome and the plants have demonstrated annual capacity factors in excess of 70%, with short-term production rates equal to design rates. Areas for further improvement are: to increase production rates by optimizing the control of foaming to give both higher sieve tray efficiency and higher flow rates, to reduce the incapacity due to deposition of pyrite (FeS 2 ) and sulphur (between 5% and 10%), and to improve process control and optimization of operating conditions by the application of mathematical simulations of the detailed deuterium profile throughout each plant. Other processes being studied, which look potentially attractive are the hydrogen-water exchange and the hydrogen-amine exchange. Even if they become successful competitors to the GS process, the latter is likely to remain the dominant production method for the next 10-20 years. This programme, when related to the long-term electricity demand, indicates that heavy water supply and demand are in reasonable balance and that the Candu programme will not be inhibited because of shortages of this commodity. (author)

  9. Supporting product-servicing networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarihna-Matos, L.M.; Ferrada, F.; Oliveira, A.I.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Aboutajdine, D.; Skalli, A.; Benchekroun, B.; Artiba, A.

    2013-01-01

    Service-based enhancement of products represents a growing trend, particularly in the context of complex products. A service-enhanced product can be seen as a market proposition that extends the traditional functionality of a product by incorporating additional business services, which not only

  10. Production Systems and Supplier Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedraza-Acosta, Isabel; Pilkington, Alan; Barnes, David

    2016-01-01

    strategic stamping suppliers. Findings: Our contribution is the multi-phased production and product innovation process. This is an advance from traditional supplier selection and also an extension of ideas of supplier-located product development as it includes production system development, and complements...

  11. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  12. Meteorology Products - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC › Meteorology Products FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info Meteorology Products Global

  13. Production capability and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemenic, J.

    1977-01-01

    The strong market for uranium of recent years is about to usher in a new era in domestic uranium production. The spot market price of uranium has remained relatively stable at a little over $40/lb for more than 18 months. Many of the recent contracts for delivery in the early 1980s are calling for prices in the range of $40 to $65 per lb in year-of-delivery dollars. Low-grade, high-cost projects, such as uranium recovery from mill tailings and the reopening of ''mined-out'' ore bodies, have already been initiated. New underground mines to produce at greater depths, and new surface mines to recover lower grade ores, are being developed or seriously planned. In keeping with this movement to recover uranium from low-grade ore and other high cost materials, the Grand Junction Office has examined, for the first time, the production capability of the domestic industry assuming a $30/lb (or less) ''forward cost'' resource base. As in the past, keep in mind that the market price needed to stimulate full production of a given resource base may be significantly higher than the estimated forward cost of producing that resource. Results of the $30/lb study are presented

  14. Microbial production of biovanillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Converti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This review aims at providing an overview on the microbial production of vanillin, a new alternative method for the production of this important flavor of the food industry, which has the potential to become economically competitive in the next future. After a brief description of the applications of vanillin in different industrial sectors and of its physicochemical properties, we described the traditional ways of providing vanillin, specifically extraction and chemical synthesis (mainly oxidation and compared them with the new biotechnological options, i.e., biotransformations of caffeic acid, veratraldehyde and mainly ferulic acid. In the second part of the review, emphasis has been addressed to the factors most influencing the bioproduction of vanillin, specifically the age of inoculum, pH, temperature, type of co-substrate, as well as the inhibitory effects exerted either by excess substrate or product. The final part of the work summarized the downstream processes and the related unit operations involved in the recovery of vanillin from the bioconversion medium.

  15. Microbial production of biovanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converti, A; Aliakbarian, B; Domínguez, J M; Bustos Vázquez, G; Perego, P

    2010-07-01

    This review aims at providing an overview on the microbial production of vanillin, a new alternative method for the production of this important flavor of the food industry, which has the potential to become economically competitive in the next future. After a brief description of the applications of vanillin in different industrial sectors and of its physicochemical properties, we described the traditional ways of providing vanillin, specifically extraction and chemical synthesis (mainly oxidation) and compared them with the new biotechnological options, i.e., biotransformations of caffeic acid, veratraldehyde and mainly ferulic acid. In the second part of the review, emphasis has been addressed to the factors most influencing the bioproduction of vanillin, specifically the age of inoculum, pH, temperature, type of co-substrate, as well as the inhibitory effects exerted either by excess substrate or product. The final part of the work summarized the downstream processes and the related unit operations involved in the recovery of vanillin from the bioconversion medium.

  16. Production of microbiological fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinyeris, S

    1983-01-01

    An examination is made of programs developed in different countries for increasing production of alcohol by fermenting substrates for use in the pure form or in a mixture with gasoline (gasoline alcohol) as liquid fuel for transportation vehicles. Direct conversion of cellulose into alcohol using bacteria excluding hydrolytic processes for production of sugars (substrates for yeast and bacteria Zymomonas) is important. This conversion is done by thermophilic bacteria Clostridium thermocellum with growth temperature 60-65/sup 0/C. It is established that with joint growth of these bacteria with bacteria Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, there is a considerable acceleration in the process of cellulose conversion to ethanol and decrease in the number of other products of fermentation (acetyl cellulose and hydrogen) formed with the use of the indicated cultures separately. Under corresponding conditions almost any organic compound (sugar, starch, protein) contained in the straw, natural polymers, wastewater, etc. by fermentation can be converted into methane. The methane produced by the method of fermentation can be used for daily needs or be added to natural gas. In the region of London, Tuyknem, anaerobic units generate a quantity of biogas sufficient to generate electricity needed to guarantee operation of the unit for purifying wastewater and pumping stations supplying the wastewater. Under conditions of sanitary dumps (United States) spontaneous formation of methane occurs. The methane is lifted through drilled wells upwards and can be transmitted on pipes. In recent years extensive study and modeling have begun of the process of fermentation of solid wastes.

  17. Energy production from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestebroer, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the task group 'Energy Production from Biomass', initiated by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, was to identify bottlenecks in the development of biomass for energy production. The bottlenecks were identified by means of a process analysis of clean biomass fuels to the production of electricity and/or heat. The subjects in the process analysis are the potential availability of biomass, logistics, processing techniques, energy use, environmental effects, economic impact, and stimulation measures. Three categories of biomass are distinguished: organic residual matter, imported biomass, and energy crops, cultivated in the Netherlands. With regard to the processing techniques attention is paid to co-firing of clean biomass in existing electric power plants (co-firing in a coal-fired power plant or co-firing of fuel gas from biomass in a coal-fired or natural gas-fired power plant), and the combustion or gasification of clean biomass in special stand-alone installations. 5 figs., 13 tabs., 28 refs

  18. Whither Alberta's oil production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, R.A.; Dick, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated how a combination of old theory (decline methods and statistics) and new technology (computer graphics) can enhance decline-curve forecasts for multi-well groupings. Production and well-count forecasts are presented for four different sized groups of aggregate production. The four examples are: the small Manville pool; the Pembina Cardium, Alberta's largest oil pool; an aggregate of all reef pools of Keg River age; and an aggregate of all wells reporting conventional oil production in the province of Alberta. In each case graphical results show the historical and forecast trends for the statistical distribution of well rates, the median well rate, the aggregated rate, and the number of producing wells. It is concluded that well rate distributions for groups ranging from 15 wells in a single pool to thousands of wells in hundreds of pools are all approximately lognormal. Lognormal well rate distributions and Lorenz graphs provide qualitative and quantitative assessments of a resource base. Decline curves for the median well rate can reveal trends masked in the aggregated rate by changing well count, operating practice and degradation of the resource base. The number of producing wells in Alberta has grown from ca 9000 in 1970 to ca 24,000 in 1988, has remained constant from 1988-1990, and will start to decline as the number of suspended or abandoned wells exceeds the number of new completions. 3 refs., 13 figs., 4 figs

  19. Yellow cake product practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosina, B.

    1980-01-01

    The flow sheets of uranium ore processing plants at present operating throughout the world terminate with the production of yellow cake. The demands of the refineries on the quality of this commodity have become more stringent with time. The impurity content of yellow cake depends to a considerable extent on the nature of the technical operations preceding precipitation. As a rule the purity of the final product is greater when the uranium is precipitated from re-extractants or regenerators consisting of weakly basic resins. An analysis of 80 uranium precipitation flow sheets demonstrates the advantages of using ammonia, while to some extent use is made of caustic soda, magnesium oxide, hydrogen peroxide or calcium oxide; precipitation is carried out in one or two stages at high temperature. Use of a particular chemical is governed by its availability, price, effect on the environment, degree of filtrate utilization, etc. It may be anticipated that the perfecting of precipitation flow sheets will be directed towards achieving maximum concentration of uranium in the solutions before precipitation, reduction in the volume of liquid flows through the equipment, an improvement in the filtration qualities of the precipitate, etc. The paper gives the flow sheet for precipitation of uranium by means of gaseous ammonia from sulphate-carbonate solutions. For drying yellow cake use has been made of spray driers. The dry product is easily sampled and transported. (author)

  20. Modelling Product Families for Product Configuration Systems with Product Variant Master

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an evaluation of applying a suggested method for modelling product families for product configuration based on theory for modelling mechanical products,systems theory and object-oriented modelling. The modelling technique includes a so-called product variant master and CRC-cards...... the three views. Modelling of characteristics of the product variants in a product family Modelling of constraints between parts in the product family Visualisation of the entire product family on a poster e.g. 1x2 meters The product variant master and CRC-cards are means to bridge the gap between domain...... experts and IT-developers, thus making it possible for the domain experts (e.g. engineers from product development) to express their knowledge in a form that is understandable both for the domain experts and the IT-developers. The product variant master and CRC-cards have currently been tested and further...

  1. Managing the New Product Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Product development companies are increasingly confronted with an unforgiving global marketplace, which urges the top management to pursue every product development opportunity that appears on the road. This situation incurs an important question: Which product development opportunities should a ....... The contributions encourage an improved understanding of the portfolio management concept and support industry professionals in their efforts to compose and continuously maintain a commercially strong product development portfolio.......Product development companies are increasingly confronted with an unforgiving global marketplace, which urges the top management to pursue every product development opportunity that appears on the road. This situation incurs an important question: Which product development opportunities should...

  2. ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ángeles Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic production systems are based on natural processes, leveraging local resources and decreasing in soil degradation. Effectiveness of milk production of organic systems vs. conventional production systems is a subject open to debate. There are various studies in which there is a positive effect of organic systems in relation to the welfare and animal health, product quality and environmental impact. However, some authors report lower milk yields production and increased susceptibility to environmental conditions compared with those obtained in conventional systems. The lower milk yields in organic systems in Dairy sheep's production, are related to the limited nutritional value, low genetic potential, and the changing environmental conditions. These systems are mainly a production method for a specific market with premium quality products and high standards in their production processes. Thus, a company organic Dairy sheep production should be considered viable when present a positive global sustainability level, that is socially beneficial, economically viable and environmentally responsible.

  3. Investment in new product reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, D.N.P.; Rausand, M.; Virtanen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Product reliability is of great importance to both manufacturers and customers. Building reliability into a new product is costly, but the consequences of inadequate product reliability can be costlier. This implies that manufacturers need to decide on the optimal investment in new product reliability by achieving a suitable trade-off between the two costs. This paper develops a framework and proposes an approach to help manufacturers decide on the investment in new product reliability.

  4. Consumer oriented new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Trijp, Hans C.M.; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    New product development is a necessary activity for a company’s competitiveness, profitability and growth. However, new product development is a risky activity as a large percentage of new product introductions fail to achieve their commercial targets. The present chapter reviews the existing evi...... evidence on new product success and failure factors. From that it introduces the perspective of consumer-oriented new product development as a way to balance new technological opportunity against identified consumer needs and desires....

  5. Sustainable Multi-Product Seafood Production Planning Under Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanjuntak, Ruth; Mawengkang, Herman; Sembiring, Monalisa; Sinaga, Rani; Pakpahan, Endang J

    2013-01-01

    A multi-product fish production planning produces simultaneously multi fish products from several classes of raw resources. The goal in sustainable production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the tradeoff between economic objectives such as production cost, waste processed cost, and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the sustainable production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model.

  6. Product-Marketing Innovation, Skills and Firm Productivity Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Severgnini, Battista; Sørensen, Anders

    The role of product and marketing innovation for productivity growth is addressed using survey and register data for the Danish economy. It is argued that marketing and product innovation are complementary inputs and that innovation activities are skill-intensive. It is found that product...... and marketing innovation in skill-intensive firms results in significantly faster productivity growth than in unskilled-intensive firms that introduce this combination of innovation activities. More precisely, an increase in the share of educated workers of one percentage point, increases productivity growth...... by around 0.1 percentage point in firms with product and marketing innovation. In addition, it is found that firms that engage in product innovation but not in marketing innovation or the other way around do not demonstrate a growth effect from their innovation activities. It is also found that product...

  7. Somatic polyploidization and characterization of induced polyploids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rukevwe S. Abraka

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... 3International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 4Japan International .... Photos of stomata were taken using a digital camera (DP71, Olympus) attached to the ..... In. Marketing. Opportunities for ...

  8. 75 FR 18015 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Philip... Coal, and Indian Coal:'', Line 26, the language ``is 2.15 cents per kilowatt hour on the'' is corrected...

  9. Impact of product development efforts on product introduction and product customization abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhuri, Atanu; Dawar, Saloni

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of efforts in new product development-manufacturing integration (NPDMI) on new product introduction (NPI) and product customization (PC) abilities and the moderating effects of product design complexity and importance of new product development order winners...... (NPIOW) on the above relationships. The results from the data on 136 Indian manufacturing plants show that NPDMI, product design complexity and NPIOW all have significant positive impact on NPI and PC abilities. Importance of NPIOW has a positive moderating effect on the relationship between NPDMI and PC...... ability change but product design complexity demonstrate no such effect on the above relationships....

  10. Natural products as photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewan, Nisakorn; Jimtaisong, Ampa

    2015-03-01

    The rise in solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface has led to a depletion of stratospheric ozone over recent decades, thus accelerating the need to protect human skin against the harmful effects of UV radiation such as erythema, edema, hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and skin cancer. There are many different ways to protect skin against UV radiation's harmful effects. The most popular way to reduce the amount of UV radiation penetrating the skin is topical application of sunscreen products that contain UV absorbing or reflecting active molecules. Based on their protection mechanism, the active molecules in sunscreens are broadly divided into inorganic and organic agents. Inorganic sunscreens reflect and scatter UV and visible radiation, while organic sunscreens absorb UV radiation and then re-emit energy as heat or light. These synthetic molecules have limited concentration according to regulation concern. Several natural compounds with UV absorption property have been used to substitute for or to reduce the quantity of synthetic sunscreen agents. In addition to UV absorption property, most natural compounds were found to act as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory agents, which provide further protection against the damaging effects of UV radiation exposure. Compounds derived from natural sources have gained considerable attention for use in sunscreen products and have bolstered the market trend toward natural cosmetics. This adds to the importance of there being a wide selection of active molecules in sunscreen formulations. This paper summarizes a number of natural products derived from propolis, plants, algae, and lichens that have shown potential photoprotection properties against UV radiation exposure-induced skin damage. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Photovoltaic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiser, H.W.; Memory, S.B.; Veziroglu, T.N.; Padin, J. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This is a new project, which started in June 1995, and involves photovoltaic hydrogen production as a fuel production method for the future. In order to increase the hydrogen yield, it was decided to use hybrid solar collectors to generate D.C. electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. In this way, some of the energy needed to dissociate the water is supplied in the form of heat (or low grade energy), to generate steam, which results in a reduction of electrical energy (or high grade energy) needed. As a result, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased. In the above stated system, the collector location, the collector tracking sub-system (i.e., orientation/rotation), and the steam temperature have been taken as variables. Five locations selected - in order to consider a variety of latitudes, altitudes, cloud coverage and atmospheric conditions - are Atlanta, Denver, Miami, Phoenix and Salt Lake City. Plain PV and hybrid solar collectors for a stationary south facing system and five different collector rotation systems have been analyzed. Steam temperatures have been varied between 200{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The results show that higher steam temperatures, 2 dimensional tracking system, higher elevations and dryer climates causes higher conversion efficiencies. Cost effectiveness of the sub-systems and of the overall system will be analyzed during the second year. Also, initial studies will be made of an advanced high efficiency hybrid solar hydrogen production system.

  12. Modern gear production

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, H J

    1970-01-01

    Modern Gear Production focuses on the processes and methods in gear making. The book first gives information on the history of gear making and types of gears. Topics such as the classification of gears based on the disposition of their shafts; shafts lying in the same plane with axes intersecting; and shafts lying in parallel planes but with axes inclined to one another are then discussed. The text describes gear groups, tooth forms, and gear materials. Heat treatment of steels, casehardening, nitriding, induction hardening, sulfinuzing, and flame hardening are explained. The book takes a look

  13. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  14. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  15. Multi-pion production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavis, D.; Fung, S.Y.; Gorn, W.; Keane, D.; Liu, Y.M.; Poe, R.T.; VanDalen, G.; Vient, M.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of pion production in 1.2 GeV/nucleon Kr-RbBr collisions is presented. The negative pion multiplicity is consistent with a convolution of Poisson distributions and a freeze-out density between 1/3 and 1/2 normal nuclear density is extracted. Global negative pion kinematic variables are used to search for possible structure in the multi-pion emission. No evidence for structured emission or conservation constraints is found. Pion interferometry analysis gives a source radius of 5.4 +- 1.2 Fermi and a freeze-out density of .3 +- .2 times normal nuclear density. 10 refs., 5 figs

  16. Production of aviation gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-25

    A process is described for preparing gasoline possessing properties for use as a fuel, particularly for aviation motors, beginning with gasolines composed among others of cyclic hydrocarbons, especially aromatics, consisting in treating the gasoline by means of selective solvents of aromatic hydrocarbons, especially aromatics, and preferably at the same time employing liquid hydrocarbons which are gaseous under normal conditions and adding to the refined product nonaromatics which boil in the range of the gasoline and have an actane number above 95 or which give the mixture an octane number of 82.5.

  17. SHDAS Production Seismometer Evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slad, George William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Seismo - Hydroacoustic Data Acquisition System (SHDAS) is undergoing evaluation in preparation for its engineering, development, and deployment by the U.S Navy as an ocean bottom seismic monitoring system. At the current stage of development, the production seismometers are being evaluated to confirm their performance prior to packaging and assembly for deployment. The testing of the seismometers is being conducted at the Pinon Flats Observatory (PFO) , supervised by Sandia National Laboratories, U.S Navy, and RP Kromer Consulting. SNL will conduct evaluation of the collected seismometer data and comment on the performance of the seismometers.

  18. Administration of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Current developments in atomic energy, and the administrative problems to which they give rise, were surveyed in a seminar on 'Atomic Energy for Atomic Energy Administrators' held at IAEA headquarters from 30 September to 4 October 1963. The ground covered included protection against radiation, isotopes and radiation sources, research reactors, nuclear power, legal matters, technical and scientific administration, the role of the universities, and the Agency's part in assistance to developing countries. The possibilities and limitations of radioisotope production from research reactors were discussed by Dr. G. B. Cook, of the Division of Research and Laboratories, IAEA in this paper.

  19. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  20. Administration of radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-01-15

    Current developments in atomic energy, and the administrative problems to which they give rise, were surveyed in a seminar on 'Atomic Energy for Atomic Energy Administrators' held at IAEA headquarters from 30 September to 4 October 1963. The ground covered included protection against radiation, isotopes and radiation sources, research reactors, nuclear power, legal matters, technical and scientific administration, the role of the universities, and the Agency's part in assistance to developing countries. The possibilities and limitations of radioisotope production from research reactors were discussed by Dr. G. B. Cook, of the Division of Research and Laboratories, IAEA in this paper.

  1. Photobiological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, M; Lien, S; Weaver, P F

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms, which has been known since the 1930's, occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. Three classes of organisms, namely, photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae carry out this function. The primary hydrogen-producing enzyme systems, hydrogenase and nitrogenase, will be discussed along with the manner in which they couple to light-driven electron transport. In addition, the feasibility of using in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen producing systems in future solar energy conversion applications will be examined.

  2. Photobiological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, M.; Lien, S.; Weaver, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms, which has been known since the 1930's, occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. Three classes of organisms, namely, photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae carry out this function. The primary hydrogen-producing enzyme systems, hydrogenase and nitrogenase, will be discussed along with the manner in which they couple to light-driven electron transport. In addition, the feasibility of using in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen producing systems in future solar energy conversion applications will be examined.

  3. Nanotechnologies in oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alieva, M.K; Kazimov, F.K.; Ismailov, E.

    2010-01-01

    Extraction of remaining, laboriously developed oil reserves at the last stage of development of deposits require drastically improved methods of oil recovery. From this point of view it is more expedient to apply high-tech nanotechnologies. Application of metal nanoparticles in solutions consisting of conventional reagents (deemulgators, SAA and etc.) allows to improve their rheology considerably to increase permaibility and washing of highly viscous components from the smallest pores. Thus, nanofluids influence layer system on atomic-molecular-ionic level which will lead to a complex synergetic effect from the application of nanotechnologies in oil and gas production.

  4. Livestock production and marketing:

    OpenAIRE

    Negassa, Asfaw; Rashid, Shahidur; Gebremedhin, Berhanu

    2011-01-01

    The livestock is an important sub-sector within Ethiopia’s economy in terms of its contributions to both agricultural value-added and national GDP. Between 1995/96 and 2005/06, the livestock sub-sector’s share averaged 24 percent of agricultural GDP and 11 percent of national GDP, with the highest shares recorded at 27 percent and 13 percent, respectively, at its peak (NBE 2005/06). The contribution of livestock and livestock product exports to foreign exchange earnings is also large. The ann...

  5. γ production at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.

    1995-07-01

    We report on preliminary measurements of the γ(1S), γ(2S) and γ(3S) differential and integrated cross sections in p bar p at √s = 1.8 TeV using a sample of 16.6 ± 0.6 pb -1 collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The three resonances were reconstructed through the decay γ → μ + μ - in the rapidity region |y| < 0.4. The cross section results are compared to theoretical models of direct bottomonium production

  6. Defining product service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2002-01-01

    , company and society benefit from the service systems related to each one of these dimensions, rather than simply one of the above. There are existing examples of the enhancement of business and market share by focusing on PSS, but this is often not a result of upfront strategy and ambitious goals. We...... attempt to identify the nature of such a multiple definition of PSS, the link to proper understanding of value and utility and innovative approaches for PSS-oriented product development. This paper will expand on the phenomenon of PSS in the belief that a proper understanding of PSS will give us...

  7. Software product quality control

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Quality is not a fixed or universal property of software; it depends on the context and goals of its stakeholders. Hence, when you want to develop a high-quality software system, the first step must be a clear and precise specification of quality. Yet even if you get it right and complete, you can be sure that it will become invalid over time. So the only solution is continuous quality control: the steady and explicit evaluation of a product's properties with respect to its updated quality goals.This book guides you in setting up and running continuous quality control in your environment. Star

  8. Bioequivalence of azathioprine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel E

    2003-01-01

    All azathioprine oral tablets are considered bioequivalent by the Food and Drug Administration based on traditional testing. However, since these tests were conducted, it has been determined that some patients have a deficiency of the enzyme most responsible for the metabolism of 6-mercaptopurine-thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT). Azathioprine is rapidly converted to 6-mercaptopurine, its active metabolite. So it is possible that differences in TPMT activity may influence the bioequivalence of azathioprine products among individuals, especially those patients deficient in TPMT enzyme activity. However, this possibility has not been evaluated.

  9. Fission product yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, V.; Hep, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summed up necessary for determining the yields of individual fission products from different fissionable nuclides. Fractional independent yields, cumulative and isobaric yields are presented here for the thermal fission of 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu and for fast fission (approximately 1 MeV) of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu; these values are included into the 5th version of the YIELDS library, supplementing the BIBFP library. A comparison is made of experimental data and possible improvements of calculational methods are suggested. (author)

  10. SHDAS Production Digitizer Evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The Seismo-Hydroacoustic Data Acquisition System (SHDAS) is undergoing evaluation in preparation for its engineering, development, and deployment by the U.S Navy as an ocean bottom seismic monitoring system. At the current stage of development, the production digitizers are being evaluated to confirm their performance prior to packaging and assembly for deployment. The testing of the digitizers is being conducted at Delta Group Electronics, the digitizer fabricator, in San Diego, California, performed by Sandia National Laboratories with the assistance of Leidos and Delta Group Electronics.

  11. Production of sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi, L.N.

    2016-01-01

    Radioisotope production has been an ongoing activity in India since the sixties. Radioisotopes find wide-ranging applications in various fields, including industry, research, agriculture and medicine. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, an industrial unit of Department of Atomic Energy is involved in fabrication and supply of wide variety of sealed sources. The main radioisotopes fabricated and supplied by BRIT are Cobalt-60, Iridium-192. These isotopes are employed in industrial and laboratory irradiators, teletherapy machines, radiography exposure devices, nucleonic gauges. The source fabrication facilities of BRIT are located at Rajasthan Atomic Power Project Cobalt-60 Facility (RAPPCOF), Kota, Radiological Laboratories Group (RLG) and High Intensity Radiation Utilization Project (HIRUP) at Trombay

  12. Productivity tips for developers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    I like to read about productivity tools and techniques, but the problem is - most of them are completely overrated, the tips are not that useful or they are too difficult to implement. But, sometimes I can find some stuff that really makes me think "damn, how could I live without this before?!". Today, I would like to share some of them and hopefully hear about the tips and tricks that you use. Maybe we can find a way to share them somehow (github repo/forum)?

  13. Play and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Sara Mosberg

    2016-01-01

    Digital games are increasingly an integral part of daily life for people of all ages and genders. Based on a Foucauldian notion of power and discourse, the central question discussed here is how people above the age of 60 and their engagement with digital games are constituted within existing res......, and bodily health or with the needs of the game industry. This tendency is linked to notions of economical productivity, a theme that is analyzed on the basis of theory formations from cultural gerontology as well as in relation to power and discipline....

  14. Product Lukasiewicz Logic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horčík, Rostislav; Cintula, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 43, - (2004), s. 477-503 ISSN 1432-0665 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004; GA ČR GA201/02/1540 Grant - others:GA CTU(CZ) project 0208613; net CEEPUS(SK) SK-042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * many-valued logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Lpi logic * Takeuti-Titani logic * MV-algebras * product MV-algebras Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.295, year: 2004

  15. New product failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijksterhuis, Garmt Bernard

    2016-01-01

    When new consumer products are developed and later launched, 50 to 75 percent of them are removed from the market far short of meeting their projected financial targets. In short: they fail. We conclude that this failure is due to institutionalized insufficiencies in the use of the sciences...... that are best geared to understand and predict consumer behaviour, viz. the behavioural sciences. These are not necessarily the same as the marketing science that is performed by marketing departments. A scientific approach to understanding consumer behaviour appears to be lacking in many corporate research...

  16. Antibiotics in Animal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Amílcar C.

    The administration of antibiotics to animals to prevent or treat diseases led us to be concerned about the impact of these antibiotics on human health. In fact, animal products could be a potential vehicle to transfer drugs to humans. Using appropri ated mathematical and statistical models, one can predict the kinetic profile of drugs and their metabolites and, consequently, develop preventive procedures regarding drug transmission (i.e., determination of appropriate withdrawal periods). Nevertheless, in the present chapter the mathematical and statistical concepts for data interpretation are strictly given to allow understanding of some basic pharma-cokinetic principles and to illustrate the determination of withdrawal periods

  17. Colostrum and milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quesnel, H; Farmer, Chantal; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... to shifts in housing, and in Europe, this shift is now associated with a change from loose group housing to individual housing. Around parturition, colostrum is being secreted and milk synthesis is initiated in the mammary glands. After the onset of lactation, milk composition changes, especially during...

  18. Production of titanium tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, P.M.; Botbol, O.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a summary of results from theoperation of a laboratory scale for the production in batches of approximately 100 gs of titanium tetrachloride by chlorination with chloroform and carbon tetrachloride between 340 deg C and 540 deg C. Chlorination agent vapors were passed through a quartz column reacting with titanium oxide powder agglomerated in little spheres. Obtained titanium tetrachloride was condensed in a condenser, taken in a ballon and then purified by fractional distillation. Optimun temperature for chloroform was 400 deg C with 74 % yield and for carbon tetrachloride was 500 deg C with 69 % yield. (Author) [es

  19. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  20. Towards Sustainable Consumption and Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulku, M. Ali; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    an environmentally conscious (green) consumer who will buy one of two available, horizontally differentiated products: a modular product (M) manufactured by Firm M or a standard product (S) manufactured by Firm S. Firm M can take advantage of its modular production technology and product return policy...... and numerical examples to render practical insights: The refund rate has a strong impact on profits; sensitivity of product greenness can be increased by conscientious advertising, and the reusability of modular parts encourages lower pricing and higher market share. We assert that modularity is a strong...... concept and practice in developing sustainable products and thereby in production, which, in turn, may enhance sustainable consumption. This study's findings have direct implications for reverse supply chain management, and firms should take these findings into account early in the product design phase....