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Sample records for dystrophin-deficient cavalier king

  1. A duchenne muscular dystrophy gene hot spot mutation in dystrophin-deficient cavalier king charles spaniels is amenable to exon 51 skipping.

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    Gemma L Walmsley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, which afflicts 1 in 3500 boys, is one of the most common genetic disorders of children. This fatal degenerative condition is caused by an absence or deficiency of dystrophin in striated muscle. Most affected patients have inherited or spontaneous deletions in the dystrophin gene that disrupt the reading frame resulting in unstable truncated products. For these patients, restoration of the reading frame via antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon skipping is a promising therapeutic approach. The major DMD deletion "hot spot" is found between exons 45 and 53, and skipping exon 51 in particular is predicted to ameliorate the dystrophic phenotype in the greatest number of patients. Currently the mdx mouse is the most widely used animal model of DMD, although its mild phenotype limits its suitability in clinical trials. The Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD model has a severe phenotype, but due to its large size, is expensive to use. Both these models have mutations in regions of the dystrophin gene distant from the commonly mutated DMD "hot spot".Here we describe the severe phenotype, histopathological findings, and molecular analysis of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy (CKCS-MD. The dogs harbour a missense mutation in the 5' donor splice site of exon 50 that results in deletion of exon 50 in mRNA transcripts and a predicted premature truncation of the translated protein. Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated skipping of exon 51 in cultured myoblasts from an affected dog restored the reading frame and protein expression.Given the small size of the breed, the amiable temperament and the nature of the mutation, we propose that CKCS-MD is a valuable new model for clinical trials of antisense oligonucleotide-induced exon skipping and other therapeutic approaches for DMD.

  2. Primary secretory otitis media in Cavalier King Charles spaniels.

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    Cole, Lynette K

    2012-11-01

    Primary secretory otitis media (PSOM) is a disease that has been described in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel (CKCS). A large, bulging pars flaccida identified on otoscopic examination confirms the diagnosis. However, in many CKCS with PSOM the pars flaccida is flat, and radiographic imaging is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Current treatment for PSOM includes performing a myringotomy into the caudal-ventral quadrant of the pars tensa with subsequent flushing of the mucus out of the bulla using a video otoscope. Repeat myringotomies and flushing of the middle ear are necessary to keep the middle ear free of mucus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia in cavalier King Charles spaniels

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    Rusbridge, C.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is the cumulation of over a decade of study into the pathogenesis and treatment Chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia (CM/SM) in the cavalier King Charles spaniel (CKCS). Chiari-like malformation is a condition where the brain is too big for the skull and is crushed and pushed out

  4. Congenital pleuroperitoneal hernia presenting as gastrothorax in five cavalier King Charles spaniel dogs.

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    Rossanese, M; Pivetta, M; Pereira, N; Burrow, R

    2018-04-30

    Five cavalier King Charles spaniels were examined for acute onset of respiratory distress. Thoracic radiographs demonstrated diaphragmatic hernia and tension gastrothorax, visible as a distended stomach occupying the left caudal thoracic cavity. Exploratory midline coeliotomy confirmed congenital pleuroperitoneal diaphragmatic hernia with herniation and dilatation of the stomach. The hernia configuration was consistent in all cases, with a defect affecting the left diaphragmatic crus. Congenital pleuroperitoneal diaphragmatic hernia is a rare condition caused by a defect in the dorsolateral diaphragm. Defects of the left crus of the diaphragm could result in the herniation of the stomach into the thoracic cavity with possible subsequent tension gastrothorax. Cavalier King Charles spaniels may have a predisposition to this condition. Tension gastrothorax is an acute life-threatening consequence of gastric herniation through a diaphragmatic defect that must be promptly recognised and surgically treated. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. Heart Rate Variability in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Different Degree of Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Caroline Elisabeth; Falk, Bo Torkel; Zois, Nora Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; and 3Novo Nordic A/S, Maaloev, Denmark. Introduction: Modulation of heart rate by the autonomic nervous system can indirectly be measured by heart rate...... variability (HRV). Reduced HRV is seen in dogs with heart failure secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). However, HRV is suggested to increase with disease progression in dogs with early stages of MMVD. Comparable results are found in people with primary mitral valve prolapse, a disease...... resembling canine MMVD. Aim: To associate progression of MMVD in dogs with time and frequency domain HRV, analysed from 24-hour electrocardiography. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) were examined by echocardiography and 24-hour electrocardiography. CKCS were divided...

  6. Platelet function and activation in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with subclinical chronic valvular heart disease.

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    Tong, Linda J; Hosgood, Giselle L; French, Anne T; Irwin, Peter J; Shiel, Robert E

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess platelet closure time (CT), mean platelet component (MPC) concentration, and platelet component distribution width (PCDW) in dogs with subclinical chronic valvular heart disease. ANIMALS 89 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs) and 39 control dogs (not CKCSs). PROCEDURES Platelet count, MPC concentration, PCDW, and Hct were measured by use of a hematology analyzer, and CT was measured by use of a platelet function analyzer. Murmur grade and echocardiographic variables (mitral valve regurgitant jet size relative to left atrial area, left atrial-to-aortic diameter ratio, and left ventricular internal dimensions) were recorded. Associations between explanatory variables (sex, age, murmur grade, echocardiographic variables, platelet count, and Hct) and outcomes (CT, MPC concentration, and PCDW) were examined by use of multivariate regression models. RESULTS A model with 5 variables best explained variation in CT (R(2), 0.74), with > 60% of the variance of CT explained by mitral valve regurgitant jet size. The model of best fit to explain variation in MPC concentration included only platelet count (R(2), 0.24). The model of best fit to explain variation in PCDW included platelet count and sex (R(2), 0.25). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, a significant effect of mitral valve regurgitant jet size on CT was consistent with platelet dysfunction. However, platelet activation, as assessed on the basis of the MPC concentration and PCDW, was not a feature of subclinical chronic valvular heart disease in CKCSs.

  7. Volume reduction of the jugular foramina in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with syringomyelia

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    Schmidt Martin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the pathogenesis of the chiari-like malformation in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS is incomplete, and current hypotheses do not fully explain the development of syringomyelia (SM in the spinal cords of affected dogs. This study investigates an unconventional pathogenetic theory for the development of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure waves in the subarachnoid space in CKCS with SM, by analogy with human diseases. In children with achondroplasia the shortening of the skull base can lead to a narrowing of the jugular foramina (JF between the cranial base synchondroses. This in turn has been reported to cause a congestion of the major venous outflow tracts of the skull and consequently to an increase in the intracranial pressure (ICP. Amongst brachycephalic dog breeds the CKCS has been identified as having an extremely short and wide braincase. A stenosis of the JF and a consequential vascular compromise in this opening could contribute to venous hypertension, raising ICP and causing CSF jets in the spinal subarachnoid space of the CKCS. In this study, JF volumes in CKCSs with and without SM were compared to assess a possible role of this pathologic mechanism in the development of SM in this breed. Results Computed tomography (CT scans of 40 CKCSs > 4 years of age were used to create three-dimensional (3D models of the skull and the JF. Weight matched groups (7–10 kg of 20 CKCSs with SM and 20 CKCSs without SM were compared. CKCSs without SM presented significantly larger JF -volumes (median left JF: 0.0633 cm3; median right JF: 0.0703 cm3; p 3; median right JF: 0.0434 cm3; p Conclusion A stenosis of the JF and consecutive venous congestion may explain the aetiology of CSF pressure waves in the subarachnoid space, independent of cerebellar herniation, as an additional pathogenetic factor for the development of SM in this breed.

  8. Volume reduction of the jugular foramina in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with syringomyelia.

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    Schmidt, Martin Jürgen; Ondreka, Nele; Sauerbrey, Maren; Volk, Holger Andreas; Rummel, Christoph; Kramer, Martin

    2012-09-06

    Understanding the pathogenesis of the chiari-like malformation in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) is incomplete, and current hypotheses do not fully explain the development of syringomyelia (SM) in the spinal cords of affected dogs. This study investigates an unconventional pathogenetic theory for the development of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure waves in the subarachnoid space in CKCS with SM, by analogy with human diseases. In children with achondroplasia the shortening of the skull base can lead to a narrowing of the jugular foramina (JF) between the cranial base synchondroses. This in turn has been reported to cause a congestion of the major venous outflow tracts of the skull and consequently to an increase in the intracranial pressure (ICP). Amongst brachycephalic dog breeds the CKCS has been identified as having an extremely short and wide braincase. A stenosis of the JF and a consequential vascular compromise in this opening could contribute to venous hypertension, raising ICP and causing CSF jets in the spinal subarachnoid space of the CKCS. In this study, JF volumes in CKCSs with and without SM were compared to assess a possible role of this pathologic mechanism in the development of SM in this breed. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 40 CKCSs > 4 years of age were used to create three-dimensional (3D) models of the skull and the JF. Weight matched groups (7-10 kg) of 20 CKCSs with SM and 20 CKCSs without SM were compared. CKCSs without SM presented significantly larger JF -volumes (median left JF: 0.0633 cm3; median right JF: 0.0703 cm3; p stenosis of the JF and consecutive venous congestion may explain the aetiology of CSF pressure waves in the subarachnoid space, independent of cerebellar herniation, as an additional pathogenetic factor for the development of SM in this breed.

  9. Assessing the relative importance of health and conformation traits in the cavalier king Charles spaniel.

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    Wijnrocx, Katrien; François, Liesbeth; Goos, Peter; Buys, Nadine; Janssens, Steven

    2018-01-01

    The selection of a future breeding dog is a complicated task, in which disease characteristics and different traits have to be combined and weighed against one another. Truncation selection, that is the exclusion of affected animals, may be very inefficient when selecting on a large number of traits, and may result in a reduction of the genetic diversity in a population or breed. Selection could be facilitated by the use of a selection index that combines multiple traits or breeding values into one score. This however requires a consideration of their relative value according to their economic weight, which is difficult to express in monetary units for health traits. The use of a choice experiment to derive non-market values might be a solution to this problem. This is a pilot study to assess the potential use of choice experiments to ascertain the public preference and relative importance attached to health- and conformation traits in the selection of a Cavalier King Charles spaniel. The focus was on two prevalent disorders, mitral valve disease and syringomyelia, and on several important conformation traits such as muzzle length and eye shape. Based on available prior information, a Bayesian D-optimal design approach was used to develop a choice experiment and the resulting choice sets. Every participant (breeder or owner) in the choice experiment was presented with a total of 17 choice sets, in which at most four traits could vary to reduce the cognitive burden. A total of 114 respondents participated in the choice experiment and results showed that respondents (breeders/owners) current attitudes were directed towards health (syringomyelia and mitral valve disease), followed by eye shape and level of inbreeding. This approach identifies the value breeders and owners attach to certain traits in the breeding objective. The resulting relative weights, represented as the logworths obtained from the choice experiment, could be an alternative to economic weights. They

  10. Twelve years of chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia scanning in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels in the Netherlands : Towards a more precise phenotype

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    Wijnrocx, Katrien; Van Bruggen, Leonie W L; Eggelmeijer, Wieteke; Noorman, Erik; Jacques, Arnold; Buys, Nadine; Janssens, Steven; Mandigers, Paul J J

    2017-01-01

    Chiari-like malformation (CM), syringomyelia (SM) and middle ear effusion (also called PSOM) are three conditions that frequently occur in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS). Both CM and SM are currently screened in the Netherlands prior to breeding and are graded according to the British

  11. Changes in serum progesterone concentrations in Bernese mountain dogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels during pregnancy.

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    Thejll Kirchhoff, K; Goericke-Pesch, S

    2016-10-15

    Progesterone (P4) concentrations during canine pregnancy follow a specific pattern. Although the general pattern is similar, it is likely that breed-specific differences exist. Detailed knowledge about the physiological range of P4 concentrations may be helpful in cases of suspected hypoluteoidism. The aim of this study was to investigate P4 changes during pregnancy in a small and a large breed, to obtain reference values for specific intervals during pregnancy and to test for breed- or body weight-specific differences. We studied P4 concentrations in pregnancies from healthy Bernese mountain dogs (BMDs, n = 6) and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs, n = 6) with a normal reproductive history. Blood samples for P4 were taken to determine the day of ovulation and after confirmation of pregnancy in regular intervals from Days 23 to 29 to Days 60 to 64. Bernese mountain dogs delivered 6.2 ± 2.6 puppies (range: 3-9) 63.4 ± 1.5 (range: 61-65) days after ovulation (excluding data from one BMD with elective c-section) and CKCS delivered 3.3 ± 1.9 puppies (range: 1-5) 63.5 ± 1.1 (range: 62-65) days after ovulation. In general, the P4 concentrations of individual dogs continuously decreased from the first to the last sampling during pregnancy. Respective mean concentrations were Days 23 to 29: 19.2 ± 4.3/22.2 ± 3.9 ng/mL (BMD/CKCS), Days 30 to 34: 15.6 ± 2.3/17.7 ± 5.8 ng/mL, Days 35 to 39: 12.5 ± 2.8/14.1 ± 3.4 ng/mL, Days 40 to 44: 8.9 ± 1.4/11.8 ± 3.7 ng/mL, Days 45 to 49: 7.7 ± 1.6/8.9 ± 1.9 ng/mL, Days 50 to 54: 6.0 ± 1.3/8.7 ± 7.1 ng/mL, Days 55 to 59: 4.7 ± 1.2/5.3 ± 2.8 ng/mL, and Days 60 to 64: 3.69 ± 1.86/2.62 ± 0.42 ng/mL. ANOVA indicated significant differences over time within each breed when considered individually (P parturition). Other than expected, we failed to proof significant differences in P4 between CKCS and BMD. Further studies are required to confirm the results on a larger

  12. Inherited occipital hypoplasia/syringomyelia in the cavalier King Charles spaniel: experiences in setting up a worldwide DNA collection.

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    Rusbridge, Clare; Knowler, Penny; Rouleau, Guy A; Minassian, Berge A; Rothuizen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Inherited diseases commonly emerge within pedigree dog populations, often due to use of repeatedly bred carrier sire(s) within a small gene pool. Accurate family records are usually available making linkage analysis possible. However, there are many factors that are intrinsically difficult about collecting DNA and collating pedigree information from a large canine population. The keys to a successful DNA collection program include (1) the need to establish and maintain support from the pedigree breed clubs and pet owners; (2) committed individual(s) who can devote the considerable amount of time and energy to coordinating sample collection and communicating with breeders and clubs; and (3) providing means by which genotypic and phenotypic information can be easily collected and stored. In this article we described the clinical characteristics of inherited occipital hypoplasia/syringomyelia (Chiari type I malformation) in the cavalier King Charles spaniel and our experiences in establishing a pedigree and DNA database to study the disease.

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with an ACE gene polymorphism and myxomatous mitral valve disease

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    Meurs, Kathryn M.; Olsen, Lisbeth H.; Reimann, Maria J.

    2018-01-01

    a canine ACE gene polymorphism associated with a decrease in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the prevalence of the ACE polymorphism in CKCS with mitral valve disease and to determine whether the presence of the polymorphism is associated......Objectives Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common heart disease in the dog. It is particularly common in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) breed and affected dogs are frequently managed with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I). We have previously identified...... with alterations in ACE activity at different stages of cardiac disease. Methods Seventy-three dogs with a diagnosis of mitral valve disease were evaluated and a blood sample was drawn for ACE polymorphism genotyping and ACE activity measurement. Results Forty-three dogs were homozygous for the ACE polymorphism...

  14. Laryngeal Muscles Are Spared in the Dystrophin Deficient "mdx" Mouse

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    Thomas, Lisa B.; Joseph, Gayle L.; Adkins, Tracey D.; Andrade, Francisco H.; Stemple, Joseph C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: "Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)" is caused by the loss of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. The disease leads to severe and progressive skeletal muscle wasting. Interestingly, the disease spares some muscles. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of dystrophin deficiency on 2 intrinsic laryngeal muscles, the…

  15. Angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with an ACE gene polymorphism and myxomatous mitral valve disease.

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    Meurs, Kathryn M; Olsen, Lisbeth H; Reimann, Maria J; Keene, Bruce W; Atkins, Clarke E; Adin, Darcy; Aona, Brent; Condit, Julia; DeFrancesco, Teresa; Reina-Doreste, Yamir; Stern, Joshua A; Tou, Sandra; Ward, Jessica; Woodruff, Kathleen

    2018-02-01

    Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common heart disease in the dog. It is particularly common in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) breed and affected dogs are frequently managed with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I). We have previously identified a canine ACE gene polymorphism associated with a decrease in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the prevalence of the ACE polymorphism in CKCS with mitral valve disease and to determine whether the presence of the polymorphism is associated with alterations in ACE activity at different stages of cardiac disease. Seventy-three dogs with a diagnosis of mitral valve disease were evaluated and a blood sample was drawn for ACE polymorphism genotyping and ACE activity measurement. Forty-three dogs were homozygous for the ACE polymorphism; five were heterozygous and 25 were homozygous wild type. The mean age and the median severity of disease were not different for dogs with the polymorphism and dogs with the wild-type sequence. The median baseline ACE activity was significantly lower for the ACE polymorphism (27.0 U/l) than the wild-type sequence dogs (31.0 U/l) (P=0.02). Dogs with more severe disease and the ACE polymorphism had significantly lower levels of ACE activity than dogs with the wild-type sequence (P=0.03). The CKCS appears to have a high prevalence of the ACE variant. Dogs with the ACE variant had lower levels of ACE activity even in more advanced mitral valve disease than dogs without the variant. The clinical significance of this finding and its impact on the need for ACE-I in dogs with the polymorphism and heart disease deserves further study.

  16. Breeding Restrictions Decrease the Prevalence of Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels over an 8-to 10-Year Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Reimann, M. J.; Martinussen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) are predisposed to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Studies have indicated a strong genetic background. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a breeding scheme involving auscultation and echocardiography. Animals......: In the Danish Kennel Club mandatory breeding scheme, 997 purebred CKCS were examined during the period 2002-2011. Each dog was evaluated 1-4 times with a total of 1,380 examinations. Methods: Auscultation and echocardiography were performed to evaluate mitral regurgitation murmur severity and degree of mitral...... compared with dogs in 2002-2003, reflecting a 73% decreased risk (P auscultation...

  17. Increased NT-proANP predicts risk of congestive heart failure in Cavalier King Charles spaniels with mitral regurgitation caused by myxomatous valve disease.

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    Eriksson, Anders S; Häggström, Jens; Pedersen, Henrik Duelund; Hansson, Kerstin; Järvinen, Anna-Kaisa; Haukka, Jari; Kvart, Clarence

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP) and nitric oxide end-products (NOx) as markers for progression of mitral regurgitation caused by myxomatous mitral valve disease. Seventy-eight privately owned Cavalier King Charles spaniels with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease. Prospective longitudinal study comprising 312 measurements over a 4.5 year period. Clinical values were recorded, NT-proANP concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay, and NOx were analyzed colorimetrically. To predict congestive heart failure (CHF), Cox proportional hazards models with time-varying covariates were constructed. The hazard ratio for NT-proANP (per 1000 pmol/l increase) to predict future CHF was 6.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.6-12.5; p 1000 pmol/l was 11 months (95% confidence interval, 5.6-12.6 months), compared to 54 months (46 - infinity) for dogs with concentrations ≤ 1000 pmol/l (p 130 beats per minute) and grade of murmur (≥ 3/6). The risk of CHF due to mitral regurgitation is increased in dogs with blood NT-proANP concentrations above 1000 pmol/l. Measurement of NT-proANP can be a valuable tool to identify dogs that may develop CHF within months. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Craniometric Analysis of the Hindbrain and Craniocervical Junction of Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Dogs With and Without Syringomyelia Secondary to Chiari-Like Malformation.

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    Knowler, Susan P; Kiviranta, Anna-Mariam; McFadyen, Angus K; Jokinen, Tarja S; La Ragione, Roberto M; Rusbridge, Clare

    2017-01-01

    To characterize and compare the phenotypic variables of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction associated with syringomyelia (SM) in the Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS). Analysis of 273 T1-weighted mid-sagittal DICOM sequences of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction from 99 Chihuahuas, 42 Affenpinschers and 132 CKCSs. The study compared 22 morphometric features (11 lines, eight angles and three ratios) of dogs with and without SM using refined techniques based on previous studies of the Griffon Bruxellois (GB) using Discriminant Function Analysis and ANOVA with post-hoc corrections. The analysis identified 14/22 significant traits for SM in the three dog breeds, five of which were identical to those reported for the GB and suggest inclusion of a common aetiology. One ratio, caudal fossa height to the length of the skull base extended to an imaginary point of alignment between the atlas and supraoccipital bones, was common to all three breeds (p values 0.029 to Chihuahua had a smaller angle between the dens, atlas and basioccipital bone (p value < 0.001); Affenpinschers had a smaller distance from atlas to dens (p value 0.009); CKCS had a shorter distance between the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and atlas (p value 0.007). The selected morphometries successfully characterised conformational changes in the brain and craniocervical junction that might form the basis of a diagnostic tool for all breeds. The severity of SM involved a spectrum of abnormalities, incurred by changes in both angulation and size that could alter neural parenchyma compliance and/or impede cerebrospinal fluid channels.

  19. Craniometric Analysis of the Hindbrain and Craniocervical Junction of Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Dogs With and Without Syringomyelia Secondary to Chiari-Like Malformation.

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    Susan P Knowler

    Full Text Available To characterize and compare the phenotypic variables of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction associated with syringomyelia (SM in the Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS.Analysis of 273 T1-weighted mid-sagittal DICOM sequences of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction from 99 Chihuahuas, 42 Affenpinschers and 132 CKCSs. The study compared 22 morphometric features (11 lines, eight angles and three ratios of dogs with and without SM using refined techniques based on previous studies of the Griffon Bruxellois (GB using Discriminant Function Analysis and ANOVA with post-hoc corrections.The analysis identified 14/22 significant traits for SM in the three dog breeds, five of which were identical to those reported for the GB and suggest inclusion of a common aetiology. One ratio, caudal fossa height to the length of the skull base extended to an imaginary point of alignment between the atlas and supraoccipital bones, was common to all three breeds (p values 0.029 to <0.001. Associated with SM were a reduced occipital crest and two acute changes in angulation i 'sphenoid flexure' at the spheno-occipital synchondrosis ii 'cervical flexure' at the foramen magnum allied with medulla oblongata elevation. Comparing dogs with and without SM, each breed had a unique trait: Chihuahua had a smaller angle between the dens, atlas and basioccipital bone (p value < 0.001; Affenpinschers had a smaller distance from atlas to dens (p value 0.009; CKCS had a shorter distance between the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and atlas (p value 0.007.The selected morphometries successfully characterised conformational changes in the brain and craniocervical junction that might form the basis of a diagnostic tool for all breeds. The severity of SM involved a spectrum of abnormalities, incurred by changes in both angulation and size that could alter neural parenchyma compliance and/or impede cerebrospinal fluid channels.

  20. Use of Morphometric Mapping to Characterise Symptomatic Chiari-Like Malformation, Secondary Syringomyelia and Associated Brachycephaly in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel.

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    Susan P Knowler

    Full Text Available To characterise the symptomatic phenotype of Chiari-like malformation (CM, secondary syringomyelia (SM and brachycephaly in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel using morphometric measurements on mid-sagittal Magnetic Resonance images (MRI of the brain and craniocervical junction.This retrospective study, based on a previous quantitative analysis in the Griffon Bruxellois (GB, used 24 measurements taken on 130 T1-weighted MRI of hindbrain and cervical region. Associated brachycephaly was estimated using 26 measurements, including rostral forebrain flattening and olfactory lobe rotation, on 72 T2-weighted MRI of the whole brain. Both study cohorts were divided into three groups; Control, CM pain and SM and their morphometries compared with each other.Fourteen significant traits were identified in the hindbrain study and nine traits in the whole brain study, six of which were similar to the GB and suggest a common aetiology. The Control cohort had the most elliptical brain (p = 0.010, least olfactory bulb rotation (p = 0.003 and a protective angle (p = 0.004 compared to the other groups. The CM pain cohort had the greatest rostral forebrain flattening (p = 0.007, shortest basioccipital (p = 0.019, but a greater distance between the atlas and basioccipital (p = 0.002 which was protective for SM. The SM cohort had two conformation anomalies depending on the severity of craniocervical junction incongruities; i the proximity of the dens (p <0.001 ii increased airorhynchy with a smaller, more ventrally rotated olfactory bulb (p <0.001. Both generated 'concertina' flexures of the brain and craniocervical junction.Morphometric mapping provides a diagnostic tool for quantifying symptomatic CM, secondary SM and their relationship with brachycephaly. It is hypothesized that CM pain is associated with increased brachycephaly and SM can result from different combinations of abnormalities of the forebrain, caudal fossa and craniocervical junction which compromise

  1. Decreased inward rectifier potassium current IK1 in dystrophin-deficient ventricular cardiomyocytes.

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    Rubi, Lena; Koenig, Xaver; Kubista, Helmut; Todt, Hannes; Hilber, Karlheinz

    2017-03-04

    Kir2.x channels in ventricular cardiomyocytes (most prominently Kir2.1) account for the inward rectifier potassium current I K1 , which controls the resting membrane potential and the final phase of action potential repolarization. Recently it was hypothesized that the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) is important in the regulation of Kir2.x channels. To test this hypothesis, we investigated potential I K1 abnormalities in dystrophin-deficient ventricular cardiomyocytes derived from the hearts of Duchenne muscular dystrophy mouse models. We found that I K1 was substantially diminished in dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes when compared to wild type myocytes. This finding represents the first functional evidence for a significant role of the DAPC in the regulation of Kir2.x channels.

  2. A genome-wide association study identifies candidate loci associated to syringomyelia secondary to Chiari-like malformation in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels.

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    Ancot, Frédéric; Lemay, Philippe; Knowler, Susan P; Kennedy, Karen; Griffiths, Sandra; Cherubini, Giunio Bruto; Sykes, Jane; Mandigers, Paul J J; Rouleau, Guy A; Rusbridge, Clare; Kibar, Zoha

    2018-03-22

    Syringomyelia (SM) is a common condition affecting brachycephalic toy breed dogs and is characterized by the development of fluid-filled cavities within the spinal cord. It is often concurrent with a complex developmental malformation of the skull and craniocervical vertebrae called Chiari-like malformation (CM) characterized by a conformational change and overcrowding of the brain and cervical spinal cord particularly at the craniocervical junction. CM and SM have a polygenic mode of inheritance with variable penetrance. We identified six cranial T1-weighted sagittal MRI measurements that were associated to maximum transverse diameter of the syrinx cavity. Increased syrinx transverse diameter has been correlated previously with increased likelihood of behavioral signs of pain. We next conducted a whole genome association study of these traits in 65 Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) dogs (33 controls, 32 with extreme phenotypes). Two loci on CFA22 and CFA26 were found to be significantly associated to two traits associated with a reduced volume and altered orientation of the caudal cranial fossa. Their reconstructed haplotypes defined two associated regions that harbor only two genes: PCDH17 on CFA22 and ZWINT on CFA26. PCDH17 codes for a cell adhesion molecule expressed specifically in the brain and spinal cord. ZWINT plays a role in chromosome segregation and its expression is increased with the onset of neuropathic pain. Targeted genomic sequencing of these regions identified respectively 37 and 339 SNPs with significantly associated P values. Genotyping of tagSNPs selected from these 2 candidate loci in an extended cohort of 461 CKCS (187 unaffected, 274 SM affected) identified 2 SNPs on CFA22 that were significantly associated to SM strengthening the candidacy of this locus in SM development. We identified 2 loci on CFA22 and CFA26 that contained only 2 genes, PCDH17 and ZWINT, significantly associated to two traits associated with syrinx transverse

  3. Twelve years of chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia scanning in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels in the Netherlands: Towards a more precise phenotype.

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    Katrien Wijnrocx

    Full Text Available Chiari-like malformation (CM, syringomyelia (SM and middle ear effusion (also called PSOM are three conditions that frequently occur in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS. Both CM and SM are currently screened in the Netherlands prior to breeding and are graded according to the British Veterinary Association's Kennel Club (BVA/KC scheme. This study evaluated the prevalence and estimated genetic parameter of CM, SM and middle ear effusion from 12 years of screening results. For SM, the classical method using the BVA/KC scheme, was compared with exact measuring of the central canal dilation. For CM, the BVA/KC scheme was compared with a more detailed scheme. Next to this the presence of microchip artifacts was assessed. 1249 screening of 1020 dogs were re-evaluated. Results indicated the presence of CM in all dogs, suggesting it has become a breed-specific characteristic. And although different grades of CM were observed, the condition did not deteriorate over time. SM was present in 39% of the dogs and a clear age effect was demonstrated, with SM increasing with age. This emphasizes the importance of screening at appropriate age, since SM can worsen with increasing age. One alternative is to promote repeated measures. The presence of middle ear effusion in this study was 19%-21% for dogs younger than 3 years, and 32%-38% for dogs older than 3 years. In as much as 60%, microchip artifacts were noticed, leading to the recommendation to place microchips in another location in breeds that are susceptible to developing SM. Finally, this study estimated the heritability of CM in this population, due to the lack of phenotypic variance, to be very low at 0.02-0.03. The heritability for SM central canal dilatation to be 0.30, compared to 0.13 for the classical BVA/KC method, using a model including the age effect and the combined effect of veterinary clinic and year of the evaluation. Genetic correlations were rather small, ranging from 0.16-0.33. As a

  4. Functional substitution by TAT-utrophin in dystrophin-deficient mice.

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    Kevin J Sonnemann

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The loss of dystrophin compromises muscle cell membrane stability and causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy and/or various forms of cardiomyopathy. Increased expression of the dystrophin homolog utrophin by gene delivery or pharmacologic up-regulation has been demonstrated to restore membrane integrity and improve the phenotype in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse. However, the lack of a viable therapy in humans predicates the need to explore alternative methods to combat dystrophin deficiency. We investigated whether systemic administration of recombinant full-length utrophin (Utr or DeltaR4-21 "micro" utrophin (muUtr protein modified with the cell-penetrating TAT protein transduction domain could attenuate the phenotype of mdx mice.Recombinant TAT-Utr and TAT-muUtr proteins were expressed using the baculovirus system and purified using FLAG-affinity chromatography. Age-matched mdx mice received six twice-weekly intraperitoneal injections of either recombinant protein or PBS. Three days after the final injection, mice were analyzed for several phenotypic parameters of dystrophin deficiency. Injected TAT-muUtr transduced all tissues examined, integrated with members of the dystrophin complex, reduced serum levels of creatine kinase (11,290+/-920 U versus 5,950+/-1,120 U; PBS versus TAT, the prevalence of muscle degeneration/regeneration (54%+/-5% versus 37%+/-4% of centrally nucleated fibers; PBS versus TAT, the susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced force drop (72%+/-5% versus 40%+/-8% drop; PBS versus TAT, and increased specific force production (9.7+/-1.1 N/cm(2 versus 12.8+/-0.9 N/cm(2; PBS versus TAT.These results are, to our knowledge, the first to establish the efficacy and feasibility of TAT-utrophin-based constructs as a novel direct protein-replacement therapy for the treatment of skeletal and cardiac muscle diseases caused by loss of dystrophin.

  5. Dystrophin deficiency leads to disturbance of LAMP1-vesicle-associated protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duguez, S.; Duddy, W.; Johnston, H.

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy results from loss of the protein dystrophin, which links the intracellular cytoskeletal network with the extracellular matrix, but deficiency in this function does not fully explain the onset or progression of the disease. While some intracellular events involved...... in the degeneration of dystrophin-deficient muscle fibers have been well characterized, changes in their secretory profile are undescribed. To analyze the secretome profile of mdx myotubes independently of myonecrosis, we labeled the proteins of mdx and wild-type myotubes with stable isotope-labeled amino acids...

  6. Fetal skeletal muscle progenitors have regenerative capacity after intramuscular engraftment in dystrophin deficient mice.

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    Hiroshi Sakai

    Full Text Available Muscle satellite cells (SCs are stem cells that reside in skeletal muscles and contribute to regeneration upon muscle injury. SCs arise from skeletal muscle progenitors expressing transcription factors Pax3 and/or Pax7 during embryogenesis in mice. However, it is unclear whether these fetal progenitors possess regenerative ability when transplanted in adult muscle. Here we address this question by investigating whether fetal skeletal muscle progenitors (FMPs isolated from Pax3(GFP/+ embryos have the capacity to regenerate muscle after engraftment into Dystrophin-deficient mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The capacity of FMPs to engraft and enter the myogenic program in regenerating muscle was compared with that of SCs derived from adult Pax3(GFP/+ mice. Transplanted FMPs contributed to the reconstitution of damaged myofibers in Dystrophin-deficient mice. However, despite FMPs and SCs having similar myogenic ability in culture, the regenerative ability of FMPs was less than that of SCs in vivo. FMPs that had activated MyoD engrafted more efficiently to regenerate myofibers than MyoD-negative FMPs. Transcriptome and surface marker analyses of these cells suggest the importance of myogenic priming for the efficient myogenic engraftment. Our findings suggest the regenerative capability of FMPs in the context of muscle repair and cell therapy for degenerative muscle disease.

  7. Dystrophin-deficient dogs with reduced myostatin have unequal muscle growth and greater joint contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegay, Joe N; Bogan, Daniel J; Bogan, Janet R; Dow, Jennifer L; Wang, Jiahui; Fan, Zheng; Liu, Naili; Warsing, Leigh C; Grange, Robert W; Ahn, Mihye; Balog-Alvarez, Cynthia J; Cotten, Steven W; Willis, Monte S; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice; Zhu, Hongtu; Palandra, Joe; Morris, Carl A; Styner, Martin A; Wagner, Kathryn R

    2016-01-01

    Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of muscle growth whose inhibition promotes muscle growth and regeneration. Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice in which myostatin is knocked out or inhibited postnatally have a less severe phenotype with greater total mass and strength and less fibrosis and fatty replacement of muscles than mdx mice with wild-type myostatin expression. Dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) have previously been noted to have increased muscle mass and reduced fibrosis after systemic postnatal myostatin inhibition. Based partly on these results, myostatin inhibitors are in development for use in human muscular dystrophies. However, persisting concerns regarding the effects of long-term and profound myostatin inhibition will not be easily or imminently answered in clinical trials. To address these concerns, we developed a canine (GRippet) model by crossbreeding dystrophin-deficient GRMD dogs with Mstn-heterozygous (Mstn (+/-)) whippets. A total of four GRippets (dystrophic and Mstn (+/-)), three GRMD (dystrophic and Mstn wild-type) dogs, and three non-dystrophic controls from two litters were evaluated. Myostatin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels were downregulated in both GRMD and GRippet dogs. GRippets had more severe postural changes and larger (more restricted) maximal joint flexion angles, apparently due to further exaggeration of disproportionate effects on muscle size. Flexors such as the cranial sartorius were more hypertrophied on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the GRippets, while extensors, including the quadriceps femoris, underwent greater atrophy. Myostatin protein levels negatively correlated with relative cranial sartorius muscle cross-sectional area on MRI, supporting a role in disproportionate muscle size. Activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) expression was higher in dystrophic versus control dogs, consistent with physiologic feedback between myostatin and ActRIIB. However, there was no

  8. Voluntary wheel running in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice: Relationships between exercise parameters and exacerbation of the dystrophic phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Smythe, Gayle M; White, Jason D

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running can potentially be used to exacerbate the disease phenotype in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. While it has been established that voluntary wheel running is highly variable between individuals, the key parameters of wheel running that impact the most on muscle pathology have not been examined in detail. We conducted a 2-week test of voluntary wheel running by mdx mice and the impact of wheel running on disease pathology. There was significant individual variation in the...

  9. Functional rescue of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice by a chimeric peptide-PMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haifang; Moulton, Hong M; Betts, Corinne; Merritt, Thomas; Seow, Yiqi; Ashraf, Shirin; Wang, Qingsong; Boutilier, Jordan; Wood, Matthew Ja

    2010-10-01

    Splice modulation using antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) has been shown to yield targeted exon exclusion to restore the open reading frame and generate truncated but partially functional dystrophin protein. This has been successfully demonstrated in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice and in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. However, DMD is a systemic disease; successful therapeutic exploitation of this approach will therefore depend on effective systemic delivery of AOs to all affected tissues. We have previously shown the potential of a muscle-specific/arginine-rich chimeric peptide-phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PMO) conjugate, but its long-term activity, optimized dosing regimen, capacity for functional correction and safety profile remain to be established. Here, we report the results of this chimeric peptide-PMO conjugate in the mdx mouse using low doses (3 and 6 mg/kg) administered via a 6 biweekly systemic intravenous injection protocol. We show 100% dystrophin-positive fibers and near complete correction of the dystrophin transcript defect in all peripheral muscle groups, with restoration of 50% dystrophin protein over 12 weeks, leading to correction of the DMD pathological phenotype and restoration of muscle function in the absence of detectable toxicity or immune response. Chimeric muscle-specific/cell-penetrating peptides therefore represent highly promising agents for systemic delivery of splice-correcting PMO oligomers for DMD therapy.

  10. Serum cholinesterases are differentially regulated in normal and dystrophin-deficient mutant mice

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    Andrea R. Durrant

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cholinesterases, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (pseudocholinesterase, are abundant in the nervous system and in other tissues. The role of acetylcholinesterase in terminating transmitter action in the peripheral and central nervous system is well understood. However, both knowledge of the function(s of the cholinesterases in serum, and of their metabolic and endocrine regulation under normal and pathological conditions, is limited. This study investigates acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in sera of dystrophin-deficient mdx mutant mice, an animal model for the human Duchenne muscular dystrophy and in control healthy mice. The data show systematic and differential variations in the concentrations of both enzymes in the sera, and specific changes dictated by alteration of hormonal balance in both healthy and dystrophic mice. While acetylcholinesterase in mdx-sera is elevated, butyrylcholinesterase is markedly diminished, resulting in an overall cholinesterase decrease compared to sera of healthy controls. The androgen testosterone (T is a negative modulator of butyrylcholinesterase, but not of acetylcholinesterase, in male mouse sera. T-removal elevated both butyrylcholinesterase activity and the butyrylcholinesterase/acetylcholinesterase ratio in mdx male sera to values resembling those in healthy control male mice. Mechanisms of regulation of the circulating cholinesterases and their impairment in the dystrophic mice are suggested, and clinical implications for diagnosis and treatment are considered.

  11. Metabolic remodeling agents show beneficial effects in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model

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    Jahnke Vanessa E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease involving a severe muscle wasting that is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration and culminates in early death in affected boys. Mitochondria are presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation/differentiation; enhancing mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics (AMPK and PPAR-delta agonists increases muscle function and inhibits muscle wasting in healthy mice. We therefore asked whether metabolic remodeling agents that increase mitochondrial activity would improve muscle function in mdx mice. Methods Twelve-week-old mdx mice were treated with two different metabolic remodeling agents (GW501516 and AICAR, separately or in combination, for 4 weeks. Extensive systematic behavioral, functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted to assess the drug(s' effects. Results We found a gain in body and muscle weight in all treated mice. Histologic examination showed a decrease in muscle inflammation and in the number of fibers with central nuclei and an increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei, with significantly fewer activated satellite cells and regenerating fibers. Together with an inhibition of FoXO1 signaling, these results indicated that the treatments reduced ongoing muscle damage. Conclusions The three treatments produced significant improvements in disease phenotype, including an increase in overall behavioral activity and significant gains in forelimb and hind limb strength. Our findings suggest that triggering mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

  12. Dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes derived from human urine: New biologic reagents for drug discovery

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    Xuan Guan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to extract somatic cells from a patient and reprogram them to pluripotency opens up new possibilities for personalized medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have been employed to generate beating cardiomyocytes from a patient's skin or blood cells. Here, iPSC methods were used to generate cardiomyocytes starting from the urine of a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Urine was chosen as a starting material because it contains adult stem cells called urine-derived stem cells (USCs. USCs express the canonical reprogramming factors c-myc and klf4, and possess high telomerase activity. Pluripotency of urine-derived iPSC clones was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and teratoma formation. Urine-derived iPSC clones generated from healthy volunteers and a DMD patient were differentiated into beating cardiomyocytes using a series of small molecules in monolayer culture. Results indicate that cardiomyocytes retain the DMD patient's dystrophin mutation. Physiological assays suggest that dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes possess phenotypic differences from normal cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate the feasibility of generating cardiomyocytes from a urine sample and that urine-derived cardiomyocytes retain characteristic features that might be further exploited for mechanistic studies and drug discovery.

  13. Ex vivo stretch reveals altered mechanical properties of isolated dystrophin-deficient hearts.

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    Matthew S Barnabei

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a progressive and fatal disease of muscle wasting caused by loss of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. In the heart, DMD results in progressive cardiomyopathy and dilation of the left ventricle through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Previous reports have shown that loss of dystrophin causes sarcolemmal instability and reduced mechanical compliance of isolated cardiac myocytes. To expand upon these findings, here we have subjected the left ventricles of dystrophin-deficient mdx hearts to mechanical stretch. Unexpectedly, isolated mdx hearts showed increased left ventricular (LV compliance compared to controls during stretch as LV volume was increased above normal end diastolic volume. During LV chamber distention, sarcomere lengths increased similarly in mdx and WT hearts despite greater excursions in volume of mdx hearts. This suggests that the mechanical properties of the intact heart cannot be modeled as a simple extrapolation of findings in single cardiac myocytes. To explain these findings, a model is proposed in which disruption of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex perturbs cell-extracellular matrix contacts and promotes the apparent slippage of myocytes past each other during LV distension. In comparison, similar increases in LV compliance were obtained in isolated hearts from β-sarcoglycan-null and laminin-α(2 mutant mice, but not in dysferlin-null mice, suggesting that increased whole-organ compliance in mdx mice is a specific effect of disrupted cell-extracellular matrix contacts and not a general consequence of cardiomyopathy via membrane defect processes. Collectively, these findings suggest a novel and cell-death independent mechanism for the progressive pathological LV dilation that occurs in DMD.

  14. The proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole improves the skeletal phenotype in dystrophin deficient mdx mice.

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    Arpana Sali

    Full Text Available In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, loss of the membrane stabilizing protein dystrophin results in myofiber damage. Microinjury to dystrophic myofibers also causes secondary imbalances in sarcolemmic ion permeability and resting membrane potential, which modifies excitation-contraction coupling and increases proinflammatory/apoptotic signaling cascades. Although glucocorticoids remain the standard of care for the treatment of DMD, there is a need to investigate the efficacy of other pharmacological agents targeting the involvement of imbalances in ion flux on dystrophic pathology.We designed a preclinical trial to investigate the effects of lansoprazole (LANZO administration, a proton pump inhibitor, on the dystrophic muscle phenotype in dystrophin deficient (mdx mice. Eight to ten week-old female mice were assigned to one of four treatment groups (n = 12 per group: (1 vehicle control; (2 5 mg/kg/day LANZO; (3 5 mg/kg/day prednisolone; and (4 combined treatment of 5 mg/kg/day prednisolone (PRED and 5 mg/kg/day LANZO. Treatment was administered orally 5 d/wk for 3 months. At the end of the study, behavioral (Digiscan and functional outcomes (grip strength and Rotarod were assessed prior to sacrifice. After sacrifice, body, tissue and organ masses, muscle histology, in vitro muscle force, and creatine kinase levels were measured. Mice in the combined treatment groups displayed significant reductions in the number of degenerating muscle fibers and number of inflammatory foci per muscle field relative to vehicle control. Additionally, mice in the combined treatment group displayed less of a decline in normalized forelimb and hindlimb grip strength and declines in in vitro EDL force after repeated eccentric contractions.Together our findings suggest that combined treatment of LANZO and prednisolone attenuates some components of dystrophic pathology in mdx mice. Our findings warrant future investigation of the clinical efficacy of LANZO and

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 ablation in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles reduces angiogenesis resulting in impaired growth of regenerated muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daigo; Nakamura, Akinori; Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2011-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases classified into subgroups based on substrate preference in normal physiological processes such as embryonic development and tissue remodeling, as well as in various disease processes via degradation of extracellular matrix components. Among the MMPs, MMP-9 and MMP-2 have been reported to be up-regulated in skeletal muscles in the lethal X-linked muscle disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by loss of dystrophin. A recent study showed that deletion of the MMP9 gene in mdx, a mouse model for DMD, improved skeletal muscle pathology and function; however, the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle is not well known. In this study, we aimed at verifying the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle by using mdx mice with genetic ablation of MMP-2 (mdx/MMP-2(-/-)). We found impairment of regenerated muscle fiber growth with reduction of angiogenesis in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), an important angiogenesis-related factor, decreased in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. MMP-2 had not a critical role in the degradation of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) components such as β-dystroglycan and β-sarcoglycan in the regeneration process of the dystrophic muscle. Accordingly, MMP-2 may be essential for growth of regenerated muscle fibers through VEGF-associated angiogenesis in the dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle.

  16. Sparing of the dystrophin-deficient cranial sartorius muscle is associated with classical and novel hypertrophy pathways in GRMD dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Peter P; Hoffman, Eric P; Mittal, Priya; Brown, Kristy J; Schatzberg, Scott J; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Wang, Zuyi; Kornegay, Joe N

    2013-11-01

    Both Duchenne and golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) are caused by dystrophin deficiency. The Duchenne muscular dystrophy sartorius muscle and orthologous GRMD cranial sartorius (CS) are relatively spared/hypertrophied. We completed hierarchical clustering studies to define molecular mechanisms contributing to this differential involvement and their role in the GRMD phenotype. GRMD dogs with larger CS muscles had more severe deficits, suggesting that selective hypertrophy could be detrimental. Serial biopsies from the hypertrophied CS and other atrophied muscles were studied in a subset of these dogs. Myostatin showed an age-dependent decrease and an inverse correlation with the degree of GRMD CS hypertrophy. Regulators of myostatin at the protein (AKT1) and miRNA (miR-539 and miR-208b targeting myostatin mRNA) levels were altered in GRMD CS, consistent with down-regulation of myostatin signaling, CS hypertrophy, and functional rescue of this muscle. mRNA and proteomic profiling was used to identify additional candidate genes associated with CS hypertrophy. The top-ranked network included α-dystroglycan and like-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. Proteomics demonstrated increases in myotrophin and spectrin that could promote hypertrophy and cytoskeletal stability, respectively. Our results suggest that multiple pathways, including decreased myostatin and up-regulated miRNAs, α-dystroglycan/like-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, spectrin, and myotrophin, contribute to hypertrophy and functional sparing of the CS. These data also underscore the muscle-specific responses to dystrophin deficiency and the potential deleterious effects of differential muscle involvement. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical and genetic characterisation of dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy in a family of Miniature Poodle dogs.

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    Lluís Sánchez

    Full Text Available Four full-sibling intact male Miniature Poodles were evaluated at 4-19 months of age. One was clinically normal and three were affected. All affected dogs were reluctant to exercise and had generalised muscle atrophy, a stiff gait and a markedly elevated serum creatine kinase activity. Two affected dogs also showed poor development, learning difficulties and episodes of abnormal behaviour. In these two dogs, investigations into forebrain structural and metabolic diseases were unremarkable; electromyography demonstrated fibrillation potentials and complex repetitive discharges in the infraspinatus, supraspinatus and epaxial muscles. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and immunoblotting analyses of muscle biopsies were consistent with dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy. DNA samples were obtained from all four full-sibling male Poodles, a healthy female littermate and the dam, which was clinically normal. Whole genome sequencing of one affected dog revealed a >5 Mb deletion on the X chromosome, encompassing the entire DMD gene. The exact deletion breakpoints could not be experimentally ascertained, but we confirmed that this region was deleted in all affected males, but not in the unaffected dogs. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed all three affected males were hemizygous for the mutant X chromosome, while the wildtype chromosome was observed in the unaffected male littermate. The female littermate and the dam were both heterozygous for the mutant chromosome. Forty-four Miniature Poodles from the general population were screened for the mutation and were homozygous for the wildtype chromosome. The finding represents a naturally-occurring mutation causing dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy in the dog.

  18. Motor physical therapy affects muscle collagen type I and decreases gait speed in dystrophin-deficient dogs.

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    Thaís P Gaiad

    Full Text Available Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD is a dystrophin-deficient canine model genetically homologous to Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD in humans. Muscular fibrosis secondary to cycles of degeneration/regeneration of dystrophic muscle tissue and muscular weakness leads to biomechanical adaptation that impairs the quality of gait. Physical therapy (PT is one of the supportive therapies available for DMD, however, motor PT approaches have controversial recommendations and there is no consensus regarding the type and intensity of physical therapy. In this study we investigated the effect of physical therapy on gait biomechanics and muscular collagen deposition types I and III in dystrophin-deficient dogs. Two dystrophic dogs (treated dogs-TD underwent a PT protocol of active walking exercise, 3×/week, 40 minutes/day, 12 weeks. Two dystrophic control dogs (CD maintained their routine of activities of daily living. At t0 (pre and t1 (post-physical therapy, collagen type I and III were assessed by immunohistochemistry and gait biomechanics were analyzed. Angular displacement of shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle and tarsal joint and vertical (Fy, mediolateral (Fz and craniocaudal (Fx ground reaction forces (GRF were assessed. Wilcoxon test was used to verify the difference of biomechanical variables between t0 and t1, considering p<.05. Type I collagen of endomysium suffered the influence of PT, as well as gait speed that had decreased from t0 to t1 (p<.000. The PT protocol employed accelerates morphological alterations on dystrophic muscle and promotes a slower velocity of gait. Control dogs which maintained their routine of activities of daily living seem to have found a better balance between movement and preservation of motor function.

  19. Motor Physical Therapy Affects Muscle Collagen Type I and Decreases Gait Speed in Dystrophin-Deficient Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiad, Thaís P.; Araujo, Karla P. C.; Serrão, Júlio C.; Miglino, Maria A.; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) is a dystrophin-deficient canine model genetically homologous to Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in humans. Muscular fibrosis secondary to cycles of degeneration/regeneration of dystrophic muscle tissue and muscular weakness leads to biomechanical adaptation that impairs the quality of gait. Physical therapy (PT) is one of the supportive therapies available for DMD, however, motor PT approaches have controversial recommendations and there is no consensus regarding the type and intensity of physical therapy. In this study we investigated the effect of physical therapy on gait biomechanics and muscular collagen deposition types I and III in dystrophin-deficient dogs. Two dystrophic dogs (treated dogs-TD) underwent a PT protocol of active walking exercise, 3×/week, 40 minutes/day, 12 weeks. Two dystrophic control dogs (CD) maintained their routine of activities of daily living. At t0 (pre) and t1 (post-physical therapy), collagen type I and III were assessed by immunohistochemistry and gait biomechanics were analyzed. Angular displacement of shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle and tarsal joint and vertical (Fy), mediolateral (Fz) and craniocaudal (Fx) ground reaction forces (GRF) were assessed. Wilcoxon test was used to verify the difference of biomechanical variables between t0 and t1, considering p<.05. Type I collagen of endomysium suffered the influence of PT, as well as gait speed that had decreased from t0 to t1 (p<.000). The PT protocol employed accelerates morphological alterations on dystrophic muscle and promotes a slower velocity of gait. Control dogs which maintained their routine of activities of daily living seem to have found a better balance between movement and preservation of motor function. PMID:24713872

  20. Evaluation of skeletal and cardiac muscle function after chronic administration of thymosin beta-4 in the dystrophin deficient mouse.

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    Christopher F Spurney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tbeta4 is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. We studied the effects of chronic administration of Tbeta4 on the skeletal and cardiac muscle of dystrophin deficient mdx mice, the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Female wild type (C57BL10/ScSnJ and mdx mice, 8-10 weeks old, were treated with 150 microg of Tbeta4 twice a week for 6 months. To promote muscle pathology, mice were exercised for 30 minutes twice a week. Skeletal and cardiac muscle function were assessed via grip strength and high frequency echocardiography. Localization of Tbeta4 and amount of fibrosis were quantified using immunohistochemistry and Gomori's tri-chrome staining, respectively. Mdx mice treated with Tbeta4 showed a significant increase in skeletal muscle regenerating fibers compared to untreated mdx mice. Tbeta4 stained exclusively in the regenerating fibers of mdx mice. Although untreated mdx mice had significantly decreased skeletal muscle strength compared to untreated wild type, there were no significant improvements in mdx mice after treatment. Systolic cardiac function, measured as percent shortening fraction, was decreased in untreated mdx mice compared to untreated wild type and there was no significant difference after treatment in mdx mice. Skeletal and cardiac muscle fibrosis were also significantly increased in untreated mdx mice compared to wild type, but there was no significant improvement in treated mdx mice. In exercised dystrophin deficient mice, chronic administration of Tbeta4 increased the number of regenerating fibers in skeletal muscle and could have a potential role in treatment of skeletal muscle disease in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  1. Voluntary wheel running in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice: Relationships between exercise parameters and exacerbation of the dystrophic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Gayle M; White, Jason D

    2011-12-18

    Voluntary wheel running can potentially be used to exacerbate the disease phenotype in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. While it has been established that voluntary wheel running is highly variable between individuals, the key parameters of wheel running that impact the most on muscle pathology have not been examined in detail. We conducted a 2-week test of voluntary wheel running by mdx mice and the impact of wheel running on disease pathology. There was significant individual variation in the average daily distance (ranging from 0.003 ± 0.005 km to 4.48 ± 0.96 km), culminating in a wide range (0.040 km to 67.24 km) of total cumulative distances run by individuals. There was also variation in the number and length of run/rest cycles per night, and the average running rate. Correlation analyses demonstrated that in the quadriceps muscle, a low number of high distance run/rest cycles was the most consistent indicator for increased tissue damage. The amount of rest time between running bouts was a key factor associated with gastrocnemius damage. These data emphasize the need for detailed analysis of individual running performance, consideration of the length of wheel exposure time, and the selection of appropriate muscle groups for analysis, when applying the use of voluntary wheel running to disease exacerbation and/or pre-clinical testing of the efficacy of therapeutic agents in the mdx mouse.

  2. Metabolic dysfunction and altered mitochondrial dynamics in the utrophin-dystrophin deficient mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Pant

    Full Text Available The utrophin-dystrophin deficient (DKO mouse model has been widely used to understand the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. However, it is unclear as to what extent muscle pathology affects metabolism. Therefore, the present study was focused on understanding energy expenditure in the whole animal and in isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscle and to determine changes in metabolic enzymes. Our results show that the 8 week-old DKO mice consume higher oxygen relative to activity levels. Interestingly the EDL muscle from DKO mouse consumes higher oxygen per unit integral force, generates less force and performs better in the presence of pyruvate thus mimicking a slow twitch muscle. We also found that the expression of hexokinase 1 and pyruvate kinase M2 was upregulated several fold suggesting increased glycolytic flux. Additionally, there is a dramatic increase in dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp 1 and mitofusin 2 protein levels suggesting increased mitochondrial fission and fusion, a feature associated with increased energy demand and altered mitochondrial dynamics. Collectively our studies point out that the dystrophic disease has caused significant changes in muscle metabolism. To meet the increased energetic demand, upregulation of metabolic enzymes and regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission is observed in the dystrophic muscle. A better understanding of the metabolic demands and the accompanied alterations in the dystrophic muscle can help us design improved intervention therapies along with existing drug treatments for the DMD patients.

  3. Defects in mitochondrial ATP synthesis in dystrophin-deficient mdx skeletal muscles may be caused by complex I insufficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Rybalka

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is a chronic, progressive and ultimately fatal skeletal muscle wasting disease characterised by sarcolemmal fragility and intracellular Ca2+ dysregulation secondary to the absence of dystrophin. Mounting literature also suggests that the dysfunction of key energy systems within the muscle may contribute to pathological muscle wasting by reducing ATP availability to Ca2+ regulation and fibre regeneration. No study to date has biochemically quantified and contrasted mitochondrial ATP production capacity by dystrophic mitochondria isolated from their pathophysiological environment such to determine whether mitochondria are indeed capable of meeting this heightened cellular ATP demand, or examined the effects of an increasing extramitochondrial Ca2+ environment. Using isolated mitochondria from the diaphragm and tibialis anterior of 12 week-old dystrophin-deficient mdx and healthy control mice (C57BL10/ScSn we have demonstrated severely depressed Complex I-mediated mitochondrial ATP production rate in mdx mitochondria that occurs irrespective of the macronutrient-derivative substrate combination fed into the Kreb's cycle, and, which is partially, but significantly, ameliorated by inhibition of Complex I with rotenone and stimulation of Complex II-mediated ATP-production with succinate. There was no difference in the MAPR response of mdx mitochondria to increasing extramitochondrial Ca2+ load in comparison to controls, and 400 nM extramitochondrial Ca2+ was generally shown to be inhibitory to MAPR in both groups. Our data suggests that DMD pathology is exacerbated by a Complex I deficiency, which may contribute in part to the severe reductions in ATP production previously observed in dystrophic skeletal muscle.

  4. Compensation for dystrophin-deficiency: ADAM12 overexpression in skeletal muscle results in increased alpha 7 integrin, utrophin and associated glycoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghadaszadeh, Behzad; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Guo, Ling T

    2003-01-01

    Mouse models for genetic diseases are among the most powerful tools available for developing and testing new treatment strategies. ADAM12 is a disintegrin and metalloprotease, previously demonstrated to significantly alleviate the pathology of mdx mice, a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy...... in humans. More specifically ADAM12 appeared to prevent muscle cell necrosis in the mdx mice as evidenced by morphological analysis and by the reduced levels of serum creatine kinase. In the present study we demonstrated that ADAM12 may compensate for the dystrophin deficiency in mdx mice by increasing...... the expression and redistribution of several components of the muscle cell-adhesion complexes. First, we analyzed transgenic mice that overexpress ADAM12 and found mild myopathic changes and accelerated regeneration following acute injury. We then analyzed changes in gene-expression profiles in mdx/ADAM12...

  5. Aberrant location of inhibitory synaptic marker proteins in the hippocampus of dystrophin-deficient mice: implications for cognitive impairment in duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Krasowska

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a neuromuscular disease that arises from mutations in the dystrophin-encoding gene. Apart from muscle pathology, cognitive impairment, primarily of developmental origin, is also a significant component of the disorder. Convergent lines of evidence point to an important role for dystrophin in regulating the molecular machinery of central synapses. The clustering of neurotransmitter receptors at inhibitory synapses, thus impacting on synaptic transmission, is of particular significance. However, less is known about the role of dystrophin in influencing the precise expression patterns of proteins located within the pre- and postsynaptic elements of inhibitory synapses. To this end, we exploited molecular markers of inhibitory synapses, interneurons and dystrophin-deficient mouse models to explore the role of dystrophin in determining the stereotypical patterning of inhibitory connectivity within the cellular networks of the hippocampus CA1 region. In tissue from wild-type (WT mice, immunoreactivity of neuroligin2 (NL2, an adhesion molecule expressed exclusively in postsynaptic elements of inhibitory synapses, and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT, a marker of GABAergic presynaptic elements, were predictably enriched in strata pyramidale and lacunosum moleculare. In acute contrast, NL2 and VGAT immunoreactivity was relatively evenly distributed across all CA1 layers in dystrophin-deficient mice. Similar changes were evident with the cannabinoid receptor 1, vesicular glutamate transporter 3, parvalbumin, somatostatin and the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit. The data show that in the absence of dystrophin, there is a rearrangement of the molecular machinery, which underlies the precise spatio-temporal pattern of GABAergic synaptic transmission within the CA1 sub-field of the hippocampus.

  6. Black bear parathyroid hormone has greater anabolic effects on trabecular bone in dystrophin-deficient mice than in wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah K; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Sanders, Jennifer L; Condon, Keith W; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donahue, Seth W

    2012-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked neuromuscular disease that has deleterious consequences in muscle and bone, leading to decreased mobility, progressive osteoporosis, and premature death. Patients with DMD experience a higher-than-average fracture rate, particularly in the proximal and distal femur and proximal tibia. The dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse is a model of DMD that demonstrates muscle degeneration and fibrosis and osteoporosis. Parathyroid hormone, an effective anabolic agent for post-menopausal and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, has not been explored for DMD. Black bear parathyroid hormone (bbPTH) has been implicated in the maintenance of bone properties during extended periods of disuse (hibernation). We cloned bbPTH and found 9 amino acid residue differences from human PTH. Apoptosis was mitigated and cAMP was activated by bbPTH in osteoblast cultures. We administered 28nmol/kg of bbPTH 1-84 to 4-week old male mdx and wild type mice via daily (5×/week) subcutaneous injection for 6 weeks. Vehicle-treated mdx mice had 44% lower trabecular bone volume fraction than wild type mice. No changes were found in femoral cortical bone geometry or mechanical properties with bbPTH treatment in wild type mice, and only medio-lateral moment of inertia changed with bbPTH treatment in mdx femurs. However, μCT analyses of the trabecular regions of the distal femur and proximal tibia showed marked increases in bone volume fraction with bbPTH treatment, with a greater anabolic response (7-fold increase) in mdx mice than wild type mice (2-fold increase). Trabecular number increased in mdx long bone, but not wild type bone. Additionally, greater osteoblast area and decreased osteoclast area were observed with bbPTH treatment in mdx mice. The heightened response to PTH in mdx bone compared to wild type suggests a link between dystrophin deficiency, altered calcium signaling, and bone. These findings support further investigation of PTH as an anabolic

  7. Dramatic elevation in urinary amino terminal titin fragment excretion quantified by immunoassay in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and in dystrophin deficient rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alan S; Majchrzak, Mark J; Smith, Courtney M; Gagnon, Robert C; Devidze, Nino; Banks, Glen B; Little, Sean C; Nabbie, Fizal; Bounous, Denise I; DiPiero, Janet; Jacobsen, Leslie K; Bristow, Linda J; Ahlijanian, Michael K; Stimpson, Stephen A

    2017-07-01

    Enzyme-linked and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays were developed for quantification of amino (N-) terminal fragments of the skeletal muscle protein titin (N-ter titin) and qualified for use in detection of urinary N-ter titin excretion. Urine from normal subjects contained a small but measurable level of N-ter titin (1.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml). A 365-fold increase (365.4 ± 65.0, P = 0.0001) in urinary N-ter titin excretion was seen in Duchene muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. Urinary N-ter titin was also evaluated in dystrophin deficient rodent models. Mdx mice exhibited low urinary N-ter titin levels at 2 weeks of age followed by a robust and sustained elevation starting at 3 weeks of age, coincident with the development of systemic skeletal muscle damage in this model; fold elevation could not be determined because urinary N-ter titin was not detected in age-matched wild type mice. Levels of serum creatine kinase and serum skeletal muscle troponin I (TnI) were also low at 2 weeks, elevated at later time points and were significantly correlated with urinary N-ter titin excretion in mdx mice. Corticosteroid treatment of mdx mice resulted in improved exercise performance and lowering of both urinary N-ter titin and serum skeletal muscle TnI concentrations. Low urinary N-ter titin levels were detected in wild type rats (3.0 ± 0.6 ng/ml), while Dmd mdx rats exhibited a 556-fold increase (1652.5 ± 405.7 ng/ml, P = 0.002) (both at 5 months of age). These results suggest that urinary N-ter titin is present at low basal concentrations in normal urine and increases dramatically coincident with muscle damage produced by dystrophin deficiency. Urinary N-ter titin has potential as a facile, non-invasive and translational biomarker for DMD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement of cardiac contractile function by peptide-based inhibition of NF-κB in the utrophin/dystrophin-deficient murine model of muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guttridge Denis C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an inherited and progressive disease causing striated muscle deterioration. Patients in their twenties generally die from either respiratory or cardiac failure. In order to improve the lifespan and quality of life of DMD patients, it is important to prevent or reverse the progressive loss of contractile function of the heart. Recent studies by our labs have shown that the peptide NBD (Nemo Binding Domain, targeted at blunting Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB signaling, reduces inflammation, enhances myofiber regeneration, and improves contractile deficits in the diaphragm in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Methods To assess whether cardiac function in addition to diaphragm function can be improved, we investigated physiological and histological parameters of cardiac muscle in mice deficient for both dystrophin and its homolog utrophin (double knockout = dko mice treated with NBD peptide. These dko mice show classic pathophysiological hallmarks of heart failure, including myocyte degeneration, an impaired force-frequency response and a severely blunted β-adrenergic response. Cardiac contractile function at baseline and frequencies and pre-loads throughout the in vivo range as well as β-adrenergic reserve was measured in isolated cardiac muscle preparations. In addition, we studied histopathological and inflammatory markers in these mice. Results At baseline conditions, active force development in cardiac muscles from NBD treated dko mice was more than double that of vehicle-treated dko mice. NBD treatment also significantly improved frequency-dependent behavior of the muscles. The increase in force in NBD-treated dko muscles to β-adrenergic stimulation was robustly restored compared to vehicle-treated mice. However, histological features, including collagen content and inflammatory markers were not significantly different between NBD-treated and vehicle-treated dko mice. Conclusions We conclude

  9. Deletion of Galgt2 (B4Galnt2) reduces muscle growth in response to acute injury and increases muscle inflammation and pathology in dystrophin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Singhal, Neha; Serinagaoglu, Yelda; Chandrasekharan, Kumaran; Joshi, Mandar; Bauer, John A; Janssen, Paulus M L; Martin, Paul T

    2015-10-01

    Transgenic overexpression of Galgt2 (official name B4Galnt2) in skeletal muscle stimulates the glycosylation of α dystroglycan (αDG) and the up-regulation of laminin α2 and dystrophin surrogates known to inhibit muscle pathology in mouse models of congenital muscular dystrophy 1A and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Skeletal muscle Galgt2 gene expression is also normally increased in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy compared with the wild-type mice. To assess whether this increased endogenous Galgt2 expression could affect disease, we quantified muscular dystrophy measures in mdx mice deleted for Galgt2 (Galgt2(-/-)mdx). Galgt2(-/-) mdx mice had increased heart and skeletal muscle pathology and inflammation, and also worsened cardiac function, relative to age-matched mdx mice. Deletion of Galgt2 in wild-type mice also slowed skeletal muscle growth in response to acute muscle injury. In each instance where Galgt2 expression was elevated (developing muscle, regenerating muscle, and dystrophic muscle), Galgt2-dependent glycosylation of αDG was also increased. Overexpression of Galgt2 failed to inhibit skeletal muscle pathology in dystroglycan-deficient muscles, in contrast to previous studies in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles. This study demonstrates that Galgt2 gene expression and glycosylation of αDG are dynamically regulated in muscle and that endogenous Galgt2 gene expression can ameliorate the extent of muscle pathology, inflammation, and dysfunction in mdx mice. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative study of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc and cytotoxic T cell (CT carbohydrate expression in normal and dystrophin-deficient dog and human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Martin

    Full Text Available The expression of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc and the cytotoxic T cell (CT carbohydrate can impact the severity of muscular dystrophy arising from the loss of dystrophin in mdx mice. Here, we describe the expression of these two glycans in skeletal muscles of dogs and humans with or without dystrophin-deficiency. Neu5Gc expression was highly reduced (>95% in muscle from normal golden retriever crosses (GR, n = 3 and from golden retriever with muscular dystrophy (GRMD, n = 5 dogs at multiple ages (3, 6 and 13 months when compared to mouse muscle, however, overall sialic acid expression in GR and GRMD muscles remained high at all ages. Neu5Gc was expressed on only a minority of GRMD satellite cells, CD8⁺ T lymphocytes and macrophages. Human muscle from normal (no evident disease, n = 3, Becker (BMD, n = 3 and Duchenne (DMD, n = 3 muscular dystrophy individuals had absent to very low Neu5Gc staining, but some punctate intracellular muscle staining was present in BMD and DMD muscles. The CT carbohydrate was localized to the neuromuscular junction in GR muscle, while GRMD muscles had increased expression on a subset of myofibers and macrophages. In humans, the CT carbohydrate was ectopically expressed on the sarcolemmal membrane of some BMD muscles, but not normal human or DMD muscles. These data are consistent with the notion that altered Neu5Gc and CT carbohydrate expression may modify disease severity resulting from dystrophin deficiency in dogs and humans.

  11. Flux wire measurements in Cavalier for verifying computer code applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, M.; Stubbs, J.; Hosticka, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Cavalier and UVAR research reactors are to be converted from high-enrichment uranium (HEU) to low-enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. As a first step, an extensive set of gold wire activation measurements has been taken on the Cavalier reactor. Axial traverses show internal consistency to the order of ±5%, while horizontal traverses show somewhat larger deviations. The activation measurements will be converted to flux measurements via the Thermos code and will then be used to verify the Leopard-2DB codes. The codes will ultimately be used to design an upgraded LEU core for the UVAR

  12. Cavalier perspective plots of two-dimensional matrices. Program Stereo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The program Stereo allows representation of a two-dimensional matrix containing numerical data, in the form of a cavalier perspective, isometric or not, with an angle variable between 0 deg and 180 deg. The representation is in histogram form for each matrix row and those curves which fall behind higher curves and therefore would not be seen are suppressed. It has been written in Fortran V for a Calcomp-936 digital plotter operating off-line with a Univac 1106 computer. Drawing method, subroutine structure and running instructions are described in this paper. (author)

  13. Mitral Regurgitation Severity and Left Ventricular Systolic Dimension Predict Survival in Young Cavalier King Charles Spaniels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, M. J.; Moller, J. E.; Haggstrom, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Development and progression of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in dogs are difficult to predict. Identification at a young age of dogs at high risk of adverse outcome in the future is desirable. Hypothesis/Objectives To study the predictive value of selected clinical.......016) mortality increased with increasing left ventricular end-systolic internal dimension normalized for body weight (LVIDSN). Conclusions and clinical importance Moderate to severe MR, even if intermittent, and increased LVIDSN in dogs

  14. Advanced electrocardiography can predict mitral regurgitation in cavalier king charles spaniels with myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiljak, Maja; Petric, Alexandra; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier

    2011-01-01

    (HRV), QT variability (QTV), T-wave complexity, wave morphology and 3-D ECG. One-way ANOVA determined 21 ECG parameters, which were significantly different (P .... Clinic for Surgery and Small Animal Medicine, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. 3. Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. 4. Quality Control Department, Metallurgical and Chemical Industry Cinkarna Celje, INC...

  15. Viking stranger kings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobat, Andres S.

    2015-01-01

    as a materialization of a stranger king myth, with the ship‐setting reproducing the narrative of the founding of the dynasty by an immigrant forefather, and the burial mounds conveying the idea of the foreign king taking possession of the locals’ land. In a broader erspective, the stranger king concept and the special...

  16. Advanced electrocardiographic parameters change with severity of mitral regurgitation in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels in sinus rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkanen, M. Spiljak; Petric, A. Domanjko; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier

    2012-01-01

    Multiple advanced resting ECG (A-ECG) techniques have improved the diagnostic or prognostic value of ECG in detecting human cardiac diseases even before onset of clinical signs or changes in conventional ECG....

  17. Identification of 2 loci associated with development of myxomatous mitral valve disease in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Majbritt Busk; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier; Häggström, Jens

    2011-01-01

    of MMVD as cases and old dogs with no or mild signs of MMVD as controls, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify loci associated with development of MMVD. We have identified a 1.58 Mb region on CFA13 (P(genome) = 4.0 × 10(-5)) and a 1.68 Mb region on CFA14 (P(genome) = 7.9 × 10...

  18. 24-HOUR ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY IN CLINICAL HEALTHY CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIELS, WIRE-HAIRED DACHSHUNDS AND CAIRN TERRIERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Caroline Elisabeth; Vesterholm, Stina; Ludvigsen, Trine Pagh

    2010-01-01

    analysis were analyzed for influence by breed, age, gender, relevant heart rate (HR) parameters and bodyweight. CKCS had a significantly higher HRex (mean 121 ± SD 12 bpm) compared to wD (94±18 bpm) (P>0.0001) and CT (102±16bpm) (P=0.0009). The minimum HR (HRmin) measured during Holter recording...... was significantly higher in CKCS (51±10 bpm) compared to wD (42±7 bpm) (P=0.001) and CT (45±7 bpm) (P=0.05). In addition, CKCS had a higher mean HR (HRmean) during Holter recording (83±13 bpm) compared to wD (68±8 bpm) (P>0.0001) and CT (75±10 bpm) (P=0.04). Both HRmean (P>0.0001) and HRmin (P=0.001) were...

  19. Guillem IV de Cervera, cavalier i monjo de Poblet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalvo i Bou, Gener

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Guillem IV of Cervera could be the prototype of the noble closely linked to all spheres of power. This article studies his connections as a councillor to the royal court of Pere I and during the early decades of that of Jaume I, at a time of crisis for this royal institution. Guillem of Cervera was also a key player in the difficult relations between the crown and the earldom of Urgell in the context of the absortion of the earldom into the House of Barcelona. On a spiritual level, the close ties between a lineage like the House of Cervera and the monastery of Poblet will be shown, these perhaps being in the image and reflections of the kings.[fr] Guillem IV de Cervera pourrait être le prototype de chevalier lié étroitement à toutes les spheres du pouvoir. Dans cet article, nous étudions ses relations en tant que conseiller de la cour royale de Pere I et ses relations dans la première époque du règne de Jaume I, à une époque de crise de l'institution royale. Guillem de Cervera fut aussi un personnage clé dans les rapports difficiles entre la Couronne et le Comté d'Urgell, dans un contexte d'absorption du Comté à la Maison de Barcelone. Au niveau spirituel, nous montrons les liens étroits d'une lignée comme celle des Cervera avec le monastère de Poblet, à l'image de ses rois.

  20. Kings Today, Rich Tomorrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattoum, Asma

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the King vs. Rich dilemma that founder-CEOs face at IPO. When undertaking IPO, founders face two options. They can either get rich, but then run the risk of losing the control over their firms; or they can remain kings by introducing defensive mechanisms, but this is likel...

  1. God our king

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    metaphor of king is used with a realistic claim in the Biblical texts and in the. Christian ..... love their king, whatever emotional bond there might occasionally be between them. .... green” and it would be senseless to ask what kind of power God has. It does ... attitude and behavior towards God, the focus here will be on God.

  2. The King and I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mary Grace

    2009-01-01

    This year marks the 40th anniversary of the first Coretta Scott King Book Award, which encourages "the artistic expression of the black experience via literature and the graphic arts." The award, which began honoring illustrators in 1974, added the John Steptoe Award for New Talent in 1995. No doubt, past King award winners like Sharon Flake,…

  3. Increased susceptibility of dystrophin-deficient brain to mild hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, T.; Rae, C.; Bubb, W.A.; Head, S.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disorder resulting from total absence of the 427 kDa protein dystrophin. Dystrophin is normally expressed in the brain mainly in a neuronal subpopulation: cortical pyramidal cells, hippocampal CA1 neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells. One suggested role for dystrophin is in colocalising mitochondrial creatine kinase with ADP translocase and ATP synthase in mitochondria. Brain tissue slices in the murine model of Duchenne dystrophy, the mdx mouse, have been shown to be more sensitive to hypoxia than control. In this work, we used 13 C NMR to monitor the metabolic response of mdx cortical brain tissue slices to normoxia (95%O 2 /5% CO 2 ) and mild hypoxia (95%air/5% CO 2 ). Under normoxic conditions, mdx cortical slices displayed increased net flux through the Krebs cycle and glutamate/glutamine cycle, consistent with the proposed GABA A lesion which results in decreased inhibitory input. By contrast, mild hypoxia resulted in a significant increase in the total pool size of lactate and decreased net flux of 13 C from [3- 13 C]pyruvate into glutamate C4, GABA C2 and Ala C2, as well as decreased anaplerotic activity as measured by the ratio of Asp C2: Asp C3 label. Mild hypoxia has a significantly greater effect on brain oxidative metabolism in mdx mice, than in control

  4. King and Eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannakij, Sing

    King and Eye explores the visual formation of kingship in Siam in its multifarious aspects. This dissertation identifies the leitmotifs in the dynamics between seeing the king and being seen by him, which burst forth in different eras. The visual sense has been a repository for the ontologization...... devices, most significantly the photographic and the cine cameras, but also encompassing other ocular apparatuses. The images produced through the contraptions were brought together under the royal eye at the apex, which in turn claimed its supremacy over space, time, and the vast and diverse population...

  5. God our king

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    the “king” metaphor for God is conceptually explained in terms of the relationship ... key metaphors, then it is essential to a God-talk that is grounded in the .... Jesus are both king (cf Eph 5:5), which means that God shares his kingship with the ...

  6. Of Gods and Kings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brisch, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    throughout history. This is not a new point but remains all too often underappreciated when discussing the blurring of lines between human and god as evidenced in the deification of kings. In ancient Mesopotamia, one of the oldest high civilizations in the world, it was a short-lived but nevertheless...

  7. The last Viking King

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, J.; Binladen, J.; Hansen, Anders J.

    2007-01-01

    of King Sven Estridsen to haplogroup H; Estrid's sequence differed from that of Sven at two positions in HVR-1, 16093T -> C and 16304T -> C, indicating that she belongs to subgroup H5a. Given the maternal inheritance of mtDNA, offspring will have the same mtDNA sequence as their mother with the exception......, there have been doubts among historians whether the woman entombed was indeed Estrid. To shed light on this problem, we have extracted and analysed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from pulp of teeth from each of the two royals. Four overlapping DNA-fragments covering about 400 bp of hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1...

  8. When physics became king

    CERN Document Server

    Morus, Iwan Rhys

    2005-01-01

    As recently as two hundred years ago, physics as we know it today did not exist. Born in the early nineteenth century during the second scientific revolution, physics struggled at first to achieve legitimacy in the scientific community and culture at large. In fact, the term "physicist" did not appear in English until the 1830s.When Physics Became King traces the emergence of this revolutionary science, demonstrating how a discipline that barely existed in 1800 came to be regarded a century later as the ultimate key to unlocking nature's secrets. A cultural history designed to provid

  9. The King Tapestries at Kronborg Castle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reindel, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    In the 1580s, Frederik II (Danish-Norwegian king, reigned 1559-1588) had the Great Hall at Kronborg Castle, Elsinore, furnished with 43 tapestries portraying no fewer than 100 Danish kings. The tapestries were arranged chronologically, beginning with King Dan, the mythological founder of the king...

  10. Meet EPA researcher Dawn King

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research microbiologist Dawn King works in EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory where she identifies and assesses the health risk of microbial pathogens in water. This is her researchers at work profile.

  11. King, Prof. Sir David Anthony

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 1998 Honorary. King, Prof. Sir David Anthony Sc.D., FRS. Date of birth: 12 August 1939. Address: Chief Scientific Adivser & Head, Office of Science and Innovation, London SW1H 0ET, U.K.. Contact: Office: (+44-020) 7215 3821. Fax: (+44-020) 7215 0314. Email: mpst.king@dti.gsi.gov.uk, dak10@cus.cam.ac.uk.

  12. Lion King Surveys Homeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows one octant of a larger panoramic image which has not yet been fully processed. The full panorama, dubbed 'Lion King' was obtained on sols 58 and 60 of the mission as the rover was perched at the lip of Eagle Crater, majestically looking down into its former home. It is the largest panorama yet obtained by either rover. The octant, which faces directly into the crater, shows features as small as a few millimeters across in the field near the rover arm, to features a few meters across or larger on the horizon. The full panoramic image was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. This enhanced color composite was assembled from the infrared (750 nanometer), green (530 nanometer), and violet (430 nanometer) filters. Additional lower elevation tiers were added relative to other panoramas to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic.

  13. God our king

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Muis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses whether the metaphor of “king” can still be used in Christian God-talk. Firstly, it is argued that the “king” metaphor for God is an indispensable key metaphor in both the Old and the New Testament. “King” has become a root metaphor in the canonical text of the Old Testament and Jesus’ proclamation of the coming kingdom of God presupposes that God is king. Secondly, the Biblical meanings of the metaphor are explored. God’s kingship implies his authority and power to fight the forces of evil, to liberate and lead his people and to control the events of history. Modified by Jesus Christ, God’s kingship is universal, non-violent and in accordance with his love. Then, the use of the metaphor in contemporary God-talk is considered. Because “king” is the only metaphor that can give expression to God’s ultimate highness and authority, it cannot be replaced by others. In the concluding section the “king” metaphor for God is conceptually explained in terms of the relationship, the agency and the power of God it implies.

  14. Prevalence and heritability of symptomatic syringomyelia in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and long-term outcome in symptomatic and asymptomatic littermates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, Maria Søndergaard; Stougaard, C. L.; Westrup, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    (P euthanasia in 20%. Dogs with syringes, which expressed no clinical signs at the age of 6, remained asymptomatic in 14/15 cases (93%). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The prevalence of symptomatic SM is high...

  15. Congratulations to Carey King

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charles A. S.

    2012-03-01

    I first came across Carey King when, out of the blue, he invited me to a special session of the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (the largest and most prestigious US scientific meeting) where he was developing a special session on energy return on investment (EROI). At that meeting and since, I have found Carey to be a refreshing new colleague, extremely intelligent, very knowledgeable about many diverse aspects of energy and other things, able to take criticism and to dish it out, and very ambitious, which is mostly a good thing. He is becoming a leader in thinking about EROI and its implications, and I am delighted to see him honored by Environmental Research Letters. This is important because in the US, there is little insight about energy or, especially, its potential physical limitations except when gas prices increase. There is also little awareness of the very strong historical connection in both the US and the world between increased affluence and increased use of energy, especially petroleum. It is not understood by all that many of the economic problems we have now (such as the budgetary problems faced by most of our State governments, pension plans and universities) have substantial origin in the fact that oil and other energy production no longer increase reliably year after year, as they once did (Murphy and Hall 2011). Many economists have argued in the past that energy is not important because it constituted only 5 per cent or so of GDP, or because they believe that market forces and innovations will substitute for any shortage (e.g. Barnett and Morse 1963, Passell et al 1972, Solow 1974, Denison 1989). One problem with that view is that if you remove that five per cent the economy comes to a dead stop, as Cuba found out in 1989 when Russia removed its oil subsidy. Additionally if that five per cent goes up to 10 or 15 per cent, as it did in the early 1980s, and again in 2008, recession steps in (Murphy and

  16. Views of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan H.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses views of Martin Luther King, Jr., including concepts of human rights, related counseling approaches, and ethics. Claims King's views provide helpful insights for counselors and clients. Concludes King invited individuals to view challenging life situations as moral opportunities. (Author/ABL)

  17. [King Injo's disease and burnt needle therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Sook

    2004-12-01

    This paper investigates an interrelationship between burnt needle therapy and King Injo's disease. From 1633 (Year 11 in King Injo's reign) to May 5, 1649 (Year 27 in King Injo's reign), right before his death, King Injo was treated with burnt needles by Yi Hyeongik, an acupuncturist when the king had health problems. This study arises from two questions: why was King Injo often treated with burnt needles? and what effect did burnt needles have?Burnt needle therapy is a combined form of acupuncture and moxibustion. Yi Hyeongik was famous for eradicating pathogenic factors. He was appointed as a doctor in the Royal Hospital. The medical definition for pathogenic factors is that they are disease-causing factors. Understanding the pathogenic factor for King Injo's disease could make it possible to find the interrelationship between burnt needles and the king's disease. In the Joseon ear, the prevalent belief about diseases was that diseases could be caused by homeopathic magic. Some people thought homeopathic magic caused King Injo's disease. The actual reasons for King Injo's disease were the participation in the excessive rites of Queen Mother Inmok's funeral and the constant oppression from the Ching Dynasty after disgraceful defeat in the war. When King Injo started to be sick, homeopathic magic cases were found in the royal palace. The king's incurable disease was believed to have happened as a result of homeopathic magic. King Injo's suspicion toward Princess Jeongmyeong derived from her mother, Queen Mother Inmok. Moral justification for King Injo's coup was Gwanghaegun or Prince Gwanghae's immoral conduct toward Queen Mothe Inmok. After he was installed, King Injo obeyed the Queen Mother and showed her every attention. Meanwhile, he treated Princess Jeongmyeong with respect, maximized the moral justification for the coup, and solidified the royal authority. However, constant rebellions and treasons threatened King Injo. The king suspected that Queen Mother

  18. King Injo's Disease and Burnt Needle Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIM In-Sook

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an interrelationship between burnt needle therapy(번침 and King Injo'sdisease. From 1633 (Year 11 in King Injo's reign to May 5, 1649 (Year 27 King in Injo's reign, right before his death, King Injo(인조 was treated with burnt needles by Yi Hyeongik(이형익, an acupuncturist when the king had health problems. This study arises from two questions: why was King Injo often treated with burnt needles? and what effect did burnt needles have? Burnt needle therapy is a combined form of acupuncture and moxibustion. Yi Hyeongik was famous for eradicating pathogenic factors. He was appointed as a doctor in the Royal Hospital. The medical definition for pathogenic factors is that they are disease-causing factors. Understanding the pathogenic factor for King Injo's disease could make it possible to find the interrelationship between burnt needles and the king's disease. In the Joseon era, the prevalent belief about diseases was that diseases could be caused by homeopathic magic. Some people thought homeopathic magic caused King Injo's disease.  The actual reasons for King Injo's disease were the participation in the excessive rites of Queen Mother Inmok's funeral and the constant oppression from the Ching Dynasty after disgraceful defeat in the war. When King Injo started to be sick, homeopathic magic cases were found in the royal palace. The king's incurable disease was believed to have happened as a result of homeopathic magic. King Injo's suspicion toward Princess Jeongmyeong(정명공주 derived from her mother, Queen Mother Inmok(인목대비. Moral justification for King Injo's coup was Gwanghaegun(광해군 or Prince Gwanghae's immoral conduct toward Queen Mother Inmok. After he was installed, King Injo obeyed the Queen Mother and showed her every attention. Meanwhile, he treated Princess Jeongmyeong with respect, maximized the moral justification for the coup, and solidified the royal authority. However, constant

  19. Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama (QTVR) This approximate true-color panorama, dubbed 'Lion King,' shows 'Eagle Crater' and the surrounding plains of Meridiani Planum. It was obtained by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sols 58 and 60 using infrared (750-nanometer), green (530-nanometer) and blue (430-nanometer) filters. This is the largest panorama obtained yet by either rover. It was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. Additional lower elevation tiers were added to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic. This panorama depicts a story of exploration including the rover's lander, a thorough examination of the outcrop, a study of the soils at the near-side of the lander, a successful exit from Eagle Crater and finally the rover's next desination, the large crater dubbed 'Endurance'.

  20. The Words of Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today's Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Excerpts from speeches by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., are reprinted. Topics discussed include discrimination, the South, education, nonviolent resistance, poverty, economic opportunity, and world peace. (LH)

  1. The True Lion King of Africa: The Epic History of Sundiata, King of Old Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Domenica R.

    David Wisniewski's 1992 picture book version of the African epic of "Sundiata, Lion King of Mali" and the actual historical account of the 13th century Lion King, Sundiata, are both badly served by Disney's "The Lion King." Disney has been praised for using African animals as story characters; for using the African landscape as…

  2. 75 FR 34307 - King Kamehameha Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Kamehameha Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Two hundred years ago, King Kamehameha the Great brought the Hawaiian Islands together under a unified government. His courage...'s concern for public safety.'' On this bicentennial King Kamehameha Day, we celebrate the history...

  3. The King's Ring: A Matter of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterrett, Joseph William

    2018-01-01

    This essay examines the material and social effects of an exchange of trust between a king, Henry VIII, and his counsellor, Thomas Cranmer in Shakespeare and Fletcher’s All is True. The ring that the King gives Cranmer is both nothing and everything: nothing in that it could be anything, any ring...

  4. Safety Evaluation Report related to renewal of the operating license for the CAVALIER Training Reactor at the University of Virginia (Docket No. 50-396)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the University of Virginia for a renewal of Operating License R-123 to continue to operate the CAVALIER (Cooperatively Assembled Virginia Low Intensity Educational Reactor) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is owned and operated by the University of Virginia and is located on the campus in Charlottesville, Virginia. Based on its technical review, the staff concludes that the reactor facility can continue to be operated by the university without endangering the health and safety of the public or the environment

  5. Characterization of dystrophin deficient rats: a new model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Thibaut; Lafoux, Aude; Tesson, Laurent; Remy, Séverine; Thepenier, Virginie; François, Virginie; Le Guiner, Caroline; Goubin, Helicia; Dutilleul, Maéva; Guigand, Lydie; Toumaniantz, Gilles; De Cian, Anne; Boix, Charlotte; Renaud, Jean-Baptiste; Cherel, Yan; Giovannangeli, Carine; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Anegon, Ignacio; Huchet, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    A few animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are available, large ones such as pigs or dogs being expensive and difficult to handle. Mdx (X-linked muscular dystrophy) mice only partially mimic the human disease, with limited chronic muscular lesions and muscle weakness. Their small size also imposes limitations on analyses. A rat model could represent a useful alternative since rats are small animals but 10 times bigger than mice and could better reflect the lesions and functional abnormalities observed in DMD patients. Two lines of Dmd mutated-rats (Dmdmdx) were generated using TALENs targeting exon 23. Muscles of animals of both lines showed undetectable levels of dystrophin by western blot and less than 5% of dystrophin positive fibers by immunohistochemistry. At 3 months, limb and diaphragm muscles from Dmdmdx rats displayed severe necrosis and regeneration. At 7 months, these muscles also showed severe fibrosis and some adipose tissue infiltration. Dmdmdx rats showed significant reduction in muscle strength and a decrease in spontaneous motor activity. Furthermore, heart morphology was indicative of dilated cardiomyopathy associated histologically with necrotic and fibrotic changes. Echocardiography showed significant concentric remodeling and alteration of diastolic function. In conclusion, Dmdmdx rats represent a new faithful small animal model of DMD.

  6. Heterothermy in growing king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Götz; Groscolas, René; Le Glaunec, Gaële; Parisel, Camille; Arnold, Laurent; Medina, Patrice; Handrich, Yves

    2011-08-16

    A drop in body temperature allows significant energy savings in endotherms, but facultative heterothermy is usually restricted to small animals. Here we report that king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus), which are able to fast for up to 5 months in winter, undergo marked seasonal heterothermy during this period of general food scarcity and slow-down of growth. They also experience short-term heterothermy below 20 °C in the lower abdomen during the intense (re)feeding period in spring, induced by cold meals and adverse weather. The heterothermic response involves reductions in peripheral temperature, reductions in thermal core volume and temporal abandonment of high core temperature. Among climate variables, air temperature and wind speed show the strongest effect on body temperature, but their effect size depends on physiological state. The observed heterothermy is remarkable for such a large bird (10 kg before fasting), which may account for its unrivalled fasting capacity among birds.

  7. The city of the divine king

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    2001-01-01

    The City of the Divine King deals with urban systems and urban architecture in the river kingdoms of the Near East and the agrarian societies of the Orient. The book is part of a larger work comprising studies of the antique Greek world and the Roman Empire and the later developments of cities...... and villages in medieval Europe. The City of the Divine King is followed by volume 2: The City of the Landowner, about the Greco-Roman World, and volume 3: The City of the Merchant, about the medieval urban development in Europe....

  8. 76 FR 3819 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... with the same strength, persistence, and determination exhibited by Dr. King, guided by the enduring... closer to Dr. King's vision of all Americans living and working together as one beloved community. NOW...

  9. 78 FR 5247 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ..., 2013 Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A... thousands upon thousands rallying for jobs and freedom, the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered... Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim January 21, 2013, as the Martin Luther King...

  10. The Newest Monument: The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features the newest monument, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. The memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. will be an engaging landscape experience to convey four fundamental and recurring themes throughout Dr. King's life--democracy, justice, hope, and love. Natural…

  11. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the…

  12. The King under the Car Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Ather

    2015-01-01

    In February 2013, the University of Leicester staged what The Guardian described as "The most extraordinary press conference ever held at any UK university." This was part of a media and communications campaign that brought worldwide attention to the discovery of King Richard III by the University's archaeologists. How do you manage a…

  13. Briti publik armastab King Kongi / Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Briti filmiajakiri Empire lugejate filmiauhinnad : parim film "King Kong" (Peter Jackson), parim režii Steve Box, Nick Park "Wallace & Gromit - libaküüliku needus", parim meesnäitleja Johnny Depp, parim naisnäitleja Thandie Newton

  14. Tribute to Julie Taymor's Lion King Costumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mary C.; Beaty, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Julie Taymor's costumes and masks for the stage version of "The Lion King" were stunning in the way they combined the dual images of human and animal forms. Taymor visually incorporated the human form of a dancer into the simplified form of the animal character so both are equally visible. This visible duality of human form and animal…

  15. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie. Flowering Trees Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 89-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/04/0089-0089. Resonance ...

  16. EDITORIAL: King of the elements? King of the elements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Throughout the history of science, carbon-based research has played a defining role in the development of a range of fundamental and technological fields. It was used in Avagadro's definition of the mole in the early 18th century, it provides the 'backbone' of molecules in organic compounds, and in the environmental debate currently raging in the press and international government discussions, the 'carbon footprint' has become the metric of our species' impact on our planet. Also in nanotechnology, with the discovery of various wonder materials, carbon is once again asserting its claim as king of the elements. Until the 1980s the only known forms of carbon were diamond, graphite and amorphous carbon, as in soot or charcoal. In 1985 Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley reported the existence of fullerenes, spherical structures comprising hexagonal carbon rings [1], work for which they won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1996 [2]. The discovery of fullerenes was followed in 1991 by Sumio Ijima with the discovery of rolled graphite sheets, the carbon nanotube [3]. The discovery of these novel carbon nanostructures inspired researchers in a range of fields, largely as a result of the extraordinary capacity for investigations of these structures to reveal ever more intriguing properties. One of the fascinating properties attributed to carbon nanotubes is their phenomenal strength, with a Young's modulus of single walled carbon nanotubes approaching a terapascal [4]. Ingenious methods of harnessing this strength have since been developed, including bucky paper, a term used to refer to a mat of randomly self-entangled carbon nanotubes. Steven Crannford and Markus Buehler have recently reported a novel computational technique for probing the mechanical properties of these structures and show that the Young's modulus of bucky paper can be tuned by manipulation of the carbon nanotube type and density [5]. The electrical properties of carbon nanotubes, which depend

  17. John Davies of Hereford, the King of Denmark & Shakespeare's Meeting of Kings: Praise Beyond Praise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterrett, Joseph William

    2016-01-01

    This article traces the response and style of John Davies of Hereford, 'an ordinary man' as he celebrated an extraordinary event, the state visit of the King of Denmark to the court of James I in 1606. It then draws comparisons to Shakespeare's meeting of kings some seven or eight years later...... at the beginning of the late history play, All is True, suggesting that the earlier poet's experience influenced the latter....

  18. Chilean Antarctic Stations on King George Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsutada Kaminuma

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of my visit to Chilean Antarctic Stations was to assess the present status of geophysical observations and research, as the South Shetland Island, West Antarctica, where the stations are located, are one of the most active tectonic regions on the Antarctic plate. The Instituto Antartico Chileno (INACH kindly gave me a chance to stay in Frei/Escudero Bases as an exchange scientist under the Antarctic Treaty for two weeks in January 2000. I stayed in Frei Base as a member of a geological survey group named "Tectonic Evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula" which was organized by Prof. F. Herve, University of Chile, from January 05 to 19,2000. All my activity in the Antarctic was organized by INACH. During my stay in Frei Base, I also visited Bellingshausen (Russian, Great Wall (China and Artigas (Uruguay stations. All these stations are located within walking distance of Frei Base. King Sejong Station (Korea, located 10km east from Frei Base, and Jubany Base (Argentine, another 6km south-east from King Sejong Station, were also visited with the aid of a zodiac boat that was kindly operated for us by King Sejong Station. All stations except Escudero Base carry out meteorological observations. The seismological observations in Frei Base are operated by Washington State University of the U. S. monitoring of earthquake activity and three-component geomagnetic observations are done at King Sejong and Great Wall stations. Earth tide is monitored at Artigas Base. Continuous monitoring of GPS and gravity change are planned at King Sejong Station in the near future. Scientific research activities of each country in the area in the 1999/2000 Antarctic summer season were studied and the logistic ability of all stations was also assessed for our future international cooperation.

  19. Feeding performance of king Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Amber R; Huber, Daniel R; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Motta, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    Feeding performance is an organism's ability to capture and handle prey. Although bite force is a commonly used metric of feeding performance, other factors such as bite pressure and strike speed are also likely to affect prey capture. Therefore, this study investigated static bite force, dynamic speeds, and predator and prey forces resulting from ram strikes, as well as bite pressure of the king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in order to examine their relative contributions to overall feeding performance. Theoretical posterior bite force ranged from 14.0-318.7 N. Ram speed, recorded with a rod and reel incorporated with a line counter and video camera, ranged from 3.3-15.8B L/s. Impact forces on the prey ranged from 0.1-1.9 N. Bite pressure, estimated using theoretical bite forces at three gape angles and tooth cross-sectional areas, ranged from 1.7-56.9 MPa. Mass-specific bite force for king mackerel is relatively low in comparison with other bony fishes and sharks, with relatively little impact force applied to the prey during the strike. This suggests that king mackerel rely on high velocity chases and high bite pressure generated via sharp, laterally compressed teeth to maximize feeding performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Stick balancing, falls and Dragon-Kings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J. L.; Milton, J. G.

    2012-05-01

    The extent to which the occurrence of falls, the dominant feature of human attempts to balance a stick at their fingertip, can be predicted is examined in the context of the "Dragon-King" hypothesis. For skilled stick balancers, fluctuations in the controlled variable, namely the vertical displacement angle θ, exhibit power law behaviors. When stick balancing is made less stable by either decreasing the length of the stick or by requiring the subject to balance the stick on the surface of a table tennis racket, systematic departures from the power law behaviors are observed in the range of large θ. This observation raises the possibility that the presence of departures from the power law in the large length scale region, possibly Dragon-Kings, may identify situations in which the occurrence of a fall is more imminent. However, whether or not Dragon-Kings are observed, there is a Weibull-type survival function for stick falling. The possibility that increased risk of falling can, at least to some extent, be predicted from fluctuations in the controlled variable before the event occurs has important implications for the development of preventative strategies for the management of phenomena ranging from earthquakes to epileptic seizures to falls in the elderly.

  1. A New Reading of Shakespeare's King John.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Peter D.

    1995-12-01

    Shakespeare wrote King John c.1594, six years after the defeat of the Spanish Armada, and ~ 50 years after publication of the Copernican heliocentric hypothesis. It is said to be the most unhistorical of the History Plays, ``anomalous'', ``puzzling'', and ``odd'', and as such it has engendered far more than the customary range of interpretive opinion. I suggest that the play alerts Elizabethans not just to military and political threats, but to a changing cosmic world view, all especially threatening as they arise in Catholic countries. (a) Personification characterizes the play. John personifies the old order, while Arthur and the Dauphin's armies personify the new. I suggest that Shakespeare decenters King John just as Copernicus decentered the world. (b) Hubert menaces Arthur's eyes for a whole scene (4.1), but the need for such cruelty is not explained and is especially odd as Arthur is already under sentence of death (3.3.65-66). This hitherto unexplained anomaly suggests that the old order fears what the new might see. (c) Eleanor's confession is made only to Heaven and to her son the King (1.1.42-43), yet by echoing and word play the Messenger from France later reveals to John that he is privy to it (4.2.119-124). This circumstance has not been questioned heretofore. I suggest that the Messenger is like the wily Hermes (Mercury), chief communicator of the gods and patron of the sciences; by revealing that he moves in the highest circles, he tells John that he speaks with an authority that transcends even that of a king. The message from on high presages more than political change; it warns of a new cosmic and religious world order (d) Most agree that John is a weak king, so Shakespeare must have suspected flaws in the old ways. He would have known that Tycho Brahe's new star of 1572, the comet of 1577, and the 1576 model of his compatriot Thomas Digges, were shattering old ideas. (e) The tensions of the play are not resolved because in 1594 the new order was

  2. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the king pigeon (Columba livia breed king).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Hua; He, Wen-Xiao; Xu, Tong

    2015-06-01

    The king pigeon is a breed of pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding primarily as a utility breed. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of king pigeon for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,221 bp with the base composition of 30.14% for A, 24.05% for T, 31.82% for C, and 13.99% for G and an A-T (54.22 %)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of pigeon. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of king pigeon would serve as an important data set of the germplasm resources for further study.

  3. Pessoa’s myth of the King Sebastian reinterpreted

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Świda

    2013-01-01

    The present paper depicts alterations undergone by the sleeping king motif (sebastianism) in the writings of Fernando Pessoa. The data to conduct the study were collected in thematic anthologies and several unpublished pieces. The myth of the King Sebastian was given a congregational dimension by Pessoa, thus conveying his cultural and identity project subsumed under the metaphor of the spiritual empire. Pessoa introduces some readjustments in the way the historical king is to be conceived of...

  4. Goldie Brangman Remembers the Operation to Save Dr King.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Evan; Brangman, Goldie

    2015-12-01

    In September 1958 the Rev Dr Martin Luther King Jr was stabbed and nearly assassinated. Surgeons at Harlem Hospital in New York City removed a 17.8-cm (7-in)-long letter opener from Dr King's chest. Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Goldie Brangman remembers this event because she participated in Dr King's anesthetic. This article correlates Brangman's memories with published accounts of the event. It also places the event within the context of the modern civil rights movement that Dr King led.

  5. A Palisade Fit for a King: Ideal architecture in King Harald Bluetooth's Jelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Mads Dengsø; Holst, Mads Kähler; Lindblom, Charlotta

    2014-01-01

    family named on the rune stones in Jelling and in particular to the reign of King Harald Bluetooth. In addition to the structure and date of the palisade, the article will present the tentative results from a series of analyses regarding the construction, composition, function and demolition...

  6. King customer forever: Customer satisfaction and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myuers James

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available "King Customer!" So proclaimed the front cover of Business Week in a 1989 issue. At about the same time, "Rediscovering the Customer" was the title of a series of company vignettes in Fortune magazine. And a Wall Street Journal article asked, "For Customers, More Than Lip Service?" Combined, these three prestigious business publications reflected a new era in business firms perceptions of their customers and the role they should play in the formulation of company strategies and priorities. Had the "Era of the Customer" finally arrived in American business? .

  7. Blindness and Insight in King Lear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳元玉

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how William Shakespeare illustrates the theme of blindness and insight in his great tragedy "King Lear".Four characters’ deeds and their fate are used as a case study to examine what blindness is,what insight is,and the relationship between the two.The writer finds that by depicting the characters’ deeds and their fate in a double plot,Shakespeare renders the folly of blindness,the transition from blindness to insight,and the use of reason and thought to understand the truth.

  8. King Kong tuli unenäost / Alar Niineväli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niineväli, Alar

    2005-01-01

    Hiigelgorilla King Kongi sünd kinolinal 1933.a. Merian C. Cooperi õudusfilmis "King Kong" ja koletise hilisemad tulemised, ka koos jaapanlaste Godzillaga (1962) ja Tarzaniga india filmis "Tarzan ja King Kong" (1965)

  9. Yukon River King Salmon - Ichthyophonus Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    When king salmon enter the Yukon River on their spawning migration in mid June, over 25% of the population are infected with Ichthyophonus. The percent of infected fish remains relatively constant until the fish pass river mile 1,319 at Dawson, Y.T., then it drops to 13% when they reach river mile 1,745 at Whitehorse, Y.T. When the sexes are examined separately, slightly more females are infected than males (29% vs 22%). The percent of fish exhibiting clinical signs (diseased) is 2-3% when they enter the river, but increases to over 20% at river mile 715 near Tanana, AK. Disease prevalence within the population remains constant at >20% until fish pass Dawson, then the percent of diseased fish drops to <9% at Whitehorse. When the sexes are examined separately, male disease prevalence is highest at Tanana (22.6%) then gradually drops to just 12.9% at Whitehorse. Females however, continue to show an increase in disease prevalence peaking at river mile 1,081 near Circle, AK, at 36.4%, then dropping to just 5.3% at Whitehorse. Data on infection and disease collected from kings at Nenana on the Tanana River more closely resembles that seen at Whitehorse than the lower and middle Yukon River.

  10. King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Norway's King Harald V and Queen Sonja take a tour of the ATLAS detector with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar in April 2006. During their visit the royal party met with members of CERN's Norwegian community. A group of about 40 students greeted the royal motorcade with a belting rendition of 'The King's Song', Norway's royal anthem.

  11. The labour ward analgesic service at King Edward VIII Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The labour ward analgesic service at King Edward VIII. Hospital, Durban. D. A. ROCKE, C. C. ROUT, H. D. RUSSELL, S. SINGH. Abstract The provision of analgesic services to the labour ward at King Edward VIII Hospital was studied during a I-week period. Of249 patients, 113 (45%) received no analgesia whatsoever.

  12. The Applicability of Governance at King Saud University in Riyadh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentab, Mohammad Y.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of the study revolves around the application of the requirements of governance at King Saud University. The study aims to identify the extent of governance requirements at King Saud University as seen by faculty members through transparency, accountability, organizational structure, laws, regulations, and justice. To achieve the…

  13. Eosinophilia of dystrophin-deficient muscle is promoted by perforin-mediated cytotoxicity by T cell effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, B.; Spencer, M. J.; Nakamura, G.; Tseng-Ong, L.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) contribute to muscle pathology in the dystrophin-null mutant mouse (mdx) model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy through perforin-dependent and perforin-independent mechanisms. We have assessed whether the CTL-mediated pathology includes the promotion of eosinophilia in dystrophic muscle, and thereby provides a secondary mechanism through which CTLs contribute to muscular dystrophy. Quantitative immunohistochemistry confirmed that eosinophilia is a component of the mdx dystrophy. In addition, electron microscopic observations show that eosinophils traverse the basement membrane of mdx muscle fibers and display sites of close apposition of eosinophil and muscle membranes. The close membrane apposition is characterized by impingement of eosinophilic rods of major basic protein into the muscle cell membrane. Transfer of mdx splenocytes and mdx muscle extracts to irradiated C57 mice by intraperitoneal injection resulted in muscle eosinophilia in the recipient mice. Double-mutant mice lacking dystrophin and perforin showed less eosinophilia than was displayed by mdx mice that expressed perforin. Finally, administration of prednisolone, which has been shown previously to reduce the concentration of CTLs in dystrophic muscle, produced a significant reduction in eosinophilia. These findings indicate that eosinophilia is a component of the mdx pathology that is promoted by perforin-dependent cytotoxicity of effector T cells. However, some eosinophilia of mdx muscle is independent of perforin-mediated processes.

  14. Cognitive dysfunction in the dystrophin-deficient mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: A reappraisal from sensory to executive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussenot, Rémi; Edeline, Jean-Marc; Le Bec, Benoit; El Massioui, Nicole; Laroche, Serge; Vaillend, Cyrille

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is associated with language disabilities and deficits in learning and memory, leading to intellectual disability in a patient subpopulation. Recent studies suggest the presence of broader deficits affecting information processing, short-term memory and executive functions. While the absence of the full-length dystrophin (Dp427) is a common feature in all patients, variable mutation profiles may additionally alter distinct dystrophin-gene products encoded by separate promoters. However, the nature of the cognitive dysfunctions specifically associated with the loss of distinct brain dystrophins is unclear. Here we show that the loss of the full-length brain dystrophin in mdx mice does not modify the perception and sensorimotor gating of auditory inputs, as assessed using auditory brainstem recordings and prepulse inhibition of startle reflex. In contrast, both acquisition and long-term retention of cued and trace fear memories were impaired in mdx mice, suggesting alteration in a functional circuit including the amygdala. Spatial learning in the water maze revealed reduced path efficiency, suggesting qualitative alteration in mdx mice learning strategy. However, spatial working memory performance and cognitive flexibility challenged in various behavioral paradigms in water and radial-arm mazes were unimpaired. The full-length brain dystrophin therefore appears to play a role during acquisition of associative learning as well as in general processes involved in memory consolidation, but no overt involvement in working memory and/or executive functions could be demonstrated in spatial learning tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. GRAF1 deficiency blunts sarcolemmal injury repair and exacerbates cardiac and skeletal muscle pathology in dystrophin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Kaitlin C; O'Neill, Thomas J; Cheng, Zhaokang; Dee, Rachel; Demonbreun, Alexis R; Li, Jianbin; Xiao, Xiao; McNally, Elizabeth M; Mack, Christopher P; Taylor, Joan M

    2015-01-01

    The plasma membranes of striated muscle cells are particularly susceptible to rupture as they endure significant mechanical stress and strain during muscle contraction, and studies have shown that defects in membrane repair can contribute to the progression of muscular dystrophy. The synaptotagmin-related protein, dysferlin, has been implicated in mediating rapid membrane repair through its ability to direct intracellular vesicles to sites of membrane injury. However, further work is required to identify the precise molecular mechanisms that govern dysferlin targeting and membrane repair. We previously showed that the bin-amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR)-pleckstrin homology (PH) domain containing Rho-GAP GTPase regulator associated with focal adhesion kinase-1 (GRAF1) was dynamically recruited to the tips of fusing myoblasts wherein it promoted membrane merging by facilitating ferlin-dependent capturing of intracellular vesicles. Because acute membrane repair responses involve similar vesicle trafficking complexes/events and because our prior studies in GRAF1-deficient tadpoles revealed a putative role for GRAF1 in maintaining muscle membrane integrity, we postulated that GRAF1 might also play an important role in facilitating dysferlin-dependent plasma membrane repair. We used an in vitro laser-injury model to test whether GRAF1 was necessary for efficient muscle membrane repair. We also generated dystrophin/GRAF1 doubledeficient mice by breeding mdx mice with GRAF1 hypomorphic mice. Evans blue dye uptake and extensive morphometric analyses were used to assess sarcolemmal integrity and related pathologies in cardiac and skeletal muscles isolated from these mice. Herein, we show that GRAF1 is dynamically recruited to damaged skeletal and cardiac muscle plasma membranes and that GRAF1-depleted muscle cells have reduced membrane healing abilities. Moreover, we show that dystrophin depletion exacerbated muscle damage in GRAF1-deficient mice and that mice with dystrophin/GRAF1 double deficiency phenocopied the severe muscle pathologies observed in dystrophin/dysferlin-double null mice. Consistent with a model that GRAF1 facilitates dysferlin-dependent membrane patching, we found that GRAF1 associates with and regulates plasma membrane deposition of dysferlin. Overall, our work indicates that GRAF1 facilitates dysferlin-dependent membrane repair following acute muscle injury. These findings indicate that GRAF1 might play a role in the phenotypic variation and pathological progression of cardiac and skeletal muscle degeneration in muscular dystrophy patients.

  16. Myofiber-specific TEAD1 overexpression drives satellite cell hyperplasia and counters pathological effects of dystrophin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Sheryl; Kim, Ju-Ryoung; Low, SiewHui; Tsika, Richard W; Lepper, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    When unperturbed, somatic stem cells are poised to affect immediate tissue restoration upon trauma. Yet, little is known regarding the mechanistic basis controlling initial and homeostatic ‘scaling’ of stem cell pool sizes relative to their target tissues for effective regeneration. Here, we show that TEAD1-expressing skeletal muscle of transgenic mice features a dramatic hyperplasia of muscle stem cells (i.e. satellite cells, SCs) but surprisingly without affecting muscle tissue size. Super-numeral SCs attain a ‘normal’ quiescent state, accelerate regeneration, and maintain regenerative capacity over several injury-induced regeneration bouts. In dystrophic muscle, the TEAD1 transgene also ameliorated the pathology. We further demonstrate that hyperplastic SCs accumulate non-cell-autonomously via signal(s) from the TEAD1-expressing myofiber, suggesting that myofiber-specific TEAD1 overexpression activates a physiological signaling pathway(s) that determines initial and homeostatic SC pool size. We propose that TEAD1 and its downstream effectors are medically relevant targets for enhancing muscle regeneration and ameliorating muscle pathology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15461.001 PMID:27725085

  17. King and King: Learning to Treat Others Royally Through Diversity Education

    OpenAIRE

    Dube', Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Of the hate crimes reported to the FBI in 2007, 16.6% were the result of a sexual orientation bias. In the wake of horrific hate crimes such as the shooting and death of Lawrence King earlier this year, killed because of his sexual orientation, and the murder of Matthew Shepard ten years ago, homophobia and its effects must be addressed. A proposed solution to the problem is mandatory diversity education in public schools, with no parental opt out.

  18. Oedipus king: preparing man for the polis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquim Pereira Melo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Having Sophoclean play Oedipus King as a frame of reference, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the educative proposal conceived to the Greek Man as preparation for life in the polis. Although not intentionally, Sophocles pointed out an ideal of Man which, in his perspective, would fulfill Greek societal demands of that time. Such society was divided between myth and rationality and, as a result, Man found Himself in conflict and lacking direction for His life. Given that, Oedipus’ character represented the ideal behavior of that society, and it also made it possible for citizens to reflect and to discuss social, economic and political transformations taking place at that period. Thus Sophocles came up with a hero who was an educational model and a citizen’s as well. Furthermore, such hero differed from that one of the archaic Greek thought.

  19. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Urban: Golden King Crab tagging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is comprised of the records of individual male golden king crab (GKC) tagged at the Kodiak Laboratory. Initial size, shell condition and missing limbs was...

  20. 78 FR 59414 - Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; King... prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Federal Highway Administration is issuing this notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed...

  1. The King-Denborough syndrome in the paediatric patient.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe the management of two children with a diagnosis of King Denborough syndrome. ... the anaesthetic management of two cases of KDS presenting for sur- .... al suggest that the syndrome represents a phenotype that is common to.

  2. The Influence of Martin Luther King on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Frederick D.

    1973-01-01

    In a sense, Martin Luther King was an educator whose students composed citizens of the United States, whose classroom encompassed the entire country, and whose course contents and lesson plans included civil rights, race relations, human rights, and love. (Author)

  3. Reflections on Cambridge: John Maynard Keynes at King's College Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2012-01-01

    .mp4 video file The economist John Maynard Keynes spent much of his life in Cambridge, connected to King's College. Alan Macfarlane reflects on a few aspects of his life and work. Filmed by Xu Bei in 2010

  4. Den radikale Kings skandinaviske drøm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    I dag forgudes Martin Luther King for sin racemæssige vision. Derimod aner de fleste amerikanere ikke noget om hans økonomiske ideer, og hvis de gjorde, ville mange af dem utvivlsomt affeje dem som alt for radikale......I dag forgudes Martin Luther King for sin racemæssige vision. Derimod aner de fleste amerikanere ikke noget om hans økonomiske ideer, og hvis de gjorde, ville mange af dem utvivlsomt affeje dem som alt for radikale...

  5. Human resources managers as custodians of the King III code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank de Beer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to perform an exploratory study on the knowledge and understanding of the King III code among Human Resources (HR managers in South African companies. The King III code is a comprehensive international corporate governance regime which addresses the financial, social, ethical and environmental practices of organisations. HR management plays a role in managing corporate governance by using the King III code as a guideline. The main research questions were: Does HR management know, understand, apply, and have the ability to use the King III code in terms of ethical decision-making? What role does HR management play in corporate governance? A random sample of available HR managers, senior HR consultants and HR directors was taken and semi-structured interviews were conducted. The results indicated that the respondents had no in-depth knowledge of the King III code. They did not fully understand the King III code and its implications nor did they use it to ensure ethical management. The themes most emphasised by the participants were: culture, reward and remuneration, policies and procedures and performance management. The participants emphasised the importance of these items  and HR’s role in managing them.

  6. King Saul’s mysterious malady

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian P. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the ‘illness’ of King Saul (as narrated in the Old Testament. The ‘anti-Saul narrative’ states that ‘God’s spirit had left Saul’ and ‘an evil one had taken its place’ (1 Sm 16:14; also cf. e.g. of his behaviour in 1 Sm 19:24; 1 Sm 18:28−29. The latter years of Saul’s reign were marred by his pre-occupation with David’s growing popularity. He eventually became mentally unstable and suspected everyone of plotting against him. Saul’s battle against the Ammonites, as well as his last battle against the Philistines at Mount Gilboa, was fraught with difficulty. It is postulated that Saul experienced epileptic-like fits and assumedly suffered from some kind of ‘depression’ as a result of post-traumatic stress disorder (cf. 1 Sm 18:9; 1 Sm 18:28, 29; 1 Sm 19:24. This was possibly exacerbated by the enemy herem principle. Talmudic and other perspectives were also provided in the article where possible.

  7. Direct somatic embryogenesis in Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Collado

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King is difficult to be propagated by tissue culture and there is not an efficient system via organogenesis, due to problems of microbial contamination, phenolic oxidation and death of tissue in the phase of in vitro establishment of explants. In order to establish a protocol for obtaining somatic embryos, zygotic embryos were used as initial plant material. Three combinations of 2,4-D with kinetin were studied, to obtain the formation of somatic embryos. After six weeks of culture, the number of explants with high and low somatic embryogenesis frequency were determined. So that the somatic embryos in globular stage reach the final stages of torpedo and cotyledonal, these were placed in three treatments with 6-BAP (0.2, 0.4 y 0.6 mg.l-1. The number of somatic embryos that reached the torpedo and cotyledonal stages were evaluated after 30 days of culture. Results demonstrated that direct somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos is obtained in the culture medium composed by MS salts with 4.0 mg.l-1 of 2,4-D and 1.0 mg.l-1 of kinetin. Higher percentage of somatic embryos in cotiledonal stage (91.7 %, was obtained with 0.4 mg.l-1 of 6-BAP. Key word: forestry, growth regulator, mahogany, somatic embryo, tissue culture

  8. Thermal characteristics of soil and water during summer at King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Lee, J. Y.; Yoon, H.

    2016-12-01

    Soil temperatures, water temperatures, and weather parameters were monitored at a variety of locations in the vicinity of King Sejong station, King George Island, Antarctica, during summer 2010-2011. Thermal characteristics of soil and water were analysed using time-series analyses, apparent thermal diffusivity (ATD), and active layer thickness. The temperatures of pond water and nearby seawater showed the distinctive diurnal variations and correlated strongly with solar radiation (r = 0.411-0.797). Soil temperature (0.1-0.3 m depth) also showed diurnal fluctuations that decreased with depth and were directly linked to air temperature (r = 0.513-0.783) rather than to solar radiation; correlation decreased with depth and the time lag in the response increased by 2-3 hours per 0.1 m of soil depth. Owing to the lack of snow cover, summertime soil temperature was not decoupled from air temperature. Estimated ATD was between 0.022 and 29.209 mm2/sec, showed temporal and spatial variations, and correlated strongly with soil moisture content. The maximum estimated active layer thickness in the study area was a 41-70 cm, which is consistent with values reported in the previous work.

  9. The 'Byzantinisms' of king Stefan Radoslav

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Ljubomir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The life-style and politics of Stefan Radoslav bear the mark of activities that indicated his special attachment to the Byzantine world. These activities were prompted by a combination of ideological ambitions and political reality, but they were not in keeping with the modest achievements of Radoslav's reign. Moreover, most of these activities belong to the time when Radoslav was heir to the throne. There is no doubt that Stefan Nemanjić the Grand Zhupan and subsequently the first crowned king, had exclusive connections with the Byzantine dynasty of the Angeloi, especially with the emperor Alexios III (1195-1203. In that context, the donor's inscription in the basic ring of the dome in the Church of the Mother of God in Studenica (1208, in which his father Stefan Nemanja, is mentioned as (former 'veleslavni gospodin vse srbske zemlje veli(ki župan i svat cara grčkog kir Alesija', is quite indicative. This ideological construction would acquire a contour in reality by means of a political marriage with one of the female offspring of Angeloi lineage, which would represent an alternative solution to Stefan's failed marriage with Eudocia, daughter of the emperor Alexios. Instead, several years elapsed in waging war with the Latins, the Bulgarians and the State of Epiros. However, efforts to create firmer, more tangible ties with the Angeloi dynasty from Epiros were not forgotten. Therefore, the Serbian monarch brought his eldest son Radoslav into play, intending to have him act as a link with the Angeloi bloodline. As a result of all this, the final attempt to have Radoslav become the husband of a princess from the Angelos dynasty is not surprising. At the end of 1219 or the beginning of 1220, he married Anna Doukaina, the daughter of the epirotic ruler Theodore I Angelos Doukas Komnenos, which at that point represented a marriage connection of the highest possible level between two ruling houses. Stefan's insistence on Serbia acquiring a stake

  10. Water resources of King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Donald; Bingham, J.W.; Madison, R.J.; Williams, R.

    1968-01-01

    Although the total supply of water in King County is large, water problems are inevitable because of the large and rapidly expanding population. The county contains a third of the 3 million people in Washington, most of the population being concentrated in the Seattle metropolitan area. King County includes parts of two major physiographic features: the western area is part of the Puget Sound Lowland, and the eastern area is part of the Cascade Range. In these two areas, the terrain, weather, and natural resources (including water) contrast markedly. Average annual precipitation in the county is about 80 inches, ranging from about 30 inches near Puget Sound to more than 150 inches in parts of the Cascades. Annual evapotranspiration is estimated to range from 15 to 24 inches. Average annual runoff ranges from about 15 inches in the lowlands to more than 100 inches in the mountains. Most of the streamflow is in the major basins of the county--the Green-Duwamish, Lake Washington, and Snoqualmie basins. The largest of these is the Snoqualmie River basin (693 square miles), where average annual runoff during the period 1931-60 was about 79 inches. During the same period, annual runoff in the Lake Washington basin ( 607 square miles) averaged about 32 inches, and in the Green-Duwamish River basin (483 square miles), about 46 inches. Seasonal runoff is generally characterized by several high-flow periods in the winter, medium flows in the spring, and sustained low flows in the summer and fall. When floods occur in the county they come almost exclusively between October and March. The threat of flood damage is greatest on the flood plaits of the larger rivers, but in the Green-Duwamish Valley the threat was greatly reduced with the completion of Howard A. Hanson Dam in 1962. In the Snoqualmie River basin, where no such dam exists, the potential damage from a major flood increases each year as additional land is developed in the Snoqualmie Valley. 0nly moderate amounts of

  11. Correction to Kreuzbauer, King, and Basu (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Reports an error in "The Mind in the Object-Psychological Valuation of Materialized Human Expression" by Robert Kreuzbauer, Dan King and Shankha Basu (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Advanced Online Publication, Jun 15, 2015, np). In the article the labels on the X-axis of Figure 1 "Remove Variance" and "Preserve Variance" should be switched. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-26264-001.) Symbolic material objects such as art or certain artifacts (e.g., fine pottery, jewelry) share one common element: The combination of generating an expression, and the materialization of this expression in the object. This explains why people place a much greater value on handmade over machine-made objects, and originals over duplicates. We show that this mechanism occurs when a material object's symbolic property is salient and when the creator (artist or craftsman) is perceived to have agency control over the 1-to-1 materialized expression in the object. Coactivation of these 2 factors causes the object to be perceived as having high value because it is seen as the embodied representation of the creator's unique personal expression. In 6 experiments, subjects rated objects in various object categories, which varied on the type of object property (symbolic, functional, aesthetic), the production procedure (handmade, machine-made, analog, digital) and the origin of the symbolic information (person or software). The studies showed that the proposed mechanism applies to symbolic, but not to functional or aesthetic material objects. Furthermore, they show that this specific form of symbolic object valuation could not be explained by various other related psychological theories (e.g., uniqueness, scarcity, physical touching, creative performance). Our research provides a universal framework that identifies a core mechanism for explaining judgments of value for one of our most uniquely human symbolic object categories. (c) 2015 APA, all

  12. Primary hyperparathyroidism: King Khalid University Hospital experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouda, Mona A.

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence, mode of presentationand management of primary hyperparathyroidism in one of the major hospitalsin Saudi Arabia. This was a retrospective analysis of 24 cases of primaryhyperparathyroidism comprising of 21 females and three males, who were seenat King Khalid University Hospital over a period of 16 years from 1982 untilDecember 1997. The prevalence of disease was estimated to be estimated to be11.34 per 100,000 hospital population. The majority of patients presentedwith musculoskeletal complaints (62%-67%) and/or renal complications were(58%). Hyperclacemia was seen in 92% of the cases. Serum PTH was availablefor 21 patients and 20 had significantly elevated levels. Fifty percent ofthe patients had features of hyperparathyroid bone disease on plane x-ray,while 79% showed osteopenia of the femoral neck and dual x-rayabsorptiometry, and almost all the patients had lumbar osteopenia. Fiftypercent of the patients had features of metabolic bone disease on bone scan.Thallium -technetium subtraction studies proved to be the most reliable tool,with 83% sensitivity of 55%. CT scan of the neck was attempted in only inseven patients (29%), with a sensitivity of 86%. Twenty-one patients (87.5%)underwent surgical exploration and removal of the parathyroid adenoma. Singleparathyroid adenoma was identified in 85% of the cases, 5% had multipleadenomas and 5% had hyperplasia of the parathyroid gland. Our results showedthat primary hyperparathyroidism is not rare disease in Saudi Arabia. It hastendency for late presentation with complications. We believe that routinescreening for calcium, and early identification of such cases, are warrantedto reduce the morbidity of this easily treatable disorder. (author)

  13. C. Judson King of UC Berkeley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prausnitz, John

    2005-06-01

    In the middle of the UC Berkeley campus, next to the Main Library, South Hall is the last surviving building from the original campus, founded about 135 years ago. A tiny tree-shaded appendix to this venerated classical building houses Berkeley's Center for Studies in Higher Education, directed by C. Judson King, former Provost and Senior Vice President--Academic Affairs of the ten-campus University of California and long-time Professor of Chemical Engineering at Berkeley. Jud came to Berkeley in 1963 as assistant professor of chemical engineering, following receipt of a doctor's degree from MIT and a subsequent short appointment as director of the MIT chemical engineering practice school station at what was then Esso (now Exxon) in New Jersey. His undergraduate degree is from Yale. Starting with his MIT doctoral dissertation on gas absorption, Jud has devoted much of his professional career to separation processes. His teaching and research activities have been primarily concerned with separation of mixtures with emphasis on liquid-liquid extraction and drying. As a consultant to Procter and Gamble, he contributed to the technology of making instant coffee. His life-long activities in hiking and camping stimulated Jud's interest in the manufacture of freeze-dried foods (e.g. turkey meat) to minimize the weight of his hiking back-pack. Jud is internationally known not only for his many research publications but even more, for his acclaimed textbook ''Separation Processses'' (McGraw-Hill, second edition 1980) that is used in standard chemical engineering courses in the US and abroad.

  14. [A study of treatise on medicine by King Sejo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Im-kyung; Hwang, Sang-lk

    2003-12-01

    This paper explores historical backgrounds and contents of Treatise on Medicine written by King Sejo (r. 1455-1468) including his views on traditional medicine and pharmacy in the early Chosen period. The Treatise declared by King Sejo in 1463 has been considered as an important and unique manual of medicine because it was the exclusive example written by the king of Chosen. It was the King Sejo' s era when the medical milieu in both social and medical aspects was highly encouraged thanks to the previous achievements by King Sejong the Great (r.1418-1450). King Sejo, in particular, who was much interested in practical learning called 'Miscellaneous Studies', emphasized on court medicine. His writing can be understood in such historical frame. Another reason why he wrote the Treatise can be said that he felt necessary for establishing the medical ethic codes for inefficient court medicine-officials. In personal background, he tried to find available remedies since he had been suffered from some chronic diseases. The contents of the Treatise can be broadly fallen to the clinical and ethical aspects. In the former one, the Treatise focuses on treatment without hesitation through the sharp and exact diagnosis by medical doctors. In the latter one, eight categories of medical doctors are discussed according to their moral degrees: sim'eui, sik'eui, yak'eui, hon'eui, kwang eui, mang'eui, sa'eui, and sal'eui. Finally, musim' ji-eui was supplemented. Among them, sal'eui, medicine-official lacking both medical ability and ethical attitude, was classified as the lowest degree; sim'eui, medicine-official sincerely making his all efforts for patients, was thought to be a paragon of medical morality. In conclusion, the Treatise on Medicine by King Sejo played an important role as a manual for the principle of medical practice and for the instruction to enhance ethical attitude among medicine-officials.

  15. Rama in the royal title of the Hungarian kings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Tibor D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The region (župa of Rama was enlisted in the official title of the Hungarian kings around 1138, as it is known from an official document. The exact answer to the question under which circumstances it happened has never been reached. It is most probable that Rama was not just other name for Bosnia as it was proposed in historiography, neither was a part of Bosnia conquered by military action of the Hungarian king around 1135. Having in mind that Rama was a part of the principality of Raška during the Early Middle Ages, it is quite possible that Rama became part of the official title of the Hungarian kings through some direct connections between ruling families of Hungary and Raška. The most probable answer could be reached through the examination of these relations. Namely, a daughter of Raška's župan, Uroš I, Helena, was married to the Hungarian crown prince Bela in 1129, when Rama was, most probably, part of Helena's dowry. When the crown prince became king of Hungary in 1131, Rama was included in his royal title. Later on during the Middle Ages Rama became part of Bosnia giving ground to the Hungarian kings to claim whole Bosnia as their heritage. .

  16. Sulfur and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Sulfate in the Fresh Water, King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.; Lee, I.; Lee, J.; Park, B.; Mayer, B.; Kaufman, A. J.; Park, S.; Kim, G.; Lee, K.

    2008-12-01

    Isotopic compositions of sulfur (δ34S) and oxygen (δ18O) were measured for the sulfate of the fresh water near the King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica. Sejong station is located in the Barton peninsular of the King George Island. The geology around King Sejong station mainly composed of basalt-andesite, quart monzodiorite, and granodiorite. Lapilli tuff, conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone occur along the southern and eastern shore of the Barton peninsula. Lapilli tuff also occurs on the highland located on southeastern part of the Barton peninsula. The δ34S values of sulfate extracted from fresh water samples at King Sejong Station range from 13.7 to 16.3 per mil excluding 1 sample. These sulfur values are very narrow in their range compared with those from anthropogenic sources. These sulfur values are 5 to 7 per mil lower than those of typical present seawater. Considering the rocks occurring near the King Sejong station, these sulfur isotopic values do not seem to be related to any evaporites of certain age. In Antarctic region the natural source of sulfate dissolved in water could be originated from marine biogenic source (DMS), sea-salt, volcanic source, or other continental sources. Most of the δ34S values of sulfate at King Sejong station seems to indicate the dominance of marine biogenic origin for the source of sulfur. The δ18O values of sulfate extracted from fresh water samples at King Sejong Station range from 1.9 to 6.4 per mil excluding 1 sample. These oxygen isotope values are lower than those of the sulfate in the present seawater by 6 per mil. However, both sulfur and oxygen isotope values strongly represent the influence of the seawater sulfate. One sample have 2.6 and -1.1 per mil in its δ34S and δ18O values, respectively, that are quite different from the isotopic values of other samples. This sample was collected in the highland far from the King Sejong station. Therefore this sample might reflect the composition of

  17. Black swans and dragon kings: A unified model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-09-01

    The term “black swan” is a metaphor for outlier events whose statistics are characterized by Pareto's Law and by Zipf's Law; namely, statistics governed by power-law tails. The term “dragon king” is a metaphor for a singular outlier event which, in comparison with all other outlier events, is in a league of its own. As an illustrative example consider the wealth of a family that is sampled at random from a medieval society: the nobility constitutes the black-swan category, and the royal family constitutes the dragon-king category. In this paper we present and analyze a dynamical model that generates, universally and jointly, black swans and dragon kings. According to this model, growing from the microscopic scale to the macroscopic scale, black swans and dragon kings emerge together and invariantly with respect to initial conditions.

  18. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. as Spiritual Leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pierce

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s spiritual leadership through his “I Have a Dream” speech. The paper explores the three characteristics of spiritual leadership as posed by Fry’s (2003 spiritual leadership theory: vision, hope/faith and altruistic love. The research draws upon these characteristics through qualitative content analysis of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech to illustrate Dr. King’s leadership as that of a spiritual leader. The research advances the spiritual leadership theory by establishing Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. as a spiritual leader. Through the illustration of Dr. King’s spiritual leadership, the characteristics of a spiritual leader are given tangible understanding.

  19. King's theory of goal attainment: exploring functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Billy A

    2015-04-01

    Imogene King's Theory of Goal Attainment provides a schema for nurses interested in functional status. However, the lack of a uniform definition for functional status has hindered development of a concise understanding of this phenomenon. Functional status is particularly important to nurses who are concerned with the safety and wellbeing of clients. With healthcare's increased focus on client-family-centered care it is important to develop innovative approaches for evaluating functional status that incorporate the client-family perspective. King's focus on mutual decision-making is an underutilized resource that can provide great insight into the study and understanding of functional status. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. The leaders King Sverre and King Haakon : analysis of King Sverre Sigurdsson and King Haakon Haakonsson in Sverris Saga and Haakonar Saga Haakonarsonar through Max Weber's and John Gardner's models

    OpenAIRE

    Osornio, Ismael Jose Duran

    2004-01-01

    The leadership of the Norwegian Kings during the Medieval ‘Civil War’ plays a prominent part in social, political and economical life in high Medieval Norway. The objective of the present dissertation discusses how King Sverre Sigurdsson (1177-1202) and Haakon Haakonsson (1217-1263) are depicted in their Sagas. The work will be focus on four analytical tools: 1. The Kings’ Charisma; 2. The Kings’ Personal Abilities; 3. The Kings’ Bureaucracy; 4. The King’s closest Fellows. The thesis goal wil...

  1. Local seismic activity monitored at King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Lee,Duk Kee; Kim,Yea Dong; Nam,Sang Heon; Jin,Young Keun

    1998-01-01

    Source location estimation from single station earthquake data collected at King Sejong Station (62°13'3l"N, 58°47'07"W) from 1995 to 1996 provides seismic activity around King Sejong Station. Analysis of local events, less than 1.5°in angular epicentral distance, finds epicenters located near the Shackleton Fracture Zone, the South Shetland Platform, Deception Island, and North Bransfield Basin. Estimated magnitudes range from 2.2 to 4.5 on the Richter scale, averaging 4.0 in North Bransfiel...

  2. 45 King: A Story of the Southern Home

    OpenAIRE

    Deluca, Paul Matthew Webb

    2014-01-01

    The house at 45 King St. in Charleston, South Carolina is more than a home. It is a story of the home. A story told through history, through a vision exhibited in architectural drawings, and through the social heritage closest to my heart. 45 King is a story for the South; the story of its grandeur, its climate, its natural beauty, its hospitality, its comfort, and its veils. It is a story that was told yesterday and one that is still told today. Like an oral history, the telling of it may...

  3. Dragon-Kings, Black-Swans and Prediction (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme fluctuations or events are often associated with power law statistics. Indeed, it is a popular belief that "wild randomness'' is deeply associated with distributions with power law tails characterized by small exponents. In other words, power law tails are often seen as the epitome of extreme events (the "Black Swan'' story). Here, we document in very different systems that there is life beyond power law tails: power laws can be superseded by "dragon-kings'', monster events that occur beyond (or changing) the power law tail. Dragon-kings reveal hidden mechanisms that are only transiently active and that amplify the normal fluctuations (often described by the power laws of the normal regime). The goal of this lecture is to catalyze the interest of the community of geophysicists across all fields of geosciences so that the "invisible gorilla" fallacy may be avoided. Our own research illustrates that new statistics or representation of data are often necessary to identify dragon-kings, with strategies guided by the underlying mechanisms. Paradoxically, the monsters may be ignored or hidden by the use of inappropriate analysis or statistical tools that amount to cut a mamooth in small pieces, so as to lead to the incorrect belief that only mice exist. In order to stimulate further research, we will document and discuss the dragon-king phenomenon on the statistics of financial losses, economic geography, hydrodynamic turbulence, mechanical ruptures, avalanches in complex heterogeneous media, earthquakes, and epileptic seizures. The special status of dragon-kings open a new research program on their predictability, based on the fact that they belong to a different class of their own and express specific mechanisms amplifying the normal dynamics via positive feedbacks. We will present evidence of these claims for the predictions of material rupture, financial crashes and epileptic seizures. As a bonus, a few remarks will be offered at the end on how the dragon-king

  4. An Uncommon Complication with a Supraglottic Airway: The King LT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sara; Cherian, Verghese T; Greco, Katherine; Mets, Elbert; Budde, Arne

    2016-02-15

    General anesthesia was administered in an 18-year-old man for removal of hardware from his right knee using a King Laryngeal Tube supraglottic airway. An hour after extubation, he reported inability to swallow with no respiratory distress. Examination showed an edematous uvula, which took 3 days to subside with anti-inflammatory medication. During the positioning of the King Laryngeal Tube, it was pulled back to ensure adequate ventilation. The inflated cuff could have dragged the uvula and folded it on itself, leading to venous congestion and edema.

  5. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data from: Embryo development in golden king crab, Lithodes aequispina.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data from this study, describes embryo development in Golden king crab, Lithodes aequispinus. Six female multiparous golden king crab were captured from the...

  6. Martin Luther King Jr. contest winning posters to be displayed in downtown Blacksburg

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon, Kelly Baker

    2010-01-01

    Each year as part of the Martin Luther King Jr. celebration at Virginia Tech area kindergarten through 12th grade students are invited to participate in the annual Martin Luther King Jr. poster contest.

  7. Matthew's Messianic Shepherd-king: In search of “the lost sheep of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    the Messianic Shepherd-King expectation with its attending expectations for territorial ... Messianic Shepherd-King: In Search of the Lost Sheep of the House of Israel. September. 2007. Berlin: De Gruyter. ...... Exile in the early. Persian Period”.

  8. 3 CFR 8340 - Proclamation 8340 of January 15, 2009. Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Proclamation 8340 of January 15, 2009 Proc. 8340 Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2009By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On the Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, we... Constitution and laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim January 19, 2009, as the Martin Luther King, Jr...

  9. 75 FR 3839 - Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... Part III The President Proclamation 8473--Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 2010 Proclamation 8474--Religious Freedom Day, 2010 Notice of January 20, 2010--Continuation of the National... only by the power of his words, which still call on us to perfect those sacred ideals enshrined in our...

  10. International education, the internet, and the Three Kings experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.; Davies, J.; Berg-Cross, L.; Copier, L.; Asby, A.

    2004-01-01

    The current project linked students in three universities in a guided discussion of the movie, Three Kings. The goals were to assess the viability of having students from three different courses, in three different universities, in three different countries find common ground to have intellectual

  11. Littoral Encounters : The Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobecki, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    1. III * Later Medieval: Excluding Chaucer -- Brown et al., 10.1093 ... ... between the Saracens and the londisse men allied to the protagonist (' Littoral Encounters: the Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn', Al-Mas a ... www.ywes.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/man0092 2.Murray, Alan V.

  12. Shame, recognition and love in Shakespeare’s 'King Lear'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes Sanchez, Alba

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the experience of shame and its connections to recognition and love as manifested in Shakespeare’s King Lear. My main focus in this paper is the ethical relevance of shame. I start from Sartre’s account of shame in Being and Nothingness, and I consider Webber’s attempt...

  13. Evaluation of medical consultation letters at King Fahd Hospital, Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of medical consultation letters at King Fahd Hospital, Al Hufuf, Saudi Arabia. Hamed Abd Allah Al Wadaani, Magdy Hassan Balaha. Abstract. Background: In surgical wards, it is of paramount importance to communicate with other health care providers, mostly physicians, referring patients to them for their ...

  14. The Institute of Epileptology of King's College, University of London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, E H

    1995-01-01

    The Institute of Epileptology of King's College, London has arisen from need and from opportunity. The need is due to the relative neglect nationally and internationally of the most common serious brain disorder with important physical, psychological, and social complications. The relative neglect is reflected in services, research, charitable donations, public profile, and stigma and in a serious lack of professional education. The opportunity arose because of the existence in several medical institutions at Denmark Hill, London, of a group of medical and related colleagues with a special interest covering almost every aspect of this multidisciplinary disorder who agreed to combine their expertise in this initiative. The idea was born and developed in 1991-1992 and was supported by all the parent institutions: The Maudsley and King's College Hospitals, St. Piers Lingfield, The Institute of Psychiatry, King's College School of Medicine and Dentistry, and the School of Life, Basic Medical and Health Sciences, all under the umbrella of King's College, University of London. Further stimulus and help came from a group of dedicated supporters in private and public life. There are three strands to this initiative: (a) a charity, The Fund for Epilepsy; (b) the clinical Centre for Epilepsy, which was formally opened at the Maudsley Hospital in July 1994; and (c) the academic Institute of Epileptology for research and teaching, which was launched on November 15, 1994.

  15. Ornamental colors reveal age in the king penguin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Le Bohec, Celine; Nolan, Paul M.; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Le Maho, Yvon; Komdeur, Jan; Jouventin, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether delayed plumage maturation occurred in king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Therefore we examined the relationships between age and sex on spectral properties and size of two colored plumage patches and a UV-reflective beak spot, using known-age cohorts. Unlike the

  16. Evolution of king crabs from hermit crab ancestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C. W.; Blackstone, N. W.; Buss, L. W.

    1992-02-01

    KING crabs (Family Lithodidae) are among the world's largest arthropods, having a crab-like morphology and a strongly calcified exoskeleton1-6. The hermit crabs, by contrast, have depended on gastropod shells for protection for over 150 million years5,7. Shell-living has constrained the morphological evolution of hermit crabs by requiring a decalcified asymmetrical abdomen capable of coiling into gastropod shells and by preventing crabs from growing past the size of the largest available shells1-6. Whereas reduction in shell-living and acquisition of a crab-like morphology (carcinization) has taken place independently in several hermit crab lineages, and most dramatically in king crabs1-6, the rate at which this process has occurred was entirely unknown2,7. We present molecular evidence that king crabs are not only descended from hermit crabs, but are nested within the hermit crab genus Pagurus. We estimate that loss of the shell-living habit and the complete carcinization of king crabs has taken between 13 and 25 million years.

  17. The King-Denborough syndrome in the paediatric patient. | Maharaj ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe the management of two children with a diagnosis of King Denborough syndrome. The first case is that of a 23-month-old term male infant requiring repair of a cleft palate. After flushing the anaesthetic machine, infusions of remifentanil at 0.25 μ/kg/min and propofol at 12 mg/kg/hr were commenced. These were ...

  18. Contrapuntal Significations in Wole Soyinka's Death and the King's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wole Soyinka's Death and the King's Horseman has been widely acclaimed as a great example of African tragedy. It is, in fact, the dramatic aggregation of Soyinka's treatise in Myth, Literature and the African World. Hence, the play is most often 'read' in the lights of its 'difference' from western notions of the tragic, the place ...

  19. Validation of the King's Health Questionnaire for South Africa in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To validate the King's Health Questionnaire for urinary incontinence in the local South African English, Afrikaans and isiXhosa female community. Design. A cohort analytical study. Setting and subjects. The study utilised a sample of convenience. Women with urinary incontinence attending the gynaecology clinic ...

  20. Articulating nurse practitioner practice using King's theory of goal attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon-Demare, Kathleen; MacDonald, Jane; Gregory, David M; Katz, Alan; Halas, Gayle

    2015-11-01

    To further understand the interactions between nurse practitioners (NPs) and patients, King's nursing theory of goal attainment was applied as the conceptual framework to describe the interactions between NPs and patients in the primary care setting. Six dyads of NPs and their patients were video- and audio-taped over three consecutive clinic visits. For the purposes of this arm of the study, the audio-taped interactions were transcribed and then coded using King's concepts in her theory of goal attainment. King's theory was applicable to describe NP practice. King's concepts and processes of nurse-patient interactions, such as disturbances, mutual goal setting, and transactions, were observed in NP-patient interactions. Disturbances during clinical encounters were essential in the progression toward goal attainment. Elements, such as social exchange, symptom reporting, role explanation, and information around clinical processes facilitated relationship building. NPs as practitioners need to be reflective of their own practice, embrace disturbances in the clinical encounter, and attend to these as opportunities for mutual goal setting. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  1. Mutual mate choice for olorful traits in King Penguins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, Paul M.; Dobson, F. Stephen; Nicolaus, Marion; Karels, Tim J.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Jouventin, Pierre

    While studies of mate choice based on male color pattern are ubiquitous, studies of mate choice based on ornamental color traits in sexually monomorphic species are less common. We conducted manipulative field experiments on two color ornaments of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), the size of

  2. Growth, chemical components and ensiling characteristics of king ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-08-09

    Aug 9, 2012 ... Wilting had different effects on the 1st cutting and 3rd cutting silages in pH value and NH3-N content, ... On February 16, 2008, king grass was planted with seed stem on ... Home Electrical Appliance Company Limited, Hongkong, China). ... The plant height and the yield from the first cutting to fourth cutting.

  3. Fish for peasants and kings - a Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mette Svart

    2011-01-01

    Fish played an important role in medieval Europe. It formed the basis of a food culture influenced by Catholicism and was a central commodity in the national and international network of trade. Fish of all sorts held a prominent position on the dining tables of peasants as well as kings. Househol...

  4. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae) is moderate sized multipurpose hard wood tree of dry deciduous forests with drooping branches and yellow to brownish-yellow flowers. it is endemic to Rajasthan and is considered to be a threatened tree of the region due to over exploitation for timber ...

  5. Moessbauer Study of Sedimentary Rocks from King George Island, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmann, E.; Souza, P. A. de; Schuch, L. A.; Oliveira, A. C. de; Garg, R.; Garg, V. K.

    2002-01-01

    The separation of continents at the periphery of Antarctica occurred about 180 ma ago due to volcanic activity. Geological faults can be very important in the study of geological occurrences. Such geological faults occur across the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, and have been studied in detail previously. Controversial statements were given in earlier works, based on conventional geological investigations, as to whether altered 'Jurassic' and unaltered Tertiary rocks were separated by a major fault which goes across the Admiralty Bay, or whether there is no difference in the alteration of the rocks located at either side of the fault. The aim of our work is to investigate rock samples from the Admiralty Bay of King George Island, Antarctica, from different locations on both sides of the geological fault. For these investigations 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry were used. We have found that the phase composition, and the iron distribution among the crystallographic sites of iron-bearing minerals, are characteristic of the location of the rock samples from the Admiralty Bay of King George Island. There is a much higher amount of iron oxides in the rocks from the south part of the geological fault than in the north part. The differences in the mineral composition and iron distribution showed that the rocks in the southern part of the geological fault of King George Island are significantly altered compared to the rocks in the northern part. Our present results support and complement well the results obtained earlier on soils from King George Island.

  6. Fat King Penguins Are Less Steady on Their Feet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid S T Willener

    Full Text Available Returning to the shore after a feeding sojourn at sea, king penguins often undertake a relatively long terrestrial journey to the breeding colony carrying a heavy, mostly frontal, accumulation of fat along with food in the stomach for chick-provisioning. There they must survive a fasting period of up to a month in duration, during which their complete reliance on endogenous energy stores results in a dramatic loss in body mass. Our aim was to determine if the king penguin's walking gait changes with variations in body mass. We investigated this by walking king penguins on a treadmill while instrumented with an acceleration data logger. The stride frequency, dynamic body acceleration (DBA and posture of fat (pre-fasting; 13.2 kg and slim (post fasting; 11 kg king penguins were assessed while they walked at the same speed (1.4 km/h on a treadmill. Paired statistical tests indicated no evidence for a difference in dynamic body acceleration or stride frequency between the two body masses however there was substantially less variability in both leaning angle and the leaning amplitude of the body when the birds were slimmer. Furthermore, there was some evidence that the slimmer birds exhibited a decrease in waddling amplitude. We suggest the increase in variability of both leaning angle and amplitude, as well as a possibly greater variability in the waddling amplitude, is likely to result from the frontal fat accumulation when the birds are heavier, which may move the centre of mass anteriorly, resulting in a less stable upright posture. This study is the first to use accelerometry to better understand the gait of a species within a specific ecological context: the considerable body mass change exhibited by king penguins.

  7. Fat King Penguins Are Less Steady on Their Feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willener, Astrid S T; Handrich, Yves; Halsey, Lewis G; Strike, Siobhán

    2016-01-01

    Returning to the shore after a feeding sojourn at sea, king penguins often undertake a relatively long terrestrial journey to the breeding colony carrying a heavy, mostly frontal, accumulation of fat along with food in the stomach for chick-provisioning. There they must survive a fasting period of up to a month in duration, during which their complete reliance on endogenous energy stores results in a dramatic loss in body mass. Our aim was to determine if the king penguin's walking gait changes with variations in body mass. We investigated this by walking king penguins on a treadmill while instrumented with an acceleration data logger. The stride frequency, dynamic body acceleration (DBA) and posture of fat (pre-fasting; 13.2 kg) and slim (post fasting; 11 kg) king penguins were assessed while they walked at the same speed (1.4 km/h) on a treadmill. Paired statistical tests indicated no evidence for a difference in dynamic body acceleration or stride frequency between the two body masses however there was substantially less variability in both leaning angle and the leaning amplitude of the body when the birds were slimmer. Furthermore, there was some evidence that the slimmer birds exhibited a decrease in waddling amplitude. We suggest the increase in variability of both leaning angle and amplitude, as well as a possibly greater variability in the waddling amplitude, is likely to result from the frontal fat accumulation when the birds are heavier, which may move the centre of mass anteriorly, resulting in a less stable upright posture. This study is the first to use accelerometry to better understand the gait of a species within a specific ecological context: the considerable body mass change exhibited by king penguins.

  8. AHP 47: THE GREEDY KING AND TRICKY MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lcags so lhun 'grub ལྕགས་སོ་ལྷུན་འགྲུབ། (Klu sgrub ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rgya mo skyid (b. 1992 of Mdo ba Town, Reb gong (Thun rin, Tongren County, Rma lho (Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province, China told me this story in an apartment in Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province on 21 August, 2016. She said, "When I was about five years old, my grandfather (Kun bzang, b. 1939 told me many stories such as this before we went to bed every night. I forgot many stories, but this story is still very clear." There was once a greedy local king who collected taxes monthly. There was also a very poor man known as Tricky Tsag thul. The local king came to Tricky's home to punish him for not paying his taxes for several months. ...

  9. Thermal strategies of king penguins during prolonged fasting in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewden, Agnès; Enstipp, Manfred R; Bonnet, Batshéva; Bost, Caroline; Georges, Jean-Yves; Handrich, Yves

    2017-12-15

    Most animals experience periods of unfavourable conditions, challenging their daily energy balance. During breeding, king penguins fast voluntarily for up to 1.5 months in the colony, after which they replenish their energy stores at sea. However, at sea, birds might encounter periods of low foraging profitability, forcing them to draw from previously stored energy (e.g. subcutaneous fat). Accessing peripheral fat stores requires perfusion, increasing heat loss and thermoregulatory costs. Hence, how these birds balance the conflicting demands of nutritional needs and thermoregulation is unclear. We investigated the physiological responses of king penguins to fasting in cold water by: (1) monitoring tissue temperatures, as a proxy of tissue perfusion, at four distinct sites (deep and peripheral); and (2) recording their oxygen consumption rate while birds floated inside a water tank. Despite frequent oscillations, temperatures of all tissues often reached near-normothermic levels, indicating that birds maintained perfusion to peripheral tissues throughout their fasting period in water. The oxygen consumption rate of birds increased with fasting duration in water, while it was also higher when the flank tissue was warmer, indicating greater perfusion. Hence, fasting king penguins in water maintained peripheral perfusion, despite the associated greater heat loss and, therefore, thermoregulatory costs, probably to access subcutaneous fat stores. Hence, the observed normothermia in peripheral tissues of king penguins at sea, upon completion of a foraging bout, is likely explained by their nutritional needs: depositing free fatty acids (FFA) in subcutaneous tissues after profitable foraging or mobilizing FFA to fuel metabolism when foraging success was insufficient. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Accumulation factors of mercury by King Bolete Boletus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Frankowska, A.

    2003-05-01

    To understand pollution picture with mercury and to examine suitability of King Bolete Boletits edulis Bull.: Fr. as possible bioindicator the total mercurv concentrations were determined both in the fruiting bodies and underlying soil substrate collected from various regions of Poland. There were quite large spatial variations of mercury concentration and some seasonal also were noted. Mercury content of the caps exceeded that of stalks (p<0.05), Nvhile Hg BCF values varied between 9 and 40, and 4 and 40, respectively.

  11. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    Full Text Available Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis, a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  12. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  13. The anatomy of the king crab Hapalogaster mertensii Brandt, 1850 (Anomura: Paguroidea: Hapalogastridae): new insights into the evolutionary transformation of hermit crabs into king crabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keiler, J.; Richter, S.; Wirkner, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of king crabs from a hermit crab-like ancestor is one of the most curious events in decapod evolution. King crabs comprise two taxa, Lithodidae and Hapalogastridae, and while lithodids have formed the focus of various anatomical studies, the internal anatomy of hapalogastrids has never

  14. Toward Inclusive Understandings of Marriage in an Early Childhood Classroom: Negotiating (Un)readiness, Community, and Vulnerability through a Critical Reading of "King and King"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Dana Frantz; Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    This collaborative classroom research study examines the ways in which preschoolers made sense of same-sex marriage through a critical reading of the book "King and King" by De Haan and Nijland. Acknowledging the importance of community in doing critical and political work, this article details the ways in which a preschool teacher and a…

  15. Ultraviolet reflecting photonic microstructures in the King Penguin beak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresp, Birgitta; Jouventin, Pierre; Langley, Keith

    2005-09-22

    King and emperor penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus and Aptenodytes forsteri) are the only species of marine birds so far known to reflect ultraviolet (UV) light from their beaks. Unlike humans, most birds perceive UV light and several species communicate using the near UV spectrum. Indeed, UV reflectance in addition to the colour of songbird feathers has been recognized as an important signal when choosing a mate. The king penguin is endowed with several highly coloured ornaments, notably its beak horn and breast and auricular plumage, but only its beak reflects UV, a property considered to influence its sexual attraction. Because no avian UV-reflecting pigments have yet been identified, the origin of such reflections is probably structural. In an attempt to identify the structures that give rise to UV reflectance, we combined reflectance spectrophotometry and morphological analysis by both light and electron microscopy, after experimental removal of surface layers of the beak horn. Here, we characterize for the first time a multilayer reflector photonic microstructure that produces the UV reflections in the king penguin beak.

  16. Ontogeny of thermoregulatory mechanisms in king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchamp, Claude; Rouanet, Jean Louis; Barré, Hervé

    2002-04-01

    The rapid maturation of thermoregulatory mechanisms may be of critical importance for optimising chick growth and survival and parental energy investment under harsh climatic conditions. The ontogeny of thermoregulatory mechanisms was studied in growing king penguin chicks from hatching to the full emancipation observed at 1 month of age in the sub-Antarctic area (Crozet Archipelago). Newly hatched chicks showed small, but significant regulatory thermogenesis (21% rise in heat production assessed by indirect calorimetry), but rapidly became hypothermic. Within a few days, both resting (+32%) and peak (+52%) metabolic rates increased. The first week of life was characterised by a two-fold rise in thermogenic capacity in the cold, while thermal insulation was not improved. During the second and third weeks of age, thermal insulation markedly rose (two-fold drop in thermal conductance) in relation to down growth, while resting heat production was slightly reduced (-13%). Shivering (assessed by electromyography) was visible right after hatching, although its efficiency was limited. Thermogenic efficiency of shivering increased five-fold with age during the first weeks of life, but there was no sign of non-shivering thermogenesis. We conclude that thermal emancipation of king penguin chicks may be primarily determined by improvement of thermal insulation after thermogenic processes have become sufficiently matured. Both insulative and metabolic adaptations are required for the rapid ontogeny of thermoregulation and thermal emancipation in growing king penguin chicks.

  17. Pessoa’s myth of the King Sebastian reinterpreted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Świda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper depicts alterations undergone by the sleeping king motif (sebastianism in the writings of Fernando Pessoa. The data to conduct the study were collected in thematic anthologies and several unpublished pieces. The myth of the King Sebastian was given a congregational dimension by Pessoa, thus conveying his cultural and identity project subsumed under the metaphor of the spiritual empire. Pessoa introduces some readjustments in the way the historical king is to be conceived of. In his theory, Sebastian becomes the figure of the individual effort on the way towards the national renewal. The messianic character of D. Sebastião is defeated in this theory despite having been associated with the figures of either Jesus or the Antichrist. The messiah of the Portuguese foundation myth is replaced with the idea of great man and the task to be carried out in this field, included the metaphor of the Fifth Empire, gains a cultural character. That is why Pessoa’s theories must no longer be interpreted in messianic terms. The Pessoa’s transformations of the sebastianism analyzed in this article are the starting point for the new national narration in the poetic cycle of "Mensagem".

  18. HIV intertest interval among MSM in King County, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David A; Dombrowski, Julia C; Swanson, Fred; Buskin, Susan E; Golden, Matthew R; Stekler, Joanne D

    2013-02-01

    The authors examined temporal trends and correlates of HIV testing frequency among men who have sex with men (MSM) in King County, Washington. The authors evaluated data from MSM testing for HIV at the Public Health-Seattle & King County (PHSKC) STD Clinic and Gay City Health Project (GCHP) and testing history data from MSM in PHSKC HIV surveillance. The intertest interval (ITI) was defined as the number of days between the last negative HIV test and the current testing visit or first positive test. Correlates of the log(10)-transformed ITI were determined using generalised estimating equations linear regression. Between 2003 and 2010, the median ITI among MSM seeking HIV testing at the STD Clinic and GCHP were 215 (IQR: 124-409) and 257 (IQR: 148-503) days, respectively. In multivariate analyses, younger age, having only male partners and reporting ≥10 male sex partners in the last year were associated with shorter ITIs at both testing sites (pGCHP attendees, having a regular healthcare provider, seeking a test as part of a regular schedule and inhaled nitrite use in the last year were also associated with shorter ITIs (pGCHP (median 359 vs 255 days, p=0.02). Although MSM in King County appear to be testing at frequent intervals, further efforts are needed to reduce the time that HIV-infected persons are unaware of their status.

  19. Re-shaping King Lear: Space, Place, Costume, and Genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hattaway Michael

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance studies must enjoy parity of esteem with critical studies because they remind us of the plurality of “readings” that are generated by a Shakespearean text. Shakespeare seems to have apprehended this when, in Othello, he used a nonce-word, “denotement”, which applies to Othello’s reading of his wife in his mind’s eye. I examine other sequences in which we watch a character “reading” on-stage or imagined action, in Hamlet, Titus Andronicus, Cymbeline, Richard II, and Troilus and Cressida. In Hamlet this involves re-reading as well as generic displacement, which, I argue, is a way of rendering inwardness. As I test case, I analyse a production of King Lear by Shakespeare’s Globe, on a fairground stage, in which the king reshaped himself, became a folkloric figure, like a figure in Nashe’s Summer’s Last Will and Testament. The play itself was thus, indecorously, reshaped as “The Tale of King Lear”. “Dramatic truth”, therefore, in no way depends upon theatrical “realism”.

  20. When the King Becomes your Personal Enemy: W. T. Stead, King Leopold II, and the Congo Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marysa Demoor

    2013-04-01

    mso-fareast-language:JA;} This paper will highlight an unknown but important episode in the life of the journalist W. T. Stead, which, intriguingly, remained unmentioned in Belgian, British, and colonial historiography. It concerns a face-to-face meeting between Stead and Leopold II, King of the Belgians, which certainly did not leave Stead the ‘friend of all Kings’, as the posthumous article published by the 'Daily Mirror' contended. Based on Stead’s own Character Sketches in the 'Review of Reviews', the paper will show how Stead’s perceptions of the scandalous government of the Congo Free State result to a large extent from his own meeting (probably towards the end of 1884 with King Leopold II, and the King’s refusal to cooperate with Britain in an improvised rescue of General Gordon in Sudan.

  1. Three Kings and the Bright Star of Fame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emalyn J. Bullis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many phenomena in music history as well as in American history have helped develop and shape the types of music listened to today, but none have been so fresh as looking back to twentieth-century popular music and the several key individuals that “ruled” in this area. These “rulers” were hailed as “kings” firstly as a media ploy, but the American public did nothing but encourage the titles. This is somewhat confusing considering American’s pride in their democratic political system but history shows that in several key American cultural changes the “Kings” crowned in the music sphere are representative of these changes. While not difficult to determine who these individuals are, as most of them were hailed and recognized as “Kings” to their respective audiences. Benny Goodman, the King of Swing, in the 1920’s and 30’s helped usher in and popularize the Swing movement. Elvis Presley, the King of Rock and Roll, capitalized (intentionally or not on the move towards combining African-American sounds such as blues and jazz with folk, gospel, and soul, thus creating a whole new and extremely popular sound. Michael Jackson, the King of Pop, was practically born into fame with his involvement with the ‘Jackson 5,’ but that did not stop him from rising up the ladder of fame in his solo career to change the face of pop music forever. There were also many artists that surrounded these “kings,” a court, if you will, that allowed their new styles to proliferate throughout American culture, and sometimes even surpassed them musically. However, as icons, these men stand on their own for their achievements in music and their ability to change and adapt to the culture around them. By looking at the three Kings of American pop culture’s past, it is possible to see the direction of America’s culture in general from the 1920’s on and perhaps see the trajectory of music of the USA today

  2. King penguin population threatened by Southern Ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Stenseth, Nils C; Park, Young-Hyang; Pradel, Roger; Grémillet, David; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Le Maho, Yvon

    2008-02-19

    Seabirds are sensitive indicators of changes in marine ecosystems and might integrate and/or amplify the effects of climate forcing on lower levels in food chains. Current knowledge on the impact of climate changes on penguins is primarily based on Antarctic birds identified by using flipper bands. Although flipper bands have helped to answer many questions about penguin biology, they were shown in some penguin species to have a detrimental effect. Here, we present for a Subantarctic species, king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), reliable results on the effect of climate on survival and breeding based on unbanded birds but instead marked by subcutaneous electronic tags. We show that warm events negatively affect both breeding success and adult survival of this seabird. However, the observed effect is complex because it affects penguins at several spatio/temporal levels. Breeding reveals an immediate response to forcing during warm phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation affecting food availability close to the colony. Conversely, adult survival decreases with a remote sea-surface temperature forcing (i.e., a 2-year lag warming taking place at the northern boundary of pack ice, their winter foraging place). We suggest that this time lag may be explained by the delay between the recruitment and abundance of their prey, adjusted to the particular 1-year breeding cycle of the king penguin. The derived population dynamic model suggests a 9% decline in adult survival for a 0.26 degrees C warming. Our findings suggest that king penguin populations are at heavy extinction risk under the current global warming predictions.

  3. Geochemical interpretation of Kings Mountain, North Carolina, orientation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, V.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    An orientation study has been made of uranium occurrences in the area of Kings Mountain, North Carolina. This is one of the orientation studies of known uranium occurrences that are being conducted in several geologic provinces and under various climatic (weathering) conditions to provide the technical basis for design and interpretation of NURE geochemical reconnaissance programs. The Kings Mountain area was chosen for study primarily because of the reported presence of high-uranium monazite. This 750-mi 2 area is in the deeply weathered southern Appalachian Piedmont and spans portions of the Inner Piedmont, Kings Mountain, and Charlotte geologic belts. Uranium concentration maps for ground and surface water samples clearly outline the outcrop area of the Cherryville Quartz Monzonite with highs up to 10 ppb uranium near the reported uraninite. Several surface water samples appear to be anomalous because of trace industrial contamination. Uranium concentration maps for -100 to +200 mesh stream sediments indicate the area of monazite abundance. Several samples with >100 ppM uranium content appear to be high in uranium-rich resistate minerals. When the uranium content of sediment samples is ratioed to the sum of Hf, Dy, and Th, the anomaly pattern shifts to coincide with uranium highs in ground and surface water samples. False anomalies from concentrations of monazite (Ce,ThPO 4 ), xenotime (Y,DyPO 4 ), and zircon (Zr,HfSiO 4 ) in stream sediment samples can thus be eliminated. Residual anomalies should be related to unusual uranium enrichment of these common minerals or to the presence of an uncommon uranium-rich mineral. Tantalum, beryllium, and tin in stream sediments correspond to high concentrations of uranium in stream and ground water but not to uranium in sediments. In an initial reconnaissance, several media should be sampled, and it is essential to correct uranium in sediments for the sample mineralogy

  4. Outliers and Extremes: Dragon-Kings or Dragon-Fools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D. J.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysics seems full of monsters like Victor Hugo's Court of Miracles and monstrous extremes have been statistically considered as outliers with respect to more normal events. However, a characteristic magnitude separating abnormal events from normal ones would be at odd with the generic scaling behaviour of nonlinear systems, contrary to "fat tailed" probability distributions and self-organized criticality. More precisely, it can be shown [1] how the apparent monsters could be mere manifestations of a singular measure mishandled as a regular measure. Monstrous fluctuations are the rule, not outliers and they are more frequent than usually thought up to the point that (theoretical) statistical moments can easily be infinite. The empirical estimates of the latter are erratic and diverge with sample size. The corresponding physics is that intense small scale events cannot be smoothed out by upscaling. However, based on a few examples, it has also been argued [2] that one should consider "genuine" outliers of fat tailed distributions so monstrous that they can be called "dragon-kings". We critically analyse these arguments, e.g. finite sample size and statistical estimates of the largest events, multifractal phase transition vs. more classical phase transition. We emphasize the fact that dragon-kings are not needed in order that the largest events become predictable. This is rather reminiscent of the Feast of Fools picturesquely described by Victor Hugo. [1] D. Schertzer, I. Tchiguirinskaia, S. Lovejoy et P. Hubert (2010): No monsters, no miracles: in nonlinear sciences hydrology is not an outlier! Hydrological Sciences Journal, 55 (6) 965 - 979. [2] D. Sornette (2009): Dragon-Kings, Black Swans and the Prediction of Crises. International Journal of Terraspace Science and Engineering 1(3), 1-17.

  5. Snake bite envenomation: experience at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Durihim, H; Al-Hussaini, M; Bin Salih, S; Hassan, I; Harakati, M; Al Hajjaj, A

    2010-04-01

    We surveyed the records of 21 of the 28 snakebite victims seen at King Fahad National Guard Hospital in Riyadh over the 20-year period 1986-2005. The most common symptoms were local pain and swelling and the most common signs oedema and tenderness. Neurotoxicity was not noted in any case. Coagulopathy was recorded for 14/21 patients (66.7%) and 5/19 (26.4%) had leukocytosis. All patients were given tetanus toxoid (100%) and 20 (95.2%) received antivenom. Blood products were administered in 2 cases and prophylactic antibiotics in 10 (47.6%). No allergic reaction to antivenom was reported.

  6. New Light on the Legendary King Nechepsos of Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryholt, Kim

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies several indigenous Egyptian attestations of King Nechepsos, previously well known from Classical sources. The name may be understood as ‘Necho the Wise’, and refers to Necho II of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. His association with astrology may be related to an eclipse near the ...... the beginning of that king’s historical reign. This paper further identifies the sage Petosiris known from Greek texts as the well-attested sage Petesis. The divine instructors of Nechepsos and Petosiris are identified as Imhotep and Amenhotep son of Hapu....

  7. Just how literal is the King James Version?

    OpenAIRE

    Jan (JH) Kroeze; Manie (CM) van den Heever; Bertus (AJ) van Rooy

    2010-01-01

    Many scholars have the perception that the King James Version (KJV) is a literal translation. However, it is not so easy to define the concept of "literal translation". The simplest definition may be to regard it as word-for-word translation. However, when one compares the KJV carefully with the original Hebrew Bible, there are numerous instances where lexical items are changed to adapt the idiom to that of the target language. In this article, a measuring instrument will be proposed and u...

  8. Burger King in Portugal : to lead or to follow?

    OpenAIRE

    Patrone, Sara Saraiva

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, the Burger King (BK) brand, managed by Ibersol group entered the growing fast food Portuguese market. Marginally higher prices along with the fact of having entered the market 10 years after its most direct competitor (McDonald´s), led BK to a sub leader position. Although being recognized as offering superior quality products when compared to McDonald´s, BK´s growth margins in the Portuguese market have been decreasing since 2007. The company´s uncertainty situation, offers the p...

  9. [Understanding King's model on the paradigm of symbolic interactionism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Iliana Maria de Almeida; Oliveira, Marcos Venícios; de Oliveira, Marcos Venícius; Fernandes, Ana Fátima Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    It was aimed to reflect on King's Theory, according to the approach of Symbolic Interaccionism, and theory analyses model of Meleis. To reach the objective, we proceeded the reading of the three models as mentioned before, looking for the consistencies and discrepancies among the concepts and correlating them. The study allowed to conclude that the theories agree when elucidating the man as a being that reacts and search to understand the meaning of things to his/her circuit, drifting and judging their actions and the one of the other ones. It is important the subject of the meanings could be modified and they generate the elaboration of goals in common.

  10. Martin Luther King, Jr., General Hospital and community involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M M

    1973-07-01

    Community involvement is not just one facet of the new Martin Luther King, Jr., General Hospital's existence. It is the mainstream from which all other activities flow. In addition to meeting the conventional needs of a conventional hospital staff with the core collection of texts and journals, this library goes one step further. It acts as a resource for its community health workers, dietitians, and nurses in their various outreach programs. It serves as a stimulus for the high school or community college student who may be curious about a health career. It also finds time to provide reading material for its patients.

  11. King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary performance evaluation results from a demonstration of three zero-emission battery electric buses at King County Metro in King County, Washington. NREL developed this preliminary results report to quickly disseminate evaluation results to stakeholders. Detailed evaluation results will be published in future reports.

  12. King penguins can detect two odours associated with conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Gregory B; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on olfaction in penguins have focused on their use of odours while foraging. It has been proposed for some seabirds that an olfactory landscape shaped by odours coming from feeding areas exists. Islands and colonies, however, may also contribute to the olfactory landscape and may act as an orienting map. To test sensitivities to a colony scent we studied whether King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) could detect the smell of sand, feathers or feces by holding presentations beneath their beaks while they naturally slept on the beach. Penguins had a significantly greater response to the feathers and feces presentations than to sand. Although only a first step in exploring a broader role of olfaction in this species, our results raise the possibility of olfaction being used by King penguins in three potential ways: (1) locating the colony from the water or the shore, (2) finding the rendezvous zone within the colony where a chick or partner may be found, or (3) recognizing individuals by scent, as in Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus demersus). © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. King Lear Reveals the Tragic Pattern of Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Eflih Al-Ibia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rather than focusing on the obvious traditions of evaluating Shakespearean tragic heroes, this paper presents a groundbreaking approach to unfold the pattern William Shakespeare follows as he designed his unique characters. This pattern applies to most, if not all, Shakespearean tragic heroes. I argue that Shakespeare himself reveals a great portion of this pattern on the tongue of Lear as the latter disowns Goneril and Regan promising to have “such revenges on [them] both” in King Lear. Lear’s threats bestow four unique aspects that apply not only to his character but they also apply to Shakespearean tragic heroes. Lear’s speech tells us that he is determined to have an awful type of revenge on his daughters. However, the very same speech tells us that he seems uncertain about the method through which he should carry out this revenge. Lear does not express any type of remorse as he pursues his vengeful plans nor should he aim at amnesty. He also admits his own madness as he closes his revealing speech. This research develops these facts about Lear to unfold the unique pattern Shakespeare follows as he portrayed his major tragic figures. This pattern is examined, described and analyzed in King Lear, Othello, and Hamlet. We will find out that the pattern suggested in this study helps us better understand Shakespeare’s tragedies and enables us to provide better explanations for some controversial scenes in the tragedies discussed.

  14. Structural organisation and dynamics in king penguin colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerum, Richard; Richter, Sebastian; Fabry, Ben; Le Bohec, Céline; Bonadonna, Francesco; Nesterova, Anna; Zitterbart, Daniel P.

    2018-04-01

    During breeding, king penguins do not build nests, however they show strong territorial behaviour and keep a pecking distance to neighbouring penguins. Penguin positions in breeding colonies are highly stable over weeks and appear regularly spaced, but thus far no quantitative analysis of the structural order inside a colony has been performed. In this study, we use the radial distribution function to analyse the spatial coordinates of penguin positions. Coordinates are obtained from aerial images of two colonies that were observed for several years. Our data demonstrate that the structural order in king penguin colonies resembles a 2D liquid of particles with a Lennard-Jones-type interaction potential. We verify this using a molecular dynamics simulation with thermally driven particles, whereby temperature corresponds to penguin movements, the energy well depth ɛ of the attractive potential corresponds to the strength of the colony-forming behaviour, and the repulsive zone corresponds to the pecking radius. We can recapitulate the liquid disorder of the colony, as measured by the radial distribution function, when the particles have a temperature of several (1.4–10) \

  15. Surface Flux Measurements at King Sejong Station in West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, T.; Lee, B.; Lee, H.; Shim, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is important in terms of global warming research due to pronounced increase of air temperature over the last century. The first eddy covariance system was established and turbulent fluxes of heat, water vapor, CO2 and momentum have been measured at King Sejong Station (62 \\deg 13øØS, 58 \\deg 47øØW) located in the northern edge of the Antarctic Peninsula since December in 2002. Our objectives are to better understand the interactions between the Antarctic land surface and the atmosphere and to test the feasibility of the long-term operation of eddy covariance system under extreme weather conditions. Various lichens cover the study area and the dominant species is Usnea fasciata-Himantormia. Based on the analyses on turbulent statistics such as integral turbulence characteristics of vertical velocity (w) and heat (T), stationarity test and investigation of correlation coefficient, they follow the Monin-Obukhov similarity and eddy covariance flux data were reliable. About 50 % of total retrieved sensible heat flux data could be used for further analysis. We will report on seasonal variations of energy and mass fluxes and environmental variables. In addition, factors controlling these fluxes will be presented. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by ¡rEnvironmental Monitoring on Human Impacts at the King Sejong Station, Antarctica¡_ (Project PP04102 of Korea Polar Research Institute) and ¡rEco-technopia 21 project¡_ (Ministry of Environment of Korea).

  16. The Greek charter of the Hungarian King Stephen I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkovski Boris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first Hungarian Christian ruler, King Stephen I (997-1038 issued several charters that have survived to this day. One of them is the charter issued on behalf of the nuns from the Monastery of the Holy Theotokos in Veszprémvölgy. The charter was written in the Greek language, and has been the subject of many studies. The original has not been preserved; what remains is a copy from the time of King Coloman, dated to 1109. The charter has not been published in a critical edition in any language other than Hungarian and even though it has been examined by numerous Hungarian scholars, many questions remain open. The aim of the author is to provide a critical edition and an English translation of the charter, but also to clarify some remaining doubts about the charter and its contents. Furthermore, some comparisons will be made with the Byzantine charters issued at the beginning of the 11th and during the 12th century.

  17. [Neurological evaluation of the leper king Baldwin IV of Jerusalem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Peral, A L

    In the medieval period, physicians became more aware of leprosy symptoms and differentiated it from other similar diseases. Baldwin, the leper king of Jerusalem (1161-1185), probably contributed to an increasing interest and tolerance to this disease in medieval Christian states. We review historical descriptions of the neurological manifestations he developed. William of Tyre gives us a description of first symptoms experienced by the prince when aged nine. He notices that half of his right arm and hand were partially numb. No skin or nervous lesions are described. By his early twenties, muscle weakness makes him unable to walk. He gets blinded, probably due to keratopathy related to facial nerves involvement. Repeated attacks of fever lead to progressive worsening of his disease. He finally dies in Jerusalem, aged twenty-five, probably due to a septicaemia from infected sores. The earliest sign of Baldwin's disease is anaesthesia. Though skin lesions are not described, it is likely that at this point he had a tuberculoid form of leprosy. As his disease finally takes a lepromatous form, we suspect that it began as a borderline, immunologically unstable form. Leper king Baldwin biography gives us interesting descriptions of neurological clinical features of leprosy. Besides, it helps us to discover twelfth century medicine knowledge about this disease.

  18. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data from: Habitat, predation, growth, and coexistence: Could interactions between juvenile red and blue king crabs limit blue king crab productivity?

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is from a series of laboratory experiments examining the interactions between red and blue king crabs and habitat. We examined how density and predator...

  19. 1/13 the establishment of kingdoms and the identification of kings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    disputes, but this article will focus on the newly-created positions of kings and queens. 2 .... (2) The person currently holding office as the King of the Zulu nation .... community (tribe) is no better than the colonial-apartheid recognition of tribes.

  20. The King James Bible and the Politics of Religious Education: Secular State and Sacred Scripture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an outline historical-educational analysis of the King James Bible from its 1611 publication through to its four-hundredth anniversary commemoration in 2011. With particular focus on England, the article traces the educational impact of the King James Bible and charts, in the country of its origin, its progressive decline in…

  1. Fisher research and the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystem Project: current results and future efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian B. Boroski; Richard T. Golightly; Amie K. Mazzoni; Kimberly A. Sager

    2002-01-01

    The Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project was initiated on the Kings River Ranger District of the Sierra National Forest, California, in 1993, with fieldwork beginning in 1994. Knowledge of the ecology of the fisher (Martes pennanti) in the Project area, and in the Sierra Nevada of California in general, is insufficient to develop...

  2. His Majesty King Abdullah II of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    Photo 03: King of Jordan visited some ATLAS installations. From left to right: Maurice Bourquin, President of the CERN Council, Luciano Maiani, Director-General of CERN, King Abdullah II of Jordan, Herwig Schopper, President of the SESAME Council and Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman.

  3. The Relationship between Body Image Satisfaction and Bulimia Nervosa among King Saud University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljomaa, Suliman Saleh

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed at examining the relationship between body image satisfaction and bulimia nervosa among the students of education faculty at king said university students. The author used the tests of bulimia nervosa and body image test. The researcher verified tests reliability. Students from King Saud University randomly selected (No. 337)…

  4. Reading Stephen King: Issues of Censorship, Student Choice, and Popular Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Brenda Miller, Ed.; Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.; Chandler, Kelly, Ed.

    This collection of essays grew out of the "Reading Stephen King Conference" held at the University of Maine in 1996. Stephen King's books have become a lightning rod for the tensions around issues of including "mass market" popular literature in middle and high school English classes and of who chooses what students read.…

  5. Whatsapp for Educational Purposes for Female Students at College of Education--King Saud University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljaad, Nawal Hamad Mohmad

    2017-01-01

    This research aims at finding out the educational usages of "Whatsapp" by the Saudi female students who are involved in the College of Education at King Saud University. To achieve the goal of this study, the researcher uses a simple sample of (122) female students from the Education College of King Saud University, which is chosen…

  6. Connect the Book. Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    In honor of Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, this month's featured book is "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." The book was written by Doreen Rappaport and illustrated by Bryan Collier (Jump at the Sun, 2001. 40p. ISBN 0786807148). This pictorial biography of the world-renowned civil rights leader has one of the most striking…

  7. 78 FR 39599 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility during the dates... from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During the enforcement period, unauthorized...

  8. From Typology to Topography in Clarence King's "Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekzema, Loren

    The book "Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada" by Clarence King, a late-ninteenth-century American geologist, writer, art critic, and romantic, is discussed in this paper. In the writing and revision of this book, King was attempting a metamorphosis of landscape description into popular reading as he moved from being a symbolic writer to…

  9. Baking hot. Burger King is testing a restaurant with solar power supply; Unter der Sonne braten. Der Fastfood-Riese Burger King testet ein Restaurantkonzept mit Solaranlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaizl, Mira

    2010-07-15

    At Waghaeusel in the German state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, the local solar provider Wirsol Solar AG constructed a restaurant building for the Burger King GmbH. The building consumes comparably little energy and has a solar roof for photovoltaic power generation. Burger King hopes for good money and a clean image, while Wirsol Solar is hoping for new projects in Europe and in the USA. (orig.)

  10. A new immuno- dystrophin-deficient model, the NSG-mdx4Cv mouse, provides evidence for functional improvement following allogeneic satellite cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpke, Robert W.; Darabi, Radbod; Mader, Tara L.; Zhang, Yu; Toyama, Akira; Lonetree, Cara-lin; Nash, Nardina; Lowe, Dawn A.; Perlingeiro, Rita C.R.; Kyba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Transplantation of a myogenic cell population into an immunodeficient recipient is an excellent way of assessing the in vivo muscle-generating capacity of that cell population. To facilitate both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantations of muscle-forming cells in mice we have developed a novel immunodeficient muscular dystrophy model, the NSG-mdx4Cv mouse. The IL2Rg mutation, which is linked to the Dmd gene on the X chromosome, simultaneously depletes NK cells and suppresses thymic lymphomas, issues that limit the utility of the SCID/mdx model. The NSG-mdx4Cv mouse presents a muscular dystrophy of similar severity to the conventional mdx mouse. We show that this animal supports robust engraftment of both pig and dog muscle mononuclear cells. The question of whether satellite cells prospectively isolated by flow cytometry can confer a functional benefit upon transplantation has been controversial. Using allogeneic Pax7-ZsGreen donors and NSG-mdx4Cv recipients, we demonstrate definitively that as few as 900 FACS-isolated satellite cells can provide functional regeneration in vivo, in the form of an increased mean maximal force-generation capacity in cell-transplanted muscles, compared to a sham-injected control group. These studies highlight the potency of satellite cells to improve muscle function, and the utility of the NSG-mdx4Cv model for studies on muscle regeneration and Duchenne muscular dystrophy therapy. PMID:23606600

  11. Influence of Botulinumtoxin A on the Expression of Adult MyHC Isoforms in the Masticatory Muscles in Dystrophin-Deficient Mice (Mdx-Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Ulrike Botzenhart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widespread animal model to investigate Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the mdx-mouse. In contrast to humans, phases of muscle degeneration are replaced by regeneration processes; hence there is only a restricted time slot for research. The aim of the study was to investigate if an intramuscular injection of BTX-A is able to break down muscle regeneration and has direct implications on the gene expression of myosin heavy chains in the corresponding treated and untreated muscles. Therefore, paralysis of the right masseter muscle was induced in adult healthy and dystrophic mice by a specific intramuscular injection of BTX-A. After 21 days the mRNA expression and protein content of MyHC isoforms of the right and left masseter, temporal, and the tongue muscle were determined using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot technique. MyHC-IIa and MyHC-I-mRNA expression significantly increased in the paralyzed masseter muscle of control-mice, whereas MyHC-IIb and MyHC-IIx/d-mRNA were decreased. In dystrophic muscles no effect of BTX-A could be detected at the level of MyHC. This study suggests that BTX-A injection is a suitable method to simulate DMD-pathogenesis in healthy mice but further investigations are necessary to fully analyse the BTX-A effect and to generate sustained muscular atrophy in mdx-mice.

  12. Restoration of pharyngeal dilator muscle force in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice following co-treatment with neutralizing interleukin-6 receptor antibodies and urocortin 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, David P; Rowland, Jane; Canavan, Leonie; Murphy, Kevin H; Brannock, Molly; O'Malley, Dervla; O'Halloran, Ken D; Edge, Deirdre

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? We previously reported impaired upper airway dilator muscle function in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Our aim was to assess the effect of blocking interleukin-6 receptor signalling and stimulating corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 2 signalling on mdx sternohyoid muscle structure and function. What is the main finding and its importance? The interventional treatment had a positive inotropic effect on sternohyoid muscle force, restoring mechanical work and power to wild-type values, reduced myofibre central nucleation and preserved the myosin heavy chain type IIb fibre complement of mdx sternohyoid muscle. These data might have implications for development of pharmacotherapies for DMD with relevance to respiratory muscle performance. The mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy shows evidence of impaired pharyngeal dilator muscle function. We hypothesized that inflammatory and stress-related factors are implicated in airway dilator muscle dysfunction. Six-week-old mdx (n = 26) and wild-type (WT; n = 26) mice received either saline (0.9% w/v) or a co-administration of neutralizing interleukin-6 receptor antibodies (0.2 mg kg -1 ) and corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 2 agonist (urocortin 2; 30 μg kg -1 ) over 2 weeks. Sternohyoid muscle isometric and isotonic contractile function was examined ex vivo. Muscle fibre centronucleation and muscle cellular infiltration, collagen content, fibre-type distribution and fibre cross-sectional area were determined by histology and immunofluorescence. Muscle chemokine content was examined by use of a multiplex assay. Sternohyoid peak specific force at 100 Hz was significantly reduced in mdx compared with WT. Drug treatment completely restored force in mdx sternohyoid to WT levels. The percentage of centrally nucleated muscle fibres was significantly increased in mdx, and this was partly ameliorated after drug treatment. The areal density of infiltrates and collagen content were significantly increased in mdx sternohyoid; both indices were unaffected by drug treatment. The abundance of myosin heavy chain type IIb fibres was significantly decreased in mdx sternohyoid; drug treatment preserved myosin heavy chain type IIb complement in mdx muscle. The chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein 2, interferon-γ-induced protein 10 and macrophage inflammatory protein 3α were significantly increased in mdx sternohyoid compared with WT. Drug treatment significantly increased chemokine expression in mdx but not WT sternohyoid. Recovery of contractile function was impressive in our study, with implications for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The precise molecular mechanisms by which the drug treatment exerts an inotropic effect on mdx sternohyoid muscle remain to be elucidated. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  13. 76 FR 5326 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; King and Spanish Mackerel Coastal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Spanish Mackerel Coastal Migratory Pelagic Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Control Date AGENCY... that it is establishing a new control date to control future access to the king and Spanish mackerel... September 17, 2010, for king and Spanish mackerel. The Council requested a new control date for the king and...

  14. Biological Activities and Phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance.

  15. Observations of Terrestrial Nightglow (Meinel Bands) at King

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young-In; Cho, Young-Min; Lee, Bang Yong; Kim, Jhoon; Chung, Jong Kyun; Kim, Yong Ha

    1999-12-01

    A Fourier Transform Spectrometer was used to study upper mesospheric thermodynamic by observing the hydroxyl(OH) emission. Rocket-born and satellited-born photometers place the peak emission near 87 μm. The instrument was installed in February 1999 at King Sejong station (62.22 deg S,301.25 deg E), Antarctica and has been in routine operation since then. An intensive operational effort has resulted in a substantial data between April and June, 1999. A harmonic analysis was carried out to examine information on the tidal characteristics. The measured amplitudes of the 12-hour oscillation are in the range of 2.4-3.7 K, which are in resonable agreement with theoretical model outputs. The harmonic analysis also revealed 8-hour oscillation which is not expected from the traditional theoretical studies. In addition, the observed 8-hour oscillations are apparent and sometimes dominate the temperature variation in the upper mesosphere.

  16. INSIGHT AGONISTES: A READING OF SOPHOCLES'S OEDIPUS THE KING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Eugene J

    2015-07-01

    In this reading of Sophocles's Oedipus the King, the author suggests that insight can be thought of as the main protagonist of the tragedy. He personifies this depiction of insight, calling it Insight Agonistes, as if it were the sole conflicted character on the stage, albeit masquerading at times as several other characters, including gods, sphinxes, and oracles. This psychoanalytic reading of the text lends itself to an analogy between psychoanalytic process and Sophocles's tragic hero. The author views insight as always transgressing against, always at war with a conservative, societal, or intrapsychic chorus of structured elements. A clinical vignette is presented to illustrate this view of insight. © 2015 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  17. THE QUEST FOR KNOWLEDGE IN "THE KING JAMES BIBLE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Piotrowska-Oberda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is the quest for knowledge in "The King James Bible" (1611 in terms of quantitative and qualitative research methodology with the application of the statistical analysis tool Antconc. The quest for knowledge with the use of corpus research aims at discussing the Biblical concept of knowledge through the origin, the object of knowledge, its implications and its constant development. Knowledge is often seen as of divine nature, reflected in the soul of man. It is based not only on logical, but also on the spiritual and ethical reasoning. The object of knowledge is light, reflecting the divine nature of knowledge which exceeds the intellect to reach a deeper spiritual human reasoning. In "The King James Bible" (1611 the authors of New Testament consider human knowledge to be imperfect and partial. They emphasize the need for a spiritual man aiming at reaching a complete knowledge. This spiritual development is based on the relationship between knowledge and faith, as well as knowledge and love. For the authors of the books of the New Testament there is no dichotomy between both knowledge and faith and knowledge and love, because faith and love depend on knowledge that originates in the word of God and leads to spiritual development. From this perspective, religious knowledge, love and mercy as well as faith developed through the knowledge of the biblical text leads to the knowledge of God, the enlightening source of ultimate knowledge. Thus, in the spiritual development of man not only the knowledge and faith but also emotional intelligence, which expresses itself through love and charity as the safer guide in all controversial issues, are important.

  18. The philosophical premises of the second King Report on corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Rossouw

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the philosophical presuppositions of the second King Report on corporate governance for South Africa (hereafter referred to as the King II Report. Especially in the “Introduction and Background” section of the King II Report it is clear that the Report is premised upon a specific understanding of the present-day corporation and its moral obligations. The purpose of this article is to commit what Charles Taylor called “an act of retrieval” in which the philosophical premises of the King II Report will be unearthed and exposed. It will be argued that the view of the present-day corporation that underlies the King II Report could be related back to a number of debates on the notion of the comtemporary corporation and its moral responsibilities that have been played out since the 1970s. It will be indicated how these debates provide the philosophical foundations for the view of the comtemporary corporation and its moral obligations that is espoused in the King II Report. The claim made in the Report that the African world view and culture influenced the Report’s notion of corporate governance will also be critically reviewed. Finally it will be attempted to evaluate to what extent the recommendations of the King II Report live up to its own philosophical premises.

  19. Distribution and habitat use of king rails in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi River valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Abigail J.; Krementz, David G.

    2009-01-01

    The migratory population of the king rail (Rallus elegans) has declined dramatically during the past 40 years, emphasizing the need to identify habitat requirements of this species to help guide conservation efforts. To assess distribution and habitat use of king rails along the Illinois and Upper Mississippi valleys, USA, we conducted repeated call-broadcast surveys at 83 locations in 2006 and 114 locations in 2007 distributed among 21 study sites. We detected king rails at 12 survey locations in 2006 and 14 locations in 2007, illustrating the limited distribution of king rails in this region. We found king rails concentrated at Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge, an adjacent private Wetlands Reserve program site, and B. K. Leach Conservation Area, which were located in the Mississippi River floodplain in northeast Missouri. Using Program PRESENCE, we estimated detection probabilities and built models to identify habitat covariates that were important in king rail site occupancy. Habitat covariates included percentage of cover by tall (> 1 m) and short (wetlands that were characterized by high water-vegetation interspersion and little or no cover by woody vegetation. Our results suggest that biologists can improve king rail habitat by implementing management techniques that reduce woody cover and increase vegetation-water interspersion in wetlands.

  20. JEWISH IDEA: FROM KING TEMPLE TO KING STATE YAHUDİ İDEASI: KRAL MABEDİNDEN KRAL DEVLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa YİĞİTOĞLU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on a process that has become the main problem of Judaism. As the subject, this article is reflectiton the world and the beyond world of the point of view of Judaism. This actually means that the analysis in general terms the history of Jewish thought. Although concentrated in the research issue is not exactly a history of thought. But this article examines the structure of Judaism directly. Firstly in this research discusses King Solomon’s temple which was built as an indicator of Judaism is institutionalized and the idea of Jewish towards to King State. Bu çalışma Yahudiliğin temel sorunu haline gelen bir süreci ele almaktadır. Konu itibari ile Yahudiliğin dünyaya ve dünya ötesine bakış açısını yansıtmaktadır. Bu, aslında Yahudi düşünce tarihinin genel anlamda analizi demektir. Gerçi araştırmanın yoğunlaştığı husus tam anlamıyla bir düşünce tarihi değildir. Ancak alan itibariyle Yahudiliğin doğrudan yapısını inceleyen bir duruma haizdir.Araştırmada ilk olarak Yahudiliğin kurumsallaştığının bir göstergesi olan Kral Süleyman’ın inşa ettirdiği mabed; önemi, konumu ve etkisi gibi hususiyetleriyle tarihsel bir çerçevede ele alınmış, nihayetinde Kral Devlete doğru giden bir Yahudi düşüncesine yer verilmiştir.

  1. Widespread and evolutionary analysis of a MITE family Monkey King in Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shutao; Hou, Jinna; Long, Yan; Wang, Jing; Li, Cong; Xiao, Qinqin; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling

    2015-06-19

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are important components of eukaryotic genomes, with hundreds of families and many copies, which may play important roles in gene regulation and genome evolution. However, few studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms involved. In our previous study, a Tourist-like MITE, Monkey King, was identified from the promoter region of a flowering time gene, BnFLC.A10, in Brassica napus. Based on this MITE, the characteristics and potential roles on gene regulation of the MITE family were analyzed in Brassicaceae. The characteristics of the Tourist-like MITE family Monkey King in Brassicaceae, including its distribution, copies and insertion sites in the genomes of major Brassicaceae species were analyzed in this study. Monkey King was actively amplified in Brassica after divergence from Arabidopsis, which was indicated by the prompt increase in copy number and by phylogenetic analysis. The genomic variations caused by Monkey King insertions, both intra- and inter-species in Brassica, were traced by PCR amplification. Genomic sequence analysis showed that most complete Monkey King elements are located in gene-rich regions, less than 3kb from genes, in both the B. rapa and A. thaliana genomes. Sixty-seven Brassica expressed sequence tags carrying Monkey King fragments were also identified from the NCBI database. Bisulfite sequencing identified specific DNA methylation of cytosine residues in the Monkey King sequence. A fragment containing putative TATA-box motifs in the MITE sequence could bind with nuclear protein(s) extracted from leaves of B. napus plants. A Monkey King-related microRNA, bna-miR6031, was identified in the microRNA database. In transgenic A. thaliana, when the Monkey King element was inserted upstream of 35S promoter, the promoter activity was weakened. Monkey King, a Brassicaceae Tourist-like MITE family, has amplified relatively recently and has induced intra- and inter-species genomic

  2. Synchronization and an application of a novel fractional order King Cobra chaotic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthukumar, P., E-mail: muthukumardgl@gmail.com; Balasubramaniam, P., E-mail: balugru@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Gandhigram Rural Institute‐Deemed University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamilnadu (India); Ratnavelu, K., E-mail: kuru052001@gmail.com [Faculty of Science, Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we design a new three dimensional King Cobra face shaped fractional order chaotic system. The multi-scale synchronization scheme of two fractional order chaotic systems is described. The necessary conditions for the multi-scale synchronization of two identical fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems are derived through feedback control. A new cryptosystem is proposed for an image encryption and decryption by using synchronized fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems with the supports of multiple cryptographic assumptions. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is analyzed by the well known algebraic attacks. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results.

  3. Radiological Risk Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-05

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document develops plausible and/or likely scenarios, including the identification of likely radioactive materials and quantities of those radioactive materials to be involved. These include 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, plutonium, and 241Am. Two broad categories of scenarios are considered. The first category includes events that may be suspected from the outset, such as an explosion of a "dirty bomb" in downtown Seattle. The explosion would most likely be heard, but the type of explosion (e.g., sewer methane gas or RDD) may not be immediately known. Emergency first responders must be able to quickly detect the radioisotopes previously listed, assess the situation, and deploy a response to contain and mitigate (if possible) detrimental effects resulting from the incident. In such scenarios, advance notice of about an hour or two might be available before any contaminated wastewater reaches a treatment plant. The second category includes events that could go initially undetected by emergency personnel. Examples of such a scenario would be the inadvertent or surreptitious introduction of radioactive material into the sewer system. Intact rogue radioactive sources from industrial radiography devices, well-logging apparatus, or

  4. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DUAL POLARIZED C-BAND DOPPLER RADAR KING CITY GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual Polarized C-Band Doppler Radar King City GCPEx dataset has special Range Height Indicator (RHI) and sector scans of several dual...

  5. King Chulalongkorn: biography and his activities in medicine and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charulukananan, Somrat; Sueblinvong, Tada

    2003-06-01

    King Rama V, or Chulalongkorn, was the fifth monarch of the Chakri Dynasty. He was one of the most beloved of the Thai kings due to his many activities including abolishing slavery without bloodshed and especially his skillful diplomacy which succeeded in steering Siam out of the grips of the colonial powers. His activities also included reform of the administration of the kingdom according to the European model and in bringing Siam into the modern era with such exquisite skills that he is still vividly remembered today. His reign also saw many developments in medicine and public health. The King's role in these areas, however, were clouded by his more visible activities in politics and diplomacy. The result is that the Thai public learned rather little about his role in these areas. This article aims at collecting this and to show the King's very important role in modernizing medicine and public health in Siam.

  6. Responses by king snakes (Lampropeltis getulus) to chemicals from colubrid and crotaline snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, P J; Schell, F M

    1984-10-01

    Four litters of king snakes (Lampropeltis getulus), a snake-eating species, were tested for responses to chemicals from colubrid and crotaline snakes. King snakes presented with swabs rubbed against the dorsal skin of living snakes and with swabs treated with methylene chloride extracts of shed snake skins tongue-flicked more to swabs from a northern copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix), a crotaline, than to swabs from some colubrid snakes or to blank swabs. Six out of 10 king snakes in one litter attacked and attempted to ingest swabs treated with snake skin chemicals, implicating these chemicals as feeding stimuli for these ophiophagous snakes. Ingestively naive king snakes presented with plain air and snake odors in an olfactometer tongue-flicked more to snake odors. This study and others suggest that crotaline and colubrid snakes can be distinguished by chemical cues.

  7. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Cummiskey: Red king crab sonic tagging and dive database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is data from a long-term monitoring project which utilized sonic tags to follow aggregations of red king crab in Womens Bay near Kodiak Alaska. The database...

  8. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Swiney: Red king crab fecundity and embryo and larval quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stock assessment of Alaskan red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815), can be improved by incorporating reproductive output, which requires an...

  9. Micro-gravity studies in archeo-prospecting of the Valley of the Kings, Luxor, Egypt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Issawy, E. A.; Tealeb, A. A.; Mrlina, Jan; Radwan, A. H.; Hassan, G. S.; Sakr, K. O.

    - (2001), s. 201-212 ISSN 1110-6417 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : micro-gravity investigations * archaeo-prospecting * Valley of the Kings * Egypt Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  10. The Ride of the Kings in Vlčnov from the Perspective of Contemporary Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stavělová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2015), s. 47-64 ISSN 0862-8351 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Ride of the Kings * field research * methodology * festival * traditional custom * Vlčnov Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. Lichen flora around the Korean Antarctic Scientific Station, King George Island, Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hee; Ahn, In-Young; Hong, Soon Gyu; Andreev, Mikhail; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Oh, Mi Jin; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2006-10-01

    As part of the long-term monitoring projects on Antarctic terrestrial vegetation in relation to global climate change, a lichen floristical survey was conducted around the Korean Antarctic Station (King Sejong Station), which is located on Barton Peninsula, King George Island, in January and February of 2006. Two hundred and twenty-five lichen specimens were collected and sixty-two lichen species in 38 genera were identified by morphological characteristics, chemical constituents, TLC analysis and ITS nucleotide sequence analysis.

  12. A preliminary appraisal of sediment sources and transport in Kings Bay and vicinity, Georgia and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, J.B.; Radtke, D.B.; Hale, T.W.; Buell, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    Water-quality, bottom-material, suspended-sediment, and current-velocity data were collected during November 1981 in Kings Bay and vicinity to provide information on the sources and transport of estuarine sediments. Kings Bay and Cumberland Sound , the site of the Poseidon Submarine Base in southeast Georgia, are experiencing high rates of sediment deposition and accumulation, which are causing serious navigational and operational problems. Velocity, bathymetry, turbidity, and bottom-material data suggest that the area in the vicinity of lower Kings Bay is accumulating deposits of suspended sediment transported from Cumberland Sound on the floodtide and from upper Kings Bay and the tidal marsh drained by Marianna Creek on the ebbtide. Suspended-sediment discharges computed for consecutive 13-hour ebbtides and floodtides showed that a net quantity of suspended sediment was transported seaward from upper Kings Bay and Marianna Creek. A net landward transport of suspended sediment computed at the St. Marys Entrance indicated areas seaward of St. Marys Entrance may be supplying sediment to the shoaling areas of the estuary, including lower Kings Bay. (USGS)

  13. Color ornaments and territory position in king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddar, Ismaël; Jouventin, Pierre; Dobson, F Stephen

    2015-10-01

    King penguins exhibit mutual color ornamentation of feathers and beak color. They breed in dense colonies and produce a single chick every 2 years. Thus, males and females must choose partners carefully to be reproductively successful, and auricular patches of males and UV coloration of beak spots have been shown to influence mate choice. Position in the breeding colony is also important to reproductive success, with pairs on the edge of the colony less successful than those in the center. We studied the mutual ornaments, individual condition, and position of pairs in their breeding colony. Males were significantly larger than females in size, body mass, and auricular patch size. Within pairs, auricular patch size of males and females were significantly correlated, and male auricular patch size and body mass were significantly associated, suggesting a link between this ornament and male body condition. Moving from the edge to the center of the colony, pairs had larger yellow-orange auricular patches, indicating a link between this ornament and settlement in higher quality territories in the center of the colony. Pairs were also less brightly brown colored on the breast and less saturated in UV color of the beak spot. Since we observed pairs that were settling for egg laying, location in the colony may have reflected aspects of pair condition, rather than later jockeying for positioning using ornaments as signals of behavioral dominance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.

  15. Phytochemical Studies and Antioxidant Activities of Artocarpus scortechinii King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norzafneza Mohd Arriffin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Six known compounds identified as 4',5-dihydroxy-6,7-(2,2-dimethylpyrano-2'-methoxy-8-γ,γ-dimethylallyflavone (1, cudraflavone A (2, artocarpin(3, cycloartobiloxanthone (4, artonin E (5 and oxyresveratrol (6 were isolated from the stem barks of Artocapus scortechinii King. Another four compounds namely macakurzin C (7, flemichapparin A (8, luteolin (9 and apigenin (10 were isolated from the leaves. Structures of all pure compounds were elucidated spectroscopically using 1D NMR ( 1H, 13C, DEPT, 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, MS and FTIR, as well as by comparison with literature data. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP assays. Luteolin (9 showed the best ability to act as DPPH free radical scavenger with IC 50 value of 9.51 µM. Luteolin (9 also exhibited the strongest scavenger and potent ferric ion reducer compared to other isolated compounds in the ABTS and FRAP assays with IC 50 value of 124.4µM and 4.07 ± 0.180 mM FRAP equivalent respectively.

  16. Lee de Forest King of Radio, Television, and Film

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Lee de Forest, Yale doctorate and Oscar winner, gave voice to the radio and the motion picture. Yet by the 1930s, after the radio and the Talkies were regular features of American life, Lee de Forest had seemingly lost everything. Why? Why didn’t he receive the recognition and acclaim he sought his entire life until years later in 1959, when he was awarded an Oscar? A lifelong innovator, Lee de Forest invented the three-element vacuum tube which he developed between 1906 and 1916 as a detector, amplifier, and oscillator of radio waves. As early as 1907, he was broadcasting music programming. In 1918, he began to develop a system for recording and playing back sound by using light patterns on motion picture film. In order to promote and demonstrate his process he made hundreds of short sound films, found theatres for their showing, and issued publicity to gain audiences for his invention. While he received many patents for this technology, he was ignored by the film industry. Lee de Forest, King of Radio, Te...

  17. Nonshivering thermogenesis and adaptation to fasting in king penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchamp, C; Barre, H; Delage, D; Rouanet, J L; Cohen-Adad, F; Minaire, Y

    1989-10-01

    The ability to develop nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and the effect of fasting on thermogenic response to cold were studied in winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. Metabolic rate (MR) and integrated electrical muscle activity were measured at different ambient temperatures. In cold-acclimatized (5 degrees C) fed chicks, shivering threshold temperature (STT) was 9.4 degrees C lower than lower critical temperature (LCT), indicating that NST (0.7 W/kg) occurs at moderate cold, whereas in control chicks fed and reared at 25 degrees C for 3 wk, LCT and STT were similar. Chicks reared in the cold and fasting for 3 wk or 4-5 mo (natural winter fast) developed an NST of 0.8 and 2.4 W/kg, respectively, despite the fast. In fasting chicks, the intercept of the metabolic curve with the abscissa at zero MR was far below body temperature, contrasting with the classic model for heat loss. Their low LCT indicates the capacity of a large reduction in convective conductance characteristic of diving animals and allows energy sparing in moderate cold. Below LCT, conductance reincreases progressively, leading to a steeper than expected slope of the metabolic curve and allowing preservation of a threshold temperature in the shell. These results show for the first time in a wild young bird the development of NST after cold acclimatization. Further, at the temperature of cold acclimatization, an energy-sparing mechanism is shown in response to long-term fast adaptation.

  18. Acanthamoeba Keratitis at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mezaine, H.; Al-Muteb, M.; Al-Motowa, S.; Wagoner, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    To quantify the number of cases and clinical courses of Acanthamoeba keratitis treated at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH) between December 1982 and May 2005, and to review their clinical course and response to medical and surgical therapy. Retrospective review of medical records of all patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis diagnosed by the KKESH Microbiology or Pathology or Pathology Laboratory since the opening of the hospital. During a period of over 22 years, only six cases of confirmed. Acanthamoeba keratitis were diagnosedand treated at KKESH. In two cases the diagnosis was made by corneal biopsy, while four cases required examination of a histopathology specimen obtained at the time of therapeutic keratoplasty to establish the diagnosis. One eye was cured by medical therapy, while five eyes required one (4eyes) or two (1 eye) therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) to achieve a clinical cure. Three eyes achieved good visual acuity (20/40, 20/50, 20/60), one eye achieved fair visual acuity (20/160), and two eyes suffered profound visual loss (hand motions). The incidence of Acanthamoeba keratitis may be less in Saudi Arabia than reported in Western countries although the clinical is similarly complicated, with most cases requiring therapeutic keratoplasty for definitive education of the organism. (author)

  19. Color Gradient in the King Type Globular Cluster NGC 7089

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jong Sohn

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available We use BV CCD images to investigate the reality of the color gradient within a King type globular cluster NGC 7089. Surface photometry shows that there is a strong radial color gradient in the central region of the cluster in the sense of bluer center with the amplitude of -0.39 +/- 0.07 mag/arcsec2 in (B - V. In the outer region of the cluster, however, the radial color gradient shows a reverse case, i.e., redder toward the center. (B - V color profile which was derived from resolved stars in VGC 7089 field also shows a significant color gradient in the central region of the clusters, indicating that lights from the combination of red giant stars and blue horizontal branch stars cause the radial color gradient. Color gradient of the outer region of NGC 7089 may be due to the unresolved background of the cluster. Similar color gradients in the central area of clusters have been previously observed exserved exclusively in highly concentrated systems classified as post core collapse clusters. We caution, however, to confirm the reality of the color gradient from resolved stars, we need more accurate imaging data of the cluster with exceptional seeing condition because the effect of completeness correlates with local density of stars.

  20. Hypopharyngeal carcinoma: King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahasin, Z.; Khan, B.

    1996-01-01

    From 1975 to 1985, 202 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer were seen at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSHRC). The endoscopic investigation showed that 28.3% of these patients had postcricoid carcinoma; 19.85% had pyriform fossa carcinoma and 52.9% had involvement of both sites. The pathological diagnosis of all cases was squamous cell carcinoma type. The majority of the patients (62.98%) had T4 lesions, which showed a late presentation to KFSHRC. Information related to survival was available for a smaller number of patients to many lost-to-follow-up cases. The overall median survival time was 8.5 months (1-110 months). The survival rate for each site was calculated, as well as the staging of the disease and treatment modality used. It appeared that pyriform fossa (median 21 months) had the best survival rate. In addition the earlier the lesion was detected and the more aggressive the treatment applied, the better the survival rate. Fifty percent of the patients receiving radiation therapy and surgery had a five year survival arte. Factors other than smoking and/on drinking should be looked for in our community as predisposing to this disease in our population. (author)

  1. Overvåking av norsk kosthold - metoder og resultater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Johansson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGKunnskap om endringer i matvarenes sammensetning og befolkningens kosthold er grunnleggende for utformingog oppfølging av en helsefremmende mat- og ernæringspolitikk. Dagens system for overvåking avkostholdet bygger først og fremst på en matvaredatabase og opplysninger om forbruket av matvarer fra tretyper datasett; matforsyningsstatistikk, forbruksundersøkelser og kostholdsundersøkelser. Det avgis årlig envurdering av utviklingen i norsk kosthold i forhold til mat- og ernæringspolitiske målsettinger. Det norskesystemet for overvåking av kostholdet er blitt betydelig styrket i løpet av 1990-årene ved innføringen avregelmessige kostholdsundersøkelser blant landsrepresentative utvalg av befolkningen i ulike aldersgrupperog økte ressurser til analyse av næringsinnholdet i matvarer. Det er imidlertid beskjedent sammenlignet meddatainnsamlingen i land som USA og Storbritannia. Det norske overvåkingssystemet er forsatt i enutviklingsfase, og det må justeres og kompletteres etter hvert. Dessuten vil det arbeides med å kvalitetssikredatainnsamlingen.Johansson L. Surveillance of the diet in Norway – methods and results.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYKnowledge about changes in composition and intake of foods, as well as changes in the prevalence of dietrelatedhealth problems is fundamental for an effective food and nutrition policy. The National Council onNutrition and Physical Activity is responsible for evaluating changes in the diet. Annually the Council publishesreports about trends in the Norwegian diet, and suggests measures to improve the diet. The Council, incooperation with the National Food Authority and the Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo,has established a national food and dietary surveillance system. This system is mainly based on a fooddatabase and food consumption data. The food consumption data include three principally different datasets: food supplies, household consumption surveys

  2. King penguins adjust their diving behaviour with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vaillant, Maryline; Wilson, Rory P; Kato, Akiko; Saraux, Claire; Hanuise, Nicolas; Prud'homme, Onésime; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2012-11-01

    Increasing experience in long-lived species is fundamental to improving breeding success and ultimately individual fitness. Diving efficiency of marine animals is primarily determined by their physiological and mechanical characteristics. This efficiency may be apparent via examination of biomechanical performance (e.g. stroke frequency and amplitude, change in buoyancy or body angle, etc.), which itself may be modulated according to resource availability, particularly as a function of depth. We investigated how foraging and diving abilities vary with age in a long-lived seabird. During two breeding seasons, small accelerometers were deployed on young (5 year old) and older (8/9 year old) brooding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at the Crozet Archipelago, Indian Ocean. We used partial dynamic body acceleration (PDBA) to quantify body movement during dive and estimate diving cost. During the initial part of the descent, older birds exerted more effort for a given speed but younger penguins worked harder in relation to performance at greater depths. Younger birds also worked harder per unit speed for virtually the whole of the ascent. We interpret these differences using a model that takes into account the upthrust and drag to which the birds are subjected during the dive. From this, we suggest that older birds inhale more at the surface but that an increase in the drag coefficient is the factor leading to the increased effort to swim at a given speed by the younger birds at greater depths. We propose that this higher drag may be the result of young birds adopting less hydrodynamic postures or less direct trajectories when swimming or even having a plumage in poorer condition.

  3. Review of records and notes on King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barquete, Viviane; Bugoni, Leandro; Silva-Filho, Rodolfo P.; Adornes, Andréa C.

    2006-01-01

    A review of previous findings and new records of King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome) on the Brazilian coast is presented. In total there are six records of the King Penguin and ten records of the Rockhopper Penguin. Juvenile and adults of both species were found stranded mostly on Rio Grande do Sul coast, southern Brazil. Records of King Penguins are restricted to the summer season, while records of Rockhopper Penguins are mostly during winter. ...

  4. An ideal for leadership - Psalm 72: The (wise king - Royal mediation of God�s universal reign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Human

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Psalm 72 propounds illuminating theological perspectives on leadership. The central figure in the psalm is the king. Throughout the Ancient Near East the king played a distinctive role, not only in contemporary politics, but also in religious life. Despite several differences from the other nations, kingship in Israel was rooted in the worldview of the ancient East. Yahweh, like other gods, commissioned the king for his tasks. The wise king in Israel, who alludes in Psalm 72 to the figure of Solomon, is obliged to rule with justice in order to maintain peace and prosperity in society.

  5. Behavioral and physiological significance of minimum resting metabolic rate in king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, L G; Butler, P J; Fahlman, A; Woakes, A J; Handrich, Y

    2008-01-01

    Because fasting king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) need to conserve energy, it is possible that they exhibit particularly low metabolic rates during periods of rest. We investigated the behavioral and physiological aspects of periods of minimum metabolic rate in king penguins under different circumstances. Heart rate (f(H)) measurements were recorded to estimate rate of oxygen consumption during periods of rest. Furthermore, apparent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the f(H) data to determine probable breathing frequency in resting penguins. The most pertinent results were that minimum f(H) achieved (over 5 min) was higher during respirometry experiments in air than during periods ashore in the field; that minimum f(H) during respirometry experiments on water was similar to that while at sea; and that RSA was apparent in many of the f(H) traces during periods of minimum f(H) and provides accurate estimates of breathing rates of king penguins resting in specific situations in the field. Inferences made from the results include that king penguins do not have the capacity to reduce their metabolism to a particularly low level on land; that they can, however, achieve surprisingly low metabolic rates at sea while resting in cold water; and that during respirometry experiments king penguins are stressed to some degree, exhibiting an elevated metabolism even when resting.

  6. Mandatory menu labeling in one fast-food chain in King County, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Strombotne, Kiersten L; Chan, Nadine L; Krieger, James

    2011-02-01

    As part of a comprehensive effort to stem the rise in obesity, King County, Washington, enforced a mandatory menu-labeling regulation requiring all restaurant chains with 15 or more locations to disclose calorie information at the point of purchase beginning in January 2009. The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact of the King County regulation on transactions and purchasing behavior at one Mexican fast-food chain with locations within and adjacent to King County. To examine the effect of the King County regulation, a difference-in-difference approach was used to compare total transactions and average calories per transaction between seven King County restaurants and seven control locations focusing on two time periods: one period immediately following the law until the posting of drive-through menu boards (January 2009 to July 2009) and a second period following the drive-through postings (August 2009 through January 2010). Analyses were conducted in 2010. No impact of the regulation on purchasing behavior was found. Trends in transactions and calories per transaction did not vary between control and intervention locations after the law was enacted. In this setting, mandatory menu labeling did not promote healthier food-purchasing behavior. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lenke and King classification systems for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: interobserver agreement and postoperative results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpour-Feizi H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hojjat Hosseinpour-Feizi, Jafar Soleimanpour, Jafar Ganjpour Sales, Ali ArzroumchilarDepartment of Orthopedics, Shohada Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranPurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the interobserver agreement of the Lenke and King classifications for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and to compare the results of surgery performed based on classification of the scoliosis according to each of these classification systems.Methods: The study was conducted in Shohada Hospital in Tabriz, Iran, between 2009 and 2010. First, a reliability assessment was undertaken to assess interobserver agreement of the Lenke and King classifications for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Second, postoperative efficacy and safety of surgery performed based on the Lenke and King classifications were compared. Kappa coefficients of agreement were calculated to assess the agreement. Outcomes were compared using bivariate tests and repeated measures analysis of variance.Results: A low to moderate interobserver agreement was observed for the King classification; the Lenke classification yielded mostly high agreement coefficients. The outcome of surgery was not found to be substantially different between the two systems.Conclusion: Based on the results, the Lenke classification method seems advantageous. This takes into consideration the Lenke classification’s priority in providing details of curvatures in different anatomical surfaces to explain precise intensity of scoliosis, that it has higher interobserver agreement scores, and also that it leads to noninferior postoperative results compared with the King classification method.Keywords: test reliability, scoliosis classification, postoperative efficacy, adolescents

  8. Lenke and King classification systems for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: interobserver agreement and postoperative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour-Feizi, Hojjat; Soleimanpour, Jafar; Sales, Jafar Ganjpour; Arzroumchilar, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interobserver agreement of the Lenke and King classifications for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and to compare the results of surgery performed based on classification of the scoliosis according to each of these classification systems. The study was conducted in Shohada Hospital in Tabriz, Iran, between 2009 and 2010. First, a reliability assessment was undertaken to assess interobserver agreement of the Lenke and King classifications for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Second, postoperative efficacy and safety of surgery performed based on the Lenke and King classifications were compared. Kappa coefficients of agreement were calculated to assess the agreement. Outcomes were compared using bivariate tests and repeated measures analysis of variance. A low to moderate interobserver agreement was observed for the King classification; the Lenke classification yielded mostly high agreement coefficients. The outcome of surgery was not found to be substantially different between the two systems. Based on the results, the Lenke classification method seems advantageous. This takes into consideration the Lenke classification's priority in providing details of curvatures in different anatomical surfaces to explain precise intensity of scoliosis, that it has higher interobserver agreement scores, and also that it leads to noninferior postoperative results compared with the King classification method.

  9. Arctic observers: Richard King, monogenism and the historicisation of Inuit through travel narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera-Shriar, Efram

    2015-06-01

    In 1848 the ethnologist, surgeon and Arctic explorer Richard King (1810-1876) published a three-part series on Inuit in the Journal of the Ethnological Society of London. This series provided a detailed history of Inuit from the eleventh century to the early nineteenth century. It incorporated a mixture of King's personal observations from his experience travelling to the Arctic as a member of George Back's expedition (1833-1835), and the testimonies of other contemporary and historical actors who had written on the subject. The aim was to historicise Inuit through the use of travel reports and show persistent features among the race. King was a monogenist and his sensitive recasting of Inuit was influenced by his participation in a research community actively engaged in humanitarian and abolitionist causes. The physician and ethnologist Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866) argued that King's research on Inuit was one of the best ethnological approaches to emulate and that it set the standard for the nascent discipline. If we are to take seriously Hodgkin's claim, we should look at how King constructed his depiction of Inuit. There is much to be gained by investigating the practices of nineteenth-century ethnologists because it strengthens our knowledge of the discipline's past and shows how modern understandings of races were formed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mixed connective tissue disease: The King Faisal Specialist Hospital experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rayes, H.; Al-Sheikh, A.; Al-Dalaan, A.; Al-Saleh, S.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical presentation, complications and serological analysis of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSHRC), and to determine the long-term clinical and immunologic outcomes. This was a retrospective study with prospective follow-up of 18 patients with MCTD who were followed at KFSHRC between 1982 and 1999. The age at onset of the disease ranged from 6 to 44 years, with mean age of 17.9 years. The female to male ratio was 2.5:1 and the mean follow-up time was 5 years. The most frequent presenting symptoms were arthralgia in all patients, Raynaud's phenomenon in 16 patients (88%) and swollen hands in 11 patients (61%). Arthritis was seen in 12 patients in (67%) and definite myositis in 10 patients (58%). The most common skin rashes encountered included lupus-like rash in 8 patients (44%) and cutaneous vasculitis in 5 patients (28%). Pulmonary hypertension occurred in 4 patients (22%). Other clinical manifestations encountered were esophageal hypomotility in 10 patients (56%), myocarditis in 2 patients (11%) and proteinurea in 2 patients (11%), while various neurological manifestations were present in 7 patients (39%). All patients exhibited higher titer of ANA and anti-nRNP antibodies. Five of the 18 patients (28%) had marked reduction in the anti-nRNP during remission. Following treatment, features of inflammation as well as Raynaud's phenomenon and esophageal hypomotility diminished, while pulmonary hypertension persisted. A favorable outcome was observed in 12 patients (67%), 3 patients (17%) had continued active disease, while 3 patients (17%) died, with death related to pulmonary hypertension occurring in 2 patients (11%). The studied patients demonstrated the typical clinical and serological findings of MCTD, which support the correlation between anti-nRNP antibody specificities and MCTD. Autoantibody reactivity against nRNP polypeptides tends to regress during

  11. Modern sedimentation patterns in Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H. Christian; Kuhn, Gerhard; Wölfl, Anne-Cathrin; Wittenberg, Nina; Betzler, Christian

    2013-04-01

    IMCOAST among a number of other initiatives investigates the modern and the late Holocene environmental development of south King George Island with a strong emphasis on Maxwell Bay and its tributary fjord Potter Cove (maximum water depth: about 200 m). In this part of the project we aim at reconstructing the modern sediment distribution in the inner part of Potter Cove using an acoustic ground discrimination system (RoxAnn) and more than136 ground-truth samples. Over the past 20 years the air temperatures in the immediate working area increased by more than 0.6 K (Schloss et al. 2012) which is less than in other parts of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) but it is still in the range of the recovery of temperatures from the Little Ice Age maximum to the beginning of the 20th century. Potter Cove is a small fjord characterized by a series of moraine ridges produced by a tidewater glacier (Fourcade Glacier). Presumably, the farthest moraine is not much older than about 500 years (LIA maximum), hence the sediment cover is rather thin as evidenced by high resolution seismic data. Since a few years at least the better part of the tidewater glacier retreated onto the island's mainland. It is suggested that such a fundamental change in the fjord's physiography has also changed sedimentation patterns in the area. Potter Cove is characterized by silty-clayey sediments in the deeper inner parts of the cove. Sediments are coarser (fine to coarse sands and boulders) in the shallower areas; they also coarsen from the innermost basin to the mouth of the fjord. Textural structures follow the seabed morphology, i.e. small v-shaped passages through the moraine ridges. The glacier still produces large amounts of turbid melt waters that enter the cove at various places. We presume that very fine-grained sediments fall out from the meltwater plumes and are distributed by mid-depth or even bottom currents, thus suggesting an anti-estuarine circulation pattern. Older sediments that are

  12. Five analogies between a King's Speech treatment and contemporary play therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terr, Lenore C

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric patients frequently respond positively to play therapy, which may rely on psychoanalytic, Jungian, cognitive-behavioral, familial, school-based, or other theories. I wished to determine if there were unifying principles that tie together these various types of play treatments. The fact-based film, The King's Speech, vividly illustrates play utilized by Lionel Logue in his speech treatment (1926-1939) of the future King of England. In the film I found five analogies to the play therapy I employ in office practice. The play scenes in The King's Speech point to five unifying principles among contemporary play therapies: (1) the crucial nature of the relationship, (2) the centrality of having fun, (3) the occasional reliance on others, (4) the interjection of pithy talk, and (5) the usefulness of a little drama. No matter what theory a play therapist ascribes to, these five unifying principles should be kept in mind during treatment.

  13. Archeology in Medicine: Digging up into the tophi of Popes, Dukes and Kings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ceccarelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available According to an Anglo-Saxon pun, “gout is the king of diseases and the disease of Kings”. In fact, it is well-known that in past times a quantity of famous persons, including Kings and Popes, were affected with this rheumatic disorder. In this paper biographical anecdotes on several Popes (Pius III, Julius II, Julius III, Clement VIII, Innocent XI, Clement XII and Pius VIII, King George IV and Queen Anne of England, as well as on some members of the Lorraine lineage, all suffering from gout, are sketched out. These historical data are briefly discussed in relation to the celebrated Hippocrates’s aphorisms on gout.

  14. King penguin population on Macquarie Island recovers ancient DNA diversity after heavy exploitation in historic times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupink, Tim H; van den Hoff, John; Lambert, David M

    2012-08-23

    Historically, king penguin populations on Macquarie Island have suffered greatly from human exploitation. Two large colonies on the island were drastically reduced to a single small colony as a result of harvesting for the blubber oil industry. However, recent conservation efforts have resulted in the king penguin population expanding in numbers and range to recolonize previous as well as new sites. Ancient DNA methods were used to estimate past genetic diversity and combined with studies of modern populations, we are now able to compare past levels of variation with extant populations on northern Macquarie Island. The ancient and modern populations are closely related and show a similar level of genetic diversity. These results suggest that the king penguin population has recovered past genetic diversity in just 80 years owing to conservation efforts, despite having seen the brink of extinction.

  15. Religión y Paz en Martin Luther King Jr.

    OpenAIRE

    Mussio, Ria Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Esta tesis pretende mostrar el rol integral que la religión desempeñaba en la obtención de los derechos civiles para los afroamericanos y, también en el logro de la paz positiva. Martin Luther King Jr. y la mayoría de los manifestantes del movimiento eran cristianos, poniendo su fe en Dios, para el pleno disfrute de sus derechos humanos. King Jr., anclado en su fe, impulsó el avance de los derechos civiles, mediante la resistencia no violenta. El primer capítulo tiene como finalidad orientar ...

  16. Overvåking av jordboende sopp i Røsskleiva NR, Bamble 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Brandrud, Tor Erik; Dima, Bàlint

    2017-01-01

    Brandrud, T.E. & Dima, B. 2017. Overvåking av jordboende sopp i Røsskleiva NR, Bamble 2016. – NINA Kortrapport 80. 15 s. Kartlegging (start av overvåking) av habitat-spesifikke, jordboende kalksopper i nordre del av Røsskleiva NR ble gjennomført i 2016, før oppstart av skjøtselstiltak med storfébeiting. Tilsammen 27 habitat-spesifikke arter, inkludert 18 rødlistede arter ble registrert i løpet av to registreringsrunder i 2016. Funnene fordelte seg på 10 kalkbarskogsopper, 5 kalklinde-skogs...

  17. The Role of Continuous Education Programs Organized by Saudi Universities in Literacy--A Case Study of King Saud University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rawaf, Haya Saad Abdulla; Fattah, Azza Khalil Abdel; Megeid, Fadia Yousif Abdel; Nazmy, Rania Mohammed Aziz; Alarifi, Sarah Nasser; Al Sulaihm, Hind Sulaiman

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at highlighting the role of Continuous Education Programs at the Saudi Universities in Religious, Social, and Health Literacy; King Saud University was taken as an example. To achieve the goals of the study two questionnaires were distributed among two samples from King Saud University; (101) of students, and (9) of continuous…

  18. The Role of Authors in the “Uruk List of Kings and Sages”: Canonization and Cultural Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Sophus

    2018-01-01

    The so-called "Uruk List of Kings and Sages" includes a selection of (pseudo-)historical figures known from other sources as the authors of literary and scholarly works. These authors are placed alongside famous kings and mythical sages, in a synoptic and schematic overview of cuneiform culture...

  19. "I Just Want to Do God's Will:" Teaching Martin Luther King, Jr. as a Religious Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, David

    2018-01-01

    Teachers often respond to the perils of teaching about religion by simply avoiding the subject. An investigation of secondary lesson plans on three prominent Martin Luther King, Jr. websites reveals little attention to the ideology of the civil rights movement, especially those touching on religious ideas. Ignoring King's religious views risks…

  20. Escaping from allegories:cat’s eye and King Lear Escaping from allegories:cat’s eye and King Lear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cakebread

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In her 1972 study of Canadian literature, aptly titled Survival, Margaret Atwood uses the symbol of the mirror to describe the difficulty faced by Canadian writers and artists, struggling to assert their voices in a country trying to define itself against a colonial past.Here, she sees Canada as squeezed between the overwhelming, colonizing powers of Great Britain on one side, and The United States on the other. In her view, a piece of art becomes a mirror. As she writes: If a country or a culture lacks such mirrors it has no way of knowing what it looks like; it must travel blind. If, as has long been the case in [Canada], the viewer is given a mirror that reflects not him but someone else, and told at the same time that the reflection he sees is himself, he will get a very distorted idea of what he is really like. He will also get a distorted idea of what other people are like: it’s hard to find out who anyone else is until you have found out who you are. (15-16 With its roots in Lacanian psychoanalysis, the mirror Atwood describes provides an unreliable reflection for burgeoning artists inCanada: up against the powerful countries that surround them she sees a major identity crisis. Sixteen years later, her 1988 novel, Cat’s Eye, treads similar ground, tracking as it does the passage of its protagonist—painter, Elaine Risley—through childhood in mid-century Canada to her development as an established artist in the 1980s. It is into this narrative that Atwood places extensive references to Shakespeare’s tragedy, King Lear—a play that deals with the notion of identity. Here, Lear’s question, “Who is it that can tell me who I am?” becomes Elaine’s, as she ventures back to Toronto to attend a retrospective of her work at a women’s art gallery named “Sub-Versions.” In her 1972 study of Canadian literature, aptly titled Survival, Margaret Atwood uses the symbol of the mirror to describe the difficulty faced

  1. Radiological Instrumentation Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, Daniel J.; McConn, Ronald J.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.

    2005-01-01

    The King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into its combined sanitary and storm sewer system. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include 'dirty bombs' that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material. Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. Volume 2 of PNNL-15163 assesses the radiological instrumentation needs for detection of radiological or nuclear terrorism, in support of decisions to treat contaminated wastewater or to bypass the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP), and in support of radiation protection of the workforce, the public, and the infrastructure of the WPTP. Fixed radiation detection instrumentation should be deployed in a defense-in-depth system that provides (1) early warning of significant radioactive material on the way to the WPTP, including identification of the radionuclide(s) and estimates of the soluble concentrations, with a floating detector located in the wet well at the Interbay Pump Station and telemetered via the internet to all authorized locations; (2) monitoring at strategic locations within the plant, including (2a) the pipe beyond the hydraulic ram in the bar screen room; (2b) above the collection funnels in the fine grit facility; (2c) in the sampling tank in the raw sewage pump room; and (2d) downstream of the concentration facilities that produce 6% blended and concentrated biosolids. Engineering challenges exist for these applications. It is necessary to deploy both ultra-sensitive detectors to provide early warning and identification and detectors capable of functioning in high-dose rate environments that are likely under some scenarios

  2. King Cotton's Lasting Legacy of Poverty and Southern Region Contemporary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.; Peevely, Gary

    2010-01-01

    One hundred fifty years ago, cotton was considered as the king of all United States' agricultural exports. Cotton's dollar value far exceeded that of any other mid-19th-century United States trade item, much more than tobacco, fish, forest products, raw materials for manufacturing, or manufactured items. Indeed, in the mid-19th century, cotton was…

  3. Coretta Scott King Award Winner Javaka Steptoe Stands Tall "In Daddy's Arms."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Jackie; Hendershot, Judy

    1999-01-01

    Offers an interview with artist and author Javaka Steptoe, winner of the Coretta Scott King award for his book "In Daddy's Arms I Am Tall: African Americans Celebrating Fathers." Discusses his background in the arts, the variety of media he uses, how he begins thinking about his illustrations, his work with children's art, and aspects of his work.…

  4. Willingness to Communicate in English: A Case Study of EFL Students at King Khalid University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Dawood Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of learning a foreign language is to use it for meaningful and effective communication both inside and outside the classroom. This paper is devoted to identifying the main communication difficulties faced by EFL students at King Khalid University (KKU) and exploring the reasons that lie behind these difficulties. The paper…

  5. The Rule of Law and Civil Disobedience: The Case behind King's Letter from a Birmingham Jail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Fifty years ago, the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. wrote his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." In exploring the story of the events behind the essay, and the Supreme Court case that resulted, "Walker v. Birmingham", 399 U.S. 307 (1967), educators will find a pedagogically powerful lens through which to review the seminal…

  6. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Effects of ocean acidification on blue king crab

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is data from a laboratory experiment in which blue king crab juveniles were held at three different pHs (ambient, pH 7.8, and pH 7.5) for a year. Growth,...

  7. Prescribed burning in the Kings River Ecosystem Project Area: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. McCandliss

    2002-01-01

    The prescribed fire program on the Sierra National Forest is in its infancy. Prescription burning was initiated in 1994 in two 32,000-acre watersheds in the Kings River District of the Sierra National Forest. Primary objectives are to return fire to a more historical role in forest ecosystems and to provide opportunities for scientists from the Pacific Southwest...

  8. Endotracheal Intubation Using the Macintosh Laryngoscope or KingVision Video Laryngoscope during Uninterrupted Chest Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Gaszynska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Advanced airway management, endotracheal intubation (ETI, during CPR is more difficult than, for example, during anesthesia. However, new devices such as video laryngoscopes should help in such circumstances. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the KingVision video laryngoscopes in a manikin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR scenario. Methods. Thirty students enrolled in the third year of paramedic school took part in the study. The simulated CPR scenario was ETI using the standard laryngoscope with a Macintosh blade (MCL and ETI using the KingVision video laryngoscope performed during uninterrupted chest compressions. The primary endpoints were the time needed for ETI and the success ratio. Results. The mean time required for intubation was similar for both laryngoscopes: 16.6 (SD 5.11, median 15.64, range 7.9–27.9 seconds versus 17.91 (SD 5.6, median 16.28, range 10.6–28.6 seconds for the MCL and KingVision, respectively (P=0.1888. On the first attempt at ETI, the success rate during CPR was comparable between the evaluated laryngoscopes: P=0.9032. Conclusion. The KingVision video laryngoscope proves to be less superior when used for endotracheal intubation during CPR compared to the standard laryngoscope with a Mackintosh blade. This proves true in terms of shortening the time needed for ETI and increasing the success ratio.

  9. Multiple Intelligences Patterns of Students at King Saud University and Its Relationship with Mathematics' Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeel, Refat A. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the multiple intelligences patterns of students at King Saud University and its relationship with academic achievement for the courses of Mathematics. The study sample consisted of 917 students were selected a stratified random manner, the descriptive analysis method and Pearson correlation were used, the…

  10. His Majesty King Abdullah II of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    Left to right : King Abdullah II of Jordan visiting CERN with Luciano Maiani, Director-General of CERN, Maurice Bourquin (behind), President of the CERN Council, and Herwig Schopper, President of the SESAME Council and former Director-General of CERN.

  11. Has the Dream Been Fulfilled? Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. & President Barack Hussein Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nichelle Boyd; Moore, Virginia J.; Williams-Black, Thea H.

    2015-01-01

    Equality for all was the dream of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and he knowingly laid the foundation for and inspired the first African-American President of the United States of America, Barack Hussein Obama, who also had the dream of "Change" for America. These men exhibited how working together can make dreams become reality. For the…

  12. "I Have a Dream, Too!": The American Dream in Coretta Scott King Award-Winning Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Linda T.; Castleman, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The Coretta Scott King (CSK) Award, instituted in 1969 and recognized as an official award by the American Library Association (ALA) in 1982, is conferred annually to an African American author and an illustrator for their outstanding contributions to literature about the Black experience for children and young adults. A partial impetus for the…

  13. "The Lion King" and "Hamlet": A Homecoming for the Exiled Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Rosemarie

    1996-01-01

    Explains how the movie "The Lion King" may be used to elucidate Shakespeare's "Hamlet," a play about a prince who does not always seem heroic to modern audiences. Gives specific points of comparison between the two works concerning heroes, characters, conflicts, themes, ending scenes, and archetypal patterns. (TB)

  14. Two versions of solomon's prayer (1 kings 8 and 2 chronicles 6): a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . We find this prayer in two different theological and literary traditions of the Bible: 1 Kings 8:22-53 and 2 Chronicles 6:12-42. In the light of these parallel versions one may pose the following questions: What are the similarities and differences ...

  15. The outcome of the first 1000 cases of LASIK performed at the king Hussein Medical Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallat, W [King Hussein Medical Centre, Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Ophthalmology

    2011-07-01

    The current study evaluates the refractive and visual outcome of patients who had laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) performed at the refractive center at King Hussein Medical centre in Jordan. The predictability of LASIK surgery in terms of refractive and visual outcome results is very good with mild regression in refraction over time. (author).

  16. The outcome of the first 1000 cases of LASIK performed at the king Hussein Medical Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallat, W

    2011-01-01

    The current study evaluates the refractive and visual outcome of patients who had laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) performed at the refractive center at King Hussein Medical centre in Jordan. The predictability of LASIK surgery in terms of refractive and visual outcome results is very good with mild regression in refraction over time. (author).

  17. Density variation of 137Cs activity in surface soil from the King George Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osores, Jose; Gonzales, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of radiocaesium from the nuclear tests conducted in the southern hemisphere was evaluated and their behavior was estimated on the floor of King George Island. Based on the findings made by several authors, the time of semi-exhaustion for Cs-137 was estimated at 4.5 years accumulated in the region since 1993. (authors).

  18. The King and Prisoner Puzzle: A Way of Introducing the Components of Logical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Kyeong Hah; Lee, Yong Hah; Tanner, Austin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide issues related to student understanding of logical components that arise when solving word problems. We designed a logic problem called the King and Prisoner Puzzle--a linguistically simple, yet logically challenging problem. In this paper, we describe various student solutions to the puzzle and discuss the…

  19. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Thermo King de Puerto Rico Incorporated in Arecibo, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermo King de Puerto Rico, Inc. facility is located in the Zeno Gandia Industrial Area in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Major features of the facility include six buildings used for manufacturing and storage, a wastewater treatment plant, a hazardous waste and no

  20. Metabolic response to lipid infusion in fasting winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loïc; Tornos, Jérémy; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien

    2013-05-01

    During the cold austral winter, king penguin chicks are infrequently fed by their parents and thus experience severe nutritional deprivation under harsh environmental conditions. These energetic constraints lead to a range of energy sparing mechanisms balanced by the maintenance of efficient thermogenic processes. The present work investigated whether the high thermogenic capacities exhibited by winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks could be related to an increase in lipid substrate supply and oxidation in skeletal muscle, the main site of thermogenesis in birds. To test this hypothesis, we examined i) the effect of an experimental rise in plasma triglyceride on the whole metabolic rate in winter-acclimatized (WA) and de-acclimatized king penguin chicks kept at thermoneutrality (TN), and ii) investigated the fuel preference of muscle mitochondria. In vivo, a perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a small 10% increase of metabolic rate in WA chicks but not in TN group. In vitro, the oxidation rate of muscle mitochondria respiring on lipid-derived substrate was +40% higher in WA chicks than in TN, while no differences were found between groups when mitochondria oxidized carbohydrate-derived substrate or succinate. Despite an enhanced fuel selection towards lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, a rise of circulating lipids per se was not sufficient to fully unravel the thermogenic capacity of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Examples of Mechanism Design : From King Solomon to eBay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The judgment of king Solomon is an early example of mechanism design. Mechanism design attempts to achieve desired outcomes in situations with self-interested players by setting the rules of the game in a specific way. We will see that the game Solomon proposed would not have worked if the women

  2. Conservative nutrient use by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) planted under contrasting environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Medina; E. Cuevas; A.E. Lugo; E. Terezo; J. Jimenez-Osornio; P.A. Macario-Mendoza; P. Montanez

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the nutritional composition and isotope ratios (C and N) of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) leaves in plantations established on contrasting soils and climates in Central America (State of Quintana Roo, Yucatan, Mexico) and South America (State of Para, Brazil). The objective was to determine the adaptability of this species to large...

  3. Carbon and nutrient contents in soils from the Kings River Experimental Watersheds, Sierra Nevada Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.W. Johnson; C.T. Hunsaker; D.W. Glass; B.M. Rau; B.A. Roath

    2011-01-01

    Soil C and nutrient contents were estimated for eight watersheds in two sites (one high elevation, Bull, and one low elevation, Providence) in the Kings River Experimental Watersheds in the western Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Eighty-seven quantitative pits were dug to measure soil bulk density and total rock content, while three replicate surface samples...

  4. Transmedia Narrative in the Era of the Social mobbile. Carlos, King Emperor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. CARREÑO VILLADA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transmedia narratives are an integral part of mobile communication and are becoming one of the most recurrent when presenting a new audiovisual format forms. Carlos, King Emperor series makes use of transmedia storytelling to reach the user and interact with it through the different elements of your macro narrative universe, elements such as video game or profiles on social networks.

  5. Aspects of the biology of three benthic-feeding teleosts from King's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the biology of three benthic-feeding teleosts from King's Beach, Algoa Bay. Theresa A. Lasiak. Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth. The lengths, abundance pattems and feeding habits of three species of benthic·feeding teleosts, Lithognathus mormyrus,. Lithognathus lithognathus ...

  6. Siim Nestor soovitab : Goldie. Kevin Saunderson. Nicole Willis. King Britt / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Popmuusikaüritustest: briti muusik Goldie esineb jungle-muusikaga Tallinnas 21. apr. klubis Privé, DJ Kevin Saunderson 22. apr. klubis Privé, laulja Nicole Willis 27. apr. BonBon Jazz Lounge'il klubis BonBon, Philadelphia muusik King Britt ja Eesti ansambel Broken Time Orchestra esitlevad oma heliplaate

  7. The Poukai ceremony of the Maori King Movement: An ethnohistorical interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van

    2009-01-01

    The poukai is a ceremonial gathering held on 28 days a year at different Marae [1] or ceremonial centres supporting the K ngitanga, or Maori King Movement, which is largely based within the Tainui confederation of tribes in the Waikato region of New Zealand's North Island. The K ngitanga was

  8. Wole Soyinka's A Play of Giants and King Baabu : The crises ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper, using Soyinka's A Play of Giants and King Baabu, re-examines the centrality of ideology to texts of social engagement in the postcolonial space. Within the context of the humanistic values that the playwright esteems, this essay scrutinizes the social conditions in the plays and the dramatist's “vision.

  9. Africa in the imaginary: the geographical explorations of the king Juba II of Mauretania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique GOZALBES CRAVIOTO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we analyzed the different texts of the Latin encyclopaedist Plinio, specially the texts that refer to the geographical explorations of the king Juba II of Mauretania. These explorations developed from two directions, the Atlantic Africa and the mountain chain of the Atlas. Juba II contemplated both cases from the own image inherited from the African continent.

  10. Utilidade e significância social da teoria do alcance de metas de king

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácia Sátiro Xavier de França

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa enfocou o modelo de análise de teorias de Meleis, a Teoria do Alcance de Objetivos (King, 1981 e um estudo realizado por Silveira, objetivando analisar a utilidade e significância social da Teoria de King. Realizamos uma leitura compreensiva da Teoria de King e do modelo proposto por Meleis. Recortamos, desse modelo, o segmento "Crítica de teoria" para servir de suporte analítico. Selecionamos o estudo "Estar despido na unidade de terapia intensiva: duas percepções e um encontro" (Silveira, 1996, cujo marco teórico é a teoria supracitada. Da análise crítica, apoiada na inter-relação desses construtos, concluímos que: a teoria de King é útil à pesquisa por possibilitar a percepção e a interpretação dos dados objetivo-subjetivos da realidade concreta. Sua significância social tem relação com a aplicação da teoria por representantes dos vários segmentos sociais, viabilizando a re-socialização de pessoas e grupos em prol de um mundo mais humano, solidário, cidadão.

  11. 77 FR 22606 - Proposed Information Collection; Visitor Use Surveys for Headwaters Forest Reserve and King Range...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... visitor use surveys would assist the BLM in meeting goals set forth in Resource Management Plans (RMPs... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCAN03900 L17110000 AL0000] Proposed Information Collection; Visitor Use Surveys for Headwaters Forest Reserve and King Range National Conservation...

  12. RISK MANAGEMENT DISCLOSURE PRACTICESIN ACCORDANCEWITH KING II AND III: THE CASE OF SELECTED JSE LISTEDCOMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Janse van Vuuren

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing collapse of large international companies could have been partiallyprevented if good corporate governance principles and,more specifically,effectiverisk management practices had been implemented and adhered to.Research reveals that the majority offinancial institutions in Europe do notmanage risk effectively and the global financial crisis proved that excessive risk-taking can result in corporate failure. Similar trends are prevalent in South Africa.The aim of this research was to investigate the compliance of Johannesburg StockExchange (JSE listed companies with recommended risk management practicesand disclosure requirements after the introduction of King II and III. To achievethis the annual reports ofselectedJSElisted companies were evaluated toestablish the quality of their reporting on risk management practices asrecommended in King II andIII. The results of the study indicated that theminority of the companies investigated, fully complied with all the recommendedrequirements. This study contributed to literature by showing that althoughdisclosure on risk management practicesimproved significantly since King IIbecame operational in 2002, companies still did not adhere to all the requirementsas stipulated even after King III became effectivein 2010. The finding, therefore,supports the notion that full compliance is an evolutionary process, rather than arevolutionary process and will therefore only be achieved over time.

  13. Critical Discourse Analysis of Martin Luther King's Speech in Socio-Political Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipra, Muhammad Aslam; Rashid, Athar

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) of the first part of King Martin Luther's speech "When I Have a Dream" in socio-political context. The study investigates how it lies on the basis of application of Fairclough version of CDA in the first part of the text. Moreover, it explicates the terms like social, cultural…

  14. Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Lesson with Interdisciplinary Connections for Middle-Level Music Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Mary Frances; Terry, Cynthia

    This lesson begins with a very brief biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. The lesson identifies its educational objectives; addresses National Standards for Music Education; lists materials needed; details six step-by-step classroom procedures for lesson implementation; and provides curriculum connections for language arts, visual art, physical…

  15. The Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project: inception, objectives, and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared Verner; Mark T. Smith

    2002-01-01

    The Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project, a formal administrative study involving extensive and intensive collaboration between Forest Service managers and researchers, is a response to changes in the agency’s orientation in favor of ecosystem approaches and to recent concern over issues associated with maintenance of late successional forest attributes...

  16. 77 FR 38005 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Independence Day Fireworks display from 7 a.m. until 10 p.m. on July 3, 2012. This action is necessary to protect life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display...

  17. Symmetry breaking in Landau gauge. A comment to a paper by T. Kennedy and C. King

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgs, C.; Nill, F.

    1986-01-01

    The authors generalize the result of T. Kennedy and C. King (Princeton preprint, 1985) on the non-compact abelian lattice Higgs model in Landau gauge in order to show that there are states parameterized by an angle such that the expectation value of the Higgs field is described by a phase factor and a value which is uniformly bounded away from zero. (HSI)

  18. Phreatic explosions during basaltic fissure eruptions: Kings Bowl lava field, Snake River Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Scott S.; Kobs Nawotniak, Shannon E.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Borg, Christian; Garry, William Brent; Christiansen, Eric H.; Haberle, Christopher W.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Heldmann, Jennifer L.

    2018-02-01

    Physical and compositional measurements are made at the 7 km-long ( 2200 years B.P.) Kings Bowl basaltic fissure system and surrounding lava field in order to further understand the interaction of fissure-fed lavas with phreatic explosive events. These assessments are intended to elucidate the cause and potential for hazards associated with phreatic phases that occur during basaltic fissure eruptions. In the present paper we focus on a general understanding of the geological history of the site. We utilize geospatial analysis of lava surfaces, lithologic and geochemical signatures of lava flows and explosively ejected blocks, and surveys via ground observation and remote sensing. Lithologic and geochemical signatures readily distinguish between Kings Bowl and underlying pre-Kings Bowl lava flows, both of which comprise phreatic ejecta from the Kings Bowl fissure. These basalt types, as well as neighboring lava flows from the contemporaneous Wapi lava field and the older Inferno Chasm vent and outflow channel, fall compositionally within the framework of eastern Snake River Plain olivine tholeiites. Total volume of lava in the Kings Bowl field is estimated to be 0.0125 km3, compared to a previous estimate of 0.005 km3. The main (central) lava lake lost a total of 0.0018 km3 of magma by either drain-back into the fissure system or breakout flows from breached levees. Phreatic explosions along the Kings Bowl fissure system occurred after magma supply was cut off, leading to fissure evacuation, and were triggered by magma withdrawal. The fissure system produced multiple phreatic explosions and the main pit is accompanied by others that occur as subordinate pits and linear blast corridors along the fissure. The drop in magma supply and the concomitant influx of groundwater were necessary processes that led to the formation of Kings Bowl and other pits along the fissure. A conceptual model is presented that has relevance to the broader range of low-volume, monogenetic

  19. Biohistorical materials and contemporary privacy concerns-the forensic case of King Albert I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Bekaert, Bram; Baumers, Maarten; Wenseleers, Tom; Deforce, Dieter; Borry, Pascal; Decorte, Ronny

    2016-09-01

    The rapid advancement of technology in genomic analysis increasingly allows researchers to study human biohistorical materials. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the privacy of the donor's living relatives and the negative impact they might experience from the (public) availability of genetic results, even in cases of scientific, forensic or historical relevance. This issue has become clear during a cold case investigation of a relic attributed to Belgian King and World War I-hero Albert I who died, according to the official version, in a solo climbing accident in 1934. Authentication of the relic with blood stains assigned to the King and collected on the place where his body was discovered is recognised as one of the final opportunities to test the plausibility of various conspiracy theories on the King's demise. While the historical value and current technological developments allow the genomic analysis of this relic, publication of genetic data would immediately lead to privacy concerns for living descendants and relatives of the King, including the Belgian and British royal families, even after more than 80 years. Therefore, the authentication study of the relic of King Albert I has been a difficult exercise towards balancing public research interests and privacy interests. The identification of the relic was realised by using a strict genetic genealogical approach including Y-chromosome and mitochondrial genome comparison with living relatives, thereby limiting the analysis to genomic regions relevant for identification. The genetic results combined with all available historical elements concerning the relic, provide strong evidence that King Albert I was indeed the donor of the blood stains, which is in line with the official climbing accident hypothesis and contradicts widespread 'mise-en-scène' scenarios. Since publication of the haploid data of the blood stains has the potential to violate the privacy of living relatives, we opted for

  20. Extreme Precipitation, Stormwater, and Flooding in King County: Co-producing Research to Support Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, G. S.; Lorente-Plazas, R.; Salathe, E. P., Jr.; Mitchell, T. P.; Simmonds, J.; Lee, S. Y.; Hegewisch, K.; Warner, M.; Won, J.

    2017-12-01

    King County has experienced 12 federally declared flood disasters since 1990, and tens of thousands of county residents commute through, live, and work in floodplains. In addition to flooding, stormwater is a critical management challenge, exacerbated by aging infrastructure, combined sewer and drainage systems, and continued development. Even absent the effects of climate change these are challenging management issues. Recent studies clearly point to an increase in precipitation extremes for the Pacific Northwest (e.g., Warner et al. 2015). Yet very little information is available on the magnitude and spatial distribution of this change. Others clearly show that local-scale changes in extreme precipitation can only be accurately quantified with dynamical downscaling, i.e.: using a regional climate model. This talk will describe a suite of research and adaptation efforts developed in a close collaboration between King County and the UW Climate Impacts Group. Building on past collaborations, research efforts were defined in collaboration with King County managers, addressing three key science questions: (1) How are the mesoscale variations in extreme precipitation modulated by changes in large-scale weather conditions? (2) How will precipitation extremes change? This was assessed via two new high-resolution regional model projections using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model (Skamarock et al. 2005). (3) What are the implications for stormwater and flooding in King County? This was assessed by both exploring the statistics of hourly precipitation extremes in the new projections, as well as new hydrologic modeling to assess the implications for river flooding. The talk will present results from these efforts, review the implications for King County planning and infrastructure, and synthesize lessons learned and opportunities for additional work.

  1. Interactions between surface waters in King George Island, Antarctica - a stable isotope perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perşoiu, Aurel; Bădăluşă, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we present a first study of the isotopic composition of surface waters in the southern peninsulas (Barton, Fildes, Weaver and Potter) of King George Island, Antarctica. We have collected > 200 samples of snow and snowmelt, water (lake, river and spring), ice (glacier ice and permafrost) from the four peninsulas in February 2016 and analyzed them for their oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic composition. Samples from lake water (50+) indicate a clear west-east depletion trend, suggesting a rain-out process as air masses are moving westward (and are progressively depleted in heavy isotopes) from their origin in the Drake Passage. In both Fildes and Barton Peninsulas, permafrost samples have the heaviest isotopic composition, most probably due to preferential incorporation of heavy isotopes in the ice during freezing (and no fractionation during melting). As permafrost melts, the resulting water mixes with isotopically lighter infiltrated snowmelt, and thus the groundwater has a lower isotopic composition. Further, lake and river (the later fed by lakes) water has the lightest isotopic composition, being derived mostly from the melting of light snow and glacier ice. It seems feasible to separate isotopically water in lakes/rivers (largely fed by melting multi-year glaciers and snow) and water from melting of snow/ground ice This preliminary study suggests that it is possible to separate various water sources in the southern peninsulas of King George Island, and this separation could be used to study permafrost degradation, as well as feeding and migration patterns in the bird fauna, with implications for protection purposes. Acknowledgments. The National Institute of Research and Development for Biological Sciences (Bucharest, Romania) and the Korean polar institute financially supported fieldwork in King George Island. We thank the personal at King Sejong (South Korea), Belingshaussen (Russia) and Carlini (Argentina) stations in King George Island for

  2. An analysis of Cobit 5 as a framework for the implementation of it governance with reference to King III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maseko, L.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the complexity and general lack of understanding of information technology (“IT”, the management of IT is often treated as a separately managed value-providing asset. This has resulted in IT rarely receiving the necessary attention of the board, thus creating a disconnect between the board and IT. The King Code of Governance for South Africa 2009 (hereafter referred to as “King III” provides principles and recommended practices for effective IT governance in order to create a greater awareness at board level. King III, however, provides no detailed guidance with regard to the practical implementation of these principles and practices. It is worth noting that numerous international guidelines are recommended within King III that can be adopted as frameworks to assist in the effective implementation of IT governance. COBIT 5 provides, as part of its governance process practices, related guidance activities linking it to the seven IT governance principles of King III, thus making it a practical framework for the implementation of King III recommendations. This study sought to establish the extent to which the governance processes, practices and activities of COBIT 5 are mapped to the recommended practices of IT governance as highlighted in King III in order to resolve COBIT 5 as the de facto framework for IT governance in terms of King III. The study found that though King III principles and practices may be interpreted as vague with regard to how to implement IT governance principles, COBIT 5 succeeds in bridging the gap between control requirements, technical issues, information systems and business risk, which consequently results in a better facilitation of IT governance. The study also revealed that COBIT 5 contains additional activities to assist the board in more transparent reporting of IT performance and conformance management to stakeholders as well activities which enable the connection of resource management with human

  3. Dr Julia King CBE FREng, Chief Executive Designate, Institute of Physics (United Kingdom), visiting the NA48 experiment.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 02: Visiting the NA48 experiment, Dr Julia King, Chief Executive Designate, Institute of Physics (Britain and Ireland) (right) with A. Ceccucci and K. Peach. Photo 05: Visiting the NA48 experiment, Dr Julia King, Chief Executive Designate, Institute of Physics (Britain and Ireland) (centre) with A. Ceccucci and C. Lazzeroni. Photo 08: Visiting the NA48 experiment, Dr Julia King, Chief Executive Designate, Institute of Physics (Britain and Ireland) (second from left) with (left to right) R. Barlow, J. Wood, N. McCubbin, K. Peach, A. Ceccucci, C. Lazzeroni, M. Patel and D. Munday.

  4. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data from: Upper thermal tolerance in red and blue king crab: Sublethal and lethal effects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from a series of experiments that determined the upper thermal tolerance of early benthic stage red and blue king crabs. Experiments...

  5. Sharing of information and knowledge among staff in King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) library

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes strategies and initiatives undertaken by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) library in sharing information and knowledge among its staff. KAUST Library adopted several IT platforms to enable staff

  6. Department of Neurosurgery, Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College and King Edward VII Memorial (K.E.M.) Hospital, Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sunil; Goel, Atul

    2017-01-01

    Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College and King Edward VII Memorial (K.E.M.) Hospital, Mumbai were inaugurated in 1925. This article traces its illustrious history and of the eminent neurosurgeons who shaped its destiny.

  7. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Daly:Juvenile blue king crab cannibalism experiment conducted in the Kodiak Lab in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is part of a laboratory experiment, which evaluated how varying prey densities (year-0 blue king crabs) and habitat type (shell and sand) affect the...

  8. 77 FR 15617 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishing a Manatee Refuge in Kings Bay, Citrus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ..., restaurants, and other businesses benefit from these activities (Buckingham 1990, p. 6). The Kings Bay springs...)....... 250 100,000 1(7) Over the last 30 years (1980-2010), the Service and the State of Florida have created...

  9. Fildesia Pulchra,, gen. et sp. nov.-Leaf fossil from lower Tertiary from Fildes peninsula, King George Island, Antartic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohn, R.; Roesler, O.; Czajkowski, S.

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes Fildesia pulchra gen. et sp. nov., a compound leaf collected at Fossils Hill, Fildes Peninsula (King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica) in vulcanoclastics of probably early Tertiary age. (author) [pt

  10. Compreensão do modelo de king sobre o paradigma do Interacionismo Simbólico Entendiendo el modelo de king en el paradigma del Interaccionismo Simbolico Understanding of king's model on the paradigm of Simbolic Interactionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Maria de Almeida Araújo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se refletir sobre o modelo conceitual de King, segundo a abordagem do Interacionismo Simbólico, dentro do modelo de análises de teoria de Meleis. Para alcançar o objetivo, realizamos uma leitura dos três modelos citados nos trabalho, buscando as congruências e discrepâncias entre os conceitos e correlacionando-os. O estudo permitiu concluir que as teorias concordam ao elucidar o homem como um ser que reage e busca compreender o significado das coisas ao seu redor, planejando e julgando suas ações e a dos outros. É importante a questão dos significados poderem ser modificados e gerarem a elaboração de metas em comum.Se apuntó a reflectir acerca del modelo conceptual de King, según el acercamiento de Interacionismo Simbólico, dentro del modelo de análisis de la teoría de Meleis. Para alcanzar el objetivo, nosotros logramos una lectura de los tres modelos mencionada en el trabajo, mientras buscando las consistencias y diferencias entre los conceptos y poniéndolos en correlación. El estudio permitió concluir que las teorías están de acuerdo al elucidar al hombre como un ser que reacciona e investiga para entender el significado de las cosas en suyo circuito, mientras flotando y juzgando sus acciones y el uno de los otros. Es importante el asunto de los significados podría modificarse y ellos generan la elaboración de metas en común.It was aimed to reflect on King's Theory, according to the approach of Symbolic Interaccionism, and theory analyses model of Meleis. To reach the objective, we proceeded the reading of the three models as mentioned before, looking for the consistencies and discrepancies among the concepts and correlating them. The study allowed to conclude that the theories agree when elucidating the man as a being that reacts and search to understand the meaning of things to his/her circuit, drifting and judging their actions and the one of the other ones. It is important the subject of the meanings

  11. Taxonomic Study of Suborder Calcaxonia (Alcyonacea: Octocorallia: Anthozoa from King Sejong Station, Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Im Song

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Some gorgonians in the families, Primnoidae and Isididae within the suborder Calcaxonia were collected from subtidal zones between depths of 10 and 45 m in the coastal regions of King Sejong Station (62??13′S, 058?? 47′W, Korea Polar Research Institute of Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute (KORDI by SCUBA diving from 2009 to 2011. Three species in the Primnoidae, Arntzia gracilis (Molander, 1929, Thouarella (Thouarella antarctica (Valenciennes, 1846 and Onogorgia nodosa (Molander, 1929, and also one species in the family Isididae, Tenuisis microspiculata (Molander, 1929 are newly recorded to octocorallian fauna in Marian Cove and Potter Cove of King George Island. These four species have been described in detail.

  12. Seasonal variation of seismic ambient noise level at King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W.; Sheen, D.; Seo, K.; Yun, S.

    2009-12-01

    The generation of the secondary- or double-frequency (DF) microseisms with dominant frequencies between 0.1 and 0.5 Hz has been explained by nonlinear second-order pressure perturbations on the ocean bottom due to the interference of two ocean waves of equal wavelengths traveling in opposite directions. Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) has been operating a broadband seismic station (KSJ1) at King George Island (KGI), Antarctica, since 2001. Examining the ambient seismic noise level for the period from 2006 to 2008 at KSJ1, we found a significant seasonal variation in the frequency range 0.1-0.5 Hz. Correlation of the DF peaks with significant ocean wave height and peak wave period models indicates that the oceanic infragravity waves in the Drake Passage is a possible source to excite the DF microseisms at KGI. Location of King Sejong Station, Antarctica Seasonal variations of DF peak, significant wave height, and peak wave period

  13. Riflessioni su diritto e religione a margine del Martin Luther King Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Anello

    2018-04-01

    ABSTRACT: April 4, 2018 commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the death of Martin Luther King jr., in Memphis-Tennessee. The importance of Martin Luther King’s personality goes far beyond the borders of United States and spreads on the global scale. The present paper concerns the universality and the present impact of Martin Luther King’s legacy, considering also the European context. The paper analyses in brief the history of Martin Luther King, taking into account both his activism in the US and his international criticism against global issues such as post-colonialism and third-worldism; a second part is dedicated to the so called religious “global left” of the 50s and 70s. Conclusions show how and why the global religions have still to be considered a critical background for the rule of law, its inequalities and its injustices.

  14. Racism and the older voter? Arizona's rejection of a paid holiday to honor Martin Luther King.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, R

    1991-01-01

    Two propositions that would have established a paid Martin Luther King holiday were defeated in Arizona's statewide elections of November 6, 1990. Communities and counties with high proportions of senior adult voters cast proportionately more votes against these propositions. Was this an example of racism among the primarily anglo senior adult voters of Arizona? Three models were proposed to account for the general pattern of election-related behavior as well as the vote itself: 1) proactive racist, 2) pragmatic self-interest, and 3) fortress mentality. It was suggested that proactive racism and pragmatic self-interest accounted for less of the opposition to a paid holiday honoring Martin Luther King than did a fortress mentality that has developed through a combination of circumstances. Attention is also given to the larger question of senior adults as perpetrators as well as victims of bigotry.

  15. Red king crab’s bycatch in demersal fishing in the South-Eeastern part of the Barents Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stes Aleksej Vladimirovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the data of the red king crab by-catch in demersal fishing in the South-Eastern part of the Barents Sea, including those in the areas forbidden to trawling are presented. The impact of the catch of demersal fish on the distribution of the king crab is analyzed. It was shown that intensive fishing contributes to the growth of crabs’ density, possibly, they are attracted by the wastes of fish factories.

  16. Quantitative study of fruit flavonoids in citrus hybrids of King (C. nobilis) and Mukaku Kishu (C. kinokuni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Nonomura-Nakano, M; Nesumi, H; Yoshida, T; Sugiura, M; Yano, M

    2001-08-01

    Twenty-four Citrus hybrids of King (C. nobilis) and Mukaku Kishu (C. kinokuni) were examined for their flavonoid profiles of the edible part by reversed-phase HPLC analysis. Two hybrids (G-155 and G-156) contained higher amounts of natsudaidain than their parents, whereas the remainder of the hybrids had a character intermediate between those of King and Mukaku Kishu on the basis of polymethoxylated flavone composition. Principal component analysis revealed the distribution of the hybrids by quantifying 23 flavonoid contents.

  17. King Solomon's Silver? Southern Phoenician Hacksilber Hoards and the Location of Tarshish

    OpenAIRE

    Christine M. Thompson; Sheldon Skaggs

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from silver hoards found in Phoenicia is linking Tarshish, the legendary source of King Solomon's silver, to ores in the western Mediterranean. Biblical passages sometimes describe this lost land as a supplier of metals (especially silver) to Phoenician sailors who traded in the service of Solomon and Hiram of Tyre in the 10th century BC. Classical authors similarly attribute the mercantile supremacy of the Phoenicians to their command of lucrative supplies of silver in the west, bef...

  18. The Ambiguous Identity of a Dog as a Mongrelized Storyteller in John Berger's King (1999)

    OpenAIRE

    Leleń, Halszka

    2015-01-01

    The dog named King, the central character and narrator of John Berger’s “King” published in 1999, is the offshoot of many apparently incongruent genre conventions as well as the offspring of the ambivalent prejudice and praise of the species encoded in the English idioms. This presentation aims to overview the contributing elements which gave rise to the Bergerian shift in character-narrator shaping and to discuss the function of such perspective for the novelistic format adopt...

  19. Modeling the marine resources consumed in raising a king penguin chick: an energetics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, L G; Butler, P J; Fahlman, A; Bost, C-A; Woakes, A J; Handrich, Y

    2008-01-01

    Accurate estimates of penguin energetics would represent an important contribution to our understanding of the trophodynamics of the Southern Ocean ecosystem and our ability to predict effects of environmental change on these species. We used the heart rate-rate of oxygen consumption technique to estimate rate of energy expenditure in adult king penguins raising a chick, in combination with data from the literature on changes in adult mass, chick energy requirements, and prey energy density. Our model estimated a variety of energetic costs and quantities of prey consumption related to raising a king penguin chick during the austral summer. The total energy requirements of a king penguin chick at the Crozet Archipelago from hatching until reaching a mass of 8 kg 90 d later is 271 MJ, representing the consumption of 38.4 kg of myctophid fish. A successfully breeding male requires 0.78 kg d(-1) of fish during the entirety of the incubation period and 1.14 kg d(-1) during the subsequent 90 d of chick rearing. Assuming the same energy requirements for females, the estimated 580,000 pairs of king penguins that breed successfully at Crozet each year, together with their chicks, consume a total of around 190,000 tons of fish during the incubation and summer rearing periods combined. If, due to depletion of fish stocks, the diet of breeders and chicks during the summer becomes identical to the typical diet of adults during the austral winter, the mass of prey required by both adults and chicks combined (where the chick still reaches 8 kg after 90 d) would increase by more than 25%.

  20. The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system

    OpenAIRE

    Vonk, Freek J.; Casewell, Nicholas R.; Henkel, Christiaan V.; Heimberg, Alysha M.; Jansen, Hans J.; McCleary, Ryan J. R.; Kerkkamp, Harald M. E.; Vos, Rutger A.; Guerreiro, Isabel; Calvete, Juan J.; Wüster, Wolfgang; Woods, Anthony E.; Logan, Jessica M.; Harrison, Robert A.; Castoe, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Snakes are limbless predators, and many species use venom to help overpower relatively large, agile prey. Snake venoms are complex protein mixtures encoded by several multilocus gene families that function synergistically to cause incapacitation. To examine venom evolution, we sequenced and interrogated the genome of a venomous snake, the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and compared it, together with our unique transcriptome, microRNA, and proteome datasets from this species, with data from ...

  1. Widespread and evolutionary analysis of a MITE family Monkey King in Brassicaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Shutao; Hou, Jinna; Long, Yan; Wang, Jing; Li, Cong; Xiao, Qinqin; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling

    2015-01-01

    Background Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are important components of eukaryotic genomes, with hundreds of families and many copies, which may play important roles in gene regulation and genome evolution. However, few studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms involved. In our previous study, a Tourist-like MITE, Monkey King, was identified from the promoter region of a flowering time gene, BnFLC.A10, in Brassica napus. Based on this MITE, the characteristics ...

  2. The King Reports, Independent Non-Executive Directors and Firm Valuation on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Ntim, Collins G.

    2011-01-01

    South Africa (SA) has pursued corporate governance reforms in the form of the 1994 and 2002 King Reports. This paper examines the association between the presence of independent non-executive directors (INEDs) and market valuation of a sample of 169 firms listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) in SA from 2002 to 2007. Our results suggest a statistically significant and positive relationship between the presence of INEDs and firm valuation. By contrast, we find no statistically signif...

  3. Terpenos y flavonoides de ageratina fastigiata (H.B.K. King & Robinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Torrenegra G.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available De los extractos lipofílicos tanto de hojas como de flores, se aislaron e identificaron dos derivados del kaurano: el ent-kauran-16B-ol y el entkauran-] 6,20-diol y, dos flavonas metoxiladas: la 5-hidroxi-7,4'-dimetoxiflavona y la 5-hidroxi-3,7,4'-trimetoxi-flavona, Los dos diterpenos confirman la ubicación taxonómica de dicha especie según King y Robinson.

  4. Reconciling PM10 analyses by different sampling methods for Iron King Mine tailings dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Félix, Omar I; Gonzales, Patricia; Sáez, Avelino Eduardo; Ela, Wendell P

    2016-03-01

    The overall project objective at the Iron King Mine Superfund site is to determine the level and potential risk associated with heavy metal exposure of the proximate population emanating from the site's tailings pile. To provide sufficient size-fractioned dust for multi-discipline research studies, a dust generator was built and is now being used to generate size-fractioned dust samples for toxicity investigations using in vitro cell culture and animal exposure experiments as well as studies on geochemical characterization and bioassay solubilization with simulated lung and gastric fluid extractants. The objective of this study is to provide a robust method for source identification by comparing the tailing sample produced by dust generator and that collected by MOUDI sampler. As and Pb concentrations of the PM10 fraction in the MOUDI sample were much lower than in tailing samples produced by the dust generator, indicating a dilution of Iron King tailing dust by dust from other sources. For source apportionment purposes, single element concentration method was used based on the assumption that the PM10 fraction comes from a background source plus the Iron King tailing source. The method's conclusion that nearly all arsenic and lead in the PM10 dust fraction originated from the tailings substantiates our previous Pb and Sr isotope study conclusion. As and Pb showed a similar mass fraction from Iron King for all sites suggesting that As and Pb have the same major emission source. Further validation of this simple source apportionment method is needed based on other elements and sites.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of the Military Leadership Styles of Ernest J. King and Chester W. Nimitz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    that only the form of worship had been altered, not its substance, and attacking those who followed religion as a fashion . Priestley attended Lindsey’s...led in a hypocritical fashion and those that worked with him knew it. To his subordinates, Buell notes the following about King, “Praise was given...for previously mentioned reasons, Nimitz did not like the idea. Instead, he seems to have viewed women in an almost Victorian manner. Potter notes

  6. Assessment of value creation in private equity: the acquisition of Burger King by 3G Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Hoene, Daniel Jobst Elmar

    2016-01-01

    This thesis elaborates the creation of value in private equity and in particular analyzes value creation in 3G Capital’s acquisition of Burger King. In this sense, a specific model is applied that composes value creation into several drivers, in order to answer the question of how value creation can be addressed in private equity investments. Although previous research by Achleitner et al. (2010) introduced a specific model that addresses value creation in private equity, the r...

  7. Taxonomic Study of Suborder Calcaxonia (Alcyonacea: Octocorallia: Anthozoa) from King Sejong Station, Antarctic

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Im Song; Sung-Jin Hwang; Haewon Moon; In-Young An

    2012-01-01

    Some gorgonians in the families, Primnoidae and Isididae within the suborder Calcaxonia were collected from subtidal zones between depths of 10 and 45 m in the coastal regions of King Sejong Station (62??13′S, 058?? 47′W), Korea Polar Research Institute of Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute (KORDI) by SCUBA diving from 2009 to 2011. Three species in the Primnoidae, Arntzia gracilis (Molander, 1929), Thouarella (Thouarella) antarctica (Valenciennes, 1846) and Onogorgia nodosa (Mola...

  8. TERPENOS Y FLAVONOIDES DE Ageratina fastigiata (H.B.K. King & Robinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Torrenegra G.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available De los extractos lipofílicos tanto de hojas como de flores, se aislaron e identificaron dos derivados del kaurano: el ent-kauran-16B-ol y el entkauran-] 6,20-diol y, dos flavonas metoxiladas: la 5-hidroxi-7,4' dimetoxiflavona y la 5-hidroxi-3,7,4'-trimetoxi-flavona, Los dos diterpenos confirman la ubicación taxonómica de dicha especie según King y Robinson.

  9. King eider foraging effort during the pre-breeding period in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.; Butler, Malcolm G.

    2011-01-01

    For reproduction, many arctic-nesting migratory birds rely on nutrients obtained on the breeding grounds, so they devote sufficient time to foraging immediately prior to nesting. However, little is known about the increase in foraging effort necessary to meet the energetic requirements of reproduction. In early June 2006 and 2008, we quantified the proportion of time spent foraging before breeding by a large sea duck, the King Eider (Somateria spectabilis), on its breeding grounds in northern Alaska. During >235 hours of behavioral observations, both male and female King Eiders spent >50% of the day loafing (resting, sleeping, comfort behavior, or being alert). Females foraged on average 30% of the time (mean 7.2 hr day-1,95% CI 6.0-8.4 hr day-1), three times as much as males (9%; 2.3 hr day-1, 95% CI 1.5–2.8 hr day-1). The most common prey in ponds where the eiders foraged were chironomid larvae and worms ranging in length from 1 to 30 mm. If the King Eider's daily energy expenditure on its breeding grounds is similar to values published for related species, it would need to ingest only 0.2–0.6 g dry mass of invertebrates per minute of foraging to meet its energetic requirements. Males did not lose body mass before breeding, and we assume that their foraging effort was sufficient for energy balance. Therefore, female King Eiders appear to triple their foraging effort over maintenance requirements to meet the energetic challenges of egg formation.

  10. Unknown Fragment of King Sigismundus III’s Diary about Campaign to Russia, 1609–1611

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor O. Tyumentsev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Events of the Time of Troubles of the early 17th century played a great role in the history of Russia. In the year of 1609, the Polish royal army under high command of hetman Stanislav Zholkevsky and the King Sigismundus III himself invaded Russia and resiged Smolensk. At this time, a massive offensive to Western, South-Western and North-Western regions of Russia was launched by some detachments under Aleksander Korvinus Gosievsky, some of Polish colonels who were at the head of their regiments and the Cossacks of Zaporozhye. The role of this invasion was very important. The Polish authorities viewed the Russians as a potentially oppositional force, though actual economic collapse and repressions from the state authorities of Vasily Shuiski and the false Dimitry II considerably undermined their enthusiasm and brought social apathy among the Russians. Nevertheless, a garrison of Smolensk refused to surrender and decided to fight against the enemy. History of this siege was described by the King’s secretaries in King Sigismundus III’s Diary about Campaign to Russia. It belongs to the main sources about Russia’s Time of Troubles and about these events, as well as other documents of foreign observers. Using the procedures developed by R.G. Skrynnikov and I.O. Tyumentsev, the authors found and analysed unknown fragment of the “King Sigismundus‘ journal”, which are edited in this publication for the first time. Comparison of this document with the another data of King Sigismundus III’s Diary about Campaign to Russia and other Polish-Luthuanian sources from the beginning of the 17th century enables them to carry out a complex examination of the materials and to cross-verify their data. Experience shows that this technique works effectively.

  11. DIABETIC FOOT DISEASE IN KING GEORGE HOSPITAL, VISHAKAPATNAM: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON 100 PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Babu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot as the leading cause of lower limb amputation is one of the most important complications of diabetes mellitus. Effective treatment and formulation of prevention guidelines for diabetic foot require a thorough understanding of characteristics of diabetic foot patients and their ulcers, so we conducted this study to investigate these characteristics . INTRODUCTION : Necessary data was collected from case sheets of 100 diabetic foot patients admitted in King Goerge Hospital, Vishakapatnam in the year 2014

  12. Polysémie de HOW dans la King James Version

    OpenAIRE

    Pinson, Mathilde

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the various functional and semantic values attributed to the morpheme how in the King James Version of the Bible (KJV), some of which are not prototypical (complementizer, causal interrogative adverb, interrogative pronoun and adverbial relative). In view of the complex semantic and functional network of how, it is necessary first to establish what decoding problems were experienced by the readers. As will be shown, almost each type of how can be misinterpreted in...

  13. Scholarly communications a history from content as king to content as kingmaker

    CERN Document Server

    Regazzi, John J

    2015-01-01

    Scholarly Communications: A History from Content as King to Content as Kingmaker traces the development of scholarly communications from the creation of the first scientific journal through the wide diversity of professional information services today. Unlike any other book, this work is an authoritative history by the past President of Elsevier and current Professor at Long Island University, which examines the changing nature of scholarly communication throughout its history, including its research importance as well as its business value.

  14. Reproductive output of mosses under experimental warming on Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, maritime Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova-Katny, A.; Torres-Mellado, G. A.; Eppley, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mosses dominate much of the vegetation in the Antarctic, but the effect of climatic change on moss growth and sexual reproduction has scarcely been studied. In Antarctica, mosses infrequently produce sporophytes; whether this is due to physiological limitation or an adaptive response is unknown. We studied the effect of experimental warming (with Open Top Chambers, OTCs) on sporophyte production on Fildes Peninsula, King George Island for four moss species (Bartramia patens, Henne...

  15. Are dragon-king neuronal avalanches dungeons for self-organized brain activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arcangelis, L.

    2012-05-01

    Recent experiments have detected a novel form of spontaneous neuronal activity both in vitro and in vivo: neuronal avalanches. The statistical properties of this activity are typical of critical phenomena, with power laws characterizing the distributions of avalanche size and duration. A critical behaviour for the spontaneous brain activity has important consequences on stimulated activity and learning. Very interestingly, these statistical properties can be altered in significant ways in epilepsy and by pharmacological manipulations. In particular, there can be an increase in the number of large events anticipated by the power law, referred to herein as dragon-king avalanches. This behaviour, as verified by numerical models, can originate from a number of different mechanisms. For instance, it is observed experimentally that the emergence of a critical behaviour depends on the subtle balance between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms acting in the system. Perturbing this balance, by increasing either synaptic excitation or the incidence of depolarized neuronal up-states causes frequent dragon-king avalanches. Conversely, an unbalanced GABAergic inhibition or long periods of low activity in the network give rise to sub-critical behaviour. Moreover, the existence of power laws, common to other stochastic processes, like earthquakes or solar flares, suggests that correlations are relevant in these phenomena. The dragon-king avalanches may then also be the expression of pathological correlations leading to frequent avalanches encompassing all neurons. We will review the statistics of neuronal avalanches in experimental systems. We then present numerical simulations of a neuronal network model introducing within the self-organized criticality framework ingredients from the physiology of real neurons, as the refractory period, synaptic plasticity and inhibitory synapses. The avalanche critical behaviour and the role of dragon-king avalanches will be discussed in

  16. Using King's interacting systems theory to link emotional intelligence and nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanta, Linda L; Connolly, Maria

    2013-01-01

    King's theory is a broad theory designed to provide a framework for nursing (I.M. King, 1981), whereas emotional intelligence (EI; J.D. Mayer & P. Salovey, 2004) is a theory that is specific for addressing potential competency in dealing with emotions and emotional information. J.D. Mayer, P. Salovey, D.R. Caruso, and G. Sitarenios (2001) defined EI as the "ability to recognize the meaning of emotions and their relationships and to use them as a basis for reasoning and problem solving" (p. 234). These researchers believed that EI is related to cognitive intellect through the ability to use reasoning by way of information to find meaning. J.D. Mayer and P. Salovey (2004) argued that the skills that comprise EI were likely enhanced through obtaining a liberal education infused with values exploration. J.D. Mayer, P. Salovey, D.R. Caruso, and G. Sitarenios (2001) contended that there are 4 branches of abilities that create EI: (a) the skill of perceiving emotion within oneself and others, (b) assimilation of an emotion to facilitate thinking, (c) understanding and knowledge of emotion, and (d) conscious regulation of emotion. Each level or branch builds upon the previous one, and awareness of what each branch offers the individual in enhancing relationships with others is a key component of healthy emotional interactions. This article will provide a theoretic foundation based upon King's interacting systems theory (IST; 1981) that embraces EI as a crucial component in the nurse's ability to provide holistic care for patients, peers, and themselves. King's IST underscores the necessity of nurses possessing abilities of EI as they care for others but does not fully describe a mechanism to understand and incorporate emotions within the complex nurse-patient interactions and communications that are part of the nursing process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cellulolytic Protist Numbers Rise and Fall Dramatically in Termite Queens and Kings during Colony Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Keisuke; Lo, Nathan; Kitade, Osamu; Wakui, Akane

    2013-01-01

    Among the best-known examples of mutualistic symbioses is that between lower termites and the cellulolytic flagellate protists in their hindguts. Although the symbiosis in worker termites has attracted much attention, there have been only a few studies of protists in other castes. We have performed the first examination of protist population dynamics in queens and kings during termite colony foundation. Protist numbers, as well as measurements of hindgut and reproductive tissue sizes, were undertaken at five time points over 400 days in incipient colonies of Reticulitermes speratus, as well as in other castes of mature colonies of this species. We found that protist numbers increased dramatically in both queens and kings during the first 50 days of colony foundation but began to decrease by day 100, eventually disappearing by day 400. Hindgut width followed a pattern similar to that of protist numbers, while ovary and testis widths increased significantly only at day 400. Kings were found to contain higher numbers of protists than queens in incipient colonies, which may be linked to higher levels of nutrient transfer from kings to queens than vice versa, as is known in some other termite species. Protists were found to be abundant in soldiers from mature colonies but absent in neotenics. This probably reflects feeding of soldiers by workers via proctodeal trophallaxis and of reproductives via stomodeal trophallaxis. The results reveal the dynamic nature of protist numbers during colony foundation and highlight the trade-offs that exist between reproduction and parental care during this critical phase of the termite life cycle. PMID:23376945

  18. Distribution of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Soils from King George Island, Maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Dayanna Souza; Almeida, Juliana Rodrigues Barboza; de Jesus, Hugo E; Rosado, Alexandre S; Seldin, Lucy; Jurelevicius, Diogo

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic diesel fuel Arctic (DFA) degradation has already been demonstrated in Antarctic soils. However, studies comparing the distribution of anaerobic bacterial groups and of anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in Antarctic soils containing different concentrations of DFA are scarce. In this study, functional genes were used to study the diversity and distribution of anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (bamA, assA, and bssA) and of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB-apsR) in highly, intermediate, and non-DFA-contaminated soils collected during the summers of 2009, 2010, and 2011 from King George Island, Antarctica. Signatures of bamA genes were detected in all soils analyzed, whereas bssA and assA were found in only 4 of 10 soils. The concentration of DFA was the main factor influencing the distribution of bamA-containing bacteria and of SRB in the analyzed soils, as shown by PCR-DGGE results. bamA sequences related to genes previously described in Desulfuromonas, Lautropia, Magnetospirillum, Sulfuritalea, Rhodovolum, Rhodomicrobium, Azoarcus, Geobacter, Ramlibacter, and Gemmatimonas genera were dominant in King George Island soils. Although DFA modulated the distribution of bamA-hosting bacteria, DFA concentration was not related to bamA abundance in the soils studied here. This result suggests that King George Island soils show functional redundancy for aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that specialized anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria have been selected by hydrocarbon concentrations present in King George Island soils.

  19. Cicero's de legibus and Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Stride toward freedom

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    Boleslav s. Povšič

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available He who reads carefully Cicero'sDe Legibus and Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Stride Toward Freedom is surprised to find, mutatis mutandis, on how many points these two great men agree. The historical circumstances are different, but the essential ideas are very similar. The purpose of this paper is to show on what precisely they agree and on what they differ.

  20. Long-term fasting decreases mitochondrial avian UCP-mediated oxygen consumption in hypometabolic king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Halsey, Lewis G; Dolmazon, Virginie; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Handrich, Yves; Butler, Patrick J; Duchamp, Claude

    2008-07-01

    In endotherms, regulation of the degree of mitochondrial coupling affects cell metabolic efficiency. Thus it may be a key contributor to minimizing metabolic rate during long periods of fasting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether variation in mitochondrial avian uncoupling proteins (avUCP), as putative regulators of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, may contribute to the ability of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to withstand fasting for several weeks. After 20 days of fasting, king penguins showed a reduced rate of whole animal oxygen consumption (Vo2; -33%) at rest, together with a reduced abundance of avUCP and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC1-alpha) mRNA in pectoralis muscle (-54%, -36%, respectively). These parameters were restored after the birds had been refed for 3 days. Furthermore, in recently fed, but not in fasted penguins, isolated muscle mitochondria showed a guanosine diphosphate-inhibited, fatty acid plus superoxide-activated respiration, indicating the presence of a functional UCP. It was calculated that variation in mitochondrial UCP-dependent respiration in vitro may contribute to nearly 20% of the difference in resting Vo2 between fed or refed penguins and fasted penguins measured in vivo. These results suggest that the lowering of avUCP activity during periods of long-term energetic restriction may contribute to the reduction in metabolic rate and hence the ability of king penguins to face prolonged periods of fasting.

  1. The Spanish King Alfonso XIII on pages of Russian Press in 1902–1917

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    Ariadna A. Petrova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the approaches of the Russian press (“Moskovskie Vedomosti”, “Russkie Vedomosti”, “Novoe Vremia” to the evaluation of the Spanish King Alfonso XIII (1886–1941 at the first stage of his government. During this time he, acting within the powers granted to him by the Spanish constitution of the Restoration era, tried to stabilize the political situation in Spain and raise the prestige of the royal power, is also actively involved in social and political life of the country. Alfonso XIII also sought to raise the country's prestige in the international arena, seriously shaken after the “disaster in 1898”. The special attention is paid to the problem of formation of public opinion by the Russian press, on the example of newspaper coverage of humanitarian and intermediate activity of the Spanish king during the First World War. The activity of Alfonso XIII, aimed at protecting the interests of the citizens of the Russian Empire and the Slavic population of Austria-Hungary, in particular, his personal involvement in the rescue of the Austrian authorities was sentenced to death by a correspondent of the newspaper "New time" in Vienna D.G. Yanchevetskiy, forced the Russian public during the war to change the attitude towards Spain, its king and Spanish neutrality.

  2. The acute mania of King George III: A computational linguistic analysis.

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    Vassiliki Rentoumi

    Full Text Available We used a computational linguistic approach, exploiting machine learning techniques, to examine the letters written by King George III during mentally healthy and apparently mentally ill periods of his life. The aims of the study were: first, to establish the existence of alterations in the King's written language at the onset of his first manic episode; and secondly to identify salient sources of variation contributing to the changes. Effects on language were sought in two control conditions (politically stressful vs. politically tranquil periods and seasonal variation. We found clear differences in the letter corpus, across a range of different features, in association with the onset of mental derangement, which were driven by a combination of linguistic and information theory features that appeared to be specific to the contrast between acute mania and mental stability. The paucity of existing data relevant to changes in written language in the presence of acute mania suggests that lexical, syntactic and stylometric descriptions of written discourse produced by a cohort of patients with a diagnosis of acute mania will be necessary to support the diagnosis independently and to look for other periods of mental illness of the course of the King's life, and in other historically significant figures with similarly large archives of handwritten documents.

  3. On-farm flood capture could reduce groundwater overdraft in Kings River Basin

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    Philip A.M. Bachand

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic groundwater overdraft threatens agricultural sustainability in California's Central Valley. Diverting flood flows onto farmland for groundwater recharge offers an opportunity to help address this challenge. We studied the infiltration rate of floodwater diverted from the Kings River at a turnout upstream of the James Weir onto adjoining cropland; and calculated how much land would be necessary to capture the available floodwater, how much recharge of groundwater might be achieved, and the costs. The 1,000-acre pilot study included fields growing tomatoes, wine grapes, alfalfa and pistachios. Flood flows diverted onto vineyards infiltrated at an average rate of 2.5 inches per day under sustained flooding. At that relatively high infiltration rate, 10 acres are needed to capture one CFS of diverted flood flow. We considered these findings in the context of regional expansion. Based upon a 30-year record of Kings Basin surplus flood flows, we estimate 30,000 acres operated for on-farm flood recharge would have had the capacity to capture 80% of available flood flows and potentially offset overdraft rates in the Kings Basin. Costs of on-farm flood capture for this study were estimated at $36 per acre-foot, less than the cost for surface water storage and dedicated recharge basins.

  4. One Voice Too Many: Echoes of Irony and Trauma in Oedipus the King

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    Joshua Waggoner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sophocles’ Oedipus the King has often inspired concurrent interpretations examining the tragic irony of the play and the traumatic neurosis of its protagonist. The Theban king epitomizes a man who knows everything but himself, and Sophocles’ use of irony allows Oedipus to discover the truth in a manner that Freud viewed in The Interpretation of Dreams as “comparable to the work of a psychoanalysis.” Psychoanalytical readings of Oedipus at times depend greatly on his role as a doubled figure, but this article specifically investigates his doubled voice in order to demonstrate the interrelated, chiasmic relationship between Oedipus’ trauma and the trope of irony. It argues, in fact, that irony serves as the language, so to speak, of the traumatic experiences haunting the king and his city, but it also posits that this doubled voice compounds the irony of the play and its hero. In other words, in addition to the Sophoclean irony that dominates the work, the doubling of the king’s voice reveals a modified form of Socratic irony that contributes to the tragedy’s power. Consequently, even after the king’s recognition of the truth ultimately resolves the work’s tragic irony, Oedipus remains divided by a state of simultaneous knowledge and ignorance.

  5. Beat characteristics and beat maps of the King Seong-deok Divine Bell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seock-Hyun; Lee, Chi-Wook; Lee, Jang-Moo

    2005-03-01

    King Seong-deok Divine Bell is the second oldest bell in Korea. The bell is considered to have the best sound quality among Korean bells. The beat phenomenon is one of the most important characteristics for the sound of the King Seong-deok Divine Bell. In this study, the relationships between the modal parameters and the peculiar beat phenomena of the bell are investigated. It is theoretically proved from the beat characteristics that the sound might indeed be heard differently depending on the listening positions. The beat map method is introduced to visualize the beat distribution properties. It is shown that the beat maps can be drawn with a theoretical model based on the modal data of the bell. Using the beat maps of the King Seong-deok Divine Bell, it is investigated why clear and unclear beats, large and small amplitudes of the vibrations are repeated periodically along the circumference of the bell. Furthermore, the effect of the striking position on the beat distribution property is examined systematically.

  6. Aerosols in King George Island (Antarctic peninsula) using PIXE and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias da Cunha, K.; Medeiros, G.; Leal, M.A.; Lima, C.; Dalia, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the airborne particles and particles deposited in the recent snow samples collected at King George Island (Admiralty Bay) in order to evaluate the possible local sources of airborne particles and the aerosol transport from South America to Antarctic at sea level. Airborne particles samples were collected using a cascade impactor and cyclones at several sampling points at Admiralty Bay. Airborne particles were also collected during the ship travel from Rio de Janeiro to Antarctica. The recent snow samples and aerosols collected at several sampling points at Admiralty Bay were analyzed by PIXE for the determination of the elemental mass concentration. Snow samples were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the 232Th, 228Th, 238U and 234U concentrations in snow. The Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter of airborne particles was determined. The results suggest that there is a correlation between the aerosol samples and the particles deposited in the snow, but the elemental mass distributions are not equal. The snow elemental concentration can be used as an indicator of the elements present in the aerosols. The local aerosol sources (natural and anthropogenic) have been considered to characterize the aerosol transport to Antarctic, mainly King George Island. The main aerosol sources are the marine spray, weathering of local rocks and anthropogenic sources, as the diesel burning in the island. Besides the local aerosol sources the transport of airborne particles from south Atlantic to Antarctic is an important source of airborne particles at King George Island. (author)

  7. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  8. Oxalate Content of the Herb Good-King-Henry, Blitum Bonus-Henricus

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    Wanying Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves, stems and buds of Good-King-Henry (Blitum Bonus-Henricus were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. The large, mature leaves contained 42% more total oxalate than in the small leaves and the soluble oxalate content of the large leaves was 33% higher than the smaller leaves. Cooking the mixed leaves, stems and buds in boiling water for two minutes significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the total oxalate when compared to the raw plant parts. Pesto sauce made from mixed leaves contained 257 mg total oxalate/100 g fresh weight; this was largely made up of insoluble oxalates (85% of the total oxalate content. Soup made from mixed leaves contained lower levels of total oxalates (44.26 ± 0.49 mg total oxalate/100 g fresh weight and insoluble oxalate made up 49% of the oxalate contents. The levels of oxalates in the Good-King-Henry leaves were high, suggesting that the leaves should be consumed occasionally as a delicacy because of their unique taste rather than as a significant part of the diet. However, the products made from Good-King-Henry leaves indicated that larger amounts could be consumed as the oxalate levels were reduced by dilution and processing.

  9. Additional calcium carbonate into concentrate diet for sheep fed ensiled king grass as a based-diet

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    I-W Mathius

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ascertain the effect of additional calcium carbonate into concentrate diet, on the performance of sheep fed ensiled king grass as a basal diet, a trial was conducted using 28 growing sheep ( average body weight 17 _+ 1 .4 kg. Based on body weight, the animals were grouped and randomized into four dietary treatments in block randomized design . Dietary treatments were (i chopped king grass + 400 g of concentrate, (ii ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 0 % of calcium carbonate, (iii ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 5 % calcium carbonate and (iv ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 10 % calcium carbonate . Results showed that offering 5 % of calcium carbonate into concentrate diet increased (P 0 .05 for all groups . No differences in the apparent digestibility of the nutrient components were observed, but crude protein decreased significantly (P < 0 .05 . A significant relationship ( P < 0 .01 was found between nitrogen intake (NI and nitrogen retention (NR, and the equation was NR = - 0.1848 + 0.3788 NI ( r = 0.9 . Based on data found that feeding only ensiled king grass as a single diet could not meet the maintenance requirement of energy and protein, therefore, additional energy and crude protein sources is needed .

  10. Sediment sources and transport in Kings Bay and vicinity, Georgia and Florida, July 8-16, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Water quality, bottom-material, suspended-sediment, and current velocity data were collected during July 1982 in Kings Bay and vicinity to provide information on the source and transport of estuarine sediments. Kings Bay and Cumberland Sound, the site of the Poseidon Submarine Base in southeast Georgia, are experiencing high rates of sediment deposition and accumulation, which are causing serious navigational and operational problems. Velocity, bathymetry, turbidity, and bottom-material data suggest sediment transported from lower Kings Bay is accumulating deposits of suspended sediment transported from Cumberland Sound on the floodtide and from upper Kings Bay and the tidal march drained by Marianna Creek on the ebbtide. Suspended-sediment discharges computed for consecutive 13-hr ebbtides and floodtides showed that a net quantity of suspended sediment was transported seaward from upper Kings Bay and Marianna Creek. A net landward transport of suspended sediment computed at the St. Marys Entrance indicated areas seaward of St. Marys Entrance may be supplying sediment to the shoaling areas of the estuary, including lower Kings Bay. (USGS)

  11. How accurately can we estimate energetic costs in a marine top predator, the king penguin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Lewis G; Fahlman, Andreas; Handrich, Yves; Schmidt, Alexander; Woakes, Anthony J; Butler, Patrick J

    2007-01-01

    King penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) are one of the greatest consumers of marine resources. However, while their influence on the marine ecosystem is likely to be significant, only an accurate knowledge of their energy demands will indicate their true food requirements. Energy consumption has been estimated for many marine species using the heart rate-rate of oxygen consumption (f(H) - V(O2)) technique, and the technique has been applied successfully to answer eco-physiological questions. However, previous studies on the energetics of king penguins, based on developing or applying this technique, have raised a number of issues about the degree of validity of the technique for this species. These include the predictive validity of the present f(H) - V(O2) equations across different seasons and individuals and during different modes of locomotion. In many cases, these issues also apply to other species for which the f(H) - V(O2) technique has been applied. In the present study, the accuracy of three prediction equations for king penguins was investigated based on validity studies and on estimates of V(O2) from published, field f(H) data. The major conclusions from the present study are: (1) in contrast to that for walking, the f(H) - V(O2) relationship for swimming king penguins is not affected by body mass; (2) prediction equation (1), log(V(O2) = -0.279 + 1.24log(f(H) + 0.0237t - 0.0157log(f(H)t, derived in a previous study, is the most suitable equation presently available for estimating V(O2) in king penguins for all locomotory and nutritional states. A number of possible problems associated with producing an f(H) - V(O2) relationship are discussed in the present study. Finally, a statistical method to include easy-to-measure morphometric characteristics, which may improve the accuracy of f(H) - V(O2) prediction equations, is explained.

  12. Were king Stefan the First-Crowned and his son Radoslav co-rulers?

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    Bubalo Đorđe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serbian historiography considers the issue of the co-ruling of King Stefan the First-Crowned and his son Radoslav as the one finally resolved. The suggested solution on the co-rule of Stefan and Radoslav may be most succinctly expressed as following: as early as in the year of 1220, due to the frail health of Stefan the First-Crowned and Radoslav's marriage to Anne the Epirus princess, Radoslav was crowned to be the king and positioned to co-rule with his father after the Byzantine model of governing. Nevertheless this point of view has some loose ends. The notion of co-ruling and the very term of 'co-ruler' are quite freely used in the scholarly works. A general consensus on the precise meaning has not been reached yet. At the point where one author perceives a co-rule, the other categorically denies it. Basically the approach equalizing the heir to the throne and the co-ruler is wrong. Although the co-rulers in most cases were the throne heirs, they cannot be called the co-rulers because of the right to inherit the throne, but for the ruling attributes that formally established that right. The conviction of the co-rule of King Stefan and his son Radoslav is founded on the interpretation of the facts coming from the following sources: entitling charters for the monastery of Žiča, produced by Stefan and Radoslav around 1220; some segments from St. Sava's biographies by Domentian and Theodosius describing the circumstances of Stefan's death-bed leaving the throne to Radoslav; the three acts of the town of Kotor from 1221 and 1227 dated by the rule of king Radoslav, the portraits of Stefan and Radoslav next to the entrance to the Church of the Ascension in the monastery of Žiča and in the nartex of the Mileševa monastery church. In the first Žiča charter, Stefan calls Radoslav his heir, while in the second Žiča charter Stefan points out Radoslav as his first-born son blessed by him to be the king of the whole state. (jegože i

  13. Multivariate characterization of elements accumulated in King Bolete Boletus edulis mushroom at lowland and high mountain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J; Kunito, T; Kubota, R; Bielawski, L; Frankowska, A; Falandysz, Justyna J; Tanabe, S

    2008-12-01

    Based on ICP-MS, ICP-OES, HG-AAS, CV-AAS and elementary instrumental analysis of King Bolete collected from four sites of different soil bedrock geochemistry considered could be as mushroom abundant in certain elements. King's Bolete fruiting bodies are very rich in K (> 20 mg/g dry weight), rich in Ca, Mg, Na, Rb and Zn (> 100 microg/g dw), and relatively also rich in Ag, Cd, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn and Se (> 10 microg/g dw). The caps of King Bolete when compared to stipes around two-to three-fold more abundant are in Ag, Cd, Cs, Cu, Hg, K, Mg, Mo, N, Rb, Se and Zn. King Bolete collected at the lowland and mountain sites showed Ag, Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo and Na in caps in comparable concentrations, and specimens from the mountain areas accumulated more Cd and Sb. Elements such as Al, Pb and Rb occurred at relatively elevated concentration in King Bolete picked up at the metal ores-rich region of the Sudety Mountains. Because of high bioconcentration potential King Bolete at the background sites accumulate in fruiting bodies great concentrations of problematic elements such as Cd, Pb and Hg, i.e. up to nearly 20, 3 and 5 microg/g dw, on the average, respectively. The interdependence among determined mineral elements examined were using the principal components analysis (PCA) method. The PCA explained 56% of the total variance. The metals tend to cluster together (Ba, Cd, Cs, Cr, Ga, Rb, Se, Sr and V; K and Mg; Cu and Mo). The results provided useful environmental and nutritional background level information on 26 minerals as the composition of King Bolete from the sites of different bedrock soil geochemistry.

  14. Automated purification of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. PCR products with KingFisherTM magnetic particle processor prior to genome sequencing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekinen, Johanna; Marttila, Harri; Viljanen, Matti K.

    2001-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies were differentiated by PCR-based sequencing of the borrelial flagellin gene. To evaluate the usefulness of KingFisher TM magnetic particle processor in PCR product purification, borrelia PCR products were purified with KingFisher TM magnetic particle processor prior to cycle sequencing and the quality of the sequence data received was analyzed. KingFisher was found to offer a rapid and reliable alternative for borrelial PCR product purification

  15. The last Viking King: a royal maternity case solved by ancient DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissing, Jørgen; Binladen, Jonas; Hansen, Anders; Sejrsen, Birgitte; Willerslev, Eske; Lynnerup, Niels

    2007-02-14

    The last of the Danish Viking Kings, Sven Estridsen, died in a.d. 1074 and is entombed in Roskilde Cathedral with other Danish kings and queens. Sven's mother, Estrid, is entombed in a pillar across the chancel. However, while there is no reasonable doubt about the identity of Sven, there have been doubts among historians whether the woman entombed was indeed Estrid. To shed light on this problem, we have extracted and analysed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from pulp of teeth from each of the two royals. Four overlapping DNA-fragments covering about 400bp of hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1) of the D-loop were PCR amplified, cloned and a number of clones with each segment were sequenced. Also a segment containing the H/non-H specific nucleotide 7028 was sequenced. Consensus sequences were determined and D-loop results were replicated in an independent laboratory. This allowed the assignment of King Sven Estridsen to haplogroup H; Estrid's sequence differed from that of Sven at two positions in HVR-1, 16093T-->C and 16304T-->C, indicating that she belongs to subgroup H5a. Given the maternal inheritance of mtDNA, offspring will have the same mtDNA sequence as their mother with the exception of rare cases where the sequence has been altered by a germ line mutation. Therefore, the observation of two sequence differences makes it highly unlikely that the entombed woman was the mother of Sven. In addition, physical examination of the skeleton and the teeth strongly indicated that this woman was much younger (approximately 35 years) at the time of death than the 70 years history records tell. Although the entombed woman cannot be the Estrid, she may well be one of Sven's two daughters-in-law who were also called Estrid and who both became queens.

  16. High peripheral temperatures in king penguins while resting at sea: thermoregulation versus fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewden, Agnès; Enstipp, Manfred R; Picard, Baptiste; van Walsum, Tessa; Handrich, Yves

    2017-09-01

    Marine endotherms living in cold water face an energetically challenging situation. Unless properly insulated, these animals will lose heat rapidly. The field metabolic rate of king penguins at sea is about twice that on land. However, when at sea, their metabolic rate is higher during extended resting periods at the surface than during foraging, when birds descend to great depth in pursuit of their prey. This is most likely explained by differences in thermal status. During foraging, peripheral vasoconstriction leads to a hypothermic shell, which is rewarmed during extended resting bouts at the surface. Maintaining peripheral perfusion during rest in cold water, however, will greatly increase heat loss and, therefore, thermoregulatory costs. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the maintenance of a normothermic shell during surface rest: (1) to help the unloading of N 2 accumulated during diving; and (2) to allow the storage of fat in subcutaneous tissue, following the digestion of food. We tested the latter hypothesis by maintaining king penguins within a shallow seawater tank, while we recorded tissue temperature at four distinct sites. When king penguins were released into the tank during the day, their body temperature immediately declined. However, during the night, periodic rewarming of abdominal and peripheral tissues occurred, mimicking temperature patterns observed in the wild. Body temperatures, particularly in the flank, also depended on body condition and were higher in 'lean' birds (after 10 days of fasting) than in 'fat' birds. While not explicitly tested, our observation that nocturnal rewarming persists in the absence of diving activity during the day does not support the N 2 unloading hypothesis. Rather, differences in temperature changes throughout the day and night, and the effect of body condition/mass supports the hypothesis that tissue perfusion during rest is required for nutritional needs. © 2017. Published by The Company of

  17. Is fledging in king penguin chicks related to changes in metabolic or endocrinal status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, Hélène; Morlon, Francis; Groscolas, René

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the possibility that metabolic or endocrinal factors initiate fledging in the king penguin, a semi-altricial seabird species breeding a single chick on the ground. Chick fledging (departure to sea) occurred 5d after completion of the molt. It was preceded by a 16d fasting period and by a 7-fold increase in locomotor activity. From the measurement of the plasma concentration of metabolites and of glucagon and insulin, pre-fledging king penguin chicks were found to adapt to fasting in a classical way, i.e. by sparing body protein and mobilizing fat stores. At fledging, chicks were in phase II of fasting and their departure to sea was not stimulated by reaching critical energy depletion (phase III), in contrast to that which has been reported in breeding-fasting adults. The plasma level of corticosterone remained unchanged throughout the whole pre-fledging period, providing no support for a role of this stress-hormone in the facilitation of fledging. Thus, king penguin fledglings did not appear to be environmentally or nutritionally stressed. The plasma levels of thyroid hormones were elevated during the pre-fledging molt, in accordance with their key role in molt control in adult penguins. These levels declined by the time of the molt end, the plasma level of T4 thereafter being directly related to the time left before fledging. These results do not support the view that chronically elevated levels of thyroid hormones are required for the energy-demanding transition between being ashore and in cold water, but they suggest that the maintenance of high T4 levels may delay fledging.

  18. Antiproliferative activity of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Lee, Mui; Chung, Ivy; Yee Fung, Shin; Kanthimathi, M S; Hong Tan, Nget

    2014-04-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), a heat-stable enzyme, is an extremely potent antiproliferative agent against cancer cells when compared with LAAO isolated from other snake venoms. King cobra venom LAAO was shown to exhibit very strong antiproliferative activities against MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) and A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) cells, with an IC50 value of 0.04±0.00 and 0.05±0.00 μg/mL, respectively, after 72-hr treatment. In comparison, its cytotoxicity was about 3-4 times lower when tested against human non-tumourigenic breast (184B5) and lung (NL 20) cells, suggesting selective antitumour activity. Furthermore, its potency in MCF-7 and A549 cell lines was greater than the effects of doxorubicin, a clinically established cancer chemotherapeutic agent, which showed an IC50 value of 0.18±0.03 and 0.63±0.21 μg/mL, respectively, against the two cell lines. The selective cytotoxic action of the LAAO was confirmed by phycoerythrin (PE) annexin V/7-amino-actinomycin (AAD) apoptotic assay, in which a significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed in LAAO-treated tumour cells than in their non-tumourigenic counterparts. The ability of LAAO to induce apoptosis in tumour cells was further demonstrated using caspase-3/7 and DNA fragmentation assays. We also determined that this enzyme may target oxidative stress in its killing of tumour cells, as its cytotoxicity was significantly reduced in the presence of catalase (a H2O2 scavenger). In view of its heat stability and selective and potent cytotoxic action on cancer cells, king cobra venom LAAO can be potentially developed for treating solid tumours. © 2013 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  19. Mitochondrial phenotypic flexibility enhances energy savings during winter fast in king penguin chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Marmillot, Vincent; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien

    2014-08-01

    Energy conservation is a key priority for organisms that live in environments with seasonal shortages in resource supplies or that spontaneously fast during their annual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine whether the high fasting endurance of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is associated with an adjustment of mitochondrial bioenergetics in pectoralis muscle, the largest skeletal muscle in penguins. The rates of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial efficiency (ATP/O ratio) were measured in winter-acclimatized chicks. We used pyruvate/malate and palmitoyl-l-carnitine/malate as respiratory substrates and results from naturally fasted chicks were compared to experimentally re-fed chicks. Bioenergetics analysis of pectoralis muscle revealed that mitochondria are on average 15% more energy efficient in naturally fasted than in experimentally fed chicks, indicating that fasted birds consume less nutrients to sustain their energy-demanding processes. We also found that moderate reductions in temperature from 38°C to 30°C further increase by 23% the energy coupling efficiency at the level of mitochondria, suggesting that king penguin chicks realize additional energy savings while becoming hypothermic during winter. It has been calculated that this adjustment of mitochondrial efficiency in skeletal muscle may contribute to nearly 25% of fasting-induced reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate measured in vivo. The present study shows that the regulation of mitochondrial efficiency triggers the development of an economical management of resources, which would maximize the conservation of endogenous fuel stores by decreasing the cost of living in fasted winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values and Evidence of Presence of Dragon King (DK) in Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, T.; Ramos, F.; Rempel, E. L.; Silva, S.; C-L Chian, A.

    2017-12-01

    The solar wind constitutes a nonlinear dynamical system, presenting intermittent turbulence, multifractality and chaotic dynamics. One characteristic shared by many such complex systems is the presence of extreme events, that play an important role in several Geophysical phenomena and their statistical characterization is a problem of great practical relevance. This work investigates the presence of extreme events in time series of the modulus of the interplanetary magnetic field measured by Cluster spacecraft on February 2, 2002. One of the main results is that the solar wind near the Earth's bow shock can be modeled by the Generalized Pareto (GP) and Generalized Extreme Values (GEV) distributions. Both models present a statistically significant positive shape parameter which implyies a heavy tail in the probability distribution functions and an unbounded growth in return values as return periods become too long. There is evidence that current sheets are the main responsible for positive values of the shape parameter. It is also shown that magnetic reconnection at the interface between two interplanetary magnetic flux ropes in the solar wind can be considered as Dragon Kings (DK), a class of extreme events whose formation mechanisms are fundamentally different from others. As long as magnetic reconnection can be classified as a Dragon King, there is the possibility of its identification and even its prediction. Dragon kings had previously been identified in time series of financial crashes, nuclear power generation accidents, stock market and so on. It is believed that they are associated with the occurrence of extreme events in dynamical systems at phase transition, bifurcation, crises or tipping points.

  1. Eocene age of the Baranowski Glacier Group at Red Hill, King George Island, West Antarctica

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    Mozer Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric and geochemical studies were carried out at Red Hill in the southern part of King George Island (South Shetland Islands, northern Antarctic Peninsula on the Bransfield Strait coast. The rock succession at Red Hill has been determined to represent the Baranowski Glacier Group that was previously assigned a Late Cretaceous age. Two formations were distinguished within this succession: the lower Llano Point Formation and the upper Zamek Formation. These formations have stratotypes defined further to the north on the western coast of Admiralty Bay. On Red Hill the Llano Point Formation consists of terrestrial lavas and pyroclastic breccia; the Zamek Formation consist predominantly of fine to coarse tuff, pyroclastic breccia, lavas, tuffaceous mud-, silt-, and sandstone, locally conglomeratic. The lower part of the Zamek Formation contains plant detritus (Nothofagus, dicotyledonous, thermophilous ferns and numerous coal seams (vitrinitic composition that confirm the abundance of vegetation on stratovolcanic slopes and surrounding lowlands at that time. Selected basic to intermediate igneous rocks from the succession have been analysed for the whole-rock K-Ar age determination. The obtained results indicate that the Red Hill succession was formed in two stages: (1 from about 51–50 Ma; and (2 46–42 Ma, i.e. during the Early to Middle Eocene. This, in combination with other data obtained from other Baranowski Glacier Group exposures on western coast of Admiralty Bay, confirms the recently defined position of the volcano-clastic succession in the stratigraphic scheme of King George Island. The new stratigraphic position and lithofacies development of the Red Hill succession strongly suggest its correlation with other Eocene formations containing fossil plants and coal seams that commonly occur on King George Island.

  2. Interns’ perceived abuse during their undergraduate training at King Abdul Aziz University

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    Iftikhar R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rahila Iftikhar,1 Razaz Tawfiq,2 Salem Barabie2 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2General Practice Department, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background and objectives: Abuse occurs in all workplaces, including the medical field. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of perceived abuse among medical students, the types of abuse experienced during medical training, the source of abuse, and the perceived barriers to reporting abuse. Method: This cross-sectional survey was conducted between September 2013 and January 2014 among medical graduates of King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah. The survey questionnaire was designed to gather information regarding the frequency with which participants perceived themselves to have experienced abuse, the type of abuse, the source of abuse, and the reasons for nonreporting of perceived abuse. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Result: Of the 186 students enrolled in this study, 169 (90.9% reported perceiving some form of abuse during medical school training. Perceived abuse was most often verbal (86.6%, although academic abuse (73.1%, sex discrimination (38.7%, racial or ethnic discrimination (29.0%, physical abuse (18.8%, religious discrimination (15.1%, and sexual harassment (8.6% were also reported. Professors were most often cited as the sources of perceived abuse, followed by associate professors, demonstrators (or assistant teaching staff, and assistant professors. The Internal Medicine Department was the most frequently cited department where students perceived themselves to have experienced abuse. Only 14.8% of the students reported the abuse to a third party. Conclusion: The self-reported prevalence of medical student abuse at King Abdul Aziz University is high. A proper system for reporting abuse and for supporting victims of abuse should be set up, to promote a good learning environment. Keywords: maltreatment

  3. Acceptance, Benefits, and Challenges of Public Health-Oriented Pet Business Regulations in King County, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Janelle; Thiede, Hanne; Helms, Leah; Hopkins, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    New regulations were implemented in King County, Washington, in 2010 requiring pet businesses to obtain a permit from Public Health-Seattle & King County (Public Health) and undergo annual inspections to provide education and ensure compliance with regulatory standards. The regulations were developed as a tool for zoonotic disease control and prevention education for businesses and their customers, as well as for environmental protection. To assess the acceptance, benefits, and challenges of the new regulations and identify ways for Public Health to improve educational efforts and assist businesses with compliance. Cross-sectional survey. King County, Washington. Pet businesses with Public Health permits in 2013. Self-administered survey responses. The response rate was 40.5%. The majority of respondents provided grooming, pet day care, and kennel/boarding services from small, independent businesses. Sixty-one percent reported Public Health inspections as beneficial, especially concerning disinfection procedures and using an infection control plan. Almost three-fourths of respondents used the Public Health template to develop the infection control plan. Forty-four percent reported using the educational materials provided by Public Health, and 62% used educational materials from other sources. Most respondents reported that they gained benefits from the pet business permit, although fewer agreed that they obtained a good value from the permit and fee. The most common benefits reported were protection of animal and human health and establishing the credibility of the pet business. Major challenges with the implementation of the pet business regulations were not generally reported by respondents. Most respondents reported a collaborative relationship between Public Health and the pet businesses. Improvements in infection control practices and positive responses to the inspections were reported by pet businesses. Survey results were used to improve infection control

  4. King James II in Foreign Historiography: the Main Scientifi c Trends and Approaches .

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    Stankov Kirill

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The fate of the tragic figure of the British king James II Stuart is considered in the article. In this paper the author pays speсial attention to the history of investigation of the character and politics of this person by the British historians, as well as by the leading European and American specialists on the Early Modern Time. The estimates of James II are of vast variety in the British historiography but at the same time diff erent authors have some similar features in their attitude. Except the apologists the British historians on the whole criticized this king and explain that the majority of the problems connected with him are based on the religious factor that is not really right. On the other hand there are some differences in this negative approaches among various scientifi c schools of British historiography. The Whigs stated that James II tried to limit the personal rights of the Englishmen which was the main result of the English revolution of the middle of the 17th century. The Tories proved that the king neglected the gentry’s property rights and tried to transform the dualistic monarchy into absolutism. The Positivists thought that James II supported the Catholic Counterreformation and fought against the Enlightenment. The revisionists and postrevisionists tried to revalue the person of James II based on the true scientific foundations. A special view on James II’ policy is produced by Non-British authors: German, French and American historians.

  5. Surface energy balance and turbulence measurements on Warszawa Icefield, King George Island, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, U.; Sala, H.; Braun, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is amongst the fastest warming places on Earth and further temperature increase is to be expected. It has undergone rapid environmental changes in the past decades. Exceptional rates of surface air temperature increases (2.5K in 50 years) are concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, surface lowering and rapid retreat of glaciers, break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. The South Shetland Islands are located on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and are especially vulnerable to climate change due to their maritime climate. For King George Island we have compiled a unique data set comprising direct measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux by eddy covariance on the Warszawa Icefield over 1.5 years from November 2010 to 2012 in combination with a fully equipped automated weather station measuring long- and short-wave radiation components, profiles of temperature, humidity and wind velocities as well as glacier ice temperatures. The combination with the eddy covariance data allows for analysis of variability and seasonality of surface energy balance components on a glacier for one and a half years. Repeat measurements of snow accumulation and surface lowering along transects on the glacier and at different locations on King George Island are used for analysis of multi-sensor satellite data to identify melt patterns and bare ice areas during summer within the source area of the ground measurements. In combination with long-term time series of weather data, these data give indication of the sensitivity of the ice cap to the ongoing changes. This research is part of the ESF project IMCOAST funded by BMBF. Field work was carried out at the Dallmann laboratory (Carlini station, King George Island/Isla 25 de Mayo) in cooperation of the Instituto Antartico Argentino (Argentina) and the Alfred-Wegener Institute of Marine and Polar Research (Germany).

  6. Monarchical Activities of the Yoruba Kings of South Western Nigeria: A Cultural Heritage in Printmaking Visual Documentary.

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    Emmanuel Bankole Oladumiye

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Printmaking is a visual documentary media of art which was used as a medium of expression in analyzing myth and mythology monarchical activities of the Yorubas in South Western Nigeria in this study. The  monarchical activities of the Yoruba Kings, is  the cultural heritage and legacy that people do guide jealously and considered to be of high cultural value. The Yoruba Kings of South Western Nigeria are traditional entity which passed through the rites of installing kings for the throne fore fathers as a leader with symbol of authority between the people and the spirit world. The kings in Yoruba kingdom is so much respected that they are seen as divine and representative of God on earth and they are exalted into the position of deity because of his monarchical duties to his subjects at large. The funfairs that accompany the monarch roles  are worth documenting using printmaking as vehicle of visual and historical expression of myths and mythologies demonstrating African culture which stands out as sacred. The discourse also relies on oral testimonies written and archival documents. The materials used for the execution of the prints are rubber, wood, plate, offset printing inks and glass which records the events as an alternative to the use of photographic documentation. The research examine the philosophy behind the monarchical roles of the Yoruba Kings in print visuals based on the cultural heritage of the Yoruba people it employs an exploratory qualitative methods rely on literature review.

  7. Environmental conditions of interstadial (MIS 3 and features of the last glacial maximum on the King George island (West Antarctica

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    S. R. Verkulich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interstadial marine deposits stratum was described in the Fildes Peninsula (King George Island due to field and laboratory investigations during 2008–2011. The stratum fragments occur in the west and north-west parts of peninsula in following forms: sections of soft sediments, containing fossil shells, marine algae, bones of marine animals and rich marine diatom complexes in situ (11 sites; fragments of shells and bones on the surface (25 sites. According to the results of radiocarbon dating, these deposits were accumulated within the period 19–50 ky BP. Geographical and altitude settings of the sites, age characteristics, taxonomy of fossil flora and fauna, and good safety of the soft deposits stratum allow to make following conclusions: during interstadial, sea water covered significant part of King George Island up to the present altitude of 40 m a.s.l., and the King George Island glaciation had smaller size then; environmental conditions for the interstadial deposit stratum accumulation were at least not colder than today; probably, the King George island territory was covered entirely by ice masses of Last glacial maximum not earlier than 19 ky BP; during Last glacial maximum, King George Island was covered by thin, «cold», not mobile glaciers, which contribute to conservation of the soft marine interstadial deposits filled with fossil flora and fauna.

  8. Purification and antibacterial activities of an L-amino acid oxidase from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah venom

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    CS Phua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some constituents of snake venom have been found to display a variety of biological activities. The antibacterial property of snake venom, in particular, has gathered increasing scientific interest due to antibiotic resistance. In the present study, king cobra venom was screened against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus [including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA], three other species of gram-positive bacteria and six gram-negative bacteria. King cobra venom was active against all the 12 bacteria tested, and was most effective against Staphylococcus spp. (S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Subsequently, an antibacterial protein from king cobra venom was purified by gel filtration, anion exchange and heparin chromatography. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the protein was king cobra L-amino acid oxidase (Oh-LAAO. SDS-PAGE showed that the protein has an estimated molecular weight of 68 kDa and 70 kDa under reducing and non-reducing conditions, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of Oh-LAAO for all the 12 bacteria were obtained using radial diffusion assay method. Oh-LAAO had the lowest MIC value of 7.5 µg/mL against S. aureus ATCC 25923 and ATCC 29213, MRSA ATCC 43300, and S. epidermidis ATCC 12228. Therefore, the LAAO enzyme from king cobra venom may be useful as an antimicrobial agent.

  9. Newcastle disease virus in penguins from King George Island on the Antarctic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomazelli, Luciano M; Araujo, Jansen; Oliveira, Danielle B; Sanfilippo, Luiz; Ferreira, Carolina S; Brentano, Liana; Pelizari, Vivian H; Nakayama, Cristiane; Duarte, Rubens; Hurtado, Renata; Branco, Joaquim O; Walker, David; Durigon, Edison L

    2010-11-20

    Here we report the isolation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from cloacal swabs obtained from penguins in the South Atlantic Antarctic region (62°08S, 58°25W). Samples of 100 penguins from King George Island were tested by real-time PCR, of which 2 (2%) were positive for NDV. The positive samples were isolated in embryonated chicken eggs and their matrix and fusion proteins genes were partially sequenced. This was complemented by the serological study performed on the blood of the same specimens, which resulted in a 33.3% rate of positivity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Depositional environment of near-surface sediments, King George Basin, Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H. I.; Park, B. K.; Chang, S. K.; Han, M. W.; Oh, J. K.

    1994-03-01

    Four sediment cores were collected to determine the depositional environments of the King George Basin northeast of Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. The cored section revealed three distinct lithofacies: laminated siliceous ooze derived from an increased paleoproductivity near the receding sea-ice edges, massive muds that resulted from hemipelagic sedimentation in open water, and graded sediments that originated from nearby local seamounts by turbidity currents. Clay mineral data of the cores indicate a decreasing importance of volcanic activity through time. Active volcanism and hydrothermal activity appear to be responsible for the enrichment of smectite near the Penguin and Bridgeman Islands.

  11. Improved Monkey-King Genetic Algorithm for Solving Large Winner Determination in Combinatorial Auction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuzhong

    Using GA solve the winner determination problem (WDP) with large bids and items, run under different distribution, because the search space is large, constraint complex and it may easy to produce infeasible solution, would affect the efficiency and quality of algorithm. This paper present improved MKGA, including three operator: preprocessing, insert bid and exchange recombination, and use Monkey-king elite preservation strategy. Experimental results show that improved MKGA is better than SGA in population size and computation. The problem that traditional branch and bound algorithm hard to solve, improved MKGA can solve and achieve better effect.

  12. Distinct characteristics of NPP HRD and establishment of KINGS in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namgung, Ihn

    2013-01-01

    Full text:Korean government set-up nuclear energy department within the ministry of education in 1956 and joined IAEA in 1957 and set up nuclear energy agency in 1959, and installed the first research reactor in 1962. The Korean Government started constructing NPP in 1971 that had started commercial operation in 1978. The first oil shock in 1973 had devastated Korean economy and that made Korean Government to accelerate the construction of NPPs. Since then Korea steadily constructed NPP as well as invested in the development of indigenized NPP technology. During 1990s, Korea developed KSNP PWR 600 MWe NPP and in the last decade Korea developed APR1400 MWe NPP. Through the time, the engineers and operators involved in every field of nuclear industry is getting old and started to retire. Someone freshly out from the university with bachelor or post graduate degree will take many years to be able to understand how things running and operating in nuclear industry. Even in many years of job assignment, one cannot experience and understand all aspect of nuclear industry. It is this reason to establish a special educational system to teach people already in the field and to be able to see the whole picture by systematically teaching most of the related subject. In order to prevent any influence from existing university system, it was determined to establish KINGS (KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School) as separate and independent institution and as a post-graduate institution. The curriculum of KINGS was set up along this philosophy, and has only one academic department, for example NPP Engineering Department, to make more interactions among faculty and students. Also the curriculum is set up to teach practical experience; hence the graduates can bridge between industry and academia as well as fill in the large gap of technical experience of older generation. Also another aim is to make KINGS international institution to share experience of Korean NPP development

  13. Christopher R. Fee & David A. Leeming. Gods, Heroes, and Kings. The Battle for Mythic Britain

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    Sophie ALATORRE

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A reassessment of British mythology has long been overdue, and Gods, Heroes and Kings is to be regarded as a stimulating contribution which helps to situate Anglo-Saxon tales in the mainstream of Medieval literature. Myths, pagan and Judeo-Christian beliefs, classical narratives: such vast material forms the backcloth Christopher F. Fee and David A. Leeming have undertaken to explore, thanks to an erudite comparative approach. Obviously, their book first aims at giving readers a new image of ...

  14. Observations of Terrestrial Nightglow (Meinel Bands) at King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Young-In Won; Young-Mon Cho; Bang Yong Lee; Jhoon Kim; Jong Kyun Chung; Yong Ha Kim

    1999-01-01

    A Fourier Transform Spectrometer was used to study upper mesospheric thermodynamic by observing the hydroxyl (OH) emission. Rocket-born and satellited-born photometers place the peak emission near 87 km. The instrument was installed in February 1999 at King Sejong station (62.22 °S, 301.25 °E), Antarctica and has been in routine operation since then. An intensive operational effort has resulted in a substantial data between April and June, 1999. A harmonic analysis was carried out to examine ...

  15. The Principle and Structure of the Gyupyo(Gnomon) of King Sejong's Reign in Choson Dynasty

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Sam Lee; Jang Hae Jeong; Chun-Hwey Kim; Sang Hyuk Kim

    2006-01-01

    For a reconstruct draft of the Gyupyo (Gnomon) in King Sejong Era, we collected a lot of documents of the Choson Dynasty. With the result we made a reduced model by 1/10 and drawing set for the Gnomon in Sejong Era. It is composed of the Gyu, Yongpyo, Hoengryang (a beam), Yeongbu and granitic prop. You can read the scale where the shadow of vertically-standing stick touches the horizontal Gyu. A Shadow-Definer (Yeongbu) was used to focus the shadow cast by the sun's center, measuring the (gno...

  16. Optics and communication technology major of physics undergraduate degree at King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranasiri, Prathan

    2014-09-01

    A physics undergraduate degree major in optics and communication technology has been offered at King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Bangkok, Thailand. There are nine required three credit hour courses including two laboratory courses plus a number of selections in optics and communication based technology courses. For independent thinking and industrial working skills, nine credit hours of research project, practical training or overseas studies are included for selection in the final semester. Students are encouraged to participate in international conferences and professional organizations. Recently the program, with support from SPIE and OSA, has organized its first international conference on photonic solutions 2013 (ICPS 2013).

  17. The origins of dragon-kings and their occurrence in society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, Artemy; Zinkina, Julia; Korotayev, Andrey

    2012-11-01

    A society is a medium with a complex structure of one-to-one relations between people. Those could be relations between friends, wife-husband relationships, relations between business partners, and so on. At a certain level of analysis, a society can be regarded as a gigantic maze constituted of one-to-one relationships between people. From a physical standpoint it can be considered as a highly porous medium. Such media are widely known for their outstanding properties and effects like self-organized criticality, percolation, power-law distribution of network cluster sizes, etc. In these media supercritical events, referred to as dragon-kings, may occur in two cases: when increasing stress is applied to a system (self-organized criticality scenario) or when increasing conductivity of a system is observed (percolation scenario). In social applications the first scenario is typical for negative effects: crises, wars, revolutions, financial breakdowns, state collapses, etc. The second scenario is more typical for positive effects like emergence of cities, growth of firms, population blow-ups, economic miracles, technology diffusion, social network formation, etc. If both conditions (increasing stress and increasing conductivity) are observed together, then absolutely miraculous dragon-king effects can occur that involve most human society. Historical examples of this effect are the emergence of the Mongol Empire, world religions, World War II, and the explosive proliferation of global internet services. This article describes these two scenarios in detail beginning with an overview of historical dragon-king events and phenomena starting from the early human history till the last decades and concluding with an analysis of their possible near future consequences on our global society. Thus we demonstrate that in social systems dragon-king is not a random outlier unexplainable by power-law statistics, but a natural effect. It is a very large cluster in a porous

  18. A program plan addressing carpal tunnel syndrome: the utility of King's goal attainment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgan, G H; Ettipio, A M; Lasome, C E

    1995-08-01

    1. Today's nurse is prepared to address the needs of groups of individuals who share common characteristics or risks (aggregates). Program planning skills and ability to use nursing theory can enhance the nurse's effectiveness in addressing the needs of such aggregates. 2. Carpal tunnel syndrome and other repetitive stress injuries are very costly to industry, both in terms of monetary loss and lost work hours. Such injuries can be reduced in the workplace through careful observation and communication of trends by the nurse. 3. The systems perspective of King's goal attainment theory guided the nurse in problem solving and facilitating the development of a workplace capable of responding to trends as they occur.

  19. Recipient characteristics and outcome of pediatric kidney transplantation at the King Fahad Specialist Hospital-Dammam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Iftikhar A R; Al-Maghrabi, Mohammad; Kassim, Mohammad Salah; Tawfeeq, Mansour; Al-Saif, Faisal; Al-Oraifi, Ibrahim; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed; Alsaghier, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    The success of a pediatric kidney transplantation program can only be judged by reviewing its results. We aim to audit our short-term outcome of pediatric kidney transplantation at the King Fahad Specialist Hospital-Dammam. A retrospective chart review was performed to collect data about recipient demographics, etiology of end-stage kidney disease, type of dialysis, type of donor and outcome. Between September 2008 and April 2012, 35 pediatric kidney trans-plantations (need to encourage preemptive transplantation and living donation in this population.

  20. Isolation and identification of lactid acid bacteria originated from king grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides as candidate of probiotic for livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoso B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to isolate and identify strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from king grass, and to determine their potential as candidate of probiotic for livestock. The LAB was isolated by culturing king grass extract in De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS medium. The pure culture LAB was used to identify strain of bacteria using Analytical Profile Index (API 50 CH kit. The result showed that the strain bacteria was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. L. plantarum was able to survive in extreme condition at pH 2 and 0.3% bile salt. L. plantarum also survived against pathogenic bacteria i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherechia coli and Salmonella thypi. It is concluded that L. plantarum isolated from king grass could potentially to be used as probiotic for livestock.

  1. Kings, Nobles, and Frontier: Violence and Kinship around the Galician-Portuguese border (12th-13th centuries

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    Inés Calderón Medina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The birth of the frontier between Galicia and Portugal was an arduous process. The control over this area relied, to a great extent, on the success of the kings of Leon and Portugal in assuring the local nobles’ loyalty and service. The role played by the local nobility in the creation and military defense of this border can be analysed throughout chronicles and diplomas. These sources cast light on the nobility’s key military role in southern Galicia and the political consequences derived from these nobles’ loyalty or infidelity. The kings of Portugal and Leon actively seek the local nobility’s support; however they also relied on royal marriages in order to solve border conflicts. In that regard, disputed landholdings and castles were given to the Portuguese monarchs as part of the Leonese queens’ dowry. Some nobles were chosen as executors of these marriages agreements, so they acted as intermediaries between both kings.

  2. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streichert Laura C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1% of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas.

  3. Development of a real-time PCR assay for detection of planktonic red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius 1815)) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Pamela C.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Morado, J. Frank; Eckert, Ginny L.

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) fishery was once one of the most economically important single-species fisheries in the world, but is currently depressed. This fishery would benefit from improved stock assessment capabilities. Larval crab distribution is patchy temporally and spatially, requiring extensive sampling efforts to locate and track larval dispersal. Large-scale plankton surveys are generally cost prohibitive because of the effort required for collection and the time and taxonomic expertise required to sort samples to identify plankton individually via light microscopy. Here, we report the development of primers and a dual-labeled probe for use in a DNA-based real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the red king crab, mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I for the detection of red king crab larvae DNA in plankton samples. The assay allows identification of plankton samples containing crab larvae DNA and provides an estimate of DNA copy number present in a sample without sorting the plankton sample visually. The assay was tested on DNA extracted from whole red king crab larvae and plankton samples seeded with whole larvae, and it detected DNA copies equivalent to 1/10,000th of a larva and 1 crab larva/5mL sieved plankton, respectively. The real-time polymerase chain reaction assay can be used to screen plankton samples for larvae in a fraction of the time required for traditional microscopial methods, which offers advantages for stock assessment methodologies for red king crab as well as a rapid and reliable method to assess abundance of red king crab larvae as needed to improve the understanding of life history and population processes, including larval population dynamics.

  4. Inter-annual dynamics of the Barents Sea red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) stock indices in relation to environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoretsky, Alexander G.; Dvoretsky, Vladimir G.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of relationships between environmental variables and biological processes can greatly improve fisheries assessment and management in commercially important species. We analyzed the effects of environmental factors (climatic indices and water temperature) on the stock characteristics (total population number, number of pre-recruits and number of legal males) of the red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus), an introduced species in the Barents Sea. Stock trends in red king crab appear to be related to decadal climate shifts. Abundances were negatively related to the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO) in August and positively related to water temperature in late winter-early summer. Total and commercial stock abundance were negatively correlated with the lag-1 Arctic Oscillation index (AO) in August and the lag-2 winter NAO index. The total number of P. camtschaticus was most strongly associated with water temperature in spring and summer and NAO/AO indices in April and May. Lagged NAO indices in February and August (9 or 10 yr) had a positive relationship to the commercial stock of P. camtschaticus. These findings suggest that temperature conditions of current and previous year affect natural mortality of larvae and juvenile red king crabs. Warmer temperature conditions lead to increased biomass of red king crab food items. Negative correlations between climatic indices and the red king crab stocks may be associated with predator pressure on juvenile red king crabs or higher mortality because of predator or parasite pressure and diseases. The associations between stock indices and environmental variables could help better predict recruitment patterns of P. camtschaticus.

  5. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretz, Justin K.; Olson, Jill M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2003-03-01

    In 2002 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued working as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, broodstock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate the project data points and augment past data. Supplementation treatments included the release of 51,329 left ventral-clipped smolts into Clear Creek (750 were PIT tagged), and 12,000 unmarked coded-wire tagged parr into Pete King Creek (998 were PIT tagged). Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 579 naturally produced spring chinook juveniles in Clear Creek, and 54 on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. For Clear Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam of hatchery produced supplementation and naturally produced PIT tagged smolts, were 36.0%, and 53.1%, respectively. For Pete King Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam, of hatchery produced supplementation smolts and naturally produced smolts PIT tagged as parr and presmolts, were 18.8%, and 8.3%, respectively. Adults collected for broodstock in 2002 represented the final adult broodstock group collected for the ISS project. Twenty-six ventral clipped, and 28 natural adult spring chinook were transported above the weir. Monitoring and evaluation of spawning success was continued on Clear and Pete King creeks. A total of 69 redds were counted and 79 carcasses were recovered on Clear Creek. Two redds were observed and no carcasses were collected on Pete King Creek.

  6. Dysmenorrhea among female medical students in King Abdulaziz University: Prevalence, Predictors and outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; AlGhamdi, Manar Saleh; Al-Shaibani, Alanoud Nawaf; AlAmri, Fatima Ali; Alharbi, Huda Abdulrahman; Al-Jadani, Arwa Kheder; Alfaidi, Raghad Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, predictors and outcome of dysmenorrhea among female medical students in King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 435 medical students at KAU, Jeddah selected through stratified random sample method. A pre-constructed, validated, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect personal and socio-demographic information. Data about menstrual history, stress, smoking were also collected. The severity of dysmenorrhea was scored by the “Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)”. Descriptive and analytical statistics were conducted. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 60.9%. Logistic regression showed that heavy period was the first predictor of dysmenorrhea (aOR=1.94; 95% CI: 1.29- 2.91), followed by stress (aOR=1.90; 95% C.I.: 1.19-3.07). The prevalence of severe dysmenorrhea among the sufferers was 38.6%. Depressed mood was the commonest (80.8%) symptom accompanying dysmenorrhea. Regarding the outcome of dysmenorrhea, 67.5% of the sufferes reported emotional instability, while 28.3% reported absenteeism from the university. Conclusions: A high prevalence of dysmenorrhea was prevalent among medical students in King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Health promotion, screening programs, and stress management courses are recommended. PMID:26870088

  7. Fine structural dependence of ultraviolet reflections in the King Penguin beak horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresp, Birgitta; Langley, Keith

    2006-03-01

    The visual perception of many birds extends into the near-ultraviolet (UV) spectrum and ultraviolet is used by some to communicate. The beak horn of the King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) intensely reflects in the ultraviolet and this appears to be implicated in partner choice. In a preliminary study, we recently demonstrated that this ultraviolet reflectance has a structural basis, resulting from crystal-like photonic structures, capable of reflecting in the near-UV. The present study attempted to define the origin of the photonic elements that produce the UV reflectance and to better understand how the UV signal is optimized by their fine structure. Using light and electron microscopic analysis combined with new spectrophotometric data, we describe here in detail the fine structure of the entire King Penguin beak horn in addition to that of its photonic crystals. The data obtained reveal a one-dimensional structural periodicity within this tissue and demonstrate a direct relationship between its fine structure and its function. In addition, they suggest how the photonic structures are produced and how they are stabilized. The measured lattice dimensions of the photonic crystals, together with morphological data on its composition, permit predictions of the wavelength of reflected light. These correlate well with experimentally observed values. The way the UV signal is optimized by the fine structure of the beak tissue is discussed with regard to its putative biological role.

  8. The occurrence and development of peat mounds on King George Island (Maritime Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On King George Island, South Shetlands Islands, a type of peat formation has been discovered which has not previously been reported from the Antarctic. These formations are in shape of mounds up to 7x 15 m in area, with a peat layer of about I m thick. About twenty five cm below the surface there is a layer of permanently frozen peat. The mounds are covered by living mosses (Polytrichum alpinum and Drepanocladus uncinatus, Antarctic hair grass (Deschampsia antarctica and lichens. Erosion fissures occurring on the surface are evidence of contemporary drying and cessation of the mound's growth. The initial phase of the development of the mounds began with a community dominated by Calliergidium austro-stramineum and Deschampsia antarctica, and their further development has been due to peat accumulation formed almost entirely by Calliergidium. The location of the mounds is near a penguin rookery, which clearly conditioned the minerotrophic character of these formations, as compared with the "moss peat banks" formed by Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Polytrichum al-pestre. Moreover, the peat mounds differ from the latter in several ways, e.g. rate of growth and floristic composition. Radiocarbon dating of peat from the base of one mound gave an age of 4090±60 years B.P. This suggests that the age of the tundra on King George Island is about 5000-4000 years.

  9. First detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Fournier, Jean-Charles; McCoy, Karen D; Barthel, Cathy; Postic, Danièle; Handrich, Yves; Le Maho, Yvon; Jaulhac, Benoît

    2014-10-01

    The hard tick Ixodes uriae parasitises a wide range of seabird species in the circumpolar areas of both Northern and Southern hemispheres and has been shown to be infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the bacterial agents of Lyme borreliosis. Although it is assumed that seabirds represent viable reservoir hosts, direct demonstrations of infection are limited to a single study from the Northern hemisphere. Here, the blood of 50 tick-infested adult king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus halli) breeding in the Crozet Archipelago (Southern Indian Ocean) was examined for B. burgdorferi sl exposure by serology and for spirochetemia by in vitro DNA amplification. Four birds were found positive by serology, whereas B. burgdorferi sl DNA was detected in two other birds. Our data therefore provide the first direct proof of Borrelia burgdorferi sl spirochetes in seabirds of the Southern hemisphere and indicate a possible reservoir role for king penguins in the natural maintenance of this bacterium. Although the bacterial genetic diversity present in these hosts and the infectious period for tick vectors remain to be elucidated, our results add to a growing body of knowledge on the contribution of seabirds to the complex epizootiology of Lyme disease and the global dissemination of B. burgdorferi sl spirochetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Freek J; Casewell, Nicholas R; Henkel, Christiaan V; Heimberg, Alysha M; Jansen, Hans J; McCleary, Ryan J R; Kerkkamp, Harald M E; Vos, Rutger A; Guerreiro, Isabel; Calvete, Juan J; Wüster, Wolfgang; Woods, Anthony E; Logan, Jessica M; Harrison, Robert A; Castoe, Todd A; de Koning, A P Jason; Pollock, David D; Yandell, Mark; Calderon, Diego; Renjifo, Camila; Currier, Rachel B; Salgado, David; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Hyder, Asad S; Ribeiro, José M C; Arntzen, Jan W; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M; Boetzer, Marten; Pirovano, Walter; Dirks, Ron P; Spaink, Herman P; Duboule, Denis; McGlinn, Edwina; Kini, R Manjunatha; Richardson, Michael K

    2013-12-17

    Snakes are limbless predators, and many species use venom to help overpower relatively large, agile prey. Snake venoms are complex protein mixtures encoded by several multilocus gene families that function synergistically to cause incapacitation. To examine venom evolution, we sequenced and interrogated the genome of a venomous snake, the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and compared it, together with our unique transcriptome, microRNA, and proteome datasets from this species, with data from other vertebrates. In contrast to the platypus, the only other venomous vertebrate with a sequenced genome, we find that snake toxin genes evolve through several distinct co-option mechanisms and exhibit surprisingly variable levels of gene duplication and directional selection that correlate with their functional importance in prey capture. The enigmatic accessory venom gland shows a very different pattern of toxin gene expression from the main venom gland and seems to have recruited toxin-like lectin genes repeatedly for new nontoxic functions. In addition, tissue-specific microRNA analyses suggested the co-option of core genetic regulatory components of the venom secretory system from a pancreatic origin. Although the king cobra is limbless, we recovered coding sequences for all Hox genes involved in amniote limb development, with the exception of Hoxd12. Our results provide a unique view of the origin and evolution of snake venom and reveal multiple genome-level adaptive responses to natural selection in this complex biological weapon system. More generally, they provide insight into mechanisms of protein evolution under strong selection.

  11. The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Freek J.; Casewell, Nicholas R.; Henkel, Christiaan V.; Heimberg, Alysha M.; Jansen, Hans J.; McCleary, Ryan J. R.; Kerkkamp, Harald M. E.; Vos, Rutger A.; Guerreiro, Isabel; Calvete, Juan J.; Wüster, Wolfgang; Woods, Anthony E.; Logan, Jessica M.; Harrison, Robert A.; Castoe, Todd A.; de Koning, A. P. Jason; Pollock, David D.; Yandell, Mark; Calderon, Diego; Renjifo, Camila; Currier, Rachel B.; Salgado, David; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Hyder, Asad S.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Arntzen, Jan W.; van den Thillart, Guido E. E. J. M.; Boetzer, Marten; Pirovano, Walter; Dirks, Ron P.; Spaink, Herman P.; Duboule, Denis; McGlinn, Edwina; Kini, R. Manjunatha; Richardson, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Snakes are limbless predators, and many species use venom to help overpower relatively large, agile prey. Snake venoms are complex protein mixtures encoded by several multilocus gene families that function synergistically to cause incapacitation. To examine venom evolution, we sequenced and interrogated the genome of a venomous snake, the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and compared it, together with our unique transcriptome, microRNA, and proteome datasets from this species, with data from other vertebrates. In contrast to the platypus, the only other venomous vertebrate with a sequenced genome, we find that snake toxin genes evolve through several distinct co-option mechanisms and exhibit surprisingly variable levels of gene duplication and directional selection that correlate with their functional importance in prey capture. The enigmatic accessory venom gland shows a very different pattern of toxin gene expression from the main venom gland and seems to have recruited toxin-like lectin genes repeatedly for new nontoxic functions. In addition, tissue-specific microRNA analyses suggested the co-option of core genetic regulatory components of the venom secretory system from a pancreatic origin. Although the king cobra is limbless, we recovered coding sequences for all Hox genes involved in amniote limb development, with the exception of Hoxd12. Our results provide a unique view of the origin and evolution of snake venom and reveal multiple genome-level adaptive responses to natural selection in this complex biological weapon system. More generally, they provide insight into mechanisms of protein evolution under strong selection. PMID:24297900

  12. Characterising terrestrial influences on Antarctic air masses using Radon-222 measurements at King George Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, S. D.; Hong, S.-B.; Williams, A. G.; Crawford, J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Park, S.-J.

    2014-09-01

    We report on one year of high-precision direct hourly radon observations at King Sejong Station (King George Island) beginning in February 2013. Findings are compared with historic and ongoing radon measurements from other Antarctic sites. Monthly median concentrations reduced from 72 mBq m-3 in late-summer to 44 mBq m-3 in late winter and early spring. Monthly 10th percentiles, ranging from 29 to 49 mBq m-3, were typical of oceanic baseline values. Diurnal cycles were rarely evident and local influences were minor, consistent with regional radon flux estimates one tenth of the global average for ice-free land. The predominant fetch region for terrestrially influenced air masses was South America (47-53° S), with minor influences also attributed to aged Australian air masses and local sources. Plume dilution factors of 2.8-4.0 were estimated for the most terrestrially influenced (South American) air masses, and a seasonal cycle in terrestrial influence on tropospheric air descending at the pole was identified and characterised.

  13. KINGS Model: Achieving Sustainable Change in Nuclear Engineering Education for the Post-COP21 Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.-K.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In spite of the world nuclear community’s systematic and multilateral efforts during the COP21, most of the conference participants were reluctant to acknowledge the value of nuclear as a low-carbon energy source. In fact, the on-going aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear disaster has been overwhelming despite the evidence that there was neither any critical technical flaw nor fatal radiation casualties. This shows that advanced nuclear knowledge failed to resonate with public perception on nuclear energy. In this respect, it is now time to focus on achieving sustainable change in nuclear engineering education for the future. The KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School (KINGS) was established to nurture leadership-level nuclear power professionals in the global standard. It affiliates with Korean nuclear industry to achieve three major goals that are also a universal prerequisite for higher education of engineering in the 21st century as follows: “a balance between education and training,” “harmony between engineering and managerial skills,” and “the application of systems engineering to nuclear power projects.” KINGS curriculum requires transdisciplinary coordination among engineering disciplines, engineering specialties, and socioeconomic methods. (author

  14. Elemental composition of Usnea sp lichen from Potter Peninsula, 25 de Mayo (King George) Island, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubach, Débora; Catán, Soledad Perez; Di Fonzo, Carla; Dopchiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Several pollutants, which include metals, are present in the Antarctic atmosphere, snow, marine and terrestrial organisms. This work reports the elements incorporated by Usnea sp thalli in Potter Peninsula, 25 de Mayo (King George) Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica. Geological origin was analyzed as possible sources of elements. For this purpose, correlations were done using a geochemical tracer, principal component analysis and enrichment factors were computed. Lithophile elements from particulate matter were present in most of the sampling sites. Bromine, Se and Hg showed the highest enrichment factors suggesting other sources than the particulate matter. Mercury values found in Usnea sp were in the same range as those reported for Deception Island (South Shetlands) and remote areas from the Patagonia Andes. - Highlights: • Hg enrichment factor was higher in ASPA than in human settlements area. • The elemental composition in Usnea sp from Antarctica reflected the human influence. • Bromine, Ca, Sr, Se, Fe, Hg and K contents indicated origins natural and anthropic. • The data will be considered as baselines for Potter Peninsula, King George Island. - This study provides recent element contents in Usnea sp from Potter Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Some of them are the first concentration reported by Argentina.

  15. King penguin demography since the last glaciation inferred from genome-wide data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucchi, Emiliano; Gratton, Paolo; Whittington, Jason D; Cristofari, Robin; Le Maho, Yvon; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Le Bohec, Céline

    2014-07-22

    How natural climate cycles, such as past glacial/interglacial patterns, have shaped species distributions at the high-latitude regions of the Southern Hemisphere is still largely unclear. Here, we show how the post-glacial warming following the Last Glacial Maximum (ca 18 000 years ago), allowed the (re)colonization of the fragmented sub-Antarctic habitat by an upper-level marine predator, the king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus. Using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing and standard mitochondrial data, we tested the behaviour of subsets of anonymous nuclear loci in inferring past demography through coalescent-based and allele frequency spectrum analyses. Our results show that the king penguin population breeding on Crozet archipelago steeply increased in size, closely following the Holocene warming recorded in the Epica Dome C ice core. The following population growth can be explained by a threshold model in which the ecological requirements of this species (year-round ice-free habitat for breeding and access to a major source of food such as the Antarctic Polar Front) were met on Crozet soon after the Pleistocene/Holocene climatic transition. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Deepwater Chondrichthyan Bycatch of the Eastern King Prawn Fishery in the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L Rigby

    Full Text Available The deepwater chondrichthyan fauna of the Great Barrier Reef is poorly known and life history information is required to enable their effective management as they are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. The chondrichthyan bycatch from the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery at the Swain Reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef was examined to determine the species present and provide information on their life histories. In all, 1533 individuals were collected from 11 deepwater chondrichthyan species, with the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata, piked spurdog Squalus megalops and pale spotted catshark Asymbolus pallidus the most commonly caught. All but one species is endemic to Australia with five species restricted to waters offshore from Queensland. The extent of life history information available for each species varied but the life history traits across all species were characteristic of deep water chondrichthyans with relatively large length at maturity, small litters and low ovarian fecundity; all indicative of low biological productivity. However, variability among these traits and spatial and bathymetric distributions of the species suggests differing degrees of resilience to fishing pressure. To ensure the sustainability of these bycatch species, monitoring of their catches in the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery is recommended.

  17. Tactile arousal threshold of sleeping king penguins in a breeding colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewasmes, G; Telliez, F

    2000-09-01

    The tactile arousal threshold of sleeping birds has not been investigated to date. In this study, the characteristics of this threshold were assessed by stimulating either the upper back or a foot of two groups (one cutaneous site per group) of 60 sleeping king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonica) in the breeding colony of Baie du Marin (Crozet Archipelago). Increasing weights were put onto one of the feet or the upper back of individuals that had been sleeping for more than 5 min until they showed behavioural signs of arousal (head raising). The weight applied to the upper back that was needed to awaken a sleeper (837 +/- 73 g) was 20 times greater than that applied to a foot (38 +/- 6 g). In terms of pressure, the difference remained five times higher for the back (209 +/- 18 g/cm(2)) than the foot (40 g +/- 7 g/cm(2)). Because the king penguin incubates its single egg and rears its young chick on its feet, the low threshold measured at this level could be viewed as an adaptation against progeny predation. Sleepers are frequently bumped by conspecifics walking through the colony. The increased arousal threshold associated with tactile stimulation of the back may help to preserve sleep continuity under these conditions.

  18. The leadership principles of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and their relevance to surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunicardi, F Charles; Cotton, Ronald T; Cole, George W; Martinez, George

    2007-01-01

    In order to face the challenges in healthcare this century, it is essential that surgeons understand modern leadership principles. One of the greatest leaders in history was Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., who provides a shining example of level-5 leadership for us to study. The study of leadership principles of great leaders can provide us with practical methods of conflict resolution as well as inspiration to keep us engaged and focused. As leaders of the medical community, we face numerous challenges, including discovering and implementing new treatments for disease, providing care for the indigent, overcoming educational challenges such as incorporating the ACGME Core Competencies into our surgical training and promoting diversity in education. Achieving these goals is often hindered by the environment in which we labor-nearly 50 million are uninsured, the rising cost of medical care is currently at 16% of the GNP, and reimbursement rates are falling-which makes the practice of surgery a significant challenge. Effective leadership will be paramount in achieving these goals. In this editorial, which summarizes a presentation given to the Surgical Section of the annual National Medical Association meeting, five important leadership principles that are important for surgeons have been selected and related to the outstanding leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

  19. Superoxide activates a GDP-sensitive proton conductance in skeletal muscle mitochondria from king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Darren A; Hanuise, Nicolas; Rey, Benjamin; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Duchamp, Claude; Brand, Martin D

    2003-12-26

    We present the partial nucleotide sequence of the avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) gene from king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), showing that the protein is 88-92% identical to chicken (Gallus gallus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), and hummingbird (Eupetomena macroura). We show that superoxide activates the proton conductance of mitochondria isolated from king penguin skeletal muscle. GDP abolishes the superoxide-activated proton conductance, indicating that it is mediated via avUCP. In the absence of superoxide there is no GDP-sensitive component of the proton conductance from penguin muscle mitochondria demonstrating that avUCP plays no role in the basal proton leak.

  20. An analysis of Cobit 5 as a framework for the implementation of it governance with reference to King III

    OpenAIRE

    Maseko, L.; Marx, B.

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the complexity and general lack of understanding of information technology (“IT”), the management of IT is often treated as a separately managed value-providing asset. This has resulted in IT rarely receiving the necessary attention of the board, thus creating a disconnect between the board and IT. The King Code of Governance for South Africa 2009 (hereafter referred to as “King III”) provides principles and recommended practices for effective IT governance in order to create a great...

  1. Observations of Upper Thermospheric Temperatures Using a Ground-Based Optical Instrument at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Kyun Chung; Young-In Won; Bang Yong Lee; Jhoon Kim

    1998-01-01

    We measured the terrestrial nightglow of OI 6300A in the thermosphere(~250km) using a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic from March through September, 1997. The King Sejong Station is located at high latitude geographically (62.22 deg S, 301.25 deg E) but at mid-latitude geomagnetically (50.65 deg S, 7.51 deg E). It is therefore the strategic location to measure the temperatures of the thermosphere in the Southern Hemisphere associated with both sola...

  2. A natural resource condition assessment for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: Appendix 22: climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate is a master controller of the structure, composition, and function of biotic communities, affecting them both directly, through physiological effects, and indirectly, by mediating biotic interactions and by influencing disturbance regimes. Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park’s (SEKI’s) dramatic elevational changes in biotic communities -- from warm mediterranean to cold alpine -- are but one manifestation of climate’s overarching importance in shaping SEKI’s landscape. Yet humans are now altering the global climate, with measurable effects on ecosystems (IPCC 2007). Over the last few decades across the western United States, human-induced climatic changes have likely contributed to observed declines in fraction of precipitation falling as snow and snowpack water content (Mote et al. 2005, Knowles et al. 2006), advance in spring snowmelt (Stewart et al. 2005, Barnett et al. 2008), and consequent increase in area burned in wildfires (Westerling et al. 2006). In the Sierra Nevada, warming temperatures have likely contributed to observed glacial recession (Basagic 2008), uphill migration of small mammals (Moritz et al. 2008), and increasing tree mortality rates (van Mantgem and Stephenson 2007, van Mantgem et al. 2009). More substantial changes can be expected for the future (e.g., IPCC 2007). Given the central importance of climate and climatic changes, we sought to describe long-term trends in temperature and precipitation at SEKI. Time and budget constraints limited us to analyses of mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation, using readily-available data. If funds become available in the future, further analyses will be needed to analyze trends by season, trends in daily minimum and maximum temperatures, and so on. We chose to analyze data from individual weather stations rather than use interpolated climatic data from sources such as PRISM (http://www.prism.oregonstate.edu/). In topographically complex mountainous regions with few

  3. Effect of experience with pine (Pituophis melanoleucus) and king (Lampropeltis getulus) snake odors on Y-maze behavior of pine snake hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Boarman, W; Kurzava, L; Gochfeld, M

    1991-01-01

    The abilities of hatchling pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) and king snakes (Lampropeltis getulus) to discriminate the chemical trails of pine and king snakes was investigated inY-maze experiments. Pine snakes were housed for 17 days either with shavings impregnated with pine snake odor, king snake odor, or no odor to test for the effect of experience on choice. Both pine and king snake hatchlings entered the arm with the pine snake odor and did not enter the arm with the king snake odor. The data support the hypothesis that hatchlings of both species can distinguish conspecific odors from other odors and that our manipulation of previous experience was without effect for pine snake hatchlings.

  4. Venom-gland transcriptome and venom proteome of the Malaysian king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Choo Hock; Tan, Kae Yi; Fung, Shin Yee; Tan, Nget Hong

    2015-09-10

    The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is widely distributed throughout many parts of Asia. This study aims to investigate the complexity of Malaysian Ophiophagus hannah (MOh) venom for a better understanding of king cobra venom variation and its envenoming pathophysiology. The venom gland transcriptome was investigated using the Illumina HiSeq™ platform, while the venom proteome was profiled by 1D-SDS-PAGE-nano-ESI-LCMS/MS. Transcriptomic results reveal high redundancy of toxin transcripts (3357.36 FPKM/transcript) despite small cluster numbers, implying gene duplication and diversification within restricted protein families. Among the 23 toxin families identified, three-finger toxins (3FTxs) and snake-venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) have the most diverse isoforms. These 2 toxin families are also the most abundantly transcribed, followed in descending order by phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), Kunitz-type inhibitors (KUNs), and L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs). Seventeen toxin families exhibited low mRNA expression, including hyaluronidase, DPP-IV and 5'-nucleotidase that were not previously reported in the venom-gland transcriptome of a Balinese O. hannah. On the other hand, the MOh proteome includes 3FTxs, the most abundantly expressed proteins in the venom (43 % toxin sbundance). Within this toxin family, there are 6 long-chain, 5 short-chain and 2 non-conventional 3FTx. Neurotoxins comprise the major 3FTxs in the MOh venom, consistent with rapid neuromuscular paralysis reported in systemic envenoming. The presence of toxic enzymes such as LAAOs, SVMPs and PLA2 would explain tissue inflammation and necrotising destruction in local envenoming. Dissimilarities in the subtypes and sequences between the neurotoxins of MOh and Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra) are in agreement with the poor cross-neutralization activity of N. kaouthia antivenom used against MOh venom. Besides, the presence of cobra venom factor, nerve growth factors

  5. Ground-water resources of Kings and Queens Counties, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Shernoff, Peter K.

    1995-01-01

    The aquifers beneath Kings and Queens Counties supplied an average of more than 120 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) for industrial and public water supply during 1904-47, but this pumping caused saltwater intrusion and a deterioration of water quality that led to the cessation of pumping for public supply in Kings County in 1947 and in western Queens County in 1974. Since the cessation of pumping in Kings and western Queens Counties, ground-water levels have recovered steadily, and the saltwater has partly dispersed and become diluted. In eastern Queens County, where pumpage for public supply averages 60 Mgal/d, all three major aquifers contain a large cone of depression. The saltwater-freshwater interface in the Jameco-Magothy aquifer already extends inland in southeastern Queens County and is moving toward this cone of depression. The pumping centers' proximity to the north shore also warrants monitoring for saltwater intrusion in the Flushing Bay area. Urbanization and development on western Long Island since before the tum of this century have caused significant changes in the ground-water budget (total inflow and outflow) and patterns of movement. Some of the major causes are: ( 1) intensive pumping for industrial and public supply; (2) paving of large land-surface areas; (3) installation of a vast network of combined (stonn and sanitary) sewers; (4) leakage from a water-supply-line network that carries more than 750 Mgal/d; and (5) burial of stream channels and extensive wetland areas near the shore.Elevated nitrate and chloride concentrations throughout the upper glacial (water-table) aquifer indicate widespread contamination from land surface. Localized contamination in the underlying Jameco-Magothy aquifer is attributed to downward migration in areas of hydraulic connection between aquifers where the Gardiners Clay is absent A channel eroded through the Raritan confining unit provides a pathway for migration of surface contaminants to the Lloyd aquifer

  6. Validation of King's transaction process for healthcare provider-patient communication in pharmaceutical context: One cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Liu, Chenxi; Zhang, Zinan; Ye, Liping; Zhang, Xinping

    2018-03-27

    With the impressive advantages of patient-pharmacist communication being advocated and poor pharmacist-patient communication in different settings, it is of great significance and urgency to explore the mechanism of the pharmacist-patient communicative relationship. The King's theory of goal attainment is proposed as one of the most promising models to be applied, because it takes into consideration both improving the patient-pharmacist relationship and attaining patients' health outcomes. This study aimed to validate the King's transaction process and build the linkage between the transaction process and patient satisfaction in a pharmaceutical context. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four tertiary hospitals in two provincial cities (Wuhan and Shanghai) in central and east China in July 2017. Patients over 18 were investigated in the pharmacies of the hospitals. The instrument for the transaction process was revised and tested. Path analysis was conducted for the King's transaction process and its relationship with patient satisfaction. Five hundred eighty-nine participants were investigated for main study. Prior to the addition of covariates, the hypothesised model of the King's transaction process was validated, in which all paths of the transaction process were statistically significant (p process had direct effects on patient satisfaction (p process was established as one valid theoretical framework of healthcare provider-patient communication in a pharmaceutical context. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Discharge and sediment loads at the Kings River Experimental Forest in the Southern Sierra Nevada of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Eagan; C.T. Hunsaker; C.R. Dolanc; M.E. Lynch; C.R. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    The Kings River Experimental Watershed (KREW) is now in its third year of data collection on eight small perennial watersheds. We are collecting meteorology, stream discharge, sediment load, water chemistry, shallow soil water chemistry, vegetation, macro-invertebrate, stream microclimate, and air quality data. This paper primarily examines discharge and sediment data...

  8. Profile and bioconcentration of minerals by King Bolete (Boletus edulis) from the Płocka Dale in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowska, Aneta; Ziółkowska, Joanna; Bielawski, Leszek; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to provide basic data on the composition of metallic elements, including toxicologically important Cd and Hg, in popular and prized wild King Bolete mushrooms. We investigated the importance of soil substratum as a source of these metals. ICP-OES and CV-AAS were applied to determine the profile of Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr and Zn in caps and stipes of King Bolete mushroom and in the surface layer of soil (0-10 cm) from the Płocka Dale area of Poland. Hg, Cu, Cd, Zn, Mg and K exhibited bioconcentration factors (BCF) > 1. Specifically, Hg, Cu and Cd (mean BCFs for caps were 110, 19 and 16, respectively) were efficiently bioconcentrated by King Bolete, while other elements were bioexcluded (BCF < 1). Cadmium was present in the caps at mean levels of 5.5 ± 2.4 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) and mercury at levels of 4.9 ± 1.4 mg kg(-1) dw, both occurring at elevated concentrations in those King Bolete mushrooms surveyed.

  9. 78 FR 50051 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Tarmac King Road...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Tarmac King Road Limestone Mine Proposed in Levy County... from limestone extraction, material stockpiling, roads, and other infrastructure over a period of...

  10. Concerns and Professional Development Needs of Faculty at King Abdul-Aziz University in Saudi Arabia in Adopting Online Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Bakor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate concerns regarding the adoption of online teaching as expressed by faculty and instructors in six departments in the College of Arts and Humanities at King Abdulaziz University. Additionally, it investigated faculty professional development needs in adopting online teaching. The data in this study were…

  11. Statistical Tests Black swans or dragon-kings? A simple test for deviations from the power law★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczura, J.; Weron, R.

    2012-05-01

    We develop a simple test for deviations from power law tails. Actually, from the tails of any distribution. We use this test - which is based on the asymptotic properties of the empirical distribution function - to answer the question whether great natural disasters, financial crashes or electricity price spikes should be classified as dragon-kings or `only' as black swans.

  12. Elujõuline Eesti etnoloogia / Terje Anepaio, Aivar Jürgenson, Timothy King, Art Leete ; interv. Maarja Kaaristo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Etnoloogia hetkeseisu ja tuleviku üle arutlevad Eesti Rahva Muuseumi teadusdirektor Terje Anepaio, Ajaloo Instituudi etnoloogia osakonna juhataja vanemteadur Aivar Jürgenson, Tallinna Ülikooli antropoloogia õppekava juht Timothy King ja Tartu Ülikooli etnoloogia õppetooli professor Art Leete

  13. "Sundiata, Lion King of Mali." Adapted by Kim Hines, Featuring Griot Alhaji Papa Susso, Cue Sheet for Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Aakhu TuahNera

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "Sundiata: Lion King of Mali," adapted by Kim Hines and featuring Griot Alhaji Papa Susso. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains seven activity sheets for use in class, addressing: (1) Sundiata: Man & Myth (discusses…

  14. Data Analysis of Globular Cluster Harris Catalogue in View of the King Models and Their Dynamical Evolution. I. Theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Merafina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibility to analyze the problem of gravothermal catastrophe in a new way, by obtaining thermodynamical equations to apply to a selfgravitating system. By using the King distribution function in the framework of statistical mechanics we treat the globular clusters evolution as a sequence of quasi-equilibrium thermodynamical states.

  15. Supernatural threats to kings: exploration of a motif in the Ulster Cycle and in other medieval Irish tales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, J.; Ó hUiginn, R.; Ó Catháin, B.

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this contribution is the belief in a sacral bond between the land and the ruler. This belief is connected with the concept known as ‘sacral kingship’, which is found in many cultures. In the Tenach or Old Testament, for instance, the king is supposed to be chosen by God and anointed

  16. Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Naga King Chili inferred from internal transcribed spacer sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Devi, Khumuckcham Sangeeta; Tandon, Pramod

    2016-02-01

    Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNAs were explored to study the genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Naga King Chili. Our study indicated the occurrence of nucleotide polymorphism and haplotypic diversity in the ITS regions. The present study demonstrated that the variability of ITS1 with respect to nucleotide diversity and sequence polymorphism exceeded that of ITS2. Sequence analysis of 5.8S gene revealed a much conserved region in all the accessions of Naga King Chili. However, strong phylogenetic information of this species is the distinct 13 bp deletion in the 5.8S gene which discriminated Naga King Chili from the rest of the Capsicum sp. Neutrality test results implied a neutral variation, and population seems to be evolving at drift-mutation equilibrium and free from directed selection pressure. Furthermore, mismatch analysis showed multimodal curve indicating a demographic equilibrium. Phylogenetic relationships revealed by Median Joining Network (MJN) analysis denoted a clear discrimination of Naga King Chili from its closest sister species (Capsicum chinense and Capsicum frutescens). The absence of star-like network of haplotypes suggested an ancient population expansion of this chili.

  17. An overview of the Gold King Mine Release and its Transport and Fate in the Animas and San Juan Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    On August 5, 2015, a large acidic mine pool trapped behind a collapsed mine structure and rock debris in the Gold King Mine (GKM) was accidently breached releasing approximately 11.3 million liters (3 million gallons) of low pH (~3) metal contaminated mine drainage into a small t...

  18. The Limits of Master Narratives in History Textbooks: An Analysis of Representations of Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alridge, Derrick P.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, I argue that American history textbooks present discrete, heroic, one-dimensional, and neatly packaged master narratives that deny students a complex, realistic, and rich understanding of people and events in American history. In making this argument, I examine the master narratives of Martin Luther King, Jr., in high school history…

  19. Pragmatic Analyses of Martin Luther King (Jr)'s Speech: "I Have a Dream"--An Introspective Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josiah, Ubong E.; Oghenerho, Gift

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the speech of Martin Luther King (Jr.) titled: "I Have a Dream", presented in 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial. This speech is selected for use because it involves a speaker and an audience who belong to a particular speech community. The speech is about the failed promises by the Americans whose dream advocate…

  20. The Political, Socio-Economic and Sociocultural Impacts of the King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP) on Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Kholoud T.; Scott, Safiyyah; Maadad, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Since 2006, Saudi Arabian politicians, economists and sociologists have had to consider the implications of their country's King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP). Because Saudi Arabia has certain religious traditions and economic practices that are sensitive, international scholars are examining from different perspectives the outcomes and…

  1. A CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF MACINTOSH BLADE, MILLER BLADE AND KING VISIONTM VIDEOLARYNGOSCOPE FOR LARYNGEAL EXPOSURE AND DIFFICULTY IN ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Mahendera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Previous studies suggest glottic view is better achieved with straight blades while tracheal intubation is easier with curved blades and videolaryngoscope is better than conventional laryngoscope. AIMS Comparison of conventional laryngoscope (Macintosh blade and Miller blade with channelled videolaryngoscope (King Vision TM with respect to laryngeal visualisation and difficulty in endotracheal intubation. SETTINGS AND DESIGN This prospective randomised comparative study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital (in ASA I and ASA II patients after approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee. METHODS We compared Macintosh, Miller, and the King VisionTM videolaryngoscope for glottic visualisation and ease of tracheal intubation. Patients undergoing elective surgeries under general anaesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation were randomly divided into three groups (N=180. After induction of anaesthesia, laryngoscopy was performed and trachea intubated. We recorded visualisation of glottis (Cormack-Lehane grade-CL, ease of intubation, number of attempts, need to change blade, and need for external laryngeal manipulation. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Demographic data, Mandibular length, Mallampati classification were compared using ANOVA, Chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, where P value <0.005 is statically significant. RESULTS CL grade 1 was most often observed in King Vision -TM VL group (90% which is followed by Miller (28.33%, and Macintosh group (15%. We found intubation was to be easier (grade 1 with King Vision -TM VL group (73.33%, followed by Macintosh (38.33%, and Miller group (1.67%. External manipulation (BURP was needed more frequently in patients in Miller group (71.67%, followed by Macintosh (28.33% and in King Vision -TM VL group (6.67%. All (100% patients were intubated in the 1 st attempt with King Vision -TM VL group, followed by Macintosh group (90% and Miller group (58.33%. CONCLUSIONS In patients with normal airway

  2. Preparing for community violence: mood and behavioral correlates of the second Rodney King verdicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendsen, J D; Norman, S

    1998-01-01

    This prospective investigation applied the Experience Sampling Method to examine the mood and behavioral responses of individuals facing the risk of community violence (in anticipation of the second Rodney King verdicts). Threatened participants experienced more negative affect and were less stable in behavioral involvement than individuals not under threat. Threatened participants also avoided social contact except for well-known individuals, and were more likely to be traveling than nonthreatened participants. Social contact with family or close friends and being at home (one's own home or the home of familiar individuals) were associated with large reductions in negative affect for those at risk for urban violence. The findings are discussed in terms of risk factors for trauma following community-wide stressors.

  3. King Solomon's Silver? Southern Phoenician Hacksilber Hoards and the Location of Tarshish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Thompson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from silver hoards found in Phoenicia is linking Tarshish, the legendary source of King Solomon's silver, to ores in the western Mediterranean. Biblical passages sometimes describe this lost land as a supplier of metals (especially silver to Phoenician sailors who traded in the service of Solomon and Hiram of Tyre in the 10th century BC. Classical authors similarly attribute the mercantile supremacy of the Phoenicians to their command of lucrative supplies of silver in the west, before they colonised the coasts and islands of its metalliferous regions around 800 BC. Conservative rejections of such reports have correctly emphasised a lack of evidence from silver. Lead isotope analyses of silver hoards found in Phoenicia now provide the initial evidence for pre-colonial silver-trade with the west; ore-provenance data correlate with the ancient documents that indicate both Sardinia and Spain as suppliers, and Sardinia as the island of Tarshish.

  4. Climate-driven range shifts of the king penguin in a fragmented ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofari, Robin; Liu, Xiaoming; Bonadonna, Francesco; Cherel, Yves; Pistorius, Pierre; Le Maho, Yvon; Raybaud, Virginie; Stenseth, Nils Christian; Le Bohec, Céline; Trucchi, Emiliano

    2018-03-01

    Range shift is the primary short-term species response to rapid climate change, but it is often hampered by natural or anthropogenic habitat fragmentation. Different critical areas of a species' niche may be exposed to heterogeneous environmental changes and modelling species response under such complex spatial and ecological scenarios presents well-known challenges. Here, we use a biophysical ecological niche model validated through population genomics and palaeodemography to reconstruct past range shifts and identify future vulnerable areas and potential refugia of the king penguin in the Southern Ocean. Integrating genomic and demographic data at the whole-species level with specific biophysical constraints, we present a refined framework for predicting the effect of climate change on species relying on spatially and ecologically distinct areas to complete their life cycle (for example, migratory animals, marine pelagic organisms and central-place foragers) and, in general, on species living in fragmented ecosystems.

  5. Dark Ages Religious Conflicts and their Literary Representations: The Winter King, by Bernard Cornwell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Sanz Mingo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the religious situation in Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries as reflected in Arthurian literature. This reflection usually depicts religious strife which brought a political division between the British kingdoms. This, in turn, provoked the final defeat against the Anglo-Saxons. Four religious creeds will be dealt with: the native Celtic religion and the cults that the Romans brought with them from the Eastern Mediterranean, including Christianity and the mysteries of Isis and Mithras. All of them are represented in Bernard Cornwell’s trilogy The WarlordChronicles. We will concentrate on how these creeds influenced the lives of Britons in the agerepresented and exemplified in the first book of Conrnwell’s trilogy, The Winter King. Despite thefact that religion has always been one of the most common topics in Arthuriana, modern literaturedeals with it in a different way to previous texts, linking it with history and politics.

  6. Towards A Minimum Conceptualisation Of Ethical Organisational Change: The Platform Provided By The "King II" Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Van Tonder

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that organisational change is one of the most frequently recurring organisational phenomena of our time, organisations do not succeed at instituting change processes effectively and dismal change "success rates" are recorded. Van Tonder and Van Vuuren (2004 suggested that the adoption of an ethical framework would significantly mitigate the implicit risk of change practices and reduce the negative consequences of such change initiatives. The literature on ethical change practices however is exceedingly sparse and offers little guidance to management on how to conduct change practices ethically. This study argues that the King II report on corporate governance indirectly yet substantially informs issues of governance, risk and ethics in change management and provides a useful point of departure for establishing ethical change practices.

  7. A Study for the Restoration of the Sundials in King Sejong Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Sam; Kim, Sang Hyuk

    2011-06-01

    The sundials produced in King Sejong era had the functions of accurate observation instruments and were fabricated in various forms such as Angbuilgu (hemispherical sundial). In this study, we investigated the literature, structural characteristics and principles of Hyeonjuilgu, Cheonpyeongilgu and Jeongnamilgu that were developed in Joseon to have the unique structures. Additionally, the sundials were reviewed in the perspective of technical history by comparing them with the sundials of China. For the restoration of the sundials, we identified the principle in which the light spots and shade of the sun were used, and drew the variations of the altitude and azimuth by the yearly motion of the sun on the Siban on the hemispheric and flat surfaces. Based on these results, we completed the design drawings of the three sundials and proposed the restoration models.

  8. The Principle and Structure of the Gyupyo(Gnomon) of King Sejong's Reign in Choson Dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Sam; Jeong, Jang Hae; Kim, Chun-Hwey; Kim, Sang Hyuk

    2006-09-01

    For a reconstruct draft of the Gyupyo (Gnomon) in King Sejong Era, we collected a lot of documents of the Choson Dynasty. With the result we made a reduced model by 1/10 and drawing set for the Gnomon in Sejong Era. It is composed of the Gyu, Yongpyo, Hoengryang (a beam), Yeongbu and granitic prop. You can read the scale where the shadow of vertically-standing stick touches the horizontal Gyu. A Shadow-Definer (Yeongbu) was used to focus the shadow cast by the sun's center, measuring the (gnomon) shadow length precisely. A Yeongbu is made of a leaf of copper in the middle of which is pierced a pin-hole for the tiny optical image of the sun which tilted to face the incident sunlight, used the principle of the a pin-hole camera and Scheimplug principle.

  9. A Study for the Restoration of the Sundials in King Sejong Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sam Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The sundials produced in King Sejong era had the functions of accurate observation instruments and were fabricated in various forms such as Angbuilgu (hemispherical sundial. In this study, we investigated the literature, structural characteristics and principles of Hyeonjuilgu, Cheonpyeongilgu and Jeongnamilgu that were developed in Joseon to have the unique structures. Additionally, the sundials were reviewed in the perspective of technical history by comparing them with the sundials of China. For the restoration of the sundials, we identified the principle in which the light spots and shade of the sun were used, and drew the variations of the altitude and azimuth by the yearly motion of the sun on the Siban on the hemispheric and flat surfaces. Based on these results, we completed the design drawings of the three sundials and proposed the restoration models.

  10. Observations of Terrestrial Nightglow (Meinel Bands at King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-In Won

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A Fourier Transform Spectrometer was used to study upper mesospheric thermodynamic by observing the hydroxyl (OH emission. Rocket-born and satellited-born photometers place the peak emission near 87 km. The instrument was installed in February 1999 at King Sejong station (62.22 °S, 301.25 °E, Antarctica and has been in routine operation since then. An intensive operational effort has resulted in a substantial data between April and June, 1999. A harmonic analysis was carried out to examine information on the tidal characteristics. The measured amplitudes of the 12-hour oscillation are in the range of 2.4-3.7 K, which are in resonable agreement with theoretical model outputs. The harmonic analysis also revealed 8-hour oscillation which is not expected from the traditional theoretical studies. In addition, the observed 8-hour oscillations are apparent and sometimes dominate the temperature variation in the upper mesosphere.

  11. The Principle and Structure of the Gyupyo(Gnomon of King Sejong's Reign in Choson Dynasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sam Lee

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available For a reconstruct draft of the Gyupyo (Gnomon in King Sejong Era, we collected a lot of documents of the Choson Dynasty. With the result we made a reduced model by 1/10 and drawing set for the Gnomon in Sejong Era. It is composed of the Gyu, Yongpyo, Hoengryang (a beam, Yeongbu and granitic prop. You can read the scale where the shadow of vertically-standing stick touches the horizontal Gyu. A Shadow-Definer (Yeongbu was used to focus the shadow cast by the sun's center, measuring the (gnomon shadow length precisely. A Yeongbu is made of a leaf of copper in the middle of which is pierced a pin-hole for the tiny optical image of the sun which tilted to face the incident sunlight, used the principle of the a pin-hole camera and Scheimplug principle.

  12. The Astronomical Instrument, So-Gahui Invented During King Sejong Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Sam Lee; Kim, Sang-Hyuk

    2002-09-01

    So-ganui, namely small simplified armillary sphere, was invented as an astronomical instrument by Lee Cheon, Jeong Cho, Jung In-Ji under 16 years' rule of King Sejong. We collect records and observed data on So-ganui. It is designed to measure position of celestial sphere and to determine time. It also can be transformed equatorial to horizontal, and horizontal to equatorial coordinate. It can measure the right ascension, declination, altitude and azimuth. It is composed of Sayu-hwan (Four displacements), Jeokdo-hwan (Equatorial dial), Baekgak-hwan (Ring with one hundred-interval quarters), Gyuhyeong (Sighting aliadade), Yongju (Dragon-pillar) and Bu (Stand). So-ganui was used conveniently portable surveying as well as astronomical instrument and possible to determine time during day and night.

  13. Integration of computer technology into the medical curriculum: the King's experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickie Aitken

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been major changes in the requirements of medical education which have set the scene for the revision of medical curricula (Towle, 1991; GMC, 1993. As part of the new curriculum at King's, the opportunity has been taken to integrate computer technology into the course through Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL, and to train graduates in core IT skills. Although the use of computers in the medical curriculum has up to now been limited, recent studies have shown encouraging steps forward (see Boelen, 1995. One area where there has been particular interest is the use of notebook computers to allow students increased access to IT facilities (Maulitz et al, 1996.

  14. Problematizing gender identity from Feminist Research in a Drag King experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fernández Droguett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experience of Feminist Research developed within the course Methodological Innovations in Qualitative Research, taught in the career of Psychology at the University of Chile. The research consisted of a autoethnography of a Drag-King experience developed in three public places in the city of Santiago in Chile, and our purpose here is to discuss the joint between the methodology developed and the feminist epistemological perspective. Based on a collaborative dialogue we analyse some results of this research and the methodological decisions that were taken during the process. The focus of analysis is the creation of an ambiguous identity that stresses the social norms and allows its critical review, while producing at the same time a complex physical and emotional experience that challenges not only to the persons but also the ways of accounting that through specific narratives.

  15. Cultural distribution of obsidian along the Waikato-King Country coastline, North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of obsidian artefact assemblages from fifteen 'early' (pre-AD 1500) Maori sites along an almost 150 km long stretch of the Waikato-King Country coastline in the western North Island shows that while most are dominated by material from Mayor Island, they also contain a significant proportion of 'grey' obsidian (grey in transmitted light) from two main source areas - Taupo, and Cooks Beach-Hahei on Coromandel Peninsula. The presence of obsidian from these two source areas in a relatively large number of 'early' sites is suggestive of a well-developed exchange network, involving a continuing connection with the same sources over a considerable period of time, perhaps 50-100 years. Possible transportation routes for the obsidian are discussed. (author). 25 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Comparisons of Physical Activity and Walking Between Korean Immigrant and White Women in King County, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, So-Ra; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Saelens, Brian E; Kang, Bumjoon; Hurvitz, Philip M; Bae, Chang-Hee Christine

    2016-12-01

    Immigrant and minority women are less physically active than White women particularly during leisure time. However, prior research demonstrates that reported household physical activity (PA) and non-leisure time walking/biking were higher among the former. Using accelerometers, GPS, and travel logs, transport-related, home-based, and leisure time PA were measured objectively for 7 days from a convenience sample of 60 first-generation Korean immigrant women and 69 matched White women from the Travel Assessment and Community Project in King County, Washington. Time spent in total PA, walking, and home-based PA was higher among Whites than Korean immigrants regardless of PA type or location. 58 % of the White women but only 20 % of the Korean women met CDC's PA recommendations. Socio-economic status, psychosocial factors, and participants' neighborhood built environmental factors failed to account for the observed PA differences between these groups.

  17. The Son's Fault: Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Search for and Recovery of Sonship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Jay-Paul

    2018-04-01

    This article examines the role of sonship in the psychological and spiritual development of men. In using the methodology of psychobiography, I explore the life history of Martin Luther King, Jr. to analyze his search for and recovery of sonship. I propose that sonship helps men rebel against and, in the end, overcome the feelings of inadequacy that are experienced in their struggles to achieve manhood, particularly within the father-son dyad. The scholarship of pastoral theologian Donald Capps is instructive in this regard, in that he suggests that sons should be allowed to search for a male figure, a father-substitute, who can affirm, not disdain or reject, this state of sonship. In the end, what is often viewed as a negative act of regression-i.e., the recovery of and return to sonship-is recognized instead as a positive one that assists a man in his journey toward wholeness.

  18. Gunshot wounds to the hand. The Martin Luther King, Jr, General Hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, P; Hansraj, K K; Cox, E E; Ashley, E M

    1995-01-01

    This article is a retrospective review of patients who presented to Martin Luther King, Jr./Drew Medical Center with gunshot wounds and had either isolated or associated injuries to the hand. The following is an account of those injuries noting the location, soft-tissue or bony involvement, and interventional methods that were implemented in the treatment of these patients who resided primarily in South Central Los Angeles. Prompt evaluation and initiation of treatment is essential in the management of both high- and low-velocity gunshot wounds so as to decrease the potential morbidity that often follows. Society must also look at the prevalence of these injuries and address the underlying issues that often are the root of the acts of violence.

  19. Mechanistic origin of dragon-kings in a population of competing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N.; Tivnan, B.

    2012-05-01

    We analyze the mechanistic origins of the extreme behaviors that arise in an idealized model of a population of competing agents, such as traders in a market. These extreme behaviors exhibit the defining characteristics of `dragon-kings'. Our model comprises heterogeneous agents who repeatedly compete for some limited resource, making binary choices based on the strategies that they have in their possession. It generalizes the well-known Minority Game by allowing agents whose strategies have not made accurate recent predictions, to step out of the competition until their strategies improve. This generates a complex dynamical interplay between the number V of active agents (mimicking market volume) and the imbalance D between the decisions made (mimicking excess demand). The wide spectrum of extreme behaviors which emerge, helps to explain why no unique relationship has been identified between the price and volume during real market crashes and rallies.

  20. Business ethics and corporate governance in the Second King Report: Farsighted or futile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Rossouw

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between corporate governance and business ethics has always been ambiguous. Does corporate governance per definition have an ethical nature or is it merely self-interested? Is business ethics an integral part of corporate governance or is it marginalised or even excluded by the debate on corporate governance? Does corporate governance also include the governance of ethics? This article will focus on the relationship between corporate governance and business ethics from the perspective of a developing country. More specifically, it will look at a recent development in South Africa where the Second Report on Corporate Governance for South Africa (IOD, 2002, also known as the Second King Report, gave particular prominence to business ethics. The motivation for its emphasis on business ethics as well as its guidelines for the corporate governance of ethics will be explored and, in conclusion, critically reviewed.

  1. Metabolic fate of yolk fatty acids in the developing king penguin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groscolas, René; Fréchard, Françoise; Decrock, Frédéric; Speake, Brian K

    2003-10-01

    This study examines the metabolic fate of total and individual yolk fatty acids (FA) during the embryonic development of the king penguin, a seabird characterized by prolonged incubation (53 days) and hatching (3 days) periods, and a high n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated FA ratio in the egg. Of the approximately 15 g of total FA initially present in the egg lipid, 87% was transferred to the embryo by the time of hatching, the remaining 13% being present in the internalized yolk sac of the chick. During the whole incubation, 83% of the transferred FA was oxidized for energy, with only 17% incorporated into embryo lipids. Prehatching (days 0-49), the fat stores (triacylglycerol) accounted for 58% of the total FA incorporated into embryo lipid. During hatching (days 49-53), 40% of the FA of the fat stores was mobilized, the mobilization of individual FA being nonselective. At hatch, 53% of the arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) of the initial yolk had been incorporated into embryo lipid compared with only 15% of the total FA and 17-24% of the various n-3 polyunsaturated FA. Similarly, only 32% of the yolk's initial content of 20:4n-6 was oxidized for energy during development compared with 72% of the total FA and 58-66% of the n-3 polyunsaturated FA. The high partitioning of yolk FA toward oxidization and the intense mobilization of fat store FA during hatching most likely reflect the high energy cost of the long incubation and hatching periods of the king penguin. The preferential partitioning of 20:4n-6 into the structural lipid of the embryo in the face of its low content in the yolk may reflect the important roles of this FA in tissue function.

  2. Overlapping Ballistic Ejecta Fields: Separating Distinct Blasts at Kings Bowl, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, C.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Hughes, S. S.; Sears, D. W. G.; Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Haberle, C. W.; Sears, H.; Elphic, R. C.; Kobayashi, L.; Garry, W. B.; Neish, C.; Karunatillake, S.; Button, N.; Purcell, S.; Mallonee, H.; Ostler, B.

    2015-12-01

    Kings Bowl is a ~2200ka pit crater created by a phreatic blast along a volcanic fissure in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), Idaho. The main crater measures approximately 80m in length, 30m in width, and 30m in depth, with smaller pits located nearby on the Great Rift fissure, and has been targeted by the FINESSE team as a possible analogue for Cyane Fossae, Mars. The phreatic eruption is believed to have occurred due to the interaction of groundwater with lava draining back into the fissure following a lava lake high stand, erupting already solidified basalt from this and previous ERSP lava flows. The contemporaneous draw back of the lava with the explosions may conceal some smaller possible blast pits as more lava drained into the newly formed pits. Ballistic ejecta from the blasts occur on both sides of the fissure. To the east, the ballistic blocks are mantled by fine tephra mixed with eolian dust, the result of a westerly wind during the explosions. We use differential GPS to map the distribution of ballistic blocks on the west side of the fissure, recording position, percent vesiculation, and the length of 3 mutually perpendicular axes for each block >20cm along multiple transects parallel to the fissure. From the several hundred blocks recorded, we have been able to separate the ballistic field into several distinct blast deposits on the basis of size distributions and block concentration. The smaller pits identified from the ballistic fields correspond broadly to the northern and southern limits of the tephra/dust field east of the fissure. Soil formation and bioturbation of the tephra by sagebrush have obliterated any tephrostratigraphy that could have been linked to individual blasts. The ballistic block patterns at Kings Bowl may be used to identify distinct ejecta groups in high-resolution imagery of Mars or other planetary bodies.

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices towards Medication Use among Health Care Students in King Saud University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah T. Eissa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health sciences students are expected to have appropriate knowledge and attitudes toward medication use. However, literary evidence of such expertise among health sciences students of King Saud University is unknown. This study was completed to assess the knowledge about medicines and behavior of health science students towards safe use of medications. It also aims to assess the health knowledge, attitude and practices of the students. Methods: This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire consisting of 24 questions. This was administered by the researcher between October and December 2009 in the colleges of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, applied medical science and nursing of the King Saud University. The survey consisted of three parts: Ten questions assessed the students’ knowledge on drug safety (Part 1. Four questions assessed student attitude toward medication consultations by the pharmacist (Part 2 and ten questions involved medication use practices and consultation with pharmacists (Part 3. A stratified sampling method was used to select participants. Results: Pharmacy students had better medication knowledge compared to other health sciences students especially regarding antihypertensive drugs, antibiotics, paracetamol and antacids (p<0.05. Pharmacy students showed a positive attitude regarding the trustworthiness of a pharmacist to give a consultation. Nearly all other health science students showed a negative attitude about dispensing and consultation concerning nutritional supplements by a pharmacist. All health sciences students had a similar perception toward medication use and practice. Conclusion Pharmacy students had better knowledge about medication practice compared to other health sciences students. All other health sciences students lacked the appropriate attitude and practice related to the safe use of medications.

  4. Web Site of King Faysal for Researches and Islamic Studies :Evaluative Case Study . 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Badi Aly al-Badi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study makes evaluation to the website of King Faisal Islamic Study & Research Center (KFISRC in relation to its site, advanced design, services rendered, public users and easy-to-search including its discharged duties; content, form and scope.The study aims to evaluate the website of KFISRC published in the Internet as well as the volume of its sample users, and to determine the motivations of use.The study was conducted on the Second Semester in 1426H. / 2005G. The researcher has relied in the evaluation case study on "on-line access" in the Internet; a matter which was imposed by the nature and objectives of the study and followed by an evaluation-analysis methodology based on the measures derived from Website & Information Resources Measures in the Internet. The information were gathered using the questionnaire forms which were distributed to a random sample of 15% of the society slide subject of the study totaling 1755 of post-graduate female students; i.e. Master degree; enrolled in Library & Information, Arabic Language and History Departments of Faculty of Arts & Humanities , King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah; and post-graduate female students; i.e. Master degree; enrolled in Faculty of Da'wa & Fundamentals of Religion, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, including male and female staff of KFISRC. The study has reached to the number of findings, mainly as follows:The volume of the users has reached to 40.7% of the sampling. One of the reasons of the decreasing percentage in the number of the site users of KFISRC is that 32.4% did not know about the existence of the site in the Internet; whereas, 24.1% of the sampling whose most important motivation to use the site is to know whether the resources searched by them would be available in the data-bases of the KFISRC or not

  5. Web Site of King Faysal for Researches and Islamic Studies :Evaluative Case Study . 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Badi Aly al-Badi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study makes evaluation to the website of King Faisal Islamic Study & Research Center (KFISRC in relation to its site, advanced design, services rendered, public users and easy-to-search including its discharged duties; content, form and scope.The study aims to evaluate the website of KFISRC published in the Internet as well as the volume of its sample users, and to determine the motivations of use.The study was conducted on the Second Semester in 1426H. / 2005G. The researcher has relied in the evaluation case study on "on-line access" in the Internet; a matter which was imposed by the nature and objectives of the study and followed by an evaluation-analysis methodology based on the measures derived from Website & Information Resources Measures in the Internet. The information were gathered using the questionnaire forms which were distributed to a random sample of 15% of the society slide subject of the study totaling 1755 of post-graduate female students; i.e. Master degree; enrolled in Library & Information, Arabic Language and History Departments of Faculty of Arts & Humanities , King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah; and post-graduate female students; i.e. Master degree; enrolled in Faculty of Da'wa & Fundamentals of Religion, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, including male and female staff of KFISRC. The study has reached to the number of findings, mainly as follows:The volume of the users has reached to 40.7% of the sampling. One of the reasons of the decreasing percentage in the number of the site users of KFISRC is that 32.4% did not know about the existence of the site in the Internet; whereas, 24.1% of the sampling whose most important motivation to use the site is to know whether the resources searched by them would be available in the data-bases of the KFISRC or not

  6. Metabolism and thermoregulation during fasting in king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus, in air and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, A; Schmidt, A; Handrich, Y; Woakes, A J; Butler, P J

    2005-09-01

    We measured oxygen consumption rate (Vo(2)) and body temperatures in 10 king penguins in air and water. Vo(2) was measured during rest and at submaximal and maximal exercise before (fed) and after (fasted) an average fasting duration of 14.4 +/- 2.3 days (mean +/- 1 SD, range 10-19 days) in air and water. Concurrently, we measured subcutaneous temperature and temperature of the upper (heart and liver), middle (stomach) and lower (intestine) abdomen. The mean body mass (M(b)) was 13.8 +/- 1.2 kg in fed and 11.0 +/- 0.6 kg in fasted birds. After fasting, resting Vo(2) was 93% higher in water than in air (air: 86.9 +/- 8.8 ml/min; water: 167.3 +/- 36.7 ml/min, P water in fed animals (air: 117.1 +/- 20.0 ml O(2)/min; water: 114.8 +/- 32.7 ml O(2)/min, P > 0.6). In air, Vo(2) decreased with M(b), while it increased with M(b) in water. Body temperature did not change with fasting in air, whereas in water, there were complex changes in the peripheral body temperatures. These latter changes may, therefore, be indicative of a loss in body insulation and of variations in peripheral perfusion. Four animals were given a single meal after fasting and the temperature changes were partly reversed 24 h after refeeding in all body regions except the subcutaneous, indicating a rapid reversal to a prefasting state where body heat loss is minimal. The data emphasize the importance in considering nutritional status when studying king penguins and that the fasting-related physiological changes diverge in air and water.

  7. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in the environmental matrices from King George Island, west Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhaojing; Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Zhu, Chaofei; Gao, Guanjun; Xiao, Ke; Sun, Huizhong; Zheng, Shucheng; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    Antarctica is considered as a final sink of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This work aims to investigate the levels, distributions and potential sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with HRGC/HRMS technique. Twenty-three OCPs were measured in various environmental matrices from King George Island, west Antarctica. The total concentrations (Σ_2_3OCPs) were at quite low levels, ranging 93.6–1260 pg g"−"1 dry weight (dw) in soil and sediment, 223–1053 pg g"−"1 dw in moss and 373–812 pg g"−"1 dw in lichen. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (especially p,p′-DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the main contaminants in all samples. Lower α-HCH/γ-HCH and higher p,p′-DDE/p,p′-DDT ratios compared with the technical products indicated long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of recent lindane and aged technical DDT. Significant dependence of many OCPs concentrations on total organic carbon (TOC) was observed. Apart from LRAT, local biotic activities could also contribute and influence the spatial distribution of the contaminants. - Graphical abstract: Map of King George Island, west Antarctica and Σ_2_3OCPs levels based on TOC (pg g"−"1 TOC) vs. dry weight (pg g"−"1 dw) in the soil and sediment samples. - Highlights: • Twenty-three OCPs were investigated in various matrices from Antarctica by HRGC/HRMS. • OCPs concentrations were at quite low levels in soils, sediments, mosses and lichens. • HCB and p,p′-DDE were dominant contributors of the total OCPs concentration. • Higher OCPs levels were found in the dropping-amended soil than natural soil. • The sources of HCHs, DDTs and chlordane compounds (CHLs) were discussed. - Occurrence and sources of OCPs in soil and terrestrial vegetation from west Antarctica were investigated.

  8. Reassessment of the cardio-respiratory stress response, using the king penguin as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willener, Astrid S T; Halsey, Lewis G; Strike, Siobhán; Enstipp, Manfred R; Georges, Jean-Yves; Handrich, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Research in to short-term cardio-respiratory changes in animals in reaction to a psychological stressor typically describes increases in rate of oxygen consumption (V̇(O2)) and heart rate. Consequently, the broad consensus is that they represent a fundamental stressor response generalizable across adult species. However, movement levels can also change in the presence of a stressor, yet studies have not accounted for this possible confound on heart rate. Thus the direct effects of psychological stressors on the cardio-respiratory system are not resolved. We used an innovative experimental design employing accelerometers attached to king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to measure and thus account for movement levels in a sedentary yet free-to-move animal model during a repeated measures stress experiment. As with previous studies on other species, incubating king penguins (N = 6) exhibited significant increases in both V̇(O2) and heart rate when exposed to the stressor. However, movement levels, while still low, also increased in response to the stressor. Once this was accounted for by comparing periods of time during the control and stress conditions when movement levels were similar as recorded by the accelerometers, only V̇(O2) significantly increased; there was no change in heart rate. These findings offer evidence that changing movement levels have an important effect on the measured stress response and that the cardio-respiratory response per se to a psychological stressor (i.e. the response as a result of physiological changes directly attributable to the stressor) is an increase in V̇(O2) without an increase in heart rate.

  9. On the identification of Dragon Kings among extreme-valued outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, M.; Neuman, S. P.; Guadagnini, A.

    2013-07-01

    Extreme values of earth, environmental, ecological, physical, biological, financial and other variables often form outliers to heavy tails of empirical frequency distributions. Quite commonly such tails are approximated by stretched exponential, log-normal or power functions. Recently there has been an interest in distinguishing between extreme-valued outliers that belong to the parent population of most data in a sample and those that do not. The first type, called Gray Swans by Nassim Nicholas Taleb (often confused in the literature with Taleb's totally unknowable Black Swans), is drawn from a known distribution of the tails which can thus be extrapolated beyond the range of sampled values. However, the magnitudes and/or space-time locations of unsampled Gray Swans cannot be foretold. The second type of extreme-valued outliers, termed Dragon Kings by Didier Sornette, may in his view be sometimes predicted based on how other data in the sample behave. This intriguing prospect has recently motivated some authors to propose statistical tests capable of identifying Dragon Kings in a given random sample. Here we apply three such tests to log air permeability data measured on the faces of a Berea sandstone block and to synthetic data generated in a manner statistically consistent with these measurements. We interpret the measurements to be, and generate synthetic data that are, samples from α-stable sub-Gaussian random fields subordinated to truncated fractional Gaussian noise (tfGn). All these data have frequency distributions characterized by power-law tails with extreme-valued outliers about the tail edges.

  10. On the identification of Dragon Kings among extreme-valued outliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Extreme values of earth, environmental, ecological, physical, biological, financial and other variables often form outliers to heavy tails of empirical frequency distributions. Quite commonly such tails are approximated by stretched exponential, log-normal or power functions. Recently there has been an interest in distinguishing between extreme-valued outliers that belong to the parent population of most data in a sample and those that do not. The first type, called Gray Swans by Nassim Nicholas Taleb (often confused in the literature with Taleb's totally unknowable Black Swans, is drawn from a known distribution of the tails which can thus be extrapolated beyond the range of sampled values. However, the magnitudes and/or space–time locations of unsampled Gray Swans cannot be foretold. The second type of extreme-valued outliers, termed Dragon Kings by Didier Sornette, may in his view be sometimes predicted based on how other data in the sample behave. This intriguing prospect has recently motivated some authors to propose statistical tests capable of identifying Dragon Kings in a given random sample. Here we apply three such tests to log air permeability data measured on the faces of a Berea sandstone block and to synthetic data generated in a manner statistically consistent with these measurements. We interpret the measurements to be, and generate synthetic data that are, samples from α-stable sub-Gaussian random fields subordinated to truncated fractional Gaussian noise (tfGn. All these data have frequency distributions characterized by power-law tails with extreme-valued outliers about the tail edges.

  11. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  12. Effect of substrates for in vitro germination of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King); Efeito de substratos na germinação in vitro de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lameira, Osmar Alves; Da Cunha Lopes, Sebastião; Martins Leão, Noemi Vianna; Castro Coimbra Cordeiro, Iracema Maria; Sousa Reis, Lana Roberta

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work was to verify the effect of substrates and different light conditions and temperature on in vitro germination of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) seeds for the production of explants for the initialprocess of micropropagation. In the first experiment the seeds were inoculatedintwosubstrates: 7gL{sup -1} agar and vermiculite,maintained at temperature of 25±1°C with photoperiod of 16 hours and 52 mmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}irradiance. MS medium supplementedwith sucrose (10; 20; and 30g L{sup -1}) was used. For the second experiment the seeds were submitted to light conditions (presence and absence)and temperature (25 and 30 °C) and inoculated in MS medium supplementedwith 30g L{sup -1} sucrose +vermiculite. The vermiculite was more efficient than agar as substrate for the in vitro seed germination of mahogany. The MS medium, supplemented with 30g L{sup -1} sucrose + vermiculite, was more efficient for the in vitro seed germination of mahogany. The temperatures of 25 and 30 °C independent of the presence or absence of light had no influence in the number and time for the in vitro germination of these seeds. (author) [Portuguese] Realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de substratos e diferentes condições de luz e temperatura na germinação de sementes de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King) in vitro visando à produção de explantes para iniciar o processo de micropropagação. No primeiro experimento, as sementes foram inoculadas em dois substratos: ágar a 7g.L{sup -1} e vermiculita, e mantidas em temperatura de 25±1°C sob fotoperíodo de 16 horas de luz e 25 mmol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1} de irradiância. O meio de cultura utilizado foi o MS, suplementado com sacarose (10; 20; e 30g.L{sup -1}). Para o segundo experimento, as sementes foram submetidas às condições de luz (presença e ausência) e temperatura (25 e 30 °C), sendo utilizado o meio de cultura MS com 30g.L{sup -1} de sacarose + vermiculita. A

  13. A satisfação do cliente : estudo do caso do franchising de fast-food King Pie na Cidade de Maputo em Moçambique

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Vânia Raquel Raimundo

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Gestão/MBA apresentada à Universidade Aberta O presente trabalho tem por objectivo central, estudar a satisfação dos clientes da empresa King Pie na Cidade de Maputo. O King Pie é uma cadeia sul-africana de fast-food, que em Moçambique opera em regime de franchising, estando presente no mercado local desde o ano de 2004. Neste momento, o King Pie dispõe quatro (4) estabelecimentos localizados na Cidade de Maputo com dois (2) investidores no país que detêm o direi...

  14. Implications of using On-Farm Flood Flow Capture to recharge groundwater and mitigate flood risks along the Kings River, CA

    OpenAIRE

    Bachand, P.A.M.; Horwath, W.R.; Roy, S.; Choperena, J.; Cameron, D.

    2012-01-01

    Two large hydrologic issues face the Kings Basin, severe and chronic overdraft of about 0.16M ac-ft annually, and flood risks along the Kings River and the downstream San Joaquin River. Since 1983, these floods have caused over $1B in damage in today’s dollars. Capturing flood flows of sufficient volume could help address these two pressing issues which are relevant to many regions of the Central Valley and will only be exacerbated with climate change. However, the Kings River has high vari...

  15. El cuerpo entre la resistencia y la asimilación: Estrategias incorporadas e itinerario corporal de un latin King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porzio, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the biographical account of King Manaba, who for many years was the Inca, the supreme leader of the latin King tribes in Catalonia and Spain. Referring to his biography, I will focus on the social presentation of the bodies of Manaba and the latin King, through their dress, adornments and tattoos. From a theoretical and analytical point of view, the body represents one of the main elements for the creation and diffusion of the imaginary of the so called “Latin gangs”. The body can be a stigma and create inequalities and, at the same time, a place of experiences, reflexion and resistance as an emblem. At the end, the article reflects on the tension and paradoxical relationship between resistance and assimilation practices in youth culture.El artículo se centra en el relato biográfico de King Manaba, que durante muchos años fue el Inca, es decir, el líder supremo de una de las tribus de los latin King en Cataluña y en España. Mediante el recurso de su biografía, nos centraremos en la presentación social del cuerpo de Manaba y de los latin King, a través de sus vestidos, adornos y tatuajes. Desde un punto de vista teórico y analítico, el cuerpo representa uno de los elementos centrales para la creación y difusión del imaginario de las llamadas “bandas latinas”. El cuerpo puede ser un estigma y crear desigualdades y, al mismo tiempo, un espacio de vivencias, reflexión y resistencia en cuanto emblema. Finalmente, el artículo reflexiona sobre la tensión y paradójica relación entre prácticas de resistencias y de asimilación en las culturas juveniles.

  16. King's Bowl Pit Crater, Lava Field and Eruptive Fissure, Idaho - A Multipurpose Volcanic Planetary Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S. S.; Garry, B.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Sears, D. W. G.; Borg, C.; Elphic, R. C.; Haberle, C. W.; Kobayashi, L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Sears, H.; Skok, J. R.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    King's Bowl (KB) and its associated eruptive fissure and lava field on the eastern Snake River Plain, is being investigated by the NASA SSERVI FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team as a planetary analog to similar pits on the Moon, Mars and Vesta. The 2,220 ± 100 BP basaltic eruption in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve represents early stages of low shield growth, which was aborted when magma supply was cut off. Compared to mature shields, KB is miniscule, with ~0.02 km3 of lava over ~3 km2, yet the ~6 km long series of fissures, cracks and pits are well-preserved for analog studies of volcanic processes. The termination of eruption was likely related to proximity of the 2,270 ± 50 BP eruption of the much larger Wapi lava field (~5.5 km3 over 325 km2 area) on the same rift. Our investigation extends early work by R. Greeley and colleagues, focusing on imagery, compositional variations, ejecta distribution, dGPS profiles and LiDAR scans of features related to: (1) fissure eruptions - spatter ramparts, cones, feeder dikes, extension cracks; (2) lava lake formation - surface morphology, squeeze-ups, slab pahoehoe lava mounds, lava drain-back, flow lobe overlaps; and (3) phreatic steam blasts - explosion pits, ejecta blankets of ash and blocks. Preliminary results indicate multiple fissure eruptions and growth of a basin-filled lava lake up to ~ 10 m thick with outflow sheet lava flows. Remnant mounds of original lake crust reveal an early high lava lake level, which subsided as much as 5 m as the molten interior drained back into the fissure system. Rapid loss of magma supply led to the collapse of fissure walls allowing groundwater influx that triggered multiple steam blasts along at least 500 m. Early blasts occurred while lake magma pressure was still high enough to produce squeeze-ups when penetrated by ejecta blocks. The King's Bowl pit crater exemplifies processes of a small, but highly energetic

  17. Effects of ocean acidification on fishery yields and profits of red king crab in Bristol Bay from model studies (NCEI Accession 0127395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains model output data that were collected to examine the impact of ocean acidification on fishery yields and profits of red king crab in...

  18. Technical feasibility of using gallery intakes for seawater RO facilities, northern Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia: The King Abdullah Economic City site

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    intakes. One of the potentially favorable sites for a seabed gallery system was located in the nearshore area at King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC). Detailed investigation of the site hydrology (tides and wave action), sediment grain size characteristics

  19. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Daly: Juvenile red and blue king crab prey preference experiment conducted in the Kodiak Lab in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is part of a laboratory experiment, which evaluated how varying ratios of prey species (year-0 blue and red king crabs) and habitat type (shell and...

  20. FitzPatrick Lecture: King George III and the porphyria myth - causes, consequences and re-evaluation of his mental illness with computer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that the claim that King George III suffered from acute porphyria is seriously at fault. This article explores some of the causes of this misdiagnosis and the consequences of the misleading claims, also reporting on the nature of the king's recurrent mental illness according to computer diagnostics. In addition, techniques of cognitive archaeology are used to investigate the nature of the king's final decade of mental illness, which resulted in the appointment of the Prince of Wales as Prince Regent. The results of this analysis confirm that the king suffered from bipolar disorder type I, with a final decade of dementia, due, in part, to the neurotoxicity of his recurrent episodes of acute mania. © 2015 Royal College of Physicians.

  1. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data from: Effects of Ocean Acidification on Juvenile Red King Crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) and Tanner Crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) Growth, Condition, Calcification, and Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is the results of a laboratory experiment. Juvenile red king crab and Tanner crab were reared in individual containers for nearly 200 days in flowing...

  2. Uncoupling effect of palmitate is exacerbated in skeletal muscle mitochondria of sea-acclimatized king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2017-09-01

    In king penguin juveniles, the environmental transition from a terrestrial to a marine habitat, occurring at fledging, drastically stimulates lipid catabolism and the remodelling of muscle mitochondria to sustain extensive swimming activity and thermoregulation in the cold circumpolar oceans. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms remains only partially resolved. Here we investigated, in vitro, the uncoupling effect of increasing doses of fatty acids in pectoralis muscle intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated, either from terrestrial never-immersed or experimentally cold water immersed pre-fledging king penguins or from sea-acclimatized fledged penguins. Mitochondria exhibited much greater palmitate-induced uncoupling respiration and higher maximal oxidative capacity after acclimatization to marine life. Such effects were not reproduced experimentally after repeated immersions in cold water, suggesting that the plasticity of mitochondrial characteristics may not be primarily driven by cold exposure per se but by other aspects of sea acclimatization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Black swans, power laws, and dragon-kings: Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, wildfires, floods, and SOC models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, M. K.; Yoder, M. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.; Malamud, B. D.

    2012-05-01

    Extreme events that change global society have been characterized as black swans. The frequency-size distributions of many natural phenomena are often well approximated by power-law (fractal) distributions. An important question is whether the probability of extreme events can be estimated by extrapolating the power-law distributions. Events that exceed these extrapolations have been characterized as dragon-kings. In this paper we consider extreme events for earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, wildfires, landslides and floods. We also consider the extreme event behavior of three models that exhibit self-organized criticality (SOC): the slider-block, forest-fire, and sand-pile models. Since extrapolations using power-laws are widely used in probabilistic hazard assessment, the occurrence of dragon-king events have important practical implications.

  4. Kinship and Power: The Social Rise of the Mújica Family at the Court of the Catholic Kings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto García Fernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The written documents referring to the high echelons of political power in the Kingdom of Castile at the end of the Middle Ages do not usually overlook either the name or the services entrusted by kings to the servants who upheld the institutional organization of the state. However, it is not always easy to discern the social and family ties on which the rise of these administrators and managers of the Crown was based, or the relationships established between them and with other leading families. In this respect, the Mújica family’s social and family ties are a good example of how important kinship was in their political advancement. But it is no less important to stress the outstanding role played by some untitled noble families in the construction of the Castilian court configured by the Catholic Kings.

  5. Wastewater Characterization Survey Cavalier Air Station, North Dakota (AFSPC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hemenway, Doris

    1997-01-01

    ... & Grease and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) concentrations entering the waste stabilization ponds and elevated constituents at selected locations throughout the base due to a regulated state effluent permit...

  6. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    OpenAIRE

    Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V; Rehm, Colin D; Streichert, Laura C; Drewnowski, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obta...

  7. The tragic 1824 journey of the Hawaiian king and queen to London: history of measles in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Stanford T; Shulman, Deborah L; Sims, Ronald H

    2009-08-01

    The susceptibility of isolated island-based populations to acute infections like measles is well documented, most clearly in Fiji and the Faröe Islands. We review the remarkably tragic 1824 journey of King Kamehameha II and Queen Kamamalu of Hawaii to London and the later enormous impact of measles on Hawaii on first arrival in 1848. The young royalty came to seek an audience with King George IV to negotiate an alliance with England. Virtually the entire royal party developed measles within weeks of arrival, 7 to 10 days after visiting the Royal Military Asylum housing hundreds of soldiers' children. Within the month the king (27) and queen (22) succumbed to measles complications. Their bodies were transported to Hawaii by Right Honorable Lord Byron (Captain George Anson, the poet's cousin). Before 1848 measles was unknown in Hawaii. Several epidemics struck Hawaii in late 1848, beginning with measles and pertussis, then diarrhea and influenza. Measles arrived at this time from California, spreading from Hilo, Hawaii, through all the islands; 10% to 33% of the population died. Subsequent measles epidemics occurred in 1861, 1889 to 1890, 1898, and 1936 to 1937, the latter with 205 deaths. The imported epidemics of infections including measles diminished Hawaii's population from approximately 300,000 at Captain Cook's arrival in 1778 to 135,000 in 1820 and 53,900 in 1876. The measles deaths of the king and queen in London in 1824, likely acquired visiting a large children's home, was a harbinger of the devastating impact of measles upon Hawaiians 24 years later with its first arrival to the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islands.

  8. Demography of the California spotted owl in the Sierra National Forest and Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    George N. Steger; Thomas E. Munton; Kenneth D. Johnson; Gary P. Eberlein

    2002-01-01

    Nine years (1990–1998) of demographic data on California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) in two study areas on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada—one in the Sierra National Forest (SNF), the other in Sequoia/Kings Canyon National Parks (SNP)—are summarized. Numbers of territorial owls fluctuated from 85 to 50 in SNF and 80 to 58...

  9. Dispersal in the sub-Antarctic: king penguins show remarkably little population genetic differentiation across their range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clucas, Gemma V; Younger, Jane L; Kao, Damian; Rogers, Alex D; Handley, Jonathan; Miller, Gary D; Jouventin, Pierre; Nolan, Paul; Gharbi, Karim; Miller, Karen J; Hart, Tom

    2016-10-13

    Seabirds are important components of marine ecosystems, both as predators and as indicators of ecological change, being conspicuous and sensitive to changes in prey abundance. To determine whether fluctuations in population sizes are localised or indicative of large-scale ecosystem change, we must first understand population structure and dispersal. King penguins are long-lived seabirds that occupy a niche across the sub-Antarctic zone close to the Polar Front. Colonies have very different histories of exploitation, population recovery, and expansion. We investigated the genetic population structure and patterns of colonisation of king penguins across their current range using a dataset of 5154 unlinked, high-coverage single nucleotide polymorphisms generated via restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq). Despite breeding at a small number of discrete, geographically separate sites, we find only very slight genetic differentiation among colonies separated by thousands of kilometers of open-ocean, suggesting migration among islands and archipelagos may be common. Our results show that the South Georgia population is slightly differentiated from all other colonies and suggest that the recently founded Falkland Island colony is likely to have been established by migrants from the distant Crozet Islands rather than nearby colonies on South Georgia, possibly as a result of density-dependent processes. The observed subtle differentiation among king penguin colonies must be considered in future conservation planning and monitoring of the species, and demographic models that attempt to forecast extinction risk in response to large-scale climate change must take into account migration. It is possible that migration could buffer king penguins against some of the impacts of climate change where colonies appear panmictic, although it is unlikely to protect them completely given the widespread physical changes projected for their Southern Ocean foraging grounds

  10. Post-fledging dispersal of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus from two breeding sites in the South Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Pütz

    Full Text Available Most studies concerning the foraging ecology of marine vertebrates are limited to breeding adults, although other life history stages might comprise half the total population. For penguins, little is known about juvenile dispersal, a period when individuals may be susceptible to increased mortality given their naïve foraging behaviour. Therefore, we used satellite telemetry to study king penguin fledglings (n = 18 from two sites in the Southwest Atlantic in December 2007. The two sites differed with respect to climate and proximity to the Antarctic Polar Front (APF, a key oceanographic feature generally thought to be important for king penguin foraging success. Accordingly, birds from both sites foraged predominantly in the vicinity of the APF. Eight king penguins were tracked for periods greater than 120 days; seven of these (three from the Falkland Islands and four from South Georgia migrated into the Pacific. Only one bird from the Falkland Islands moved into the Indian Ocean, visiting the northern limit of the winter pack-ice. Three others from the Falkland Islands migrated to the eastern coast of Tierra del Fuego before travelling south. Derived tracking parameters describing their migratory behaviour showed no significant differences between sites. Nevertheless, generalized linear habitat modelling revealed that juveniles from the Falkland Islands spent more time in comparatively shallow waters with low sea surface temperature, sea surface height and chlorophyll variability. Birds from South Georgia spent more time in deeper waters with low sea surface temperature and sea surface height, but high concentrations of chlorophyll. Our results indicate that inexperienced king penguins, irrespective of the location of their natal site in relation to the position of the APF, develop their foraging skills progressively over time, including specific adaptations to the environment around their prospective breeding site.

  11. Post-fledging dispersal of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) from two breeding sites in the South Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütz, Klemens; Trathan, Phil N; Pedrana, Julieta; Collins, Martin A; Poncet, Sally; Lüthi, Benno

    2014-01-01

    Most studies concerning the foraging ecology of marine vertebrates are limited to breeding adults, although other life history stages might comprise half the total population. For penguins, little is known about juvenile dispersal, a period when individuals may be susceptible to increased mortality given their naïve foraging behaviour. Therefore, we used satellite telemetry to study king penguin fledglings (n = 18) from two sites in the Southwest Atlantic in December 2007. The two sites differed with respect to climate and proximity to the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), a key oceanographic feature generally thought to be important for king penguin foraging success. Accordingly, birds from both sites foraged predominantly in the vicinity of the APF. Eight king penguins were tracked for periods greater than 120 days; seven of these (three from the Falkland Islands and four from South Georgia) migrated into the Pacific. Only one bird from the Falkland Islands moved into the Indian Ocean, visiting the northern limit of the winter pack-ice. Three others from the Falkland Islands migrated to the eastern coast of Tierra del Fuego before travelling south. Derived tracking parameters describing their migratory behaviour showed no significant differences between sites. Nevertheless, generalized linear habitat modelling revealed that juveniles from the Falkland Islands spent more time in comparatively shallow waters with low sea surface temperature, sea surface height and chlorophyll variability. Birds from South Georgia spent more time in deeper waters with low sea surface temperature and sea surface height, but high concentrations of chlorophyll. Our results indicate that inexperienced king penguins, irrespective of the location of their natal site in relation to the position of the APF, develop their foraging skills progressively over time, including specific adaptations to the environment around their prospective breeding site.

  12. Said Ali Hassan El-Quliti1* and Neyara Radwan2 1 Prof., Department of Industrial Engineering, King Abdulaziz University

    OpenAIRE

    El-Quliti, Said Ali Hassan; Radwan, Neyara

    2016-01-01

    Faculty of Engineering at King Abdulaziz University plans to redesign its undergraduate courses, which is required for students in 14 different programs. These courses have an annual enrolment of about 2,500 students each year. The Operations Research Teaching Area in the Department of Industrial Engineering will be presented as a case study. This area involves two core and three elective courses.The course redesign involves preparing students for the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam req...

  13. Hydrographs showing groundwater levels for selected wells in the Puyallup River watershed and vicinity, Pierce and King Counties, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R.C.; Julich, R.J.; Justin, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrographs of groundwater levels for selected wells in and adjacent to the Puyallup River watershed in Pierce and King Counties, Washington, are presented using an interactive Web-based map of the study area to illustrate changes in groundwater levels on a monthly and seasonal basis. The interactive map displays well locations that link to the hydrographs, which in turn link to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System, Groundwater Site Inventory System.

  14. Lidar-revised geologic map of the Poverty Bay 7.5' quadrangle, King and Pierce Counties, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Rowland W.; Booth, Derek B.; Troost, Kathy Goetz

    2014-01-01

    For this map, we interpreted a 6-ft-resolution lidar digital elevation model combined with the geology depicted on the Geologic Map of the Poverty Bay 7.5' Quadrangle, King and Pierce Counties, Washington (Booth and others, 2004b). The authors of the 2004 map described, interpreted, and located the geology on the 1:24,000-scale topographic map of the Poverty Bay 7.5' quadrangle.

  15. Use of tree species by White-throated treerunner (Pygarrhichas albogularis King) in a secondary native forest of southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Gantz, Alberto; Yañez, Miguel; Orellana, José I.; Sade, Soraya; Valdivia, Carlos E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In forest ecosystems, numerous species of insectivorous birds use certain tree species as feeding and nesting substrates. Between 2009 and 2010, the use of different floristic components as feeding substrate by the Pygarrhichas albogularis King, 1831 was evaluated in a southern Chilean secondary native forest. From a total of 13 trees and bush species, six tree species were used by P. albogularis as a feeding substrate. Tree use was limited to intermediate heights (11-20 m) and, main...

  16. New Ancient Egyptian Human Mummies from the Valley of the Kings, Luxor: Anthropological, Radiological, and Egyptological Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühli, Frank; Ikram, Salima; Bickel, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The Valley of the Kings (arab. Wadi al Muluk; KV) situated on the West Bank near Luxor (Egypt) was the site for royal and elite burials during the New Kingdom (ca. 1500-1100 BC), with many tombs being reused in subsequent periods. In 2009, the scientific project "The University of Basel Kings' Valley Project" was launched. The main purpose of this transdisciplinary project is the clearance and documentation of nonroyal tombs in the surrounding of the tomb of Pharaoh Thutmosis III (ca. 1479-1424 BC; KV 34). This paper reports on newly discovered ancient Egyptian human mummified remains originating from the field seasons 2010-2012. Besides macroscopic assessments, the remains were conventionally X-rayed by a portable X-ray unit in situ inside KV 31. These image data serve as basis for individual sex and age determination and for the study of probable pathologies and embalming techniques. A total of five human individuals have been examined so far and set into an Egyptological context. This project highlights the importance of ongoing excavation and science efforts even in well-studied areas of Egypt such as the Kings' Valley.

  17. Plasma thyroid hormone pattern in king penguin chicks: a semi-altricial bird with an extended posthatching developmental period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherel, Yves; Durant, Joël M; Lacroix, André

    2004-05-01

    Plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones (TH) were investigated during the extended posthatching developmental period (approximately 11 months) of a semi-altricial bird species, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). The first period of growth in summer was marked by a progressive rise in plasma T4 concentration that paralleled rapid increases in body mass and in structural and down growth. By contrast, plasma T3 concentration had already reached adult levels in newly hatched chicks and did not change thereafter. Circulating TH of king penguin chicks thus follow an original pattern when comparing to altricial and precocial species. During the austral winter, the long period of undernutrition of king penguin chicks was characterized by a decrease in circulating TH that can be related to a seasonal stop in growth and energy saving mechanisms. Plasma TH concentrations increased again during the second growth phase in spring, and they reached their highest levels at the end of the fledging period, slightly before juveniles initiated their first foraging trip at sea. As expected, plasma T4 levels were elevated when chicks moulted, developing a true-adult type waterproof plumage. The data also suggest that T4 plays a major role in skeletal development and pectoral muscle maturation in anticipation of marine life. Plasma T3 was at its highest during the period when juveniles improved resistance to cold waters by going back and forth to the sea, suggesting a role for circulating T3 in cold acclimatization occurring at that time.

  18. Cross-reactivity and neutralization of Indian King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom by polyvalent and monovalent antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowtham, Yashonandana J; Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Girish, K S; K, Kemparaju

    2014-07-01

    The venom of the largest venomous snake, the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), is still out of league for the production of therapeutic polyvalent antivenom nor it is characterized immunologically in the Indian subcontinent. In the present study, the king cobra venom is comparatively studied for the cross-reactivity/reactivity and toxicity neutralization by the locally available equine therapeutic polyvalent BSV and VB antivenoms, and monovalent antivenom (OH-IgG) prepared in rabbit. None of the two therapeutic antivenoms procured from two different firms showed any signs of cross-reactivity in terms of antigen-antibody precipitin lines in immunodouble diffusion assay; however, a weak and an insignificant cross-reactivity pattern was observed in ELISA and Western blot studies. Further, both BSV and VB antivenoms failed to neutralize proteolytic, hyaluronidase and phospholipase activities as well as toxic properties such as edema, myotoxicity and lethality of the venom. As expected, OH-IgG showed strong reactivity in immunodouble diffusion, ELISA and in Western blot analysis and also neutralized both enzyme activities as well as the toxic properties of the venom. Thus, the study provides insight into the likely measures that are to be taken in cases of accidental king cobra bites for which the Indian subcontinent is still not prepared for. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochdansky, Alexander B; Clouse, Melissa A; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2016-03-04

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of "dragon kings." Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95-98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets.

  20. Uncoupling protein and ATP/ADP carrier increase mitochondrial proton conductance after cold adaptation of king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Darren A; Duchamp, Claude; Rey, Benjamin; Hanuise, Nicolas; Rouanet, Jean Louis; Sibille, Brigitte; Brand, Martin D

    2004-07-01

    Juvenile king penguins develop adaptive thermogenesis after repeated immersion in cold water. However, the mechanisms of such metabolic adaptation in birds are unknown, as they lack brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediate adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals. We used three different groups of juvenile king penguins to investigate the mitochondrial basis of avian adaptive thermogenesis in vitro. Skeletal muscle mitochondria isolated from penguins that had never been immersed in cold water showed no superoxide-stimulated proton conductance, indicating no functional avian UCP. Skeletal muscle mitochondria from penguins that had been either experimentally immersed or naturally adapted to cold water did possess functional avian UCP, demonstrated by a superoxide-stimulated, GDP-inhibitable proton conductance across their inner membrane. This was associated with a markedly greater abundance of avian UCP mRNA. In the presence (but not the absence) of fatty acids, these mitochondria also showed a greater adenine nucleotide translocase-catalysed proton conductance than those from never-immersed penguins. This was due to an increase in the amount of adenine nucleotide translocase. Therefore, adaptive thermogenesis in juvenile king penguins is linked to two separate mechanisms of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle mitochondria: increased proton transport activity of avian UCP (dependent on superoxide and inhibited by GDP) and increased proton transport activity of the adenine nucleotide translocase (dependent on fatty acids and inhibited by carboxyatractylate).

  1. New Ancient Egyptian Human Mummies from the Valley of the Kings, Luxor: Anthropological, Radiological, and Egyptological Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühli, Frank; Ikram, Salima

    2015-01-01

    The Valley of the Kings (arab. Wadi al Muluk; KV) situated on the West Bank near Luxor (Egypt) was the site for royal and elite burials during the New Kingdom (ca. 1500–1100 BC), with many tombs being reused in subsequent periods. In 2009, the scientific project “The University of Basel Kings' Valley Project” was launched. The main purpose of this transdisciplinary project is the clearance and documentation of nonroyal tombs in the surrounding of the tomb of Pharaoh Thutmosis III (ca. 1479–1424 BC; KV 34). This paper reports on newly discovered ancient Egyptian human mummified remains originating from the field seasons 2010–2012. Besides macroscopic assessments, the remains were conventionally X-rayed by a portable X-ray unit in situ inside KV 31. These image data serve as basis for individual sex and age determination and for the study of probable pathologies and embalming techniques. A total of five human individuals have been examined so far and set into an Egyptological context. This project highlights the importance of ongoing excavation and science efforts even in well-studied areas of Egypt such as the Kings' Valley. PMID:26347313

  2. Survey on composition and bioconcentration potential of 12 metallic elements in King Bolete (Boletus edulis) mushroom that emerged at 11 spatially distant sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Frankowska, Aneta; Jarzynska, Grazyna; Dryzałowska, Anna; Kojta, Anna K; Zhang, Dan

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides data on baseline concentrations, interrelationships and bioconcentration potential of 12 metallic elements by King Bolete collected from 11 spatially distant sites across Poland. There are significant differences in concentrations of metals (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, Zn) and their bioconcentration potential in King Bolete Boletus edulis at 11 spatially distant sites surveyed across Poland. These have resulted from significant geographical differences in trace metal concentrations in a layer (0-10 cm) of organic and mineral soil underneath to fruiting bodies and possible local bioavailabilities of macro- (Ca, K, Mg, Na) and trace metals (Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn) to King Bolete. The use of highly appreciated wild-grown edible King Bolete mushroom has established a baseline measure of regional minerals status, heavy metals pollution and assessment of intake rates for wild mushroom dish fanciers against which future changes can be compared. Data on Cd, Cu and Zn from this study and from literature search can be useful to set the maximum limit of these metals in King Bolete collected from uncontaminated (background) areas. In this report also reviewed are data on Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr and Zn accumulation in King Bolete.

  3. Radioactive waste handling and disposal at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj, Abdalla N; Lobriguito, Aida M; Al Anazi, Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre (KFSHRC) is the largest specialized medical center in Saudi Arabia. It performs highly specialized diagnostic imaging procedures with the use of various radionuclides required by sophisticated dual imaging systems. As a leading institution in cancer research, KFSHRC uses both long-lived and short-lived radionuclides. KFSHRC established the first cyclotron facility in the Middle East, which solved the in-house high demand for radionuclides and the difficulty in importing them. As both user and producer of high standard radiopharmaceuticals, KFSHRC generates large volumes of low and high level radioactive wastes. An old and small radioactive facility that was used for storage of radioactive waste was replaced with a bigger warehouse provided with facilities that will reduce radiation exposure of the staff, members of the public, and of the environment in the framework of "as low as reasonably achievable." The experiences and the effectiveness of the radiation protection program on handling and storage of radioactive wastes are presented.

  4. Verifying the geographic origin of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) with DNA-fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, B; Ward, S E; Lemes, M R; Navarro, C; Cavers, S; Sebbenn, A M

    2013-01-01

    Illegal logging is one of the main causes of ongoing worldwide deforestation and needs to be eradicated. The trade in illegal timber and wood products creates market disadvantages for products from sustainable forestry. Although various measures have been established to counter illegal logging and the subsequent trade, there is a lack of practical mechanisms for identifying the origin of timber and wood products. In this study, six nuclear microsatellites were used to generate DNA fingerprints for a genetic reference database characterising the populations of origin of a large set of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) samples. For the database, leaves and/or cambium from 1971 mahogany trees sampled in 31 stands from Mexico to Bolivia were genotyped. A total of 145 different alleles were found, showing strong genetic differentiation (δ(Gregorious)=0.52, F(ST)=0.18, G(ST(Hedrick))=0.65) and clear correlation between genetic and spatial distances among stands (r=0.82, P<0.05). We used the genetic reference database and Bayesian assignment testing to determine the geographic origins of two sets of mahogany wood samples, based on their multilocus genotypes. In both cases the wood samples were assigned to the correct country of origin. We discuss the overall applicability of this methodology to tropical timber trading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of substrates for in vitro germination of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lameira, Osmar Alves; Da Cunha Lopes, Sebastião; Martins Leão, Noemi Vianna; Castro Coimbra Cordeiro, Iracema Maria; Sousa Reis, Lana Roberta

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to verify the effect of substrates and different light conditions and temperature on in vitro germination of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) seeds for the production of explants for the initialprocess of micropropagation. In the first experiment the seeds were inoculatedintwosubstrates: 7gL -1 agar and vermiculite,maintained at temperature of 25±1°C with photoperiod of 16 hours and 52 mmol m -2 s -1 irradiance. MS medium supplementedwith sucrose (10; 20; and 30g L -1 ) was used. For the second experiment the seeds were submitted to light conditions (presence and absence)and temperature (25 and 30 °C) and inoculated in MS medium supplementedwith 30g L -1 sucrose +vermiculite. The vermiculite was more efficient than agar as substrate for the in vitro seed germination of mahogany. The MS medium, supplemented with 30g L -1 sucrose + vermiculite, was more efficient for the in vitro seed germination of mahogany. The temperatures of 25 and 30 °C independent of the presence or absence of light had no influence in the number and time for the in vitro germination of these seeds. (author) [pt

  6. Selective upregulation of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of foraging juvenile king penguins: an integrative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loic; Dégletagne, Cyril; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Keime, Céline; de Dinechin, Marc; Raccurt, Mireille; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Duchamp, Claude

    2012-06-22

    The passage from shore to marine life of juvenile penguins represents a major energetic challenge to fuel intense and prolonged demands for thermoregulation and locomotion. Some functional changes developed at this crucial step were investigated by comparing pre-fledging king penguins with sea-acclimatized (SA) juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Transcriptomic analysis of pectoralis muscle biopsies revealed that most genes encoding proteins involved in lipid transport or catabolism were upregulated, while genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were mostly downregulated in SA birds. Determination of muscle enzymatic activities showed no changes in enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, but increased 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the β-oxidation pathway. The respiratory rates of isolated muscle mitochondria were much higher with a substrate arising from lipid metabolism (palmitoyl-L-carnitine) in SA juveniles than in terrestrial controls, while no difference emerged with a substrate arising from carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate). In vivo, perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a fourfold larger thermogenic effect in SA than in control juveniles. The present integrative study shows that fuel selection towards lipid oxidation characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life. Such acclimatization may involve thyroid hormones through their nuclear beta receptor and nuclear coactivators.

  7. Recovery from swimming-induced hypothermia in king penguins: effects of nutritional condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, L G; Handrich, Y; Rey, B; Fahlman, A; Woakes, A J; Butler, P J

    2008-01-01

    We investigated changes in the rate of oxygen consumption (V O2) and body temperature of wild king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) in different nutritional conditions during recovery after exposure to cold water. Over time, birds undertook an identical experiment three times, each characterized by different nutritional conditions: (1) having recently completed a foraging trip, (2) after fasting for many days, and (3) having been refed one meal after the fast. The experiments consisted of a 2-h session in a water channel followed by a period of recovery in a respirometer chamber on land. Refed birds recovered significantly more quickly than fed birds, in terms of both time to reach resting V O2 on land and time to reach recovery of lower abdominal temperature. Previous work found that when penguins are in cold water, abdominal temperatures decrease less in refed birds than in fed or fasted birds, suggesting that refed birds may be vasoconstricting the periphery while perfusing the gut region to access nutrients. This, alongside an increased resting [V O2], seems the most reasonable explanation for why refed birds recovered more quickly subsequent to cold-water exposure in this study; that is, vasoconstriction of the insulative periphery meant that they lost less heat generated by the body core.

  8. To what extent might N2 limit dive performance in king penguins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, A; Schmidt, A; Jones, D R; Bostrom, B L; Handrich, Y

    2007-10-01

    A mathematical model was used to explore if elevated levels of N2, and risk of decompression sickness (DCS), could limit dive performance (duration and depth) in king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). The model allowed prediction of blood and tissue (central circulation, muscle, brain and fat) N2 tensions (P(N2)) based on different cardiac outputs and blood flow distributions. Estimated mixed venous P(N2) agreed with values observed during forced dives in a compression chamber used to validate the assumptions of the model. During bouts of foraging dives, estimated mixed venous and tissue P(N2) increased as the bout progressed. Estimated mean maximum mixed venous P(N2) upon return to the surface after a dive was 4.56+/-0.18 atmospheres absolute (ATA; range: 4.37-4.78 ATA). This is equivalent to N2 levels causing a 50% DCS incidence in terrestrial animals of similar mass. Bout termination events were not associated with extreme mixed venous N2 levels. Fat P(N2) was positively correlated with bout duration and the highest estimated fat P(N2) occurred at the end of a dive bout. The model suggested that short and shallow dives occurring between dive bouts help to reduce supersaturation and thereby DCS risk. Furthermore, adipose tissue could also help reduce DCS risk during the first few dives in a bout by functioning as a sink to buffer extreme levels of N2.

  9. Inter-Annual Variability of Fledgling Sex Ratio in King Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordier, Célia; Saraux, Claire; Viblanc, Vincent A; Gachot-Neveu, Hélène; Beaugey, Magali; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2014-01-01

    As the number of breeding pairs depends on the adult sex ratio in a monogamous species with biparental care, investigating sex-ratio variability in natural populations is essential to understand population dynamics. Using 10 years of data (2000-2009) in a seasonally monogamous seabird, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), we investigated the annual sex ratio at fledging, and the potential environmental causes for its variation. Over more than 4000 birds, the annual sex ratio at fledging was highly variable (ranging from 44.4% to 58.3% of males), and on average slightly biased towards males (51.6%). Yearly variation in sex-ratio bias was neither related to density within the colony, nor to global or local oceanographic conditions known to affect both the productivity and accessibility of penguin foraging areas. However, rising sea surface temperature coincided with an increase in fledging sex-ratio variability. Fledging sex ratio was also correlated with difference in body condition between male and female fledglings. When more males were produced in a given year, their body condition was higher (and reciprocally), suggesting that parents might adopt a sex-biased allocation strategy depending on yearly environmental conditions and/or that the effect of environmental parameters on chick condition and survival may be sex-dependent. The initial bias in sex ratio observed at the juvenile stage tended to return to 1∶1 equilibrium upon first breeding attempts, as would be expected from Fisher's classic theory of offspring sex-ratio variation.

  10. [Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of the King Cobra, Ophiophagus hannah (Serpents: Elapidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nian; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2010-07-01

    We obtained the complete mitochondrial genome of King Cobra(GenBank accession number: EU_921899) by Ex Taq-PCR, TA-cloning and primer-walking methods. This genome is very similar to other vertebrate, which is 17 267 bp in length and encodes 38 genes (including 13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal RNA and 23 transfer RNA genes) and two long non-coding regions. The duplication of tRNA-Ile gene forms a new mitochondrial gene rearrangement model. Eight tRNA genes and one protein genes were transcribed from L strand, and the other genes were transcribed genes from H strand. Genes on the H strand show a fairly similar content of Adenosine and Thymine respectively, whereas those on the L strand have higher proportion of A than T. Combined rDNA sequence data (12S+16S rRNA) were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of 21 snake species for which complete mitochondrial genome sequences were available in the public databases. This large data set and an appropriate range of outgroup taxa demonstrated that Elapidae is more closely related to colubridae than viperidae, which supports the traditional viewpoints.

  11. Sedative Drug Use among King Saud University Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Sampling Study

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    Ahmed A. Al-Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medical students experience significant psychological stress and are therefore at higher risk of using sedatives. There are currently no studies describing the prevalence of sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional convenience sampling study gathered data by anonymous questionnaire from students enrolled at the King Saud University College of Medicine in 2011. The questionnaires collected data regarding social and demographic variables, sleep patterns, and the use of stimulant and sedative drugs since enrollment. Sedatives were defined as any pharmaceutical preparations that induce sleep. Results and Discussion. Of the 729 students who returned questionnaires, 17.0% reported sedative drug use at some time since enrollment. Higher academic year, lower grade point average, regular exercise, fewer hours of sleep per day, poorer quality of sleep, and the presence of sleeping disorders were found to be significantly associated with sedative drug use. Conclusions. Further study is required to increase our understanding of sedative drug use patterns in this relatively high-risk group, as such understanding will help in the development of early intervention programs.

  12. Radiation Protection program of king a bdulaziz university at Jeddah campus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamoon, A.; Kamal, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the gradual increase in the number of radiation sources on king abdulaziz university campus such that it became difficult to supervise them separately, it became necessary to establish a radiation safety program on the campus. This program covers regulations for supervising and setting safety controls for safe handing housing and operating or using the radiation sources. Inventory of all sources on campus whether machine sources or isotope sources along with their work ares are recorded. Also all the technicians and users of these sources are identified and entered in special special forms along with the nature of the work they do with the respective radiation sources. The performance of the X-ray machines are checked with respect to their expected standard performance. The generated radioactive wastes from the various isotope uses are collected, managed and kept in temporary storage for long lived wastes or stored till complete decay for short half life isotopes. Surveillance of all work area radiation environments as well as monitoring of radiation workers doses are done routinely. Records of all these data are maintained and updated regularly. The university radiation safety committee (URSC), who is responsible for the functioning of the radiation safety program, also arranges several training courses for technicians and researchers and others on the safe uses of radiation sources

  13. Medical waste management in Jordan: A study at the King Hussein Medical Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oweis, Rami; Al-Widyan, Mohamad; Al-Limoon, Ohood

    2005-01-01

    As in many other developing countries, the generation of regulated medical waste (RMW) in Jordan has increased significantly over the last few decades. Despite the serious impacts of RMW on humans and the environment, only minor attention has been directed to its proper handling and disposal. This study was conducted in the form of a case study at one of Jordan's leading medical centers, namely, the King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC). Its purpose was to report on the current status of medical waste management at KHMC and propose possible measures to improve it. In general, it was found that the center's administration was reasonably aware of the importance of medical waste management and practiced some of the measures to adequately handle waste generated at the center. However, it was also found that significant voids were present that need to be addressed in the future including efficient segregation, the use of coded and colored bags, better handling and transfer means, and better monitoring and tracking techniques, as well as the need for training and awareness programs for the personnel

  14. Radon and thoron daughter activities in the environment of the King George Island (West Antarctica

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    A. T. Solecki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of 253 gamma spectrometric analyses of radon daughters in soil and bedrocks of the King George Island (West Antarctica are presented. Measured values range from 0.1 to 58.4 Bq/kg, and from 4.9 to 75.5 Bq/kg for 214Bi and 208Tl respectively, but most measurements fall in the lower part of this range due to predominantly basaltic character of the geological basement. Obtained gamma spectrometric data correspond well to very low soil gas radon content measured by means of Kodak LR115 being below 454 Bqm-3. Low soil gas radon content and characteristic type of architecture is responsible for low indoor radon activity in Arctowski Station being as low as 10- 15 Bqm-3. The highest 105 Bqm-3 indoor Rn activity has been measured in the greenhouse bungalow of the station. This increased value was probably connected with the presence of about 1000 kg of imported soil material in the greenhouse room of the bungalow. Local zones of increased uranium and thorium content, discovered as a result of radiometric mapping, can potentaily influence atmospheric radon used for meteorological interpretation.

  15. Optimization of King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii Substrate Using Lignocellulosic Affordable Wastes

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    javad janpoor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: King oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii belongs to Basidiomycota division, Agaricomycetes class and Pleurotaceae family. This mushroom generally grows on wood wastes of Apiaceae family. The Pleurotus eryngii is found in pastures, meadows, gardens and seldom in grassy forest clearings and hilly areas. The Pleurotus of the Umbellifers occupy an area in the Northern hemisphere between the 30 and 50º N. These species are mainly found in the subtropical regions of the Mediterranean, Central Europe, Russia, Ukraine, Central Asia and Iran. The P. eryngii sensulato is the only taxon within the genus, which grows in association with plants. P. eryngii has distinguishable characteristics such as coherent texture, unique form, favorable taste and high durability. Mushroom cultivation represents the only current economically viable biotechnology process for the conversion of waste plant residues from forests and agriculture. The species of these genera show much diversity in their adaptation the varying agro-climatic condition which makes more cultivated species than other mushrooms. Special ability of Pleurotus family is growing in lingocellulosic plant or agricultural wastes without needing to prepared compost and casing soil. Pleurotus is an efficient lignin- degrading mushroom and can grow and yield well on different types of lignocellulolosic materials. Type of substrates for mushroom growing depends on available plant or agricultural wastes. In Europe, wheat straw is used for mushroom growing; whereas in Asian South-East countries sawdust is more popular. Different materials for cultivating of P. eryngii have been suggested in different regions of the world; but a few studies have been done on suitability of various lignocellulosic affordable wastes for P. eryngii production in Iran. Therefore, the current study aims to evaluate effects of various locally available agro wastes on the growth characteristics of King oyster mushroom (P

  16. The disease that caused weight loss in King David the Great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Noun, Liubov Louba

    2004-02-01

    Older people have suffered from loss of weight since the dawn of history. This research is unique in character, as it combines contemporary medical knowledge with the presentation of a case taken from Ancient History. To analyze from a modern perspective the biblical description of a geriatric patient who suffered from weight loss. Biblical texts associated with the aged were examined and passages relating to geriatric patients who suffered from loss of weight were closely studied. This study is based on the evaluation of the biblical passages, and not on the interpretations of various rabbis and scholars. Passages such as: ". I forget to eat my bread" and "My knees are weak through fasting; and my flesh failed of fatness" and ". my bones cleave to my skin" indicate anorexia, fasting, extreme loss of weight, and subsequent cachexia. Among the numerous causes associated with weight loss, malignancy, social problems such as loneliness, social isolation and neglect by others, and psychological causes including depressed mood were most likely responsible. With regard to malignancy, it seems that the King was affected by primary carcinoma of the prostate or kidney with subsequent metastases to bones. This report demonstrates that the roots of geriatric medicine can be traced to biblical times.

  17. Open-Heart surgery and cerebrovascular accident: retrospective study at King Khalid University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Satli, R.A.; Takrouri, Mohammad S.M.; Al-Daif, A.; Fouda, Mohamed N.; Maher, S.; Al-Khwsky, F.

    2000-01-01

    Stroke after coronary by-pass grafting (CABG) is often disabling. The incidence of ischemic stroke may approach 3% to 5%. Several risk factors have been identified including previous history of stroke, prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time, and postoperative atrial fibrillation. Objective was to determine the incidence and risk factors of neurological deficit after open heart surgery. Retrospective study was done during the period 1992-1995 at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. There were 350 patients who were subjected to (CABG), 10 patients (2.8%) found to suffer from cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) following open-heart surgery. In 8 patients, the complaint lasted more than 24 hours (stroke), while 2 patients developed transient ischemic attacks (TIA). Five factors were found to be associated with increased risk of post cardiac surgery CVA. These factors are postoperative atrial fibrillation, carotid bruit, past history of heart failure, past history of CVA and smoking. The authors concluded that it is necessary to start a prospective study to verify the area of improvement with regards to technique, selection of patients and mode of perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) Arabia. (author)

  18. BEL β-trefoil: a novel lectin with antineoplastic properties in king bolete (Boletus edulis) mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovi, Michele; Cenci, Lucia; Perduca, Massimiliano; Capaldi, Stefano; Carrizo, Maria E; Civiero, Laura; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Galliano, Monica; Monaco, Hugo L

    2013-05-01

    A novel lectin was purified from the fruiting bodies of king bolete mushrooms (Boletus edulis, also called porcino, cep or penny bun). The lectin was structurally characterized i.e its amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure were determined. The new protein is a homodimer and each protomer folds as β-trefoil domain and therefore we propose the name Boletus edulis lectin (BEL) β-trefoil to distinguish it from the other lectin that has been described in these mushrooms. The lectin has potent anti-proliferative effects on human cancer cells, which confers to it an interesting therapeutic potential as an antineoplastic agent. Several crystal forms of the apoprotein and of complexes with different carbohydrates were studied by X-ray diffraction. The structure of the apoprotein was solved at 1.12 Å resolution. The interaction of the lectin with lactose, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and T-antigen disaccharide, Galβ1-3GalNAc, was examined in detail. All the three potential binding sites present in the β-trefoil fold are occupied in at least one crystal form and are described in detail in this paper. No important conformational changes are observed in the lectin when comparing its co-crystals with carbohydrates with those of the ligand-free protein.

  19. Structure of a lectin with antitumoral properties in king bolete (Boletus edulis) mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovi, Michele; Carrizo, Maria E; Capaldi, Stefano; Perduca, Massimiliano; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Galliano, Monica; Monaco, Hugo L

    2011-08-01

    A novel lectin has been isolated from the fruiting bodies of the common edible mushroom Boletus edulis (king bolete, penny bun, porcino or cep) by affinity chromatography on a chitin column. We propose for the lectin the name BEL (B. edulis lectin). BEL inhibits selectively the proliferation of several malignant cell lines and binds the neoplastic cell-specific T-antigen disaccharide, Galβ1-3GalNAc. The lectin was structurally characterized: the molecule is a homotetramer and the 142-amino acid sequence of the chains was determined. The protein belongs to the saline-soluble family of mushroom fruiting body-specific lectins. BEL was also crystallized and its three-dimensional structure was determined by X-ray diffraction to 1.15 Å resolution. The structure is similar to that of Agaricus bisporus lectin. Using the appropriate co-crystals, the interactions of BEL with specific mono- and disaccharides were also studied by X-ray diffraction. The six structures of carbohydrate complexes reported here provide details of the interactions of the ligands with the lectin and shed light on the selectivity of the two distinct binding sites present in each protomer.

  20. Solar Cycle Variation of Upper Thermospheric Temperature Over King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jong-Kyun; Won, Young-In; Kim, Yong-Ha; Lee, Bang-Yong; Kim, Jhoon

    2000-12-01

    A ground Fabry-Perot interferometer has been used to measure atomic oxygen nightglow (OI 630.0 nm) from the thermosphere (about 250 km) at King Sejong station (KSS, geographic: 62.22oS, 301.25oE; geomagnetic: 50.65oS, 7.51oE), Antarctica. While numerous studies of the thermosphere have been performed on high latitude using ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers, the thermospheric measurements in the Southern Hemisphere are relatively new and sparse. Therefore, the nightglow measurements at KSS play an important role in extending the thermospheric studies to the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we investigated the effects of the geomagnetic and solar activities on the thermospheric neutral temperatures that have been observed at KSS in 1989 and 1997. The measured average temperatures are 1400 K in 1989 and 800 K in 1997, reflecting the influence of the solar activity. The measurements were compared with empirical models, MSIS-86 and semi-empirical model, VSH.