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Sample records for dynorphins

  1. Degradation of dynorphin A in brain tissue in vivo and in vitro

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    Young, E.A.; Walker, J.M.; Houghten, R.; Akil, H.

    1987-07-01

    The demonstration of analgesia following in vivo administration of dynorphin A (Dyn A) has been difficult. In contrast, a number of electrophysiological and behavioral effects reported with in vivo injection of Dyn A can be produced by des-tyrosine dynorphin A (Dyn A 2-17). This suggested the extremely rapid amino terminal degradation of dynorphin A. To test this hypothesis, we examined the degradation of dynorphin A following in vivo injection into the periaqueductal gray (PAG) as well as in vitro using rat brain membranes under receptor binding conditions. In vivo, we observed the rapid amino terminal cleavage of tyrosine to yield the relatively more stable destyrosine dynorphin A. This same cleavage after tyrosine was observed in vitro. Inhibition of this aminopeptidase activity in vitro was observed by the addition of dynorphin A 2-17 or dynorphin A 7-17 but not after the addition of dynorphin A 1-13, dynorphin A 1-8, dynorphin B or alpha-neo-endorphin suggesting a specific enzyme may be responsible. The detection of the behaviorally active des-tyrosine dynorphin A following in vivo injection of dynorphin A suggests that this peptide may play an important physiological role.

  2. Dynorphin Controls the Gain of an Amygdalar Anxiety Circuit

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    Nicole A. Crowley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kappa opioid receptors (KORs are involved in a variety of aversive behavioral states, including anxiety. To date, a circuit-based mechanism for KOR-driven anxiety has not been described. Here, we show that activation of KORs inhibits glutamate release from basolateral amygdala (BLA inputs to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST and occludes the anxiolytic phenotype seen with optogenetic activation of BLA-BNST projections. In addition, deletion of KORs from amygdala neurons results in an anxiolytic phenotype. Furthermore, we identify a frequency-dependent, optically evoked local dynorphin-induced heterosynaptic plasticity of glutamate inputs in the BNST. We also find that there is cell type specificity to the KOR modulation of the BLA-BNST input with greater KOR-mediated inhibition of BLA dynorphin-expressing neurons. Collectively, these results provide support for a model in which local dynorphin release can inhibit an anxiolytic pathway, providing a discrete therapeutic target for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  3. Enkephalin, dynorphin and substance P in postmortem substantia nigra from normals and schizophrenic patients

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    Iadarola, M.J.; Ofri, D.; Kleinman, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Three peptide neuromodulators that are found in high concentration in the subtantia nigra: dynorphin A 1,8-met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 and substance P, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in nigral tissue from normals and schizophrenics postmortem. Substance P and dynorphin were unchanged between the two groups. However, the proenkephalin-derived peptide was significantly elevated in the schizophrenic group. The immunoreactivity was identified as authentic met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 by high pressure liquid chromatography. The data suggest that a different set of regulatory controls exists for nigral enkephalin peptides as compared to dynorphin and substance P, and that the former system may be disordered in schizophrenia

  4. Enkephalin, dynorphin and substance P in postmortem substantia nigra from normals and schizophrenic patients

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    Iadarola, M.J.; Ofri, D.; Kleinman, J.E. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA) National Institute of Mental Health, Washington, DC (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Three peptide neuromodulators that are found in high concentration in the subtantia nigra: dynorphin A 1,8-met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 and substance P, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in nigral tissue from normals and schizophrenics postmortem. Substance P and dynorphin were unchanged between the two groups. However, the proenkephalin-derived peptide was significantly elevated in the schizophrenic group. The immunoreactivity was identified as authentic met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 by high pressure liquid chromatography. The data suggest that a different set of regulatory controls exists for nigral enkephalin peptides as compared to dynorphin and substance P, and that the former system may be disordered in schizophrenia.

  5. Dynorphin/Kappa Opioid Receptor Signaling in Preclinical Models of Alcohol, Drug, and Food Addiction.

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    Karkhanis, Anushree; Holleran, Katherine M; Jones, Sara R

    2017-01-01

    The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system is implicated in the "dark side" of addiction, in which stress exacerbates maladaptive responses to drug and alcohol exposure. For example, acute stress and acute ethanol exposure result in an elevation in dynorphin, the KOR endogenous ligand. Activation of KORs results in modulation of several neurotransmitters; however, this chapter will focus on its regulatory effects on dopamine in mesolimbic areas. Specifically, KOR activation has an inhibitory effect on dopamine release, thereby influencing reward processing. Repeated stimulation of KORs, for example, via chronic drug and/or stress exposure, results in increased function of the dynorphin/KOR system. This augmentation in KOR function shifts the homeostatic balance in favor of an overall reduction in dopamine signaling via either by reducing dopamine release or by increasing dopamine transporter function. This chapter examines the effects of chronic ethanol exposure on KOR function and the downstream effects on dopamine transmission. Additionally, the impact of chronic cocaine exposure and its effects on KOR function will be explored. Further, KORs may also be involved in driving excessive consumption of food, contributing to the risk of developing obesity. While some studies have shown that KOR agonists reduce drug intake, other studies have shown that antagonists reduce addiction-like behaviors, demonstrating therapeutic potential. For example, KOR inhibition reduces ethanol intake in dependent animals, motivation to self-administer cocaine in chronic stress-exposed animals, and food consumption in obese animals. This chapter will delve into the mechanisms by which modulation of the dynorphin/KOR system may be therapeutic. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Occlusal Disharmony Transiently Impairs Learning and Memory in the Mouse by Increasing Dynorphin A Levels in the Amygdala.

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    Yamada, Kentaro; Ono, Yumie; Kubo, Kin-Ya; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Onozuka, Minoru

    2013-05-01

    Occlusal disharmony sometimes causes not only stiffness of neck but also psychiatric depression, suggesting that the condition of oral cavity may affect the central nervous system. Dynorphin A is an endogenous opioid peptide that specifically binds the κ-opioid receptor and has a protective role against stress. Dynorphinergic nervous system is intensely distributed in the amygdala and hippocampus that are coping areas with stress. As a model of malocclusion, we placed dental resin on the molars to increase the occlusal vertical dimension (bite-raise). After various survival times, we analyzed the amygdala and hippocampus by immunohistochemistry and immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, the effects on learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze test. In the amygdala, the levels of dynorphin A were increased on the 1st day after increasing the vertical dimension as indicated by immunohistochemical and ELISA assessments. The levels of dynorphin A returned to control levels on the 5th day. In the hippocampus, there were no noticeable changes in dynorphin A levels. The water maze test indicated that increasing the vertical dimension caused longer escape latency times on the 3rd day compared to those of sham-operated group. However, the bite-raised mice treated with a dynorphin antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine, showed similar escape latency times to the times of sham-operated group, even on the 3rd day. These results suggest that occlusal disharmony causes stress resulting in a transient increase of dynorphin A levels at least in the amygdala and that the increased dynorphin A levels transiently impair learning and memory.

  7. Characterization of kappa opioid binding using dynorphin A1-13 and U69,593 in the rat brain

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    Devlin, T.; Shoemaker, W.J. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Previous studies of kappa opioid binding sites have suggested heterogeneous binding to this class of opioid receptors. To further investigate kappa receptor heterogeneity, we analyzed the binding properties of various kappa-selective ligands in rat brain homogenates. Displacement assays were carried out using (3H)bremazocine in the presence of various displacing ligands under mu and delta receptor-blocked conditions. Homologous displacement of (3H)bremazocine produced shallow displacement which best fit a two-site model of drug-receptor interaction. Dynorphin A1-13 and U69,593 exhibited similar biphasic displacement of (3H)bremazocine. Maximal displacement by these ligands, however, represented only approximately 55% of total (3H)bremazocine binding, which suggests the existence of a third component of (3H)bremazocine binding. Biphasic displacement by dynorphin A1-13 was detected in tissue throughout the brain and the spinal cord, whereas the dynorphin-resistant component of (3H)bremazocine binding was uniquely absent in the spinal cord. U50,488H, tifluadom and ethylketocyclazocine appeared to displace from additional, dynorphin-insensitive sites, as their maximal displacement exceeded that seen with either dynorphin A1-13 or U69,593. These results strongly suggest the existence of at least three components of non-mu, non-delta (3H)bremazocine binding in the rat brain: two with differential affinity for dynorphin A1-13 and U69-593 (kappa-1 and kappa-2 sites), and a third (termed here R1) that was further resolved into two binding sites by bremazocine. Preliminary analysis of the R1 component using naloxone revealed one high-affinity site, which may be opiate in nature, and a second site whose binding properties closely resemble those of the sigma receptor described by others.

  8. A Genetic Polymorphism of the Endogenous Opioid Dynorphin Modulates Monetary Reward Anticipation in the Corticostriatal Loop

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    Votinov, Mikhail; Pripfl, Juergen; Windischberger, Christian; Kalcher, Klaudius; Zimprich, Alexander; Zimprich, Fritz; Moser, Ewald

    2014-01-01

    The dynorphin/κ-opioid receptor (KOP-R) system has been shown to play a role in different types of behavior regulation, including reward-related behavior and drug craving. It has been shown that alleles with 3 or 4 repeats (HH genotype) of the variable nucleotide tandem repeat (68-bp VNTR) functional polymorphism of the prodynorphin (PDYN) gene are associated with higher levels of dynorphin peptides than alleles with 1 or 2 repeats (LL genotype). We used fMRI on N = 71 prescreened healthy participants to investigate the effect of this polymorphism on cerebral activation in the limbic-corticostriatal loop during reward anticipation. Individuals with the HH genotype showed higher activation than those with the LL genotype in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) when anticipating a possible monetary reward. In addition, the HH genotype showed stronger functional coupling (as assessed by effective connectivity analyses) of mOFC with VMPFC, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and ventral striatum during reward anticipation. This hints at a larger sensitivity for upcoming rewards in individuals with the HH genotype, resulting in a higher motivation to attain these rewards. These findings provide first evidence in humans that the PDYN polymorphism modulates neural processes associated with the anticipation of rewards, which ultimately may help to explain differences between genotypes with respect to addiction and drug abuse. PMID:24587148

  9. A genetic polymorphism of the endogenous opioid dynorphin modulates monetary reward anticipation in the corticostriatal loop.

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    Mikhail Votinov

    Full Text Available The dynorphin/κ-opioid receptor (KOP-R system has been shown to play a role in different types of behavior regulation, including reward-related behavior and drug craving. It has been shown that alleles with 3 or 4 repeats (HH genotype of the variable nucleotide tandem repeat (68-bp VNTR functional polymorphism of the prodynorphin (PDYN gene are associated with higher levels of dynorphin peptides than alleles with 1 or 2 repeats (LL genotype. We used fMRI on N = 71 prescreened healthy participants to investigate the effect of this polymorphism on cerebral activation in the limbic-corticostriatal loop during reward anticipation. Individuals with the HH genotype showed higher activation than those with the LL genotype in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC when anticipating a possible monetary reward. In addition, the HH genotype showed stronger functional coupling (as assessed by effective connectivity analyses of mOFC with VMPFC, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and ventral striatum during reward anticipation. This hints at a larger sensitivity for upcoming rewards in individuals with the HH genotype, resulting in a higher motivation to attain these rewards. These findings provide first evidence in humans that the PDYN polymorphism modulates neural processes associated with the anticipation of rewards, which ultimately may help to explain differences between genotypes with respect to addiction and drug abuse.

  10. A genetic polymorphism of the endogenous opioid dynorphin modulates monetary reward anticipation in the corticostriatal loop.

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    Votinov, Mikhail; Pripfl, Juergen; Windischberger, Christian; Kalcher, Klaudius; Zimprich, Alexander; Zimprich, Fritz; Moser, Ewald; Lamm, Claus; Sailer, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The dynorphin/κ-opioid receptor (KOP-R) system has been shown to play a role in different types of behavior regulation, including reward-related behavior and drug craving. It has been shown that alleles with 3 or 4 repeats (HH genotype) of the variable nucleotide tandem repeat (68-bp VNTR) functional polymorphism of the prodynorphin (PDYN) gene are associated with higher levels of dynorphin peptides than alleles with 1 or 2 repeats (LL genotype). We used fMRI on N = 71 prescreened healthy participants to investigate the effect of this polymorphism on cerebral activation in the limbic-corticostriatal loop during reward anticipation. Individuals with the HH genotype showed higher activation than those with the LL genotype in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) when anticipating a possible monetary reward. In addition, the HH genotype showed stronger functional coupling (as assessed by effective connectivity analyses) of mOFC with VMPFC, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and ventral striatum during reward anticipation. This hints at a larger sensitivity for upcoming rewards in individuals with the HH genotype, resulting in a higher motivation to attain these rewards. These findings provide first evidence in humans that the PDYN polymorphism modulates neural processes associated with the anticipation of rewards, which ultimately may help to explain differences between genotypes with respect to addiction and drug abuse.

  11. Perivascular expression and potent vasoconstrictor effect of dynorphin A in cerebral arteries.

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    Éva Ruisanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous literary data indicate that dynorphin A (DYN-A has a significant impact on cerebral circulation, especially under pathophysiological conditions, but its potential direct influence on the tone of cerebral vessels is obscure. The aim of the present study was threefold: 1 to clarify if DYN-A is present in cerebral vessels, 2 to determine if it exerts any direct effect on cerebrovascular tone, and if so, 3 to analyze the role of κ-opiate receptors in mediating the effect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of DYN-A in perivascular nerves of rat pial arteries as well as in both rat and human intraparenchymal vessels of the cerebral cortex. In isolated rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries (BAs and MCAs DYN-A (1-13 and DYN-A (1-17 but not DYN-A (1-8 or dynorphin B (DYN-B induced strong vasoconstriction in micromolar concentrations. The maximal effects, compared to a reference contraction induced by 124 mM K(+, were 115±6% and 104±10% in BAs and 113±3% and 125±9% in MCAs for 10 µM of DYN-A (1-13 and DYN-A (1-17, respectively. The vasoconstrictor effects of DYN-A (1-13 could be inhibited but not abolished by both the κ-opiate receptor antagonist nor-Binaltorphimine dihydrochloride (NORBI and blockade of G(i/o-protein mediated signaling by pertussis toxin. Finally, des-Tyr(1 DYN-A (2-13, which reportedly fails to activate κ-opiate receptors, induced vasoconstriction of 45±11% in BAs and 50±5% in MCAs at 10 µM, which effects were resistant to NORBI. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: DYN-A is present in rat and human cerebral perivascular nerves and induces sustained contraction of rat cerebral arteries. This vasoconstrictor effect is only partly mediated by κ-opiate receptors and heterotrimeric G(i/o-proteins. To our knowledge our present findings are the first to indicate that DYN-A has a direct cerebral vasoconstrictor effect and that a dynorphin-induced vascular action may be

  12. The effect of various opiate receptor agonists on the seizure threshold in the rat. Is dynorphin an endogenous anticonvulsant?

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    Przewłocka, B; Stala, L; Lasoń, W; Przewłocki, R

    1983-01-01

    The effects of various opiate receptor agonists on the seizure threshold after an intravenous infusion of pentylenetetrazol were investigated in rats. The mu- and epsilon-receptor agonists, morphine (20-40 micrograms) and beta-endorphin (5-10 micrograms) show proconvulsant properties towards clonic and tonic seizures. The delta-receptor agonist (D-Ala2,D-Leu5-enkephalin, DADL 5-40 micrograms) and alpha-neoendorphin (20-40 micrograms) show pro- and anticonvulsant properties towards clonic and tonic seizures, respectively. Anticonvulsant properties of DADL are possibly due to its action on the spinal cord, since after the intrathecal injection this effect is still observed. Similarities between DADL and alpha-neoendorphin suggest that they may act through the same receptor. The kappa-receptor agonist dynorphin A (5-20 micrograms) and its degradation-resistant analogue D-Arg-dynorphin1-13 (10 micrograms) show significant anticonvulsant properties. Our present results suggest that the kappa-receptor agonist dynorphin may act physiologically as an endogenous anticonvulsant, in contrast to other opioid peptides.

  13. Dynorphin-dependent reduction of excitability and attenuation of inhibitory afferents of NPS neurons in the pericoerulear region of mice

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    Kay eJuengling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Neuropeptide S system, consisting of the 20-amino acid peptide neuropeptide S (NPS and its G-protein coupled receptor (NPSR, modulates arousal, wakefulness, anxiety, and fear-extinction in mice. In addition, recent evidence indicates that the NPS system attenuates stress-dependent impairment of fear extinction, and that NPS-expressing neurons in close proximity to the locus coeruleus (pericoerulear, periLC region are activated by stress. Furthermore, periLC NPS neurons receive afferents from neurons of the centrolateral nucleus of the amygdala (CeL, of which a substantial population expresses the kappa opioid receptor (KOR ligand precursor prodynorphin. This study aims to identify the effect of the dynorphinergic system on NPS neurons in the periLC via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. Using electrophysiological recordings in mouse brain slices, we provide evidence that NPS neurons in the periLC region are directly inhibited by dynorphin A via activation of κ-opioid receptor 1 (KOR1 and a subsequent increase of potassium conductances. Thus, the dynorphinergic system is suited to inactivate NPS neurons in the periLC. In addition to this direct, somatic effect, dynorphin A reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses on NPS neurons via KOR1 and KOR2. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence for the interaction of the NPS and the kappa opioid system in the periLC. Therefore, the endogenous opioid dynorphin is suited to inhibit NPS neurons with a subsequent decrease in NPS release in putative target regions leading to a variety of physiological consequences such as increased anxiety or vulnerability to stress exposure.

  14. CRF1-R activation of the dynorphin/kappa opioid system in the mouse basolateral amygdala mediates anxiety-like behavior.

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    Michael R Bruchas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a complex human experience and having both rewarding and aversive motivational properties. The adverse effects of stress are well documented, yet many of underlying mechanisms remain unclear and controversial. Here we report that the anxiogenic properties of stress are encoded by the endogenous opioid peptide dynorphin acting in the basolateral amygdala. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we found that the anxiogenic-like effects of Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF were triggered by CRF(1-R activation of the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR system. Central CRF administration significantly reduced the percent open-arm time in the elevated plus maze (EPM. The reduction in open-arm time was blocked by pretreatment with the KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (norBNI, and was not evident in mice lacking the endogenous KOR ligand dynorphin. The CRF(1-R agonist stressin 1 also significantly reduced open-arm time in the EPM, and this decrease was blocked by norBNI. In contrast, the selective CRF(2-R agonist urocortin III did not affect open arm time, and mice lacking CRF(2-R still showed an increase in anxiety-like behavior in response to CRF injection. However, CRF(2-R knockout animals did not develop CRF conditioned place aversion, suggesting that CRF(1-R activation may mediate anxiety and CRF(2-R may encode aversion. Using a phosphoselective antibody (KORp to identify sites of dynorphin action, we found that CRF increased KORp-immunoreactivity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA of wildtype, but not in mice pretreated with the selective CRF(1-R antagonist, antalarmin. Consistent with the concept that acute stress or CRF injection-induced anxiety was mediated by dynorphin release in the BLA, local injection of norBNI blocked the stress or CRF-induced increase in anxiety-like behavior; whereas norBNI injection in a nearby thalamic nucleus did not. The intersection of stress-induced CRF and the dynorphin/KOR system in the BLA was

  15. The kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) cell population of the arcuate nucleus: sex differences and effects of prenatal testosterone in sheep.

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    Cheng, Guanliang; Coolen, Lique M; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Goodman, Robert L; Lehman, Michael N

    2010-01-01

    Recent work in sheep has identified a neuronal subpopulation in the arcuate nucleus that coexpresses kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (referred to here as KNDy cells) and that mediate the negative feedback influence of progesterone on GnRH secretion. We hypothesized that sex differences in progesterone negative feedback are due to sexual dimorphism of KNDy cells and compared neuropeptide and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in this subpopulation between male and female sheep. In addition, because sex differences in progesterone negative feedback and neurokinin B are due to the influence of testosterone (T) during fetal life, we determined whether prenatal T exposure would mimic sex differences in KNDy cells. Adult rams had nearly half the number of kisspeptin, neurokinin B, dynorphin, and progesterone receptor-positive cells in the arcuate nucleus as did females, but the percentage of KNDy cells colocalizing progesterone receptors remained high in both sexes. Prenatal T treatment also reduced the number of dynorphin, neurokinin B, and progesterone receptor-positive cells in the female arcuate nucleus; however, the number of kisspeptin cells remained high and at levels comparable to control females. Thus, sex differences in kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus, unlike that of dynorphin and neurokinin B, are not due solely to exposure to prenatal T, suggesting the existence of different critical periods for multiple peptides coexpressed within the same neuron. In addition, the imbalance between inhibitory (dynorphin) and stimulatory (kisspeptin) neuropeptides in this subpopulation provides a potential explanation for the decreased ability of progesterone to inhibit GnRH neurons in prenatal T-treated ewes.

  16. The Kisspeptin/Neurokinin B/Dynorphin (KNDy) Cell Population of the Arcuate Nucleus: Sex Differences and Effects of Prenatal Testosterone in Sheep

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    Cheng, Guanliang; Coolen, Lique M.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Goodman, Robert L.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in sheep has identified a neuronal subpopulation in the arcuate nucleus that coexpresses kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (referred to here as KNDy cells) and that mediate the negative feedback influence of progesterone on GnRH secretion. We hypothesized that sex differences in progesterone negative feedback are due to sexual dimorphism of KNDy cells and compared neuropeptide and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in this subpopulation between male and female sheep. In ...

  17. Mimicking the membrane-mediated conformation of dynorphin A-(1-13)-peptide: Circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance studies in methanolic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, C.R.D.; Hughes, D.W.; Epand, R.M.; Mishra, P.K.; Bothner-By, A.A.; St Pierre, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The structural requirements for the binding of dynorphin to the κ-opioid receptor are of profound clinical interest in the search for a powerful nonaddictive analgesic. These requirements are thought to be met by the membrane-mediated conformation of the opioid peptide dynorphin A-(1-13)-peptide, Tyr 1 -Gly 2 -Gly 3 -Phe 4 -Leu 5 -Arg 6 -Arg 7 -Ile 8 -Arg 9 -Pro 10 -Lys 11 -Leu 12 -Lys 13 . Schwyzer has proposed an essentially α-helical membrane-mediated conformation of the 13 amino acid peptide. In the present study, circular dichroism (CD) studies on dynorphin A-(1-13)-peptide bound to an anionic phospholipid signified negligible helical content of the peptide. CD studies also demonstrated that the aqueous-membraneous interphase may be mimicked by methanol. The 500- and 620-MHz 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of dynorphin A-(1-13)-peptide in methanolic solution were sequence-specifically assigned with the aid of correlated spectroscopy (COSY), double-quantum filtered phase-sensitive COSY (DQF-COSY), relayed COSY (RELAY), and nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY). 2-D CAMELSPIN/ROESY experiments indicated that at least the part of the molecule from Arg 7 to Arg 9 was in an extended or β-strand conformation, which agreed with deuterium-exchange and temperature-dependence studies of the amide protons and analysis of the vicinal spin-spin coupling constants 3 J HNα . The results clearly demonstrated the absence of extensive α-helix formation. χ 1 rotamer analysis of the 3 J αβ demonstrated no preferred side-chain conformations

  18. Photoperiodic Co-Regulation of Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B and Dynorphin in the Hypothalamus of a Seasonal Rodent

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    Bartzen-Sprauer, J; Klosen, P; Ciofi, P

    2014-01-01

    In many species, sexual activity varies on a seasonal basis. Kisspeptin (Kp), a hypothalamic neuropeptide acting as a strong activator of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones, plays a critical role in this adaptive process. Recent studies report that two other neuropeptides, namely neurokinin...... (NKB) and dynorphin (DYN), are co-expressed with Kp (and therefore termed KNDy neurones) in the arcuate nucleus and that these peptides are also considered to influence GnRH secretion. The present study aimed to establish whether hypothalamic NKB and DYN expression is photoperiod......-dependent in a seasonal rodent, the Syrian hamster, which exhibits robust seasonal rhythms in reproductive activity. The majority of Kp neurones in the arcuate nucleus co-express NKB and DYN and the expression of all three peptides is decreased under a short (compared to long) photoperiod, leading to a 60% decrease......-localise with RFRP-immunoreactive neurones, and the expression of both NKB and DYN is higher under a short photoperiod, which is opposite to the short-day inhibition of RFRP expression. In conclusion, the present study shows that NKB and DYN display different photoperiodic variations in the Syrian hamster...

  19. Imaging mass spectrometry reveals elevated nigral levels of dynorphin neuropeptides in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in rat model of Parkinson's disease.

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    Anna Ljungdahl

    Full Text Available L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is a troublesome complication of L-DOPA pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease and has been associated with disturbed brain opioid transmission. However, so far the results of clinical and preclinical studies on the effects of opioids agonists and antagonists have been contradictory at best. Prodynorphin mRNA levels correlate well with the severity of dyskinesia in animal models of Parkinson's disease; however the identities of the actual neuroactive opioid effectors in their target basal ganglia output structures have not yet been determined. For the first time MALDI-TOF imaging mass spectrometry (IMS was used for unbiased assessment and topographical elucidation of prodynorphin-derived peptides in the substantia nigra of a unilateral rat model of Parkinson's disease and L-DOPA induced dyskinesia. Nigral levels of dynorphin B and alpha-neoendorphin strongly correlated with the severity of dyskinesia. Even if dynorphin peptide levels were elevated in both the medial and lateral part of the substantia nigra, MALDI IMS analysis revealed that the most prominent changes were localized to the lateral part of the substantia nigra. MALDI IMS is advantageous compared with traditional molecular methods, such as radioimmunoassay, in that neither the molecular identity analyzed, nor the specific localization needs to be predetermined. Indeed, MALDI IMS revealed that the bioconverted metabolite leu-enkephalin-arg also correlated positively with severity of dyskinesia. Multiplexing DynB and leu-enkephalin-arg ion images revealed small (0.25 by 0.5 mm nigral subregions with complementing ion intensities, indicating localized peptide release followed by bioconversion. The nigral dynorphins associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia were not those with high affinity to kappa opioid receptors, but consisted of shorter peptides, mainly dynorphin B and alpha-neoendorphin that are known to bind and activate mu and delta opioid receptors

  20. Enkephalin and dynorphin neuropeptides are differently correlated with locomotor hypersensitivity and levodopa-induced dyskinesia in parkinsonian rats.

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    Sgroi, Stefania; Capper-Loup, Christine; Paganetti, Paolo; Kaelin-Lang, Alain

    2016-06-01

    The opioidergic neuropeptides dynorphin (DYN) and enkephalin (ENK) and the D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors (D1R, D2R) are involved in the striatal control of motor and behavioral function. In Parkinson's disease, motor disturbances such as "on-off" motor fluctuations and involuntary movements (dyskinesia) are severe complications that often arise after chronic l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) treatment. Changes in the striatal expression of preproENK (PPENK), proDYN (PDYN), D1R, and D2R mRNA have been observed in parkinsonian animals treated with l-DOPA. Enhanced opioidergic transmission has been found in association with l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, but the connection of PPENK, PDYN, D1R, and D2R mRNA expression with locomotor activity remains unclear. In this study, we measured PPENK, PDYN, D1R and D2R mRNA levels by in situ hybridization in the striatum of 6-OHDA hemi-parkinsonian rats treated with l-DOPA (PD+l-DOPA group), along with two control groups (PD+saline and naive+l-DOPA). We found different levels of expression of PPENK, PDYN, D1R and D2R mRNA across the experimental groups and correlated the changes in mRNA expression with dyskinesia and locomotor variables assessed by open field test during several phases of l-DOPA treatment. Both PDYN and PPENK mRNA levels were correlated with the severity of dyskinesia, while PPENK mRNA levels were also correlated with the frequency of contralateral rotational movements and with locomotor variables. Moreover, a strong correlation was found between D1R mRNA expression and D2R mRNA expression in the PD+l-DOPA group. These findings suggest that, in parkinsonian animals treated with l-DOPA, high levels of PPENK are a prerequisite for a locomotor sensitization to l-DOPA treatment, while PDYN overexpression is responsible only for the development of dyskinesia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 125I-DPDYN, monoiodo [D-Pro10]- dynorphin (1-11), is an effective and useful tool for the study of kappa opioid receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gairin, J.E.; Jomary, C.; Cros, J.; Meunier, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Iodination of the kappa-selective peptide DPDYN, [D-Pro10]-dynorphin (1-11), has been performed. The non radioactive monoiodo derivative of DPDYN retains kappa-selectivity (kappa/mu = 48 and kappa/delta = 140), despite a general but moderate decrease in affinity. Radioiodination of DPDYN leads to the monoiodinated peptide (S.A 700-800 Ci/mmol) which interacts specifically and reversibly with the kappa-sites in guinea-pig cerebellum membranes with high affinity (KD = 0.12-0.18 nM). In guinea-pig brain (mu-delta-kappa) and rabbit cerebellum (kappa much less than mu), 125 I-DPDYN discriminates between kappa- and other (mu, delta) binding sites. We have used this new labelled probe for the direct, precise and rapid (exposure time less than 100 hours) visualization of kappa-sites in guinea-pig and rabbit cerebellar slices using autoradiography

  2. Behavioral stress may increase the rewarding valence of cocaine-associated cues through a dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor-mediated mechanism without affecting associative learning or memory retrieval mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Abigail G; Li, Shuang; Chavkin, Charles

    2010-08-01

    Stress exposure increases the risk of addictive drug use in human and animal models of drug addiction by mechanisms that are not completely understood. Mice subjected to repeated forced swim stress (FSS) before cocaine develop significantly greater conditioned place preference (CPP) for the drug-paired chamber than unstressed mice. Analysis of the dose dependency showed that FSS increased both the maximal CPP response and sensitivity to cocaine. To determine whether FSS potentiated CPP by enhancing associative learning mechanisms, mice were conditioned with cocaine in the absence of stress, then challenged after association was complete with the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist U50,488 or repeated FSS, before preference testing. Mice challenged with U50,488 60 min before CPP preference testing expressed significantly greater cocaine-CPP than saline-challenged mice. Potentiation by U50,488 was dose and time dependent and blocked by the KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (norBNI). Similarly, mice subjected to repeated FSS before the final preference test expressed significantly greater cocaine-CPP than unstressed controls, and FSS-induced potentiation was blocked by norBNI. Novel object recognition (NOR) performance was not affected by U50,488 given 60 min before assay, but was impaired when given 15 min before NOR assay, suggesting that KOR activation did not potentiate CPP by facilitating memory retrieval or expression. The results from this study show that the potentiation of cocaine-CPP by KOR activation does not result from an enhancement of associative learning mechanisms and that stress may instead enhance the rewarding valence of cocaine-associated cues by a dynorphin-dependent mechanism.

  3. Dynorphin/KOP and nociceptin/NOP gene expression and epigenetic changes by cocaine in rat striatum and nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Francesca Felicia; Di Benedetto, Manuela; Carretta, Donatella; Bastias del Carmen Candia, Sussy; D'Addario, Claudio; Cavina, Chiara; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia

    2014-03-03

    Cocaine induces neurochemical changes of endogenous prodynorphin-kappa opioid receptor (pDYN-KOP) and pronociceptin/orphaninFQ-nociceptin receptor (pN/OFQ-NOP) systems. Both systems play an important role in rewarding mechanisms and addictive stimulus processing by modulating drug-induced dopaminergic activation in the mesocortico-limbic brain areas. They are also involved in regulating stress mechanisms related to addiction. The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes of gene expression of the dynorphinergic and nociceptinergic system components in the nucleus accumbens (NA) and in medial and lateral caudate putamen (mCPu and lCPu, respectively) of rats, following chronic subcutaneous infusion of cocaine. In addition, the epigenetic histone modifications H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 (an activating and a repressive marker, respectively) at the promoter level of the pDYN, KOP, pN/OFQ and NOP genes were investigated. Results showed that cocaine induced pDYN gene expression up-regulation in the NA and lCPu, and its down-regulation in the mCPu, whereas KOP mRNA levels were unchanged. Moreover, cocaine exposure decreased pN/OFQ gene expression in the NA and lCPu, while NOP mRNA levels appeared significantly increased in the NA and decreased in the lCPu. Specific changes of the H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 levels were found at pDYN, pN/OFQ, and NOP gene promoter, consistent with the observed gene expression alterations. The present findings contribute to better define the role of endogenous pDYN-KOP and pN/OFQ-NOP systems in neuroplasticity mechanisms following chronic cocaine treatment. The epigenetic histone modifications underlying the gene expression changes likely mediate the effects of cocaine on transcriptional regulation of specific gene promoters that result in long-lasting drug-induced plasticity. © 2013.

  4. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging of Opioid Receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Absalom, Anthony; Visser, Anniek; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; De Vries, Erik FJ; Van Waarde, Aren; Luiten, Paul GM

    2014-01-01

    The opioid system consists of opioid receptors (which mediate the actions of opium), their endogenous ligands (the enkephalins, endorphins, endomorphins, dynorphin, and nociceptin), and the proteins involved in opioid production, transport, and degradation. PET tracers for the various opioid

  5. Opiate-prostaglandin interactions in the regulation of insulin secretion from rat islets of Langerhans in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, I.C.; Tadayyon, M.

    1988-01-01

    The inadequate insulin secretory response to glucose stimulation in non-insulin dependent diabetes has been attributed to many factors including high PGE 2 levels blunting the secretory response, and to the existence of inhibitory opiate activity in vivo. The purpose of the present work was to see if there was a connection between these two independent theories. Radioimmunoassayable PGE 2 in islets of Langerhans was found to be proportional to islet number and protein content and was typically 4 to 5pg/μg islet protein. Indomethacin sodium salicylate and chlorpropamide all lowered islet PGE 2 levels and stimulated insulin release in vitro. Dynorphin stimulated insulin release at a concentration of 6 x 10 -9 M, while lowering islet PGE 2 . Conversely, at a higher concentration, dynorphin had no stimulatory effect on insulin secretion and did not lower PGE 2 levels in islets or in the incubation media. The stimulatory effects of dynorphin and sodium salicylate on insulin secretion were blocked by exogenous PGE 2 . PGE 2 at a lower concentration did not exert any inhibitory effect on dynorphin- or sodium salicylate-induced insulin release. This concentration of exogenous PGE 2 stimulated insulin release in the presence of 6mM glucose

  6. Inhibition of [gamma]-endorphin generating endopeptidase activity of rat brain by peptides: Structure activity relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebouille, J.L.M.; Visser, W.H.; Hendriks, R.W.; Nispen, J.W. van; Greven, H.M.; Burbach, J.P.H.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-Endorphin generating endopeptidase (gammaEGE) activity is an enzyme activity which converts beta-endorphin into gamma-endorphin and beta-endorphin-(18–31). The inhibitory potency on gammaEGE activity of neuropeptides and analogues or fragments of neuropeptides was tested. Dynorphin-(1–13)

  7. Activation of the Basal Forebrain by the Orexin/Hypocretin Neurons: Orexin International Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Elda; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    The orexin neurons play an essential role in driving arousal and in maintaining normal wakefulness. Lack of orexin neurotransmission produces a chronic state of hypoarousal characterized by excessive sleepiness, frequent transitions between wake and sleep, and episodes of cataplexy. A growing body of research now suggests that the basal forebrain (BF) may be a key site through which the orexin-producing neurons promote arousal. Here we review anatomical, pharmacological and electrophysiological studies on how the orexin neurons may promote arousal by exciting cortically-projecting neurons of the BF. Orexin fibers synapse on BF cholinergic neurons and orexin-A is released in the BF during waking. Local application of orexins excites BF cholinergic neurons, induces cortical release of acetylcholine, and promotes wakefulness. The orexin neurons also contain and probably co-release the inhibitory neuropeptide dynorphin. We found that orexin-A and dynorphin have specific effects on different classes of BF neurons that project to the cortex. Cholinergic neurons were directly excited by orexin-A, but did not respond to dynorphin. Non-cholinergic BF neurons that project to the cortex seem to comprise at least two populations with some directly excited by orexin that may represent wake-active, GABAergic neurons, whereas others did not respond to orexin but were inhibited by dynorphin and may be sleep-active, GABAergic neurons. This evidence suggests that the BF is a key site through which orexins activate the cortex and promotes behavioral arousal. In addition, orexins and dynorphin may act synergistically in the BF to promote arousal and improve cognitive performance. PMID:19723027

  8. Infusion of opiates into substantia nigra protects against maximal electroshock seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garant, D S; Gale, K

    1985-07-01

    Microinfusion of morphine sulfate (50 nmol), [d-Ala2]-Met-enkephalin (35 nmol) or dynorphin A 1-13 (1 nmol) bilaterally into the substantia nigra significantly attenuated seizures induced by maximal electroshock in rats. This action was accompanied by stereotyped behavioral hyperactivity. These anticonvulsant and behavioral effects were antagonized by systemic naloxone administration; neither effect was observed after intranigral microinjection of dynorphin A 1-17 amide (1 nmol). These results are consistent with a mu opiate receptor-mediated inhibition of substantia nigra efferent neurons, and with the proposal that bilateral inhibition of nigral efferents attenuates seizure propagation. However, intranigral morphine failed to alter the severity of i.v. bicuculline seizures, indicating that opiate-mediated inhibition in substantia nigra is distinct from that produced by gamma-aminobutyric acid.

  9. Hypocretin/Orexin and Plastic Adaptations Associated with Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimel, Corey; Borgland, Stephanie L

    Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are a critical part of the neural circuits that underlie reward learning and motivation. Dopamine neurons send dense projections throughout the brain and recent observations suggest that both the intrinsic properties and the functional output of dopamine neurons are dependent on projection target and are subject to neuromodulatory influences. Lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (also termed orexin) neurons project to the VTA and contain both hypocretin and dynorphin peptides in the same dense core vesicles suggesting they may be co-released. Hypocretin peptides act at excitatory G αq protein-coupled receptors and dynorphin acts at inhibitory G αi/o protein-coupled receptors, which are both expressed on subpopulations of dopamine neurons. This review describes a role for neuromodulation of dopamine neurons and the influence on motivated behaviour in response to natural and drug rewards.

  10. Radioreceptor assay of opioid peptides in selected canine brain regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desiderio, D.M.; Takeshita, H.

    1985-09-01

    A radioreceptor assay using the opioid delta receptor-preferring ligand D-/sup 2/ala, D-/sup 5/leu leucine enkephalin (/sup 3/H-DADL) and the broader-specificity ligand /sup 3/H-etorphine was used to measure five HPLC-purified neuropeptide fractions derived from the peptide-rich fraction of tissue homogenates of nine anatomical regions of the canine brain. The receptoractive peptides studied were methionine enkephalin, alpha-neo-endorphin, dynorphin 1-8, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe, and leucine enkephalin. These peptides derive from two larger precursors: proenkephalin A, which contains methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe; and proenkephalin B, which contains alpha-neo-endorphin and dynorphin 1-8. Receptoractive peptides were measured in the peptide-rich fraction derived from homogenates of canine hypothalamus, pituitary, caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, mid-brain, thalamus, pons-medulla, and cortex.

  11. Radioreceptor assay of opioid peptides in selected canine brain regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desiderio, D.M.; Takeshita, H.

    1985-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay using the opioid delta receptor-preferring ligand D- 2 ala, D- 5 leu leucine enkephalin ( 3 H-DADL) and the broader-specificity ligand 3 H-etorphine was used to measure five HPLC-purified neuropeptide fractions derived from the peptide-rich fraction of tissue homogenates of nine anatomical regions of the canine brain. The receptoractive peptides studied were methionine enkephalin, alpha-neo-endorphin, dynorphin 1-8, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe, and leucine enkephalin. These peptides derive from two larger precursors: proenkephalin A, which contains methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe; and proenkephalin B, which contains alpha-neo-endorphin and dynorphin 1-8. Receptoractive peptides were measured in the peptide-rich fraction derived from homogenates of canine hypothalamus, pituitary, caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, mid-brain, thalamus, pons-medulla, and cortex

  12. Nicotine and endogenous opioids: neurochemical and pharmacological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiconstantinou, Maria; Neff, Norton H

    2011-06-01

    Although the mesolimbic dopamine hypothesis is the most influential theory of nicotine reward and reinforcement, there has been a consensus that other neurotransmitter systems contribute to the addictive properties of nicotine as well. In this regard, the brain opioidergic system is of interest. Striatum is rich in opioid peptides and opioid receptors, and striatal opioidergic neurons are engaged in a bidirectional communication with midbrain dopaminergic neurons, closely regulating each other's activity. Enkephalins and dynorphins exert opposing actions on dopaminergic neurons, increasing and decreasing dopamine release respectively, and are components of circuits promoting positive or negative motivational and affective states. Moreover, dopamine controls the synthesis of striatal enkephalins and dynorphins. Evidence suggests that opioidergic function is altered after nicotine and endogenous opioids are involved in nicotine's behavioral effects. 1) The synthesis and release of β-endorphin, met-enkephalin and dynorphin in brain, especially nucleus accumbens (NAc), are altered after acute or chronic nicotine treatment and during nicotine withdrawal. 2) Although opioid receptor binding and mRNA do not appear to change in the striatum during nicotine withdrawal, the activity of κ-opioid (KOPr) and δ-opioid (DOPr) receptors is attenuated in NAc. 3) The nicotine withdrawal syndrome reminisces that of opiates, and naloxone precipitates some of its somatic, motivational, and affective signs. 4) Genetic and pharmacological studies indicate that μ-opioid (MOPr) receptors are mainly involved in nicotine reward, while DOPrs contribute to the emotional and KOPrs to the aversive responses of nicotine. 5) Finally, MOPrs and enkephalin, but not β-endorphin or dynorphin, are necessary for the physical manifestations of nicotine withdrawal. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier

  13. Chimeric opioid peptides: tools for identifying opioid receptor types.

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, G X; Miyajima, A; Yokota, T; Arai, K; Goldstein, A

    1990-01-01

    We synthesized several chimeric peptides in which the N-terminal nine residues of dynorphin-32, a peptide selective for the kappa opioid receptor, were replaced by opioid peptides selective for other opioid receptor types. Each chimeric peptide retained the high affinity and type selectivity characteristic of its N-terminal sequence. The common C-terminal two-thirds of the chimeric peptides served as an epitope recognized by the same monoclonal antibody. When bound to receptors on a cell surf...

  14. Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    of intrathecal delivery of anesthetics was focused on slow infusion in the lumbar region. Coincidentally, due to the anatomy of the skull and...antibodies,40 nerve growth factor,41 Sonic Hedgehog ,42 siRNA,43 and dynorphins.44 One recent paper describing the results of early clinical studies...the subsequent transfer from VRS to the parenchyma and uptake and transport by cells. ■ THE ANATOMY OF THE LMS AND THE ROLE OF THE INJECTED VOLUME IN

  15. Sex Differences in Kappa Opioid Receptor Function and Their Potential Impact on Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Mavrikaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, biological, and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN), an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs), is necessary for stress...

  16. Does the kappa opioid receptor system contribute to pain aversion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Cahill

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The kappa opioid receptor (KOR and the endogenous peptide-ligand dynorphin have received significant attention due the involvement in mediating a variety of behavioral and neurophysiological responses, including opposing the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse including opioids. Accumulating evidence indicates this system is involved in regulating states of motivation and emotion. Acute activation of the KOR produces an increase in motivational behavior to escape a threat, however, KOR activation associated with chronic stress leads to the expression of symptoms indicative of mood disorders. It is well accepted that KOR can produce analgesia and is engaged in chronic pain states including neuropathic pain. Spinal studies have revealed KOR-induced analgesia in reversing pain hypersensitivities associated with peripheral nerve injury. While systemic administration of KOR agonists attenuates nociceptive sensory transmission, this effect appears to be a stress-induced effect as anxiolytic agents, including delta opioid receptor agonists, mitigate KOR agonist-induced analgesia. Additionally, while the role of KOR and dynorphin in driving the dysphoric and aversive components of stress and drug withdrawal has been well characterized, how this system mediates the negative emotional states associated with chronic pain is relatively unexplored. This review provides evidence that dynorphin and the KOR system contribute to the negative affective component of pain and that this receptor system likely contributes to the high comorbidity of mood disorders associated with chronic neuropathic pain.

  17. Virus-mediated shRNA knockdown of prodynorphin in the rat nucleus accumbens attenuates depression-like behavior and cocaine locomotor sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ami; Whitfield, Timothy W; Kreifeldt, Max; Koebel, Pascale; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Contet, Candice; George, Olivier; Koob, George F

    2014-01-01

    Dynorphins, endogenous opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin (Pdyn), are hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of mood states and the neuroplasticity associated with addiction. The current study tested the hypothesis that dynorphin in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) mediates such effects. More specifically, we examined whether knockdown of Pdyn within the NAcc in rats would alter the expression of depressive-like and anxiety-like behavior, as well as cocaine locomotor sensitization. Wistar rats were injected with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding either a Pdyn-specific short hairpin RNA (AAV-shPdyn) or a scrambled shRNA (AAV-shScr) as control. Four weeks later, rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test and depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST). Finally, rats received one daily injection of saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg, i.p.), followed by assessment of locomotion for 4 consecutive days. Following 3 days of abstinence, the rats completed 2 additional daily cocaine/saline locomotor trials. Pdyn knockdown in the NAcc led to a significant reduction in depressive-like behavior in the FST, but had no effect on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Pdyn knockdown did not alter baseline locomotor behavior, the locomotor response to acute cocaine, or the initial sensitization of the locomotor response to cocaine over the first 4 cocaine treatment days. However, following 3 days abstinence the locomotor response to the cocaine challenge returned to their original levels in the AAV-shPdyn rats while remaining heightened in the AAV-shScr rats. These results suggest that dynorphin in a very specific area of the nucleus accumbens contributes to depressive-like states and may be involved in neuroadaptations in the NAcc that contribute to the development of cocaine addiction as a persistent and lasting condition.

  18. Lateralized kappa opioid receptor signaling from the amygdala central nucleus promotes stress-induced functional pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kelsey M; De Felice, Milena; Hernandez, Pablo I; Dodick, David W; Neugebauer, Volker; Navratilova, Edita; Porreca, Frank

    2018-05-01

    The response of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC) is often decreased, or lost, in stress-related functional pain syndromes. Because the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) pathway is activated by stress, we determined its role in DNIC using a model of stress-induced functional pain. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were primed for 7 days with systemic morphine resulting in opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Fourteen days after priming, when hyperalgesia was resolved, rats were exposed to environmental stress and DNIC was evaluated by measuring hind paw response threshold to noxious pressure (test stimulus) after capsaicin injection in the forepaw (conditioning stimulus). Morphine priming without stress did not alter DNIC. However, stress produced a loss of DNIC in morphine-primed rats in both hind paws that was abolished by systemic administration of the KOR antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI). Microinjection of nor-BNI into the right, but not left, central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the loss of DNIC in morphine-primed rats. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls were not modulated by bilateral nor-BNI in the rostral ventromedial medulla. Stress increased dynorphin content in both the left and right CeA of primed rats, reaching significance only in the right CeA; no change was observed in the rostral ventromedial medulla or hypothalamus. Although morphine priming alone is not sufficient to influence DNIC, it establishes a state of latent sensitization that amplifies the consequences of stress. After priming, stress-induced dynorphin/KOR signaling from the right CeA inhibits DNIC in both hind paws, likely reflecting enhanced descending facilitation that masks descending inhibition. Kappa opioid receptor antagonists may provide a new therapeutic strategy for stress-related functional pain disorders.

  19. Virus-mediated shRNA knockdown of prodynorphin in the rat nucleus accumbens attenuates depression-like behavior and cocaine locomotor sensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Cohen

    Full Text Available Dynorphins, endogenous opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin (Pdyn, are hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of mood states and the neuroplasticity associated with addiction. The current study tested the hypothesis that dynorphin in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc mediates such effects. More specifically, we examined whether knockdown of Pdyn within the NAcc in rats would alter the expression of depressive-like and anxiety-like behavior, as well as cocaine locomotor sensitization. Wistar rats were injected with adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors encoding either a Pdyn-specific short hairpin RNA (AAV-shPdyn or a scrambled shRNA (AAV-shScr as control. Four weeks later, rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test and depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST. Finally, rats received one daily injection of saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg, i.p., followed by assessment of locomotion for 4 consecutive days. Following 3 days of abstinence, the rats completed 2 additional daily cocaine/saline locomotor trials. Pdyn knockdown in the NAcc led to a significant reduction in depressive-like behavior in the FST, but had no effect on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Pdyn knockdown did not alter baseline locomotor behavior, the locomotor response to acute cocaine, or the initial sensitization of the locomotor response to cocaine over the first 4 cocaine treatment days. However, following 3 days abstinence the locomotor response to the cocaine challenge returned to their original levels in the AAV-shPdyn rats while remaining heightened in the AAV-shScr rats. These results suggest that dynorphin in a very specific area of the nucleus accumbens contributes to depressive-like states and may be involved in neuroadaptations in the NAcc that contribute to the development of cocaine addiction as a persistent and lasting condition.

  20. Plasticity of Signaling by Spinal Estrogen Receptor α, κ-Opioid Receptor, and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors over the Rat Reproductive Cycle Regulates Spinal Endomorphin 2 Antinociception: Relevance of Endogenous-Biased Agonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nai-Jiang; Murugaiyan, Vijaya; Storman, Emiliya M; Schnell, Stephen A; Kumar, Arjun; Wessendorf, Martin W; Gintzler, Alan R

    2017-11-15

    We previously showed that intrathecal application of endomorphin 2 [EM2; the highly specific endogenous μ-opioid receptor (MOR) ligand] induces antinociception that varies with stage of the rat estrous cycle: minimal during diestrus and prominent during proestrus. Earlier studies, however, did not identify proestrus-activated signaling strategies that enable spinal EM2 antinociception. We now report that in female rats, increased spinal dynorphin release and κ-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling, as well as the emergence of glutamate-activated metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR 1 ) signaling, are critical to the transition from an EM2 nonresponsive state (during diestrus) to an analgesically responsive state (during proestrus). Differential signaling by mGluR 1 , depending on its activation by membrane estrogen receptor α (mERα; during diestrus) versus glutamate (during proestrus), concomitant with the ebb and flow of spinal dynorphin/KOR signaling, functions as a switch, preventing or promoting, respectively, spinal EM2 antinociception. Importantly, EM2 and glutamate-containing varicosities appose spinal neurons that express MOR along with mGluRs and mERα, suggesting that signaling mechanisms regulating analgesic effectiveness of intrathecally applied EM2 also pertain to endogenous EM2. Regulation of spinal EM2 antinociception by both the nature of the endogenous mGluR 1 activator (i.e., endogenous biased agonism at mGluR 1 ) and changes in spinal dynorphin/KOR signaling represent a novel mechanism for modulating analgesic responsiveness to endogenous EM2 (and perhaps other opioids). This points the way for developing noncanonical pharmacological approaches to pain management by harnessing endogenous opioids for pain relief. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The current prescription opioid abuse epidemic underscores the urgency to develop alternative pharmacotherapies for managing pain. We find that the magnitude of spinal endomorphin 2 (EM2) antinociception not only

  1. Stress sensitivity and resilience in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression; an in situ hybridization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, A; Jayatissa, M N; Mørk, A

    2008-01-01

    in stress. Moreover, in the CA3 we found downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA in the CMS sensitive group. Downregulation of VEGF suggests impaired hippocampal function, caused by loss of trophic factor neuroprotective support, as part of a previously uncharacterized mechanism...... for development of anhedonia. CMS induced anhedonia was not related to mRNA expression differences of the dopamine receptors D(1) and D(2), enkephalin, dynorphin, the NMDA receptor subtype NR2B in the ventral striatum, BDNF expression in the dentate gyrus, nor corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine...

  2. Subcellular fractionation on Percoll gradient of mossy fiber synaptosomes: morphological and biochemical characterization in control and degranulated rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, P; Zini, S; Cesselin, F; Ben-Ari, Y; Roisin, M P

    1994-04-01

    A method for preparation of hippocampal mossy fiber synaptosomes directly from the postnuclear pellet is presented. This method represents an adaptation of that previously described for the isolation of synaptosomes by centrifugation through Percoll gradients directly from the supernatant fraction. We have characterized by electron microscopy two fractions, PII and PIII, enriched in mossy fiber synaptosomes; fraction PIII had 75% mossy fiber synaptosomes with well-preserved morphology (large size 3 microns, complex morphology, high synaptic vesicle density, multisynapses), whereas fraction PII contained 12%. These fractions were enriched in lactate dehydrogenase activity indicating that the integrity of synaptosomes was preserved. Compared with the other synaptosomal fractions, these fractions showed greater levels of dynorphin A (1-8) immunoreactivity and endogenous zinc, which are particularly concentrated in hippocampal mossy fiber terminals. Furthermore, we prepared synaptosomes from adult hippocampus after neonatal irradiation, which destroys the majority of granule cells and associated mossy fibers. The levels of dynorphin and zinc decreased by 88 and 70% in fraction PII and by 95 and 90%, respectively, in PIII. These results suggest that the rapid Percoll procedure is convenient for the purification of mossy fiber synaptosomes.

  3. Bilateral reorganization of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal sclerosis: a postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, M; Martinian, L; Catarino, C; Yogarajah, M; Koepp, M J; Caboclo, L; Sisodiya, S M

    2009-09-29

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common surgical pathology associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). HS is typically characterized by mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) and reorganization of neuropeptide Y (NPY) fiber networks in the dentate gyrus. One potential cause of postoperative seizure recurrence following temporal lobe surgery may be the presence of seizure-associated bilateral hippocampal damage. We aimed to investigate patterns of hippocampal abnormalities in a postmortem series as identified by NPY and dynorphin immunohistochemistry. Analysis of dentate gyrus fiber reorganization, using dynorphin (to demonstrate MFS) and NPY immunohistochemistry, was carried out in a postmortem epilepsy series of 25 cases (age range 21-96 years). In 9 patients, previously refractory seizures had become well controlled for up to 34 years prior to death. Bilateral MFS or abnormal NPY patterns were seen in 15 patients including those with bilateral symmetric, asymmetric, and unilateral HS by conventional histologic criteria. MFS and NPY reorganization was present in all classical HS cases, more variably in atypical HS, present in both MTLE and non-MTLE syndromes and with seizure histories of up to 92 years, despite seizure remission in some patients. Synaptic reorganization in the dentate gyrus may be a bilateral, persistent process in epilepsy. It is unlikely to be sufficient to generate seizures and more likely to represent a seizure-induced phenomenon.

  4. Salvinorin A, a kappa-opioid receptor (KOP-r agonist hallucinogen: Pharmacology and potential template for novel pharmacotherapeutic agents in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eButelman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Salvinorin A is a potent hallucinogen, isolated from the ethnomedical plant Salvia divinorum. Salvinorin A is a selective high efficacy kappa-opioid receptor (KOPr agonist, and thus implicates the KOPr system and its endogenous agonist ligands (the dynorphins in higher functions, including cognition, and perceptual effects. Salvinorin A is the only selective KOPr ligand to be widely available outside research or medical settings, and salvinorin A- containing products have undergone frequent non-medical use. KOPr/dynorphin systems in the brain are known to be powerful counter-modulatory mechanisms to dopaminergic function, which is important in mood and reward engendered by natural and drug reinforcers (including drugs of abuse. KOPr activation (including by salvinorin A can thus cause aversion and anhedonia in preclinical models. Salvinorin A is also a completely new scaffold for medicinal chemistry approaches, since it is a non-nitrogenous neoclerodane, unlike all other known opioid ligands. Ongoing efforts have the goal of discovering novel semi-synthetic salvinorin analogs with potential KOPr-mediated pharmacotherapeutic effects (including partial agonist or biased agonist effects, with a reduced burden of undesirable effects associated with salvinorin A.

  5. Kappa opioid receptors stimulate phosphoinositide turnover in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periyasamy, S.; Hoss, W. (Univ. of Toledo, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various subtype-selective opioid agonists and antagonists on the phosphoinositide (PI) turnover response were investigated in the rat brain. The {kappa}-agonists U-50,488H and ketocyclazocine produced a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of IP's in hippocampal slices. The other {kappa}-agonists Dynorphin-A (1-13) amide, and its protected analog D(Ala){sup 2}-dynorphin-A (1-13) amide also produced a significant increase in the formation of ({sup 3}H)-IP's, whereas the {mu}-selective agonists (D-Ala{sup 2}-N-Me-Phe{sup 4}-Gly{sup 5}-ol)-enkephalin and morphine and the {delta}-selective agonist (D-Pen{sup 2,5})-enkephalin were ineffective. The increase in IP's formation elicited by U-50,488H was partially antagonized by naloxone and more completely antagonized by the {kappa}-selective antagonists nor-binaltorphimine and MR 2266. The formation of IP's induced by U-50,488H varies with the regions of the brain used, being highest in hippocampus and amygdala, and lowest in striatum and pons-medullar. The results indicate that brain {kappa}- but neither {mu}- nor {delta}- receptors are coupled to the PI turnover response.

  6. A functional polymorphism in the prodynorphin gene affects cognitive flexibility and brain activation during reversal learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail eVotinov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether the opioid system plays a role in the ability to flexibly adapt behavior is still unclear. We used fMRI to investigate the effect of a nucleotide tandem repeat (68-bp VNTR functional polymorphism of the prodynorphin gene on cerebral activation during a reversal learning task in which participants had to flexibly adapt stimulus-response associations. Past studies suggested that alleles with 3 or 4 repeats (HH genotype of this polymorphism are associated with higher levels of dynorphin peptides than alleles with 1 or 2 repeats (LL genotype. On the behavioral level, the HH group made more perseverative errors than the LL group. On the neural level, the HH group demonstrated less engagement of left orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC and cortico-striatal circuitry, and lower effective connectivity of lOFC with anterior midcingulate cortex and anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during reversal learning and processing negative feedback. This points to a lower ability of the HH genotype to monitor or adapt to changes in reward contingencies. These findings provide first evidence that dynorphins may contribute to individual differences in reversal learning, and that considering the opioid system may shed new light on the neurochemical correlates of decision-making and behavioral regulation.

  7. High-frequency stimulation-induced peptide release synchronizes arcuate kisspeptin neurons and excites GnRH neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian; Nestor, Casey C; Zhang, Chunguang; Padilla, Stephanie L; Palmiter, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and neurokinin B (NKB) neurocircuits are essential for pubertal development and fertility. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Kiss1ARH) co-express Kiss1, NKB, dynorphin and glutamate and are postulated to provide an episodic, excitatory drive to gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH) neurons, the synaptic mechanisms of which are unknown. We characterized the cellular basis for synchronized Kiss1ARH neuronal activity using optogenetics, whole-cell electrophysiology, molecular pharmacology and single cell RT-PCR in mice. High-frequency photostimulation of Kiss1ARH neurons evoked local release of excitatory (NKB) and inhibitory (dynorphin) neuropeptides, which were found to synchronize the Kiss1ARH neuronal firing. The light-evoked synchronous activity caused robust excitation of GnRH neurons by a synaptic mechanism that also involved glutamatergic input to preoptic Kiss1 neurons from Kiss1ARH neurons. We propose that Kiss1ARH neurons play a dual role of driving episodic secretion of GnRH through the differential release of peptide and amino acid neurotransmitters to coordinate reproductive function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16246.001 PMID:27549338

  8. Chimeric opioid peptides: Tools for identifying opioid receptor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, G.; Miyajima, A.; Yokota, T.; Arai, K.; Goldstein, A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors synthesized several chimeric [125J-labelled] peptides in which the N-terminal nine residues of dynorphin-32, a peptide selective for the κ opioid receptor, were replaced by opioid peptides selective for other opioid receptor types. Each chimeric peptide retained the high affinity and type selectivity characteristic of its N-terminal sequence. The common C-terminal two-thirds of the chimeric peptides served as an epitope recognized by the same monoclonal antibody. When bound to receptors on a cell surface or membrane preparation, these peptides could still bind specifically to the monoclonal antibody. These chimeric peptides should be useful for isolating μ, δ, and κ opioid receptors and for identifying opioid receptors on transfected cells in expression cloning procedures. The general approach using chimeric peptides should be applicable to other peptide receptors

  9. Kappa-opioid receptor signaling in the striatum as a potential modulator of dopamine transmission in cocaine dependence

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    Pierre eTrifilieff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine addiction is accompanied by a decrease in striatal dopamine signaling, measured as a decrease in dopamine D2 receptor binding as well as blunted dopamine release in the striatum. These alterations in dopamine transmission have clinical relevance, and have been shown to correlate with cocaine-seeking behavior and response to treatment for cocaine dependence. However, the mechanisms contributing to the hypodopaminergic state in cocaine addiction remain unknown. Here we review the Positron Emission Tomography (PET imaging studies showing alterations in D2 receptor binding potential and dopamine transmission in cocaine abusers and their significance in cocaine-seeking behavior. Based on animal and human studies, we propose that the kappa receptor/dynorphin system, because of its impact on dopamine transmission and upregulation following cocaine exposure, could contribute to the hypodopaminergic state reported in cocaine addiction, and could thus be a relevant target for treatment development.

  10. Pathway and Cell-Specific Kappa-Opioid Receptor Modulation of Excitatory-Inhibitory Balance Differentially Gates D1 and D2 Accumbens Neuron Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, Hugo A.; Wu, Jocelyn; Kornspun, Alana R.; Pignatelli, Marco; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Krashes, Michael J.; Lowell, Brad B.; Carlezon, William A.; Bonci, Antonello

    2018-01-01

    Endogenous dynorphin signaling via the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) powerfully mediates negative affective states and stress reactivity. Excitatory inputs from the hippocampus and amygdala play a fundamental role in shaping the activity of both NAcc D1 and D2 MSNs, which encode positive and negative motivational valences, respectively. However, a circuit-based mechanism by which KOR modulation of excitation-inhibition balance modifies D1 and D2 MSN activity is lacking. Here, we provide a comprehensive synaptic framework wherein presynaptic KOR inhibition decreases excitatory drive of D1 MSN activity by the amygdala, but not hippocampus. Conversely, presynaptic inhibition by KORs of inhibitory synapses on D2 MSNs enhances integration of excitatory drive by the amygdala and hippocampus. In conclusion, we describe a circuit-based mechanism showing differential gating of afferent control of D1 and D2 MSN activity by KORs in a pathway specific manner. PMID:28056342

  11. Neuroscience of opiates for addiction medicine: From stress-responsive systems to behavior.

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    Zhou, Yan; Leri, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Opiate addiction, similarly to addiction to other psychoactive drugs, is chronic relapsing brain disease caused by drug-induced short-term and long-term neuroadaptations at the molecular, cellular, and behavioral levels. Preclinical research in laboratory animals has found important interactions between opiate exposure and stress-responsive systems. In this review, we will discuss the dysregulation of several stress-responsive systems in opiate addiction: vasopressin and its receptor system, endogenous opioid systems (including proopiomelanocortin/mu opioid receptor and dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor), orexin and its receptor system, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. A more complete understanding of how opiates alter these stress systems, through further laboratory-based studies, is required to identify novel and effective pharmacological targets for the long-term treatment of heroin addiction. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Wheel running alters patterns of uncontrollable stress-induced cfos mRNA expression in rat dorsal striatum direct and indirect pathways: a possible role for plasticity in adenosine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter J.; Ghasem, Parsa R.; Mika, Agnieszka; Day, Heidi E.; Herrera, Jonathan J.; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that adenosine is a major regulator of striatum activity, in part, through the antagonistic modulation of dopaminergic function. Exercise can influence adenosine and dopamine activity, which may subsequently promote plasticity in striatum adenosine and dopamine systems. Such changes could alter activity of medium spiny neurons and impact striatum function. The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first was to characterize the effect of long-term wheel running on adenosine 1 (A1R), adenosine 2A (A2AR), dopamine 1 (D1R), and dopamine 2 (D2R) receptor mRNA expression in adult rat dorsal and ventral striatum structures using in situ hybridization. The second was to determine if changes to adenosine and dopamine receptor mRNA from running are associated with altered cfos mRNA induction in dynorphin- (direct pathway) and enkephalin- (indirect pathway) expressing neurons of the dorsal striatum following stress exposure. We report that chronic running, as well as acute uncontrollable stress, reduced A1R and A2AR mRNA levels in the dorsal and ventral striatum. Running also modestly elevated D2R mRNA levels in striatum regions. Finally, stress-induced cfos was potentiated in dynorphin and attenuated in enkephalin expressing neurons of running rats. These data suggest striatum adenosine and dopamine systems are targets for neuroplasticity from exercise, which may contribute to changes in direct and indirect pathway activity. These findings may have implications for striatum mediated motor and cognitive processes, as well as exercise facilitated stress-resistance. PMID:25017571

  13. Kappa-Opioid Antagonists for Psychiatric Disorders: From Bench to Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlezon, William A; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-10-01

    Kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonists are currently being considered for the treatment of a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. A general ability to mitigate the effects of stress, which can trigger or exacerbate these conditions, may explain their putative efficacy across such a broad array of conditions. The discovery of their potentially therapeutic effects evolved from preclinical research designed to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which experience causes neuroadaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key element of brain reward circuitry. This research established that exposure to drugs of abuse or stress increases the activity of the transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) in the NAc, which leads to elevated expression of the opioid peptide dynorphin that in turn causes core signs of depressive- and anxiety-related disorders. Disruption of KORs-the endogenous receptors for dynorphin-produces antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like actions in screening procedures that identify standard drugs of these classes, and reduces stress effects in tests used to study addiction and stress-related disorders. Although interest in this target is high, prototypical KOR antagonists have extraordinarily persistent pharmacodynamic effects that complicate clinical trials. The development of shorter acting KOR antagonists together with more rapid designs for clinical trials may soon provide insight on whether these drugs are efficacious as would be predicted by preclinical work. If successful, KOR antagonists would represent a unique example in psychiatry where the therapeutic mechanism of a drug class is understood before it is shown to be efficacious in humans. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bilateral reorganization of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, M; Martinian, L; Catarino, C; Yogarajah, M; Koepp, M J.; Caboclo, L; Sisodiya, S M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common surgical pathology associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). HS is typically characterized by mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) and reorganization of neuropeptide Y (NPY) fiber networks in the dentate gyrus. One potential cause of postoperative seizure recurrence following temporal lobe surgery may be the presence of seizure-associated bilateral hippocampal damage. We aimed to investigate patterns of hippocampal abnormalities in a postmortem series as identified by NPY and dynorphin immunohistochemistry. Methods: Analysis of dentate gyrus fiber reorganization, using dynorphin (to demonstrate MFS) and NPY immunohistochemistry, was carried out in a postmortem epilepsy series of 25 cases (age range 21–96 years). In 9 patients, previously refractory seizures had become well controlled for up to 34 years prior to death. Results: Bilateral MFS or abnormal NPY patterns were seen in 15 patients including those with bilateral symmetric, asymmetric, and unilateral HS by conventional histologic criteria. MFS and NPY reorganization was present in all classical HS cases, more variably in atypical HS, present in both MTLE and non-MTLE syndromes and with seizure histories of up to 92 years, despite seizure remission in some patients. Conclusion: Synaptic reorganization in the dentate gyrus may be a bilateral, persistent process in epilepsy. It is unlikely to be sufficient to generate seizures and more likely to represent a seizure-induced phenomenon. GLOSSARY AED = antiepileptic drug; CA1p = CA1-predominant hippocampal sclerosis; CHS = classical hippocampal sclerosis; EFG = end folium gliosis; EFS = end folium sclerosis; GCD = granule cell dispersion; GCL = granule cell layer; HS = hippocampal sclerosis; MFS = mossy fiber sprouting; MTLE = mesial temporal lobe epilepsy; NPY = neuropeptide Y; ROI = region of interest; SE = status epilepticus; TLE = temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:19710404

  15. Orexin/hypocretin role in reward: implications for opioid and other addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimel, Corey; Bartlett, Selena E; Chiou, Lih-Chu; Lawrence, Andrew J; Muschamp, John W; Patkar, Omkar; Tung, Li-Wei; Borgland, Stephanie L

    2015-01-01

    Addiction is a devastating disorder that affects 15.3 million people worldwide. While prevalent, few effective treatments exist. Orexin receptors have been proposed as a potential target for anti-craving medications. Orexins, also known as hypocretins, are neuropeptides produced in neurons of the lateral and dorsomedial hypothalamus and perifornical area, which project widely throughout the brain. The absence of orexins in rodents and humans leads to narcolepsy. However, orexins also have an established role in reward seeking. This review will discuss some of the original studies describing the roles of the orexins in reward seeking as well as specific works that were presented at the 2013 International Narcotics Research Conference. Orexin signalling can promote drug-induced plasticity of glutamatergic synapses onto dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a brain region implicated in motivated behaviour. Additional evidence suggests that orexin signalling can also promote drug seeking by initiating an endocannabinoid-mediated synaptic depression of GABAergic inputs to the VTA, and thereby disinhibiting dopaminergic neurons. Orexin neurons co-express the inhibitory opioid peptide dynorphin. It has been proposed that orexin in the VTA may not mediate reward per se, but rather occludes the 'anti-reward' effects of dynorphin. Finally, orexin signalling in the prefrontal cortex and the central amygdala is implicated in reinstatement of reward seeking. This review will highlight recent work describing the role of orexin signalling in cellular processes underlying addiction-related behaviours and propose novel hypotheses for the mechanisms by which orexin signalling may impart drug seeking. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Identification of endogenous opioid receptor components in rat brain using a monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bero, L.A.; Roy, S.; Lee, N.M.

    1988-11-01

    A monoclonal antibody generated against the tertiary structure of a partially purified opioid binding protein was used to probe the structure of the dynorphin and beta-endorphin receptors. The Fab fragment 3B4F11 inhibited completely the binding of 125I-beta-endorphin and (3H)dynorphin to rat brain P2 membranes with IC50 values of 26 ng/ml and 40 ng/ml, respectively. To explore further the interaction of 3B4F11 with the beta-endorphin receptor, the effect of the Fab fragment on 125I-beta-endorphin cross-linking to rat brain membranes was examined. 125I-beta-endorphin was covalently bound to three major species of approximate molecular weights 108,000, 73,000, and 49,000. The delta-selective ligand D-Pen2, D-pen5enkephalin was least effective at inhibiting the cross-linking of beta-endorphin, whereas the micro-selective ligand Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-NMe-Phe-Gly-ol and kappa-selective ligand U50488 inhibited beta-endorphin cross-linking to the 108,000 and 73,000 Da species. Both 3B4F11 and beta-endorphin prevented the covalent binding of 125I-beta-endorphin to all three labeled species. These findings suggest that micro and kappa receptor types might have some structural similarities, whereas the delta receptor type might differ in molecular size. In addition, the micro, kappa, and delta ligands might have different primary sequences, whereas their tertiary structures might share regions of molecular homology with all three receptor constituents labeled by 125I-beta-endorphin. 3B4F11 will be a valuable tool for the purification and isolation of the several components of the beta-endorphin receptor complex.

  17. The opioid receptors of the rat periaqueductal gray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedynyshyn, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The opioid binding characteristics of the rat (PAG) and the signal transduction mechanisms of the opioid receptors were examined with in vitro radioligand binding, GTPase, adenylyl cyclase, and inositol phosphate assays. The nonselective ligand {sup 3}H-ethylketocyclazocine (EKC), the {mu} and {delta} selective ligand {sup 3}H-(D-Ala{sup 2}, D-Leu{sup 5}) enkephalin (DADLE), the {mu} selective ligand {sup 3}H-(D-Ala{sup 2}, N-methyl Phe{sup 4}, Glyol{sup 5}) enkephalin (DAGO), and the {delta} selective ligand {sup 3}H-(D-Pen{sup 2}, D-Pen{sup 5}) enkephalin (DPDPE) were separately used as tracer ligands to label opioid binding sites in rat PAG enriched P{sub 2} membrane in competition with unlabeled DADLE, DAGO, DPDPE, or the {kappa} selective ligand trans-3,4-dichloro-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl)benzeneacetamide, methane sulfonate, hydrate (U50, 488H). Only {mu} selective high affinity opioid binding was observed. No high affinity {delta} or {kappa} selective binding was detected. {sup 3}H-DAGO was used as a tracer ligand to label {mu} selective high affinity opioid binding sites in PAG enriched P{sub 2} membrane in competition with unlabeled {beta}-endorphin, dynorphin A (1-17), BAM-18, methionine enkephalin, dynorphin A (1-8), and leucine enkephalin. Of these endogenous opioid peptides only those with previously reported high affinity {mu} type opioid binding activity competed with {sup 3}H-DAGO for binding sites in rat PAG enriched P{sub 2} membrane with affinities similar to that of unlabeled DAGO.

  18. Central reinforcing effects of ethanol are blocked by catalase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhnikov, Michael E; Molina, Juan C; Spear, Norman E

    2007-11-01

    Recent studies have systematically indicated that newborn rats are highly sensitive to ethanol's positive reinforcing effects. Central administrations of ethanol (25-200mg %) associated with an olfactory conditioned stimulus (CS) promote subsequent conditioned approach to the CS as evaluated through the newborn's response to a surrogate nipple scented with the CS. It has been shown that ethanol's first metabolite, acetaldehyde, exerts significant reinforcing effects in the central nervous system. A significant amount of acetaldehyde is derived from ethanol metabolism via the catalase system. In newborn rats, catalase levels are particularly high in several brain structures. The present study tested the effect of catalase inhibition on central ethanol reinforcement. In the first experiment, pups experienced lemon odor either paired or unpaired with intracisternal (IC) administrations of 100mg% ethanol. Half of the animals corresponding to each learning condition were pretreated with IC administrations of either physiological saline or a catalase inhibitor (sodium-azide). Catalase inhibition completely suppressed ethanol reinforcement in paired groups without affecting responsiveness to the CS during conditioning or responding by unpaired control groups. A second experiment tested whether these effects were specific to ethanol reinforcement or due instead to general impairment in learning and expression capabilities. Central administration of an endogenous kappa opioid receptor agonist (dynorphin A-13) was used as an alternative source of reinforcement. Inhibition of the catalase system had no effect on the reinforcing properties of dynorphin. The present results support the hypothesis that ethanol metabolism regulated by the catalase system plays a critical role in determination of ethanol reinforcement in newborn rats.

  19. The Opioid System in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Functional Role and Therapeutic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Burtscher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy is considered to be one of the most common and severe forms of focal epilepsies. Patients often develop cognitive deficits and emotional blunting along the progression of the disease. The high incidence of resistance to antiepileptic drugs and a frequent lack of admissibility to surgery poses an unmet medical challenge. In the urgent quest of novel treatment strategies, neuropeptides are interesting candidates, however, their therapeutic potential has not yet been exploited. This review focuses on the functional role of the endogenous opioid system with respect to temporal lobe epilepsy, specifically in the hippocampus. The role of dynorphins and kappa opioid receptors (KOPr as modulators of neuronal excitability is well understood: both the reduced release of glutamate as well of postsynaptic hyperpolarization were shown in glutamatergic neurons. In line with this, low levels of dynorphin in humans and mice increase the risk of epilepsy development. The role of enkephalins is not understood so well. On one hand, some agonists of the delta opioid receptors (DOPr display pro-convulsant properties probably through inhibition of GABAergic interneurons. On the other hand, enkephalins play a neuro-protective role under hypoxic or anoxic conditions, most probably through positive effects on mitochondrial function. Despite the supposed absence of endorphins in the hippocampus, exogenous activation of the mu opioid receptors (MOPr induces pro-convulsant effects. Recently-expanded knowledge of the complex ways opioid receptors ligands elicit their effects (including biased agonism, mixed binding, and opioid receptor heteromers, opens up exciting new therapeutic potentials with regards to seizures and epilepsy. Potential adverse side effects of KOPr agonists may be minimized through functional selectivity. Preclinical data suggest a high potential of such compounds to control seizures, with a strong predictive validity toward human

  20. Effects of Rearing Conditions on Behaviour and Endogenous Opioids in Rats with Alcohol Access during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Causal links between early-life stress, genes and later psychiatric diagnoses are not possible to fully address in human studies. Animal models therefore provide an important complement in which conditions can be well controlled and are here used to study and distinguish effects of early-life stress and alcohol exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour in young rats and if these changes could be followed over time and to examine interaction effects between early-life environment and adolescent alcohol drinking on behaviour and immunoreactive levels of the opioid peptides dynorphin B, met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 and beta-endorphin. We employed a rodent model, maternal separation, to study the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour, voluntary alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced effects. The consequences of short, 15 min (MS 15), and long, 360 min (MS 360), maternal separation in combination with adolescent voluntary alcohol consumption on behaviour and peptides were examined. A difference in the development of risk taking behaviour was found between the MS15 and MS360 while the development of general activity was found to differ between intake groups. Beta-endorphin levels in the pituitary and the periaqueductal gray area was found to be higher in the MS15 than the MS360. Adolescent drinking resulted in higher dynorphin B levels in the hippocampus and higher met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 levels in the amygdala. Amygdala and hippocampus are involved in addiction processes and changes in these brain areas after adolescent alcohol drinking may have consequences for cognitive function and drug consumption behaviour in adulthood. The study shows that individual behavioural profiling over time in combination with neurobiological investigations provides means for studies of causality between early-life stress, behaviour and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:24098535

  1. Milk bioactive peptides and beta-casomorphins induce mucus release in rat jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompette, Aurélien; Claustre, Jean; Caillon, Fabienne; Jourdan, Gérard; Chayvialle, Jean Alain; Plaisancié, Pascale

    2003-11-01

    Intestinal mucus is critically involved in the protection of the mucosa. An enzymatic casein hydrolysate and beta-casomorphin-7, a mu-opioid peptide generated in the intestine during bovine casein digestion, markedly induce mucus discharge. Because shorter mu-opioid peptides have been described, the effects of the opioid peptides in casein, beta-casomorphin-7, -6, -4, -4NH2 and -3, and of opioid neuropeptides met-enkephalin, dynorphin A and (D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,glycinol5)enkephalin (DAMGO) on intestinal mucus secretion were investigated. The experiments were conducted with isolated perfused rat jejunum. Mucus secretion under the influence of beta-casomorphins and opioid neuropeptides administered intraluminally or intra-arterially was evaluated using an ELISA for rat intestinal mucus. Luminal administration of beta-casomorphin-7 (1.2 x 10(-4) mol/L) provoked a mucus discharge (500% of controls) that was inhibited by naloxone, a specific opiate receptor antagonist. Luminal beta-casomorphin-6, -4 and -4NH2 did not modify basal mucus secretion, whereas intra-arterial administration of beta-casomorphin-4 (1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L) induced a mucus discharge. In contrast, intra-arterial administration of the nonopioid peptide beta-casomorphin-3 did not release mucus. Among the opioid neuropeptides, intra-arterial infusion of Met-enkephalin or dynorphin-A did not provoke mucus secretion. In contrast, beta-endorphin (1.2 x 10(-8) to 1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L) induced a dose-dependent release of mucus (maximal response at 500% of controls). DAMGO (1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L), a mu-receptor agonist, also evoked a potent mucus discharge. Our findings suggest that mu-opioid neuropeptides, as well as beta-casomorphins after absorption, modulate intestinal mucus discharge. Milk opioid-derived peptides may thus be involved in defense against noxious agents and could have dietary and health applications.

  2. Neurocognitive and neuroinflammatory correlates of PDYN and OPRK1 mRNA expression in the anterior cingulate in postmortem brain of HIV-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuferov, Vadim; Butelman, Eduardo R; Ho, Ann; Morgello, Susan; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2014-01-09

    Chronic inflammation may contribute to neuropsychological impairments in individuals with HIV, and modulation of this inflammatory response by opiate receptor ligands is important in light of the prevalence of drug use in HIV populations. Exogenous MOR and KOR agonists have differential effects on central nervous system (CNS) immunity and, while some data suggest KOR agonists are immunosuppressive, the KOR agonist dynorphin has been shown to stimulate human monocyte chemotaxis. In this study, we examined mRNA levels of endogenous opioid receptors OPRK1 and OPRM1, prodynorphin (PDYN), macrophage scavenger receptor CD163, and microglia/macrophage marker CD68 in the caudate and anterior cingulate of postmortem brains from HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects. Brain tissues of HIV-infected (n = 24) and control subjects (n = 15) were obtained from the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank. Quantification of the gene mRNA was performed using SYBR Green RT-PCR. CD68 and CD163 were increased in HIV-positive (HIV+) compared to HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals in both brain regions. There were higher OPRK1 (P <0.005), and lower PDYN mRNA (P <0.005) levels in the anterior cingulate of HIV+ compared to HIV- subjects. This difference between the clinical groups was not found in the caudate. There was no difference in the levels of OPRM1 mRNA between HIV+ and HIV- subjects. Using linear regression analysis, we examined the relationship of OPRK1 and PDYN mRNA levels in the HIV+ subjects with seven cognitive domain T scores of a neuropsychological test battery. Within the HIV+ subjects, there was a positive correlation between anterior cingulate PDYN mRNA levels and better T-scores in the motor domain. Within the HIV+ subjects there were also positive correlations of both OPRK1 and PDYN mRNA levels with the anti-inflammatory marker CD163, but not with proinflammatory CD68 levels. In this setting, decreased PDYN mRNA may reflect a homeostatic mechanism to reduce monocyte

  3. Reward-seeking behavior and addiction: cause or cog?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Salama, Mohamed

    2012-09-01

    Although dopaminergic system represents the cornerstone in rewarding, other neurotransmitters can modulate both the reward system and the psychomotor effects of addictive drugs. Many hypotheses have been proposed for a better understanding of the reward system and its role in drug addiction. However, after many years of investigation, no single theory can completely explain the neural basis of drug addiction. Recent reports introduce novel neurotransmitters into the game e.g. dynorphins, orexins, histamine, gheralin and galanin. The interacting functions of these neurotransmitters have shown that the reward system and its role in drug dependence, is far more complicated than was thought before. Individual variations exist regarding response to drug exposure, vulnerability for addiction and the effects of different cues on reward systems. Consequently, genetic variations of neurotransmission are thought to influence reward processing that in turn may affect distinctive social behavior and susceptibility to addiction. However, the individual variations can not be based mainly on genetics; environmental factors seem to play a role too. Here we discuss the current knowledge about the orquestic regulation of different neurotransmitters on reward-seeking behavior and their potential effect on drug addiction.

  4. Epigenetic mechanisms of alcoholism and stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Martina; Pandey, Subhash C

    2017-05-01

    Stress-related disorders, such as anxiety, early life stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder appear to be important factors in promoting alcoholism, as alcohol consumption can temporarily attenuate the negative affective symptoms of these disorders. Several molecules involved in signaling pathways may contribute to the neuroadaptation induced during alcohol dependence and stress disorders, and among these, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and opioid peptides (i.e., nociceptin and dynorphin) are involved in the interaction of stress and alcohol. In fact, alterations in the expression and function of these molecules have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. In recent years, various studies have focused on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate chromatin architecture, thereby modifying gene expression. Interestingly, epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions have been shown to be associated with the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders, including alcoholism and stress. In particular, the enzymes responsible for chromatin remodeling (i.e., histone deacetylases and methyltransferases, DNA methyltransferases) have been identified as common molecular mechanisms for the interaction of stress and alcohol and have become promising therapeutic targets to treat or prevent alcoholism and associated emotional disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Genetic variation and epigenetic modification of the prodynorphin gene in peripheral blood cells in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Claudio; Shchetynsky, Klementy; Pucci, Mariangela; Cifani, Carlo; Gunnar, Agneta; Vukojević, Vladana; Padyukov, Leonid; Terenius, Lars

    2017-06-02

    Dynorphins are critically involved in the development, maintenance and relapse of alcoholism. Alcohol-induced changes in the prodynorphin gene expression may be influenced by both gene polymorphisms and epigenetic modifications. The present study of human alcoholics aims to evaluate DNA methylation patterns in the prodynorphin gene (PDYN) promoter and to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with alcohol dependence and with altered DNA methylation. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells of alcoholics and healthy controls, and DNA methylation was studied in the PDYN promoter by bisulfite pyrosequencing. In alcoholics, DNA methylation increased in three of the seven CpG sites investigated, as well as in the average of the seven CpG sites. Data stratification showed lower increase in DNA methylation levels in individuals reporting craving and with higher levels of alcohol consumption. Association with alcoholism was observed for rs2235751 and the presence of the minor allele G was associated with reduced DNA methylation at PDYN promoter in females and younger subjects. Genetic and epigenetic factors within PDYN are related to risk for alcoholism, providing further evidence of its involvement on ethanol effects. These results might be of relevance for developing new biomarkers to predict disease trajectories and therapeutic outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for μ, δ, and κ opioid agonists and for nicotine and α-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas μ, δ, and κ opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides (β-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer

  7. [The role of the opiate mechanisms of the hippocampus and substantia nigra in the behavioral and convulsive disorders in picrotoxin-induced kindling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Shandra, A A; Godlevskiĭ, L S; Mazarati, A M; Nguyen, T T

    1991-03-01

    It was shown in the experiments on rats that the repeated picrotoxin administration resulted in the kindling of generalized seizures. Generalized convulsions were followed by the development of either postictal depression or explosiveness. The injection of mu-opiate agonist met-enkephalin into hippocampus of kindled rats resulted in the increase in the severity of seizure reactions which were induced by picrotoxin and also in the increase in the number of animals with postictal explosiveness. The injection of dynorphin-A-1-13 (kappa-opiate agonist) into substantia nigra reticulata induced the locomotor depression which was like one in postictal period and resulted in the decrease of picrotoxin-induced seizures severity. It was concluded that mu-opiate system of hippocampus took part in the formation of generator of pathologically enhanced excitation in the structure during kindling and the development of seizure syndrome, providing also the postictal explosiveness. Kappa-opiate system of substantia nigra plays an important role in the activation of the antiepileptic system, limitation of seizures and the development of postictal depression.

  8. NMR studies of the solution conformation and dynamics of the tyrocidine peptide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, N.

    1985-01-01

    The tyrocidine B and tyrocidine C 1 H NMR spectra in DMSO-d 6 were assigned by using 2D 1 H- 1 H correlation spectroscopy and 1D double resonance experiments. Based on the proton chemical shifts, 3 J/sub NH-Nα/ coupling constants, the chemical shift temperature dependence, and 1D and 2D 1 H- 1 H NOE values, a backbone conformation consisting of an anti-parallel β-pleated sheet, a type I β-turn and a type II' β-turn was suggested for both tyrocidines B and C. Seven out of ten side chains were determined to exist predominantly in one classical Chi 1 rotamer; while the residues Val 1 and Leu 3 had two Chi 1 rotamers which were significantly populated. Chi 2 angles were determined for residues Phe 4 , Trp 6 , DPhe 7 (D Trp 7 ) and Asn 8 . The natural abundance 13 C spectra of tyrocidine B and tyrocidine C were assigned by using 1 H- 13 C correlation spectroscopy. A study of the effect of soluble paramagnetic nitroxide compounds on tyrocidine A proton T 1 values were performed which confirmed the proposed tyrocidine A conformation. It also proved that these nitroxide compounds are very useful in studying proton solvent exposure, and therefore in delineating hydrogen bonding. A proton NMR study of the opioid peptide dynorphin-(1-13) in aqueous solution was reported which was consistent with a non-ordered molecule in the solution

  9. Real Time Imaging of Biomarkers in the Parkinson's Brain Using Mini-Implantable Biosensors. II. Pharmaceutical Therapy with Bromocriptine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Broderick

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We used Neuromolecular Imaging (NMI and trademarked BRODERICK PROBE® mini-implantable biosensors, to selectively and separately detect neurotransmitters in vivo, on line, within seconds in the dorsal striatal brain of the Parkinson’s Disease (PD animal model. We directly compared our results derived from PD to the normal striatal brain of the non-Parkinson’s Disease (non-PD animal. This advanced biotechnology enabled the imaging of dopamine (DA, serotonin (5-HT, homovanillic acid (HVA a metabolite of DA, L-tryptophan (L-TP a precursor to 5-HT and peptides, dynorphin A 1-17 (Dyn A and somatostatin (somatostatin releasing inhibitory factor (SRIF. Each neurotransmitter and neurochemical was imaged at a signature electroactive oxidation/half-wave potential in dorsal striatum of the PD as compared with the non-PD animal. Both endogenous and bromocriptine-treated neurochemical profiles in PD and non-PD were imaged using the same experimental paradigm and detection sensitivities. Results showed that we have found significant neurotransmitter peptide biomarkers in the dorsal striatal brain of endogenous and bromocriptine-treated PD animals. The peptide biomarkers were not imaged in dorsal striatal brain of non-PD animals, either endogenously or bromocriptine-treated. These findings provide new pharmacotherapeutic strategies for PD patients. Thus, our findings are highly applicable to the clinical treatment of PD.

  10. The interaction of fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity with 17β-estradiol on the expression of KNDy neuropeptides and their receptors in the female mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Snyder, Marisa; Roepke, Troy A

    2016-12-05

    Arcuate neurons that coexpress kisspeptin (Kiss1), neurokinin B (Tac2), and dynorphin (Pdyn) mediate negative feedback of 17β-estradiol (E2) on the HPG axis. Previous studies report that fasting and caloric restriction reduce arcuate Kiss1 expression. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions of E2 with fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity on KNDy gene and receptor expression. Ovariectomized female mice were separated into control and estradiol benzoate (E2B)-treated groups. E2B decreased Kiss1 and the tachykinin 2 receptor, Tac3r, in ARC tissue and Tac2 in Tac2 neurons. Diet-induced obesity decreased Kiss1 in oil-treated animals and the kisspeptin receptor, Kiss1r and Tac3r in the ARC of E2B-treated animals. Chronic caloric (30%) restriction reduced all three neuropeptides in oil-treated females and Kiss1r by E2B in CR animals. Taken together, our experiments suggest that steroidal environment and energy state negatively regulate KNDy gene expression in both ARC and Tac2 neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Role of Kiss1 Neurons As Integrators of Endocrine, Metabolic, and Environmental Factors in the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shel-Hwa Yeo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin–GPR54 signaling in the hypothalamus is required for reproduction and fertility in mammals. Kiss1 neurons are key regulators of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH release and modulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG axis. Arcuate Kiss1 neurons project to GnRH nerve terminals in the median eminence, orchestrating the pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH through the intricate interaction between GnRH pulse frequency and the pituitary gonadotrophs. Arcuate Kiss1 neurons, also known as KNDy neurons in rodents and ruminants because of their co-expression of neurokinin B and dynorphin represent an ideal hub to receive afferent inputs from other brain regions in response to physiological and environmental changes, which can regulate the HPG axis. This review will focus on studies performed primarily in rodent and ruminant species to explore potential afferent inputs to Kiss1 neurons with emphasis on the arcuate region but also considering the rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle (RP3V. Specifically, we will discuss how these inputs can be modulated by hormonal, metabolic, and environmental factors to control gonadotropin secretion and fertility. We also summarize the methods and techniques that can be used to study functional inputs into Kiss1 neurons.

  12. Neuropeptide co-expression in hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons of laboratory animals and the human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin eSkrapits

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic peptidergic neurons using kisspeptin (KP and its co-transmitters for communication are critically involved in the regulation of mammalian reproduction and puberty. This article provides an overview of neuropeptides present in KP neurons, with a focus on the human species. Immunohistochemical studies reveal that large subsets of human KP neurons synthesize neurokinin B, as also shown in laboratory species. In contrast, dynorphin described in KP neurons of rodents and sheep is found rarely in KP cells of human males and postmenopausal females. Similarly, galanin is detectable in mouse, but not human, KP cells, whereas substance P, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and proenkephalin-derived opioids are expressed in varying subsets of KP neurons in humans, but not reported in ARC of other species. Human KP neurons do not contain neurotensin, cholecystokinin, proopiomelanocortin-derivatives, agouti-related protein, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin or tyrosine hydroxylase (dopamine. These data identify the possible co-transmitters of human KP cells. Neurochemical properties distinct from those of laboratory species indicate that humans use considerably different neurotransmitter mechanisms to regulate fertility.

  13. Control of the onset of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadas, Sarantis; Chrousos, George P

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of puberty initiation remains an enigma, despite extensive research in the field. Pulsatile pituitary gonadotropin secretion under the guidance of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) constitutes a sine qua non for pubertal onset. In turn, the secretion of GnRH in the human hypothalamus is regulated by kisspeptin and its receptor as well as by permissive or opposing signals mediated by neurokinin B and dynorphin acting on their respective receptors. These three supra-GnRH regulators compose the Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B and Dynorhin neurons (KNDy) system, a key player in pubertal onset and progression. The recent discovery that makorin ring finger protein 3 is also involved in puberty initiation provided further insights into the regulation of the KNDy pathway. In fact, the inhibitory (γ-amino butyric acid, neuropeptide Y, and RFamide-related peptide-3) and stimulatory signals (glutamate) acting upstream of KNDy called into question the role of makorin ring finger protein 3 as the gatekeeper of puberty. Meanwhile, the findings that 'neuroestradiol' produced locally and endocrine disruptors from the environment may influence GnRH secretion is intriguing. Finally, epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in pubertal onset through recently discovered mechanisms. The exact molecular machinery underlying puberty initiation in humans is under intensive investigation. In this review, we summarize research evidence in the field, while emphasizing the areas of uncertainty and underlining the impact of current information on the evolving theory regarding this fascinating phenomenon.

  14. Dopamine D4 Receptor Counteracts Morphine-Induced Changes in µ Opioid Receptor Signaling in the Striosomes of the Rat Caudate Putamen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Suárez-Boomgaard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mu opioid receptor (MOR is critical in mediating morphine analgesia. However, prolonged exposure to morphine induces adaptive changes in this receptor leading to the development of tolerance and addiction. In the present work we have studied whether the continuous administration of morphine induces changes in MOR protein levels, its pharmacological profile, and MOR-mediated G-protein activation in the striosomal compartment of the rat CPu, by using immunohistochemistry and receptor and DAMGO-stimulated [35S]GTPγS autoradiography. MOR immunoreactivity, agonist binding density and its coupling to G proteins are up-regulated in the striosomes by continuous morphine treatment in the absence of changes in enkephalin and dynorphin mRNA levels. In addition, co-treatment of morphine with the dopamine D4 receptor (D4R agonist PD168,077 fully counteracts these adaptive changes in MOR, in spite of the fact that continuous PD168,077 treatment increases the [3H]DAMGO Bmax values to the same degree as seen after continuous morphine treatment. Thus, in spite of the fact that both receptors can be coupled to Gi/0 protein, the present results give support for the existence of antagonistic functional D4R-MOR receptor-receptor interactions in the adaptive changes occurring in MOR of striosomes on continuous administration of morphine.

  15. Combined autoradiographic-immunocytochemical analysis of opioid receptors and opioid peptide neuronal systems in brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M.E.; Khachaturian, H.; Watson, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using adjacent section autoradiography-immunocytochemistry, the distribution of (TH)naloxone binding sites was studied in relation to neuronal systems containing (Leu)enkephalin, dynorphin A, or beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in rat brain. Brain sections from formaldehyde-perfused rats show robust specific binding of (TH)naloxone, the pharmacological (mu-like) properties of which appear unaltered. In contrast, specific binding of the delta ligand (TH)D-Ala2,D-Leu5-enkephalin was virtually totally eliminated as a result of formaldehyde perfusion. Using adjacent section analysis, the authors have noted associations between (TH)naloxone binding sites and one, two, or all three opioid systems in different brain regions; however, in some areas, no apparent relationship could be observed. Within regions, the relationship was complex. The complexity of the association between (TH)naloxone binding sites and the multiple opioid systems, and previous reports of co-localization of mu and kappa receptors in rat brain, are inconsistent with a simple-one-to-one relationship between a given opioid precursor and opioid receptor subtype. Instead, since differential processing of the three precursors gives rise to peptides of varying receptor subtype potencies and selectivities, the multiple peptide-receptor relationships may point to a key role of post-translational processing in determining the physiological consequences of opioid neurotransmission.

  16. Interactions of the opioid and cannabinoid systems in reward: Insights from knockout studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia eBefort

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The opioid system consists of three receptors, mu, delta, and kappa, which are activated by endogenous opioid peptides (enkephalins, endorphins and dynorphins. The endogenous cannabinoid system comprises lipid neuromodulators (endocannabinoids, enzymes for their synthesis and their degradation and two well-characterized receptors, cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. These systems play a major role in the control of pain as well as in mood regulation, reward processing and the development of addiction. Both opioid and cannabinoid receptors are coupled to G proteins and are expressed throughout the brain reinforcement circuitry. Extending classical pharmacology, research using genetically modified mice has provided important progress in the identification of the specific contribution of each component of these endogenous systems in vivo on reward process. This review will summarize available genetic tools and our present knowledge on the consequences of gene knockout on reinforced behaviors in both systems, with a focus on their potential interactions. A better understanding of opioid-cannabinoid interactions may provide novel strategies for therapies in addicted individuals.

  17. The interaction of fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity with 17β-estradiol on the expression of KNDy neuropeptides and their receptors in the female mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jennifer A.; Yasrebi, Ali; Snyder, Marisa; Roepke, Troy A.

    2016-01-01

    Arcuate neurons that coexpress kisspeptin (Kiss1), neurokinin B (Tac2), and dynorphin (Pdyn) mediate negative feedback of 17β-estradiol (E2) on the HPG axis. Previous studies report that fasting and caloric restriction reduce Kiss1 expression. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions of E2 with fasting, caloric restriction, and diet-induced obesity on KNDy gene and receptor expression. Ovariectomized female mice were separated into control and estradiol benzoate (E2B)-treated groups. E2B decreased Kiss1 and the tachykinin 2 receptor, Tac3r, in ARC tissue and Tac2 in Tac2 neurons. Diet-induced obesity decreased Kiss1 in oil-treated animals and the kisspeptin receptor, Kiss1r and Tac3r in the ARC of E2B-treated animals. Chronic caloric (30%) restriction reduced all three neuropeptides in oil-treated females and Kiss1r by E2B in CR animals. Taken together, our experiments suggest that steroidal environment and energy state negatively regulate KNDy gene expression in both ARC and Tac2 neurons. PMID:27507595

  18. Distinct Effects of Nalmefene on Dopamine Uptake Rates and Kappa Opioid Receptor Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Following Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie H. Rose

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of pharmacotherapeutics that reduce relapse to alcohol drinking in patients with alcohol dependence is of considerable research interest. Preclinical data support a role for nucleus accumbens (NAc κ opioid receptors (KOR in chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE exposure-induced increases in ethanol intake. Nalmefene, a high-affinity KOR partial agonist, reduces drinking in at-risk patients and relapse drinking in rodents, potentially due to its effects on NAc KORs. However, the effects of nalmefene on accumbal dopamine transmission and KOR function are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of nalmefene on dopamine transmission and KORs using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in NAc brain slices from male C57BL/6J mice following five weeks of CIE or air exposure. Nalmefene concentration-dependently reduced dopamine release similarly in air and CIE groups, suggesting that dynorphin tone may not be present in brain slices. Further, nalmefene attenuated dopamine uptake rates to a greater extent in brain slices from CIE-exposed mice, suggesting that dopamine transporter-KOR interactions may be fundamentally altered following CIE. Additionally, nalmefene reversed the dopamine-decreasing effects of a maximal concentration of a KOR agonist selectively in brain slices of CIE-exposed mice. It is possible that nalmefene may attenuate withdrawal-induced increases in ethanol consumption by modulation of dopamine transmission through KORs.

  19. Distinct Effects of Nalmefene on Dopamine Uptake Rates and Kappa Opioid Receptor Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Following Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jamie H.; Karkhanis, Anushree N.; Steiniger-Brach, Björn; Jones, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    The development of pharmacotherapeutics that reduce relapse to alcohol drinking in patients with alcohol dependence is of considerable research interest. Preclinical data support a role for nucleus accumbens (NAc) κ opioid receptors (KOR) in chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure-induced increases in ethanol intake. Nalmefene, a high-affinity KOR partial agonist, reduces drinking in at-risk patients and relapse drinking in rodents, potentially due to its effects on NAc KORs. However, the effects of nalmefene on accumbal dopamine transmission and KOR function are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of nalmefene on dopamine transmission and KORs using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in NAc brain slices from male C57BL/6J mice following five weeks of CIE or air exposure. Nalmefene concentration-dependently reduced dopamine release similarly in air and CIE groups, suggesting that dynorphin tone may not be present in brain slices. Further, nalmefene attenuated dopamine uptake rates to a greater extent in brain slices from CIE-exposed mice, suggesting that dopamine transporter-KOR interactions may be fundamentally altered following CIE. Additionally, nalmefene reversed the dopamine-decreasing effects of a maximal concentration of a KOR agonist selectively in brain slices of CIE-exposed mice. It is possible that nalmefene may attenuate withdrawal-induced increases in ethanol consumption by modulation of dopamine transmission through KORs. PMID:27472317

  20. The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (tens in the treatment of the spasticity - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahyan Wagner da Silva Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study it has as objective to argue the job of TENS in the spasticity, observing the main parameters, form of application and the mechanism for which TENS it acts in the spasticity. One is about a bibliographical revision based in the literature specialized selected scientific articles through search in the data base of scielo and of bireme, from the sources Medline and Lilacs. The studies found on the job of TENS in the spasticity, had pointed mainly that this chain reduces the spasticity significantly, in lower degrees. The stimulation electrical parameters had disclosed that TENS it (about 100Hz of raised frequency provides one better effect in the reduction of the spasticity. The types of TENS more used had been the conventional and the soon-intense one, however some studies had not presented the used duration of pulse, limit the determination of one better modality of TENS. Few studies had explained the mechanism of performance of the current related one. The ones that had made it, had pointed the release of opioid endogenous (Dynorphins for the central nervous system as main mechanism of performance, however this contrasts with the neurophysiologic bases of the high-frequency stimulation, that demonstrated better resulted in the joined studies. Still it is necessary more studies on the job of this modality of stimulation electrical in the spasticity, since important parameters as duration of pulse, time of application, numbers of attendance and performance mechanism remains without scientific evidence.

  1. Distinct roles of exogenous opioid agonists and endogenous opioid peptides in the peripheral control of neuropathy-triggered heat pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuz, Dominika; Celik, Melih Ö; Zimmer, Andreas; Machelska, Halina

    2016-09-08

    Neuropathic pain often results from peripheral nerve damage, which can involve immune response. Local leukocyte-derived opioid peptides or exogenous opioid agonists inhibit neuropathy-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in animal models. Since neuropathic pain can also be augmented by heat, in this study we investigated the role of opioids in the modulation of neuropathy-evoked heat hypersensitivity. We used a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in wild-type and opioid peptide-knockout mice, and tested opioid effects in heat and mechanical hypersensitivity using Hargreaves and von Frey tests, respectively. We found that although perineural exogenous opioid agonists, including peptidergic ligands, were effective, the endogenous opioid peptides β-endorphin, Met-enkephalin and dynorphin A did not alleviate heat hypersensitivity. Specifically, corticotropin-releasing factor, an agent triggering opioid peptide secretion from leukocytes, applied perineurally did not attenuate heat hypersensitivity in wild-type mice. Exogenous opioids, also shown to release opioid peptides via activation of leukocyte opioid receptors, were equally analgesic in wild-type and opioid peptide-knockout mice, indicating that endogenous opioids do not contribute to exogenous opioid analgesia in heat hypersensitivity. Furthermore, exogenously applied opioid peptides were ineffective as well. Conversely, opioid peptides relieved mechanical hypersensitivity. Thus, both opioid type and sensory modality may determine the outcome of neuropathic pain treatment.

  2. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D. (National Cancer Institute-Navy Medical Oncology Branch, Bethesda, MD (USA) Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists and for nicotine and {alpha}-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides ({beta}-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  3. Antireward, compulsivity, and addiction: seminal contributions of Dr. Athina Markou to motivational dysregulation in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, George F

    2017-05-01

    Addiction is defined as a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking that is hypothesized to derive from multiple sources of motivational dysregulation. Dr. Athina Markou made seminal contributions to our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction with her studies on the dysregulation of reward function using animal models with construct validity. Repeated overstimulation of the reward systems with drugs of abuse decreases reward function, characterized by brain stimulation reward and presumbably reflecting dysphoria-like states. The construct of negative reinforcement, defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state that is created by drug abstinence, is particularly relevant as a driving force in both the withdrawal/negative affect and preoccupation/anticipation stages of the addiction cycle. The negative emotional state that drives such negative reinforcement is hypothesized to derive from the dysregulation of key neurochemical circuits that drive incentive-salience/reward systems (dopamine, opioid peptides) in the ventral striatum and from the recruitment of brain stress systems (corticotropin-releasing factor, dynorphin) within the extended amygdala. As drug taking becomes compulsive-like, the factors that motivate behavior are hypothesized to shift to drug-seeking behavior that is driven not only by positive reinforcement but also by negative reinforcement. This shift in motivation is hypothesized to reflect the allostatic misregulation of hedonic tone such that drug taking makes the hedonic negative emotional state worse during the process of seeking temporary relief with compulsive drug taking.

  4. Reduced alcohol consumption in mice lacking preprodynorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Yuri A; Walker, Danielle; Martinez, Marni; Harris, R Adron

    2006-10-01

    Many studies suggest a role for endogenous opioid peptides and their receptors in regulation of ethanol intake. It is commonly accepted that the kappa-opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands, dynorphins, produce a dysphoric state and therefore may be responsible for avoidance of alcohol. We used mutant mice lacking preprodynorphin in a variety of behavioral tests of alcohol actions. Null mutant female, but not male, mice showed significantly lower preference for alcohol and consumed lower amounts of alcohol in a two-bottle choice test as compared with wild-type littermates. In the same test, knockout mice of both sexes showed a strong reduction of preference for saccharin compared to control mice. In contrast, under conditions of limited (4 h) access (light phase of the light/dark cycle), null mutant mice did not show any differences in consumption of saccharin, but they showed significantly reduced intake of sucrose. To determine the possible cause for reduction of ethanol preference and intake, we studied other ethanol-related behaviors in mice lacking the preprodynorphin gene. There were no differences between null mutant and wild-type mice in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, acute ethanol withdrawal, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference, or conditioned taste aversion to ethanol. These results indicate that deletion of preprodynorphin leads to substantial reduction of alcohol intake in female mice, and suggest that this is caused by decreased orosensory reward of alcohol (sweet taste and/or palatability).

  5. Concurrent and robust regulation of feeding behaviors and metabolism by orexin neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inutsuka, Ayumu; Inui, Azusa; Tabuchi, Sawako; Tsunematsu, Tomomi; Lazarus, Michael; Yamanaka, Akihiro

    2014-10-01

    Orexin neurons in the hypothalamus regulate energy homeostasis by coordinating various physiological responses. Past studies have shown the role of the orexin peptide itself; however, orexin neurons contain not only orexin but also other neurotransmitters such as glutamate and dynorphin. In this study, we examined the physiological role of orexin neurons in feeding behavior and metabolism by pharmacogenetic activation and chronic ablation. We generated novel orexin-Cre mice and utilized Cre-dependent adeno-associated virus vectors to express Gq-coupled modified GPCR, hM3Dq or diphtheria toxin fragment A in orexin neurons. By intraperitoneal injection of clozapine-N oxide in orexin-Cre mice expressing hM3Dq in orexin neurons, we could selectively manipulate the activity of orexin neurons. Pharmacogenetic stimulation of orexin neurons simultaneously increased locomotive activity, food intake, water intake and the respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Elevation of blood glucose levels and RER persisted even after locomotion and feeding behaviors returned to basal levels. Accordantly, 83% ablation of orexin neurons resulted in decreased food and water intake, while 70% ablation had almost no effect on these parameters. Our results indicate that orexin neurons play an integral role in regulation of both feeding behavior and metabolism. This regulation is so robust that greater than 80% of orexin neurons were ablated before significant changes in feeding behavior emerged. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The GAD-given Right of Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells to Become GABAergic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Istvan

    2002-01-01

    low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR, perhaps as part of a programmed developmental switch, can convert the phenotype of the sympathetic neuron from noradrenergic to cholinergic 4. Other examples of two fast neurotransmitters released from the same neuron include GABA and glycine in interneurons of the spinal cord 5 and glutamate and dopamine in ventral midbrain dopamine neurons 6. Of all CNS neurons, the granule cells of the dentate gyrus appear to be the champions of neurotransmitter colocalization: glutamate, enkephalin, dynorphin, zinc, and finally GABA 2, 7, 8, 9. With this many transmitters in a single neuron, there are probably different ways in which they can be released. Dynorphin and other opioid peptides can be released directly from the dendrites to inhibit excitatory transmission 8. A similar mechanism may take place for GABA, as described in cortical GABAergic neurons 10. PMID:15309121

  7. Heteromeric ASIC channels composed of ASIC2b and ASIC1a display novel channel properties and contribute to acidosis-induced neuronal death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Thomas W.; Lee, Kirsten G.; Gormley, Matthew G.; Askwith, Candice C.

    2011-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) subunits associate to form homomeric or heteromeric proton-gated ion channels in neurons throughout the nervous system. The ASIC1a subunit plays an important role in establishing the kinetics of proton-gated currents in the central nervous system and activation of ASIC1a homomeric channels induces neuronal death following local acidosis that accompanies cerebral ischemia. The ASIC2b subunit is expressed in the brain in a pattern that overlaps ASIC1a, yet the contribution of ASIC2b has remained elusive. We find that co-expression of ASIC2b with ASIC1a in Xenopus oocytes results in novel proton-gated currents with properties distinct from ASIC1a homomeric channels. In particular, ASIC2b/1a heteromeric channels are inhibited by the non-selective potassium channel blockers tetraethylammonium (TEA) and barium. In addition, steady-state desensitization is induced at more basic pH values and Big Dynorphin sensitivity is enhanced in these unique heteromeric channels. Cultured hippocampal neurons show proton-gated currents consistent with ASIC2b contribution and these currents are lacking in neurons from mice with an ACCN1 (ASIC2) gene disruption. Finally, we find that these ASIC2b/1a heteromeric channels contribute to acidosis-induced neuronal death. Together, our results show that ASIC2b confers unique properties to heteromeric channels in central neurons. Further, these data indicate that ASIC2, like ASIC1, plays a role in acidosis-induced neuronal death and implicate the ASIC2b/1a subtype as a novel pharmacological target to prevent neuronal injury following stroke. PMID:21715637

  8. Affective neuroscientific and neuropsychoanalytic approaches to two intractable psychiatric problems: why depression feels so bad and what addicts really want.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Margaret R; Watt, Douglas F; Solms, Mark; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    The affective foundations of depression and addictions are discussed from a cross-species - animal to human - perspective of translational psychiatric research. Depression is hypothesized to arise from an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to terminate protracted activation of separation-distress (PANIC/GRIEF) systems of the brain, a shutdown mechanism which may be in part mediated by down-regulation of dopamine based reward-SEEKING resources. This shutdown of the brain's core motivational machinery is organized by shifts in multiple peptide systems, particularly increased dynorphin (kappa opioids). Addictions are conceived to be primarily mediated by obsessive behaviors sustained by reward-SEEKING circuits in the case of psychostimulant abuse, and also powerful consummatory-PLEASURE responses in the case of opioid abuse, which in turn capture SEEKING circuits. Both forms of addiction, as well as others, eventually deplete reward-SEEKING resources, leading to a state of dysphoria which can only temporarily be reversed by drugs of abuse, thereby promoting a negative affect that sustains addictive cycles. In other words, the opponent affective process - the dysphoria of diminished SEEKING resources - that can be aroused by sustained over-arousal of separation-distress (PANIC/GRIEF) as well as direct pharmacological over-stimulation and depletion of SEEKING resources, may be a common denominator for the genesis of both depression and addiction. Envisioning the foundation of such psychiatric problems as being in imbalances of the basic mammalian emotional systems that engender prototype affective states may provide more robust translational research strategies, coordinated with, rather than simply focusing on, the underlying molecular dynamics. Emotional vocalizations might be one of the best ways to monitor the underlying affective dynamics in commonly used rodent models of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensing the environment: regulation of local and global homeostasis by the skin's neuroendocrine system.

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    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zbytek, Blazej; Slominski, Radomir M; Steketee, Jeffery D

    2012-01-01

    Skin, the body's largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates, and responds to a diverse range of stressors including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuro-endocrine-immune organ that is tightly networked to central regulatory systems. These capabilities contribute to the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Specifically, epidermal and dermal cells produce and respond to classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and hormones. Such production is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), biological factors (infectious and noninfectious), and other physical and chemical agents. Examples of local biologically active products are cytokines, biogenic amines (catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, and N-acetyl-serotonin), melatonin, acetylocholine, neuropeptides including pituitary (proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH, beta-endorphin or MSH peptides, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and hypothalamic (corticotropin-releasing factor and related urocortins, thyroid-releasing hormone) hormones as well as enkephalins and dynorphins, thyroid hormones, steroids (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, 7-delta steroids), secosteroids, opioids, and endocannabinoids. The production of these molecules is hierarchical, organized along the algorithms of classical neuroendocrine axes such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), hypothalamic-thyroid axis (HPT), serotoninergic, melatoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, steroid/secosteroidogenic, opioid, and endocannbinoid systems. Dysregulation of these axes or of communication between them may lead to skin and/ or systemic diseases. These local neuroendocrine networks are also addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious environmental agents to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. Moreover, the skin-derived factors/systems can also activate cutaneous nerve

  10. nor-BNI Antagonism of Kappa Opioid Agonist-Induced Reinstatement of Ethanol-Seeking Behavior

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    Erin Harshberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests that the dynorphin (DYN/kappa opioid receptor (KOR system may be a key mediator in the behavioral effects of alcohol. The objective of the present study was to examine the ability of the KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI to attenuate relapse to ethanol seeking due to priming injections of the KOR agonist U50,488 at time points consistent with KOR selectivity. Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer a 10% ethanol solution, and then responding was extinguished. Following extinction, rats were injected with U50,488 (0.1–10 mg/kg, i.p. or saline and were tested for the reinstatement of ethanol seeking. Next, the ability of the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (0 or 3.0 mg/kg, s.c. and nor-BNI (0 or 20.0 mg/kg, i.p. to block U50,488-induced reinstatement was examined. Priming injections U50,488 reinstated responding on the previously ethanol-associated lever. Pretreatment with naltrexone reduced the reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behavior. nor-BNI also attenuated KOR agonist-induced reinstatement, but to a lesser extent than naltrexone, when injected 24 hours prior to injections of U50,488, a time point that is consistent with KOR selectivity. While these results suggest that activation of KORs is a key mechanism in the regulation of ethanol-seeking behavior, U50,488-induced reinstatement may not be fully selective for KORs.

  11. Exposure to chronic mild stress prevents kappa opioid-mediated reinstatement of cocaine and nicotine place preference

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    Ream eAl-Hasani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress increases the risk of drug abuse, causes relapse to drug seeking, and potentiates the rewarding properties of both nicotine and cocaine. Understanding the mechanisms by which stress regulates the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse provides valuable insight into potential treatments for drug abuse. Prior reports have demonstrated that stress causes dynorphin release, activating kappa-opioid receptors (KOR in monoamine circuits resulting in both potentiation and reinstatement of cocaine and nicotine conditioned place preference. Here we report that kappa-opioid dependent reinstatement of cocaine and nicotine place preference is reduced when the mice are exposed to a randomized chronic mild stress regime prior to training in a conditioned place preference-reinstatement paradigm. The chronic mild stress schedule involves seven different stressors (removal of nesting for 24hr, 5min forced swim stress at 15°C, 8hr food and water deprivation, damp bedding overnight, white noise, cage tilt and disrupted home cage lighting rotated over a three-week period. This response is KOR-selective, because chronic mild stress does not protect against cocaine or nicotine drug-primed reinstatement. This protection from reinstatement is also observed following sub-chronic social defeat stress, where each mouse is placed in an aggressor mouse home cage for a period of 20 min over five days. In contrast, a single acute stressor resulted in a potentiation of KOR-induced reinstatement, similarly to previously reported. Prior studies have shown that stress alters sensitivity to opioids and prior stress can influence the pharmacodynamics of the opioid receptor system. Together, these findings suggest that exposure to different forms of stress may cause a dysregulation of kappa opioid circuitry and that changes resulting from mild stress can have protective and adaptive effects against drug relapse.

  12. The affective dimension of pain as a risk factor for drug and alcohol addiction.

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    LeBlanc, Dana M; McGinn, M Adrienne; Itoga, Christy A; Edwards, Scott

    2015-12-01

    Addiction, or substance use disorder (SUD), is a devastating psychiatric disease composed of multiple elemental features. As a biobehavioral disorder, escalation of drug and/or alcohol intake is both a cause and consequence of molecular neuroadaptations in central brain reinforcement circuitry. Multiple mesolimbic areas mediate a host of negative affective and motivational symptoms that appear to be central to the addiction process. Brain stress- and reinforcement-related regions such as the central amygdala (CeA), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and nucleus accumbens (NAc) also serve as central processors of ascending nociceptive input. We hypothesize that a sensitization of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of persistent and maladaptive pain contributes to a composite negative affective state to drive the enduring, relapsing nature of addiction, particularly in the case of alcohol and opioid use disorder. At the neurochemical level, pain activates central stress-related neuropeptide signaling, including the dynorphin and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems, and by this process may facilitate negative affect and escalated drug and alcohol use over time. Importantly, the widespread prevalence of unresolved pain and associated affective dysregulation in clinical populations highlights the need for more effective analgesic medications with reduced potential for tolerance and dependence. The burgeoning epidemic of prescription opioid abuse also demands a closer investigation into the neurobiological mechanisms of how pain treatment could potentially represent a significant risk factor for addiction in vulnerable populations. Finally, the continuing convergence of sensory and affective neuroscience fields is expected to generate insight into the critical balance between pain relief and addiction liability, as well as provide more effective therapeutic strategies for chronic pain and addiction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular and genetic substrates linking stress and addiction.

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    Briand, Lisa A; Blendy, Julie A

    2010-02-16

    Drug addiction is one of the top three health concerns in the United States in terms of economic and health care costs. Despite this, there are very few effective treatment options available. Therefore, understanding the causes and molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from casual drug use to compulsive drug addiction could aid in the development of treatment options. Studies in humans and animal models indicate that stress can lead to both vulnerability to develop addiction, and increased drug taking and relapse in addicted individuals. Exposure to stress or drugs of abuse results in long-term adaptations in the brain that are likely to involve persistent alterations in gene expression or activation of transcription factors, such as the cAMP Response Element Binding (CREB) protein. The signaling pathways controlled by CREB have been strongly implicated in drug addiction and stress. Many potential CREB target genes have been identified based on the presence of a CRE element in promoter DNA sequences. These include, but are not limited to CRF, BDNF, and dynorphin. These genes have been associated with initiation or reinstatement of drug reward and are altered in one direction or the other following stress. While many reviews have examined the interactions between stress and addiction, the goal of this review was to focus on specific molecules that play key roles in both stress and addiction and are therefore posed to mediate the interaction between the two. Focus on these molecules could provide us with new targets for pharmacological treatments for addiction. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of nonsmall-cell lung cancer stem cell like cells by neurotransmitters and opioid peptides.

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    Banerjee, Jheelam; Papu John, Arokya M S; Schuller, Hildegard M

    2015-12-15

    Nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading type of lung cancer and has a poor prognosis. We have shown that chronic stress promoted NSCLC xenografts in mice via stress neurotransmitter-activated cAMP signaling downstream of beta-adrenergic receptors and incidental beta-blocker therapy was reported to improve clinical outcomes in NSCLC patients. These findings suggest that psychological stress promotes NSCLC whereas pharmacologically or psychologically induced decreases in cAMP may inhibit NSCLC. Cancer stem cells are thought to drive the development, progression and resistance to therapy of NSCLC. However, their potential regulation by stress neurotransmitters has not been investigated. In the current study, epinephrine increased the number of cancer stem cell like cells (CSCs) from three NSCLC cell lines in spheroid formation assays while enhancing intracellular cAMP and the stem cell markers sonic hedgehog (SHH), aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH-1) and Gli1, effects reversed by GABA or dynorphin B via Gαi -mediated inhibition of cAMP formation. The growth of NSCLC xenografts in a mouse model of stress reduction was significantly reduced as compared with mice maintained under standard conditions. Stress reduction reduced serum levels of corticosterone, norepinephrine and epinephrine while the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and opioid peptides increased. Stress reduction significantly reduced cAMP, VEGF, p-ERK, p-AKT, p-CREB, p-SRc, SHH, ALDH-1 and Gli1 in xenograft tissues whereas cleaved caspase-3 and p53 were induced. We conclude that stress neurotransmitters activate CSCs in NSCLC via multiple cAMP-mediated pathways and that pharmacologically or psychologically induced decreases in cAMP signaling may improve clinical outcomes in NSCLC patients. © 2015 UICC.

  15. Dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer in dual phenotype GABA/glutamate-coexpressing striatal medium spiny neurons: regulation of BDNF, GAD67 and VGLUT1/2.

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    Melissa L Perreault

    Full Text Available In basal ganglia a significant subset of GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs coexpress D1 and D2 receptors (D1R and D2R along with the neuropeptides dynorphin (DYN and enkephalin (ENK. These coexpressing neurons have been recently shown to have a region-specific distribution throughout the mesolimbic and basal ganglia circuits. While the functional relevance of these MSNs remains relatively unexplored, they have been shown to exhibit the unique property of expressing the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer, a novel receptor complex with distinct pharmacology and cell signaling properties. Here we showed that MSNs coexpressing the D1R and D2R also exhibited a dual GABA/glutamate phenotype. Activation of the D1R-D2R heteromer in these neurons resulted in the simultaneous, but differential regulation of proteins involved in GABA and glutamate production or vesicular uptake in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, ventral tegmental area (VTA, caudate putamen and substantia nigra (SN. Additionally, activation of the D1R-D2R heteromer in NAc shell, but not NAc core, differentially altered protein expression in VTA and SN, regions rich in dopamine cell bodies. The identification of a MSN with dual inhibitory and excitatory intrinsic functions provides new insights into the neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia and demonstrates a novel source of glutamate in this circuit. Furthermore, the demonstration of a dopamine receptor complex with the potential to differentially regulate the expression of proteins directly involved in GABAergic inhibitory or glutamatergic excitatory activation in VTA and SN may potentially provide new insights into the regulation of dopamine neuron activity. This could have broad implications in understanding how dysregulation of neurotransmission within basal ganglia contributes to dopamine neuronal dysfunction.

  16. Knockdown of hypocretin attenuates extended access of cocaine self-administration in rats.

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    Schmeichel, Brooke E; Matzeu, Alessandra; Koebel, Pascale; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Sidhu, Harpreet; Shahryari, Roxana; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Koob, George F; Martin-Fardon, Rémi; Contet, Candice

    2018-04-06

    The hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neuropeptide system regulates feeding, arousal state, stress responses, and reward, especially under conditions of enhanced motivational relevance. In particular, HCRT neurotransmission facilitates drug-seeking behavior in circumstances that demand increased effort and/or motivation to take the drug. The present study used a shRNA-encoding adeno-associated viral vector to knockdown Hcrt expression throughout the dorsal hypothalamus in adult rats and determine the role of HCRT in cocaine self-administration. Chronic Hcrt silencing did not impact cocaine self-administration under short-access conditions, but robustly attenuated cocaine intake under extended access conditions, a model that mimics key features of compulsive cocaine taking. In addition, Hcrt silencing decreased motivation for both cocaine and a highly palatable food reward (i.e., sweetened condensed milk; SCM) under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement, but did not alter responding for SCM under a fixed ratio schedule. Importantly, Hcrt silencing did not affect food or water consumption, and had no consequence for general measures of arousal and stress reactivity. At the molecular level, chronic Hcrt knockdown reduced the number of neurons expressing dynorphin (DYN), and to a smaller extent melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), in the dorsal hypothalamus. These original findings support the hypothesis that HCRT neurotransmission promotes operant responding for both drug and non-drug rewards, preferentially under conditions requiring a high degree of motivation. Furthermore, the current study provides compelling evidence for the involvement of the HCRT system in cocaine self-administration also under low-effort conditions in rats allowed extended access, possibly via functional interactions with DYN and MCH signaling.

  17. Emergence of Sex Differences in the Development of Substance Use and Abuse during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Dr. Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Substance use and abuse begins during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse., Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use. PMID:26049025

  18. 20 years of leptin: leptin and reproduction: past milestones, present undertakings, and future endeavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehab, Farid F

    2014-10-01

    The association between leptin and reproduction originated with the leptin-mediated correction of sterility in ob/ob mice and initiation of reproductive function in normal female mice. The uncovering of a central leptin pathway regulating food intake prompted the dissection of neuroendocrine mechanisms involving leptin in the metabolic control of reproduction. The absence of leptin receptors on GnRH neurons incited a search for intermediary neurons situated between leptin-responsive and GnRH neurons. This review addresses the most significant findings that have furthered our understanding of recent progress in this new field. The role of leptin in puberty was impacted by the discovery of neurons that co-express kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin and these could act as leptin intermediates. Furthermore, the identification of first-order leptin-responsive neurons in the premammilary ventral nucleus and other brain regions opens new avenues to explore their relationship to GnRH neurons. Central to these advances is the unveiling that agouti-related protein/neuropeptide Y neurons project onto GnRH and kisspeptin neurons, allowing for a crosstalk between food intake and reproduction. Finally, while puberty is a state of leptin sensitivity, mid-gestation represents a state of leptin resistance aimed at building energy stores to sustain pregnancy and lactation. The mechanisms underlying leptin resistance in pregnancy have lagged; however, the establishment of this natural state is significant. Reproduction and energy balance are tightly controlled and backed up by redundant mechanisms that are critical for the survival of our species. It will be the goal of the following decade to shed new light on these complex and essential pathways. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. Leptin and Reproduction: Past Milestones, Present Undertakings and Future Endeavors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehab, Farid F.

    2014-01-01

    The association between leptin and reproduction originated with the leptin-mediated correction of sterility in ob/ob mice and initiation of reproductive function in normal female mice. The uncovering of a central leptin pathway regulating food intake prompted the dissection of neuroendocrine mechanisms involving leptin in the metabolic control of reproduction. The absence of leptin receptors on GnRH neurons incited a search for intermediary neurons situated between leptin responsive and GnRH neurons. This review addresses the most significant findings that have furthered our understanding of recent progress in this new field. The role of leptin in puberty was impacted by the discovery of neurons that co-express kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin and that could act as leptin intermediates. Furthermore, the identification of first-order leptin-responsive neurons in the premammilary ventral nucleus and other brain regions opens new avenues to explore their relationship to GnRH neurons. Central to these advances is the unveiling that AgRP/NPY neurons project onto GnRH and kisspeptin neurons, allowing a crosstalk between food intake and reproduction. Finally, whereas puberty is a state of leptin sensitivity, mid-gestation represents a state of leptin resistance aimed at building energy stores to sustain pregnancy and lactation. Mechanisms underlying leptin resistance in pregnancy have lagged, however the establishment of this natural state is significant. Reproduction and energy balance are tightly controlled and backed up by redundant mechanisms that are critical for the survival of our species. It will be the goal of the next decade to shed new light on these complex and essential pathways. PMID:25118207

  20. Resting-state functional connectivity of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in post-traumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype.

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    Rabellino, Daniela; Densmore, Maria; Harricharan, Sherain; Jean, Théberge; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2018-03-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BNST) is a subcortical structure involved in anticipatory and sustained reactivity to threat and is thus essential to the understanding of anxiety and stress responses. Although chronic stress and anxiety represent a hallmark of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to date, few studies have examined the functional connectivity of the BNST in PTSD. Here, we used resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to investigate the functional connectivity of the BNST in PTSD (n = 70), its dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS) (n = 41), and healthy controls (n = 50). In comparison to controls, PTSD showed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with regions of the reward system (ventral and dorsal striatum), possibly underlying stress-induced reward-seeking behaviors in PTSD. By contrast, comparing PTSD + DS to controls, we observed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with the claustrum, a brain region implicated in consciousness and a primary site of kappa-opioid receptors, which are critical to the dynorphin-mediated dysphoric stress response. Moreover, PTSD + DS showed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with brain regions involved in attention and salience detection (anterior insula and caudate nucleus) as compared to PTSD and controls. Finally, BNST functional connectivity positively correlated with default-mode network regions as a function of state identity dissociation, suggesting a role of BNST networks in the disruption of self-relevant processing characterizing the dissociative subtype. These findings represent an important first step in elucidating the role of the BNST in aberrant functional networks underlying PTSD and its dissociative subtype. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Kisspeptin and Metabolism: The Brain and Beyond

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    Monika Dudek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the well-established role of kisspeptin (Kp in the regulation of reproductive functions, recent data described its action in the control of metabolism. Of particular interest for the review is the population of Kp neurons localized in the arcuate nucleus (ARC of the hypothalamus, the site of the brain where reproductive and metabolic cross talk occurs. However, within the hypothalamus Kp does not work alone, but rather interacts with other neuropeptides, e.g., neurokinin B, dynorphin A, proopiomelanocortin, the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, agouti-related peptide, and neuropeptide Y. Beyond the brain, Kp is expressed in peripheral tissues involved in metabolic functions. In this review, we will mainly focus on the local action of this peptide in peripheral organs such as the pancreas, liver, and the adipose tissue. We will concentrate on dysregulation of the Kp system in cases of metabolic imbalance, e.g., obesity and diabetes. Importantly, these patients besides metabolic health problems often suffer from disruptions of the reproductive system, manifested by abnormalities in menstrual cycles, premature child birth, miscarriages in women, decreased testosterone levels and spermatogenesis in men, hypogonadism, and infertility. We will review the evidence from animal models and clinical data indicating that Kp could serve as a promising agent with clinical applications in regulation of reproductive problems in individuals with obesity and diabetes. Finally, emerging data indicate a role of Kp in regulation of insulin secretion, potentially leading to development of further therapeutic uses of this peptide to treat metabolic problems in patients with these lifestyle diseases.

  2. Kisspeptin and Metabolism: The Brain and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Monika; Ziarniak, Kamil; Sliwowska, Joanna H

    2018-01-01

    Apart from the well-established role of kisspeptin (Kp) in the regulation of reproductive functions, recent data described its action in the control of metabolism. Of particular interest for the review is the population of Kp neurons localized in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus, the site of the brain where reproductive and metabolic cross talk occurs. However, within the hypothalamus Kp does not work alone, but rather interacts with other neuropeptides, e.g., neurokinin B, dynorphin A, proopiomelanocortin, the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, agouti-related peptide, and neuropeptide Y. Beyond the brain, Kp is expressed in peripheral tissues involved in metabolic functions. In this review, we will mainly focus on the local action of this peptide in peripheral organs such as the pancreas, liver, and the adipose tissue. We will concentrate on dysregulation of the Kp system in cases of metabolic imbalance, e.g., obesity and diabetes. Importantly, these patients besides metabolic health problems often suffer from disruptions of the reproductive system, manifested by abnormalities in menstrual cycles, premature child birth, miscarriages in women, decreased testosterone levels and spermatogenesis in men, hypogonadism, and infertility. We will review the evidence from animal models and clinical data indicating that Kp could serve as a promising agent with clinical applications in regulation of reproductive problems in individuals with obesity and diabetes. Finally, emerging data indicate a role of Kp in regulation of insulin secretion, potentially leading to development of further therapeutic uses of this peptide to treat metabolic problems in patients with these lifestyle diseases.

  3. Dehydration-induced modulation of κ-opioid inhibition of vasopressin neurone activity

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    Scott, Victoria; Bishop, Valerie R; Leng, Gareth; Brown, Colin H

    2009-01-01

    Dehydration increases vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) secretion from the posterior pituitary gland to reduce water loss in the urine. Vasopressin secretion is determined by action potential firing in vasopressin neurones, which can exhibit continuous, phasic (alternating periods of activity and silence), or irregular activity. Autocrine κ-opioid inhibition contributes to the generation of activity patterning of vasopressin neurones under basal conditions and so we used in vivo extracellular single unit recording to test the hypothesis that changes in autocrine κ-opioid inhibition drive changes in activity patterning of vasopressin neurones during dehydration. Dehydration increased the firing rate of rat vasopressin neurones displaying continuous activity (from 7.1 ± 0.5 to 9.0 ± 0.6 spikes s−1) and phasic activity (from 4.2 ± 0.7 to 7.8 ± 0.9 spikes s−1), but not those displaying irregular activity. The dehydration-induced increase in phasic activity was via an increase in intraburst firing rate. The selective κ-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine increased the firing rate of phasic neurones in non-dehydrated rats (from 3.4 ± 0.8 to 5.3 ± 0.6 spikes s−1) and dehydrated rats (from 6.4 ± 0.5 to 9.1 ± 1.2 spikes s−1), indicating that κ-opioid feedback inhibition of phasic bursts is maintained during dehydration. In a separate series of experiments, prodynorphin mRNA expression was increased in vasopressin neurones of hyperosmotic rats, compared to hypo-osmotic rats. Hence, it appears that dynorphin expression in vasopressin neurones undergoes dynamic changes in proportion to the required secretion of vasopressin so that, even under stimulated conditions, autocrine feedback inhibition of vasopressin neurones prevents over-excitation. PMID:19822541

  4. Role of Endogenous Opioid System in Ischemic-Induced Late Preconditioning.

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    Jan Fraessdorf

    Full Text Available Opioid receptors (OR are involved in myocardial late preconditioning (LPC induced by morphine and δ1-opioid receptor (δ1-OR agonists. The role of OR in ischemic-induced LPC is unknown. We investigated whether 1 OR are involved in the trigger and/or mediation phase of LPC and 2 a time course effect on the expression of different opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands exists.Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups (each group n = 8. Awake animals were ischemic preconditioned by a 5 minutes coronary occlusion. 24 hours later, anesthetized animals underwent 25 minutes coronary occlusion followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. The role of OR was investigated by treatment with intraperitoneal naloxone (Nal 10 minutes prior to LPC (Nal-LPC; trigger phase or 10 min prior to sustained ischemia (LPC-Nal; mediation phase.LPC reduced infarct size from 61±10% in controls to 25±9% (P<0.001. Naloxone during trigger or mediation phase completely abolished LPC-induced cardioprotection (59±9% and 62±9%; P<0.001 vs. LPC. 8, 12 and 24 hours after the ischemic stimulus, expression of δ-OR in the heart was increased, whereas μ-opioid receptor (μ-OR and κ-opioid receptor (κ-OR were not. Plasma concentrations of β-endorphin and leu-enkephalin but not dynorphin were increased by LPC.Ischemic LPC is triggererd and mediated by OR. Expression of δ-OR and plasma levels of endogenous opioid peptides are increased after ischemic LPC.

  5. Neuropeptide levels in Dercum's disease (adiposis dolorosa

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    H. Brorson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dercum’s disease (adiposis dolorosa is characterised by adiposity and chronic pain in the adipose tissue. It has been proposed that conditions encompassing chronic pain have altered concentrations of neuropeptides involved in pain transmission. The aim of this investigation was to examine whether patients with Dercum’s disease have abnormal concentrations of different neuropeptides. In cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and in plasma (P from 53 patients with Dercum’s disease substance P-like immunoreactivity (SP-LI, neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI, b-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (b-END-LI, calcitonin gene-related peptidelike immunoreactivity (CGRP-LI, met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity (m-ENK-LI, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI, somatostatin (SOM-LI, g2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-like immunoreactivity (g2-MSH-LI, and dynorphin-like immunoreactivity (DYN-LI were measured. Three of the substances were also measured in a control group. The CSF concentration of SP was statistically significantly lower in the Dercum group than in the control group, whereas NPY-LI and b-END-LI were borderline statistically significantly lower and higher, respectively, in Dercum patients compared to controls. Compared with reference values, CSF-MSH-LI levels were slightly elevated and CSF-NPY-LI levels were slightly lowered in the Dercum group. The other substances in both CSF and plasma were within the reference values with a high degree of statistical significance. In conclusion, altered levels of neuropeptides that have previously been seen in different pain conditions cannot clearly be demonstrated in Dercum’s disease.

  6. Concomitant duplications of opioid peptide and receptor genes before the origin of jawed vertebrates.

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    Görel Sundström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The opioid system is involved in reward and pain mechanisms and consists in mammals of four receptors and several peptides. The peptides are derived from four prepropeptide genes, PENK, PDYN, PNOC and POMC, encoding enkephalins, dynorphins, orphanin/nociceptin and beta-endorphin, respectively. Previously we have described how two rounds of genome doubling (2R before the origin of jawed vertebrates formed the receptor family. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Opioid peptide gene family members were investigated using a combination of sequence-based phylogeny and chromosomal locations of the peptide genes in various vertebrates. Several adjacent gene families were investigated similarly. The results show that the ancestral peptide gene gave rise to two additional copies in the genome doublings. The fourth member was generated by a local gene duplication, as the genes encoding POMC and PNOC are located on the same chromosome in the chicken genome and all three teleost genomes that we have studied. A translocation has disrupted this synteny in mammals. The PDYN gene seems to have been lost in chicken, but not in zebra finch. Duplicates of some peptide genes have arisen in the teleost fishes. Within the prepropeptide precursors, peptides have been lost or gained in different lineages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ancestral peptide and receptor genes were located on the same chromosome and were thus duplicated concomitantly. However, subsequently genetic linkage has been lost. In conclusion, the system of opioid peptides and receptors was largely formed by the genome doublings that took place early in vertebrate evolution.

  7. Desipramine and citalopram attenuate pretest swim-induced increases in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala in the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sun Hye; Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2014-10-01

    Dynorphin in the nucleus accumbens shell plays an important role in antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST), but it is unclear whether desipramine and citalopram treatments alter prodynorphin levels in other brain areas. To explore this possibility, we injected mice with desipramine and citalopram 0.5, 19, and 23 h after a 15-min pretest swim and observed changes in prodynorphin expression before the test swim, which was conducted 24 h after the pretest swim. The pretest swim increased prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST) and lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeL). This increase in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dBNST and CeL was blocked by desipramine and citalopram treatments. Similar changes in prodynorphin mRNA levels were observed in the dBNST and CeL, but these changes did not reach significance. To understand the underlying mechanism, we assessed changes in phosphorylated CREB at Ser(133) (pCREB) immunoreactivity in the dBNST and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Treatment with citalopram but not desipramine after the pretest swim significantly increased pCREB immunoreactivity only in the dBNST. These results suggest that regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeL before the test swim may be involved in the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine and citalopram in the FST and suggest that changes in pCREB immunoreactivity in these areas may not play an important role in the regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reacquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference and its inhibition by previous social interaction preferentially affect D1-medium spiny neurons in the accumbens corridor.

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    Prast, Janine M; Schardl, Aurelia; Schwarzer, Christoph; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    We investigated if counterconditioning with dyadic (i.e., one-to-one) social interaction, a strong inhibitor of the subsequent reacquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP), differentially modulates the activity of the diverse brain regions oriented along a mediolateral corridor reaching from the interhemispheric sulcus to the anterior commissure, i.e., the nucleus of the vertical limb of the diagonal band, the medial septal nucleus, the major island of Calleja, the intermediate part of the lateral septal nucleus, and the medial accumbens shell and core. We also investigated the involvement of the lateral accumbens core and the dorsal caudate putamen. The anterior cingulate 1 (Cg1) region served as a negative control. Contrary to our expectations, we found that all regions of the accumbens corridor showed increased expression of the early growth response protein 1 (EGR1, Zif268) in rats 2 h after reacquisition of CPP for cocaine after a history of cocaine CPP acquisition and extinction. Previous counterconditioning with dyadic social interaction inhibited both the reacquisition of cocaine CPP and the activation of the whole accumbens corridor. EGR1 activation was predominantly found in dynorphin-labeled cells, i.e., presumably D1 receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs), with D2-MSNs (immunolabeled with an anti-DRD2 antibody) being less affected. Cholinergic interneurons or GABAergic interneurons positive for parvalbumin, neuropeptide Y or calretinin were not involved in these CPP-related EGR1 changes. Glial cells did not show any EGR1 expression either. The present findings could be of relevance for the therapy of impaired social interaction in substance use disorders, depression, psychosis, and autism spectrum disorders.

  9. Long-Term Recordings of Arcuate Nucleus Kisspeptin Neurons Reveal Patterned Activity That Is Modulated by Gonadal Steroids in Male Mice.

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    Vanacker, Charlotte; Moya, Manuel Ricu; DeFazio, R Anthony; Johnson, Michael L; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2017-10-01

    Pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is key to fertility. Pulse frequency is modulated by gonadal steroids and likely arises subsequent to coordination of GnRH neuron firing activity. The source of rhythm generation and the site of steroid feedback remain critical unanswered questions. Arcuate neurons that synthesize kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (KNDy) may be involved in both of these processes. We tested the hypotheses that action potential firing in KNDy neurons is episodic and that gonadal steroids regulate this pattern. Targeted extracellular recordings were made of green fluorescent protein-identified KNDy neurons in brain slices from adult male mice that were intact, castrated, or castrated and treated with estradiol or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). KNDy neurons exhibited marked peaks and nadirs in action potential firing activity during recordings lasting 1 to 3.5 hours. Peaks, identified by Cluster analysis, occurred more frequently in castrated than intact mice, and either estradiol or DHT in vivo or blocking neurokinin type 3 receptor in vitro restored peak frequency to intact levels. The frequency of peaks in firing rate and estradiol regulation of this frequency is similar to that observed for GnRH neurons, whereas DHT suppressed firing in KNDy but not GnRH neurons. We further examined the patterning of action potentials to identify bursts that may be associated with increased neuromodulator release. Burst frequency and duration are increased in castrated compared with intact and steroid-treated mice. The observation that KNDy neurons fire in an episodic manner that is regulated by steroid feedback is consistent with a role for these neurons in GnRH pulse generation and regulation. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  10. Addiction and depression comorbidity approaches

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    Crnić Katarina A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic: Comorbidities, simultaneous occurrence of two or more disorders are common in psychiatry; therefore the concept of dual diagnosis was established due to new ethiopatogenetic dilemmas and principles of diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. The most common are comorbid affective disorders and comorbidity of drug addictions and affective disorders. Topic position in medical public: Epidemiological studies show a high percentage of comorbidity of drug addictions and depression. Various studies show that about one-third of individuals with depression have addiction, and often some other psychiatric disorders are present, such as personality disorder, anxiety, and bipolar affective disorder. Comorbid disorders exacerbate one another; have tendencies to chronicity and treatment resistance. The problem of adequate diagnosis is common; other diagnosis is neglected, leading to inadequate treatment and poor outcomes. Researches of possible causes of addiction and depression comorbidity follow different theoretical assumptions. One favor genetically determined vulnerability, the others are addressing to the impact of trauma in the formative stages of personality development. Widespread is the theoretical assumption on the deficit functioning of the same regions of the CNS and the same neurotransmitters system. In previous studies the preclinical ones dominate, which are theoretically placed in the context of the CNS of a man. Most of the research are related to dysfunction of the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, whose influence on addiction and depression are clear, and recent studies show the importance of neuromodulators and their receptors, for example, the role of natural opioid dynorphin and 'kappa' receptors in the mesolimbic reward system. Further action: The better diagnosis would require proper screening of patients entering addiction treatments for affective disorders and vice versa. Treatment have to be combined; in addition

  11. Phasic firing in vasopressin cells: understanding its functional significance through computational models.

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    Duncan J MacGregor

    Full Text Available Vasopressin neurons, responding to input generated by osmotic pressure, use an intrinsic mechanism to shift from slow irregular firing to a distinct phasic pattern, consisting of long bursts and silences lasting tens of seconds. With increased input, bursts lengthen, eventually shifting to continuous firing. The phasic activity remains asynchronous across the cells and is not reflected in the population output signal. Here we have used a computational vasopressin neuron model to investigate the functional significance of the phasic firing pattern. We generated a concise model of the synaptic input driven spike firing mechanism that gives a close quantitative match to vasopressin neuron spike activity recorded in vivo, tested against endogenous activity and experimental interventions. The integrate-and-fire based model provides a simple physiological explanation of the phasic firing mechanism involving an activity-dependent slow depolarising afterpotential (DAP generated by a calcium-inactivated potassium leak current. This is modulated by the slower, opposing, action of activity-dependent dendritic dynorphin release, which inactivates the DAP, the opposing effects generating successive periods of bursting and silence. Model cells are not spontaneously active, but fire when perturbed by random perturbations mimicking synaptic input. We constructed one population of such phasic neurons, and another population of similar cells but which lacked the ability to fire phasically. We then studied how these two populations differed in the way that they encoded changes in afferent inputs. By comparison with the non-phasic population, the phasic population responds linearly to increases in tonic synaptic input. Non-phasic cells respond to transient elevations in synaptic input in a way that strongly depends on background activity levels, phasic cells in a way that is independent of background levels, and show a similar strong linearization of the response

  12. Increased presynaptic regulation of dopamine neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens core following chronic ethanol self-administration in female macaques

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    Siciliano, Cody A.; Calipari, Erin S.; Yorgason, Jordan T.; Lovinger, David M.; Mateo, Yolanda; Jimenez, Vanessa A.; Helms, Christa M.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Jones, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Hypofunction of striatal dopamine neurotransmission, or hypodopaminergia, is a consequence of excessive ethanol use, and is hypothesized to be a critical component of alcoholism, driving alcohol intake in an attempt to restore dopamine levels; however, the neurochemical mechanisms involved in these dopaminergic deficiencies are unknown. Objective Here we examined the specific dopaminergic adaptations that produce hypodopaminergia and contribute to alcohol use disorders using direct, sub-second measurements of dopamine signaling in nonhuman primates following chronic ethanol self-administration. Methods Female rhesus macaques completed one year of daily (22 hr/day) ethanol self-administration. Subsequently, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used in nucleus accumbens core brain slices to determine alterations in dopamine terminal function, including release and uptake kinetics, and sensitivity to quinpirole (D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist) and U50,488 (kappa-opioid receptor agonist) induced inhibition of dopamine release. Results Ethanol drinking greatly increased uptake rates, which were positively correlated with lifetime ethanol intake. Furthermore, the sensitivity of dopamine D2/D3 autoreceptors and kappa-opioid receptors, which both act as negative regulators of presynaptic dopamine release, were moderately and robustly enhanced in ethanol drinkers. Conclusions Greater uptake rates and sensitivity to D2-type autoreceptor and kappa-opioid receptor agonists could converge to drive a hypodopaminergic state, characterized by reduced basal dopamine and an inability to mount appropriate dopaminergic responses to salient stimuli. Together, we outline the specific alterations to dopamine signaling that may drive ethanol-induced hypofunction of the dopamine system, and suggest that the dopamine and dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor systems may be efficacious pharmcotherapeutic targets in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. PMID:26892380

  13. Regulatory interactions of stress and reward on rat forebrain opioidergic and GABAergic circuitry.

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    Christiansen, A M; Herman, J P; Ulrich-Lai, Y M

    2011-03-01

    Palatable food intake reduces stress responses, suggesting that individuals may consume such ?comfort? food as self-medication for stress relief. The mechanism by which palatable foods provide stress relief is not known, but likely lies at the intersection of forebrain reward and stress regulatory circuits. Forebrain opioidergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid ergic signaling is critical for both reward and stress regulation, suggesting that these systems are prime candidates for mediating stress relief by palatable foods. Thus, the present study (1) determines how palatable ?comfort? food alters stress-induced changes in the mRNA expression of inhibitory neurotransmitters in reward and stress neurocircuitry and (2) identifies candidate brain regions that may underlie comfort food-mediated stress reduction. We used a model of palatable ?snacking? in combination with a model of chronic variable stress followed by in situ hybridization to determine forebrain levels of pro-opioid and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA. The data identify regions within the extended amygdala, striatum, and hypothalamus as potential regions for mediating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis buffering following palatable snacking. Specifically, palatable snacking alone decreased pro-enkephalin-A (ENK) mRNA expression in the anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the nucleus accumbens, and decreased GAD65 mRNA in the posterior BST. Chronic stress alone increased ENK mRNA in the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus; increased dynorphin mRNA in the nucleus accumbens; increased GAD65 mRNA in the anterior hypothalamus and BST; and decreased GAD65 mRNA in the dorsal hypothalamus. Importantly, palatable food intake prevented stress-induced gene expression changes in subregions of the hypothalamus, BST, and nucleus accumbens. Overall, these data suggest that complex interactions exist between brain reward and stress pathways and that palatable snacking can

  14. Gram-Negative Bacterial Sensors for Eukaryotic Signal Molecules

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    Olivier Lesouhaitier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ample evidence exists showing that eukaryotic signal molecules synthesized and released by the host can activate the virulence of opportunistic pathogens. The sensitivity of prokaryotes to host signal molecules requires the presence of bacterial sensors. These prokaryotic sensors, or receptors, have a double function: stereospecific recognition in a complex environment and transduction of the message in order to initiate bacterial physiological modifications. As messengers are generally unable to freely cross the bacterial membrane, they require either the presence of sensors anchored in the membrane or transporters allowing direct recognition inside the bacterial cytoplasm. Since the discovery of quorum sensing, it was established that the production of virulence factors by bacteria is tightly growth-phase regulated. It is now obvious that expression of bacterial virulence is also controlled by detection of the eukaryotic messengers released in the micro-environment as endocrine or neuro-endocrine modulators. In the presence of host physiological stress many eukaryotic factors are released and detected by Gram-negative bacteria which in return rapidly adapt their physiology. For instance, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can bind elements of the host immune system such as interferon-γ and dynorphin and then through quorum sensing circuitry enhance its virulence. Escherichia coli sensitivity to the neurohormones of the catecholamines family appears relayed by a recently identified bacterial adrenergic receptor. In the present review, we will describe the mechanisms by which various eukaryotic signal molecules produced by host may activate Gram-negative bacteria virulence. Particular attention will be paid to Pseudomonas, a genus whose representative species, P. aeruginosa, is a common opportunistic pathogen. The discussion will be particularly focused on the pivotal role played by these new types of pathogen sensors from the sensing to the transduction

  15. Influence of sex and genetic background on anxiety-related and stress-induced behaviour of prodynorphin-deficient mice.

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    Iris Kastenberger

    Full Text Available The role of dynorphin/kappa opioid receptors in epilepsy and addiction are well accepted, but their function in emotional control is not yet fully understood. Data obtained from different strains of prodynorphin (Pdyn- and kappa opioid receptor (KOP-deficient mice do not provide a consistent picture of the functions of Dyn/KOP in anxiety, suggesting the influence of testing conditions and/or genetic background. Therefore, we investigated the behaviour and neurochemistry of male and female Pdyn KO mice on the balb/c and C57Bl/6N background. Consistent with our results obtained from male mice on the C57bl/6N background, we observed a less anxious phenotype in the elevated plus maze, open-field and light-dark test in male mice on the balb/c background. Female mice on the balb/c background also displayed less anxiety like behaviour; however these data reflect high trait anxiety and inter-individual differences. In contrast, female mice on the C57Bl/6N background displayed low trait anxiety and a paradigm-dependent reduction of anxiety. No differences were observed in the forced swim test, while balb/c Pdyn KO mice displayed prolonged immobility in the tail suspension test. In line with our previous results, we observed reduced CRH mRNA in the central amygdala in all groups of mice. In contrast, the recently observed CRH mRNA reduction in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus appears restricted to male, but not female mice. Our data support previous data suggesting a pronounced impact of endogenous prodynorphin-derived peptides on anxiety. Moreover, our data support the idea that the less anxious phenotype manifests only at elevated stress levels.

  16. Interaction of trimebutine and Jo-1196 (fedotozine) with opioid receptors in the canine ileum

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    Allescher, H.D.; Ahmad, S.; Classen, M.; Daniel, E.E. (Technical Univ., Munich, (West Germany))

    1991-05-01

    Receptor binding of the opioid receptor antagonist, ({sup 3}H)diprenorphine, which has a similar affinity to the various opioid receptor subtypes, was characterized in subcellular fractions derived from either longitudinal or circular smooth muscle of the canine small intestine with their plexuses (myenteric plexus and deep muscular plexus, respectively) attached. The distribution of opioid binding activity showed a good correlation in the different fractions with the binding of the neuronal marker ({sup 3}H)saxitoxin but no correlation to the smooth muscle plasma membrane marker 5'-nucleotidase. The saturation data (Kd = 0.12 +/- 0.04 nM and maximum binding = 400 +/- 20 fmol/mg) and the data from kinetic experiments (Kd = 0.08 nmol) in the myenteric plexus were in good agreement with results obtained previously from the circular muscle/deep muscular plexus preparation. Competition experiments using selective drugs for mu (morphiceptin-analog (N-MePhe3-D-Pro4)-morphiceptin), delta (D-Pen2,5-enkephalin) and kappa (dynorphin 1-13, U50488-H) ligands showed the existence of all three receptor subtypes. The existence of kappa receptors was confirmed in saturation experiments using ({sup 3}H) ethylketocycloazocine as labeled ligand. Two putative opioid agonists, with effects on gastrointestinal motility, trimebutine and JO-1196 (fedotozin), were also examined. Trimebutine (Ki = 0.18 microM), Des-Met-trimebutine (Ki = 0.72 microM) and Jo-1196 (Ki = 0.19 microM) displaced specific opiate binding. The relative affinity for the opioid receptor subtypes was mu = 0.44, delta = 0.30 and kappa = 0.26 for trimebutine and mu = 0.25, delta = 0.22 and kappa = 0.52 for Jo-1196.

  17. Discrete mapping of brain Mu and delta opioid receptors using selective peptides: Quantitative autoradiography, species differences and comparison with kappa receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, N.A.; Hughes, J. (Addenbrookes Hospital Site, Cambridge (England))

    1989-05-01

    The opioid peptides, (3H)DAGO and (3H)DPDPE, bound to rat and guinea pig brain homogenates with a high, nanomolar affinity and to a high density of mu and delta receptors, respectively. (3H)DAGO binding to mu receptors was competitively inhibited by unlabelled opioids with the following rank order of potency: DAGO greater than morphine greater than DADLE greater than naloxone greater than etorphine much greater than U50488 much greater than DPDPE. In contrast, (3H)DPDPE binding to delta receptors was inhibited by compounds with the following rank order of potency: DPDPE greater than DADLE greater than etorphine greater than dynorphin(1-8) greater than naloxone much greater than U50488 much greater than DAGO. These profiles were consistent with specific labelling of the mu and delta opioid receptors, respectively. In vitro autoradiographic techniques coupled with computer-assisted image analyses revealed a discrete but differential anatomical localization of mu and delta receptors in the rat and guinea pig brain. In general, mu and delta receptor density in the rat exceeded that in the guinea pig brain and differed markedly from that of kappa receptors in these species. However, while mu receptors were distributed throughout the brain with hotspots in the fore-, mid- and hindbrain of the two rodents, the delta sites were relatively diffusely distributed, and were mainly concentrated in the forebrain with particularly high levels within the olfactory bulb (OB), n. accumbens and striatum. Notable regions of high density of mu receptors in the rat and guinea pig brain were the accessory olfactory bulb, striatal patches and streaks, amygdaloid nuclei, ventral hippocampal subiculum and dentate gyrus, numerous thalamic nuclei, geniculate bodies, central grey, superior and inferior colliculi, solitary and pontine nuclei and s. nigra.

  18. Gender-specific association of functional prodynorphin 68 bp repeats with cannabis exposure in an African American cohort.

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    Yuferov, Vadim; Butelman, Eduardo R; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2018-01-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) cause substantial neuropsychiatric morbidity and comorbidity. There is evidence for gender-based differences in CUDs, for instance, a greater prevalence in males than in females. The main active component of cannabis is delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), a partial agonist of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor. Preclinical studies show that genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the kappa opioid receptor/dynorphin system modulates the effects of delta 9-THC. In this case-control study of adult African Americans (n=476; 206 females, 270 males), we examined the association of the functional prodynorphin 68 bp ( PDYN 68 bp) promoter repeats with categorical diagnoses of cannabis dependence ( Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria), as well as with a rapid dimensional measure of maximum lifetime cannabis exposure (the Kreek-McHugh-Schluger-Kellogg cannabis scale). The PDYN 68 bp genotype (examined as short-short [SS], short-long [SL], or long-long [LL], based on the number of repeats) was not significantly associated with categorical cannabis-dependence diagnoses, either in males or in females. However, in males, the PDYN 68 bp SS+SL genotype was associated with both greater odds of any use of cannabis ( p cannabis use, compared to the LL genotype (ie, 15 versus 16.5 years of age; p cannabis, compared to the LL group ( p cannabis. Overall, this study shows that PDYN 68 bp polymorphisms affect behaviors involved in early stages of nonmedical cannabis use and potentially lead to increasing self-exposure. These data may eventually lead to improvements in personalized medicine for the prevention and treatment of highly prevalent CUDs and neuropsychiatric comorbidities.

  19. Salvinorin-A Induces Intense Dissociative Effects, Blocking External Sensory Perception and Modulating Interoception and Sense of Body Ownership in Humans.

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    Maqueda, Ana Elda; Valle, Marta; Addy, Peter H; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Puntes, Montserrat; Coimbra, Jimena; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Garrido, Maite; González, Mireia; Claramunt, Judit; Barker, Steven; Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R; Riba, Jordi

    2015-06-05

    Salvinorin-A is a terpene with agonist properties at the kappa-opioid receptor, the binding site of endogenous dynorphins. Salvinorin-A is found in Salvia divinorum, a psychoactive plant traditionally used by the Mazatec people of Oaxaca, Mexico, for medicinal and spiritual purposes. Previous studies with the plant and salvinorin-A have reported psychedelic-like changes in perception, but also unusual changes in body awareness and detachment from external reality. Here we comprehensively studied the profiles of subjective effects of increasing doses of salvinorin-A in healthy volunteers, with a special emphasis on interoception. A placebo and three increasing doses of vaporized salvinorin-A (0.25, 0.50, and 1mg) were administered to eight healthy volunteers with previous experience in the use of psychedelics. Drug effects were assessed using a battery of questionnaires that included, among others, the Hallucinogen Rating Scale, the Altered States of Consciousness, and a new instrument that evaluates different aspects of body awareness: the Multidimensional Assessment for Interoceptive Awareness. Salvinorin-A led to a disconnection from external reality, induced elaborate visions and auditory phenomena, and modified interoception. The lower doses increased somatic sensations, but the highest dose led to a sense of a complete loss of contact with the body. Salvinorin-A induced intense psychotropic effects characterized by a dose-dependent gating of external audio-visual information and an inverted-U dose-response effect on body awareness. These results suggest a prominent role for the kappa opioid receptor in the regulation of sensory perception, interoception, and the sense of body ownership in humans. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  20. A monomeric variant of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE loses its regulatory properties.

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    Eun Suk Song

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE is a key enzyme in the metabolism of both insulin and amyloid beta peptides. IDE is unique in that it is subject to allosteric activation which is hypothesized to occur through an oligomeric structure.IDE is known to exist as an equilibrium mixture of monomers, dimers, and higher oligomers, with the dimer being the predominant form. Based on the crystal structure of IDE we deleted the putative dimer interface in the C-terminal region, which resulted in a monomeric variant. Monomeric IDE retained enzymatic activity, however instead of the allosteric behavior seen with wild type enzyme it displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetic behavior. With the substrate Abz-GGFLRKHGQ-EDDnp, monomeric IDE retained approximately 25% of the wild type activity. In contrast with the larger peptide substrates beta-endorphin and amyloid beta peptide 1-40, monomeric IDE retained only 1 to 0.25% of wild type activity. Unlike wild type IDE neither bradykinin nor dynorphin B-9 activated the monomeric variant of the enzyme. Similarly, monomeric IDE was not activated by polyphosphates under conditions in which the activity of wild type enzyme was increased more than 50 fold.These findings serve to establish the dimer interface in IDE and demonstrate the requirement for an oligomeric form of the enzyme for its regulatory properties. The data support a mechanism where the binding of activators to oligomeric IDE induces a conformational change that cannot occur in the monomeric variant. Since a conformational change from a closed to a more open structure is likely the rate-determining step in the IDE reaction, the subunit induced conformational change likely shifts the structure of the oligomeric enzyme to a more open conformation.

  1. CXCL10 Controls Inflammatory Pain via Opioid Peptide-Containing Macrophages in Electroacupuncture

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    Wang, Ying; Gehringer, Rebekka; Mousa, Shaaban A.; Hackel, Dagmar; Brack, Alexander; Rittner, Heike L.

    2014-01-01

    Acupuncture is widely used for pain treatment in patients with osteoarthritis or low back pain, but molecular mechanisms remain largely enigmatic. In the early phase of inflammation neutrophilic chemokines direct opioid-containing neutrophils in the inflamed tissue and stimulate opioid peptide release and antinociception. In this study the molecular pathway and neuroimmune connections in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced hind paw inflammation and electroacupuncture for peripheral pain control were analyzed. Free moving Wistar rats with hind paw inflammation were treated twice with electroacupuncture at GB30 (Huan Tiao - gall bladder meridian) (day 0 and 1) and analyzed for mechanical and thermal nociceptive thresholds. The cytokine profiles as well as the expression of opioid peptides were quantified in the inflamed paw. Electroacupuncture elicited long-term antinociception blocked by local injection of anti-opioid peptide antibodies (beta-endorphin, met-enkephalin, dynorphin A). The treatment altered the cytokine profile towards an anti-inflammatory pattern but augmented interferon (IFN)-gamma and the chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10: interferon gamma-inducible protein) protein and mRNA expression with concomitant increased numbers of opioid peptide-containing CXCR3+ macrophages. In rats with CFA hind paw inflammation without acupuncture repeated injection of CXCL10 triggered opioid-mediated antinociception and increase opioid-containing macrophages. Conversely, neutralization of CXCL10 time-dependently decreased electroacupuncture-induced antinociception and the number of infiltrating opioid peptide-expressing CXCR3+ macrophages. In summary, we describe a novel function of the chemokine CXCL10 - as a regulator for an increase of opioid-containing macrophages and antinociceptive mediator in inflammatory pain and as a key chemokine regulated by electroacupuncture. PMID:24732949

  2. Long-term antagonism of κ opioid receptors prevents escalation of and increased motivation for heroin intake.

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    Schlosburg, Joel E; Whitfield, Timothy W; Park, Paula E; Crawford, Elena F; George, Olivier; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Koob, George F

    2013-12-04

    The abuse of opioid drugs, both illicit and prescription, is a persistent problem in the United States, accounting for >1.2 million users who require treatment each year. Current treatments rely on suppressing immediate withdrawal symptoms and replacing illicit drug use with long-acting opiate drugs. However, the mechanisms that lead to preventing opiate dependence are still poorly understood. We hypothesized that κ opioid receptor (KOR) activation during chronic opioid intake contributes to negative affective states associated with withdrawal and the motivation to take increasing amounts of heroin. Using a 12 h long-access model of heroin self-administration, rats showed escalation of heroin intake over several weeks. This was prevented by a single high dose (30 mg/kg) of the long-acting KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI), paralleled by reduced motivation to respond for heroin on a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement, a measure of compulsive-like responding. Systemic nor-BNI also significantly decreased heroin withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior. Immunohistochemical analysis showed prodynorphin content increased in the nucleus accumbens core in all heroin-exposed rats, but selectively increased in the nucleus accumbens shell in long-access rats. Local infusion of nor-BNI (4 μg/side) into accumbens core altered the initial intake of heroin but not the rate of escalation, while local injection into accumbens shell selectively suppressed increases in heroin intake over time without altering initial intake. These data suggest that dynorphin activity in the nucleus accumbens mediates the increasing motivation for heroin taking and compulsive-like responding for heroin, suggesting that KOR antagonists may be promising targets for the treatment of opioid addiction.

  3. Increased presynaptic regulation of dopamine neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens core following chronic ethanol self-administration in female macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Cody A; Calipari, Erin S; Yorgason, Jordan T; Lovinger, David M; Mateo, Yolanda; Jimenez, Vanessa A; Helms, Christa M; Grant, Kathleen A; Jones, Sara R

    2016-04-01

    Hypofunction of striatal dopamine neurotransmission, or hypodopaminergia, is a consequence of excessive ethanol use and is hypothesized to be a critical component of alcoholism, driving alcohol intake in an attempt to restore dopamine levels; however, the neurochemical mechanisms involved in these dopaminergic deficiencies are not fully understood. Here we examined the specific dopaminergic adaptations that produce hypodopaminergia and contribute to alcohol use disorders using direct, sub-second measurements of dopamine signaling in nonhuman primates following chronic ethanol self-administration. Female rhesus macaques completed 1 year of daily (22 h/day) ethanol self-administration. Subsequently, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used in nucleus accumbens core brain slices to determine alterations in dopamine terminal function, including release and uptake kinetics, and sensitivity to quinpirole (D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist) and U50,488 (kappa opioid receptor agonist) induced inhibition of dopamine release. Ethanol drinking greatly increased uptake rates, which were positively correlated with lifetime ethanol intake. Furthermore, the sensitivity of dopamine D2/D3 autoreceptors and kappa opioid receptors, which both act as negative regulators of presynaptic dopamine release, was moderately and robustly enhanced in ethanol drinkers. Greater uptake rates and sensitivity to D2-type autoreceptor and kappa opioid receptor agonists could converge to drive a hypodopaminergic state, characterized by reduced basal dopamine and an inability to mount appropriate dopaminergic responses to salient stimuli. Together, we outline the specific alterations to dopamine signaling that may drive ethanol-induced hypofunction of the dopamine system and suggest that the dopamine and dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor systems may be efficacious pharmacotherapeutic targets in the treatment of alcohol use disorders.

  4. Short-Term High-Fat Diet Increases Leptin Activation of CART Neurons and Advances Puberty in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio, Jade Cabestre; Margatho, Lisandra Oliveira; Rorato, Rodrigo; Rosales, Roberta Ribeiro Costa; Debarba, Lucas Kniess; Coletti, Ricardo; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Elias, Carol F; Elias, Lucila Leico K

    2017-11-01

    Leptin is a permissive factor for puberty initiation, participating as a metabolic cue in the activation of the kisspeptin (Kiss1)-gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal circuitry; however, it has no direct effect on Kiss1 neurons. Leptin acts on hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons, participating in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We investigated the influence of a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) on the effect of leptin on puberty timing. Kiss1-hrGFP female mice received a HFD or regular diet (RD) after weaning at postnatal day (PN)21 and were studied at PN28 and PN32. The HFD increased body weight and plasma leptin concentrations and decreased the age at vaginal opening (HFD, 32 ± 0.53 days; RD, 38 ± 0.67 days). Similar colocalization of neurokinin B and dynorphin in Kiss1-hrGFP neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) was observed between the HFD and RD groups. The HFD increased CART expression in the ARC and Kiss1 messenger RNA expression in the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV)/anterior periventricular (Pe). The HFD also increased the number of ARC CART neurons expressing leptin-induced phosphorylated STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) at PN32. Close apposition of CART fibers to Kiss1-hrGFP neurons was observed in the ARC of both RD- and HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, these data reinforce the notion that a HFD increases kisspeptin expression in the AVPV/Pe and advances puberty initiation. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the HFD-induced earlier puberty is associated with an increase in CART expression in the ARC. Therefore, these data indicate that CART neurons in the ARC can mediate the effect of leptin on Kiss1 neurons in early puberty induced by a HFD. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  5. Stress-Induced Enhancement of Ethanol Intake in C57BL/6J Mice with a History of Chronic Ethanol Exposure: Involvement of Kappa Opioid Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel I; Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that daily forced swim stress (FSS) prior to ethanol drinking sessions facilitates enhanced ethanol consumption in mice with a history of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure without altering ethanol intake in air-exposed controls. Because both stress and chronic ethanol exposure have been shown to activate the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system, the present study was designed to explore a potential role for KORs in modulating stress effects on ethanol consumption in the CIE model of dependence and relapse drinking. After stable baseline ethanol intake was established in adult male C57BL/6J mice, subjects received chronic intermittent exposure (16 h/day × 4 days/week) to ethanol vapor (CIE group) or air (CTL group). Weekly cycles of inhalation exposure were alternated with 5-day limited access drinking tests (1 h access to 15% ethanol). Experiment 1 compared effects of daily FSS and KOR activation on ethanol consumption. CIE and CTL mice were either exposed to FSS (10 min), the KOR agonist U50,488 (5 mg/kg), or a vehicle injection (non-stressed condition) prior to each daily drinking session during test weeks. FSS selectively increased drinking in CIE mice. U50,488 mimicked this effect in CIE mice, but also increased drinking in CTL mice. Experiment 2 assessed effects of KOR blockade on stress-induced drinking in CIE and CTL mice. Stressed and non-stressed mice were administered the short-acting KOR antagonist LY2444296 (0 or 5 mg/kg) 30 min prior to each drinking session during test weeks. FSS selectively increased ethanol consumption in CIE mice, an effect that was abolished by LY2444296 pretreatment. In Experiment 3, CIE and CTL mice were administered one of four doses of U50,488 (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 mg/kg) 1 h prior to each daily drinking test (in lieu of FSS). All doses of U50,488 increased ethanol consumption in both CIE and CTL mice. The U50,488-induced increase in drinking was blocked by LY

  6. Sex Differences in Kappa Opioid Receptor Function and Their Potential Impact on Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Mavrikaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, biological, and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN), an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs), is necessary for stress-induced aversive states and is upregulated in the brain after chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. KOR agonists produce signs of anxiety, fear, and depression in laboratory animals and humans, findings that have led to the hypothesis that drug withdrawal-induced DYN release is instrumental in negative reinforcement processes that drive addiction. However, these studies were almost exclusively conducted in males. Only recently is evidence available that there are sex differences in the effects of KOR activation on affective state. This review focuses on sex differences in DYN and KOR systems and how these might contribute to sex differences in addictive behavior. Much of what is known about how biological sex influences KOR systems is from research on pain systems. The basic molecular and genetic mechanisms that have been discovered to underlie sex differences in KOR function in pain systems may apply to sex differences in KOR function in reward systems. Our goals are to discuss the current state of knowledge on how biological sex contributes to KOR function in the context of pain, mood, and addiction and to explore potential mechanisms for sex differences in KOR function. We will highlight evidence that the function of DYN-KOR systems is influenced in a sex-dependent manner by: polymorphisms in the prodynorphin (pDYN) gene, genetic linkage with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), heterodimerization of KORs and mu opioid receptors (MORs), and gonadal hormones. Finally, we

  7. Gender-specific association of functional prodynorphin 68 bp repeats with cannabis exposure in an African American cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuferov V

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vadim Yuferov,* Eduardo R Butelman,* Mary Jeanne Kreek Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Cannabis use disorders (CUDs cause substantial neuropsychiatric morbidity and comorbidity. There is evidence for gender-based differences in CUDs, for instance, a greater prevalence in males than in females. The main active component of cannabis is delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC, a partial agonist of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor. Preclinical studies show that genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the kappa opioid receptor/dynorphin system modulates the effects of delta 9-THC. Methods: In this case-control study of adult African Americans (n=476; 206 females, 270 males, we examined the association of the functional prodynorphin 68 bp (PDYN 68 bp promoter repeats with categorical diagnoses of cannabis dependence (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria, as well as with a rapid dimensional measure of maximum lifetime cannabis exposure (the Kreek–McHugh–Schluger–Kellogg cannabis scale. Results: The PDYN 68 bp genotype (examined as short–short [SS], short–long [SL], or long–long [LL], based on the number of repeats was not significantly associated with categorical cannabis-dependence diagnoses, either in males or in females. However, in males, the PDYN 68 bp SS+SL genotype was associated with both greater odds of any use of cannabis (p<0.05 and earlier age of first cannabis use, compared to the LL genotype (ie, 15 versus 16.5 years of age; p<0.045. Males in the SS+SL group also had greater odds of high lifetime exposure to cannabis, compared to the LL group (p<0.045. Of interest, none of the aforementioned genetic associations were significant in females. Conclusion: This study provides the first data on how the PDYN 68 bp genotype is associated with gender-specific patterns of

  8. The dark side of emotion: the addiction perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, George F

    2015-04-15

    Emotions are "feeling" states and classic physiological emotive responses that are interpreted based on the history of the organism and the context. Motivation is a persistent state that leads to organized activity. Both are intervening variables and intimately related and have neural representations in the brain. The present thesis is that drugs of abuse elicit powerful emotions that can be interwoven conceptually into this framework. Such emotions range from pronounced euphoria to a devastating negative emotional state that in the extreme can create a break with homeostasis and thus an allostatic hedonic state that has been considered key to the etiology and maintenance of the pathophysiology of addiction. Drug addiction can be defined as a three-stage cycle-binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation-that involves allostatic changes in the brain reward and stress systems. Two primary sources of reinforcement, positive and negative reinforcement, have been hypothesized to play a role in this allostatic process. The negative emotional state that drives negative reinforcement is hypothesized to derive from dysregulation of key neurochemical elements involved in the brain incentive salience and stress systems. Specific neurochemical elements in these structures include not only decreases in incentive salience system function in the ventral striatum (within-system opponent processes) but also recruitment of the brain stress systems mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), dynorphin-κ opioid systems, and norepinephrine, vasopressin, hypocretin, and substance P in the extended amygdala (between-system opponent processes). Neuropeptide Y, a powerful anti-stress neurotransmitter, has a profile of action on compulsive-like responding for drugs similar to a CRF1 receptor antagonist. Other stress buffers include nociceptin and endocannabinoids, which may also work through interactions with the extended amygdala. The thesis argued

  9. Adoptive transfer of M2 macrophages reduces neuropathic pain via opioid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, Maria; Labuz, Dominika; Celik, Melih Ö; Keye, Jacqueline; Batra, Arvind; Siegmund, Britta; Machelska, Halina

    2016-10-07

    During the inflammation which occurs following nerve damage, macrophages are recruited to the site of injury. Phenotypic diversity is a hallmark of the macrophage lineage and includes pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 populations. Our aim in this study was to investigate the ability of polarized M0, M1, and M2 macrophages to secrete opioid peptides and to examine their relative contribution to the modulation of neuropathic pain. Mouse bone marrow-derived cells were cultured as unstimulated M0 macrophages or were stimulated into an M1 phenotype using lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ or into an M2 phenotype using interleukin-4. The macrophage phenotypes were verified using flow cytometry for surface marker analysis and cytokine bead array for cytokine profile assessment. Opioid peptide levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay. As a model of neuropathic pain, a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve was employed. Polarized M0, M1, and M2 macrophages (5 × 10 5 cells) were injected perineurally twice, on days 14 and 15 following CCI or sham surgery. Mechanical and heat sensitivity were measured using the von Frey and Hargreaves tests, respectively. To track the injected macrophages, we also transferred fluorescently stained polarized cells and analyzed the surface marker profile of endogenous and injected cells in the nerves ex vivo. Compared to M0 and M1 cells, M2 macrophages contained and released higher amounts of opioid peptides, including Met-enkephalin, dynorphin A (1-17), and β-endorphin. M2 cells transferred perineurally at the nerve injury site reduced mechanical, but not heat hypersensitivity following the second injection. The analgesic effect was reversed by the perineurally applied opioid receptor antagonist naloxone methiodide. M2 cells did not affect sensitivity following sham surgery. Neither M0 nor M1 cells altered mechanical and heat sensitivity in CCI or sham-operated animals. Tracing the

  10. Opioid gene expression changes and post-translational histone modifications at promoter regions in the rat nucleus accumbens after acute and repeated 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Francesca Felicia; Palmisano, Martina; Carboni, Lucia; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia

    2016-12-01

    The recreational drug of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has been shown to produce neurotoxic damage and long-lasting changes in several brain areas. In addition to the involvement of serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems, little information exists about the contribution of nociceptin/orphaninFQ (N/OFQ)-NOP and dynorphin (DYN)-KOP systems in neuronal adaptations evoked by MDMA. Here we investigated the behavioral and molecular effects induced by acute (8mg/kg) or repeated (8mg/kg twice daily for seven days) MDMA exposure. MDMA exposure affected body weight gain and induced hyperlocomotion; this latter effect progressively decreased after repeated administration. Gene expression analysis indicated a down-regulation of the N/OFQ system and an up-regulation of the DYN system in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), highlighting an opposite systems regulation in response to MDMA exposure. Since histone modifications have been strongly associated to the addiction-related maladaptive changes, we examined two permissive (acH3K9 and me3H3K4) and two repressive transcription marks (me3H3K27 and me2H3K9) at the pertinent opioid gene promoter regions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that acute MDMA increased me3H3K4 at the pN/OFQ, pDYN and NOP promoters. Following acute and repeated treatment a significant decrease of acH3K9 at the pN/OFQ promoter was observed, which correlated with gene expression results. Acute treatment caused an acH3K9 increase and a me2H3K9 decrease at the pDYN promoter which matched its mRNA up-regulation. Our data indicate that the activation of the DYNergic stress system together with the inactivation of the N/OFQergic anti-stress system contribute to the neuroadaptive actions of MDMA and offer novel epigenetic information associated with MDMA abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The dark side of emotion: the addiction perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, George F.

    2015-01-01

    Emotions are “feeling” states and classic physiological emotive responses that are interpreted based on the history of the organism and the context. Motivation is a persistent state that leads to organized activity. Both are intervening variables and intimately related and have neural representations in the brain. The present thesis is that drugs of abuse elicit powerful emotions that can be interwoven conceptually into this framework. Such emotions range from pronounced euphoria to a devastating negative emotional state that in the extreme can create a break with homeostasis and thus an allostatic hedonic state that has been considered key to the etiology and maintenance of the pathophysiology of addiction. Drug addiction can be defined as a three-stage cycle—binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation—that involves allostatic changes in the brain reward and stress systems. Two primary sources of reinforcement, positive and negative reinforcement, have been hypothesized to play a role in this allostatic process. The negative emotional state that drives negative reinforcement is hypothesized to derive from dysregulation of key neurochemical elements involved in the brain incentive salience and stress systems. Specific neurochemical elements in these structures include not only decreases in incentive salience system function in the ventral striatum (within-system opponent processes) but also recruitment of the brain stress systems mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), dynorphin-κ opioid systems, and norepinephrine, vasopressin, hypocretin, and substance P in the extended amygdala (between-system opponent processes). Neuropeptide Y, a powerful anti-stress neurotransmitter, has a profile of action on compulsive-like responding for drugs similar to a CRF1 antagonist. Other stress buffers include nociceptin and endocannabinoids, which may also work through interactions with the extended amygdala. The thesis argued

  12. Effects of casoxin 4 on morphine inhibition of small animal intestinal contractility and gut transit in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen S Patten

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Glen S Patten1,2, Richard J Head1, Mahinda Y Abeywardena1,21CSIRO Preventative Health National Research Flagship, Adelaide, Australia; 2CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, Adelaide, AustraliaBackground and aims: Chronic opioid analgesia has the debilitating side-effect of constipation in human patients. The major aims of this study were to: 1 characterize the opioid-specific antagonism of morphine-induced inhibition of electrically driven contraction of the small intestine of mice, rats, and guinea pigs; and 2 test if the oral delivery of small milk-derived opioid antagonist peptides could block morphine-induced inhibition of intestinal transit in mice.Methods: Mouse, rat, and guinea pig intact ileal sections were electrically stimulated to contract and inhibited with morphine in vitro. Morphine inhibition was then blocked by opioid subtype antagonists in the mouse and guinea pig. Using a polymeric dye, Poly R-478, the opioid antagonists casoxin 4 and lactoferroxin A were tested orally for blocking activity of morphine inhibition of gut transit in vivo by single or double gavage techniques.Results: The guinea pig tissue was more sensitive to morphine inhibition compared with the mouse or the rat (IC50 [half maximal inhibitory concentration] values as nmol/L ± SEM were 34 ± 3, 230 ± 13, and 310 ± 14 respectively (P < 0.01. The inhibitory influence of opioid agonists (IC50 in electrically driven ileal mouse preparations were DADLE ([D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin ≥ met-enkephalin ≥ dynorphin A ≥ DAMGO ([D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly-ol5]-enkephalin > morphine > morphiceptin as nmol/L 13.9, 17.3, 19.5, 23.3, 230, and 403 respectively. The mouse demonstrated predominantly Κ- and δ-opioid receptor activity with a smaller µ-opioid receptor component. Both mouse and guinea pig tissue were sensitive to casoxin 4 antagonism of morphine inhibition of contraction. In contrast to naloxone, relatively high oral doses of the µ-opioid receptor antagonists

  13. Sex differences in kappa opioid receptor function and their potential impact on addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eChartoff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral, biological and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN, an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs, is necessary for stress-induced aversive states and is upregulated in the brain after chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. KOR agonists produce signs of anxiety, fear, and depression in laboratory animals and humans, findings that have led to the hypothesis that drug withdrawal-induced DYN release is instrumental in negative reinforcement processes that drive addiction. However, these studies were almost exclusively conducted in males. Only recently is evidence available that there are sex differences in the effects of KOR activation on affective state. This review focuses on sex differences in DYN and KOR systems and how these might contribute to sex differences in addictive behavior. Much of what is known about how biological sex influences KOR systems is from research on pain systems. The basic molecular and genetic mechanisms that have been discovered to underlie sex differences in KOR function in pain systems may apply to sex differences in KOR function in reward systems. Our goals are to discuss the current state of knowledge on how biological sex contributes to KOR function in the context of pain,mood and addiction and to explore potential mechanisms for sex differences in KOR function. We will highlight evidence that the function of DYN-KOR systems is influenced in a sex-dependent manner by: polymorphisms in the prodynorphin (pDYN gene, genetic linkage with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R, heterodimerization of KORs and mu opioid receptors (MORs, and gonadal hormones

  14. Sex Differences in Kappa Opioid Receptor Function and Their Potential Impact on Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartoff, Elena H; Mavrikaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, biological, and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN), an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs), is necessary for stress-induced aversive states and is upregulated in the brain after chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. KOR agonists produce signs of anxiety, fear, and depression in laboratory animals and humans, findings that have led to the hypothesis that drug withdrawal-induced DYN release is instrumental in negative reinforcement processes that drive addiction. However, these studies were almost exclusively conducted in males. Only recently is evidence available that there are sex differences in the effects of KOR activation on affective state. This review focuses on sex differences in DYN and KOR systems and how these might contribute to sex differences in addictive behavior. Much of what is known about how biological sex influences KOR systems is from research on pain systems. The basic molecular and genetic mechanisms that have been discovered to underlie sex differences in KOR function in pain systems may apply to sex differences in KOR function in reward systems. Our goals are to discuss the current state of knowledge on how biological sex contributes to KOR function in the context of pain, mood, and addiction and to explore potential mechanisms for sex differences in KOR function. We will highlight evidence that the function of DYN-KOR systems is influenced in a sex-dependent manner by: polymorphisms in the prodynorphin (pDYN) gene, genetic linkage with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), heterodimerization of KORs and mu opioid receptors (MORs), and gonadal hormones. Finally, we

  15. Stress-induced enhancement of ethanol intake in C57BL/6J mice with a history of chronic ethanol exposure: Involvement of kappa opioid receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Ivy Anderson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that daily forced swim stress (FSS prior to ethanol drinking sessions facilitates enhanced ethanol consumption in mice with a history of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE vapor exposure without altering ethanol intake in air-exposed controls. Because both stress and chronic ethanol exposure have been shown to activate the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR system, the present study was designed to explore a potential role for KORs in modulating stress effects on ethanol consumption in the CIE model of dependence and relapse drinking. After stable baseline ethanol intake was established in adult male C57BL/6J mice, subjects received chronic intermittent exposure (16 hr/day x 4 days/week to ethanol vapor (CIE group or air (CTL group. Weekly cycles of inhalation exposure were alternated with 5-day limited access drinking tests (1 hour access to 15% ethanol. Experiment 1 compared effects of daily FSS and KOR activation on ethanol consumption. CIE and CTL mice were either exposed to FSS (10 min, the KOR agonist U50,488 (5 mg/kg, or a vehicle injection (non-stressed condition prior to each daily drinking session during test weeks. FSS selectively increased drinking in CIE mice. U50,488 mimicked this effect in CIE mice, but also increased drinking in CTL mice. Experiment 2 assessed effects of KOR blockade on stress-induced drinking in CIE and CTL mice. Stressed and non-stressed mice were administered the short-acting KOR antagonist LY2444296 (0 or 5 mg/kg 30 min prior to each drinking session during test weeks. FSS selectively increased ethanol consumption in CIE mice, an effect that was abolished by LY2444296 pretreatment. In Experiment 3, CIE and CTL mice were administered one of four doses of U50,488 (0,1.25, 2.5, 5.0 mg/kg one hour prior to each daily drinking test (in lieu of FSS. All doses of U50,488 increased ethanol consumption in both CIE and CTL mice. The U50,488-induced increase in drinking was

  16. Controlled-release levodopa methyl ester/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles ameliorate levodopa-induced dyskinesia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Xinxin Yang1*, Ruiyuan Zheng2*, Yunpeng Cai2, Meiling Liao2, Weien Yuan1,2, Zhenguo Liu11Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital (affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*Xinxin Yang and Ruiyuan Zheng contributed equally to this workBackground: Levodopa remains the most effective drug in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, long-term administration of levodopa induces motor complications, such as levodopa-induced dyskinesia. The mechanisms underlying levodopa-induced dyskinesia are not fully understood.Methods: In this study, we prepared levodopa methyl ester (LDME/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles, which can release LDME and benserazide in a sustained manner. Dyskinesia was induced in rats by repeated administration of levodopa then treated with LDME plus benserazide or the same dose of LDME/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles. Apomorphine-induced rotations and abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs were measured on treatment days 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20. In addition, the levels of phosphorylated dopamine- and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, and ΔfosB were determined by Western blot. Tau levels were determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Dynorphin levels in the striatum and cortex of rats were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: Over the course of levodopa treatment, the rats developed abnormal AIMs, classified as locomotive, axial, orolingual, and forelimb dyskinesia. The degree of reduction of apomorphine-induced rotations was comparable in dyskinetic rats treated with LDME plus benserazide or LDME/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles. The axial, limb, and orolingual (ALO AIMs of dyskinetic rats treated with LDME/benserazide-loaded nanoparticles were 14 ± 2.5, 9 ± 2.0, and 10 ± 2.1 on treatment days 10, 15, and 20

  17. Nitric oxide-heat shock protein axis in menopausal hot flushes: neglected metabolic issues of chronic inflammatory diseases associated with deranged heat shock response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragem, Antônio Azambuja; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo

    2017-09-01

    -elicited HSR. The hypothalamic areas involved in thermoregulation (infundibular nucleus in humans and arcuate nucleus in other mammals) and whose neurons are known to have their function altered after long-term oestrogen ablation, particularly kisspeptin-neurokinin B-dynorphin neurons, (KNDy) are the same that drive neuroprotective expression of HSP70 and, in many cases, this response is via NO even in the absence of oestrogen. From thence, it is not illogical that hot flushes might be related to an evolutionary adaptation to re-equip the NO-HSP70 axis during the downfall of circulating oestrogen. Understanding of HSR could shed light on yet uncovered mechanisms of menopause-associated diseases as well as on possible manipulation of HSR in menopausal women through physiological, pharmacological, nutraceutical and prebiotic interventions. Moreover, decreased HSR indices (that can be clinically determined with ease) in perimenopause could be of prognostic value in predicting the moment and appropriateness of starting a HRT. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com