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Sample records for dynamics inhomogeneous thin

  1. Dynamics of inhomogeneous chiral condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Juan Pablo; Krein, Gastão; Kroff, Daniel; Peixoto, Thiago

    2018-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the formation of inhomogeneous chirally broken phases in the final stages of a heavy-ion collision, with particular interest on the time scales involved in the formation process. The study is conducted within the framework of a Ginzburg-Landau time evolution, driven by a free energy functional motivated by the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Expansion of the medium is modeled by one-dimensional Bjorken flow and its effect on the formation of inhomogeneous condensates is investigated. We also use a free energy functional from a nonlocal Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model which predicts metastable phases that lead to long-lived inhomogeneous condensates before reaching an equilibrium phase with homogeneous condensates.

  2. Process Modeling With Inhomogeneous Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machorro, R.; Macleod, H. A.; Jacobson, M. R.

    1986-12-01

    Designers of optical multilayer coatings commonly assume that the individual layers will be ideally homogeneous and isotropic. In practice, it is very difficult to control the conditions involved in the complex evaporation process sufficiently to produce such ideal films. Clearly, changes in process parameters, such as evaporation rate, chamber pressure, and substrate temperature, affect the microstructure of the growing film, frequently producing inhomogeneity in structure or composition. In many cases, these effects are interdependent, further complicating the situation. However, this process can be simulated on powerful, interactive, and accessible microcomputers. In this work, we present such a model and apply it to estimate the influence of an inhomogeneous layer on multilayer performance. Presently, the program simulates film growth, thermal expansion and contraction, and thickness monitoring procedures, and includes the effects of uncertainty in these parameters or noise. Although the model is being developed to cover very general cases, we restrict the present discussion to isotropic and nondispersive quarterwave layers to understand the particular effects of inhomogeneity. We studied several coating designs and related results and tolerances to variations in evaporation conditions. The model is composed of several modular subprograms, is written in Fortran, and is executed on an IBM-PC with 640 K of memory. The results can be presented in graphic form on a monochrome monitor. We are currently installing and implementing color capability to improve the clarity of the multidimensional output.

  3. Vortex dynamics in inhomogeneous plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of vortical structures in magnetized plasmas with nonuniform density is investigated numerically. In particular the dynamics of monopolar vortices is considered and the results are discussed in terms of the conservation of potential vorticity. It is found that individual vortex...

  4. Dynamics of an inhomogeneous anisotropic antiferromagnetic spin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, M.; Amuda, R.

    1994-11-01

    We investigate the nonlinear spin excitations in the two sublattice model of a one dimensional classical continuum Heisenberg inhomogeneous antiferromagnetic spin chain. The dynamics of the inhomogeneous chain reduces to that of its homogeneous counterpart when the inhomogeneity assumes a particular form. Apart from the usual twists and pulses, we obtain some planar configurations representing the nonlinear dynamics of spins. (author). 12 refs

  5. Electron dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogaret, Alain, E-mail: A.R.Nogaret@bath.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-30

    This review explores the dynamics of two-dimensional electrons in magnetic potentials that vary on scales smaller than the mean free path. The physics of microscopically inhomogeneous magnetic fields relates to important fundamental problems in the fractional quantum Hall effect, superconductivity, spintronics and graphene physics and spins out promising applications which will be described here. After introducing the initial work done on electron localization in random magnetic fields, the experimental methods for fabricating magnetic potentials are presented. Drift-diffusion phenomena are then described, which include commensurability oscillations, magnetic channelling, resistance resonance effects and magnetic dots. We then review quantum phenomena in magnetic potentials including magnetic quantum wires, magnetic minibands in superlattices, rectification by snake states, quantum tunnelling and Klein tunnelling. The third part is devoted to spintronics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. This covers spin filtering by magnetic field gradients and circular magnetic fields, electrically induced spin resonance, spin resonance fluorescence and coherent spin manipulation. (topical review)

  6. Spatial inhomogeneity in spectra and exciton dynamics in porphyrin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    inhomogeneity. This is elucidated by time-resolved confocal microscopy. ... dynamics of such supramolecular aggregates. Weisman ... protein scaffold and faithfully represents a biomimetic reminiscent .... increased intermolecular interactions.

  7. Radiance intensity enhanced by thin inhomogeneous lossy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Ni Bo

    2004-01-01

    Basically, the classical radiative transfer theory assumes that the coherent component of the radiation field is equal to zero and heuristic considerations about energy conservation are used in the phenomenological derivation of the RTE. Here a self-consistent theory is presented to investigate radiative transport in the presence of diffraction processes within thin inhomogeneous films. The problem of linear optics about the transport of scalar radiation within film is solved, a new definition of the radiance is introduced in agreement with earlier definitions and a corresponding radiative transfer equation is derived. The influence of spatial variations of the bulk properties on the propagating mode is described in detail. It is analytically predicted that, unlike homogeneous media, an inhomogeneous film can enhance the radiance intensity in spite of the diffraction and the local extinction. From a practical point of view, the results of this work should be useful to perform the optimal design for many thermoelectric devices such as the new generations of photovoltaiec cells

  8. Influence of interface inhomogeneities in thin-film Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Joshua; Zhang, Jiawei; Li, Yunpeng; Wang, Yiming; Xin, Qian; Song, Aimin

    2017-11-01

    The scalability of thin-film transistors has been well documented, but there have been very few investigations into the effects of device scalability in Schottky diodes. Indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) Schottky diodes were fabricated with IGZO thicknesses of 50, 150, and 250 nm. Despite the same IGZO-Pt interface and Schottky barrier being formed in all devices, reducing the IGZO thickness caused a dramatic deterioration of the current-voltage characteristics, most notably increasing the reverse current by nearly five orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the forward characteristics display an increase in the ideality factor and a reduction in the barrier height. The origins of this phenomenon have been elucidated using device simulations. First, when the semiconductor layer is fully depleted, the electric field increases with the reducing thickness, leading to an increased diffusion current. However, the effects of diffusion only offer a small contribution to the huge variations in reverse current seen in the experiments. To fully explain this effect, the role of inhomogeneities in the Schottky barrier height has been considered. Contributions from lower barrier regions (LBRs) are found to dominate the reverse current. The conduction band minimum below these LBRs is strongly dependent upon thickness and bias, leading to reverse current variations as large as several orders of magnitude. Finally, it is demonstrated that the thickness dependence of the reverse current is exacerbated as the magnitude of the inhomogeneities is increased and alleviated in the limit where the LBRs are large enough not to be influenced by the adjacent higher barrier regions.

  9. General solution to inhomogeneous dephasing and smooth pulse dynamical decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Junkai; Deng, Xiu-Hao; Russo, Antonio; Barnes, Edwin

    2018-03-01

    In order to achieve the high-fidelity quantum control needed for a broad range of quantum information technologies, reducing the effects of noise and system inhomogeneities is an essential task. It is well known that a system can be decoupled from noise or made insensitive to inhomogeneous dephasing dynamically by using carefully designed pulse sequences based on square or delta-function waveforms such as Hahn spin echo or CPMG. However, such ideal pulses are often challenging to implement experimentally with high fidelity. Here, we uncover a new geometrical framework for visualizing all possible driving fields, which enables one to generate an unlimited number of smooth, experimentally feasible pulses that perform dynamical decoupling or dynamically corrected gates to arbitrarily high order. We demonstrate that this scheme can significantly enhance the fidelity of single-qubit operations in the presence of noise and when realistic limitations on pulse rise times and amplitudes are taken into account.

  10. Dynamics of binary mixtures in inhomogeneous temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonnella, G; Piscitelli, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Lamura, A [Istituto Applicazioni Calcolo, CNR, via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2008-03-14

    A dynamical description for fluid binary mixtures with variable temperature and concentration gradient contributions to entropy and internal energy is given. By using mass, momentum and energy balance equations together with the standard expression for entropy production, a generalized Gibbs-Duhem relation is obtained which takes into account thermal and concentration gradient contributions. Then an expression for the pressure tensor is derived. As examples of applications, interface behavior and phase separation have been numerically studied in two dimensions neglecting the contributions of the velocity field. In the simplest case with a constant thermal gradient, the growth exponent for the averaged size of domains is found to have the usual value z = 1/3 and the domains appear elongated in the direction of the thermal gradient. When the system is quenched by contact with external walls, the evolution of temperature profiles in the system is shown and the domain morphology is characterized by interfaces perpendicular to the thermal gradient.

  11. Inhomogeneous strain states in sputter deposited tungsten thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyan, I.C.; Shaw, T.M.; Goldsmith, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    The results of an x-ray diffraction study of dc-magnetron sputtered tungsten thin films are reported. It is shown that the phase transformation from the β to α W can cause multilayered single-phase films where the layers have very different stress states even if the films are in the 500 nm thickness range. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Dynamic modeling of presence of occupants using inhomogeneous Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Iversen, Anne; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    on time of day, and by use of a filter of the observations it is able to capture per-employee sequence dynamics. Simulations using this method are compared with simulations using homogeneous Markov chains and show far better ability to reproduce key properties of the data. The method is based...... on inhomogeneous Markov chains with where the transition probabilities are estimated using generalized linear models with polynomials, B-splines, and a filter of passed observations as inputs. For treating the dispersion of the data series, a hierarchical model structure is used where one model is for low presence...

  13. INHOMOGENEITY IN SPATIAL COX POINT PROCESSES – LOCATION DEPENDENT THINNING IS NOT THE ONLY OPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Prokešová

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the literature on point processes the by far most popular option for introducing inhomogeneity into a point process model is the location dependent thinning (resulting in a second-order intensity-reweighted stationary point process. This produces a very tractable model and there are several fast estimation procedures available. Nevertheless, this model dilutes the interaction (or the geometrical structure of the original homogeneous model in a special way. When concerning the Markov point processes several alternative inhomogeneous models were suggested and investigated in the literature. But it is not so for the Cox point processes, the canonical models for clustered point patterns. In the contribution we discuss several other options how to define inhomogeneous Cox point process models that result in point patterns with different types of geometric structure. We further investigate the possible parameter estimation procedures for such models.

  14. Stabilization of the dissipation-free current transport in inhomogeneous MgB2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treiber, S.; Stahl, C.; Schütz, G.; Soltan, S.; Albrecht, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate transport properties of inhomogeneous MgB 2 films. • An inhomogeneous microstructure stabilizes supercurrents. • Vortex pinning forces and energies have been analyzed experimentally. • In inhomogeneous films the increase of the pinning energy is responsible for stable supercurrents. - Abstract: In type-II superconductors at T = 0 the critical current density is determined by the pinning of flux lines. Considering an arbitrarily shaped energy landscape the pinning force at each pinning site is given by the derivative of the flux line energy with respect to the considered direction. At finite temperatures, in addition, thermal activation can lead to a depinning of flux lines. The governing property in this case is the depth of the corresponding pinning potential, i.e. the pinning energy. We show a detailed analysis of both pinning forces and pinning energies of MgB 2 films with inhomogeneous microstructure. We show that a pronounced increase of the pinning energy is responsible for the significantly enhanced stability of the dissipation-free current transport in thin inhomogeneous MgB 2 films. This is found even if the corresponding pinning forces are small

  15. Polarized optical scattering by inhomogeneities and surface roughness in an anisotropic thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, Thomas A; Sharma, Katelynn A; Brown, Thomas G; Oliver, James B

    2017-11-01

    We extend the theory of Kassam et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A12, 2009 (1995)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.12.002009] for scattering by oblique columnar structure thin films to include the induced form birefringence and the propagation of radiation in those films. We generalize the 4×4 matrix theory of Berreman [J. Opt. Soc. Am.62, 502 (1972)JOSAAH0030-394110.1364/JOSA.62.000502] to include arbitrary sources in the layer, which are necessary to determine the Green function for the inhomogeneous wave equation. We further extend first-order vector perturbation theory for scattering by roughness in the smooth surface limit, when the layer is anisotropic. Scattering by an inhomogeneous medium is approximated by a distorted Born approximation, where effective medium theory is used to determine the effective properties of the medium, and strong fluctuation theory is used to determine the inhomogeneous sources. In this manner, we develop a model for scattering by inhomogeneous films, with anisotropic correlation functions. The results are compared with Mueller matrix bidirectional scattering distribution function measurements for a glancing-angle deposition (GLAD) film. While the results are applied to the GLAD film example, the development of the theory is general enough that it can guide simulations for scattering in other anisotropic thin films.

  16. A method for determination of mass per unit area inhomogeneity of thin samples in XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitko, R.; Jurczyk, J.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have presented a simple method for the determination of possible inhomogeneity of thin samples in a wavedispersive XRF analysis after previous examination of intensity distribution of exciting radiation on sample's surface. Investigations were carried out using as an example microsamples of mono- and polycrystals. Samples were prepared by digesting an analysed material directly on the substrate. The obtained results have been presented in a graphical way. (author)

  17. The dynamics of spiral tip adjacent to inhomogeneity in cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Tang, Jun; Ma, Jun; Luo, Jin Ming; Yang, Xian Qing

    2018-02-01

    Rotating spiral waves in cardiac tissue are implicated in life threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Experimental and theoretical evidences suggest the inhomogeneities in cardiac tissue play a significant role in the dynamics of spiral waves. Based on a modified 2D cardiac tissue model, the interaction of inhomogeneity on the nearby rigidly rotating spiral wave is numerically studied. The adjacent area of the inhomogeneity is divided to two areas, when the initial rotating center of the spiral tip is located in the two areas, the spiral tip will be attracted and anchor on the inhomogeneity finally, or be repulsed away. The width of the area is significantly dependent on the intensity and size of the inhomogeneity. Our numerical study sheds some light on the mechanism of the interaction of inhomogeneity on the spiral wave in cardiac tissue.

  18. Vlasov simulations of electron hole dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzichev, Ilya; Vasko, Ivan; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Electron holes (EHs) or phase space vortices are solitary electrostatic waves existing due to electrons trapped within EH electrostatic potential. Since the first direct observation [1], EHs have been widely observed in the Earth's magnetosphere: in reconnecting current sheets [2], injection fronts [3], auroral region [4], and many other space plasma systems. EHs have typical spatial scales up to tens of Debye lengths, electric field amplitudes up to hundreds of mV/m and propagate along magnetic field lines with velocities of about electron thermal velocity [5]. The role of EHs in energy dissipation and supporting of large-scale potential drops is under active investigation. The accurate interpretation of spacecraft observations requires understanding of EH evolution in inhomogeneous plasma. The critical role of plasma density gradients in EH evolution was demonstrated in [6] using PIC simulations. Interestingly, up to date no studies have addressed a role of magnetic field gradients in EH evolution. In this report, we use 1.5D gyrokinetic Vlasov code to demonstrate the critical role of magnetic field gradients in EH dynamics. We show that EHs propagating into stronger (weaker) magnetic field are decelerated (accelerated) with deceleration (acceleration) rate dependent on the magnetic field gradient. Remarkably, the reflection points of decelerating EHs are independent of the average magnetic field gradient in the system and depend only on the EH parameters. EHs are decelerated (accelerated) faster than would follow from the "quasi-particle" concept assuming that EH is decelerated (accelerated) entirely due to the mirror force acting on electrons trapped within EH. We demonstrate that EH propagation in inhomogeneous magnetic fields results in development of a net potential drop along an EH, which depends on the magnetic field gradient. The revealed features will be helpful for interpreting spacecraft observations and results of advanced particle simulations. In

  19. Dynamical stability for finite quantum spin chains against a time-periodic inhomogeneous perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazue; Nakamura, Katsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    We investigate dynamical stability of the ground state against a time-periodic and spatially-inhomogeneous magnetic field for finite quantum XXZ spin chains. We use the survival probability as a measure of stability and demonstrate that it decays as P(t) ∝ t -1/2 under a certain condition. The dynamical properties should also be related to the level statistics of the XXZ spin chains with a constant spatially-inhomogeneous magnetic field. The level statistics depends on the anisotropy parameter and the field strength. We show how the survival probability depends on the anisotropy parameter, the strength and frequency of the field.

  20. Laser dynamics in transversely inhomogeneous plasma and its relevance to wakefield acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, V. B.; Vieira, J.; Silva, L. O.; Nam, Chang Hee

    2018-05-01

    We present full set of coupled equations describing the weakly relativistic dynamics of a laser in a plasma with transverse inhomogeneity. We apply variational principle approach to obtain these coupled equations governing laser spot-size, transverse wavenumber, curvature, transverse centroid, etc. We observe that such plasma inhomogeneity can lead to stronger self-focusing. We further discuss the guiding conditions of laser in parabolic plasma channels. With the help of multi-dimensional particle in cell simulations the study is extended to the blowout regime of laser wakefield acceleration to show laser as well as self-injected electron bunch steering in plasma to generate unconventional particle trajectories. Our simulation results demonstrate that such transverse inhomogeneities due to asymmetric self focusing lead to asymmetric bubble excitation, thus inducing off-axis self-injection.

  1. Thermal domains in inhomogeneous current-carrying superconductors. Current-voltage characteriscs and dynamics of domain formation after current jumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezuglyj, A.I.; Shklovskij, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The static and dynamic behavior of thermal domains in inhomogeneous superconducting films, where the inhomogeneity behaves like a portion of the film with a reduced critical current, have been studied theoretically within the framework of the phenomenological approach, using the heat balance equation and the dependence of the superconductor critical current on temperature. Depending on the size of the inhomogeneity (local or extended) and on the relative values of parameters of the homogeneous and inhomogeneous regions, different types of current-voltage characteristics are obtained. The nonstationary problem of thermal domain formation near the inhomogeneity after a current jump has been solved, and the domain boundary (kink) dynamics at a distance from the inhomogeneity has been analyzed. A combination of the results allows one to describe the whole process of normal phase formation and its spread throughout the superconducting film

  2. Local density inhomogeneities and dynamics in supercritical water: A molecular dynamics simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarmoutsos, Ioannis; Samios, Jannis

    2006-11-02

    Molecular dynamics atomistic simulations in the canonical ensemble (NVT-MD) have been used to investigate the "Local Density Inhomogeneities and their Dynamics" in pure supercritical water. The simulations were carried out along a near-critical isotherm (Tr = T/Tc = 1.03) and for a wide range of densities below and above the critical one (0.2 rho(c) - 2.0 rho(c)). The results obtained reveal the existence of significant local density augmentation effects, which are found to be sufficiently larger in comparison to those reported for nonassociated fluids. The time evolution of the local density distribution around each molecule was studied in terms of the appropriate time correlation functions C(Delta)rhol(t). It is found that the shape of these functions changes significantly by increasing the density of the fluid. Finally, the local density reorganization times for the first and second coordination shell derived from these correlations exhibit a decreasing behavior by increasing the density of the system, signifying the density effect upon the dynamics of the local environment around each molecule.

  3. Dynamics of spiral waves in a cardiac electromechanical model with a local electrical inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesin, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► I study spirals in a model of electromechanical coupling in a cardiac tissue. ► The model is anisotropic and includes an electrical heterogeneity. ► Mechanical deformation is described under the active strain hypothesis. ► Joint effect of inhomogeneity and deformation influences spiral dynamics. ► Conductivity of stretch activated current is the parameter most affecting spirals. - Abstract: Joint effect of electrical heterogeneity (e.g. induced by ischemia) and mechanical deformation is investigated for an anisotropic, quasi–incompressible model of cardiac electromechanical coupling (EMC) using the active strain approach and periodic boundary conditions. Three local inhomogeneities with different geometry are simulated. Under a specific stimulation protocol, the heterogeneities are able to induce spirals. The interplay between the dimension of the electrical inhomogeneity, the EMC and the mechano-electrical feedback provided by the stretch activated current (SAC) determines the dynamics of the spiral waves of excitation, which could extinguish (in the case of low SAC), or be stable (with the tip rotating inside the inhomogeneity), or drift and be annihilated (in the case of high SAC).

  4. Analysis of MUSIC-type imaging functional for single, thin electromagnetic inhomogeneity in limited-view inverse scattering problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Park, Won-Kwang

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzes the well-known MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm to identify unknown support of thin penetrable electromagnetic inhomogeneity from scattered field data collected within the so-called multi-static response matrix in limited-view inverse scattering problems. The mathematical theories of MUSIC are partially discovered, e.g., in the full-view problem, for an unknown target of dielectric contrast or a perfectly conducting crack with the Dirichlet boundary condition (Transverse Magnetic-TM polarization) and so on. Hence, we perform further research to analyze the MUSIC-type imaging functional and to certify some well-known but theoretically unexplained phenomena. For this purpose, we establish a relationship between the MUSIC imaging functional and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. This relationship is based on the rigorous asymptotic expansion formula in the existence of a thin inhomogeneity with a smooth supporting curve. Various results of numerical simulation are presented in order to support the identified structure of MUSIC. Although a priori information of the target is needed, we suggest a least condition of range of incident and observation directions to apply MUSIC in the limited-view problem.

  5. Ordering dynamics of self-propelled particles in an inhomogeneous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rakesh; Mishra, Shradha; Puri, Sanjay

    2018-02-01

    Ordering dynamics of self-propelled particles in an inhomogeneous medium in two dimensions is studied. We write coarse-grained hydrodynamic equations of motion for density and polarisation fields in the presence of an external random disorder field, which is quenched in time. The strength of inhomogeneity is tuned from zero disorder (clean system) to large disorder. In the clean system, the polarisation field grows algebraically as LP ∼ t0.5 . The density field does not show clean power-law growth; however, it follows Lρ ∼ t0.8 approximately. In the inhomogeneous system, we find a disorder-dependent growth. For both the density and the polarisation, growth slows down with increasing strength of disorder. The polarisation shows a disorder-dependent power-law growth LP(t,Δ) ∼ t1/\\bar zP(Δ) for intermediate times. At late times, there is a crossover to logarithmic growth LP(t,Δ) ∼ (\\ln t)1/\\varphi , where φ is a disorder-independent exponent. Two-point correlation functions for the polarisation show dynamical scaling, but the density does not.

  6. Inhomogeneous quasi-adiabatic driving of quantum critical dynamics in weakly disordered spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rams, Marek M; Mohseni, Masoud; Campo, Adolfo del

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an inhomogeneous protocol to drive a weakly disordered quantum spin chain quasi-adiabatically across a quantum phase transition and minimize the residual energy of the final state. The number of spins that simultaneously reach the critical point is controlled by the length scale in which the magnetic field is modulated, introducing an effective size that favors adiabatic dynamics. The dependence of the residual energy on this length scale and the velocity at which the magnetic field sweeps out the chain is shown to be nonmonotonic. We determine the conditions for an optimal suppression of the residual energy of the final state and show that inhomogeneous driving can outperform conventional adiabatic schemes based on homogeneous control fields by several orders of magnitude. (paper)

  7. Buckling of thin viscous sheets with inhomogenous viscosity under extensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Wei, Zhiyan; Mahadevan, L.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the dynamics, shape and stability of a thin viscous sheet subjected to an extensional flow under an imposed non-uniform temperature field. Using finite element simulations, we first solve for the stretching flow to determine the pre-buckling sheet thickness and in-plane flow velocities. Next, we use this solution as the base state and solve the linearized partial differential equation governing the out-of-plane deformation of the mid-surface as a function of two dimensionless operating parameters: the normalized stretching ratio α and a dimensionless width of the heating zone β. We show the sheet can become unstable via a buckling instability driven by the development of localized compressive stresses, and determine the global shape and growth rates of the most unstable mode. The growth rate is shown to exhibit a transition from stationary to oscillatory modes in region upstream of the heating zone. Finally, we investigate the effect of surface tension and present an operating diagram that indicates regions of the parameter space that minimizes or entirely suppresses the instability while achieving desired outlet sheet thickness. Therefore, our work is directly relevant to various industrial processes including the glass redraw & float-glass method.

  8. Dynamics of weakly inhomogeneous oscillator populations: perturbation theory on top of Watanabe-Strogatz integrability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, Vladimir; Rosenblum, Michael; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2016-08-01

    As has been shown by Watanabe and Strogatz (WS) (1993 Phys. Rev. Lett. 70 2391), a population of identical phase oscillators, sine-coupled to a common field, is a partially integrable system: for any ensemble size its dynamics reduce to equations for three collective variables. Here we develop a perturbation approach for weakly nonidentical ensembles. We calculate corrections to the WS dynamics for two types of perturbations: those due to a distribution of natural frequencies and of forcing terms, and those due to small white noise. We demonstrate that in both cases, the complex mean field for which the dynamical equations are written is close to the Kuramoto order parameter, up to the leading order in the perturbation. This supports the validity of the dynamical reduction suggested by Ott and Antonsen (2008 Chaos 18 037113) for weakly inhomogeneous populations.

  9. Dynamics of weakly inhomogeneous oscillator populations: perturbation theory on top of Watanabe–Strogatz integrability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, Vladimir; Rosenblum, Michael; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2016-01-01

    As has been shown by Watanabe and Strogatz (WS) (1993 Phys. Rev. Lett. 70 2391), a population of identical phase oscillators, sine-coupled to a common field, is a partially integrable system: for any ensemble size its dynamics reduce to equations for three collective variables. Here we develop a perturbation approach for weakly nonidentical ensembles. We calculate corrections to the WS dynamics for two types of perturbations: those due to a distribution of natural frequencies and of forcing terms, and those due to small white noise. We demonstrate that in both cases, the complex mean field for which the dynamical equations are written is close to the Kuramoto order parameter, up to the leading order in the perturbation. This supports the validity of the dynamical reduction suggested by Ott and Antonsen (2008 Chaos 18 037113) for weakly inhomogeneous populations. (letter)

  10. Hydrodynamic theory for quantum plasmonics: Linear-response dynamics of the inhomogeneous electron gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the hydrodynamic theory of metals, offering systematic studies of the linear-response dynamics for an inhomogeneous electron gas. We include the quantum functional terms of the Thomas-Fermi kinetic energy, the von Weizsa¨cker kinetic energy, and the exchange-correlation Coulomb...... energies under the local density approximation. The advantages, limitations, and possible improvements of the hydrodynamic theory are transparently demonstrated. The roles of various parameters in the theory are identified. We anticipate that the hydrodynamic theory can be applied to investigate the linear...... response of complex metallic nanostructures, including quantum effects, by adjusting theory parameters appropriately....

  11. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma of the lung showing mosaic pattern of inhomogeneous attenuation on thin-section CT: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Jae; Kim, Sung Hwan; Koo, Soo Hyun; Kim, Hyun Beom; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Kwan Seop; Lee, Yul; Jang, Kee Taek; Kim, Duck Hwan

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a case of histologically proven bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma of the lung in a patient with primary Sjogren's syndrome that manifested on thin-section CT scan as a mosaic pattern of inhomogeneous attenuation due to mixed small airway and infiltrative abnormalities

  12. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma of the lung showing mosaic pattern of inhomogeneous attenuation on thin-section CT: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Jae; Kim, Sung Hwan; Koo, Soo Hyun; Kim, Hyun Beom; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Kwan Seop; Lee, Yul; Jang, Kee Taek; Kim, Duck Hwan [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    The authors present a case of histologically proven bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma of the lung in a patient with primary Sjogren's syndrome that manifested on thin-section CT scan as a mosaic pattern of inhomogeneous attenuation due to mixed small airway and infiltrative abnormalities.

  13. Scroll-wave dynamics in human cardiac tissue: lessons from a mathematical model with inhomogeneities and fiber architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupamanjari Majumder

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrhythmias, such as ventricular tachycardia (VT and ventricular fibrillation (VF, are among the leading causes of death in the industrialized world. These are associated with the formation of spiral and scroll waves of electrical activation in cardiac tissue; single spiral and scroll waves are believed to be associated with VT whereas their turbulent analogs are associated with VF. Thus, the study of these waves is an important biophysical problem. We present a systematic study of the combined effects of muscle-fiber rotation and inhomogeneities on scroll-wave dynamics in the TNNP (ten Tusscher Noble Noble Panfilov model for human cardiac tissue. In particular, we use the three-dimensional TNNP model with fiber rotation and consider both conduction and ionic inhomogeneities. We find that, in addition to displaying a sensitive dependence on the positions, sizes, and types of inhomogeneities, scroll-wave dynamics also depends delicately upon the degree of fiber rotation. We find that the tendency of scroll waves to anchor to cylindrical conduction inhomogeneities increases with the radius of the inhomogeneity. Furthermore, the filament of the scroll wave can exhibit drift or meandering, transmural bending, twisting, and break-up. If the scroll-wave filament exhibits weak meandering, then there is a fine balance between the anchoring of this wave at the inhomogeneity and a disruption of wave-pinning by fiber rotation. If this filament displays strong meandering, then again the anchoring is suppressed by fiber rotation; also, the scroll wave can be eliminated from most of the layers only to be regenerated by a seed wave. Ionic inhomogeneities can also lead to an anchoring of the scroll wave; scroll waves can now enter the region inside an ionic inhomogeneity and can display a coexistence of spatiotemporal chaos and quasi-periodic behavior in different parts of the simulation domain. We discuss the experimental implications of our study.

  14. Dynamics of macro-observables and space-time inhomogeneous Gibbs ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanz, L.; Lupieri, G.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between the classical description of a macro-system and quantum mechanics of its particles is considered within the framework recently developed by Ludwig. A procedure is given to define probability measures on the trajectory space of a macrosystem which yields a statistical description of the dynamics of a macrosystem. The basic tool in this treatment is a new concept of space-time inhomogeneous Gibbs ensemble, defined in N-body quantum mechanics. In the Gaussian approximation of the probabilities the results of Zubarev's theory based on the ''nonequilibrium statistical operator'' are recovered. The present ''embedding'' of the description of a macrosystem inside the N-body theory allows for a joint description of a macrosystem and a microsubsystem of it, and a ''macroscopical'' calculation of the statistical operator of the microsystem is indicated. (author)

  15. DYNAMICS OF THIN VISCOUS LAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    ROJAS, NICOLAS

    2011-01-01

    As Isaac Newton discovered in Mechanics, and published in his Principia Mathematica in 1687, inertial effects are essential to describe natural phenomena. In the case of Fluid Dynamics, inertia was included by Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes almost two centuries after in 1822 when calculating the mass and momentum conservation of au infinitesimal fluid elemeut. Although Navier-Stokes equations are very useful for describing any event of any liquid or gas and there...

  16. Excitation of magnetic inhomogeneities in three-layer ferromagnetic structure with different parameters of the magnetic anisotropy and exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekomasov, E.G., E-mail: EkomasovEG@gmail.com [Bashkir State University, 32, Validy Str., Ufa, 450076 (Russian Federation); Murtazin, R.R. [Bashkir State University, 32, Validy Str., Ufa, 450076 (Russian Federation); Nazarov, V.N. [Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics Ufa Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Oktyabrya 151, Ufa, 450075 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    The generation and evolution of magnetic inhomogeneities, emerging in a thin flat layer with the parameters of the magnetic anisotropy and exchange interaction, with the parameters different from other two thick layers of the three-layer ferromagnetic structure, were investigated. The parameters ranges that determine the possibility of their existence were found. The possibility of the external magnetic field influence on the structure and dynamic properties of localized magnetic inhomogeneities was shown. - Highlights: • The generation of magnetic inhomogeneities in the three-layer ferromagnetic. • The influence of an external field on the parameters of magnetic inhomogeneities. • Numerical study of the structure and dynamics of magnetic inhomogeneities.

  17. Nanoscale inhomogeneity and photoacid generation dynamics in extreme ultraviolet resist materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping-Jui; Wang, Yu-Fu; Chen, Wei-Chi; Wang, Chien-Wei; Cheng, Joy; Chang, Vencent; Chang, Ching-Yu; Lin, John; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2018-03-01

    The development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography towards the 22 nm node and beyond depends critically on the availability of resist materials that meet stringent control requirements in resolution, line edge roughness, and sensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the structure-function relationships in current EUV resist systems are not well understood. In particular, the nanoscale structures of the polymer base and the distributions of photoacid generators (PAGs) should play a critical roles in the performance of a resist system, yet currently available models for photochemical reactions in EUV resist systems are exclusively based on homogeneous bulk models that ignore molecular-level details of solid resist films. In this work, we investigate how microscopic molecular organizations in EUV resist affect photoacid generations in a bottom-up approach that describes structure-dependent electron-transfer dynamics in a solid film model. To this end, molecular dynamics simulations and stimulated annealing are used to obtain structures of a large simulation box containing poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) base polymers and triphenylsulfonium based PAGs. Our calculations reveal that ion-pair interactions govern the microscopic distributions of the polymer base and PAG molecules, resulting in a highly inhomogeneous system with nonuniform nanoscale chemical domains. Furthermore, the theoretical structures were used in combination of quantum chemical calculations and the Marcus theory to evaluate electron transfer rates between molecular sites, and then kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to model electron transfer dynamics with molecular structure details taken into consideration. As a result, the portion of thermalized electrons that are absorbed by the PAGs and the nanoscale spatial distribution of generated acids can be estimated. Our data reveal that the nanoscale inhomogeneous distributions of base polymers and PAGs strongly affect the

  18. Molecular, dynamic, and structural origin of inhomogeneous magnetization transfer in lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Scott D; Malyarenko, Dariya I; Fabiilli, Mario L; Welsh, Robert C; Nielsen, Jon-Fredrik; Srinivasan, Ashok

    2017-03-01

    To elucidate the dynamic, structural, and molecular properties that create inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) contrast. Amphiphilic lipids, lamellar phospholipids with cholesterol, and bovine spinal cord (BSC) specimens were examined along with nonlipid systems. Magnetization transfer (MT), enhanced MT (eMT, obtained with double-sided radiofrequency saturation), ihMT (MT - eMT), and dipolar relaxation, T 1D , were measured at 2.0 and 11.7 T. The amplitude of ihMT ratio (ihMTR) is positively correlated with T 1D values. Both ihMTR and T 1D increase with increasing temperature in BSC white matter and in phospholipids and decrease with temperature in other lipids. Changes in ihMTR with temperature arise primarily from alterations in MT rather than eMT. Spectral width of MT, eMT, and ihMT increases with increasing carbon chain length. Concerted motions of phospholipids in white matter decrease proton spin diffusion leading to increased proton T 1D times and increased ihMT amplitudes, consistent with decoupling of Zeeman and dipolar spin reservoirs. Molecular specificity and dynamic sensitivity of ihMT contrast make it a suitable candidate for probing myelin membrane disorders. Magn Reson Med 77:1318-1328, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, J.A.; Pendar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.

  20. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, J.A., E-mail: hannaj@vt.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Pendar, H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.

  1. Seasonal dynamic thinning at Helheim Glacier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevan, Suzanne L.; Luckman, Adrian; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    2015-01-01

    of 671±70kgm-3 and calculate that total water equivalent volume loss from the active part of the glacier (surface flow speeds >1 m day-1) ranges from 0.5 km3 in 2011 to 1.6 km3 in 2013. A rough ice-flux divergence analysis shows that at lower elevations (... the time series, that melt-induced acceleration is most likely the main driver of the seasonal dynamic thinning, as opposed to changes triggered by retreat....

  2. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, J. A.; Pendar, H.

    2016-02-01

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant.

  3. Inhomogeneous quenches in the transverse field Ising chain: scaling and front dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton Kormos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the non-equilibrium dynamics of the transverse field quantum Ising chain evolving from an inhomogeneous initial state given by joining two macroscopically different semi-infinite chains. We obtain integral expressions for all two-point correlation functions of the Jordan-Wigner Majorana fermions at any time and for any value of the transverse field. Using this result, we compute analytically the profiles of various physical observables in the space-time scaling limit and show that they can be obtained from a hydrodynamic picture based on ballistically propagating quasiparticles. Going beyond the hydrodynamic limit, we analyze the approach to the non-equilibrium steady state and find that the leading late time corrections display a lattice effect. We also study the fine structure of the propagating fronts which are found to be described by the Airy kernel and its derivatives. Near the front we observe the phenomenon of energy back-flow where the energy locally flows from the colder to the hotter region.

  4. Nonlinear Electrostatic Steepening of Whistler Waves: The Guiding Factors and Dynamics in Inhomogeneous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, O.; Drake, J. F.; Vasko, I.; Mozer, F. S.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Wygant, J.; Reeves, G. D.

    2018-03-01

    Whistler mode chorus waves are particularly important in outer radiation belt dynamics due to their key role in controlling the acceleration and scattering of electrons over a very wide energy range. The efficiency of wave-particle resonant interactions is defined by whistler wave properties which have been described by the approximation of plane linear waves propagating through the cold plasma of the inner magnetosphere. However, recent observations of extremely high-amplitude whistlers suggest the importance of nonlinear wave-particle interactions for the dynamics of the outer radiation belt. Oblique chorus waves observed in the inner magnetosphere often exhibit drastically nonsinusoidal (with significant power in the higher harmonics) waveforms of the parallel electric field, presumably due to the feedback from hot resonant electrons. We have considered the nature and properties of such nonlinear whistler waves observed by the Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions define during Substorms in the inner magnetosphere, and we show that the significant enhancement of the wave electrostatic component can result from whistler wave coupling with the beam-driven electrostatic mode through the resonant interaction with hot electron beams. Being modulated by a whistler wave, the electron beam generates a driven electrostatic mode significantly enhancing the parallel electric field of the initial whistler wave. We confirm this mechanism using a self-consistent particle-in-cell simulation. The nonlinear electrostatic component manifests properties of the beam-driven electron acoustic mode and can be responsible for effective electron acceleration in the inhomogeneous magnetic field.

  5. Dynamic and static correlation functions in the inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock-state approach with random-phase-approximation fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzana, J.; Grynberg, M.D.; Yu, L.; Yonemitsu, K.; Bishop, A.R.

    1992-11-01

    The ground state energy, and static and dynamic correlation functions are investigated in the inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock (HF) plus random phase approximation (RPA) approach applied to a one-dimensional spinless fermion model showing self-trapped doping states at the mean field level. Results are compared with homogeneous HF and exact diagonalization. RPA fluctuations added to the generally inhomogeneous HF ground state allows the computation of dynamical correlation functions that compare well with exact diagonalization results. The RPA correction to the ground state energy agrees well with the exact results at strong and weak coupling limits. We also compare it with a related quasi-boson approach. The instability towards self-trapped behaviour is signaled by a RPA mode with frequency approaching zero. (author). 21 refs, 10 figs

  6. Flapping dynamics of a thin liquid sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivukkarasan, M.; Kumaran, Dhivyaraja; Panchagnula, Mahesh; Multi-phase flow physics Group Team

    2017-11-01

    We attempt to delineate and describe the complete evolution of a thin soap film when air is blown through a nozzle in the normal direction. The sequence of events and its intrinsic dynamics are captured using high speed imaging. By careful observation, it was observed that multiple mechanisms occur in the same system and each event is triggered by an independent mechanism. The events include (a) flapping of a liquid sheet and pinching of the bubble, (b) onset of rupture on the liquid sheet, (c) formation of ligaments and (d) ejection of drops. From this study, it is shown that these events are predominantly governed by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, Taylor - Culick law, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and capillary instability, respectively. The present experiments can be considered as an extension to the previous studies on soap films as well as thin flapping sheets which has direct relevance to coaxial atomizers used in aircraft applications.

  7. Dynamics in thin folded polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Andrew; Rozairo, Damith

    Origami and Kirigami inspired structures depend on a complex interplay between geometry and material properties. While clearly important to the overall function, very little attention has focused on how extreme curvatures and singularities in real materials influence the overall dynamic behaviour of folded structures. In this work we use a set of three polymer thin films in order to closely examine the interaction of material and geometry. Specifically, we use polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) thin films which we subject to loading in several model geometries of varying complexity. Depending on the material, vastly different responses are noted in our experiments; D-cones can annihilate, cut or lead to a crumpling cascade when pushed through a film. Remarkably, order can be generated with additional perturbation. Finally, the role of adhesion in complex folded structures can be addressed. AFOSR under the Young Investigator Program (FA9550-15-1-0168).

  8. Potential and flux field landscape theory. II. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of spatially inhomogeneous stochastic dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    We have established a general non-equilibrium thermodynamic formalism consistently applicable to both spatially homogeneous and, more importantly, spatially inhomogeneous systems, governed by the Langevin and Fokker-Planck stochastic dynamics with multiple state transition mechanisms, using the potential-flux landscape framework as a bridge connecting stochastic dynamics with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A set of non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations, quantifying the relations of the non-equilibrium entropy, entropy flow, entropy production, and other thermodynamic quantities, together with their specific expressions, is constructed from a set of dynamical decomposition equations associated with the potential-flux landscape framework. The flux velocity plays a pivotal role on both the dynamic and thermodynamic levels. On the dynamic level, it represents a dynamic force breaking detailed balance, entailing the dynamical decomposition equations. On the thermodynamic level, it represents a thermodynamic force generating entropy production, manifested in the non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and more specific examples, the spatial stochastic neuronal model, in particular, are studied to test and illustrate the general theory. This theoretical framework is particularly suitable to study the non-equilibrium (thermo)dynamics of spatially inhomogeneous systems abundant in nature. This paper is the second of a series

  9. A DP based scheme for real-time reconfiguration of solar cell arrays exposed to dynamic changing inhomogeneous illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Liping; Brehm, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The overall energy conversion efficiency of solar cell arrays is highly effected by partial shading effects. Especially for solar panel arrays installed in environments which are exposed to inhomogeneous dynamic changing illuminations such as on roof tops of electrical vehicles the overall system...... efficiency is drastically reduced. Dynamic real-time reconfiguration of the solar panel array can reduce effects on the output efficiency due to partial shading. This results in a maximized power output of the panel array when exposed to dynamic changing illuminations. The optimal array configuration...... with respect to shading patterns can be stated as a combinatorial optimization problem and this paper proposes a dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm which finds the optimal feasible solution to reconfigure the solar panel array for maximum efficiency in real-time with linear time complexity. It is shown...

  10. On the dynamic buckling of thin shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combescure, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Homan, R.

    1986-10-01

    The shells of a pool type reactor like Super Phenix 1 or the Super Phenix 2 project are relatively thin compared to the diameter. Normal loads and mainly seismic loads due to strong fluid-structure interaction and giving pressure of the same order then static collapse pressure. This is a main difficulty for a good and safe design of LMFBR. The paper describes the experimental results obtained at CEA-DEMT on the seismic buckling of structures filled with fluid. A general tendency is given on all experimental results. The experimental results are analysed by two simple models and the main results are explained. A strategy to design a structure against dynamic buckling is then presented. 7 refs

  11. Dynamics of Peregrine combs and Peregrine walls in an inhomogeneous Hirota and Maxwell-Bloch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Zi-Qi; Sun, Wen-Rong; Shi, Yu-Ying; Li, Min; Xu, Min

    2017-06-01

    Under investigation in this paper is an inhomogeneous Hirota-Maxwell-Bloch (IHMB) system which can describe the propagation of optical solitons in an erbium-doped optical fiber. The breather multiple births (BMBs) are derived with periodically varying group velocity dispersion (GVD) coefficients. Under large periodic modulations in the GVD coefficient of IHMB system, the Peregrine comb (PC) solution is produced, which can be viewed as the limiting case of the BMBs. When the amplitude of the modulation satisfies a special condition, the Peregrine wall (PW) that can be regarded as an intermediate state between rogue wave and PC is obtained. The effects of the third-order dispersion on the spatiotemporal characteristics of PCs and PWs are studied. Our results may be useful for the experimental control and manipulation of the formation of generalized Peregrine rogue waves in inhomogeneous erbium-doped optical fiber.

  12. Inhomogeneous Low Frequency Spin Dynamics in La1.65Eu0.2Sr0.15CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curro, N. J.; Hammel, P. C.; Suh, B. J.; Huecker, M.; Buechner, B.; Ammerahl, U.; Revcolevschi, A.

    2000-01-01

    We report Cu and La nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in the title compound that reveal an inhomogeneous glassy behavior of the spin dynamics. A low temperature peak in the La spin lattice relaxation rate and the ''wipeout'' of Cu intensity both arise from these slow electronic spin fluctuations that reveal a distribution of activation energies. Inhomogeneous slowing of spin fluctuations appears to be a general feature of doped lanthanum cuprate. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  13. Effect of inhomogeneities on streamer propagation: II. Streamer dynamics in high pressure humid air with bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    The branching of electric discharge streamers in atmospheric pressure air, dense gases and liquids is a common occurrence whose origins are likely found with many causes, both deterministic and stochastic. One mechanism for streamer branching may be inhomogeneities in the path of a streamer which either divert the streamer (typically a region of lower ionization) or produce a new branch (a region of higher ionization). The propagation and branching of streamers in liquids is likely aided by low density inhomogeneities, bubbles; however, modeling of streamers in liquids is made difficult by the lack of transport coefficients. As a first step towards understanding the propagation and branching of streamers in liquids, we investigated the consequences of random inhomogeneities in the form of low pressure bubbles on the propagation of streamers in high pressure humid air. By virtue of their lower density, bubbles have larger E/N (electric field/gas number density) than the ambient gas with larger rates of ionization. The intersection of a streamer with a bubble will focus the plasma into the bubble by virtue of that higher rate of ionization but the details of the interaction depend on the relative sizes of the bubble and streamer. When a streamer intersects a field of bubbles, the large E/N in the bubble avalanches seed electrons produced by photoionization from the streamer. Each bubble then launches both a negative and positive going streamer that may link with those from adjacent bubbles or the original streamer. The total process then appears as streamer branching.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of thin current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughton, William

    2002-01-01

    Observations indicate that the current sheet in the Earth's geomagnetic tail may compress to a thickness comparable to an ion gyro-radius prior to substorm onset. In recent years, there has been considerable controversy regarding the kinetic stability of these thin structures. In particular, the growth rate of the kink instability and its relevance to magnetotail dynamics is still being debated. In this work, a series of fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations are performed for a thin Harris sheet. The ion to electron mass ratio is varied between m i /m e =4→400 and careful comparisons are made with a formally exact approach to the linear Vlasov theory. At low mass ratio m i /m e <64, the simulations are in excellent agreement with the linear theory, but at high mass ratio the kink instability is observed to grow more rapidly in the kinetic simulations than predicted by theory. The resolution to this apparent discrepancy involves the lower hybrid instability which is active on the edge of the sheet and rapidly produces nonlinear modifications to the initial equilibrium. The nature of this nonlinear deformation is characterized and a simple model is proposed to explain the physics. After the growth and saturation of the lower hybrid fluctuations, the deformed current sheet is similar in structure to a Harris equilibrium with an additional background population. This may explain the large growth rate of the kink instability at later times, since this type of modification to the Harris sheet has been shown to greatly enhance the growth rate of the kink mode

  15. Influence of B{sub 1}-inhomogeneity on pharmacokinetic modeling of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI: A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Bun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Se [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-08-01

    To simulate the B1-inhomogeneity-induced variation of pharmacokinetic parameters on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). B1-inhomogeneity-induced flip angle (FA) variation was estimated in a phantom study. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to assess the FA-deviation-induced measurement error of the pre-contrast R1, contrast-enhancement ratio, Gd-concentration, and two-compartment pharmacokinetic parameters (Ktrans, ve, and vp). B1-inhomogeneity resulted in −23–5% fluctuations (95% confidence interval [CI] of % error) of FA. The 95% CIs of FA-dependent % errors in the gray matter and blood were as follows: −16.7–61.8% and −16.7–61.8% for the pre-contrast R1, −1.0–0.3% and −5.2–1.3% for the contrast-enhancement ratio, and −14.2–58.1% and −14.1–57.8% for the Gd-concentration, respectively. These resulted in −43.1–48.4% error for Ktrans, −32.3–48.6% error for the ve, and −43.2–48.6% error for vp. The pre-contrast R1 was more vulnerable to FA error than the contrast-enhancement ratio, and was therefore a significant cause of the Gd-concentration error. For example, a −10% FA error led to a 23.6% deviation in the pre-contrast R1, −0.4% in the contrast-enhancement ratio, and 23.6% in the Gd-concentration. In a simulated condition with a 3% FA error in a target lesion and a −10% FA error in a feeding vessel, the % errors of the pharmacokinetic parameters were −23.7% for Ktrans, −23.7% for ve, and −23.7% for vp. Even a small degree of B1-inhomogeneity can cause a significant error in the measurement of pharmacokinetic parameters on DCE-MRI, while the vulnerability of the pre-contrast R1 calculations to FA deviations is a significant cause of the miscalculation.

  16. Dynamics of a spreading thin film with gravitational counterflow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    film climbing up on a vertical substrate against gravity shows interesting dynamics ... For the spreading of a thin film several theoretical studies have shown quantitative agree- ..... The two critical values of this param- ... Davis J M, Fischer B J and Troian S M 2003 A general approach to the linear stability of thin spreading.

  17. Big Bounce and inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizuela, David; Mena Marugan, Guillermo A; Pawlowski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of an inhomogeneous universe is studied with the methods of loop quantum cosmology, via a so-called hybrid quantization, as an example of the quantization of vacuum cosmological spacetimes containing gravitational waves (Gowdy spacetimes). The analysis of this model with an infinite number of degrees of freedom, performed at the effective level, shows that (i) the initial Big Bang singularity is replaced (as in the case of homogeneous cosmological models) by a Big Bounce, joining deterministically two large universes, (ii) the universe size at the bounce is at least of the same order of magnitude as that of the background homogeneous universe and (iii) for each gravitational wave mode, the difference in amplitude at very early and very late times has a vanishing statistical average when the bounce dynamics is strongly dominated by the inhomogeneities, whereas this average is positive when the dynamics is in a near-vacuum regime, so that statistically the inhomogeneities are amplified. (fast track communication)

  18. Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium doped fiber laser in the inhomogeneous model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyvaninia, Sh.; Karvar, M.; Bahrampour, A.

    2006-01-01

    In a high concentration erbium doped fiber, the erbium ions are so closed together that the ion pairs and clusters are formed. In such fiber amplifiers, the ion pairs and clusters acting as a saturable absorber are distributed along the fiber laser. The inhomogeneous rate equations for the laser modes in a high-concentration EDFA are written. The governing equations are an uncountable system of partial differential equations. For the first time we introduced an approximation method that the system of partial differential equations is converted to a finite system of ordinary differential equations. The effects of ion pairs concentration on erbium doped fiber are analyzed that is in good agreement whit the experimental result.

  19. Inhomogeneous distribution of manganese atoms in ferromagnetic ZnSnAs{sub 2}:Mn thin films on InP revealed by three-dimensional atom probe investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchitomi, Naotaka, E-mail: uchitomi@nagaokaut.ac.jp; Inoue, Hiroaki; Kato, Takahiro; Toyota, Hideyuki [Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Uchida, Hiroshi [Toshiba Nanoanalysis Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    Atomic-scale Mn distributions in ferromagnetic ZnSnAs{sub 2}:Mn thin films grown on InP substrates have been studied by applying three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) microscopy. It is found that Mn atoms in cross-sectional 3DAP maps show the presence of inhomogeneities in Mn distribution, which is characteristic patterns of a spinoidal decomposition phase with slightly high and low concentration regions. The high Mn concentration regions are expected to be coherently clustered MnAs in the zinc-blende structure, resulting in the formation of Mn-As random connecting patterns. The origin of room-temperature ferromagnetism in ZnSnAs{sub 2}:Mn on InP can be well explained by the formation of atomic-scale magnetic clustering by spinoidal decomposition without breaking the continuity of the zinc-blende structure, which has been suggested by previous theoretical works. The lattice-matching between magnetic epi-layers and substrates should be one of the most important factors to avoid the formation of secondary hexagonal MnAs phase precipitates in preparing ferromagnetic semiconductor thin films.

  20. Pinning in high performance MgB{sub 2} thin films and bulks: Role of Mg-B-O nano-scale inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikhna, Tatiana, E-mail: prikhna@mail.ru [Institute for Superhard Materials of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine , 2, Avtozavodskaya Str. , Kiev 07074 (Ukraine); Shapovalov, Andrey [Institute for Superhard Materials of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine , 2, Avtozavodskaya Str. , Kiev 07074 (Ukraine); Eisterer, Michael [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Shaternik, Vladimir [G.V. Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 Academician Vernadsky blvd., Kiev, 03680 (Ukraine); Goldacker, Wilfried [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein (Germany); Weber, Harald W. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Moshchil, Viktor; Kozyrev, Artem; Sverdun, Vladimir [Institute for Superhard Materials of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine , 2, Avtozavodskaya Str. , Kiev 07074 (Ukraine); Boutko, Viktor [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering named after O.O. Galkin of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, R. Luxemburg str.72, Donetsk-114, 83114 (Ukraine); Grechnev, Gennadiy [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47, Prospekt Nauky, Kharkiv 61103 (Ukraine); Gusev, Alexandr [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering named after O.O. Galkin of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, R. Luxemburg str.72, Donetsk-114, 83114 (Ukraine); Kovylaev, Valeriy; Shaternik, Anton [Institute for Superhard Materials of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine , 2, Avtozavodskaya Str. , Kiev 07074 (Ukraine)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Pinning in MgB{sub 2} depends on the Mg-B-O nano-scaled inhomogeneities. • Finer oxygen-enriched inhomogeneities is the reason of the higher J{sub c} in MgB{sub 2} thin films as compared to bulk. • The results of DOS calculations for MgB{sub 2-x}O{sub x} compounds demonstrate that they have metal-like behavior. • Ordered oxygen distribution in MgB{sub 2} (in pairs or zigzags) reduces binding energy. - Abstract: The comparison of nano-crystalline MgB{sub 2} oxygen-containing thin film (140 nm) and highly dense bulk materials showed that the critical current density, J{sub c}, depends on the distribution of Mg-B-O nano-scale inhomogeneities. It has been shown that MgB{sub 2} bulks with high J{sub c} in low (∼10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} in 0-1 T at 10 K) and medium magnetic fields contain MgB{sub 0.6-0.8}O{sub 0.8-0.9} nano-inclusions, where δT{sub c} or a combined δT{sub c} (dominant) / δ{sub l} pinning mechanism prevails, while in bulk MgB{sub 2} with high J{sub c} in high magnetic fields (B{sub irr}(18.5 K) = 15 T, B{sub c2}(0 K) = 42.1 T) MgB{sub 1.2-2.7}O{sub 1.8-2.5} nano-layers are present and δ{sub l} pinning prevails. The structure of oxygen-containing films with high J{sub c} in low and high magnetic fields (J{sub c} (0 T) = 1.8 × 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2} and J{sub c} (5 T) = 2 × 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} at 10 K) contains very fine oxygen-enriched Mg-B-O inhomogeneities and δ{sub l} pinning is realized. The results of DOS calculations in MgB{sub 2-x}O{sub x} cells for x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 demonstrate that all compounds are conductors with metal-like behaviour. In the case of ordered oxygen substitution for boron the binding energy, E{sub b}, does not increase sufficiently as compared with that for MgB{sub 2}, while when oxygen atoms form zigzag chains the calculated E{sub b} is even lower (E{sub b} = −1.15712 Ry).

  1. Chromatically encoded high-speed photography of cavitation bubble dynamics inside inhomogeneous ophthalmic tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinne, N.; Matthias, B.; Kranert, F.; Wetzel, C.; Krüger, A.; Ripken, T.

    2016-03-01

    The interaction effect of photodisruption, which is used for dissection of biological tissue with fs-laser pulses, has been intensively studied inside water as prevalent sample medium. In this case, the single effect is highly reproducible and, hence, the method of time-resolved photography is sufficiently applicable. In contrast, the reproducibility significantly decreases analyzing more solid and anisotropic media like biological tissue. Therefore, a high-speed photographic approach is necessary in this case. The presented study introduces a novel technique for high-speed photography based on the principle of chromatic encoding. For illumination of the region of interest within the sample medium, the light paths of up to 12 LEDs with various emission wavelengths are overlaid via optical filters. Here, MOSFET-electronics provide a LED flash with a duration diodes are externally triggered with a distinct delay for every LED. Furthermore, the different illumination wavelengths are chromatically separated again for detection via camera chip. Thus, the experimental setup enables the generation of a time-sequence of laser-tissue interaction inside anisotropic biological tissue and for the optimization of the surgical process with high-repetition rate fs-lasers. Additionally, this application is also suitable for the investigation of other microscopic, ultra-fast events in transparent inhomogeneous materials.

  2. Methodology for studying strain inhomogeneities in polycrystalline thin films during in situ thermal loading using coherent x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaxelaire, N; Labat, S; Thomas, O [Aix-Marseille University, IM2NP, FST avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, F-13397 Marseille Cedex (France); Proudhon, H; Forest, S [MINES ParisTech, Centre des materiaux, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Kirchlechner, C; Keckes, J [Erich Schmid Institute for Material Science, Austrian Academy of Science and Institute of Metal Physics, University of Leoben, Jahnstrasse 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Jacques, V; Ravy, S [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: nicolas.vaxelaire@univ-cezanne.fr

    2010-03-15

    Coherent x-ray diffraction is used to investigate the mechanical properties of a single grain within a polycrystalline thin film in situ during a thermal cycle. Both the experimental approach and finite element simulation are described. Coherent diffraction from a single grain has been monitored in situ at different temperatures. This experiment offers unique perspectives for the study of the mechanical properties of nano-objects.

  3. Methodology for studying strain inhomogeneities in polycrystalline thin films during in situ thermal loading using coherent x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaxelaire, N; Labat, S; Thomas, O; Proudhon, H; Forest, S; Kirchlechner, C; Keckes, J; Jacques, V; Ravy, S

    2010-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction is used to investigate the mechanical properties of a single grain within a polycrystalline thin film in situ during a thermal cycle. Both the experimental approach and finite element simulation are described. Coherent diffraction from a single grain has been monitored in situ at different temperatures. This experiment offers unique perspectives for the study of the mechanical properties of nano-objects.

  4. Phenomenological constraints on Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi cosmological inhomogeneities from solar system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2010-06-01

    We, first, analytically work out the long-term, i.e. averaged over one orbital revolution, perturbations on the orbit of a test particle moving in a local Fermi frame induced therein by the cosmological tidal effects of the inhomogeneous Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) model. The LTB solution has recently attracted attention, among other things, as a possible explanation of the observed cosmic acceleration without resorting to dark energy. Then, we phenomenologically constrain both the parameters K1 doteq ddot frakR / frakR and K2 doteq ddot frakR' / frakR' of the LTB metric in the Fermi frame by using different kinds of solar system data. The corrections Δdot varpi to the standard Newtonian/Einsteinian precessions of the perihelia of the inner planets recently estimated with the EPM ephemerides, compared to our predictions for them, yield preliminarily K1 = (4±8) × 10-26 s-2, K2 = (3±7) × 10-23 s-2. The residuals of the Cassini-based Earth-Saturn range, compared with the numerically integrated LTB range signature, allow to preliminarily obtain K1 approx K2 approx 10-27 s-2. Actually, the LTB effects should be explicitly modeled in the ephemerides softwares, so that the entire planetary and spacecraft data sets should be accordingly re-processed. The LTB-induced distortions of the orbit of a typical object of the Oort cloud with respect to the commonly accepted Newtonian picture, based on the observations of the comet showers from that remote region of the solar system, point towards K1 approx K2lesssim10-30-10-32 s-2. Such figures have to be compared with those inferred from cosmological data which are of the order of K1 approx K2 = -4 × 10-36 s-2.

  5. Dynamics of Inhomogeneous Shell Systems Under Non-Stationary Loading (Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovoi, P. Z.; Meish, V. F.

    2017-09-01

    Experimental works on the determination of dynamics of smooth and stiffened cylindrical shells contacting with a soil medium under various non-stationary loading are reviewed. The results of studying three-layer shells of revolution whose motion equations are obtained within the framework of the hypotheses of the Timoshenko geometrically nonlinear theory are stated. The numerical results for shells with a piecewise or discrete filler enable the analysis of estimation of the influence of geometrical and physical-mechanical parameters of structures on their dynamics and reveal new mechanical effects. Basing on the classical theory of shells and rods, the effect of the discrete arrangement of ribs and coefficients of the Winkler or Pasternak elastic foundation on the normal frequencies and modes of rectangular planar cylindrical and spherical shells is studied. The number and shape of dispersion curves for longitudinal harmonic waves in a stiffened cylindrical shell are determined. The equations of vibrations of ribbed shells of revolution on Winkler or Pasternak elastic foundation are obtained using the geometrically nonlinear theory and the Timoshenko hypotheses. On applying the integral-interpolational method, numerical algorithms are developed and the corresponding non-stationary problems are solved. The special attention is paid to the statement and solution of coupled problems on the dynamical interaction of cylindrical or spherical shells with the soil water-saturated medium of different structure.

  6. Competition of Dynamic Self-Confidence and Inhomogeneous Individual Influence in Voter Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xiong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In social systems, agents often have different ability to persuade neighbors to adopt their opinions. In this paper, we aim to investigate how the location and heterogeneity of influencers in social networks can improve convergence. We propose a voter model with dynamic self-conviction and heterogeneous individual influence which is related to the underlying network topology. An agent may keep its current opinion according to personal conviction, or otherwise, it may preferentially choose the opinion of the neighbor that has a great influence. Individual conviction evolves during the dynamic process, and can be strengthened by social recognition. Simulations indicate our model has three nontrivial results. First, the conservation of average magnetization in the voter model is broken under the effect of individual conviction and influence, and the system evolves to an ordered state in which one opinion is dominant, but total consensus is prevented by extremists. Furthermore, individual influence has a subtle action on opinion evolution. The heterogeneity of individual influence accelerates the relaxation process, but, with the action of dynamic conviction, more heterogeneous influence does not mean the average magnetization will be more ordered. In addition, when competing with agents’ conviction, more heterogeneous individual influence plays a more significant role in agents’ decisions. These results are helpful for understanding some aspects of collective phenomena that occur on online social media.

  7. Instability and dynamics of volatile thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hangjie; Witelski, Thomas P.

    2018-02-01

    Volatile viscous fluids on partially wetting solid substrates can exhibit interesting interfacial instabilities and pattern formation. We study the dynamics of vapor condensation and fluid evaporation governed by a one-sided model in a low-Reynolds-number lubrication approximation incorporating surface tension, intermolecular effects, and evaporative fluxes. Parameter ranges for evaporation-dominated and condensation-dominated regimes and a critical case are identified. Interfacial instabilities driven by the competition between the disjoining pressure and evaporative effects are studied via linear stability analysis. Transient pattern formation in nearly flat evolving films in the critical case is investigated. In the weak evaporation limit unstable modes of finite-amplitude nonuniform steady states lead to rich droplet dynamics, including flattening, symmetry breaking, and droplet merging. Numerical simulations show that long-time behaviors leading to evaporation or condensation are sensitive to transitions between filmwise and dropwise dynamics.

  8. Collapse dynamics of a vector vortex optical field with inhomogeneous states of polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Rui-Pin; Zhao, Ting-Yu; Zhang, Xiaobo; Zhong, Li-Xin; Chew, Khian-Hooi

    2015-01-01

    Based on a pair of coupled 2D nonlinear Schrödinger equations, the collapse dynamics of a vector field with hybrid states of polarization (SoP) in a Kerr medium is demonstrated. The critical power for an optical field to collapse is present, and the full vectorial numerical simulations provide detailed information about the evolution and partial collapse of the vector field in a Kerr medium. Our results reveal that the optical field prefers to collapse in linearly-polarization, as a result of the self-focusing effect difference in linearly, elliptically and circularly polarized components. The SoP in the field cross-section changes and propagates with a spiral trajectory when the vector beams are imposed with a vortex. The vectorial effect on the collapse of a vector optical field can prevail over the noise even though it reaches 10% amplitude of the optical field. The unique feature of these structured collapses of a vector optical field may lead to new phenomena in the interaction of light with matter. (paper)

  9. Dynamic Characterization of Thin Deformable PVDF Mirror

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trad, Eric M

    2005-01-01

    ... of -2.1 micro with a standard deviation of 0.33 micro when 400 volts are applied. The acquisition system was characterized for dynamic actuation of the surface and found to have a sample rate ranging from 4 to 14 Hz. This rate is found to be dependent upon the desired detail level of the surface description as calculated by the wavefront analysis software.

  10. Breakdown dynamics of electrically exploding thin metal wires in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, G. S.; Caplinger, J.; Parada, F.; Sotnikov, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    Using a two-frame intensified charge coupled device (iCCD) imaging system with a 2 ns exposure time, we observed the dynamics of voltage breakdown and corona generation in experiments of fast ns-time exploding fine Ni and stainless-steel (SS) wires in a vacuum. These experiments show that corona generation along the wire surface is subjected to temporal-spatial inhomogeneity. For both metal wires, we observed an initial generation of a bright cathode spot before the ionization of the entire wire length. This cathode spot does not expand with time. For 25.4 μm diameter Ni and SS wire explosions with positive polarity, breakdown starts from the ground anode and propagates to the high voltage cathode with speeds approaching 3500 km/s or approximately one percent of light speed.

  11. Inhomogeneous superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinkham, M.

    1978-01-01

    The coherence length xi and penetration depth lambda set the characteristic length scales in superconductors, typically 100 to 5,000 A. A lattice of flux lines, each carrying a single quantum, can penetrate type II superconductors, i.e., those for which kappa identical with lambda/xi > 1/√2. Inhomogeneities on the scale of the flux lattice spacing are required to pin the lattice to prevent dissipative flux motion. Recent work using voids as pinning centers has demonstrated this principle, but practical materials rely on cold-work, inclusions of second phases, etc., to provide the inhomogeneity. For stability against thermal fluctuations, the superconductor should have the form of many filaments of diameter 10 to 100 μm imbedded in a highly conductive normal metal matrix. Such wire is made by drawing down billets of copper containing rods of the superconductor. An alternative approach is the metallurgical one of Tsuei, which leads to thousands of superconducting filamentary segments in a copper matrix. The superconducting proximity effect causes the whole material to superconduct at low current densities. At high current densities, the range of the proximity effect is reduced so that the effective superconducting volume fraction falls below the percolation threshold, and a finite resistance arises from the copper matrix. But, because of the extremely elongated filaments, this resistance is orders of magnitude lower than that of the normal wire, and low enough to permit the possibility of technical applications

  12. Calculation of Distribution Dynamics of Inhomogeneous Temperature Field in Range of Fuel Elements by Using FreeFem++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosova, E. V.; Shishkin, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    This article introduces the result of studying the heat exchange in the fuel element of the nuclear reactor fuel magazine. Fuel assemblies are completed as a bundle of cylindrical fuel elements located at the tops of a regular triangle. Uneven distribution of fuel rods in a nuclear reactor’s core forms the inhomogeneity of temperature fields. This article describes the developed method for heat exchange calculation with the account for impact of an inhomogeneous temperature field on the thermal-physical properties of materials and unsteady effects. The acquired calculation results are used for evaluating the tolerable temperature levels in protective case materials.

  13. Adhesion Dynamics in Probing Micro- and Nanoscale Thin Solid Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on modeling the probe dynamics in scratching and indenting thin solid films at micro- and nanoscales. The model identifies bifurcation conditions that define the stick-slip oscillation patterns of the tip. It is found that the local energy fluctuations as a function of the inelastic deformation, defect formation, material properties, and contact parameters determine the oscillation behavior. The transient variation of the localized function makes the response nonlinear at the adhesion junction. By quantifying the relation between the bifurcation parameters and the oscillation behavior, this model gives a realistic representation of the complex adhesion dynamics. Specifically, the model establishes the link between the stick-slip behavior and the inelastic deformation and the local potentials. This model justifies the experimental observations and the molecular dynamics simulation of the adhesion and friction dynamics in both the micro- and nanoscale contact.

  14. Dynamic studies of nano-confined polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Kun

    Polymer thin films with the film thickness (h0 ) below 100 nm often exhibit physical properties different from the bulk counterparts. In order to make the best use of polymer thin films in applications, it is important to understand the physical origins of these deviations. In this dissertation, I will investigate how different factors influence dynamic properties of polymer thin films upon nano-confinement, including glass transition temperature (Tg), effective viscosity (etaeff) and self-diffusion coefficient (D ). The first part of this dissertation concerns the impacts of the molecular weight (MW) and tacticity on the Tg's of nano-confined polymer films. Previous experiments showed that the Tg of polymer films could be depressed or increased as h0 decreases. While these observations are usually attributed to the effects of the interfaces, some experiments suggested that MW's and tacticities might also play a role. To understand the effects of these factors, the Tg's of silica-based poly(alpha-methyl styrene) (PalphaMS/SiOx) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA/SiOx) thin films were studied, and the results suggested that MW's and tacticities influence Tg in nontrivial ways. The second part concerns an effort to resolve the long-standing controversy about the correlation between different dynamics of polymer thin films upon nano-confinement. Firstly, I discuss the experimental results of Tg, D and etaeff of poly(isobutyl methacrylate) films supported by silica (PiBMA/SiOx). Both T g and D were found to be independent of h 0, but etaeff decreased with decreasing h 0. Since both D and etaeff describe transport phenomena known to depend on the local friction coefficient or equivalently the local viscosity, it is questionable why D and etaeff displayed seemingly inconsistent h 0 dependencies. We envisage the different h0 dependencies to be caused by Tg, D and etaeff being different functions of the local T g's (Tg,i) or viscosities (eta i). By assuming a three

  15. Dynamic response of interacting one-dimensional fermions in the harmonic atom trap: Phase response and the inhomogeneous mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wonneberger, W.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of the Kohn mode in bosonized theories of one-dimensional interacting fermions in the harmonic trap is investigated and a suitable modification of the interaction is proposed which preserves the Kohn mode. The modified theory is used to calculate exactly the inhomogeneous linear mobility μ(z,z 0 ;ω) at position z in response to a spatial force pulse at position z 0 . It is found that the inhomogeneous particle mobility exhibits resonances not only at the trap frequency ω - bar but also at multiples mε-bar , m=2,3,... of a new renormalized collective mode frequency which depends on the strength of the interaction. In contrast, the homogeneous response obtained by an average over z 0 remains that of the non-interacting system

  16. The Dynamic Similitude Design Method of Thin Walled Structures and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the applicability of dynamic similitude models of thin walled structures, such as engine blades, turbine discs, and cylindrical shells, the dynamic similitude design of typical thin walled structures is investigated. The governing equation of typical thin walled structures is firstly unified, which guides to establishing dynamic scaling laws of typical thin walled structures. Based on the governing equation, geometrically complete scaling law of the typical thin walled structure is derived. In order to determine accurate distorted scaling laws of typical thin walled structures, three principles are proposed and theoretically proved by combining the sensitivity analysis and governing equation. Taking the thin walled annular plate as an example, geometrically complete and distorted scaling laws can be obtained based on the principles of determining dynamic scaling laws. Furthermore, the previous five orders’ accurate distorted scaling laws of thin walled annular plates are presented and numerically validated. Finally, the effectiveness of the similitude design method is validated by experimental annular plates.

  17. Texture evolution in thin-sheets on AISI 301 metastable stainless steel under dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.Y. [Posco Steels, Pohan, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kozaczek, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kulkarni, S.M. [TRW Vehicle Safety Systems, Mesa, AZ (United States); Bastias, P.C.; Hahn, G.T. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1995-05-08

    The evolution of texture in thin sheets of metastable austenitic stainless steel AISI 301 is affected by external conditions such as loading rate and temperature, by inhomogeneous deformation phenomena such as twinning and shear band formation, and by the concurent strain induced phase transformation of the retained austenitc ({gamma}) into martensite ({alpha}). The present paper describes texture measurements on different gauges of AISI 301 prior and after uniaxial stretching under different conditions.

  18. Dynamics of space and polarization charges of ferroelectric thin films measured by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y.J.; Lee, J.H.; Jo, W.

    2006-01-01

    Retention behavior and local hysteresis characteristics in Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) thin films on Pt electrodes have been investigated by electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). A sol-gel method is used to synthesize PZT thin films and drying conditions are carefully explored over a wide range of temperature. Decay and retention mechanisms of single-poled and reverse-poled regions of the ferroelectric thin films are explained by space charge redistribution. Trapping behavior of space charges is dependent on the nature of interface between ferroelectric thin films and bottom electrodes. Local measurement of polarization-electric field curves by EFM shows inhomogeneous space charge entrapment

  19. The influence of the surface topography on the magnetization dynamics in soft magnetic thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craus, CB; Palasantzas, G; Chezan, AR; De Hosson, JTM; Boerma, DO; Niesen, L

    2005-01-01

    In this work we study the influence of surface roughness on the magnetization dynamics of soft magnetic nanocrystalline Fe-Zr-N thin films deposited (under identical conditions) onto a Si oxide, a thin polymer layer, and a thin Cu layer. The substrate temperature during deposition was approximately

  20. Low-field vortex dynamics in various high-Tc thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present a novel ac susceptibility technique for the study of vortex creep in supercon- ducting thin films. With this technique we study the dynamics of dilute vortices in c-axis oriented. Y-123, Hg-1212, and Tl-1212 thin films, as well as a-axis oriented Hg-1212 thin films. Results on the Hg-1212 and Tl-1212 thin ...

  1. Long-lived radicals produced by γ-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein solution: their observation and inhomogeneous decay dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Morikawa, Akiyuki; Kumagai, Jun; Ikehata, Masateru; Koana, Takao; Kikuchi, Shoshi

    2002-01-01

    Long-lived radicals produced by γ-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein (albumin) solution were studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Long-lived radicals produced by vital activity exist in biological systems, such as plants, animals, and cells, in the range of 0.1-20 nmol g -1 . Since vital organs keep the radicals at a constant concentration, the radicals are probably related to life conservation. Long-lived radicals are also produced by γ-irradiation of cells or protein solution. The radicals decay after death of living things or after γ-irradiation. We found that the decay dynamics in all biological systems can be expressed by the same kinetic equation of an inhomogeneous reaction

  2. Inhomogeneous nucleation and domain wall motion with Barkhausen avalanches in epitaxial PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Mo; Kim, Hun Ho; Kim, Tae Heon; Kim, Ik Joo; Yoon, Jong Gul

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the ferroelectric (FE) domain nucleation and domain wall motion in epitaxial PbZr 0.4 Ti 0.6 O 3 capacitors by using modified piezoresponse force microscopy with the domain-tracing method. From time-dependent FE domain evolution images, we observed that defect-mediated inhomogeneous nucleation occurred with a stochastic nature. In addition, we found that the number of nuclei N(t) was linearly proportional to log t, where t is the accumulated time of the applied pulse fields. The time-dependence of N(t) suggests a distribution of energy barriers for nucleation, which may determine the stochastic nature of domain nucleation. We also observed that the domain grew with consecutive Barkhausen avalanches and that the growth direction became anisotropic when the domain radius was larger than a critical radius of about 100 nm.

  3. Charge carrier dynamics in thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strothkaemper, Christian

    2013-06-24

    This work investigates the charge carrier dynamics in three different technological approaches within the class of thin film solar cells: radial heterojunctions, the dye solar cell, and microcrystalline CuInSe{sub 2}, focusing on charge transport and separation at the electrode, and the relaxation of photogenerated charge carriers due to recombination and energy dissipation to the phonon system. This work relies mostly on optical-pump terahertz-probe (OPTP) spectroscopy, followed by transient absorption (TA) and two-photon photoemission (2PPE). The charge separation in ZnO-electrode/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-absorber core/shell nanorods, which represent a model system of a radial heterojunction, is analyzed by OPTP. It is concluded, that the dynamics in the absorber are determined by multiple trapping, which leads to a dispersive charge transport to the electrode that lasts over hundreds of picoseconds. The high trap density on the order of 10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} is detrimental for the injection yield, which exhibits a decrease with increasing shell thickness. The heterogeneous electron transfer from a series of model dyes into ZnO proceeds on a time-scale of 200 fs. However, the photoconductivity builds up just on a 2-10 ps timescale, and 2PPE reveals that injected electrons are meanwhile localized spatially and energetically at the interface. It is concluded that the injection proceeds through adsorbate induced interface states. This is an important result because the back reaction from long lived interface states can be expected to be much faster than from bulk states. While the charge transport in stoichiometric CuInSe{sub 2} thin films is indicative of free charge carriers, CuInSe{sub 2} with a solar cell grade composition (Cu-poor) exhibits signs of carrier localization. This detrimental effect is attributed to a high density of charged defects and a high degree of compensation, which together create a spatially fluctuating potential that inhibits charge transport. On

  4. Dynamic range of atomically thin vibrating nanomechanical resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zenghui; Feng, Philip X.-L.

    2014-01-01

    Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) crystals offer attractive properties for making resonant nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) operating at high frequencies. While the fundamental limits of linear operation in such systems are important, currently there is very little quantitative knowledge of the linear dynamic range (DR) and onset of nonlinearity in these devices, which are different than in conventional 1D NEMS such as nanotubes and nanowires. Here, we present theoretical analysis and quantitative models that can be directly used to predict the DR of vibrating 2D circular drumhead NEMS resonators. We show that DR has a strong dependence ∝10log(E Y 3/2 ρ 3D -1/2 rtε 5/2 ) on device parameters, in which strain ε plays a particularly important role in these 2D systems, dominating over dimensions (radius r, thickness t). This study formulizes the effects from device physical parameters upon DR and sheds light on device design rules toward achieving high DR in 2D NEMS vibrating at radio and microwave frequencies

  5. DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SHOCK LOADED THIN URANIUM FOILS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, D.L.; Kelly, A.M.; Alexander, D.J.; Hanrahan, R.J.; Snow, R.C.; Gehr, R.J.; Rupp, Ted Dean; Sheffield, S.A.; Stahl, D.B.

    2001-01-01

    A series of spall experiments has been completed with thin depleted uranium targets, nominally 0.1 mm thick. The first set of uranium spall targets was cut and ground to final thickness from electro-refined, high-purity, cast uranium. The second set was rolled to final thickness from low purity uranium. The impactors for these experiments were laser-launched 0.05-mm thick copper flyers, 3 mm in diameter. Laser energies were varied to yield a range of flyer impact velocities. This resulted in varying degrees of damage to the uranium spall targets, from deformation to complete spall or separation at the higher velocities. Dynamic measurements of the uranium target free surface velocities were obtained with dual velocity interferometers. Uranium targets were recovered and sectioned after testing. Free surface velocity profiles were similar for the two types of uranium, but spall strengths (estimated from the magnitude of the pull-back signal) are higher for the high-purity cast uranium. Velocity profiles and microstructural evidence of spall from the sectioned uranium targets are presented.

  6. Dislocation dynamics modelling of radiation damage in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferroni, Francesco; Tarleton, Edmund; Fitzgerald, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy is a key tool for the extraction of information on radiation damage, the understanding of which is critical for materials development for nuclear fusion and fission reactors. Dislocations in TEM samples are subject to strong image forces, owing to the nanometric sample thicknesses, which may introduce artifacts in the damage analysis. Using dislocation dynamics, we elucidate the roles played by dislocation–surface interactions, dislocation–dislocation interactions and self-interactions due to climb for loop types observed in TEM. Comparisons with analytic solutions for a dislocation loop and an edge dislocation in a half-space are included, and the relationship between glide force and loop tilt examined. The parameters for convergence of the zero-traction boundary conditions are obtained, after which the evolution of dislocation structures in a thin film is studied. It is found that three main length scales govern the physical processes: the image force is governed by the distance of the loop from the surface and scales with the film thickness; the glide force is governed by the image stress as well as the loop–loop interaction stress which is in turn governed by the loop spacing L∼1/√ρ, where ρ is the loop density; finally, the climb force depends on the loop size. The three forces compete and their relative magnitudes define the evolution pathway of the dislocation structure. (paper)

  7. Simple inhomogeneous cosmological (toy) models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidro, Eddy G. Chirinos; Zimdahl, Winfried; Vargas, Cristofher Zuñiga

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) metric we consider two flat inhomogeneous big-bang models. We aim at clarifying, as far as possible analytically, basic features of the dynamics of the simplest inhomogeneous models and to point out the potential usefulness of exact inhomogeneous solutions as generalizations of the homogeneous configurations of the cosmological standard model. We discuss explicitly partial successes but also potential pitfalls of these simplest models. Although primarily seen as toy models, the relevant free parameters are fixed by best-fit values using the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA)-sample data. On the basis of a likelihood analysis we find that a local hump with an extension of almost 2 Gpc provides a better description of the observations than a local void for which we obtain a best-fit scale of about 30 Mpc. Future redshift-drift measurements are discussed as a promising tool to discriminate between inhomogeneous configurations and the ΛCDM model.

  8. Perturbed soliton excitations in inhomogeneous DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, M.; Vasumathi, V.

    2005-05-01

    We study nonlinear dynamics of inhomogeneous DNA double helical chain under dynamic plane-base rotator model by considering angular rotation of bases in a plane normal to the helical axis. The DNA dynamics in this case is found to be governed by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation when taking into account the interstrand hydrogen bonding energy and intrastrand inhomogeneous stacking energy and making an analogy with the Heisenberg model of the Hamiltonian for an inhomogeneous anisotropic spin ladder with ferromagnetic legs and antiferromagentic rung coupling. In the homogeneous limit the dynamics is governed by the kink-antikink soliton of the sine-Gordon equation which represents the formation of open state configuration in DNA double helix. The effect of inhomogeneity in stacking energy in the form of localized and periodic variations on the formation of open states in DNA is studied under perturbation. The perturbed soliton is obtained using a multiple scale soliton perturbation theory by solving the associated linear eigen value problem and constructing the complete set of eigen functions. The inhomogeneity in stacking energy is found to modulate the width and speed of the soliton depending on the nature of inhomogeneity. Also it introduces fluctuations in the form of train of pulses or periodic oscillation in the open state configuration (author)

  9. On a Nonlocal Ostrovsky-Whitham Type Dynamical System, Its Riemann Type Inhomogeneous Regularizations and Their Integrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Golenia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-wave perturbations in a relaxing medium, governed by a special reduction of the Ostrovsky evolution equation, and later derived by Whitham, are studied using the gradient-holonomic integrability algorithm. The bi-Hamiltonicity and complete integrability of the corresponding dynamical system is stated and an infinite hierarchy of commuting to each other conservation laws of dispersive type are found. The well defined regularization of the model is constructed and its Lax type integrability is discussed. A generalized hydrodynamical Riemann type system is considered, infinite hierarchies of conservation laws, related compatible Poisson structures and a Lax type representation for the special case N=3 are constructed.

  10. Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-04-20

    The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a non-perturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely...

  11. Dynamics of ferroelectric nanodomains in BaTiO3 epitaxial thin films via piezoresponse force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsev, N A; Petraru, A; Kohlstedt, H; Waser, R; Bdikin, I K; Kiselev, D; Kholkin, A L

    2008-01-01

    Ferroelectric nanodomains were created in BaTiO 3 thin films by applying a voltage to a sharp conducting tip of a scanning force microscope (SFM). The films were epitaxially grown on SrRuO 3 -covered (001)-oriented SrTiO 3 substrates by a high-pressure sputtering. They appeared to be single-crystalline with the (001) crystallographic orientation relative to the substrate. Using the piezoresponse mode of the SFM to detect the out-of-plane film polarization, the domain sizes were measured as a function of the applied writing voltage and the pulse time. It was found that the time dependence of the domain diameter in a 60 nm thick BaTiO 3 film deviates significantly from the logarithmic law observed earlier in Pb(Zr 0.2 Ti 0.8 )O 3 (PZT) films. At a given writing time, the domain size increases nonlinearly with increasing applied voltage, in contrast to the linear behavior reported earlier for PZT films and LiNbO 3 single crystals. The dynamics of domain growth is analyzed theoretically taking into account the strong inhomogeneity of the external electric field in the film and the influence of the bottom electrode. It is shown that the observed writing time and voltage dependences of the domain size can be explained by the domain-wall creep in the presence of random-bond disorder

  12. Carrier dynamics in inhomogeneously broadened InAs/AlGaInAs/InP quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karni, O., E-mail: oulrik@tx.technion.ac.il; Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Kuchar, K. J. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw 50-370 (Poland); Capua, A. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, 95120 California (United States); Sęk, G.; Misiewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw 50-370 (Poland); Ivanov, V.; Reithmaier, J. P. [Technische Physik, Institute of Nanostructure Technology and Analytics, CINSaT, University of Kassel, Kassel D-34132 (Germany)

    2014-03-24

    We report on a characterization of fundamental gain dynamics in recently developed InAs/InP quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. Multi-wavelength pump-probe measurements were used to determine gain recovery rates, following a powerful optical pump pulse, at various wavelengths for different bias levels and pump excitation powers. The recovery was dominated by coupling between the electronic states in the quantum-dots and the high energy carrier reservoir via capture and escape mechanisms. These processes determine also the wavelength dependencies of gain saturation depth and the asymptotic gain recovery level. Unlike quantum-dash amplifiers, these quantum-dots exhibit no instantaneous gain response, confirming their quasi zero-dimensional nature.

  13. Hunting local Mixmaster dynamics in spatially inhomogeneous cosmologies[04.20.Dw Singularities and cosmic censorship; 04.25.Dm Numerical relativity; 98.80.Jk Mathematical and relativistic aspects of cosmology;

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Beverly K [Physics Division, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA 22207 (United States)

    2004-02-07

    Heuristic arguments and numerical simulations support the Belinskii, Khalatnikov and Lifshitz (BKL) claim that the approach to the singularity in generic gravitational collapse is characterized by local Mixmaster dynamics (LMD). Here, one way to identify LMD in collapsing spatially inhomogeneous cosmologies is explored. By writing the metric of one spacetime in the standard variables of another, signatures for LMD may be found. Such signatures for the dynamics of spatially homogeneous Mixmaster models in the variables of U(1)-symmetric cosmologies are reviewed. Similar constructions for U(1)-symmetric spacetimes in terms of the dynamics of generic T{sup 2}-symmetric spacetime are presented.

  14. Multicolour Observations, Inhomogeneity & Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hellaby, Charles

    2000-01-01

    We propose a method of testing source evolution theories that is independent of the effects of inhomogeneity, and thus complementary to other studies of evolution. It is suitable for large scale sky surveys, and the new generation of large telescopes. In an earlier paper it was shown that basic cosmological observations - luminosity versus redshift, area distance versus redshift and number counts versus redshift - cannot separate the effects of cosmic inhomogeneity, cosmic evolution and sourc...

  15. Effect of Substrates on the Dynamic Properties of Inkjet-Printed Ag Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokman Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic properties of inkjet-printed Ag thin films on flexible substrates were measured using flexural wave propagation. The Ag nanoparticle suspension was inkjet-printed on polyimide (PI, silicon wafer, and glass. The effects of flexible substrates on the dynamic properties of the films were investigated. Beam-shaped Ag-printed substrates were fabricated by pico-second laser pulse cutting. The wave approach was presented to analyze the vibrations of the thin film on the substrates. The Young’s modulus and loss factor of the Ag thin films with the substrates were represented by the combined bending stiffness of the bilayer beam. The vibration response of the base-excited cantilever was measured using an accelerometer and laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV. Vibration transfers were analyzed to obtain dynamic characteristics of the Ag-printed bilayer beam. The substrate affects the reduction of the Ag thin film thickness during the sintering process and surface roughness of the film. The proposed method based on the wave approach allows measurement of the dynamic properties regardless of the ratio of the modulus between the thin film and substrate.

  16. Instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovsky, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    The plasma inhomogeneity across the magnetic field causes a wide class of instabilities which are called instabilities of an inhomogeneous plasma or gradient instabilities. The instabilities that can be studied in the approximation of a magnetic field with parallel straight field lines are treated first, followed by a discussion of the influence of shear on these instabilities. The instabilities of a weakly inhomogeneous plasma with the Maxwellian velocity distribution of particles caused by the density and temperature gradients are often called drift instabilities, and the corresponding types of perturbations are the drift waves. An elementary theory of drift instabilities is presented, based on the simplest equations of motion of particles in the field of low-frequency and long-wavelength perturbations. Following that is a more complete theory of inhomogeneous collisionless plasma instabilities which uses the permittivity tensor and, in the case of electrostatic perturbations, the scalar of permittivity. The results are used to study the instabilities of a strongly inhomogeneous plasma. The instabilities of a plasma in crossed fields are discussed and the electromagnetic instabilities of plasma with finite and high pressure are described. (Auth.)

  17. Photoluminescence dynamics of weakly confined excitons in GaAs thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Atsushi; Katouf, Redouane; Kojima, Osamu; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Sasaki, Masahide; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Isu, Toshiro

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of weakly confined excitons in GaAs thin films measured by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) technique. When excitation energy was above the resonant energy of the exciton, a long PL rise time of about 200 ps was observed. It is considered that an exciton formation process from excited continuum energy states to discrete energy states of the exciton in the thin film causes the slow PL rise. The observed PL decay time constant was about 14 ns due to high quality fabricated samples. The observed population dynamics can be surely ascribed to the specific features of weakly confined excitons

  18. Rapid dynamic thinning on Upernavik Icestream, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, Kurt H.; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    2011-01-01

    The main outlet glaciers in Greenland have more than doubled their contribution to global sea level rise over the last decade. Several studies have shown increase in ice discharge from the main outlet glaciers (notably Kangerdlugssuaq (KG) and Helheim glaciers (HG) in Southeast Greenland, and Jak......) laser altimetry data supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA’s Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM). To assess thinning prior to 2003, we analyze 1985 aerial photos and derived a 2x2 m grid digital elevation model (DEM)....

  19. Antennas in inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A; Wait, J R

    2013-01-01

    Antennas in Inhomogeneous Media details the methods of analyzing antennas in such inhomogeneous media. The title covers the complex geometrical configurations along with its variational formulations. The coverage of the text includes various conditions the antennas are subjected to, such as antennas in the interface between two media; antennas in compressible isotropic plasma; and linear antennas in a magnetoionic medium. The selection also covers insulated loops in lossy media; slot antennas with a stratified dielectric or isotropic plasma layers; and cavity-backed slot antennas. The book wil

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of thin film interfacial strength dependency on lattice mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhou; Lian, Jie; Wang, Junlan

    2013-01-01

    Laser-induced thin film spallation experiments have been previously developed to characterize the intrinsic interfacial strength of thin films. In order to gain insights of atomic level thin film debonding processes and the interfacial strength dependence on film/substrate lattice structures, in this study, molecular dynamics simulations of thin film interfacial failure under laser-induced stress waves were performed. Various loading amplitudes and pulse durations were employed to identify the optimum simulation condition. Stress propagation as a function of time was revealed in conjunction with the interface structures. Parametric studies confirmed that while the interfacial strength between a thin film and a substrate does not depend on the film thickness and the duration of the laser pulse, a thicker film and a shorter duration do provide advantage to effectively load the interface to failure. With the optimized simulation condition, further studies were focused on bulk Au/Au bi-crystals with mismatched orientations, and Ni/Al, Cu/Al, Cu/Ag and Cu/Au bi-crystals with mismatched lattices. The interfacial strength was found to decrease with increasing orientation mismatch and lattice mismatch but more significantly dominated by the bonding elements' atomic structure and valence electron occupancy. - Highlights: • Molecular dynamics simulation was done on stress wave induced thin film spallation. • Atomic structure was found to be a primary strength determining factor. • Lattice mismatch was found to be a secondary strength determining factor

  1. Optical inhomogeneity developing in flashlamp photolysis lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, B V; Borovkov, V V; Brodskii, A Ya; Lazhintsev, B V; Nor-Arevian, V A; Sukhanov, L V

    1980-07-01

    The paper discusses the dynamics of optical inhomogenity developing in the active medium of a high-power flashlamp-pumped photolysis laser in inverse population storage, fast inversion suppression, and free-running lasing regimes. A chemical component of the refractive index was found in a C3F7I photolysis experiment, along with the anomalous growth of a gas refractive index.

  2. Recurring dynamically induced thinning during 1985 to 2010 on Upernavik Isstrøm, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjaer, K.H.; Korsgaard, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    elevation satellite laser altimeter data supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper during 2002 to 2010. To assess thinning prior to 2002, we analyze aerial photographs from 1985. We document at least two distinct periods of dynamically induced ice loss during 1985 to 2010...

  3. PoD: dynamically create and use remote PROOF clusters. A thin client concept.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    PoD’s newly developed “pod-remote” command made it possible for users to utilize a thin client concept. In order to create dynamic PROOF clusters, users are now able to select a remote computer, even behind a firewall, to control a PoD server on...

  4. Formation dynamics of FeN thin films on Cu(100)

    KAUST Repository

    Heryadi, Dodi; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the structural and magnetic properties of thin films of FeN we have performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of their formation on Cu(100) substrates. The iron nitride layers exhibit a p4gm(2 × 2) reconstruction and order

  5. MRI intensity inhomogeneity correction by combining intensity and spatial information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vovk, Uros; Pernus, Franjo; Likar, Bostjan

    2004-01-01

    We propose a novel fully automated method for retrospective correction of intensity inhomogeneity, which is an undesired phenomenon in many automatic image analysis tasks, especially if quantitative analysis is the final goal. Besides most commonly used intensity features, additional spatial image features are incorporated to improve inhomogeneity correction and to make it more dynamic, so that local intensity variations can be corrected more efficiently. The proposed method is a four-step iterative procedure in which a non-parametric inhomogeneity correction is conducted. First, the probability distribution of image intensities and corresponding second derivatives is obtained. Second, intensity correction forces, condensing the probability distribution along the intensity feature, are computed for each voxel. Third, the inhomogeneity correction field is estimated by regularization of all voxel forces, and fourth, the corresponding partial inhomogeneity correction is performed. The degree of inhomogeneity correction dynamics is determined by the size of regularization kernel. The method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on simulated and real MR brain images. The obtained results show that the proposed method does not corrupt inhomogeneity-free images and successfully corrects intensity inhomogeneity artefacts even if these are more dynamic

  6. Laser ablation dynamics and production of thin films of lysozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela; Matei, Andreea

    at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) produced thin films of average thickness up to 300 nm, which not only contained a significant amount of intact molecules, but also maintained the bioactivity. These films were produced by a nanosecond laser in the UV regime at 355 nm with 2 J/cm2. The surprising fact......Lysozyme is a well-known protein, which is used in food processing because of its bacteriocidal properties. The mass (14307 u) is in the range, in which it easily can be controlled by mass spectrometric methods, for example by MALDI (Matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation). We have recently...... that these molecules can be transferred to a substrate as intact molecules by the violent laser impact ( ~up to 50 mJ/pulse) has not yet been understood. One issue is that up to 150 ng/pulse is removed by the laser, and much of the material is ejected from the target in relatively large chunks. We have continued...

  7. Laser ablation dynamics and production of thin films of lysozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen; Amoruso, S.

    produced thin films of average thickness up to 300 nm, which not only contained a significant amount of intact molecules, but also maintained the bioactivity. These films were produced by a nanosecond laser in the UV regime at 355 nm with 2 J/cm2. The surprising fact that these molecules can be transferred......Lysozyme is a well-known protein, which is used in food processing because of its bactericidal properties. The mass (14307 amu) is in the range in which it easily can be monitored by mass spectrometric methods, for example by MALDI (Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization). We have recently...... to a substrate as intact molecules by the violent laser impact (~up to 50 mJ/pulse) has not yet been understood. One issue is that up to 150 ng/pulse is removed by the laser, and much of the material is ejected from the target in relatively large chunks. We have explored as well the excitation mechanics by laser...

  8. Inhomogeneity of epidemic spreading with entropy-based infected clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Jie, Zhou; Xing-Yuan, Wang

    2013-12-01

    Considering the difference in the sizes of the infected clusters in the dynamic complex networks, the normalized entropy based on infected clusters (δ*) is proposed to characterize the inhomogeneity of epidemic spreading. δ* gives information on the variability of the infected clusters in the system. We investigate the variation in the inhomogeneity of the distribution of the epidemic with the absolute velocity v of moving agent, the infection density ρ, and the interaction radius r. By comparing δ* in the dynamic networks with δH* in homogeneous mode, the simulation experiments show that the inhomogeneity of epidemic spreading becomes smaller with the increase of v, ρ, r.

  9. Local dynamics of glass-forming polystyrene thin films from atomistic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuxing; Milner, Scott

    Despite a wide technological application ranging from protective coatings to organic solar cells, there still no consensus on the mechanism for the glass transition in polymer thin films a manifestation of the infamous glass problem under confinement. Many experimental and computational studies have observed a large deviation of nanoscale dynamical properties in thin films from the corresponding properties in bulk. In this work, we perform extensive united-atom simulations on atactic polystyrene free-standing thin films near the glass transition temperature and focus on the effect of free surface on the local dynamics. We study the segmental dynamics as a function of distance from the surface for different temperatures, from which relaxation time and thereby local Tg is obtained for each layer. We find the dynamics near free surface is not only enhanced but becomes less strongly temperature dependent as Tg is approached compared to the bulk. We find an increasing length scale associated with mobility propagation from the free surface as temperature decreases, but no correlation between local structure and enhanced relaxation rates near the surface, consistent with studies on bead-spring chains.

  10. Dynamic response of the scenic beauty value of different forests to various thinning intensities in central eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Songqiu; Yin, Na; Guan, Qingwei; Katoh, Masato

    2014-11-01

    Forest management has a significant influence on the preferences of people for forest landscapes. This study sought to evaluate the dynamic effects of thinning intensities on the landscape value of forests over time. Five typical stands in Wuxiangsi National Forest Park in Nanjing, China, were subjected to a thinning experiment designed with four intensities: unthinned, light thinning, moderate thinning, and heavy thinning. People's preferences for landscape photographs taken in plots under various thinning intensities were assessed through scenic beauty estimation (SBE) at 2 and 5 years after thinning. The differences in scenic beauty value between different thinning intensities were then analyzed with a paired samples t test for the two periods. The results indicated that the landscape value of all of the thinned plots significantly exceeded that of the unthinned plots 2 years after thinning (p beautiful than the lightly thinned and moderately thinned plots, whereas there was no significant difference between moderate thinning and light thinning. At 5 years after thinning, however, the moderately thinned plots received the highest preference scores among the four intensities, displaying an average improvement of 11.32 % compared with the unthinned plots. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model indicated that landscape value improved with increases in the average diameter at breast height (DBH) and with the improvement of environmental cleanliness in the stand, whereas the value decreased with an increasing stem density, species diversity, litter coverage, and canopy density. In addition, we found that the performance of a neural network model based on a multilayer perception (MLP) algorithm for predicting scenic beauty was slightly better than that of the MLR model. The findings of our study suggest that moderate to heavy thinning should be recommended to manage forests for the improvement of forest landscape value.

  11. Quantum-classical transition in the electron dynamics of thin metal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasiak, R; Manfredi, G; Hervieux, P-A [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux, CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, BP 43, F-67034 Strasbourg (France); Haefele, M [INRIA Nancy Grand-Est and Institut de Recherche en Mathematiques Avancees, 7 rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg (France)], E-mail: Giovanni.Manfredi@ipcms.u-strasbg.fr

    2009-06-15

    The quantum electrons dynamics in a thin metal film is studied numerically using the self-consistent Wigner-Poisson equations. The initial equilibrium is computed from the Kohn-Sham equations at finite temperature, and then mapped into the phase-space Wigner function. The time-dependent results are compared systematically with those obtained previously with a classical approach (Vlasov-Poisson equations). It is found that, for large excitations, the quantum and classical dynamics display the same low-frequency oscillations due to ballistic electrons bouncing back and forth on the film surfaces. However, below a certain excitation energy (roughly corresponding to one quantum of plasmon energy {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub p}), the quantum and classical results diverge, and the ballistic oscillations are no longer observed. These results provide an example of a quantum-classical transition that may be observed with current pump-probe experiments on thin metal films.

  12. Quantum-classical transition in the electron dynamics of thin metal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasiak, R; Manfredi, G; Hervieux, P-A; Haefele, M

    2009-01-01

    The quantum electrons dynamics in a thin metal film is studied numerically using the self-consistent Wigner-Poisson equations. The initial equilibrium is computed from the Kohn-Sham equations at finite temperature, and then mapped into the phase-space Wigner function. The time-dependent results are compared systematically with those obtained previously with a classical approach (Vlasov-Poisson equations). It is found that, for large excitations, the quantum and classical dynamics display the same low-frequency oscillations due to ballistic electrons bouncing back and forth on the film surfaces. However, below a certain excitation energy (roughly corresponding to one quantum of plasmon energy ℎω p ), the quantum and classical results diverge, and the ballistic oscillations are no longer observed. These results provide an example of a quantum-classical transition that may be observed with current pump-probe experiments on thin metal films.

  13. External magnetic field induced anomalies of spin nuclear dynamics in thin antiferromagnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasenko, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that if the thickness of homogeneously magnetized plate of high-axial antiferromagnetic within H external magnetic field becomes lower the critical one, then the effect of dynamic magnetoelastic interaction on Soul-Nakamura exchange of nuclear spins results in formation of qualitatively new types of spreading nuclear spin waves no else compared neither within the model of unrestricted magnetic nor at H = 0 in case of thin plate of high-axial antiferromagnetic. 10 refs

  14. Experimental Investigation of Chatter Dynamics in Thin-walled Tubular Parts Turning

    OpenAIRE

    GERASIMENKO, Artem; GUSKOV, Mikhail; LORONG, Philippe; DUCHEMIN, Jérôme; GOUSKOV, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Chatter prediction is nowadays frequently carried out for machining operations involving deformable parts or tools. These analyses are commonly based on the uncoupled elements of the system: frequency response of the deformable parts under non-rotating conditions and cutting law. The present investigation puts forward the dynamics of a thin-walled tubular part during straight axial turning undergoing chatter instability. Studied system’s peculiarities include quasi-static nominal cutting cond...

  15. An IRIS Optically Thin View of the Dynamics of the Solar Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, M.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze the formation of the O I 1356 and Cl I 1351 lines and show that they are formed in the mid-chromosphere and are optically thin. Their non-thermal line-widths are thus a direct measure of the velocity field along the line of sight. We use this insight to analyze a large set of observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to study the dynamics of the Solar Chromosphere.

  16. Linear dynamic analysis of arbitrary thin shells modal superposition by using finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Filho, O.J.A.

    1978-11-01

    The linear dynamic behaviour of arbitrary thin shells by the Finite Element Method is studied. Plane triangular elements with eighteen degrees of freedom each are used. The general equations of movement are obtained from the Hamilton Principle and solved by the Modal Superposition Method. The presence of a viscous type damping can be considered by means of percentages of the critical damping. An automatic computer program was developed to provide the vibratory properties and the dynamic response to several types of deterministic loadings, including temperature effects. The program was written in FORTRAN IV for the Burroughs B-6700 computer. (author)

  17. Inhomogeneous compact extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronnikov, K.A. [Center of Gravity and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS, 46 Ozyornaya st., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation); Budaev, R.I.; Grobov, A.V.; Dmitriev, A.E.; Rubin, Sergey G., E-mail: kb20@yandex.ru, E-mail: buday48@mail.ru, E-mail: alexey.grobov@gmail.com, E-mail: alexdintras@mail.ru, E-mail: sergeirubin@list.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-01

    We show that an inhomogeneous compact extra space possesses two necessary features— their existence does not contradict the observable value of the cosmological constant Λ{sub 4} in pure f ( R ) theory, and the extra dimensions are stable relative to the 'radion mode' of perturbations, the only mode considered. For a two-dimensional extra space, both analytical and numerical solutions for the metric are found, able to provide a zero or arbitrarily small Λ{sub 4}. A no-go theorem has also been proved, that maximally symmetric compact extra spaces are inconsistent with 4D Minkowski space in the framework of pure f ( R ) gravity.

  18. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities (>1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark...... is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between...... the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge...

  19. Lattice dynamics and substrate-dependent transport properties of (In, Yb)-doped CoSb3 skutterudite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-01-01

    Lattice dynamics, low-temperature electrical transport, and high-temperature thermoelectric properties of (In, Yb)-doped CoSb3thin films on different substrates are reported. Pulsed laser deposition under optimized conditions yielded single

  20. The inhomogeneous Suslov problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Naranjo, Luis C., E-mail: luis@mym.iimas.unam.mx [Departamento de Matemáticas y Mecánica, IIMAS-UNAM, Apdo Postal 20-726, Mexico City 01000 (Mexico); Maciejewski, Andrzej J., E-mail: andrzej.j.maciejewski@gmail.com [J. Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland); Marrero, Juan C., E-mail: jcmarrero@ull.edu.es [ULL-CSIC, Geometría Diferencial y Mecánica Geométrica, Departamento de Matemática Fundamental, Facultad de Matemáticas, Universidad de la Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Przybylska, Maria, E-mail: M.Przybylska@if.uz.zgora.pl [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland)

    2014-06-27

    We consider the Suslov problem of nonholonomic rigid body motion with inhomogeneous constraints. We show that if the direction along which the Suslov constraint is enforced is perpendicular to a principal axis of inertia of the body, then the reduced equations are integrable and, in the generic case, possess a smooth invariant measure. Interestingly, in this generic case, the first integral that permits integration is transcendental and the density of the invariant measure depends on the angular velocities. We also study the Painlevé property of the solutions. - Highlights: • We consider the Suslov problem of nonholonomic rigid body motion with inhomogeneous constraints. • We study the problem in detail for a particular choice of the parameters that has a clear physical interpretation. • We show that the equations of motion possess an invariant measure whose density depends on the velocity variables. • We show that the reduced system is integrable due to the existence of a transcendental first integral. • We study the Painlevé property of the solutions.

  1. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  2. Multiscale Computational Fluid Dynamics: Methodology and Application to PECVD of Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquis Crose

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the development of a multiscale computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation framework with application to plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of thin film solar cells. A macroscopic, CFD model is proposed which is capable of accurately reproducing plasma chemistry and transport phenomena within a 2D axisymmetric reactor geometry. Additionally, the complex interactions that take place on the surface of a-Si:H thin films are coupled with the CFD simulation using a novel kinetic Monte Carlo scheme which describes the thin film growth, leading to a multiscale CFD model. Due to the significant computational challenges imposed by this multiscale CFD model, a parallel computation strategy is presented which allows for reduced processing time via the discretization of both the gas-phase mesh and microscopic thin film growth processes. Finally, the multiscale CFD model has been applied to the PECVD process at industrially relevant operating conditions revealing non-uniformities greater than 20% in the growth rate of amorphous silicon films across the radius of the wafer.

  3. Temperature dependence of dynamical permeability characterization of magnetic thin films using shorted microstrip line probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiling; Li, Chengyi; Chai, Guozhi

    2017-01-01

    A temperature dependence microwave permeability characterization system of magnetic thin film up to 10 GHz is designed and fabricated. This system can be used at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 200 °C, and is based on a shorted microstrip probe, which is made by microwave printed circuit board. Without contacting the magnetic thin films to the probe, the microwave permeability of the film can be detected without any limitations of sample size and with almost the same accuracy, as shown by comparison with the results obtained from a shorted microstrip transmission-line fixture. The complex permeability can be deduced by an analytical approach from the measured reflection coefficient of a strip line ( S 11 ) with and without a ferromagnetic film material on it. The procedures are the same with the shorted microstrip transmission-line method. The microwave permeability of an oblique deposited CoZr thin film was investigated with this probe. The results show that the room temperature dynamic permeability of the CoZr film is in good agreement with the results obtained from the established short-circuited microstrip perturbation method. The temperature dependence permeability results fit well with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Development of the temperature-dependent measurement of the magnetic properties of magnetic thin film may be useful for the high-frequency application of magnetic devices at high temperatures. (paper)

  4. Domain reversal dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films of Co/Pd nanomultilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Sug Bong; Kim, Dong Hyun; Shin, Sung Chul

    2002-01-01

    Domain reversal dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films has been quantitatively investigated by means of a magneto-optical microscope magnetometer (MOMM), capable of grabbing domain reversal patterns in real time under an applied magnetic field and of measuring local magnetic properties with 400-nm spatial resolution. The domain reversal behavior sensitively changed between wall-motion and nucleation-dominant behavior with changing multilayer structure of the Co-Pd multilayers. Quantitative analysis revealed that the contrasting reversal behavior was mainly caused by a sensitive change in wall-motion speed and that the reversal ratio of wall-motion speed over nucleation rate was a governing parameter for the contrasting domain reversal dynamics. The activation volumes of the wall-motion and nucleation processes were generally unequal, and the inequality was closely related with the domain dynamics. Based on a Monte-Carlo simulation, both the macroscopic magnetic properties and the local magnetic variation were responsible for the contrasting domain reversal behavior

  5. Monitoring the thinning dynamics of soap films by phase shift interferometry. The case of perfluoropolyether surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambi, Cecilia M C; Vannoni, Maurizio; Sordini, Andrea; Molesini, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    An interferometric method to monitor the thinning process of vertical soap films from a water solution of surfactant materials is reported. Raw data maps of optical path difference introduced by the film are obtained by conventional phase shift interferometry. Off-line re-processing of such raw data taking into account the layered structure of soap films leads to an accurate measurement of the geometrical thickness. As an example of data acquisition and processing, the measuring chain is demonstrated on perfluoropolyether surfactants; the section profile of vertical films is monitored from drawing to black film state, and quantitative data on the dynamics of the thinning process are presented. The interferometric method proves effective to the task, and lends itself to further investigate the physical properties of soap films.

  6. Investigation of plasma dynamics during the growth of amorphous titanium dioxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Jee, Hyeok; Yu, Young-Hun; Seo, Hye-Won

    2018-06-01

    We have grown amorphous titanium dioxide thin films by reactive DC sputtering method using a different argon/oxygen partial pressure at a room temperature. The plasma dynamics of the process, reactive and sputtered gas particles was investigated via optical emission spectroscopy. We then studied the correlations between the plasma states and the structural/optical properties of the films. The growth rate and morphology of the titanium dioxide thin films turned out to be contingent with the population and the energy profile of Ar, O, and TiO plasma. In particular, the films grown under energetic TiO plasma have shown a direct band-to-band transition with an optical energy band gap up to ∼4.2 eV.

  7. Inhomogeneous microstructural growth by irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishan, K.; Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper we discuss the development of heterogeneous microstructure for uniform irradiation conditions. It is shown that microstructural inhomogeneities on a scale of 0.1 μm can develop purely from kinematic considerations because of the basic structure of the rate equations used...... to describe such evolution. Two aspects of the growth of such inhomogeneities are discussed. Firstly, it is shown that a local variation in the sink densities of the various microstructural defects will tend to enhance the inhomogeneity rather than remove it. Secondly, such inhomogeneities will lead to point...... defect fluxes that result in a spatial growth of the inhomogeneous region, which will be stopped only when the microstructural density around this region becomes large. The results have important implications in the formation of denuded zones and void formation in metals....

  8. Femtosecond laser spectroscopy of spins: Magnetization dynamics in thin magnetic films with spatio-temporal resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpene, E.; Mancini, E.; Dallera, C.; Puppin, E.; De Silvestri, S.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE), we have developed an experimental set-up that allows us to fully characterize the magnetization dynamics in thin magnetic films by measuring all three real space components of the magnetization vector M. By means of the pump-probe technique it is possible to extract the time dependence of each individual projection with sub-picosecond resolution. This method has been exploited to investigate the temporal evolution of the magnetization (modulus and orientation) induced by an ultrashort laser pulse in thin epitaxial iron films. According to our results, we deduced that the initial, sub-picosecond demagnetization is established at the electronic level through electron-magnon excitations. The subsequent dynamics is characterized by a precessional motion on the 100 ps time scale, around an effective, time-dependent magnetic field. Following the full dynamics of M, the temporal evolution of the magneto-crystalline anisotropy constant can be unambiguously determined, providing the experimental evidence that the precession is triggered by the rapid, optically-induced misalignment between the magnetization vector and the effective magnetic field. These results suggest a possible pathway toward the ultrarapid switching of the magnetization.

  9. Dynamic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine by thin-walled beam theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhong; Qin, Datong; Lim, Teik C.

    2010-08-01

    A mixed flexible-rigid multi-body mathematical model is applied to predict the dynamic performance of a wind turbine system. Since the tower and rotor are both flexible thin-walled structures, a consistent expression for their deformations is applied, which employs a successive series of transformations to locate any point on the blade and tower relative to an inertial coordinate system. The kinetic and potential energy terms of each flexible body and rigid body are derived for use in the Lagrange approach to formulate the wind turbine system's governing equation. The mode shapes are then obtained from the free vibration solution, while the distributions of dynamic stress and displacement of the tower and rotor are computed from the forced vibration response analysis. Using this dynamic model, the influence of the tower's stiffness on the blade tip deformation is studied. From the analysis, it is evident that the proposed model not only inherits the simplicity of the traditional 1-D beam element, but also able to provide detailed information about the tower and rotor response due to the incorporation of the flexible thin-walled beam theory.

  10. Inflation and inhomogeneities: a hybrid quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmedo, J; Fernández-Méndez, M; Mena Marugán, G A

    2012-01-01

    We provide a complete quantization of a homogeneous and isotropic spacetime with positive spatial curvature coupled to a massive scalar field in the framework of Loop Quantum Cosmology. The physical Hilbert space is constructed out of the space of initial data on the minimum volume section. By means of a perturbative treatment we introduce inhomogeneities and thereafter we adopt a hybrid quantum approach, in which these inhomogeneous degrees of freedom are described by a standard Fock quantization. For the considered case of compact spatial topology, the requirements of: i) invariance of the vacuum state under the spatial isometries, and ii) unitary implementation of the quantum dynamics, pick up a privileged set of canonical fields and a unique Fock representation (up to unitary equivalence).

  11. Direct electron and ion fluid computation of high electrostatic fields in dense inhomogeneous plasmas with subsequent nonlinear optical and dynamical laser interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalousis, P.

    1984-01-01

    Nonthermal direct electrodynamic interaction between laser energy and a fully ionized plasma was studied. The particular emphasis is on the action of nonlinear forces, in which the optical electromagnetic fields act on the plasma electrons which then transfer their energy to the ions electrostatically. Instead of the usual single fluid model, the plasma is treated as two separate conducting fluids for electrons and ions, coupled by momentum and Coulomb interactions. The equations governing the two fluids are derived from first principles, and numerical algorithms for computing these equations are developed, enabling the plasma oscillatons to be resolved and studied. Fully ionized plasma expansion without laser irradiation is studied first numerically. Remarkable damping mechanisms by coupling to ion oscillations have been observed. Inhomogeneities in densities of the two fluids result in large electrostatic fields and double layers are generated. There is quite close agreement between numerically calculated electrostatic fields and analytical solutions. Laser interaction with fully ionized plasma is also studied numerically. The generation of cavitons is numerically observed, and it is inferred that laser plasma interactions produce very high electrostatic fields in the vicinity of cavitons. It is further shown that charge neutrality is not necessarily maintained in a caviton

  12. Baryon inhomogeneity from the cosmic quark-hadron phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurki-Suonio, H.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the generation of inhomogeneity in the baryon-number density during the cosmic quark-hadron phase transition. We use a simple model with thin-wall phase boundaries and ideal-gas equations of state. The nucleation of the phase transition introduces a new distance scale into the universe which will be the scale of the generated inhomogeneity. We review the estimate of this scale. During the transition baryon number is likely to collect onto a layer at the phase boundary. These layers may in the end be deposited as small regions of very high baryon density. 21 refs., 1 fig

  13. Sputter-deposited Mg-Al-O thin films: linking molecular dynamics simulations to experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Bogaerts, A; Saraiva, M; Depla, D; Jehanathan, N; Lebelev, O I

    2009-01-01

    Using a molecular dynamics model the crystallinity of Mg x Al y O z thin films with a variation in the stoichiometry of the thin film is studied at operating conditions similar to the experimental operating conditions of a dual magnetron sputter deposition system. The films are deposited on a crystalline or amorphous substrate. The Mg metal content in the film ranged from 100% (i.e. MgO film) to 0% (i.e. Al 2 O 3 film). The radial distribution function and density of the films are calculated. The results are compared with x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses of experimentally deposited thin films by the dual magnetron reactive sputtering process. Both simulation and experimental results show that the structure of the Mg-Al-O film varies from crystalline to amorphous when the Mg concentration decreases. It seems that the crystalline Mg-Al-O films have a MgO structure with Al atoms in between.

  14. Influence of thinning intensity and canopy type on Scots pine stand and growth dynamics in a mixed managed forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primicia, I.; Artázcoz, R.; Imbert, J.B.; Puertas, F.; Traver, M.C.; Castillo, F.J.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: We analysed the effects of thinning intensity and canopy type on Scots pine growth and stand dynamics in a mixed Scots pine-beech forest. Area of the study: Western Pyrenees. Material and methods: Three thinning intensities were applied in 1999 (0, 20 and 30% basal area removed) and 2009 (0, 20 and 40%) on 9 plots. Within each plot, pure pine and mixed pine-beech patches are distinguished. All pine trees were inventoried in 1999, 2009 and 2014. The effects of treatments on the tree and stand structure variables (density, basal area, stand and tree volume), on the periodic annual increment in basal area and stand and tree volume, and on mortality rates, were analysed using linear mixed effects models. Main Results: The enhancement of tree growth was mainly noticeable after the second thinning. Growth rates following thinning were similar or higher in the moderate than in the severe thinning. Periodic stand volume annual increments were higher in the thinned than in the unthinned plots, but no differences were observed between the thinned treatments. We observed an increase in the differences of the Tree volume annual increment between canopy types (mixed < pure) over time in the unthinned plots, as beech crowns developed. Research highlights: Moderate thinning is suggested as an appropriate forest practice at early pine age in these mixed forests, since it produced higher tree growth rates than the severe thinning and it counteracted the negative effect of beech on pine growth observed in the unthinned plots. (Author)

  15. Dynamics of solid thin-film dewetting in the silicon-on-insulator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, E; Cheynis, F; Leroy, F; Mueller, P [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille (CINaM) CNRS UPR 3118, Aix-Marseille Universite, 13288 Marseille (France); Pierre-Louis, O, E-mail: muller@cinam.univ-mrs.fr [LPMCN, Universite Lyon 1, 43 Bd du 11 novembre, 69622 Villeurbane (France)

    2011-04-15

    Using low-energy electron microscopy movies, we have measured the dewetting dynamics of single-crystal Si(001) thin films on SiO{sub 2} substrates. During annealing (T>700 deg. C), voids open in the Si, exposing the oxide. The voids grow, evolving Si fingers that subsequently break apart into self-organized three-dimensional (3D) Si nanocrystals. A kinetic Monte Carlo model incorporating surface and interfacial free energies reproduces all the salient features of the morphological evolution. The dewetting dynamics is described using an analytic surface-diffusion-based model. We demonstrate quantitatively that Si dewetting from SiO{sub 2} is mediated by surface-diffusion driven by surface free-energy minimization.

  16. Dynamics of solid thin-film dewetting in the silicon-on-insulator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, E.; Cheynis, F.; Leroy, F.; Müller, P.; Pierre-Louis, O.

    2011-04-01

    Using low-energy electron microscopy movies, we have measured the dewetting dynamics of single-crystal Si(001) thin films on SiO2 substrates. During annealing (T>700 °C), voids open in the Si, exposing the oxide. The voids grow, evolving Si fingers that subsequently break apart into self-organized three-dimensional (3D) Si nanocrystals. A kinetic Monte Carlo model incorporating surface and interfacial free energies reproduces all the salient features of the morphological evolution. The dewetting dynamics is described using an analytic surface-diffusion-based model. We demonstrate quantitatively that Si dewetting from SiO2 is mediated by surface-diffusion driven by surface free-energy minimization.

  17. Characterization of Thin Film Polymers Through Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and Permeation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Helen

    2003-01-01

    Thin polymer films are being considered, as candidate materials to augment the permeation resistance of cryogenic hydrogen fuel tanks such as would be required for future reusable launch vehicles. To evaluate performance of candidate films after environmental exposure, an experimental study was performed to measure the thermal/mechanical and permeation performance of six, commercial-grade materials. Dynamic storage modulus, as measured by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, was found over a range of temperatures. Permeability, as measured by helium gas diffusion, was found at room temperature. Test data was correlated with respect to film type and pre-test exposure to moisture, elevated temperature, and cryogenic temperature. Results indicated that the six films were comparable in performance and their resistance to environmental degradation.

  18. Dynamics of solid thin-film dewetting in the silicon-on-insulator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussmann, E; Cheynis, F; Leroy, F; Mueller, P; Pierre-Louis, O

    2011-01-01

    Using low-energy electron microscopy movies, we have measured the dewetting dynamics of single-crystal Si(001) thin films on SiO 2 substrates. During annealing (T>700 deg. C), voids open in the Si, exposing the oxide. The voids grow, evolving Si fingers that subsequently break apart into self-organized three-dimensional (3D) Si nanocrystals. A kinetic Monte Carlo model incorporating surface and interfacial free energies reproduces all the salient features of the morphological evolution. The dewetting dynamics is described using an analytic surface-diffusion-based model. We demonstrate quantitatively that Si dewetting from SiO 2 is mediated by surface-diffusion driven by surface free-energy minimization.

  19. Formation dynamics of FeN thin films on Cu(100)

    KAUST Repository

    Heryadi, Dodi

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the structural and magnetic properties of thin films of FeN we have performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of their formation on Cu(100) substrates. The iron nitride layers exhibit a p4gm(2 × 2) reconstruction and order ferromagnetically in agreement with experiment. We establish the dynamics and time scale of the film formation as a function of the film thickness. The process is split in two phases: formation of almost flat FeN layers and optimization of the distance to the substrate. Our calculated magnetic moments are 1.67 μ B, 2.14 μ B, and 2.21 μ B for one, two, and three monolayers of iron nitride. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Particle Production and Effective Thermalization in Inhomogeneous Mean Field Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, G.; Smit, J.

    2000-01-01

    As a toy model for dynamics in nonequilibrium quantum field theory we consider the abelian Higgs model in 1+1 dimensions with fermions. In the approximate dynamical equations, inhomogeneous classical (mean) Bose fields are coupled to quantized fermion fields, which are treated with a mode function

  1. Particle creation in inhomogeneous spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frieman, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    We study the creation of particles by inhomogeneous perturbations of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies. For massless scalar fields, the pair-creation probability can be expressed in terms of geometric quantities (curvature invariants). The results suggest that inhomogeneities on scales up to the particle horizon will be damped out near the Planck time. Perturbations on scales larger than the horizon are explicitly shown to yield no created pairs. The results generalize to inhomogeneous spacetimes several earlier studies of pair creation in homogeneous anisotropic cosmologies

  2. Inclusions and inhomogeneities under stress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Some general theorems, new and old, concerning the behaviour of elastic inclusions and inhomogeneities in bodies without or with external stress, are assembled. The principal new result is that arbitrary external tractions cannot influence the shape...

  3. Confinement Effects on Host Chain Dynamics in Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Kyle J. [Department; Glynos, Emmanouil [Department; Maroulas, Serafeim-Dionysios [Department; Narayanan, Suresh [Advanced; Sakellariou, Georgios [Department; Green, Peter F. [Department; National

    2017-09-06

    Incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) within a polymer host to create polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) while having the effect of increasing the functionality (e.g.: sensing, energy conversion) of these materials, introduces additional complications with regard to the processing-morphology-function behavior. A primary challenge is to understand and control the viscosity of a PNC with decreasing film thickness confinement for nanoscale applications. Using a combination of X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and X-ray standing wave based resonance enhanced XPCS to study the dynamics of neat poly-2-vinyl pyridine (P2VP) chains and the nanoparticle dynamics, respectively, we identified a new mechanism that dictates the viscosity of PNC films in the nanoscale regime. We show that while the viscosities of neat P2VP films as thin as 50 nm remained the same as the bulk, PNC films containing P2VP brush-coated gold NPs, spaced 50 nm apart, exhibited unprecedented increases in viscosities of over an order of magnitude. For thicker films or more widely separated NPs, the chain dynamics and viscosities were equal to the bulk values. These results -NP proximities and suppression of their dynamics -suggest a new mechanism by which the viscosities of polymeric liquids could be controlled for 2D and 3D nanoscale applications.

  4. Dynamic Leidenfrost temperature on micro-textured surfaces: Acoustic wave absorption into thin vapor layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerng, Dong Wook; Kim, Dong Eok

    2018-01-01

    The dynamic Leidenfrost phenomenon is governed by three types of pressure potentials induced via vapor hydrodynamics, liquid dynamic pressure, and the water hammer effect resulting from the generation of acoustic waves at the liquid-vapor interface. The prediction of the Leidenfrost temperature for a dynamic droplet needs quantitative evaluation and definition for each of the pressure fields. In particular, the textures on a heated surface can significantly affect the vapor hydrodynamics and the water hammer pressure. We present a quantitative model for evaluating the water hammer pressure on micro-textured surfaces taking into account the absorption of acoustic waves into the thin vapor layer. The model demonstrates that the strength of the acoustic flow into the liquid droplet, which directly contributes to the water hammer pressure, depends on the magnitude of the acoustic resistance (impedance) in the droplet and the vapor region. In consequence, the micro-textures of the surface and the increased spacing between them reduce the water hammer coefficient ( kh ) defined as the ratio of the acoustic flow into the droplet to total generated flow. Aided by numerical calculations that solve the laminar Navier-Stokes equation for the vapor flow, we also predict the dynamic Leidenfrost temperature on a micro-textured surface with reliable accuracy consistent with the experimental data.

  5. The effect of blood inflow and B(1)-field inhomogeneity on measurement of the arterial input function in axial 3D spoiled gradient echo dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Caleb; Little, Ross; Watson, Yvonne; Zhao, Sha; Buckley, David L; Parker, Geoff J M

    2011-01-01

    A major potential confound in axial 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging studies is the blood inflow effect; therefore, the choice of slice location for arterial input function measurement within the imaging volume must be considered carefully. The objective of this study was to use computer simulations, flow phantom, and in vivo studies to describe and understand the effect of blood inflow on the measurement of the arterial input function. All experiments were done at 1.5 T using a typical 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging sequence, and arterial input functions were extracted for each slice in the imaging volume. We simulated a set of arterial input functions based on the same imaging parameters and accounted for blood inflow and radiofrequency field inhomogeneities. Measured arterial input functions along the vessel length from both in vivo and the flow phantom agreed with simulated arterial input functions and show large overestimations in the arterial input function in the first 30 mm of the vessel, whereas arterial input functions measured more centrally achieve accurate contrast agent concentrations. Use of inflow-affected arterial input functions in tracer kinetic modeling shows potential errors of up to 80% in tissue microvascular parameters. These errors emphasize the importance of careful placement of the arterial input function definition location to avoid the effects of blood inflow. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Coupled Static and Dynamic Buckling Modelling of Thin-Walled Structures in Elastic Range Review of Selected Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołakowski Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of papers that investigate the static and dynamic coupled buckling and post-buckling behaviour of thin-walled structures is carried out. The problem of static coupled buckling is sufficiently well-recognized. The analysis of dynamic interactive buckling is limited in practice to columns, single plates and shells. The applications of finite element method (FEM or/and analytical-numerical method (ANM to solve interaction buckling problems are on-going. In Poland, the team of scientists from the Department of Strength of Materials, Lodz University of Technology and co-workers developed the analytical-numerical method. This method allows to determine static buckling stresses, natural frequencies, coefficients of the equation describing the post-buckling equilibrium path and dynamic response of the plate structure subjected to compression load and/or bending moment. Using the dynamic buckling criteria, it is possible to determine the dynamic critical load. They presented a lot of interesting results for problems of the static and dynamic coupled buckling of thin-walled plate structures with complex shapes of cross-sections, including an interaction of component plates. The most important advantage of presented analytical-numerical method is that it enables to describe all buckling modes and the post-buckling behaviours of thin-walled columns made of different materials. Thin isotropic, orthotropic or laminate structures were considered.

  7. Phase sensitive molecular dynamics of self-assembly glycolipid thin films: A dielectric spectroscopy investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, T. S.; Ng, B. K.; Gan, W. C.; Majid, W. H. Abd.; Hashim, R.; Zahid, N. I.; Chaiprapa, Jitrin

    2014-08-01

    Glycolipid, found commonly in membranes, is also a liquid crystal material which can self-assemble without the presence of a solvent. Here, the dielectric and conductivity properties of three synthetic glycolipid thin films in different thermotropic liquid crystal phases were investigated over a frequency and temperature range of (10-2-106 Hz) and (303-463 K), respectively. The observed relaxation processes distinguish between the different phases (smectic A, columnar/hexagonal, and bicontinuous cubic Q) and the glycolipid molecular structures. Large dielectric responses were observed in the columnar and bicontinuous cubic phases of the longer branched alkyl chain glycolipids. Glycolipids with the shortest branched alkyl chain experience the most restricted self-assembly dynamic process over the broad temperature range studied compared to the longer ones. A high frequency dielectric absorption (Process I) was observed in all samples. This is related to the dynamics of the hydrogen bond network from the sugar group. An additional low-frequency mechanism (Process II) with a large dielectric strength was observed due to the internal dynamics of the self-assembly organization. Phase sensitive domain heterogeneity in the bicontinuous cubic phase was related to the diffusion of charge carriers. The microscopic features of charge hopping were modelled using the random walk scheme, and two charge carrier hopping lengths were estimated for two glycolipid systems. For Process I, the hopping length is comparable to the hydrogen bond and is related to the dynamics of the hydrogen bond network. Additionally, that for Process II is comparable to the bilayer spacing, hence confirming that this low-frequency mechanism is associated with the internal dynamics within the phase.

  8. Energy landscape scheme for an intuitive understanding of complex domain dynamics in ferroelectric thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Heon; Yoon, Jong-Gul; Baek, Seung Hyub; Park, Woong-kyu; Yang, Sang Mo; Yup Jang, Seung; Min, Taeyuun; Chung, Jin-Seok; Eom, Chang-Beom; Noh, Tae Won

    2015-07-01

    Fundamental understanding of domain dynamics in ferroic materials has been a longstanding issue because of its relevance to many systems and to the design of nanoscale domain-wall devices. Despite many theoretical and experimental studies, a full understanding of domain dynamics still remains incomplete, partly due to complex interactions between domain-walls and disorder. We report domain-shape-preserving deterministic domain-wall motion, which directly confirms microscopic return point memory, by observing domain-wall breathing motion in ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin film using stroboscopic piezoresponse force microscopy. Spatial energy landscape that provides new insights into domain dynamics is also mapped based on the breathing motion of domain walls. The evolution of complex domain structure can be understood by the process of occupying the lowest available energy states of polarization in the energy landscape which is determined by defect-induced internal fields. Our result highlights a pathway for the novel design of ferroelectric domain-wall devices through the engineering of energy landscape using defect-induced internal fields such as flexoelectric fields.

  9. Energy landscape scheme for an intuitive understanding of complex domain dynamics in ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heon Kim, Tae; Yoon, Jong-Gul; Hyub Baek, Seung; Park, Woong-Kyu; Mo Yang, Sang; Yup Jang, Seung; Min, Taeyuun; Chung, Jin-Seok; Eom, Chang-Beom; Won Noh, Tae

    2015-07-01

    Fundamental understanding of domain dynamics in ferroic materials has been a longstanding issue because of its relevance to many systems and to the design of nanoscale domain-wall devices. Despite many theoretical and experimental studies, a full understanding of domain dynamics still remains incomplete, partly due to complex interactions between domain-walls and disorder. We report domain-shape-preserving deterministic domain-wall motion, which directly confirms microscopic return point memory, by observing domain-wall breathing motion in ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin film using stroboscopic piezoresponse force microscopy. Spatial energy landscape that provides new insights into domain dynamics is also mapped based on the breathing motion of domain walls. The evolution of complex domain structure can be understood by the process of occupying the lowest available energy states of polarization in the energy landscape which is determined by defect-induced internal fields. Our result highlights a pathway for the novel design of ferroelectric domain-wall devices through the engineering of energy landscape using defect-induced internal fields such as flexoelectric fields.

  10. Evaporation characteristics of thin film liquid argon in nano-scale confinement: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Shavik, Sheikh Mohammad; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Haque, Mominul

    2016-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out to explore the evaporation characteristics of thin liquid argon film in nano-scale confinement. The present study has been conducted to realize the nano-scale physics of simultaneous evaporation and condensation inside a confined space for a three phase system with particular emphasis on the effect of surface wetting conditions. The simulation domain consisted of two parallel platinum plates; one at the top and another at the bottom. The fluid comprised of liquid argon film at the bottom plate and vapor argon in between liquid argon and upper plate of the domain. Considering hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature of top and bottom surfaces, two different cases have been investigated: (i) Case A: Both top and bottom surfaces are hydrophilic, (ii) Case B: both top and bottom surfaces are hydrophobic. For all cases, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. Then the lower wall was set to four different temperatures such as 110 K, 120 K, 130 K and 140 K to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). The variation of temperature and density as well as the variation of system pressure with respect to time were closely monitored for each case. The heat fluxes normal to top and bottom walls were estimated and discussed to illuminate the effectiveness of heat transfer in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic confinement at various boundary temperatures of the bottom plate.

  11. Capillary Thinning and Pinch-off Dynamics and Printability of Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Jimenez, Leidy N.; Dinic, Jelena; Parsi, Nikila

    Biological macromolecules like proteins, DNA and polysaccharides, and many industrial polymers, are classified together as polyelectrolytes for in solution, the repeat units in their backbone are decorated with disassociated, charge-bearing ionic groups, surrounded by counter-ions. In diverse applications like inkjet printing, sprayable cosmetics and insecticides, paints and coatings that involve formation of fluid columns or sheets that undergo progressive thinning and pinch-off into drops, the dominant flow within the necking filament is extensional in nature. The extensional rheology response of the charged macromolecular solutions is not as well understood as that of their uncharged counterparts. Here focus on the characterization of capillary thinning and pinch-off dynamics, extensional rheology and printability of two model systems: sodium (polystyrene sulfonate) and poly(acrylic acid) by using dripping-onto-substrate (DoS) rheometry technique. Both the measured extensional relaxation times and the extensional viscosity values show salt- and polymer concentration-dependent behavior that is not expected or anticipated from the typical shear rheology response.

  12. Effects of thin-layer boilover on flame geometry and dynamics in large hydrocarbon pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrero, Fabio; Munoz, Miguel; Arnaldos, Josep [Centre d' Estudis del Risc Tecnologic (CERTEC), Chemical Engineering Department, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    This work aims to estimate the effects of thin-layer boilover on flame geometry and dynamics. A series of large scale experiments (in pools ranging from 1.5 to 6 m in diameter) were performed using gasoline and diesel as fuel. As expected, only diesel showed evidence of this phenomenon. This article presents a summary of the results obtained for flame height, tilt and pulsation. Flame height increases during water ebullition, though the increase is no longer detectable when wind speed exceeds certain values. Correlations previously presented in the literature to predict flame length and tilt were modified in order to fit the results obtained during thin-layer boilover. However, the influence on flame tilt is not as great and the equations for the stationary period seem suitable for the entire fire. Results of flame pulsation during the stationary period fill the gap in the literature for fires between 1.5 and 6 m and fit previous correlations. On the other hand, during ebullition, the flame pulsates faster, as air entrainment is greater and, as one would expect, this effect decreases with pool size. A new equation for estimating pulsation frequency during boilover is proposed. (author)

  13. Effect of ablation geometry on the dynamics, composition, and geometrical shape of thin film plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Alamgir; Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Ajai

    2018-01-01

    The characteristics of plasma plume produced by front and back ablation of thin films have been investigated using fast imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. Ablation geometry dependence of the plume dynamics, its geometrical aspect and composition is emphasized. Also, the effect of an ambient environment and the beam diameter of an ablating laser on the front and back ablations is briefly discussed. Analysis of time resolved images and plasma parameters indicates that the energetic and spherical plasma formed by front ablation is strikingly different in comparison to the slow and nearly cylindrical plasma plume observed in the case of back ablation. Further shock formation, plume confinement, thermalization and validity of different expansion models in these two ablation geometries are also presented. The present study demonstrates the manipulation of kinetic energy, shape, ion/neutral compositions and directionality of the expanding plume by adjusting the experimental configuration, which is highly relevant to its utilization in various applications e.g., generation of energetic particles, tokamak edge plasma diagnostics, thin film deposition, etc.

  14. Proton probing of ultra-thin foil dynamics in high intensity regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Aktan, Esin; Aurand, Bastian; Cerchez, Mirela; Willi, Oswald

    2017-10-01

    The field of laser driven ion acceleration has been enriched significantly over the past decade, thanks to the advanced laser technologies. Already, from 100s TW class systems, laser driven sources of particles and radiations are being considered in number of potential applications in science and medicine due to their unique properties. New physical effects unearthed at these systems may help understand and conduct successful experiments at several PW class multi-beam facilities with high rep rate systems, e.g. ELI. Here we present the first experimental results on ultra-thin foil dynamics irradiated by an ultra-high intensity (1020 W/cm2) , ultra-high contrast (10-12) laser pulse at ARCTURUS laser facility at HHU Duesseldorf. By employing the elegant proton probing technique it is observed that for the circular polarization of laser light, a 100nm thin target is pushed forward as a compressed layer due to the radiation pressure of light. Whereas, the linear polarization seems to decompress the target drastically. 2D particle-in-cell simulations corroborate the experimental findings. Our results confirm the previous simulation studies investigating the fundamental role played by light polarization, finite focus spot size effect and eventually electron heating including the oblique incidence at the target edges.

  15. Low temperature excitonic spectroscopy and dynamics as a probe of quality in hybrid perovskite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarang, Som; Ishihara, Hidetaka; Chen, Yen-Chang; Lin, Oliver; Gopinathan, Ajay; Tung, Vincent C; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2016-10-19

    We have developed a framework for using temperature dependent static and dynamic photoluminescence (PL) of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (PVSKs) to characterize lattice defects in thin films, based on the presence of nanodomains at low temperature. Our high-stability PVSK films are fabricated using a novel continuous liquid interface propagation technique, and in the tetragonal phase (T > 120 K), they exhibit bi-exponential recombination from free charge carriers with an average PL lifetime of ∼200 ns. Below 120 K, the emergence of the orthorhombic phase is accompanied by a reduction in lifetimes by an order of magnitude, which we establish to be the result of a crossover from free carrier to exciton-dominated radiative recombination. Analysis of the PL as a function of excitation power at different temperatures provides direct evidence that the exciton binding energy is different in the two phases, and using these results, we present a theoretical approach to estimate this variable binding energy. Our findings explain this anomalous low temperature behavior for the first time, attributing it to an inherent fundamental property of the hybrid PVSKs that can be used as an effective probe of thin film quality.

  16. Modelling the evaporation of thin films of colloidal suspensions using dynamical density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, M J; Archer, A J; Thiele, U [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-19

    Recent experiments have shown that various structures may be formed during the evaporative dewetting of thin films of colloidal suspensions. Nanoparticle deposits of strongly branched 'flower-like', labyrinthine and network structures are observed. They are caused by the different transport processes and the rich phase behaviour of the system. We develop a model for the system, based on a dynamical density functional theory, which reproduces these structures. The model is employed to determine the influences of the solvent evaporation and of the diffusion of the colloidal particles and of the liquid over the surface. Finally, we investigate the conditions needed for 'liquid-particle' phase separation to occur and discuss its effect on the self-organized nanostructures. (paper)

  17. Dynamics and morphology of chiral magnetic bubbles in perpendicularly magnetized ultra-thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bhaskarjyoti; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Nasseri, S. Ali; Casiraghi, Arianna; Durin, Gianfranco

    2018-06-01

    We study bubble domain wall dynamics using micromagnetic simulations in perpendicularly magnetized ultra-thin films with disorder and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Disorder is incorporated into the material as grains with randomly distributed sizes and varying exchange constant at the edges. As expected, magnetic bubbles expand asymmetrically along the axis of the in-plane field under the simultaneous application of out-of-plane and in-plane fields. Remarkably, the shape of the bubble has a ripple-like part which causes a kink-like (steep decrease) feature in the velocity versus in-plane field curve. We show that these ripples originate due to the nucleation and interaction of vertical Bloch lines. Furthermore, we show that the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction field is not constant but rather depends on the in-plane field. We also extend the collective coordinate model for domain wall motion to a magnetic bubble and compare it with the results of micromagnetic simulations.

  18. The self-assembly, elasticity, and dynamics of cardiac thin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassieri, M; Evans, R M L; Barbu-Tudoran, L; Trinick, J; Waigh, T A

    2008-03-15

    Solutions of intact cardiac thin filaments were examined with transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and particle-tracking microrheology. The filaments self-assembled in solution with a bell-shaped distribution of contour lengths that contained a population of filaments of much greater length than the in vivo sarcomere size ( approximately 1 mum) due to a one-dimensional annealing process. Dynamic semiflexible modes were found in DLS measurements at fast timescales (12.5 ns-0.0001 s). The bending modulus of the fibers is found to be in the range 4.5-16 x 10(-27) Jm and is weakly dependent on calcium concentration (with Ca2+ > or = without Ca2+). Good quantitative agreement was found for the values of the fiber diameter calculated from transmission electron microscopy and from the initial decay of DLS correlation functions: 9.9 nm and 9.7 nm with and without Ca2+, respectively. In contrast, at slower timescales and high polymer concentrations, microrheology indicates that the cardiac filaments act as short rods in solution according to the predictions of the Doi-Edwards chopsticks model (viscosity, eta approximately c(3), where c is the polymer concentration). This differs from the semiflexible behavior of long synthetic actin filaments at comparable polymer concentrations and timescales (elastic shear modulus, G' approximately c(1.4), tightly entangled) and is due to the relative ratio of the contour lengths ( approximately 30). The scaling dependence of the elastic shear modulus on the frequency (omega) for cardiac thin filaments is G' approximately omega(3/4 +/- 0.03), which is thought to arise from flexural modes of the filaments.

  19. STICK AND SLIP BEHAVIOR OF CONFINED OLIGOMER MELTS UNDER SHEAR - A MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANIAS, E; HADZIIOANNOU, G; BITSANIS, [No Value; TENBRINKE, G

    1993-01-01

    The flow behaviour of melts of short chains, confined in molecularly thin Couette flow geometries, is studied with molecular-dynamics simulations. The effect of wall attraction and confinement on the density and velocity profiles is analysed. In these highly inhomogeneous films, a strong correlation

  20. Thermal coupling effect on the vortex dynamics of superconducting thin films: time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ze; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, vortex dynamics of superconducting thin films are numerically investigated by the generalized time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau (TDGL) theory. Interactions between vortex motion and the motion induced energy dissipation is considered by solving the coupled TDGL equation and the heat diffusion equation. It is found that thermal coupling has significant effects on the vortex dynamics of superconducting thin films. Branching in the vortex penetration path originates from the coupling between vortex motion and the motion induced energy dissipation. In addition, the environment temperature, the magnetic field ramp rate and the geometry of the superconducting film also greatly influence the vortex dynamic behaviors. Our results provide new insights into the dynamics of superconducting vortices, and give a mesoscopic understanding on the channeling and branching of vortex penetration paths during flux avalanches.

  1. On Electron Hole Evolution in Inhomogeneous Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzichev, I.; Vasko, I.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.

    2017-12-01

    Electron holes (EHs) are the stationary localized non-linear structures in phase space existing due to an electron population trapped within EH electrostatic potential. EHs were found to be a common phenomenon in the Earth's magnetosphere. Such structures were observed in reconnecting current sheets, injection fronts in the outer radiation belt, and in many other situations. EHs usually propagate along magnetic field lines with velocities about electron thermal velocity, are localized on the scale of about 4-10 Debye lengths, and have the field amplitude up to hundreds of mV/m. Generation of these structures, evolution, and their role in relaxation of instabilities and energy dissipation, particle energization, supporting large-scale potential drops is under active investigation. In this report, we present the results of 1.5D gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell simulations of the EH evolution in plasmas with inhomogeneous magnetic field and inhomogeneous density. Our calculations show that the inhomogeneity has a critical effect on the EH dynamics. EHs propagating into stronger (weaker) magnetic field are decelerated (accelerated) with deceleration (acceleration) rate dependent on the magnetic field gradient. During the deceleration of EH, the potential drop (weak double layer) along EH is generated. Such a potential drop might be experimentally observable even for single EH in the reconnecting current sheets. The same holds for the propagation in the plasma with inhomogeneous density. For some parameters of the system, the deceleration results in the turning of the hole. The interesting feature of this process is that the turning point depends only on the EH parameters, being independent of the average inhomogeneity scale. Our calculations also demonstrate the significant difference between "quasi-particle" concept and real evolution of the hole. Indeed, the EH is accelerated (decelerated) faster than it follows from a quasi-particle energy conservation law. It indicates

  2. Inhomogeneous Heisenberg spin chain and quantum vortex filament as non-holonomically deformed NLS systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhinav, Kumar; Guha, Partha

    2018-03-01

    Through the Hasimoto map, various dynamical systems can be mapped to different integrodifferential generalizations of Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) family of equations some of which are known to be integrable. Two such continuum limits, corresponding to the inhomogeneous XXX Heisenberg spin chain [J. Phys. C 15, L1305 (1982)] and that of a thin vortex filament moving in a superfluid with drag [Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 275 (2013) 86; Phys. Rev. E 91, 053201 (2015)], are shown to be particular non-holonomic deformations (NHDs) of the standard NLS system involving generalized parameterizations. Crucially, such NHDs of the NLS system are restricted to specific spectral orders that exactly complements NHDs of the original physical systems. The specific non-holonomic constraints associated with these integrodifferential generalizations additionally posses distinct semi-classical signature.

  3. Inhomogeneous wire explosion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Kong, H.J.; Lee, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Inhomogeneous processes are observed in underwater copper wire explosion induced by a condensed capacitor discharge. The wire used is 0.1 mm in diameter and 10 mm long, and the capacitor of 2 μF is charged to 5 KV. A N 2 laser is used for the diagnostic of spatial extension of exploding copper vapour. The photographs obtained in this experiment show unambiguously the inhomogeneous explosion along the exploding wire. The quenching of plasma by the surrounding water inhibits the expansion of the vapour. It is believed the observed inhomogeneous explosion along the wire is located and localized around Goronkin's striae, which was first reported by Goronkin and discussed by Froengel as a pre-breakdown phenomenon. (author)

  4. Parametric instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The nonlinear coupling of three waves in a plasma is considered. One of the waves is assumed large and constant; its amplitude is the parameter of the parametric instability. The spatial-temporal evolution of the other two waves is treated theoretically, in one dimension, by analytic methods and by direct numerical integration of the basic equations. Various monotonic forms of inhomogeneity are considered; agreement with previous work is found and new results are established. Nonmonotonic inhomogeneities are considered, in the form of turbulence and, as a model problem, in the form of a simple sinusoidal modulation. Relatively small amounts of nonmonotonic inhomogeneity, in the presence of a linear density gradient, are found to destabilize the well-known convective saturation, absolute growth occurring instead. (U.S.)

  5. Confinement Effects on Host Chain Dynamics in Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Kyle J. [Department; Glynos, Emmanouil [Department; Maroulas, Serafeim-Dionysios [Department; Narayanan, Suresh [Advanced; Sakellariou, Georgios [Department; Green, Peter F. [Department; National

    2017-09-07

    Incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) within a polymer host to create polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) while having the effect of increasing the functionality (e.g., sensing, energy conversion) of these materials influences other properties. One challenge is to understand the effects of nanoparticles on the viscosity of nanoscale thick polymer films. A new mechanism that contributes to an enhancement of the viscosity of nanoscale thick polymer/nanoparticle films is identified. We show that while the viscosities of neat homopolymer poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) films as thin as 50 nm remained the same as the bulk, polymer/nanoparticle films containing P2VP brush-coated gold NPs, spaced 50 nm apart, exhibited unprecedented increases in viscosities of over an order of magnitude. For thicker films or more widely separated NPs, the chain dynamics and viscosities were comparable to the bulk values. These results - NP proximities and suppression of their dynamics - suggest a new mechanism by which the viscosities of polymeric liquids could be controlled for nanoscale applications.

  6. Mass Distribution in Rotating Thin-Disk Galaxies According to Newtonian Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Q. Feng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An accurate computational method is presented for determining the mass distribution in a mature spiral galaxy from a given rotation curve by applying Newtonian dynamics for an axisymmetrically rotating thin disk of finite size with or without a central spherical bulge. The governing integral equation for mass distribution is transformed via a boundary-element method into a linear algebra matrix equation that can be solved numerically for rotation curves with a wide range of shapes. To illustrate the effectiveness of this computational method, mass distributions in several mature spiral galaxies are determined from their measured rotation curves. All the surface mass density profiles predicted by our model exhibit approximately a common exponential law of decay, quantitatively consistent with the observed surface brightness distributions. When a central spherical bulge is present, the mass distribution in the galaxy is altered in such a way that the periphery mass density is reduced, while more mass appears toward the galactic center. By extending the computational domain beyond the galactic edge, we can determine the rotation velocity outside the cut-off radius, which appears to continuously decrease and to gradually approach the Keplerian rotation velocity out over twice the cut-off radius. An examination of circular orbit stability suggests that galaxies with flat or rising rotation velocities are more stable than those with declining rotation velocities especially in the region near the galactic edge. Our results demonstrate the fact that Newtonian dynamics can be adequate for describing the observed rotation behavior of mature spiral galaxies.

  7. Energy transfer rates in inhomogeneous van der Waals clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desfrancois, C.; Schermann, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The internal energy exchange inside an inhomogeneous van der Waals cluster are investigated by means of molecular dynamic calculations. The very long time scales for relaxation of the high frequency degrees of freedom are examined within the framework of Nekhoroshev's theorem. (orig.)

  8. Jeans instability of an inhomogeneous streaming dusty plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of a self-gravitating unmagnetized, inhomogeneous, streaming dusty plasma is studied in the present work. The presence of the shear flow causes the coupling between gravitational and electrostatic forces. In the absence of self-gravity, the fluctuations in the plasma may grow at the expense of the density ...

  9. Laser Beam Propagation Through Inhomogeneous Media with Shock-Like Profiles: Modeling and Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Ida, Nathan

    1997-01-01

    Wave propagation in inhomogeneous media has been studied for such diverse applications as propagation of radiowaves in atmosphere, light propagation through thin films and in inhomogeneous waveguides, flow visualization, and others. In recent years an increased interest has been developed in wave propagation through shocks in supersonic flows. Results of experiments conducted in the past few years has shown such interesting phenomena as a laser beam splitting and spreading. The paper describes a model constructed to propagate a laser beam through shock-like inhomogeneous media. Numerical techniques are presented to compute the beam through such media. The results of computation are presented, discussed, and compared with experimental data.

  10. Effect of random inhomogeneities in the spatial distribution of radiation-induced defect clusters on carrier transport through the thin base of a heterojunction bipolar transistor upon neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzanov, A. S.; Obolenskiy, S. V., E-mail: obolensk@rf.unn.ru; Kozlov, V. A. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (NNSU) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    We analyze the electron transport through the thin base of a GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor with regard to fluctuations in the spatial distribution of defect clusters induced by irradiation with a fissionspectrum fast neutron flux. We theoretically demonstrate that the homogeneous filling of the working region with radiation-induced defect clusters causes minimum degradation of the dc gain of the heterojunction bipolar transistor.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulations of disjoining pressure effects in ultra-thin water films on a metal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Han; Sun, Ying

    2013-11-01

    Disjoining pressure, the excess pressure in an ultra-thin liquid film as a result of van der Waals interactions, is important in lubrication, wetting, flow boiling, and thin film evaporation. The classic theory of disjoining pressure is developed for simple monoatomic liquids. However, real world applications often utilize water, a polar liquid, for which fundamental understanding of disjoining pressure is lacking. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to gain insights into the effect of disjoining pressure in a water thin film. Our MD models were firstly validated against Derjaguin's experiments on gold-gold interactions across a water film and then verified against disjoining pressure in an argon thin film using the Lennard-Jones potential. Next, a water thin film adsorbed on a gold surface was simulated to examine the change of vapor pressure with film thickness. The results agree well with the classic theory of disjoining pressure, which implies that the polar nature of water molecules does not play an important role. Finally, the effects of disjoining pressure on thin film evaporation in nanoporous membrane and on bubble nucleation are discussed.

  12. Forces and energy dissipation in inhomogeneous non-equilibrium superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poluehktov, Yu.M.; Slezov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The phenomenological theory of volume forces and dissipation processes in inhomogeneous non-equilibrium superconductors near temperature transition from the normal to superconducting state is constructed. The approach is based on application of dynamic equations of superconductivity formulated on the basis of the Lagrangian formalism. These equations are generalized the Ginzburg-Landau theory in the nonstationary non-equilibrium case for ''foul'' superconductors. The value estimations of volume forces arising in inhomogeneities during relaxation of an order parameter and when the electrical field is penetrated into the superconductor, are given

  13. Nonlinear acoustic waves in micro-inhomogeneous solids

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarov, Veniamin

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear Acoustic Waves in Micro-inhomogeneous Solids covers the broad and dynamic branch of nonlinear acoustics, presenting a wide variety of different phenomena from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. The introductory chapters, written in the style of graduate-level textbook, present a review of the main achievements of classic nonlinear acoustics of homogeneous media. This enables readers to gain insight into nonlinear wave processes in homogeneous and micro-inhomogeneous solids and compare it within the framework of the book. The subsequent eight chapters covering: Physical m

  14. Quasilinear diffusion in inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooley, D.L.

    1975-05-01

    The problem of inhomogeneous diffusion in a plasma is considered with emphasis on its possible application to relativistic electron beams. A one-dimensional model with a background electrostatic field is used to illustrate the basic approach, which is then extended to a two-dimensional plasma with a background magnetic field. Only preliminary results are available. (U.S.)

  15. Visible light dynamical diffraction in a 1-D photonic crystal-based interferometer with an extremely thin spacer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudnikov, I.R.

    2016-01-01

    Properties of light diffraction in a Fabry–Pérot-like interferometer composed of two 1-D photonic crystals and a nanometer-thick spacer layer are analytically investigated. It is shown that the resonant enhancement of light wave intensity in such a layer is possible because of light dynamical diffraction from the photonic crystals of the interferometer. Numerical simulations of (i) light reflectivity and transmittance curves of the interferometer having an ultra-thin spacer layer (its thickness changes from less than 1 nm to about 10 nm) and (ii) the resonant distribution of the light wave intensity in the vicinity of the layer are performed. Based on the numerical simulations, potentialities for the determination of the structural parameters (e.g., thicknesses and refraction indexes) of ultra-thin spacer films are discussed. A difference is found to appear in resonant intensity enhancements inside the ultra-thin spacer layers between s- and p-polarized light waves.

  16. Experimental studies on the nonlinear dynamics of ferroelectric thin films and layered ferroelectricum/semiconductor structures in oscillating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barz, Kay

    2010-01-01

    In this work experimental techniques for characterization of ferroelectric nm-thin films and ferroelectric/semiconductor structures by means of nonlinear phenomena are discussed. The thin film sample is applied in a series resonant circuit. By recording time series data and amplitude-frequency-characteristics (resonance frequency shift), the nonlinear behavior can be analyzed with respect to the theoretical aspects of these effects in the framework of nonlinear dynamics. The evolving ferroelectric hysteresis is represented by the amplitude-frequency-characteristic in a very detailed form. Interpretations are presented on how transient alterations like fatigue or retention loss, affect the amplitude-frequency-characteristics. Time series analysis allows to separate the specific influence of the nonlinear components and their corresponding time constants. The work closes with suggestions for a systematic application of the presented techniques for an extended characterization of ferroelectric thin films. (orig.)

  17. Study of the inhomogeneous characteristics of modified YBa_2Cu_3O_7_-_d thin films and (YBa_2Cu_3O_7_-_d /LaAlO_3)_n superlattices: growth and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thimont, Yohann

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript is devoted to the study of crystallographic and physical properties of superconductor YBCO thin films and superconductor/insulator (YBCO/LAO)_n superlattices. The first stage of this work was to optimize the YBCO thin film deposition. Elaboration of a new physical model allows us to determine a critical temperature distribution inside the films thickness. Nevertheless, no homogeneous critical temperature inside the films can be obtained. This work shows that the interface strains modify the crystallographic and physical properties. We developed a new simulation method concerning the XRD peak shape analysis which allows us to determine YBCO cell deformation profile along the c-bar axis. About superlattices, effects of thickness on the physical and structural properties have been noticed. Transmission Electron Microscopy exhibits existence of structural defects in the films. Ending, the physical model proposed in the present work provides important information regarding the magnetic interaction between two superconductor layers, which seems to limit application of these superlattices in the realization of complex electronic devices. (author) [fr

  18. Inhomogeneous Markov point processes by transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva B. Vedel; Nielsen, Linda Stougaard

    2000-01-01

    We construct parametrized models for point processes, allowing for both inhomogeneity and interaction. The inhomogeneity is obtained by applying parametrized transformations to homogeneous Markov point processes. An interesting model class, which can be constructed by this transformation approach......, is that of exponential inhomogeneous Markov point processes. Statistical inference For such processes is discussed in some detail....

  19. Ultrafast electron-lattice coupling dynamics in VO2 and V2O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Elsa; Gilbert Corder, Stephanie N.; Yun, Sun Jin; Wang, Siming; Ramírez, Juan Gabriel; West, Kevin; Zhang, Jingdi; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn; Schuller, Ivan K.; Lu, Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart A.; Kim, Hyun-Tak; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.

    2017-09-01

    Ultrafast optical pump-optical probe and optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy were performed on vanadium dioxide (VO2) and vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3 ) thin films over a wide temperature range. A comparison of the experimental data from these two different techniques and two different vanadium oxides, in particular a comparison of the spectral weight oscillations generated by the photoinduced longitudinal acoustic modulation, reveals the strong electron-phonon coupling that exists in both materials. The low-energy Drude response of V2O3 appears more amenable than VO2 to ultrafast strain control. Additionally, our results provide a measurement of the temperature dependence of the sound velocity in both systems, revealing a four- to fivefold increase in VO2 and a three- to fivefold increase in V2O3 across the insulator-to-metal phase transition. Our data also confirm observations of strong damping and phonon anharmonicity in the metallic phase of VO2, and suggest that a similar phenomenon might be at play in the metallic phase of V2O3 . More generally, our simple table-top approach provides relevant and detailed information about dynamical lattice properties of vanadium oxides, paving the way to similar studies in other complex materials.

  20. Thermal conductivity of nanoscale thin nickel films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shiping; JIANG Peixue

    2005-01-01

    The inhomogeneous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) scheme is applied to model phonon heat conduction in thin nickel films. The electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of the film is deduced from the electrical conductivity through the use of the Wiedemann-Franz law. At the average temperature of T = 300 K, which is lower than the Debye temperature ()D = 450 K,the results show that in a film thickness range of about 1-11 nm, the calculated cross-plane thermal conductivity decreases almost linearly with the decreasing film thickness, exhibiting a remarkable reduction compared with the bulk value. The electrical and thermal conductivities are anisotropic in thin nickel films for the thickness under about 10 nm. The phonon mean free path is estimated and the size effect on the thermal conductivity is attributed to the reduction of the phonon mean free path according to the kinetic theory.

  1. Dynamics of coupled plasmon polariton wave packets excited at a subwavelength slit in optically thin metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei-Ming; Zhang, Lingxiao; Seideman, Tamar; Petek, Hrvoje

    2012-10-01

    We study by numerical simulations the excitation and propagation dynamics of coupled surface plasmon polariton (SPP) wave packets (WPs) in optically thin Ag films and a bulk Ag/vacuum interface under the illumination of a subwavelength slit by 400 nm continuous wave (cw) and femtosecond pulsed light. The generated surface fields include contributions from both SPPs and quasicylindrical waves, which dominate in different regimes. We explore aspects of the coupled SPP modes in Ag thin films, including symmetry, propagation, attenuation, and the variation of coupling with incident angle and film thickness. Simulations of the electromagnetic transients initiated with femtosecond pulses reveal new features of coupled SPP WP generation and propagation in thin Ag films. Our results show that, under pulsed excitation, the SPP modes in an Ag thin film break up into two distinct bound surface wave packets characterized by marked differences in symmetries, group velocities, attenuation lengths, and dispersion properties. The nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal scale excitation and propagation dynamics of the coupled SPP WPs are revealed in detail by movies recording the evolution of their transient field distributions.

  2. As-grown enhancement of spinodal decomposition in spinel cobalt ferrite thin films by Dynamic Aurora pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnath, Nipa [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Physics, Jagannath University, Dhaka 1100 (Bangladesh); Kawaguchi, Takahiko; Kumasaka, Wataru [Department of Electronics and Materials Science, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Das, Harinarayan [Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Shinozaki, Kazuo [School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Sakamoto, Naonori [Department of Electronics and Materials Science, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Suzuki, Hisao [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Electronics and Materials Science, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Wakiya, Naoki, E-mail: wakiya.naoki@shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Electronics and Materials Science, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • As-grown enhancement of spinodal decomposition (SD) in Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} film is observed. • Magnetic-field-induced ion-impingement enhances SD without any post-annealing. • The enhancement of SD is independent of the lattice-mismatch-induced strain. • This approach can promote SD in any thin film without post-deposition annealing. - Abstract: Cobalt ferrite Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} thin films with composition within the miscibility gap were grown using Dynamic Aurora pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal as-grown phase separation to Fe-rich and Co-rich phases with no post-deposition annealing. The interconnected surface microstructure of thin film shows that this phase separation occurs through spinodal decomposition enhanced by magnetic-field-induced ion-impingement. The lattice parameter variation of the thin films with the magnetic field indicates that the composition fluctuations can be enhanced further by increasing the magnetic field. Results show that spinodal decomposition enhancement by magnetic-field-induced ion-impingement is independent of the lattice-mismatch-induced strain. This approach can promote spinodal decomposition in any thin film with no post-deposition annealing process.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of Cu/Au thin films under temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qibin; Peng, Xianghe; Peng, Tiefeng; Tang, Qizhong; Zhang, Xiaomin; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Heat transportation in the thin films. - Highlights: • The coherent lattice interface is found at thin films after annealing. • The vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. • The defect and component will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. • The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms. • The phonon transportation in thin films has no apparent rule. - Abstract: Three modulation period thin films, 1.8 nm Cu/3.6 nm Au, 2.7 nm Cu/2.7 nm Au and 3.6 nm Cu/1.8 nm Au, are obtained from deposition method and ideal modeling based on lattice constant, to examine their structures and thermophysical characteristics under temperature gradient. The coherent lattice interface is found both at deposit and ideal thin films after annealing. Also, the vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. The defect and component of thin films will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms and result in the failure of coating under the thermal stress. The power spectrum of atoms’ movement has no apparent rule for phonon transportation in thin films. The results are helpful to reveal the micro-mechanism and provide reasonable basis for the failure of metallic coatings.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation of Cu/Au thin films under temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qibin, E-mail: qibinli@cqu.edu.cn [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Heterogeneous Material Mechanics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Peng, Xianghe [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Peng, Tiefeng, E-mail: pengtiefeng@cqu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Tang, Qizhong [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Xiaomin [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Heterogeneous Material Mechanics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Huang, Cheng [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: Heat transportation in the thin films. - Highlights: • The coherent lattice interface is found at thin films after annealing. • The vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. • The defect and component will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. • The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms. • The phonon transportation in thin films has no apparent rule. - Abstract: Three modulation period thin films, 1.8 nm Cu/3.6 nm Au, 2.7 nm Cu/2.7 nm Au and 3.6 nm Cu/1.8 nm Au, are obtained from deposition method and ideal modeling based on lattice constant, to examine their structures and thermophysical characteristics under temperature gradient. The coherent lattice interface is found both at deposit and ideal thin films after annealing. Also, the vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. The defect and component of thin films will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms and result in the failure of coating under the thermal stress. The power spectrum of atoms’ movement has no apparent rule for phonon transportation in thin films. The results are helpful to reveal the micro-mechanism and provide reasonable basis for the failure of metallic coatings.

  5. Diffusion in inhomogeneous polymer membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasargod, Sameer S.; Adib, Farhad; Neogi, P.

    1995-10-01

    The dual mode sorption solubility isotherms assume, and in instances Zimm-Lundberg analysis of the solubilities show, that glassy polymers are heterogeneous and that the distribution of the solute in the polymer is also inhomogeneous. Under some conditions, the heterogeneities cannot be represented as holes. A mathematical model describing diffusion in inhomogeneous polymer membranes is presented using Cahn and Hilliard's gradient theory. The fractional mass uptake is found to be proportional to the fourth root of time rather than the square root, predicted by Fickian diffusion. This type of diffusion is classified as pseudo-Fickian. The model is compared with one experimental result available. A negative value of the persistence factor is obtained and the results are interpreted.

  6. Inhomogeneities in a Friedmann universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    One of the outstanding problems in cosmology is the growth of inhomogeneities, which are characterized by an anisotropic pressure and density distribution. Following a method developed by McVittie (1967, 1968) it has been possible to find time-dependent spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's field equations containing an arbitrary pressure and density distribution which connect smoothly to a Friedmann universe for any desired equation of state. (author). 5 refs

  7. Femtosecond optical detection of quasiparticle dynamics in high-Tc YBa2Cu3O7-δ superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.G.; Vardeny, Z.V.; Wong, K.S.; Symko, O.G.; Koren, G.

    1990-01-01

    Femtosecond dynamics of photogenerated quasiparticles in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconducting thin films shows, at T≤T c , two main electronic processes: (i) quasiparticle avalanche production during hot-carrier thermalization, which takes about 300 fsec; (ii) recombination of quasiparticles to form Cooper pairs, which is completed within 5 psec. In contrastr, nonsuperconducting epitaxial films such as PrBa 2 Cu 2 O 7 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6 show regular picosecond electronic response

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation about porous thin-film growth in secondary deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huawei; Tieu, A. Kiet; Liu Qiang; Hagiwara, Ichiro; Lu Cheng

    2007-01-01

    The thin film growth has been confirmed to be assembled by an enormous number of clusters in experiments of CVD. Sequence of clusters' depositions proceeds to form the thin film at short time as gas fluids through surface of substrate. In order to grow condensed thin film using series of cluster deposition, the effect of initial velocity, substrate temperature and density of clusters on property of deposited thin film, especially appearance of nanoscale pores inside thin film must be investigated. In this simulation, three different cluster sizes of 203, 653, 1563 atoms with different velocities (0, 10, 100, 1000 and 3000 m/s) were deposited on a Cu(0 0 1) substrate whose temperatures were set between 300 and 1000 K. Four clusters and one cluster were used in primary deposition and secondary deposition, respectively. We have clarified that adhesion between clusters and substrate is greatly influenced by initial velocity. As a result, the exfoliation pattern of deposited thin film is dependent on initial velocity and different between them. One borderline dividing whole region into porous region and nonporous region are obtained to show the effect of growth conditions on appearance of nanoscale pores inside thin film. Moreover, we have also shown that the likelihood of porous thin film is dependent on the point of impact of a cluster relative to previously deposited clusters

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation about porous thin-film growth in secondary deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Huawei [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, No. 37 Xuyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing (China) and Mechanical Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, NSW 2522 (Australia)]. E-mail: chen_hua_wei@yahoo.com; Tieu, A. Kiet [Mechanical Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, NSW 2522 (Australia); Liu Qiang [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, No. 37 Xuyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing (China); Hagiwara, Ichiro [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Lu Cheng [Mechanical Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2007-07-15

    The thin film growth has been confirmed to be assembled by an enormous number of clusters in experiments of CVD. Sequence of clusters' depositions proceeds to form the thin film at short time as gas fluids through surface of substrate. In order to grow condensed thin film using series of cluster deposition, the effect of initial velocity, substrate temperature and density of clusters on property of deposited thin film, especially appearance of nanoscale pores inside thin film must be investigated. In this simulation, three different cluster sizes of 203, 653, 1563 atoms with different velocities (0, 10, 100, 1000 and 3000 m/s) were deposited on a Cu(0 0 1) substrate whose temperatures were set between 300 and 1000 K. Four clusters and one cluster were used in primary deposition and secondary deposition, respectively. We have clarified that adhesion between clusters and substrate is greatly influenced by initial velocity. As a result, the exfoliation pattern of deposited thin film is dependent on initial velocity and different between them. One borderline dividing whole region into porous region and nonporous region are obtained to show the effect of growth conditions on appearance of nanoscale pores inside thin film. Moreover, we have also shown that the likelihood of porous thin film is dependent on the point of impact of a cluster relative to previously deposited clusters.

  10. Interfacial Engineering and Charge Carrier Dynamics in Extremely Thin Absorber Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edley, Michael

    Photovoltaic energy is a clean and renewable source of electricity; however, it faces resistance to widespread use due to cost. Nanostructuring decouples constraints related to light absorption and charge separation, potentially reducing cost by allowing a wider variety of processing techniques and materials to be used. However, the large interfacial areas also cause an increased dark current which negatively affects cell efficiency. This work focuses on extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells that used a ZnO nanowire array as a scaffold for an extremely thin CdSe absorber layer. Photoexcited electrons generated in the CdSe absorber are transferred to the ZnO layer, while photogenerated holes are transferred to the liquid electrolyte. The transfer of photoexcited carriers to their transport layer competes with bulk recombination in the absorber layer. After charge separation, transport of charge carriers to their respective contacts must occur faster than interfacial recombination for efficient collection. Charge separation and collection depend sensitively on the dimensions of the materials as well as their interfaces. We demonstrated that an optimal absorber thickness can balance light absorption and charge separation. By treating the ZnO/CdSe interface with a CdS buffer layer, we were able to improve the Voc and fill factor, increasing the ETA cell's efficiency from 0.53% to 1.34%, which is higher than that achievable using planar films of the same material. We have gained additional insight into designing ETA cells through the use of dynamic measurements. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that characteristic times for electron injection from CdSe to ZnO are less than 1 ps. Electron injection is rapid compared to the 2 ns bulk lifetime in CdSe. Optoelectronic measurements such as transient photocurrent/photovoltage and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were applied to study the processes of charge transport and interfacial recombination

  11. Phase change dynamics in a polymer thin film upon femtosecond and picosecond laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, J.; Wiggins, S.M.; Solis, J.; Lippert, T.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the pulse duration on the laser-induced changes in a thin triazenepolymer film on a glass substrate has been investigated for single, near-infrared (800 nm) Ti:sapphire laser pulses with durations ranging from 130 fs up to 2.6 ps. Post-irradiation optical microscopy has been used to quantitatively determine the damage threshold fluence. The latter decreases from ∼800 mJ/cm 2 for a 2.6 ps laser pulse to ∼500 mJ/cm 2 for a pulse duration of 130 fs. In situ real-time reflectivity (RTR) measurements have been performed using a ps-resolution streak camera set-up to study the transformation dynamics upon excitation with single pulses of duration of 130 fs and fluences close to the damage threshold. Very different reflectivity transients have been observed above and below the damage threshold fluence. Above the damage threshold, an extremely complicated behaviour with oscillations of up to 100% in the transient reflectivity has been observed. Below the damage threshold, the transient reflectivity decreases by as much as 70% within 1 ns with a subsequent recovery to the initial level occurring on the ms timescale. No apparent damage could be detected by optical microscopy under these irradiation conditions. Furthermore, within the 395-410 mJ/cm 2 fluence range, the transient reflectivity increases by ∼10%. The analysis of these results indicates that the observed transformations are thermal in nature, in contrast to the known photochemical decomposition of this triazenepolymer under UV irradiation

  12. Simultaneous measurement of dynamic force and spatial thin film thickness between deformable and solid surfaces by integrated thin liquid film force apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xurui; Tchoukov, Plamen; Manica, Rogerio; Wang, Louxiang; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe

    2016-11-09

    Interactions involving deformable surfaces reveal a number of distinguishing physicochemical characteristics that do not exist in interactions between rigid solid surfaces. A unique fully custom-designed instrument, referred to as integrated thin liquid film force apparatus (ITLFFA), was developed to study the interactions between one deformable and one solid surface in liquid. Incorporating a bimorph force sensor with interferometry, this device allows for the simultaneous measurement of the time-dependent interaction force and the corresponding spatiotemporal film thickness of the intervening liquid film. The ITLFFA possesses the specific feature of conducting measurement under a wide range of hydrodynamic conditions, with a displacement velocity of deformable surfaces ranging from 2 μm s -1 to 50 mm s -1 . Equipped with a high speed camera, the results of a bubble interacting with hydrophilic and partially hydrophobic surfaces in aqueous solutions indicated that ITLFFA can provide information on interaction forces and thin liquid film drainage dynamics not only in a stable film but also in films of the quick rupture process. The weak interaction force was extracted from a measured film profile. Because of its well-characterized experimental conditions, ITLFFA permits the accurate and quantitative comparison/validation between measured and calculated interaction forces and temporal film profiles.

  13. Spectral properties of waves in superlattices with 2D and 3D inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatchenko, V. A.; Tsikalov, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic susceptibility and one-dimensional density of states in an initially sinusoidal superlattice containing simultaneously 2D phase inhomogeneities simulating correlated rough-nesses of superlattice interfaces and 3D amplitude inhomogeneities of the superlattice layer materials. The analytic expression for the averaged Green’s function of the sinusoidal superlattice with two phase inhomogeneities is derived in the Bourret approximation. It is shown that the effect of increasing asymmetry in the peak heights of dynamic susceptibility at the Brillouin zone boundary of the superlattice, which was discovered earlier [15] upon an increase in root-mean-square (rms) fluctuations, also takes place upon an increase in the correlation wavenumber of inhomogeneities. However, the peaks in this case also become closer, and the width and depth of the gap in the density of states decrease thereby. It is shown that the enhancement of rms fluctuations of 3D amplitude inhomogeneities in a superlattice containing 2D phase inhomogeneities suppresses the effect of dynamic susceptibility asymmetry and leads to a slight broadening of the gap in the density of states and a decrease in its depth. Targeted experiments aimed at detecting the effects studied here would facilitate the development of radio-spectroscopic and optical methods for identifying the presence of inhomogeneities of various dimensions in multilayer magnetic and optical structures.

  14. Accretion from an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livio, M.; Soker, N.; Koo, M. de; Savonije, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of accretion by a compact object from an inhomogeneous medium is studied in the general γnot=1 case. The mass accretion rate is found to decrease with increasing γ. The rate of accretion of angular momentum is found to be significantly lower than the rate at which angular momentum is deposited into the Bondi-Hoyle, symmetrical, accretion cylinder. The consequences of the results are studied for the cases of neutron stars accreting from the winds of early-type companions and white dwarfs and main-sequence stars accreting from winds of cool giants. (author)

  15. Inhomogeneous Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, J. F.; Kajino, T.; Mathews, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    We reanalyze the allowed parameters for inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis in light of the WMAP constraints on the baryon-to-photon ratio and a recent measurement which has set the neutron lifetime to be 878.5 +/- 0.7 +/- 0.3 seconds. For a set baryon-to-photon ratio the new lifetime reduces the mass fraction of He4 by 0.0015 but does not significantly change the abundances of other isotopes. This enlarges the region of concordance between He4 and deuterium in the parameter space of the b...

  16. Nonlinear dynamics and bifurcation characteristics of shape memory alloy thin films subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhi-Wen; Zhang, Qing-Xin; Xu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    A kind of shape memory alloy (SMA) hysteretic nonlinear model was developed, and the nonlinear dynamics and bifurcation characteristics of the SMA thin film subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation were investigated. Van der Pol difference item was introduced to describe the hysteretic phenomena of the SMA strain–stress curves, and the nonlinear dynamic model of the SMA thin film subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation was developed. The conditions of global stochastic stability of the system were determined in singular boundary theory, and the probability density function of the system response was obtained. Finally, the conditions of stochastic Hopf bifurcation were analyzed. The results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation indicate that self-excited vibration is induced by the hysteretic nonlinear characteristics of SMA, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation appears when the bifurcation parameter was changed; there are two limit cycles in the stationary probability density of the dynamic response of the system in some cases, which means that there are two vibration amplitudes whose probabilities are both very high, and jumping phenomena between the two vibration amplitudes appear with the change in conditions. The results obtained in this current paper are helpful for the application of the SMA thin film in stochastic vibration fields. - Highlights: • Hysteretic nonlinear model of shape memory alloy was developed. • Van der Pol item was introduced to interpret hysteretic strain–stress curves. • Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the shape memory alloy film were analyzed. • Jumping phenomena were observed in the change of the parameters

  17. Casimir stress in an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbin, T.G.; Xiong, C.; Leonhardt, U.

    2010-01-01

    The Casimir effect in an inhomogeneous dielectric is investigated using Lifshitz's theory of electromagnetic vacuum energy. A permittivity function that depends continuously on one Cartesian coordinate is chosen, bounded on each side by homogeneous dielectrics. The result for the Casimir stress is infinite everywhere inside the inhomogeneous region, a divergence that does not occur for piece-wise homogeneous dielectrics with planar boundaries. A Casimir force per unit volume can be extracted from the infinite stress but it diverges on the boundaries between the inhomogeneous medium and the homogeneous dielectrics. An alternative regularization of the vacuum stress is considered that removes the contribution of the inhomogeneity over small distances, where macroscopic electromagnetism is invalid. The alternative regularization yields a finite Casimir stress inside the inhomogeneous region, but the stress and force per unit volume diverge on the boundaries with the homogeneous dielectrics. The case of inhomogeneous dielectrics with planar boundaries thus falls outside the current understanding of the Casimir effect.

  18. Spin diffusion from an inhomogeneous quench in an integrable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubotina, Marko; Žnidarič, Marko; Prosen, Tomaž

    2017-07-13

    Generalized hydrodynamics predicts universal ballistic transport in integrable lattice systems when prepared in generic inhomogeneous initial states. However, the ballistic contribution to transport can vanish in systems with additional discrete symmetries. Here we perform large scale numerical simulations of spin dynamics in the anisotropic Heisenberg XXZ spin 1/2 chain starting from an inhomogeneous mixed initial state which is symmetric with respect to a combination of spin reversal and spatial reflection. In the isotropic and easy-axis regimes we find non-ballistic spin transport which we analyse in detail in terms of scaling exponents of the transported magnetization and scaling profiles of the spin density. While in the easy-axis regime we find accurate evidence of normal diffusion, the spin transport in the isotropic case is clearly super-diffusive, with the scaling exponent very close to 2/3, but with universal scaling dynamics which obeys the diffusion equation in nonlinearly scaled time.

  19. Tailoring diffuse reflectance of inhomogeneous films containing microplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovick, Brian A., E-mail: brian.slovick@sri.com; Baker, John M.; Flom, Zachary; Krishnamurthy, Srini [Applied Optics Laboratory, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    We develop an analytical model for calculating the diffuse reflectance of inhomogeneous films containing aligned microplatelets with diameters much greater than the wavelength. The scattering parameters are derived by modeling the platelets as one-dimensional thin films, and the overall diffuse reflectance of the slab is calculated using the Kubelka-Munk model. Our model predicts that reflection minima and maxima arising from coherent interference within the platelets are preserved in the diffuse reflectance of the disordered slab. Experimental validation of the model is provided by reflectance measurements (0.3–15 μm) of a solid aerosol film of aligned hexagonal boron nitride platelets.

  20. Effect of twin boundary on nanoimprint process of bicrystal Al thin film studied by molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yue-Hong; Xu Jian-Gang; Zhang Yun-Guang; Song Hai-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a twin boundary (TB) on the mechanical properties of two types of bicrystal Al thin films during the nanoimprint process are investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that for the TB direction parallel to the imprinting direction, the yield stress reaches the maximum for the initial dislocation nucleation when the mould directly imprints to the TB, and the yield stress first decreases with the increase of the marker interval and then increases. However, for the TB direction perpendicular to the imprinting direction, the effect of the TB location to the imprinting forces is very small, and the yield stress is greater than that with the TB direction parallel to the imprinting direction. The results also demonstrate that the direction of the slip dislocations and the deformation of the thin film caused by spring-back are different due to various positions and directions of the TB. (paper)

  1. Large scale inhomogeneities and the cosmological principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Meszaros, A.

    1984-12-01

    The compatibility of cosmologic principles and possible large scale inhomogeneities of the Universe is discussed. It seems that the strongest symmetry principle which is still compatible with reasonable inhomogeneities, is a full conformal symmetry in the 3-space defined by the cosmological velocity field, but even in such a case, the standard model is isolated from the inhomogeneous ones when the whole evolution is considered. (author)

  2. Development of a miniature tensile Kolsky bar for dynamic testing of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jastin V.

    Mechanical properties such as yield stress and ultimate strength are most commonly obtained under quasi-static (strain rate of 10--4 s--1) loading conditions Materials such as metals, ceramics, and polymers may exhibit significant changes in mechanical response when subjected to high strain rate (102 --105 per second) conditions. The loading rate or strain rate can affect the material properties such as elastic modulus, yield strength, work hardening, and ductility. To ensure product quality and reliability under impact conditions, the mechanical responses of materials under dynamic loading conditions must be characterized. A Kolsky bar is a tool that can be used to study the uniaxial compressive constitutive behavior of materials under high strain rates. The goal of this thesis is to develop a miniature Tensile Kolsky bar that can be used to test materials with thickness on the order of 200 micrometers (thin foils). The system consists of a cylindrical launch tube with an internal striker, a rectangular incident bar and a transmitted bar. The specimen is held in pockets that were milled directly into the incident and transmitted bar. The rectangular incident and transmitted bars facilitate specimen and strain gage mounting. The rectangular section also provides a reduced cross sectional bar area compared to a bar of circular cross section with diameter equivalent to the width of the rectangular bar, which increases the system sensitivity. This thesis presents the detailed description of the miniature Kolsky bar device, specimen geometry, diagnostic techniques and different calibration and validation techniques used for developing the system. The Kolsky bar setup was used to test 99.9 percent pure magnesium at two different strain rates (5000 and 10000 per second). Specimens were cut from billets processed via the 4Bc equal channel angular extrusion route and were tested in three different directions: extrusion, longitudinal and transverse. The results from the

  3. Electron acoustic vortices in the presence of inhomogeneous current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Q; Masood, W; Saleem, H [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P O Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: qamar@pinstech.org.pk

    2008-03-15

    Linear and nonlinear dynamics of an electron acoustic wave in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma are studied in the presence of non-uniform background current. The modified Rayleigh instability condition is found due to shear in the magnetic field and the current. A nonlinear stationary solution is also obtained in the form of tripolar vortices. The relevance of the present study to auroral and magnetotail plasmas is pointed out.

  4. Inhomogeneous dusty Universes and their deceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Exact results stemming directly from Einstein equations imply that inhomogeneous Universes endowed with vanishing pressure density can only decelerate, unless the energy density of the Universe becomes negative. Recent proposals seem to argue that inhomogeneous (but isotropic) space-times, filled only with incoherent matter,may turn into accelerated Universes for sufficiently late times. To scrutinize these scenarios, fully inhomogeneous Einstein equations are discussed in the synchronous system. In a dust-dominated Universe, the inhomogeneous generalization of the deceleration parameter is always positive semi-definite implying that no acceleration takes place.

  5. Dynamic monolayer gradients: Active spatiotemporal control of alkanethiol coatings on thin gold films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrill, R.H.; Balss, K.M.; Zhang, Y.; Bohn, P.W.

    2000-02-09

    The chemical modification of coinage metal surfaces with {omega}-functionalized alkanethiols has proven to be a popular system for studies of wetting, adhesion, chemical affinity, and electron transfer. Varying the composition of binary hydrophilic-hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can vary the wetting properties of a surface in a continuous manner, a fact that has been exploited to distribute surface-active molecules inhomogeneously under mass-transport control. One goal of these experiments is to create surfaces which permit supermolecular objects to be manipulated under external control, as recently demonstrated at air-liquid interfaces. The authors report chemical potential distributions of alkanethiols, which can be manipulated in both space and time under active electrochemical control.

  6. Integrability and soliton in a classical one dimensional site dependent biquadratic Heisenberg spin chain and the effect of nonlinear inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha, L.; Daniel, M.

    2002-07-01

    The integrability of one dimensional classical continuum inhomogeneous biquadratic Heisenberg spin chain and the effect of nonlinear inhomogeneity on the soliton of an underlying completely integrable spin model are studied. The dynamics of the spin system is expressed in terms of a higher order generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation through a differential geometric approach which becomes integrable for a particular choice of the biquadratic exchange interaction and for linear inhomogeneity. The effect of nonlinear inhomogeneity on the spin soliton is studied by carrying out a multiple scale perturbation analysis. (author)

  7. Dynamics of rotating and vibrating thin hemispherical shell with mass and damping imperfections and parametrically driven by discrete electrodes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Shatalov2_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 22572 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Shatalov2_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 DYNAMICS OF ROTATING... AND VIBRATING THIN HEMISPHERICAL SHELL WITH MASS AND DAMPING IMPERFECTIONS AND PARAMETRICALLY DRIVEN BY DISCRETE ELECTRODES Michael Shatalov1,2 and Charlotta Coetzee2 1Sensor Science and Technology (SST) of CSIR Material Science and Manufacturing (MSM...

  8. Mathematical Modeling of Extinction of Inhomogeneous Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karev, G.P.; Kareva, I.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models of population extinction have a variety of applications in such areas as ecology, paleontology and conservation biology. Here we propose and investigate two types of sub-exponential models of population extinction. Unlike the more traditional exponential models, the life duration of sub-exponential models is finite. In the first model, the population is assumed to be composed clones that are independent from each other. In the second model, we assume that the size of the population as a whole decreases according to the sub-exponential equation. We then investigate the “unobserved heterogeneity”, i.e. the underlying inhomogeneous population model, and calculate the distribution of frequencies of clones for both models. We show that the dynamics of frequencies in the first model is governed by the principle of minimum of Tsallis information loss. In the second model, the notion of “internal population time” is proposed; with respect to the internal time, the dynamics of frequencies is governed by the principle of minimum of Shannon information loss. The results of this analysis show that the principle of minimum of information loss is the underlying law for the evolution of a broad class of models of population extinction. Finally, we propose a possible application of this modeling framework to mechanisms underlying time perception. PMID:27090117

  9. On dislocation inhomogeneity of electroerosion crater zone in molybdenum single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larikov, L.N.; Dubovitskaya, N.V.; Zakharov, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of diffraction electron microscopy, X-ray analysis and microhardness measurements have been applied to study the inhomogeneity of dislocation structure of the electroerosion crater zone in molybdenum single crystals. Microhardness inhomogeneous distribution in this zone is established, conditioned by changes in dislocation structure as a result of the development of thermally activated processes of the plastic deformation and dynamic recovery. Dislocationless channels are detected in predeformed crystals

  10. Estimating functions for inhomogeneous Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Estimation methods are reviewed for inhomogeneous Cox processes with tractable first and second order properties. We illustrate the various suggestions by means of data examples.......Estimation methods are reviewed for inhomogeneous Cox processes with tractable first and second order properties. We illustrate the various suggestions by means of data examples....

  11. Tellipsometry in Twente : Dynamics of Thin Film Membranes Under Applied Temperature Profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappert, Emiel J.; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Raaijmakers, Michiel; Koziara, Beata; Wormeester, Herbert; Benes, Nieck E.

    2014-01-01

    We use in-situ ellipsometry to study the structural and chemical evolution of thin films as function of the temperature (‘Tellipsometry’). Particular focus is on organic, inorganic, and hybrid materials that are relevant to artificial membrane fabrication and operation. Our poster shows some

  12. Tellipsometry in Twente: Dynamics of Thin Film Membranes Under Applied Temperature Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Kappert, Emiel J.; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Raaijmakers, Michiel; Koziara, Beata; Wormeester, Herbert; Benes, Nieck E.

    2014-01-01

    We use in-situ ellipsometry to study the structural and chemical evolution of thin films as function of the temperature (‘Tellipsometry’). Particular focus is on organic, inorganic, and hybrid materials that are relevant to artificial membrane fabrication and operation. Our poster shows some illustrative examples.

  13. Scaling crossover in thin-film drag dynamics of fluid drops in the Hele-Shaw cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Ko; Yahashi, Misato; Kimoto, Natsuki

    2016-11-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically the descending motion due to gravity of a fluid drop surrounded by another immiscible fluid in a confined space between two parallel plates, i.e., in the Hele-Shaw cell. As a result, we show a new scaling regime of a nonlinear drag friction in viscous liquid that replaces the well-known Stokes' drag friction through a clear collapse of experimental data thanks to the scaling law. In the novel regime, the dissipation in the liquid thin film formed between the drop and cell walls governs the dynamics. The crossover of this scaling regime to another scaling regime in which the dissipation inside the droplet is dominant is clearly demonstrated and a phase diagram separating these scaling regimes is presented. To be published as, Y. Yahashi, N. Kimoto and K. Okumura, Scaling crossover in thin-film drag dynamics of fluid drops in the Hele-Shaw cell, Sci. Rep.(CC BY 4.0). This research was partly supported by ImPACT Program of Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (Cabinet Office, Government of Japan).

  14. Modeling of metal thin film growth: Linking angstrom-scale molecular dynamics results to micron-scale film topographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, U.; Rodgers, S.; Jensen, K. F.

    2000-07-01

    A general method for modeling ionized physical vapor deposition is presented. As an example, the method is applied to growth of an aluminum film in the presence of an ionized argon flux. Molecular dynamics techniques are used to examine the surface adsorption, reflection, and sputter reactions taking place during ionized physical vapor deposition. We predict their relative probabilities and discuss their dependence on energy and incident angle. Subsequently, we combine the information obtained from molecular dynamics with a line of sight transport model in a two-dimensional feature, incorporating all effects of reemission and resputtering. This provides a complete growth rate model that allows inclusion of energy- and angular-dependent reaction rates. Finally, a level-set approach is used to describe the morphology of the growing film. We thus arrive at a computationally highly efficient and accurate scheme to model the growth of thin films. We demonstrate the capabilities of the model predicting the major differences on Al film topographies between conventional and ionized sputter deposition techniques studying thin film growth under ionized physical vapor deposition conditions with different Ar fluxes.

  15. Comparison of capability of dynamic O2-enhanced MRI and quantitative thin-section MDCT to assess COPD in smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Keiko; Aoyama, Nobukazu; Onishi, Yumiko; Takenaka, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to directly and prospectively compare the capability of dynamic O 2 -enhanced MRI and quantitatively assessed thin-section MDCT to assess smokers’ COPD in a large prospective cohort. Materials and methods: The GOLD criteria for smokers were used to classify 187 smokers into four clinical stage groups as follows: smokers without COPD (n = 56) and with mild (n = 54), moderate (n = 52) and severe or very severe COPD (n = 24). All smokers underwent dynamic O 2 -enhanced MRI, MDCT and pulmonary function tests. Mean relative enhancement ratio and mean wash-in time on MRI and CT-based functional lung volume (CT-based FLV) as well as the ratio of airway wall area to total airway area on MDCT were computationally calculated. Then, all indexes were significantly correlated with functional parameters. To determine the efficacy of all indexes for clinical stage classification, the indexes for the four clinical groups were statistically compared by using Tukey's honestly significant difference multiple comparison test. Results: All indexes had significant correlations with functional parameters (p 2 -enhanced MRI for assessment of COPD in smokers is potentially as efficacious as quantitatively assessed thin-section MDCT.

  16. Scattering and emission from inhomogeneous vegetation canopy and alien target beneath by using three-dimensional vector radiative transfer (3D-VRT) equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yaqiu; Liang Zichang

    2005-01-01

    To solve the 3D-VRT equation for the model of spatially inhomogeneous scatter media, the finite enclosure of the scatter media is geometrically divided, in both vertical z and transversal (x,y) directions, to form very thin multi-boxes. The zeroth order emission, first-order Mueller matrix of each thin box and an iterative approach of high-order radiative transfer are applied to derive high-order scattering and emission of whole inhomogeneous scatter media. Numerical results of polarized brightness temperature at microwave frequency and under different radiometer resolutions from inhomogeneous scatter model such as vegetation canopy and alien target beneath canopy are simulated and discussed

  17. Dissipation of Alfven waves in compressible inhomogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malara, F.; Primavera, L.; Veltri, P.

    1997-01-01

    In weakly dissipative media governed by the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, any efficient mechanism of energy dissipation requires the formation of small scales. Using numerical simulations, we study the properties of Alfven waves propagating in a compressible inhomogeneous medium, with an inhomogeneity transverse to the direction of wave propagation. Two dynamical effects, energy pinching and phase mixing, are responsible for the small-scales formation, similarly to the incompressible case. Moreover, compressive perturbations, slow waves and a static entropy wave are generated; the former are subject to steepening and form shock waves, which efficiently dissipate their energy, regardless of the Reynolds number. Rough estimates show that the dissipation times are consistent with those required to dissipate Alfven waves of photospheric origin inside the solar corona

  18. The Prediction of Wave Competitions in Inhomogeneous Brusselator Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xiao-Hua; Dong Yun-Xia; Huang Xiao-Qing; Li Ning

    2015-01-01

    The competition of waves has remained a hot topic in physics over the past few decades, especially the area of pattern control. Because of improved understanding of various dynamic behaviors, many practical applications have sprung up recently. The prediction of wave competitions is also very important and quite useful in these fields. This paper considers the behaviors of wave competitions in simple, inhomogeneous media which is modeled by Brusselator equations. We present a simple rule to judge the results of wave competitions utilizing the dispersion relation curves and the waves coming from different wave sources. Moreover, this rule can also be used to predict the results of wave propagation. It provides methods of obtaining the desired waves with given frequencies in inhomogeneous media. All our results are concluded and verified by computer simulations. (paper)

  19. Comparison of 133Xe gas dynamic SPECT and thin-section CT in patients with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazue; Satoh, Katashi; Ohkawa, Motoomi

    2001-01-01

    We assessed 133 Xe gas dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) by comparing washout axial images with thin-section CT (TSCT) in patients with pulmonary emphysema. Twenty-three patients were studied. All patients were diagnosed as having pulmonary emphysema on the basis of TSCT. We compared TSCT of upper, middle and lower lung fields with 133 Xe gas dynamic SPECT axial images at the corresponding levels during the 3 to 4 minutes of washout phase. If the degree of 133 Xe gas retention or TSCT finding of ventral and dorsal parts was not the same, the images were divided into two parts. A total of 174 lesions in 23 cases were examined, but 3 lesions having no retention of 133 Xe gas at equilibrium phase were excluded. The results showed that: there were 37 lesions (21.6%) with equivalent severity on both images; there were 42 lesions (24.5%) with more severity on 133 Xe gas dynamic SPECT than on TSCT; and there were 92 lesions (53.8%) with more severity on TSCT than on 133 Xe gas dynamic SPECT. The severity on 133 Xe gas dynamic SPECT and TSCT was not always compatible. One of the reasons for the variable 133 Xe gas retention even when the lesion had the same severity on TSCT, may be bronchial stricture which cannot be seen on TSCT. By comparison of axial images of 133 Xe gas dynamic SPECT with CT images, we could recognize the areas of 133 Xe gas retention in detail. Results suggest that 133 Xe gas dynamic SPECT can be useful to identify ventilation impairment in pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  20. Subcritical switching dynamics and humidity effects in nanoscale studies of domain growth in ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaser, Cédric; Paruch, Patrycja

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric domain switching in c-axis-oriented epitaxial Pb(Zr 0.2 Ti 0.8 )O 3 thin films was studied using biased scanning probe microscopy tips. While linear and logarithmic dependence of domain size on tip bias and writing time, respectively, are well known, we report an additional linear dependence on relative humidity in the 28–65% range. We map out the switched domain size as a function of both the tip bias and the applied pulse time and describe a growth-limited regime for very short pulses and a nucleation-limited regime for very low tip bias. Using ‘interrupted-switching’ measurements, we probe the nucleation regime with subcritical pulses and identify a surprisingly long relaxation time on the order of 100 ms, which we relate to ionic redistribution both on the surface and within the thin film itself. (paper)

  1. Capturing inhomogeneous broadening of the -CN stretch vibration in a Langmuir monolayer with high-resolution spectra and ultrafast vibrational dynamics in sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Luis; Wang, Hong-fei

    2013-08-01

    While in principle the frequency-domain and time-domain spectroscopic measurements should generate identical information for a given molecular system, the inhomogeneous character of surface vibrations in sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) studies has only been studied with time-domain SFG-VS by mapping the decay of the vibrational polarization using ultrafast lasers, this due to the lack of SFG vibrational spectra with high enough spectral resolution and accurate enough lineshape. Here, with the recently developed high-resolution broadband SFG-VS (HR-BB-SFG-VS) technique, we show that the inhomogeneous lineshape can be obtained in the frequency-domain for the anchoring CN stretch of the 4-n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface, and that an excellent agreement with the time-domain SFG free-induction-decay can be established. We found that the 8CB CN stretch spectrum consists of a single peak centered at 2234.00 ± 0.01 cm-1 with a total linewidth of 10.9 ± 0.3 cm-1 at half maximum. The Lorentzian contribution accounts only for 4.7 ± 0.4 cm-1 to this width and the Gaussian (inhomogeneous) broadening for as much as 8.1 ± 0.2 cm-1. Polarization analysis of the -CN spectra showed that the -CN group is tilted 57° ± 2° from the surface normal. The large heterogeneity in the -CN spectrum is tentatively attributed to the -CN group interactions with the interfacial water molecules penetrated/accommodated into the 8CB monolayer, a unique phenomenon for the nCB Langmuir monolayers reported previously.

  2. The Nonlinear Dynamic Response of an Elastic-Plastic Thin Plate under Impulsive Loading,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-11

    Among those numerical methods, the finite element method is the most effective one. The method presented in this paper is an " influence function " numerical...computational time is much less than the finite element method. Its precision is higher also. II. Basic Assumption and the Influence Function of a Simple...calculation. Fig. 1 3 2. The Influence function of a Simple Supported Plate The motion differential equation of a thin plate can be written as DV’w+ _.eluq() (1

  3. A study of dynamic resistance during small scale resistance spot welding of thin Ni sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, W; Zhou, Y; Kerr, H W; Lawson, S

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic resistance has been investigated during small scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) of Ni sheets. Electrical measurements have been correlated with scanning electron microscope images of joint development. The results show that the dynamic resistance curve can be divided into the following stages based on physical change in the workpieces: asperity heating, surface breakdown, asperity softening, partial surface melting, nugget growth and expulsion. These results are also compared and contrasted with dynamic resistance behaviour in large scale RSW

  4. Effect of native oxide layers on copper thin-film tensile properties: A reactive molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarlinski, Michael D., E-mail: michael.skarlinski@rochester.edu [Materials Science Program, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Quesnel, David J. [Materials Science Program, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    Metal-oxide layers are likely to be present on metallic nano-structures due to either environmental exposure during use, or high temperature processing techniques such as annealing. It is well known that nano-structured metals have vastly different mechanical properties from bulk metals; however, difficulties in modeling the transition between metallic and ionic bonding have prevented the computational investigation of the effects of oxide surface layers. Newly developed charge-optimized many body [Liang et al., Mater. Sci. Eng., R 74, 255 (2013)] potentials are used to perform fully reactive molecular dynamics simulations which elucidate the effects that metal-oxide layers have on the mechanical properties of a copper thin-film. Simulated tensile tests are performed on thin-films while using different strain-rates, temperatures, and oxide thicknesses to evaluate changes in yield stress, modulus, and failure mechanisms. Findings indicate that copper-thin film mechanical properties are strongly affected by native oxide layers. The formed oxide layers have an amorphous structure with lower Cu-O bond-densities than bulk CuO, and a mixture of Cu{sub 2}O and CuO charge character. It is found that oxidation will cause modifications to the strain response of the elastic modulii, producing a stiffened modulii at low temperatures (<75 K) and low strain values (<5%), and a softened modulii at higher temperatures. While under strain, structural reorganization within the oxide layers facilitates brittle yielding through nucleation of defects across the oxide/metal interface. The oxide-free copper thin-film yielding mechanism is found to be a tensile-axis reorientation and grain creation. The oxide layers change the observed yielding mechanism, allowing for the inner copper thin-film to sustain an FCC-to-BCC transition during yielding. The mechanical properties are fit to a thermodynamic model based on classical nucleation theory. The fit implies that the oxidation of the

  5. Contact instabilities of anisotropic and inhomogeneous soft elastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Gaurav; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2012-02-01

    Anisotropy plays important roles in various biological phenomena such as adhesion of geckos and grasshoppers enabled by the attachment pods having hierarchical structures like thin longitudinal setae connected with threads mimicked by anisotropic films. We study the contact instability of a transversely isotropic thin elastic film when it comes in contact proximity of another surface. In the present study we investigate the contact stability of a thin incompressible transversely isotropic film by performing linear stability analysis. Based on the linear stability analysis, we show that an approaching contactor renders the film unstable. The critical wavelength of the instability is a function of the total film thickness and the ratio of the Young's modulus in the longitudinal direction and the shear modulus in the plane containing the longitudinal axis. We also analyze the stability of a thin gradient film that is elastically inhomogeneous across its thickness. Compared to a homogeneous elastic film, it becomes unstable with a longer wavelength when the film becomes softer in going from the surface to the substrate.

  6. Inhomogenous loop quantum cosmology with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-de Bias, D; Mena Marugán, G A; Martín-Benito, M

    2012-01-01

    The linearly polarized Gowdy T 3 model with a massless scalar field with the same symmetries as the metric is quantized by applying a hybrid approach. The homogeneous geometry degrees of freedom are loop quantized, fact which leads to the resolution of the cosmological singularity, while a Fock quantization is employed for both matter and gravitational inhomogeneities. Owing to the inclusion of the massless scalar field this system allows us to modelize flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies filled with inhomogeneities propagating in one direction. It provides a perfect scenario to study the quantum back-reaction between the inhomogeneities and the polymeric homogeneous and isotropic background.

  7. Inhomogeneous electric field air cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    For applications requiring the filtration of air contaminated with enriched uranium, plutonium or other transuranium compounds, it appears desirable to collect the material in a fashion more amenable to recovery than is now practical when material is collected on HEPA filters. In some instances, it may also be desirable to use an air cleaner of this type to substantially reduce the loading to which HEPA filters are subjected. A theoretical evaluation of such an air cleaner considers the interaction between an electrically neutral particle, dielectric or conducting, with an inhomogeneous electric field. An expression is derived for the force exerted on a particle in an electrode configuration of two concentric cylinders. Equations of motion are obtained for a particle suspended in a laminar flow of air passing through this geometry. An electrical quadrupole geometry is also examined and shown to be inferior to the cylindrical one. The results of two separate configurations of the single cell prototypes of the proposed air cleaner are described. These tests were designed to evaluate collection efficiencies using mono-disperse polystyrene latex and polydisperse NaCl aerosols. The advantages and problems of such systems in terms of a large scale air cleaning facility will be discussed

  8. Self-thinning dynamics in cork oak woodlands: providing a baseline for managing density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, T.; Monteiro, L.; Enes, T.; Cerveira, A.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: The study aims to evaluate the maximum potential stocking level in cork oak (Quercus suber L.) woodlands, using the ecologically-based size-density relationship of the self-thinning law. Area of study: The study area refers to cork oak forests in mainland Portugal, distributed along its 18 districts from north to south. Material and Methods: A dataset with a total of 2181 observations regarding pure cork oak stands was collected from the Portuguese Forest Inventory (NFI) databases and from research plots. The dataset was subjected to two filtering procedures, one more restrictive than the other, to select the stands presenting the higher stocking values. The two resulting subsets, with 116 and 36 observations, from 16 and 10 districts of mainland Portugal, respectively, were then used to assess and describe the allometric relationship between tree number and their mean diameter. Main results: The allometric relationship was analysed and modelled using the log transformed variables. A slightly curvilinear trend was identified. Thus, a straight line and a curve were both fitted for comparison purposes. Goodness-of-fit statistics point out for a good performance when the data is set to the uppermost observed stocking values. A self-thinning line for cork oak was projected from the estimated relationship. Research highlights: The self-thinning model can be used as an ecological approach to develop density guidelines for oak woodlands in a scenario of increasing cork demands. The results indicate that the recommendations being applied in Portugal are far below the maximal potential stocking values for the species. It is therefore of the utmost importance to review the traditional silvicultural guidelines and endorse new ones.

  9. Self-thinning dynamics in cork oak woodlands: providing a baseline for managing density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, T.; Monteiro, L.; Enes, T.; Cerveira, A.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: The study aims to evaluate the maximum potential stocking level in cork oak (Quercus suber L.) woodlands, using the ecologically-based size-density relationship of the self-thinning law. Area of study: The study area refers to cork oak forests in mainland Portugal, distributed along its 18 districts from north to south. Material and Methods: A dataset with a total of 2181 observations regarding pure cork oak stands was collected from the Portuguese Forest Inventory (NFI) databases and from research plots. The dataset was subjected to two filtering procedures, one more restrictive than the other, to select the stands presenting the higher stocking values. The two resulting subsets, with 116 and 36 observations, from 16 and 10 districts of mainland Portugal, respectively, were then used to assess and describe the allometric relationship between tree number and their mean diameter. Main results: The allometric relationship was analysed and modelled using the log transformed variables. A slightly curvilinear trend was identified. Thus, a straight line and a curve were both fitted for comparison purposes. Goodness-of-fit statistics point out for a good performance when the data is set to the uppermost observed stocking values. A self-thinning line for cork oak was projected from the estimated relationship. Research highlights: The self-thinning model can be used as an ecological approach to develop density guidelines for oak woodlands in a scenario of increasing cork demands. The results indicate that the recommendations being applied in Portugal are far below the maximal potential stocking values for the species. It is therefore of the utmost importance to review the traditional silvicultural guidelines and endorse new ones.

  10. Flow dynamics at the origin of thin clayey sand lacustrine turbidites: Examples from Lake Hazar, Turkey

    KAUST Repository

    Hage, Sophie

    2017-04-18

    Turbidity currents and their deposits can be investigated using several methods, i.e. direct monitoring, physical and numerical modelling, sediment cores and outcrops. The present study focuses on thin clayey sand turbidites found in Lake Hazar (Turkey) occurring in eleven clusters of closely spaced thin beds. Depositional processes and sources for three of those eleven clusters are studied at three coring sites. Bathymetrical data and seismic reflection profiles are used to understand the specific geomorphology of each site. X-ray, thin sections and CT-scans imagery combined with grain-size, geochemical and mineralogical measurements on the cores allow characterisation of the turbidites. Turbidites included in each cluster were produced by remobilization of surficial slope sediment, a process identified in very few studies worldwide. Three types of turbidites are distinguished and compared with deposits obtained in flume studies published in the literature. Type 1 is made of an ungraded clayey silt layer issued from a cohesive flow. Type 2 is composed of a partially graded clayey sand layer overlain by a mud cap, attributed to a transitional flow. Type 3 corresponds to a graded clayey sand layer overlain by a mud cap issued from a turbulence-dominated flow. While the published experimental studies show that turbulence is damped by cohesion for low clay content, type 3 deposits of this study show evidence for a turbulence dominated mechanism despite their high clay content. This divergence may in part relate to input variables such as water chemistry and clay mineralogy that are not routinely considered in experimental studies. Furthermore, the large sedimentological variety observed in the turbidites from one coring site to another is related to the evolution of a sediment flow within a field scale basin made of a complex physiography that cannot be tackled by flume experiments.

  11. Dynamic magnetization of NiZn ferrite doped FeSiAl thin films fabricated by oblique sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Xiaoxi, E-mail: xiaoxi.zhong@gmail.com [Sichuan Province Key Laboratory of Information Materials and Devices Application, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225 (China); Phuoc, Nguyen N. [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Soh, Wee Tee [Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Ong, C.K. [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Li, Lezhong [Sichuan Province Key Laboratory of Information Materials and Devices Application, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • We prepared NiZn ferrite doped FeSiAl-based thin films using oblique deposition technique. • The magnetic properties of FeSiAl-based thin films were systematically studied. • Two ferromagnetic resonance peaks were observed in the permeability spectra. • The thermal stability of microwave properties of FeSiAl-based films was studied. • The thermal stability of properties we studied was relatively good. - Abstract: In this study, we comprehensively investigate the dynamic magnetic properties of FeSiAl-NiZnFeO thin films prepared by the oblique deposition method via a shorted microstrip perturbation technique. For the films with higher oblique angle and NiZn ferrite doping amount, there are two ferromagnetic resonance peaks observed in the permeability spectra, and both of the two peaks originate from FeSiAl. Furthermore, the magnetic anisotropy field H{sub K} of the ferromagnetic resonance peak at higher frequency is enhanced with increasing doping amount, which is interpreted in terms of the contribution of reinforced stress-induced anisotropy and shape anisotropy brought about by doping elements and oblique sputtering method. In addition, the thermal stability of the ferromagnetic resonance frequency f{sub FMR} of FeSiAl-NiZnFeO films with oblique angles of 35° and 45° with respect to temperature ranging from 300 K to 420 K is deteriorated with increasing ferrite doping amount, which is mainly ascribed to the influence of pair-ordering anisotropy and/or the reduction of the FeSiAl grain size.

  12. Unraveling the Dynamics of Nanoscopically Confined PVME in Thin Films of a Miscible PVME/PS Blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Sherif; Szymoniak, Paulina; Radnik, Jörg; Schönhals, Andreas

    2017-10-25

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) was employed to investigate the glassy dynamics of thin films (7-200 nm) of a poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME)/polystyrene (PS) blend (50:50 wt %). For BDS measurements, nanostructured capacitors (NSCs) were employed, where films are allowed a free surface. This method was applied for film thicknesses up to 36 nm. For thicker films, samples were prepared between crossed electrode capacitors (CECs). The relaxation spectra of the films showed multiple processes. The first process was assigned to the α-relaxation of a bulklike layer. For films measured by NSCs, the rates of α-relaxation were higher compared to those of the bulk blend. This behavior was related to the PVME-rich free surface layer at the polymer/air interface. The second process was observed for all films measured by CECs (process X) and the 36 nm film measured by NSCs (process X2). This process was assigned to fluctuations of constraint PVME segments by PS. Its activation energy was found to be thickness-dependent because of the evidenced thickness dependency of the compositional heterogeneity. Finally, a third process with an activated temperature dependence was observed for all films measured by NSCs (process X1). It resembled the molecular fluctuations in an adsorbed layer found for thin films of pure PVME, and thus, it is assigned accordingly. This process undergoes an extra confinement because of frozen adsorbed PS segments at the polymer/substrate interface. To our knowledge, this is the first example where confinement-induced changes were observed by BDS for blend thin films.

  13. Regular Bulk Solutions in Brane-Worlds with Inhomogeneous Dust and Generalized Dark Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Roldão da; Kuerten, A. M.; Herrera-Aguilar, A.

    2015-01-01

    From the dynamics of a brane-world with matter fields present in the bulk, the bulk metric and the black string solution near the brane are generalized, when both the dynamics of inhomogeneous dust/generalized dark radiation on the brane-world and inhomogeneous dark radiation in the bulk as well are considered as exact dynamical collapse solutions. Based on the analysis on the inhomogeneous static exterior of a collapsing sphere of homogeneous dark radiation on the brane, the associated black string warped horizon is studied, as well as the 5D bulk metric near the brane. Moreover, the black string and the bulk are shown to be more regular upon time evolution, for suitable values for the dark radiation parameter in the model, by analyzing the soft physical singularities

  14. Nonequilibrium structure and dynamics in a microscopic model of thin-film active gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Head, D.A.; Briels, Willem J.; Gompper, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of adenosine triphosphate, molecular motors generate active force dipoles that drive suspensions of protein filaments far from thermodynamic equilibrium, leading to exotic dynamics and pattern formation. Microscopic modeling can help to quantify the relationship between individual

  15. Plasma dynamics study by fast imaging and Sm1-xNdxNiO3 thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafane, S.; Kerdja, T.; Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Malek, S.; Maaza, M.

    2009-01-01

    The plume expansion dynamics of an ablated target of Sm 2 O 3 , Nd 2 O 3 and NiO mixture oxides by KrF laser into 0.2 mbar oxygen atmosphere has been investigated using fast imaging. The study was carried out for two different laser fluences 2 and 3 J cm -2 . It was found that at early time delays, the expansion is still linear, independently of the laser fluence. However, as time evolves, the plume is decelerated and comes to rest. The plasma plume dynamics was analysed in the framework of Predtechensky and Mayorov model and drag model. It was found that Predtechensky and Mayorov model gives a general description of the plume expansion. However, at later time delays, it is rather the drag model which is valid. Furthermore, under the same conditions of pressure and fluences used for the plasma study, thin films were deposited at 4 cm from target surface and at temperature of 500 deg. C on (1 0 0) silicon substrates. The obtained layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy diagnostics. A correlation between the films properties and the plasma plume dynamics was found.

  16. Plasma waves in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The complete dispersion equation governing small amplitude plasma waves propagating in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma confined by a helical magnetic field is solved numerically. The efficiency of the wave energy thermalization in the lower hybrid frequency range is studied

  17. High speed direct imaging of thin metal film ablation by movie-mode dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihath, Sahar; Santala, Melissa K.; Cen, Xi; Campbell, Geoffrey; van Benthem, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Obliteration of matter by pulsed laser beams is not only prevalent in science fiction movies, but finds numerous technological applications ranging from additive manufacturing over machining of micro- and nanostructured features to health care. Pulse lengths ranging from femtoseconds to nanoseconds are utilized at varying laser beam energies and pulse lengths, and enable the removal of nanometric volumes of material. While the mechanisms for removal of material by laser irradiation, i.e., laser ablation, are well understood on the micrometer length scale, it was previously impossible to directly observe obliteration processes on smaller scales due to experimental limitations for the combination of nanometer spatial and nanosecond temporal resolution. Here, we report the direct observation of metal thin film ablation from a solid substrate through dynamic transmission electron microscopy. Quantitative analysis reveals liquid-phase dewetting of the thin-film, followed by hydrodynamic sputtering of nano- to submicron sized metal droplets. We discovered unexpected fracturing of the substrate due to evolving thermal stresses. This study confirms that hydrodynamic sputtering remains a valid mechanism for droplet expulsion on the nanoscale, while irradiation induced stress fields represent limit laser processing of nanostructured materials. Our results allow for improved safety during laser ablation in manufacturing and medical applications.

  18. Modeling of thermal, electronic, hydrodynamic, and dynamic deposition processes for pulsed-laser deposition of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.L.; LeBoeuf, J.N.; Wood, R.F.; Geohegan, D.B.; Donato, J.M.; Chen, K.R.; Puretzky, A.A.

    1994-11-01

    Various physical processes during laser ablation of solids for pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) are studied using a variety of computational techniques. In the course of the authors combined theoretical and experimental effort, they have been trying to work on as many aspects of PLD processes as possible, but with special focus on the following areas: (a) the effects of collisional interactions between the particles in the plume and in the background on the evolving flow field and on thin film growth, (b) interactions between the energetic particles and the growing thin films and their effects on film quality, (c) rapid phase transformations through the liquid and vapor phases under possibly nonequilibrium thermodynamic conditions induced by laser-solid interactions, (d) breakdown of the vapor into a plasma in the early stages of ablation through both electronic and photoionization processes, (c) hydrodynamic behavior of the vapor/plasma during and after ablation. The computational techniques used include finite difference (FD) methods, particle-in-cell model, and atomistic simulations using molecular dynamics (MD) techniques

  19. Measuring and predicting the dynamic effects of a confined thin metal plate pulse heated into the liquid-vapor regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic response of a confined thin layer of lead heated rapidly and uniformly to a supercritical state was investigated. Lead targets 0.025 mm and 0.05 mm thick were contained between a thin titanium tamping layer and a thick layer of fused quartz with several different gap widths between the lead and the confining surfaces. After being heated by an electron beam for about 50 ns, lead specimens expanded to a state of approximately half liquid and half vapor. Measurements of the stress in the quartz and the velocity of the tamper produced by the expanding lead were compared with one dimensional hydrodynamic computer program predictions. Measured and predicted peak stresses in the quartz for no gaps were approximately 12 kilobars and agreed within one kilobar. Peak stresses decreased rapidly with gap size to values, at 0.02 mm gaps, of about one kilobar for the 0.025 mm lead targets and five kilobars for the 0.05 mm targets. These values were confirmed by measurements. Predictions and measurements of tamper velocity (momentum) were within 10% only when the lead and confining walls were in close contact. The observed velocities for even very small gaps were substantially below predictions. These differences are attributed primarily to separation of the liquid and vapor phases during the expansion

  20. Ehrenfest force in inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisakyan, A.N.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Samojlov, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    The Ehrenfest force in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is calculated. It is shown that there exist such (very rare) topologically nontrivial physical situations when the Gauss theorem in its classic formulation fails and, as a consequence, apart from the usual Lorentz force an additional, purely imaginary force acts on the charged particle. This force arises only in inhomogeneous magnetic fields of special configurations, has a purely quantum origin, and disappears in the classical limit

  1. Impact of cosmic inhomogeneities on SNe observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Marra, Valerio

    2010-06-01

    We study the impact of cosmic inhomogeneities on the interpretation of SNe observations. We build an inhomogeneous universe model that can confront supernova data and yet is reasonably well compatible with the Copernican Principle. Our model combines a relatively small local void, that gives apparent acceleration at low redshifts, with a meatball model that gives sizeable lensing (dimming) at high redshifts. Together these two elements, which focus on different effects of voids on the data, allow the model to mimic the concordance model.

  2. Inhomogeneous inflation: The initial-value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, P.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Matzner, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    We present a spatially three-dimensional study for solving the initial-value problem in general relativity for inhomogeneous cosmologies. We use York's conformal approach to solve the constraint equations of Einstein's field equations for scalar field sources and find the initial data which will be used in the evolution. This work constitutes the first stage in the development of a code to analyze the effects of matter and spacetime inhomogeneities on inflation

  3. Molecular dynamics modeling on the role of initial void geometry in a thin aluminum film under uniaxial tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Yi; Chen, Zengtao

    2015-01-01

    The effect of initial void geometry on damage progression in a thin aluminum film under uniaxial load is studied via molecular dynamics (MD) method. The embedded voids are with different initial geometries regarding shape, porosity and intervoid ligament distance (ILD). Major simulations are run upon twelve MD geometries with each containing 8–27 million atoms. The corresponding stress–strain relation is monitored during the microstructure evolution of the specimens. The critical stress to trigger the dislocation emission is found in line with the prediction of the Lubarda model. The simulation results reveal that the initial void geometry has substantial impact on the stress–strain relation especially for a specimen with larger initial porosity. (paper)

  4. STUDY OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC STABILITY OF THIN-WALLED BARS EXCITED BY PERIODICAL AXIAL EXTERNAL FORCES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora Maria PASĂRE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In these paper, starting from the relations for the displacements and spinning the transversal section of a bar with thin walls of sections opened expressed by the corresponding influence functions and introducing the components of the exterior forces distributed and the moments of the exterior forces distributed due to the inertia forces, the exciting axial forces together with the following effect of these and of the reaction forces of the elastic environment for leaning it may reach to the system of the equations of parametric vibrations under the form of three integral equation These equations may serve for the study of vibrations of the bars, to study the static stability and to study the dynamic stability

  5. Dynamics of thin-film piezoelectric microactuators with large vertical stroke subject to multi-axis coupling and fabrication asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongsoo; Wang, Thomas; Oldham, Kenn

    2018-01-01

    The high performance and small size of MEMS based scanners has allowed various optical imaging techniques to be realized in a small form factor. Many such devices are resonant scanners, and thus their linear and nonlinear dynamic behaviors have been studied in the past. Thin-film piezoelectric materials, in contrast, provide sufficient energy density to achieve both large static displacements and high-frequency resonance, but large deformation can in turn influence dynamic scanner behavior. This paper reports on the influence of very large stroke translation of a piezoelectric vertical actuator on its resonant behavior, which may not be otherwise explained fully by common causes of resonance shift such as beam stiffening or nonlinear forcing. To examine the change of structural compliance over the course of scanner motion, a model has been developed that includes internal forces from residual stress and the resultant additional multi-axis coupling among actuator leg structures. Like some preceding vertical scanning micro-actuators, the scanner of this work has four legs, with each leg featuring four serially connected thin-film PZT unimorphs that allow the scanner to generate larger than 400 µm of vertical displacement at 14 V DC. Using an excitation near one or more resonances, the input voltage can be lowered, and complementary multi-axis rotations can be also generated, but change of the resonant frequencies with scanner height needs to be understood to maximize scanner performance. The presented model well predicts the experimental observation of the decrease of the resonant frequencies of the scanner with the increase of a dc bias voltage. Also, the effects of the magnitude and uniformity of residual stress across the scanner structure on the natural frequencies have been studied.

  6. On the role of initial void geometry in plastic deformation of metallic thin films: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yanqing [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0340 (United States); Xu, Shuozhi, E-mail: shuozhixu@gatech.edu [GWW School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Void growth is usually considered one of the most critical phases leading to dynamic fracture of ductile materials. Investigating the detailed process of void growth at the nanoscale aids in understanding the damage mechanism of metals. While most atomistic simulations by far assume circular or spherical voids for simplicity, recent studies highlight the significance of the initial void ellipticity in mechanical response of voided metals. In this work, we perform large scale molecular dynamics simulations with millions of atoms to investigate the void growth in plastic deformation of thin films in face-centered cubic Cu. It is found that the initial ellipticity and the initial orientation angle of the void have substantial impacts on the dislocation nucleation, the void evolution, and the stress-strain response. In particular, the initial dislocation emission sites and the sequence of slip plane activation vary with the initial void geometry. For the void size evolution, three regimes are identified: (I) the porosity increases relatively slowly in the absence of dislocations, (II) the porosity grows much more rapidly after dislocations start to glide on different slip planes, and (III) the rate of porosity variation becomes much more slowly when dislocations are saturated in the model, and the void surface becomes irregular, non-smooth. In terms of the stress-strain response, the effects of the initial orientation angle are more pronounced when the initial void ellipticity is large; the influence of the initial void ellipticity is different for different initial orientation angles. The effects of the temperature, the strain rate, the loading direction, and the initial porosity in the void growth are also explored. Our results reveal the underlying mechanisms of initial void geometry-dependent plastic deformation of metallic thin films and shed light on informing more accurate theoretical models.

  7. On the role of initial void geometry in plastic deformation of metallic thin films: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yanqing; Xu, Shuozhi

    2016-01-01

    Void growth is usually considered one of the most critical phases leading to dynamic fracture of ductile materials. Investigating the detailed process of void growth at the nanoscale aids in understanding the damage mechanism of metals. While most atomistic simulations by far assume circular or spherical voids for simplicity, recent studies highlight the significance of the initial void ellipticity in mechanical response of voided metals. In this work, we perform large scale molecular dynamics simulations with millions of atoms to investigate the void growth in plastic deformation of thin films in face-centered cubic Cu. It is found that the initial ellipticity and the initial orientation angle of the void have substantial impacts on the dislocation nucleation, the void evolution, and the stress-strain response. In particular, the initial dislocation emission sites and the sequence of slip plane activation vary with the initial void geometry. For the void size evolution, three regimes are identified: (I) the porosity increases relatively slowly in the absence of dislocations, (II) the porosity grows much more rapidly after dislocations start to glide on different slip planes, and (III) the rate of porosity variation becomes much more slowly when dislocations are saturated in the model, and the void surface becomes irregular, non-smooth. In terms of the stress-strain response, the effects of the initial orientation angle are more pronounced when the initial void ellipticity is large; the influence of the initial void ellipticity is different for different initial orientation angles. The effects of the temperature, the strain rate, the loading direction, and the initial porosity in the void growth are also explored. Our results reveal the underlying mechanisms of initial void geometry-dependent plastic deformation of metallic thin films and shed light on informing more accurate theoretical models.

  8. Quantum entanglement in inhomogeneous 1D systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    The entanglement entropy of the ground state of a quantum lattice model with local interactions usually satisfies an area law. However, in 1D systems some violations may appear in inhomogeneous systems or in random systems. In our inhomogeneous system, the inhomogeneity parameter, h, allows us to tune different regimes where a volumetric violation of the area law appears. We apply the strong disorder renormalization group to describe the maximally entangled state of the system in a strong inhomogeneity regime. Moreover, in a weak inhomogeneity regime, we use a continuum approximation to describe the state as a thermo-field double in a conformal field theory with an effective temperature which is proportional to the inhomogeneity parameter of the system. The latter description also shows that the universal scaling features of this model are captured by a massless Dirac fermion in a curved space-time with constant negative curvature R = h2, providing another example of the relation between quantum entanglement and space-time geometry. The results we discuss here were already published before, but here we present a more didactic exposure of basic concepts of the rainbow system for the students attending the Latin American School of Physics "Marcos Moshinsky" 2017.

  9. Processing/structure/property Relationships of Barium Strontium Titanate Thin Films for Dynamic Random Access Memory Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Jien

    The purpose of this study is to see the application feasibility of barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films on ultra large scale integration (ULSI) dynamic random access memory (DRAM) capacitors through the understanding of the relationships among processing, structure and electrical properties. Thin films of BST were deposited by multi-ion -beam reactive sputtering (MIBERS) technique and metallo -organic decomposition (MOD) method. The processing parameters such as Ba/Sr ratio, substrate temperature, annealing temperature and time, film thickness and doping concentration were correlated with the structure and electric properties of the films. Some effects of secondary low-energy oxygen ion bombardment were also examined. Microstructures of BST thin films could be classified into two types: (a) Type I structures, with multi-grains through the film thickness, for amorphous as-grown films after high temperature annealing, and (b) columnar structure (Type II) which remained even after high temperature annealing, for well-crystallized films deposited at high substrate temperatures. Type I films showed Curie-von Schweidler response, while Type II films showed Debted type behavior. Type I behavior may be attributed to the presence of a high density of disordered grain boundaries. Two types of current -voltage characteristics could be seen in non-bombarded films depending on the chemistry of the films (doped or undoped) and substrate temperature during deposition. Only the MIBERS films doped with high donor concentration and deposited at high substrate temperature showed space-charge -limited conduction (SCLC) with discrete shallow traps embedded in trap-distributed background at high electric field. All other non-bombarded films, including MOD films, showed trap-distributed SCLC behavior with a slope of {~}7.5-10 due to the presence of grain boundaries through film thickness or traps induced by unavoidable acceptor impurities in the films. Donor-doping could

  10. Charge dynamics in aluminum oxide thin film studied by ultrafast scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Maurizio; Sala, Vittorio; Irde, Gabriele; Pietralunga, Silvia Maria; Manzoni, Cristian; Cerullo, Giulio; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Tagliaferri, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    The excitation dynamics of defects in insulators plays a central role in a variety of fields from Electronics and Photonics to Quantum computing. We report here a time-resolved measurement of electron dynamics in 100 nm film of aluminum oxide on silicon by Ultrafast Scanning Electron Microscopy (USEM). In our pump-probe setup, an UV femtosecond laser excitation pulse and a delayed picosecond electron probe pulse are spatially overlapped on the sample, triggering Secondary Electrons (SE) emission to the detector. The zero of the pump-probe delay and the time resolution were determined by measuring the dynamics of laser-induced SE contrast on silicon. We observed fast dynamics with components ranging from tens of picoseconds to few nanoseconds, that fits within the timescales typical of the UV color center evolution. The surface sensitivity of SE detection gives to the USEM the potential of applying pump-probe investigations to charge dynamics at surfaces and interfaces of current nano-devices. The present work demonstrates this approach on large gap insulator surfaces. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Eliminating degradation and uncovering ion-trapping dynamics in electrochromic WO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Rui-Tao; Granqvist, Claes G.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous WO3 thin films are of keen interest as cathodic electrodes in transmittance-modulating electrochromic devices. However, these films suffer from ion-trapping-induced degradation of optical modulation and reversibility upon extended Li+-ion exchange. Here, we demonstrate that ion-trapping-induced degradation, which is commonly believed to be irreversible, can be successfully eliminated by constant-current-driven de-trapping, i.e., WO3 films can be rejuvenated and regain their initial highly reversible electrochromic performance. Pronounced ion-trapping occurs when x exceeds ~0.65 in LixWO3 during ion insertion. We find two main kinds of Li+-ion trapping sites (intermediate and deep) in WO3, where the intermediate ones are most prevalent. Li+-ions can be completely removed from intermediate traps but are irreversibly bound in deep traps. Our results provide a general framework for developing and designing superior electrochromic materials and devices. PMID:26259104

  12. Nonsymmetric dynamical thin-shell wormhole in Robinson-Trautman class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svítek, O.; Tahamtan, T.

    2018-02-01

    The thin-shell wormhole created using the Darmois-Israel formalism applied to Robinson-Trautman family of spacetimes is presented. The stress energy tensor created on the throat is interpreted in terms of two dust streams and it is shown that asymptotically this wormhole settles to the Schwarzschild wormhole with a throat located at the position of the horizon. This behavior shows a nonlinear stability (within the Robinson-Trautman class) of this spherically symmetric wormhole. The gravitational radiation emitted by the Robinson-Trautman wormhole during the transition to spherical symmetry is indistinguishable from that of the corresponding black hole Robinson-Trautman spacetime. Subsequently, we show that the higher-dimensional generalization of Robinson-Trautman geometry offers a possibility of constructing wormholes without the need to violate the energy conditions for matter induced on the throat.

  13. Diffusive Spin Dynamics in Ferromagnetic Thin Films with a Rashba Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui; Manchon, Aurelien

    2012-01-01

    In a ferromagnetic metal layer, the coupled charge and spin diffusion equations are obtained in the presence of both Rashba spin-orbit interaction and magnetism. The misalignment between the magnetization and the nonequilibrium spin density induced by the Rashba field gives rise to Rashba spin torque acting on the ferromagnetic order parameter. In a general form, we find that the Rashba torque consists of both in-plane and out-of-plane components, i.e., T=T Sy×m+T Sm×(y×m). Numerical simulations on a two-dimensional nanowire consider the impact of diffusion on the Rashba torque and reveal a large enhancement to the ratio T/T S for thin wires. Our theory provides an explanation for the mechanism driving the magnetization switching in a single ferromagnet as observed in the recent experiments. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  14. Diffusive Spin Dynamics in Ferromagnetic Thin Films with a Rashba Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui

    2012-03-13

    In a ferromagnetic metal layer, the coupled charge and spin diffusion equations are obtained in the presence of both Rashba spin-orbit interaction and magnetism. The misalignment between the magnetization and the nonequilibrium spin density induced by the Rashba field gives rise to Rashba spin torque acting on the ferromagnetic order parameter. In a general form, we find that the Rashba torque consists of both in-plane and out-of-plane components, i.e., T=T Sy×m+T Sm×(y×m). Numerical simulations on a two-dimensional nanowire consider the impact of diffusion on the Rashba torque and reveal a large enhancement to the ratio T/T S for thin wires. Our theory provides an explanation for the mechanism driving the magnetization switching in a single ferromagnet as observed in the recent experiments. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  15. Static and dynamic magnetization properties of Y1Ba2Cu3Oz thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekula, S.T.

    1989-08-01

    Magnetization studies were carried out on Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O z (YBCO) thin films that were e-beam evaporated onto circular discs of single-crystal SrTiO 3 with (001) and (110) faces as well as KTaO 3 with (001) faces. The measurements were made using vibrating sample (VSM) and SQUID-based magnetometry with the applied field perpendicular to the substrate surface. Critical current densities J c (H,T) are deduced from the magnetic hysteresis. Flux creep effects are observed over longer periods with the SQUID magnetometer. Analysis of the results of low frequency response of these films to collinear ac and dc magnetic fields are compared with the dc magnetometry results. J c (H,T) is observed to be quite sensitive to the type of epitaxial growth on the various substrates. 16 refs., 10 figs

  16. Nonsymmetric dynamical thin-shell wormhole in Robinson-Trautman class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svitek, O. [Charles University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Tahamtan, T. [Charles University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Czech Academy of Sciences, Astronomical Institute, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2018-02-15

    The thin-shell wormhole created using the Darmois-Israel formalism applied to Robinson-Trautman family of spacetimes is presented. The stress energy tensor created on the throat is interpreted in terms of two dust streams and it is shown that asymptotically this wormhole settles to the Schwarzschild wormhole with a throat located at the position of the horizon. This behavior shows a nonlinear stability (within the Robinson-Trautman class) of this spherically symmetric wormhole. The gravitational radiation emitted by the Robinson-Trautman wormhole during the transition to spherical symmetry is indistinguishable from that of the corresponding black hole Robinson-Trautman spacetime. Subsequently, we show that the higher-dimensional generalization of Robinson-Trautman geometry offers a possibility of constructing wormholes without the need to violate the energy conditions for matter induced on the throat. (orig.)

  17. Ultrafast Magnetization Dynamics of SrRuO3 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, Matthew C.

    2009-01-01

    Itinerant ferromagnet SrRuO3 has drawn interest from physicists due to its unusual transport and magnetic properties as well as from engineers due to its low resistivity and good lattice-matching to other oxide materials. The exact electronic structure remains a mystery, as well as details of the interactions between magnetic and electron transport properties. This thesis describes the use of time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr spectroscopy to study the ferromagnetic resonance of SrRuO3 thin films, where the ferromagnetic resonance is initiated by a sudden change in the easy axis direction in response to a pump pulse. The rotation of the easy axis is induced by laser heating, taking advantage of a temperature-dependent easy axis direction in SrRuO3 thin films. By measuring the change in temperature of the magnetic system in response to the laser pulse, we find that the specific heat is dominated by magnons up to unusually high temperature, ∼ 100 K, and thermal diffusion is limited by a boundary resistance between the film and the substrate that is not consistent with standard phonon reflection and scattering models. We observe a high FMR frequency, 250 GHz, and large Gilbert damping parameter, alpha ∼ 1, consistent with strong spin-orbit coupling. We observe a time-dependent change in the easy axis direction on a ps time-scale, and we find that parameters associated with the change in easy axis, as well as the damping parameter, have a non-monotonic temperature dependence similar to that observed in anomalous Hall measurements.

  18. A real-time Raman spectroscopy study of the dynamics of laser-thinning of MoS2 flakes to monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Enyao; Wang, Qiyuan; Zhang, Youwei; Cong, Chunxiao; Hu, Laigui; Tian, Pengfei; Liu, Ran; Zhang, Shi-Li; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

    2017-12-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) in monolayer form have attracted a great deal of attention for electronic and optical applications. Compared to mechanical exfoliation and chemical synthesis, laser thinning is a novel and unique "on-demand" approach to fabricate monolayers or pattern desired shapes with high controllability and reproducibility. Its successful demonstration motivates a further exploration of the dynamic behaviour of this local thinning process. Here, we present an in-situ study of void formation by laser irradiation with the assistance of temporal Raman evolution. In the analysis of time-dependent Raman intensity, an empirical formula relating void size to laser power and exposure time is established. Void in thinner MoS2 flakes grows faster than in thicker ones as a result of reduced sublimation temperature in the two-dimensional (2D) materials. Our study provides useful insights into the laser-thinning dynamics of 2D TMDCs and guidelines for an effective control over the void formation.

  19. Ferromagnetic resonance linewidth and two-magnon scattering in Fe1-xGdx thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetization dynamics of Fe1-xGdx thin films (0 ≤ x ≤ 22% has been investigated by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR. Out-of-plane magnetic field orientation dependence of resonance field and linewidth has been measured. Resonance field and FMR linewidth have been fitted by the free energy of our system and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG equation. It is found that FMR linewidth contains huge extrinsic components including two-magnon scattering contribution and inhomogeneous broadening for FeGd alloy thin films. In addition, the intrinsic linewidth and real damping constants have been obtained by extracting the extrinsic linewidth. The damping constant enhanced from 0.011 to 0.038 as Gd dopants increase from 0 to 22% which originates from the enhancement of L-S coupling in FeGd thin films. Besides, gyromagnetic ratio, Landé factor g and magnetic anisotropy of our films have also been determined.

  20. Multi-decadal dynamic thinning on the northwest margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Kjær, Kurt H.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    records with a 25 m grid resolution and vertical uncertainty of 4.6m. Comparative DEMs were derived from laser altimetry data recorded in 2005 and 2010. Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) can be partitioned into surface mass balance (SMB) processes (runoff and precipitation) and ice dynamics...

  1. Photoexcitation dynamics in solution-processed formamidinium lead iodide perovskite thin films for solar cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Wang, Feng; Adjokatse, Sampson; Zhao, Ni; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    Formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI(3)) is a newly developed hybrid perovskite that potentially can be used in high-efficiency solution-processed solar cells. Here, the temperature-dependent dynamic optical properties of three types of FAPbI(3) perovskite films (fabricated using three different

  2. The two-qubit quantum Rabi model: inhomogeneous coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Lijun; Huai, Sainan; Zhang, Yunbo

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the analytic solution of the two-qubit quantum Rabi model with inhomogeneous coupling and transition frequencies using a displaced oscillator basis. This approach enables us to apply the same truncation rules and techniques adopted in the Rabi model to the two qubits system. The derived analytical spectra match perfectly with the numerical solutions in the parameter regime where the qubits’ transition frequencies are far off-resonance with the field frequency and the interaction strengths reach the ultrastrong coupling regime. We further explore the dynamical behavior of the two qubits as well as the evolution of entanglement. The analytical methods provide unexpectedly accurate results in describing the dynamics of the two qubits in the present experimentally accessible coupling regime. The time evolutions of the probability for the qubits show that the collapse-revival phenomena emerge, survive and finally disappear when one coupling strength increases from weak to strong coupling regimes and the other coupling strength is well into the ultrastrong coupling regime. The inhomogeneous coupling system exhibits new dynamics, which are different from the homogeneous coupling case. (paper)

  3. Radiative-dynamical and microphysical processes of thin cirrus clouds controlling humidity of air entering the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Tra; Fueglistaler, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Thin cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) are of great interest due to their role in the control of water vapor and temperature in the TTL. Previous research on TTL cirrus clouds has focussed mainly on microphysical processes, specifically the ice nucleation mechanism and dehydration efficiency. Here, we use a cloud resolving model to analyse the sensitivity of TTL cirrus characteristics and impacts with respect to microphysical and radiative processes. A steady-state TTL cirrus cloud field is obtained in the model forced with dynamical conditions typical for the TTL (2-dimensional setup with a Kelvin-wave temperature perturbation). Our model results show that the dehydration efficiency (as given by the domain average relative humidity in the layer of cloud occurrence) is relatively insensitive to the ice nucleation mechanism, i.e. homogeneous versus heterogeneous nucleation. Rather, TTL cirrus affect the water vapor entering the stratosphere via an indirect effect associated with the cloud radiative heating and dynamics. Resolving the cloud radiative heating and the radiatively induced circulations approximately doubles the domain average ice mass. The cloud radiative heating is proportional to the domain average ice mass, and the observed increase in domain average ice mass induces a domain average temperature increase of a few Kelvin. The corresponding increase in water vapor entering the stratosphere is estimated to be about 30 to 40%.

  4. Molecular dynamics study on the effect of boundary heating rate on the phase change characteristics of thin film liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim, E-mail: nasim@me.buet.ac.bd.com; Morshed, A. K. M. Monjur, E-mail: shavik@me.buet.ac.bd.com; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle, E-mail: rabbi35.me10@gmail.com; Haque, Mominul, E-mail: mominulmarup@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    In this study, theoretical investigation of thin film liquid phase change phenomena under different boundary heating rates has been conducted with the help of molecular dynamics simulation. To do this, the case of argon boiling over a platinum surface has been considered. The study has been conducted to get a better understanding of the nano-scale physics of evaporation/boiling for a three phase system with particular emphasis on the effect of boundary heating rate. The simulation domain consisted of liquid and vapor argon atoms placed over a platinum wall. Initially the whole system was brought to an equilibrium state at 90 K with the help of equilibrium molecular dynamics and then the temperature of the bottom wall was increased to a higher temperature (250 K/130 K) over a finite heating period. Depending on the heating period, the boundary heating rate has been varied in the range of 1600×10{sup 9} K/s to 8×10{sup 9} K/s. The variations of argon region temperature, pressure, net evaporation number with respect to time under different boundary heating rates have been determined and discussed. The heat fluxes normal to platinum wall for different cases were also calculated and compared with theoretical upper limit of maximum possible heat transfer to elucidate the effect of boundary heating rate.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics of a thin liquid film on an axially oscillating cylindrical surface subjected to double-frequency forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimovich, Ory; Oron, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a thin axisymmetric liquid film on a horizontal cylindrical substrate subjected to an axial double-frequency forcing that consists of two components of different amplitudes and frequencies and a possible phase shift is considered in this paper. A nonlinear evolution equation governing the spatiotemporal dynamics of the film interface has been derived in the long-wave limit. Similar to the case of a single-frequency forcing considered in our earlier work, there exists a critical forcing amplitude below which the film undergoes a long-time capillary rupture typical for a static cylinder, whereas above it the film remains continuous. We find that it is possible to arrest the rupture even if the forcing parameters of each of the two components correspond separately to the domain where rupture takes place. It is shown that the critical forcing amplitude is easily determined via a single-frequency case when the two forcing frequencies are equal. In the case of different forcing amplitudes and frequencies, the variation of the critical forcing amplitude as a function of the frequency ratio exhibits a unique behavior displaying the emergence of spikes. A related case of an amplitude-modulated single-frequency forcing is also addressed here. For a sufficiently small frequency of the amplitude modulation, a significant increase of the pattern amplitude is observed. In the case of commensurate forcing frequencies, the flow is found to be quasiperiodic.

  6. Substrate clamping effects on irreversible domain wall dynamics in lead zirconate titanate thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggio, F; Jesse, S; Kumar, A; Ovchinnikov, O; Kim, H; Jackson, T N; Damjanovic, D; Kalinin, S V; Trolier-McKinstry, S

    2012-04-13

    The role of long-range strain interactions on domain wall dynamics is explored through macroscopic and local measurements of nonlinear behavior in mechanically clamped and released polycrystalline lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) films. Released films show a dramatic change in the global dielectric nonlinearity and its frequency dependence as a function of mechanical clamping. Furthermore, we observe a transition from strong clustering of the nonlinear response for the clamped case to almost uniform nonlinearity for the released film. This behavior is ascribed to increased mobility of domain walls. These results suggest the dominant role of collective strain interactions mediated by the local and global mechanical boundary conditions on the domain wall dynamics. The work presented in this Letter demonstrates that measurements on clamped films may considerably underestimate the piezoelectric coefficients and coupling constants of released structures used in microelectromechanical systems, energy harvesting systems, and microrobots.

  7. Inhomogeneous superconductivity in a ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontos, T.; Aprili, M.; Lesueur, J.; Genet, F.; Boursier, R.; Grison, X.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied a new superconducting state where the condensate wave function resulting from conventional pairing, is modified by an exchange field. Superconductivity is induced into a ferromagnetic thin film (F) by the proximity effect with a superconducting reservoir (S). We observed oscillations of the superconducting order parameter induced in F as a function of the distance from the S/F interface. They originate from the finite momentum transfer provided to Cooper pairs by the splitting of the spin up and down bands. We measured the superconducting density of states in F by tunneling spectroscopy and the Josephson critical current when F is coupled with a superconducting counter-electrode. Negative values of the superconducting order parameter are revealed by capsized tunneling spectra in F and a negative Josephson coupling (π-junction)

  8. Dynamics of photoexcited carrier relaxation and recombination in CdTe/CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, D.H.; Fluegel, B.D.; Ahrenkiel, R.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Efficiency-limiting defects in photovoltaic devices are readily probed by time-resolved spectroscopy. This paper presents the first direct optical measurements of the relaxation and recombination pathways of photoexcited carriers in the CdS window layer of CdTe/CdS polycrystalline thin films. Femtosecond time-resolved pump/probe measurements indicate the possible existence of a two-phase CdS/CdSTe layer, rather than a continuously graded alloy layer at the CdTe/CdS interface. Complementary time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurements show that the photoexcited carriers are rapidly captured by deep-level defects. The temporal and density-dependent properties of the photoluminescence prove that the large Stokes shift of the PL relative to the band edge is due to strong phonon coupling to deep-level defects in CdS. The authors suggest that modifications in the CdS processing may enhance carrier collection efficiency in the blue spectral region.

  9. Impact of the glass transition on exciton dynamics in polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Philipp; Proepper, Daniel; Graf, Alexander; Jores, Stefan; Boris, Alexander V.; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2017-11-01

    In the development of organic electronics, unlimited design possibilities of conjugated polymers offer a wide variety of mechanical and electronic properties. Thereby, it is crucially important to reveal universal physical characteristics that allow efficient and forward developments of new chemical compounds. In particular for organic solar cells, a deeper understanding of exciton dynamics in polymer films can help to improve the charge generation process further. For this purpose, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is commonly used as a model system, although exciton decay kinetics have found different interpretations. Using temperature-dependent time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy in combination with low-temperature spectroscopic ellipsometry, we can show that P3HT is indeed a model system in which excitons follow a simple diffusion/hopping model. Based on our results we can exclude the relevance of hot-exciton emission as well as a dynamic torsional relaxation upon photoexcitation on a ps time scale. Instead, we depict the glass transition temperature of polymers to strongly affect exciton dynamics.

  10. Thin accretion disk signatures in dynamical Chern-Simons-modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2010-01-01

    A promising extension of general relativity is Chern-Simons (CS)-modified gravity, in which the Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by adding a parity-violating CS term, which couples to gravity via a scalar field. In this work, we consider the interesting, yet relatively unexplored, dynamical formulation of CS-modified gravity, where the CS coupling field is treated as a dynamical field, endowed with its own stress-energy tensor and evolution equation. We consider the possibility of observationally testing dynamical CS-modified gravity by using the accretion disk properties around slowly rotating black holes. The energy flux, temperature distribution, the emission spectrum as well as the energy conversion efficiency are obtained, and compared to the standard general relativistic Kerr solution. It is shown that the Kerr black hole provides a more efficient engine for the transformation of the energy of the accreting mass into radiation than their slowly rotating counterparts in CS-modified gravity. Specific signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, thus leading to the possibility of directly testing CS-modified gravity by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  11. Dynamics of vortex–antivortex pair in a superconducting thin strip with narrow slits*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He An; Xue Cun; Zhou You-He

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of phenomenological time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau (TDGL) formalism, the dynamical properties of vortex–antivortex (V-Av) pair in a superconductor film with a narrow slit was studied. The slit position and length can have a great impact not only on the vortex dynamical behavior but also the current–voltage ( I – V ) characteristics of the sample. Kinematic vortex lines can be predominated by the location of the slit. In the range of relatively low applied currents for a constant weak magnetic field, kinematic vortex line appears at right or left side of the slit by turns periodically. We found such single-side kinematic vortex line cannot lead to a jump in the I – V curve. At higher applied currents the phase-slip lines can be observed at left and right sides of the slit simultaneously. The competition between the vortex created at the lateral edge of the sample and the V-Av pair in the slit will result in three distinctly different scenarios of vortex dynamics depending on slit length: the lateral vortex penetrates the sample to annihilate the antivortex in the slit; the V-Av pair in the slit are driven off and expelled laterally; both the lateral vortex and the slit antivortex are depinned and driven together to annihilation in the halfway. (paper)

  12. Molecular-dynamics simulations of thin polyisoprene films confined between amorphous silica substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, D. V.; Komarov, P. V.; Lyulin, Alexey V.

    2014-01-01

    Constant temperature–constant pressure (NpT) molecular-dynamics computer simulations have been carried out for the united-atom model of a non-crosslinked (1,4) cis-polyisoprene (PI) melt confined between two amorphous, fully coordinated silica surfaces. The Lennard-Jones 12-6 potential was implemented to describe the polymer–silica interactions. The thickness H of the produced PI–silica film has been varied in a wide range, 1 g g is the individual PI chain radius of gyration measured under the imposed confinement. After a thorough equilibration, the PI film stratified structure and polymer segmental dynamics have been studied. The chain structure in the middle of the films resembles that in a corresponding bulk, but the polymer-density profile shows a pronounced ordering of the polymer segments in the vicinity of silica surfaces; this ordering disappears toward the film middles. Tremendous slowing down of the polymer segmental dynamics has been observed in the film surface layers, with the segmental relaxation more than 150 times slower as compared to that in a PI bulk. This effect increases with decreasing the polymer-film thickness. The segmental relaxation in the PI film middles shows additional relaxation process which is absent in a PI bulk. Even though there are fast relaxation processes in the film middle, its overall relaxation is slower as compared to that in a bulk sample. The interpretation of the results in terms of polymer glassy bridges has been discussed

  13. Molecular Structure and Dynamics in Thin Water Films at the Silica and Graphite Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyris, Dr. Dimitrios [University of Oklahoma; Tummala, Dr. Naga Rajesh [University of Oklahoma; StrioloDr., A [Vanderbilt University; Cole, David R [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The structure and dynamic properties of interfacial water at the graphite and silica solid surfaces were investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The effect of surface properties on the characteristics of interfacial water was quantified by computing density profiles, radial distribution functions, surface density distributions, orientation order parameters, and residence and reorientation correlation functions. In brief, our results show that the surface roughness, chemical heterogeneity, and surface heterogeneous charge distribution affect the structural and dynamic properties of the interfacial water molecules, as well as their rate of exchange with bulk water. Most importantly, our results indicate the formation of two distinct water layers at the SiO2 surface covered by a large density of hydroxyl groups. Further analysis of the data suggests a highly confined first layer where the water molecules assume preferential hydrogen-down orientation and a second layer whose behavior and characteristics are highly dependent on those of the first layer through a well-organized hydrogen bond network. The results suggest that water-water interactions, in particular hydrogen bonds, may be largely responsible for macroscopic interfacial properties such as adsorption and contact angle.

  14. Stellar dynamics around a massive black hole - III. Resonant relaxation of razor-thin axisymmetric discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S.; Touma, Jihad R.

    2017-02-01

    We study the resonant relaxation (RR) of an axisymmetric, low-mass (or Keplerian) stellar disc orbiting a more massive black hole (MBH). Our recent work on the general kinetic theory of RR is simplified in the standard manner by the neglect of 'gravitational polarization' and applied to a razor-thin axisymmetric disc. The wake of a stellar orbit is expressed in terms of the angular momenta exchanged with other orbits, and used to derive a kinetic equation for RR under the combined actions of self-gravity, 1 PN and 1.5 PN general relativistic effects of the MBH and an arbitrary external axisymmetric potential. This is a Fokker-Planck equation for the stellar distribution function (DF), wherein the diffusion coefficients are given self-consistently in terms of contributions from apsidal resonances between pairs of stellar orbits. The physical kinetics is studied for the two main cases of interest. (1) 'Lossless' discs in which the MBH is not a sink of stars, and disc mass, angular momentum and energy are conserved: we prove that general H-functions can increase or decrease during RR, but the Boltzmann entropy is (essentially) unique in being a non-decreasing function of time. Therefore, secular thermal equilibria are maximum entropy states, with DFs of the Boltzmann form; the two-ring correlation function at equilibrium is computed. (2) Discs that lose stars to the MBH through an 'empty loss cone': we derive expressions for the MBH feeding rates of mass, angular momentum and energy in terms of the diffusive fluxes at the loss-cone boundaries.

  15. Traveltime approximations for inhomogeneous HTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Traveltimes information is convenient for parameter estimation especially if the medium is described by an anisotropic set of parameters. This is especially true if we could relate traveltimes analytically to these medium parameters, which is generally hard to do in inhomogeneous media. As a result, I develop traveltimes approximations for horizontaly transversely isotropic (HTI) media as simplified and even linear functions of the anisotropic parameters. This is accomplished by perturbing the solution of the HTI eikonal equation with respect to η and the azimuthal symmetry direction (usually used to describe the fracture direction) from a generally inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium. The resulting approximations can provide accurate analytical description of the traveltime in a homogenous background compared to other published moveout equations out there. These equations will allow us to readily extend the inhomogenous background elliptical anisotropic model to an HTI with a variable, but smoothly varying, η and horizontal symmetry direction values. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. Assessment of inhomogeneous ELF magnetic field exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    In daily life as well as at workplaces, exposures to inhomogeneous magnetic fields become very frequent. This makes easily applicable compliance assessment methods increasingly important. Reference levels have been defined linking basic restrictions to levels of homogeneous fields at worst-case exposure conditions. If reference levels are met, compliance with basic restrictions can be assumed. If not, further investigations could still prove compliance. Because of the lower induction efficiency, inhomogeneous magnetic fields such as from electric appliances could be allowed exceeding reference levels. To easily assess inhomogeneous magnetic fields, a quick and flexible multi-step assessment procedure is proposed. On the basis of simulations with numerical, anatomical human models reference factors were calculated elevating reference levels to link hot-spot values measured at source surfaces to basic limits and allowing accounting for different source distance, size, orientation and position. Compliance rules are proposed minimising assessment efforts. (authors)

  17. Short-Term Effects of Low Intensity Thinning on the Fine Root Dynamics of Pinus massoniana Plantations in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Shen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fine roots play an important role in plant growth as well as carbon (C and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Fine roots are important for understanding the contribution of forests to the global C cycle. Knowledge about this topic is still limited, especially regarding the effects of different forest management practices. This study investigated the seasonal dynamics of fine roots (<2 mm in masson pine (P. massoniana plantations for one year after low intensity thinning by using a sequential soil coring method. The fine roots showed pronounced seasonal dynamics, with a peak of fine root biomass (FRB occurring in September. Significant differences were noted in the seasonal dynamics of FRB for the different diameter size sub-classes (≤0.5 mm, 0.5–1 mm and 1–2 mm; also FRB was inversely related to soil depth. Moreover, the FRB (≤0.5 mm and 0.5–1 mm except 1–2 mm in the thinning plots was greater than that in the control only in the upper soil layer (0–10 cm. Furthermore, the FRB varied significantly with soil temperature, moisture and nutrients depended on the diameter sub-class considered. Significant differences in the soil temperature and moisture levels were noted between low-intensity thinned and control plots. Soil nutrient levels slightly decreased after low-intensity thinning. In addition, there was a more sensitive relationship between the very fine roots (diameter < 0.5 mm and soil nutrients. Our results showed an influence of low-intensity thinning on the fine root dynamics with a different magnitude according to fine root diameter sub-classes. These results provide a theoretical basis to promote the benefits of C cycling in the management of P. massoniana forests.

  18. Inhomogeneous Markov Models for Describing Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Emil Banning; Møller, Jan K.; Morales, Juan Miguel

    2017-01-01

    . Specifically, an inhomogeneous Markov model that captures the diurnal variation in the use of a vehicle is presented. The model is defined by the time-varying probabilities of starting and ending a trip, and is justified due to the uncertainty associated with the use of the vehicle. The model is fitted to data...... collected from the actual utilization of a vehicle. Inhomogeneous Markov models imply a large number of parameters. The number of parameters in the proposed model is reduced using B-splines....

  19. Inhomogeneous Markov Models for Describing Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    . Specically, an inhomogeneous Markov model that captures the diurnal variation in the use of a vehicle is presented. The model is dened by the time-varying probabilities of starting and ending a trip and is justied due to the uncertainty associated with the use of the vehicle. The model is tted to data...... collected from the actual utilization of a vehicle. Inhomogeneous Markov models imply a large number of parameters. The number of parameters in the proposed model is reduced using B-splines....

  20. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of polymer thin films: chain conformation, dynamics, and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreddine, V.F.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation presents solid-state NMR studies of the chain conformation, dynamics and morphology of three adsorbed polymer systems: two random semi-crystalline copolymers, poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (PEA) and poly(propylene-co-acrylic acid) (PPA), and an amorphous homopolymer, poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PnBMA). Zirconia (ZrO 2 ) was chosen as the substrate for all three polymers since the binding of carboxylic acids to this metal oxide is well understood. The choice of polymers was based on their particular bulk conformational and dynamic properties as well as their common use in polymer coatings. These studies are motivated by the general lack of a microscopic picture of adsorbed polymers, which can be provided by NMR, and the relevance of chain conformation and dynamics to important polymer film properties such as adhesion. First the chain conformation and surface binding of adsorbed PEA as a function of acrylic acid content are characterized by 13 C cross polarization - magic angle spinning (CP-MAS), 2D 1 H- 13 C wideline separation (WISE) and 1 H spin diffusion NMR experiments and FTIR-PAS (Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy) measurements. The most important finding is that the chain conformation of adsorbed PEA is determined primarily by the sticker group density rather than the surface coverage. The second study of PEA concerns the chain dynamics in the bulk and adsorbed states. Variable temperature NMR experiments provide evidence that ethylene segments of adsorbed PEA form partially folded loops rather than flat extended trains. Finally 129 Xe NMR studies, used to probe the morphology of adsorbed PEA, show a bulk-like signal only for the highest loadings. The second system investigated, PPA, is another semi-crystalline random copolymer which binds to zirconia via carboxylate linkages. The 13 C CP-MAS NMR spectra of adsorbed PPAC unexpectedly show splittings normally associated with chain-chain packing in the crystalline regions

  1. Dynamic speckle interferometry of microscopic processes in solid state and thin biological objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, A. P.

    2015-08-01

    Modernized theory of dynamic speckle interferometry is considered. It is shown that the time-average radiation intensity has the parameters characterizing the wave phase changes. It also brings forward an expression for time autocorrelation function of the radiation intensity. It is shown that with the vanishing averaging time value the formulas transform to the prior expressions. The results of experiments with high-cycle material fatigue and cell metabolism analysis conducted using the time-averaging technique are discussed. Good reproducibility of the results is demonstrated. It is specified that the upgraded technique allows analyzing accumulation of fatigue damage, detecting the crack start moment and determining its growth velocity with uninterrupted cyclic load. It is also demonstrated that in the experiments with a cell monolayer the technique allows studying metabolism change both in an individual cell and in a group of cells.

  2. Vortex Matter dynamics in a thin film of Nb with columnar indentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, J.S. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetism, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: julianakapp@gmail.com; Zadorosny, R.; Oliveira, A.A.M. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetism, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lepienski, C.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Patino, E.J.; Blamire, M.G. [Department of Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Ortiz, W.A. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetism, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    A superconducting film with columnar defects constitutes a rich scenario for studying Vortex Matter dynamics. This paper reports on the magnetic response of a 200 nm thick Nb film, pierced with a set of 900 columnar indentations of nearly triangular cross section, forming a square lattice. The column diameter is 1 {mu}m and the distance between columns is 10 {mu}m. To probe the interaction of Vortex Matter with the array of antidots, we have excited the sample with a significantly large AC-field, so that flux originally trapped by the columns could be unpinned and admitted into the superconducting sea surrounding the defects. The melting line of this system has a kink separating two different regimes, suggesting a crossover from the efficient pinning regime, at lower temperatures, to a temperature-induced depinning.

  3. Vortex Matter dynamics in a thin film of Nb with columnar indentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, J.S.; Zadorosny, R.; Oliveira, A.A.M.; Lepienski, C.M.; Patino, E.J.; Blamire, M.G.; Ortiz, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    A superconducting film with columnar defects constitutes a rich scenario for studying Vortex Matter dynamics. This paper reports on the magnetic response of a 200 nm thick Nb film, pierced with a set of 900 columnar indentations of nearly triangular cross section, forming a square lattice. The column diameter is 1 μm and the distance between columns is 10 μm. To probe the interaction of Vortex Matter with the array of antidots, we have excited the sample with a significantly large AC-field, so that flux originally trapped by the columns could be unpinned and admitted into the superconducting sea surrounding the defects. The melting line of this system has a kink separating two different regimes, suggesting a crossover from the efficient pinning regime, at lower temperatures, to a temperature-induced depinning

  4. Spontaneous membrane formation and self-encapsulation of active rods in an inhomogeneous motility field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauer, J.; Löwen, H.; Janssen, L.M.C.

    2018-01-01

    We study the collective dynamics of self-propelled rods in an inhomogeneous motility field. At the interface between two regions of constant but different motility, a smectic rod layer is spontaneously created through aligning interactions between the active rods, reminiscent of an artificial,

  5. Static and Dynamic Water Motion-Induced Instability in Oxide Thin-Film Transistors and Its Suppression by Using Low-k Fluoropolymer Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seungbeom; Jo, Jeong-Wan; Kim, Jaeyoung; Song, Seungho; Kim, Jaekyun; Park, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2017-08-09

    Here, we report static and dynamic water motion-induced instability in indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) and its effective suppression with the use of a simple, solution-processed low-k (ε ∼ 1.9) fluoroplastic resin (FPR) passivation layer. The liquid-contact electrification effect, in which an undesirable drain current modulation is induced by a dynamic motion of a charged liquid such as water, can cause a significant instability in IGZO TFTs. It was found that by adopting a thin (∼44 nm) FPR passivation layer for IGZO TFTs, the current modulation induced by the water-contact electrification was greatly reduced in both off- and on-states of the device. In addition, the FPR-passivated IGZO TFTs exhibited an excellent stability to static water exposure (a threshold voltage shift of +0.8 V upon 3600 s of water soaking), which is attributed to the hydrophobicity of the FPR passivation layer. Here, we discuss the origin of the current instability caused by the liquid-contact electrification as well as various static and dynamic stability tests for IGZO TFTs. On the basis of our findings, we believe that the use of a thin, solution-processed FPR passivation layer is effective in suppressing the static and dynamic water motion-induced instabilities, which may enable the realization of high-performance and environment-stable oxide TFTs for emerging wearable and skin-like electronics.

  6. Stability and dewetting of metal nanoparticle filled thin polymer films: control of instability length scale and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rabibrata; Das, Soma; Das, Anindya; Sharma, Satinder K; Raychaudhuri, Arup K; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2010-07-27

    We investigate the influence of gold nanoparticle addition on the stability, dewetting, and pattern formation in ultrathin polymer-nanoparticle (NP) composite films by examining the length and time scales of instability, morphology, and dynamics of dewetting. For these 10-50 nm thick (h) polystyrene (PS) thin films containing uncapped gold nanoparticles (diameter approximately 3-4 nm), transitions from complete dewetting to arrested dewetting to absolute stability were observed depending on the concentration of the particles. Experiments show the existence of three distinct stability regimes: regime 1, complete dewetting leading to droplet formation for nanoparticle concentration of 2% (w/w) or below; regime 2, partial dewetting leading to formation of arrested holes for NP concentrations in the range of 3-6%; and regime 3, complete inhibition of dewetting for NP concentrations of 7% and above. Major results are (a) length scale of instability, where lambdaH approximately hn remains unchanged with NP concentration in regime 1 (n approximately 2) but increases in regime 2 with a change in the scaling relation (n approximately 3-3.5); (b) dynamics of instability and dewetting becomes progressively sluggish with an increase in the NP concentration; (c) there are distinct regimes of dewetting velocity at low NP concentrations; (d) force modulation AFM, as well as micro-Raman analysis, shows phase separation and aggregation of the gold nanoparticles within each dewetted polymer droplet leading to the formation of a metal core-polymer shell morphology. The polymer shell could be removed by washing in a selective solvent, thus exposing an array of bare gold nanoparticle aggregates.

  7. Resistive wall instabilities and tearing mode dynamics in the EXTRAP T2R thin shell reversed-field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, J.-A.; Brunsell, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    Observations of resistive wall instabilities and tearing mode dynamics in the EXTRAP T2R thin shell (τw=6 ms) reversed field pinch are described. A nonresonant mode (m=1,n=-10) with the same handedness as the internal field grows nearly exponentially with an average growth time of about 2.6 ms (less than 1/2 of the shell time) consistent with linear stability theory. The externally nonresonant unstable modes (m=1,n>0), predicted by linear stability theory, are observed to have only low amplitudes (in the normal low-Θ operation mode of the device). The radial field of the dominant internally resonant tearing modes (m=1,n=-15 to n=-12) remain low due to spontaneous fast mode rotation, corresponding to angular phase velocities up to 280 krad/s. Phase aligned mode structures are observed to rotate toroidally with an average angular velocity of 40 krad/s, in the opposite direction of the plasma current. Toward the end of the discharge, the radial field of the internally resonant modes grows as the modes slow down and become wall-locked, in agreement with nonlinear computations. Fast rotation of the internally resonant modes has been observed only recently and is attributed to a change of the front-end system (vacuum vessel, shell, and TF coil) of the device.

  8. Dynamic and statistical thermodynamic properties of electrons in a thin quantum well in a parallel magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horing, Norman J Morgenstern; Glasser, M Lawrence; Dong Bing

    2006-01-01

    We carry out a theoretical analysis of quantum well electron dynamics in a parallel magnetic field of arbitrary strength, for a narrow quantum well. An explicit analytical closed-form solution is obtained for the retarded Green's function for Landau-quantized electrons in skipping states of motion between the narrow well walls, effectively involving in-plane translational motion, and hybridized with the zero-field lowest subband energy eigenstate. The dispersion relation for electron eigenstates is examined, and we find a plethora of such discrete Landau-quantized modes coupled to the subband state. In the weak field limit, we determine low magnetic field corrections to the lowest subband state energy associated with close-packing (phase averaging) of the Landau levels in the skipping states. At higher fields the discrete energy levels of the well lie between adjacent Landau levels, but they are not equally spaced, albeit undamped. Furthermore, we also examine the associated thermodynamic Green's function for Landau-quantized electrons in a thin quantum well in a parallel magnetic field and construct the (grand) thermodynamic potential (logarithm of the grand partition function) determining the statistical thermodynamics of the system

  9. Generation and decay dynamics of triplet excitons in Alq3 thin films under high-density excitation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sadayuki; Furube, Akihiro; Katoh, Ryuzi

    2006-08-31

    We studied the generation and decay dynamics of triplet excitons in tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) thin films by using transient absorption spectroscopy. Absorption spectra of both singlet and triplet excitons in the film were identified by comparison with transient absorption spectra of the ligand molecule (8-hydroxyquinoline) itself and the excited triplet state in solution previously reported. By measuring the excitation light intensity dependence of the absorption, we found that exciton annihilation dominated under high-density excitation conditions. Annihilation rate constants were estimated to be gammaSS = (6 +/- 3) x 10(-11) cm3 s(-1) for single excitons and gammaTT = (4 +/- 2) x 10(-13) cm3 s(-1) for triplet excitons. From detailed analysis of the light intensity dependence of the quantum yield of triplet excitons under high-density conditions, triplet excitons were mainly generated through fission from highly excited singlet states populated by singlet-singlet exciton annihilation. We estimated that 30% of the highly excited states underwent fission.

  10. Vertical Phase Separation in Small Molecule:Polymer Blend Organic Thin Film Transistors Can Be Dynamically Controlled

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui

    2016-02-03

    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Blending of small-molecule organic semiconductors (OSCs) with amorphous polymers is known to yield high performance organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). Vertical stratification of the OSC and polymer binder into well-defined layers is crucial in such systems and their vertical order determines whether the coating is compatible with a top and/or a bottom gate OTFT configuration. Here, we investigate the formation of blends prepared via spin-coating in conditions which yield bilayer and trilayer stratifications. We use a combination of in situ experimental and computational tools to study the competing effects of formulation thermodynamics and process kinetics in mediating the final vertical stratification. It is shown that trilayer stratification (OSC/polymer/OSC) is the thermodynamically favored configuration and that formation of the buried OSC layer can be kinetically inhibited in certain conditions of spin-coating, resulting in a bilayer stack instead. The analysis reveals here that preferential loss of the OSC, combined with early aggregation of the polymer phase due to rapid drying, inhibit the formation of the buried OSC layer. The fluid dynamics and drying kinetics are then moderated during spin-coating to promote trilayer stratification with a high quality buried OSC layer which yields unusually high mobility >2 cm2 V-1 s-1 in the bottom-gate top-contact configuration.

  11. Lattice dynamics and substrate-dependent transport properties of (In, Yb)-doped CoSb3 skutterudite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2011-10-24

    Lattice dynamics, low-temperature electrical transport, and high-temperature thermoelectric properties of (In, Yb)-doped CoSb3thin films on different substrates are reported. Pulsed laser deposition under optimized conditions yielded single-phase polycrystalline skutterudite films. Raman spectroscopy studies suggested that In and Yb dopants occupy the cage sites in the skutterudite lattice. Low-temperature electrical transport studies revealed the n-type semiconducting nature of the films with extrinsic and intrinsic conduction mechanisms, in sharp contrast to the degenerate nature reported for identical bulk samples. Calculations yielded a direct bandgap close to 50 meV with no evidence of an indirect gap. The carrier concentration of the films was identical to that reported for the bulk and increased with temperature beyond 250 K. The higher resistivity exhibited is attributed to the enhanced grain boundary scattering in films with a high concentration of grains. The maximum power factor of ∼0.68 W m−1 K−1 obtained at 660 K for the film on glass is found to be nearly four times smaller compared to that reported for the bulk. The observed difference in the power factors of the films on different substrates is explained on the basis of the diffusion of oxygen from the substrates and the formation of highly conducting CoSb2 phase upon the oxidation of CoSb3.

  12. A New Approach for Studying Nonlinear Dynamic Response of a Thin Plate with Internal Resonance in a Fractional Viscoelastic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury A. Rossikhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous analysis, the dynamic behaviour of a nonlinear plate embedded into a fractional derivative viscoelastic medium has been studied by the method of multiple time scales under the conditions of the internal resonances two-to-one and one-to-one, as well as the internal combinational resonances for the case when the linear parts of nonlinear equations of motion occur to be coupled. A new approach proposed in this paper allows one to uncouple the linear parts of equations of motion of the plate, while the same method, the method of multiple time scales, has been utilized for solving nonlinear equations. The influence of viscosity on the energy exchange mechanism between interacting nonlinear modes has been analyzed. It has been shown that for some internal resonances there exist such particular cases when it is possible to obtain two first integrals, namely, the energy integral and the stream function, which allows one to reduce the problem to the calculation of elliptic integrals. The new approach enables one to solve the problems of vibrations of thin bodies more efficiently.

  13. Acoustic phonon dynamics in thin-films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glinka, Yuri D.; Babakiray, Sercan; Johnson, Trent A.; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David

    2015-01-01

    Transient reflectivity traces measured for nanometer-sized films (6–40 nm) of the topological insulator Bi 2 Se 3 revealed GHz-range oscillations driven within the relaxation of hot carriers photoexcited with ultrashort (∼100 fs) laser pulses of 1.51 eV photon energy. These oscillations have been suggested to result from acoustic phonon dynamics, including coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons in the form of standing acoustic waves. An increase of oscillation frequency from ∼35 to ∼70 GHz with decreasing film thickness from 40 to 15 nm was attributed to the interplay between two different regimes employing traveling-acoustic-waves for films thicker than 40 nm and the film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAWR) modes for films thinner than 40 nm. The amplitude of oscillations decays rapidly for films below 15 nm thick when the indirect intersurface coupling in Bi 2 Se 3 films switches the FBAWR regime to that of the Lamb wave excitation. The frequency range of coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons is in good agreement with elastic properties of Bi 2 Se 3

  14. Amplification of Frequency-Modulated Similariton Pulses in Length-Inhomogeneous Active Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zolotovskii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of an effective gain of the self-similar frequency-modulated (FM wave packets is studied in the length-inhomogeneous active fibers. The dynamics of parabolic pulses with the constant chirp has been considered. The optimal profile for the change of the group-velocity dispersion corresponding to the optimal similariton pulse amplification has been obtained. It is shown that the use of FM pulses in the active (gain and length-inhomogeneous optical fibers with the normal group-velocity dispersion can provide subpicosecond optical pulse amplification up to the energies higher than 1 nJ.

  15. Effective permittivity of finite inhomogeneous objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghunathan, S.B.; Budko, N.V.

    2010-01-01

    A generalization of the S-parameter retrieval method for finite three-dimensional inhomogeneous objects under arbitrary illumination and observation conditions is presented. The effective permittivity of such objects may be rigorously defined as a solution of a nonlinear inverse scattering problem.

  16. No hair theorem for inhomogeneous cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, L.G.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    We show that under very general conditions any inhomogeneous cosmological model with a positive cosmological constant, that can be described in a synchronous reference system will tend asymptotically in time towards the de Sitter solution. This is shown to be relevant in the context of inflationary models as it makes inflation very weakly dependent on initial conditions. 8 refs

  17. Critical behavior in inhomogeneous random graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der R.W.

    2013-01-01

    We study the critical behavior of inhomogeneous random graphs in the so-called rank-1 case, where edges are present independently but with unequal edge occupation probabilities. The edge occupation probabilities are moderated by vertex weights, and are such that the degree of vertex i is close in

  18. Critical behavior in inhomogeneous random graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der R.W.

    2009-01-01

    We study the critical behavior of inhomogeneous random graphs where edges are present independently but with unequal edge occupation probabilities. We show that the critical behavior depends sensitively on the properties of the asymptotic degrees. Indeed, when the proportion of vertices with degree

  19. Electron Beam interaction with an inhomogeneous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaki, N G; El-Shorbagy, Kh H [Plasma physics and Nuclear Fusion Dept. Nuclear Research Centre Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The linear and nonlinear interaction of an electron beam with an inhomogeneous semi bounded warm plasma is investigated. The amount of energy absorbed by the plasma is obtained. The formation of waves at double frequency at the inlet of the beam into the plasma is also considered.

  20. Inhomogeneous Pre-Big Bang String Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    1997-01-01

    An inhomogeneous version of pre--Big Bang cosmology emerges, within string theory, from quite generic initial conditions, provided they lie deeply inside the weak-coupling, low-curvature regime. Large-scale homogeneity, flatness, and isotropy appear naturally as late-time outcomes of such an evolution.

  1. MICROWAVE INTERACTIONS WITH INHOMOGENEOUS PARTIALLY IONIZED PLASMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritz, A. H.

    1962-11-15

    Microwave interactions with inhomogeneous plasmas are often studied by employing a simplified electromagnetic approach, i.e., by representing the effects of the plasma by an effective dielectric coefficient. The problems and approximations associated with this procedure are discussed. The equation describing the microwave field in an inhomogeneous partially ionized plasma is derived, and the method that is applied to obtain the reflected, transmitted, and absorbed intensities in inhomogeneous plasmas is presented. The interactions of microwaves with plasmas having Gaussian electron density profiles are considered. The variation of collision frequency with position is usually neglected. In general, the assumption of constant collision frequency is not justified; e.g., for a highly ionized plasma, the electron density profile determines, in part, the profile of the electron-ion collision frequency. The effect of the variation of the collision frequency profile on the interaction of microwaves with inhomogeneous plasmas is studied in order to obtain an estimate of the degree of error that may result when constant collision frequency is assumed instead of a more realistic collision frequency profile. It is shown that the degree of error is of particular importance when microwave analysis is used as a plasma diagnostic. (auth)

  2. Examples of backreaction of small-scale inhomogeneities in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.

    2013-06-01

    In previous work, we introduced a new framework to treat large-scale backreaction effects due to small-scale inhomogeneities in general relativity. We considered one-parameter families of spacetimes for which such backreaction effects can occur, and we proved that, provided the weak energy condition on matter is satisfied, the leading effect of small-scale inhomogeneities on large-scale dynamics is to produce a traceless effective stress-energy tensor that itself satisfies the weak energy condition. In this work, we illustrate the nature of our framework by providing two explicit examples of one-parameter families with backreaction. The first, based on previous work of Berger, is a family of polarized vacuum Gowdy spacetimes on a torus, which satisfies all of the assumptions of our framework. As the parameter approaches its limiting value, the metric uniformly approaches a smooth background metric, but spacetime derivatives of the deviation of the metric from the background metric do not converge uniformly to zero. The limiting metric has nontrivial backreaction from the small-scale inhomogeneities, with an effective stress energy that is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition, in accord with our theorems. Our second one-parameter family consists of metrics which have a uniform Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker limit. This family satisfies all of our assumptions with the exception of the weak energy condition for matter. In this case, the limiting metric has an effective stress-energy tensor which is not traceless. We emphasize the importance of imposing energy conditions on matter in studies of backreaction.

  3. Axi-symmetric analysis of vertically inhomogeneous elastic multilayered systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available primary resilient responses are investigated by way of worked examples of hypothetical three-layer system, which was analyzed by considering homogenous and inhomogeneous material properties in each of the three layers. Effect of a inhomogeneity parameter...

  4. Full-wave solution of short impulses in inhomogeneous plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media will be presented on a fundamentally new, ... The general problem of wave propagation of monochromatic signals in inhomogeneous media was enlightened in [1]. ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News.

  5. Phase-field models of microstructure evolution in a system with elastic inhomogeneity and defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenyang

    In this thesis, the phase-field approach is employed to study the effect of elastic inhomogeneity and structural defects on phase separation kinetics and morphological evolution in bulk and film systems, the precipitation of theta ' phase (Al2Cu) in Al-Cu alloys, and solute strengthening of alloys. By combining the iteration method for calculating the elastic energy and a semi-implicit spectral method for solving the Cahn-Hilliard equation an extremely efficient phase-field model is developed for studying morphological evolution in coherent systems with large elastic inhomogeneity. Spinodal decomposition in a thin film with periodically distributed arrays of interfacial dislocations is simulated. The results show that the periodic stress field associated with the array of interfacial dislocations leads to a directional phase separation and the formation of ordered microstructures. The metastable theta' (Al2Cu) precipitates are one of the primary strengthening precipitates in Al-Cu alloys. They are of a plate-like shape with strong interfacial energy and mobility anisotropies. A phase-field model which can automatically incorporate the thermodynamic and kinetic information from databases is developed. The relationships between phase-field model parameters and material thermodynamic and kinetic properties are established. Systematic simulations of theta' growth in 1D, 2D and 3D are carried out. The growth of a single theta ' precipitate in 1D exactly reproduces the results from analytical solutions. The phase-filed model can serve as a basis for quantitative understanding of the influence of elastic energy, interface energy anisotropy and interface mobility anisotropy on the precipitation of theta' in Al-Cu alloys. Precipitates and solutes are commonly used to strengthen alloys. A phase field model of dislocation dynamics, which employs 12 order parameter fields to describe the dislocation distribution in a single fcc crystal, and one composition field to describe

  6. Influence of Oxygen Pressure on the Domain Dynamics and Local Electrical Properties of BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 Thin Films Studied by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy and Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunyu Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have studied the microstructures, nanodomains, polarization preservation behaviors, and electrical properties of BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 (BFMO multiferroic thin films, which have been epitaxially created on the substrates of SrRuO3, SrTiO3, and TiN-buffered (001-oriented Si at different oxygen pressures via piezoresponse force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy. We found that the pure phase state, inhomogeneous piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM response, low leakage current with unidirectional diode-like properties, and orientation-dependent polarization reversal properties were found in BFMO thin films deposited at low oxygen pressure. Meanwhile, these films under high oxygen pressures resulted in impurities in the secondary phase in BFMO films, which caused a greater leakage that hindered the polarization preservation capability. Thus, this shows the important impact of the oxygen pressure on modulating the physical effects of BFMO films.

  7. Effects of zonal flows on correlation between energy balance and energy conservation associated with nonlinear nonviscous atmospheric dynamics in a thin rotating spherical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimov, Ranis N.

    2018-03-01

    The nonlinear Euler equations are used to model two-dimensional atmosphere dynamics in a thin rotating spherical shell. The energy balance is deduced on the basis of two classes of functorially independent invariant solutions associated with the model. It it shown that the energy balance is exactly the conservation law for one class of the solutions whereas the second class of invariant solutions provides and asymptotic convergence of the energy balance to the conservation law.

  8. Field distribution of a source and energy absorption in an inhomogeneous magneto-active plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushko, N.P.; Erokhin, N.S.; Moiseev, S.S.

    1975-01-01

    In the present paper the distribution of source fields in in a magnetoactive plasma is studied from the standpoint of the possibility of an effective SHF heating of an inhomogeneous plasma in both high (ωapproximatelyωsub(pe) and low (ωapproximatelyωsub(pi) frequency ranges, where ωsub(pe) and ωsub(pi) are the electron and ion plasma frequencies. The localization of the HF energy absorption regions in cold and hot plasma and the effect of plasma inhomogeneity and source dimensions on the absorption efficiency are investigated. The linear wave transformation in an inhomogeneous hot plasma is taken into consideration. Attention is paid to the difference between the region localization for collisional and non-collisional absorption. It has been shown that the HF energy dissipation in plasma particle collisions is localized in the region of thin jets going from the source; the radiation field has a sharp peak in this region. At the same time, non-collisional HF energy dissipation is spread over the plasma volume as a result of Cherenkov and cyclotron wave attenuation. The essential contribution to the source field from resonances due to standing wave excitation in an inhomogeneous plasma shell near the source is pointed out

  9. Metrical theorems on systems of small inhomogeneous linear forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Kristensen, Simon

    In this paper we establish complete Khintchine-Groshev and Schmidt type theorems for inhomogeneous small linear forms in the so-called doubly metric case, in which the inhomogeneous parameter is not fixed.......In this paper we establish complete Khintchine-Groshev and Schmidt type theorems for inhomogeneous small linear forms in the so-called doubly metric case, in which the inhomogeneous parameter is not fixed....

  10. Propagation of strong electromagnetic beams in inhomogeneous plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale)

    1980-09-01

    We study some simple aspects of nonlinear propagation of relativistically strong electromagnetic beams in inhomogeneous plasmas, especially in connection with effects of beam self-trapping in extended extragalactic radio sources. The two effects of (i) long scale longitudinal and radial inhomogeneities inherent to the plasma and (ii) radial inhomogeneities produced by the ponderomotive force of the beam itself are investigated.

  11. The cosmic microwave background in an inhomogeneous universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, Chris; Regis, Marco, E-mail: chris.clarkson@uct.ac.za, E-mail: regis.mrc@gmail.com [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2011-02-01

    The dimming of Type Ia supernovae could be the result of Hubble-scale inhomogeneity in the matter and spatial curvature, rather than signaling the presence of a dark energy component. A key challenge for such models is to fit the detailed spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We present a detailed discussion of the small-scale CMB in an inhomogeneous universe, focusing on spherically symmetric 'void' models. We allow for the dynamical effects of radiation while analyzing the problem, in contrast to other work which inadvertently fine tunes its spatial profile. This is a surprisingly important effect and we reach substantially different conclusions. Models which are open at CMB distances fit the CMB power spectrum without fine tuning; these models also fit the supernovae and local Hubble rate data which favour a high expansion rate. Asymptotically flat models may fit the CMB, but require some extra assumptions. We argue that a full treatment of the radiation in these models is necessary if we are to understand the correct constraints from the CMB, as well as other observations which rely on it, such as spectral distortions of the black body spectrum, the kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect or the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations.

  12. NONLINEAR EVOLUTION OF BEAM-PLASMA INSTABILITY IN INHOMOGENEOUS MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Pavan, J.; Yoon, P. H.; Gaelzer, R.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of electron-beam propagation in inhomogeneous solar wind is intimately related to the solar type II and/or type III radio bursts. Many scientists have addressed this issue in the past by means of quasi-linear theory, but in order to fully characterize the nonlinear dynamics, one must employ weak-turbulence theory. Available numerical solutions of the weak-turbulence theory either rely on only one nonlinear process (either decay or scattering), or when both nonlinear terms are included, the inhomogeneity effect is generally ignored. The present paper reports the full solution of weak-turbulence theory that includes both decay and scattering processes, and also incorporating the effects of density gradient. It is found that the quasi-linear effect sufficiently accounts for the primary Langmuir waves, but to properly characterize the back-scattered Langmuir wave, which is important for eventual radiation generation, it is found that both nonlinear decay and scattering processes make comparable contributions. Such a finding may be important in the quantitative analysis of the plasma emission process with application to solar type II and/or type III radio bursts.

  13. Electrical resistivity change in Al:ZnO thin films dynamically deposited by bipolar pulsed direct-current sputtering and a remote plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wonkyun; Joo, Junghoon

    2010-01-01

    The Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films for a transparent conducting oxide in solar cell devices were deposited by bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. This work was performed in an in-line type system and investigated AZO films in a static deposition mode and dynamic one, which is more important in the practical fields. Because of this dynamic deposition process, the zigzagged columnar structure was observed. This resulted in the decreasing electrical property, optical properties, and surface roughness. As a deposition in the dynamic mode, the resistivity increased from 1.64x10 -3 to 2.50x10 -3 Ω cm, as compared to that in the static mode, and the transmittance also decreased from 83.9% to 78.3%. To recover the disadvantage, a remote plasma source (RPS) was supported between the substrate and target for reducing zigzagged formation during the deposition. The deposition rate decreased by using RPS, but the electrical and optical properties of films got better than only dynamic mode. The resistivity and transmittance in the dynamic mode using RPS were 2.1x10 -3 Ω cm and 85.5%, respectively. In this study, the authors found the possibility to advance the electrical and optical properties of AZO thin films in the industry mode.

  14. A nonquasiclassical description of inhomogeneous superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikin, A.D.; Panyukov, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    Exact microscopic equations are derived that make it possible to describe inhomogeneous superconductors when the quasi-classical approach is not suitable. These equations are simpler than the Gorkov equations. The authors generalize the derived equations for describing the nonequilibrium states of inhomogeneous superconductors. It is demonstrated that the derived equations (including the case of a nonequilibrium quasi particle distribution function) may be written in the form of linear differential equations for the simultaneous wave function μ, ν. The quasi-classical limit of such equations is examined. Effective boundary conditions are derived for the μ, ν functions that allow description of superconductors with a sharp change in parameters within the scope of the quasi-classical approach

  15. Inhomogeneities from quantum collapse scheme without inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cañate, Pedro, E-mail: pedro.canate@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Sudarsky, Daniel, E-mail: sudarsky@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico)

    2015-04-09

    In this work, we consider the problem of the emergence of seeds of cosmic structure in the framework of the non-inflationary model proposed by Hollands and Wald. In particular, we consider a modification to that proposal designed to account for breaking the symmetries of the initial quantum state, leading to the generation of the primordial inhomogeneities. This new ingredient is described in terms of a spontaneous reduction of the wave function. We investigate under which conditions one can recover an essentially scale free spectrum of primordial inhomogeneities, and which are the dominant deviations that arise in the model as a consequence of the introduction of the collapse of the quantum state into that scenario.

  16. Equilibrium and stability in strongly inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1978-10-01

    The equilibrium of strongly inhomogeneous, collisionless, slab plasmas, is studied using a generalized version of a formalism previously developed, which permits the generation of self-consistent equilibria, for plasmas with arbitrary magnetic shear, and variation of magnetic field strength. A systematic procedure is developed for deriving the form of the guiding-center Hamiltonian K, for finite eta, in an axisymmetric geometry. In the process of obtaining K, an expression for the first adiabatic invariant (the gyroaction) is obtained, which generalizes the usual expression 1/2 mv/sub perpendicular/ 2 /Ω/sub c/ (Ω/sub c/ = eB/mc), to finite eta and magnetic shear. A formalism is developed for the study of the stability of strongly-inhomogeneous, magnetized slab plasmas; it is then applied to the ion-drift-cyclotron instability

  17. Primordial inhomogeneities from massive defects during inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Karami, Asieh; Rostami, Tahereh, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: karami@ipm.ir, E-mail: t.rostami@ipm.ir [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    We consider the imprints of local massive defects, such as a black hole or a massive monopole, during inflation. The massive defect breaks the background homogeneity. We consider the limit that the physical Schwarzschild radius of the defect is much smaller than the inflationary Hubble radius so a perturbative analysis is allowed. The inhomogeneities induced in scalar and gravitational wave power spectrum are calculated. We obtain the amplitudes of dipole, quadrupole and octupole anisotropies in curvature perturbation power spectrum and identify the relative configuration of the defect to CMB sphere in which large observable dipole asymmetry can be generated. We observe a curious reflection symmetry in which the configuration where the defect is inside the CMB comoving sphere has the same inhomogeneous variance as its mirror configuration where the defect is outside the CMB sphere.

  18. Theory of Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, P M; Crowley, B J B; Gericke, D O; Regan, S P; Gregori, G

    2016-04-12

    Thomson scattering of laser light is one of the most fundamental diagnostics of plasma density, temperature and magnetic fields. It relies on the assumption that the properties in the probed volume are homogeneous and constant during the probing time. On the other hand, laboratory plasmas are seldom uniform and homogeneous on the temporal and spatial dimensions over which data is collected. This is particularly true for laser-produced high-energy-density matter, which often exhibits steep gradients in temperature, density and pressure, on a scale determined by the laser focus. Here, we discuss the modification of the cross section for Thomson scattering in fully-ionized media exhibiting steep spatial inhomogeneities and/or fast temporal fluctuations. We show that the predicted Thomson scattering spectra are greatly altered compared to the uniform case, and may lead to violations of detailed balance. Therefore, careful interpretation of the spectra is necessary for spatially or temporally inhomogeneous systems.

  19. Cosmic acceleration driven by mirage inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galfard, Christophe [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Germani, Cristiano [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Kehagias, Alex [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece)

    2006-03-21

    A cosmological model based on an inhomogeneous D3-brane moving in an AdS{sub 5} x S{sub 5} bulk is introduced. Although there are no special points in the bulk, the brane universe has a centre and is isotropic around it. The model has an accelerating expansion and its effective cosmological constant is inversely proportional to the distance from the centre, giving a possible geometrical origin for the smallness of a present-day cosmological constant. Besides, if our model is considered as an alternative of early-time acceleration, it is shown that the early stage accelerating phase ends in a dust-dominated FRW homogeneous universe. Mirage-driven acceleration thus provides a dark matter component for the brane universe final state. We finally show that the model fulfils the current constraints on inhomogeneities.

  20. Radiation transport in statistically inhomogeneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukhminskij, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    A study has been made of radiation transfer in statistically inhomogeneous rocks. Account has been taken of the statistical character of rock composition through randomization of density. Formulas are summarized for sigma-distribution, homogeneous density, the Simpson and Cauchy distributions. Consideration is given to the statistics of mean square ranges in a medium, simulated by the jump Markov random function. A quantitative criterion of rock heterogeneity is proposed

  1. Diffusion MRI: Mitigation of Magnetic Field Inhomogeneities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcon, P.; Bartušek, Karel; Dokoupil, Zdeněk; Gescheidtová, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2012), s. 205-212 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GAP102/11/0318; GA ČR GAP102/12/1104 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : correction * diffusion * inhomogeneity * eddy currents * magnetic resonance Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.233, year: 2012

  2. Cliques in dense inhomogenous random graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Martin; Hladký, Jan; Máthé, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2017), s. 275-314 ISSN 1042-9832 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07378S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : inhomogeneous random graphs * clique number Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.243, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ rsa .20715/abstract

  3. Controlling Charged Particles with Inhomogeneous Electrostatic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An energy analyzer for a charged-particle spectrometer may include a top deflection plate and a bottom deflection plate. The top and bottom deflection plates may be non-symmetric and configured to generate an inhomogeneous electrostatic field when a voltage is applied to one of the top or bottom deflection plates. In some instances, the top and bottom deflection plates may be L-shaped deflection plates.

  4. Cliques in dense inhomogenous random graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Martin; Hladký, Jan; Máthé, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2017), s. 275-314 ISSN 1042-9832 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07378S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : inhomogeneous random graphs * clique number Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.243, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rsa.20715/abstract

  5. Inhomogeneities and the Modeling of Radio Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björnsson, C.-I.; Keshavarzi, S. T., E-mail: bjornsson@astro.su.se [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE–106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-05-20

    Observations of radio supernovae (SNe) often exhibit characteristics not readily accounted for by a homogeneous, spherically symmetric synchrotron model; e.g., flat-topped spectra/light curves. It is shown that many of these deviations from the standard model can be attributed to an inhomogeneous source structure. When inhomogeneities are present, the deduced radius of the source and, hence, the shock velocity, is sensitive to the details of the modeling. As the inhomogeneities are likely to result from the same mechanism that amplify the magnetic field, a comparison between observations and the detailed numerical simulations now under way may prove mutually beneficial. It is argued that the radio emission in Type Ib/c SNe has a small volume filling factor and comes from a narrow region associated with the forward shock, while the radio emission region in SN 1993J (Type IIb) is determined by the extent of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability emanating from the contact discontinuity. Attention is also drawn to the similarities between radio SNe and the structural properties of SN remnants.

  6. INHOMOGENEOUS NEARLY INCOMPRESSIBLE DESCRIPTION OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.

    2010-01-01

    The nearly incompressible theory of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is formulated in the presence of a static large-scale inhomogeneous background. The theory is an inhomogeneous generalization of the homogeneous nearly incompressible MHD description of Zank and Matthaeus and a polytropic equation of state is assumed. The theory is primarily developed to describe solar wind turbulence where the assumption of a composition of two-dimensional (2D) and slab turbulence with the dominance of the 2D component has been used for some time. It was however unclear, if in the presence of a large-scale inhomogeneous background, the dominant component will also be mainly 2D and we consider three distinct MHD regimes for the plasma beta β > 1. For regimes appropriate to the solar wind (β 2 s δp is not valid for the leading-order O(M) density fluctuations, and therefore in observational studies, the density fluctuations should not be analyzed through the pressure fluctuations. The pseudosound relation is valid only for higher order O(M 2 ) density fluctuations, and then only for short-length scales and fast timescales. The spectrum of the leading-order density fluctuations should be modeled as k -5/3 in the inertial range, followed by a Bessel function solution K ν (k), where for stationary turbulence ν = 1, in the viscous-convective and diffusion range. Other implications for solar wind turbulence with an emphasis on the evolution of density fluctuations are also discussed.

  7. Rotational inhomogeneities from pre-big bang?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of the rotational inhomogeneities is investigated in the specific framework of four-dimensional pre-big bang models. While minimal (dilaton-driven) scenarios do not lead to rotational fluctuations, in the case of non-minimal (string-driven) models, fluid sources are present in the pre-big bang phase. The rotational modes of the geometry, coupled to the divergenceless part of the velocity field, can then be amplified depending upon the value of the barotropic index of the perfect fluids. In the light of a possible production of rotational inhomogeneities, solutions describing the coupled evolution of the dilaton field and of the fluid sources are scrutinized in both the string and Einstein frames. In semi-realistic scenarios, where the curvature divergences are regularized by means of a non-local dilaton potential, the rotational inhomogeneities are amplified during the pre-big bang phase but they decay later on. Similar analyses can also be performed when a contraction occurs directly in the string frame metric

  8. Inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy and big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmire, Scott E.; Scherrer, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    We examine big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) in the case of inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy, in the limit where the fluctuations are sufficiently small on large length scales that the present-day element abundances are homogeneous. We consider two representative cases: degeneracy of the electron neutrino alone and equal chemical potentials for all three neutrinos. We use a linear programming method to constrain an arbitrary distribution of the chemical potentials. For the current set of (highly restrictive) limits on the primordial element abundances, homogeneous neutrino degeneracy barely changes the allowed range of the baryon-to-photon ratio η. Inhomogeneous degeneracy allows for little change in the lower bound on η, but the upper bound in this case can be as large as η=1.1x10 -8 (only ν e degeneracy) or η=1.0x10 -9 (equal degeneracies for all three neutrinos). For the case of inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy, we show that there is no BBN upper bound on the neutrino energy density, which is bounded in this case only by limits from structure formation and the cosmic microwave background. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  9. Rotational inhomogeneities from pre-big bang?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Massimo [Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2005-01-21

    The evolution of the rotational inhomogeneities is investigated in the specific framework of four-dimensional pre-big bang models. While minimal (dilaton-driven) scenarios do not lead to rotational fluctuations, in the case of non-minimal (string-driven) models, fluid sources are present in the pre-big bang phase. The rotational modes of the geometry, coupled to the divergenceless part of the velocity field, can then be amplified depending upon the value of the barotropic index of the perfect fluids. In the light of a possible production of rotational inhomogeneities, solutions describing the coupled evolution of the dilaton field and of the fluid sources are scrutinized in both the string and Einstein frames. In semi-realistic scenarios, where the curvature divergences are regularized by means of a non-local dilaton potential, the rotational inhomogeneities are amplified during the pre-big bang phase but they decay later on. Similar analyses can also be performed when a contraction occurs directly in the string frame metric.

  10. Ion implantation as a method of studying inhomogeneities in superconductors: results for indium films with embedded helium particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel, N.Ya.; Moshenski, A.A.; Dmitrenko, I.M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper considers the applicability of ion implantation into superconductors to investigate inhomogeneity effects on their macroscopic properties. Noble-gas-ion implantation into thin superconducting films is shown to be a unique means of systematically studying these effects in a single sample. Data demonstrating the effect of inhomogeneities on the critical current, Isub(c) in the mixed state and phase-transition smearing in He + -ion-irradiated indium films are presented. First, experimental evidence was obtained to support the Larkin-Ovchinnikov theory which relates Isub(c) and the phase-transition smearing to inhomogeneities of the electron-electron interaction constant g(r) and the electron mean free path (r). Results are presented for parallel critical field anomalies in He-implanted indium films which are due to an implantation-induced anisotropy of xi(t). Changes in the critical parameters for the film resulting from the implantation are compared to structural changes. (Auth.)

  11. Nonautonomous spatiotemporal localized structures in the inhomogeneous optical fibers: Interaction and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Chaoqing; Wang Xiaogang; Zhang Jiefang

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The similarity transformation of (n + 1)-dimensional inhomogeneous NLSE are found. → From transformation, analytical self-similar waves and rogue waves are obtained. → Dynamical behaviors of self-similar waves in DDF are discussed. → The propagation and control of spatiotemporal self-similar waves are presented. - Abstract: We develop a systematic way to find the similarity transformation and investigate nonautonomous optical similariton dynamics for (n + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation in the inhomogeneous optical fibers. A condition between the parameters of the mediums, which hints a exact balance between the dispersion/diffraction, nonlinearity and the gain/loss, has been obtained. Under this condition the optical similariton transmission in the dispersion-decreasing fibers (DDF) can be exactly controlled by proper dispersion management. Moreover, novel propagation dynamics of bright and dark similaritons on the background waves and optical rogue waves (rogons) in DDF are investigated too.

  12. Non-Hermitian spin chains with inhomogeneous coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytsko, Andrei G. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Inst. Matematiki; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie

    2009-11-15

    An open U{sub q}(sl{sub 2})-invariant spin chain of spin S and length N with inhomogeneous coupling is investigated as an example of a non-Hermitian (quasi-Hermitian) model. For several particular cases of such a chain, the ranges of the deformation parameter {gamma} are determined for which the spectrum of the model is real. For a certain range of {gamma}, a universal metric operator is constructed and thus the quasi-Hermiticity of the model is established. The constructed metric operator is non-dynamical, its structure is determined only by the symmetry of the model. The results apply, in particular, to all known homogeneous U{sub q}(sl{sub 2})-invariant integrable spin chains with nearest-neighbour interaction. In addition, the most general form of a metric operator for a quasi-Hermitian operator in finite dimensional space is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Experimental study of nonlinear interaction of plasma flow with charged thin current sheets: 2. Hall dynamics, mass and momentum transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Savin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding with the analysis of Amata et al. (2005, we suggest that the general feature for the local transport at a thin magnetopause (MP consists of the penetration of ions from the magnetosheath with gyroradius larger than the MP width, and that, in crossing it, the transverse potential difference at the thin current sheet (TCS is acquired by these ions, providing a field-particle energy exchange without parallel electric fields. It is suggested that a part of the surface charge is self-consistently produced by deflection of ions in the course of inertial drift in the non-uniform electric field at MP. Consideration of the partial moments of ions with different energies demonstrates that the protons having gyroradii of roughly the same size or larger than the MP width carry fluxes normal to MP that are about 20% of the total flow in the plasma jet under MP. This is close to the excess of the ion transverse velocity over the cross-field drift speed in the plasma flow just inside MP (Amata et al., 2005, which conforms to the contribution of the finite-gyroradius inflow across MP. A linkage through the TCS between different plasmas results from the momentum conservation of the higher-energy ions. If the finite-gyroradius penetration occurs along the MP over ~1.5 RE from the observation site, then it can completely account for the formation of the jet under the MP. To provide the downstream acceleration of the flow near the MP via the cross-field drift, the weak magnetic field is suggested to rotate from its nearly parallel direction to the unperturbed flow toward being almost perpendicular to the accelerated flow near the MP. We discuss a deceleration of the higher-energy ions in the MP normal direction due to the interaction with finite-scale electric field bursts in the magnetosheath flow frame, equivalent to collisions, providing a charge separation. These effective collisions, with a nonlinear frequency proxy of the order of the proton

  14. QCD under extreme conditions. Inhomogeneous condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, Achim

    2014-10-15

    Almost 40 years after the first publication on the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) big progress has been made but many questions are still open. This work covers several aspects of low-energy QCD and introduces advanced methods to calculate selected parts of the QCD phase diagram. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking as well as its restoration is a major aspect of QCD. Two effective models, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model and the linear σ-model, are widely used to describe the QCD chiral phase transition. We study the large-N{sub c} behavior of the critical temperature T{sub c} for chiral symmetry restoration in the framework of both models. While in the NJL model T{sub c} is independent of N{sub c} (and in agreement with the expected QCD scaling), the scaling behavior in the linear σ-model reads T{sub c} ∝ N{sup 1/2}{sub c}. However, this mismatch can be corrected: phenomenologically motivated temperature-dependent parameters or the extension with the Polyakov-loop renders the scaling in the linear σ-model compatible with the QCD scaling. The requirement that the chiral condensate which is the order parameter of the chiral symmetry is constant in space is too restrictive. Recent studies on inhomogeneous chiral condensation in cold, dense quark matter suggest a rich crystalline structure. These studies feature models with quark degrees of freedom. In this thesis we investigate the formation of the chiral density wave (CDW) in the framework of the so-called extended linear sigma model (eLSM) at high densities and zero temperature. The eLSM is a modern development of the linear σ-model which contains scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, as well as axial-vector mesons, and in addition, a light tetraquark state. The nucleon and its chiral partner are introduced as parity doublets in the mirror assignment. The model describes successfully the vacuum phenomenology and nuclear matter ground-state properties. As a result we find that an inhomogeneous phase

  15. Studies on the cross-magnetron effect in the reactive indium tin oxide deposition. Effects of an inhomogeneous plasma distribution on the coating properties in dynamic and static coating by means of a pulsed dual magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinhempel, Ronny

    2008-01-01

    In the present thesis the reactive ITO deposition process under application of metallic In:Sn targets is intensively studied. The coating deposition pursues at a symmetric bipolarly pulsed dual magnetron both on resting and moving substrates. The thesis comprehends two partial fields. On the one hand the dynamic deposition process was comprehensively characterized at an near-industry test facility and successfully transformed by means of its physical parameters to an industrial coating facility. On the other hand static depositions were performed. These allow the analysis of the lateral distribution of the functional coating properties. By this a correlation to the lateral distributions of the measured plasma parameters could be elaborated [de

  16. Evaluation of flow accelerated corrosion by coupled analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics. Relationship of oxide film thickness, hematite/magnetite ratio, ECP and wall thinning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Uehara, Yasushi; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2011-01-01

    Systematic approaches to evaluate flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) are desired before discussing application of countermeasures for FAC. First, future FAC occurrence should be evaluated to identify locations where a higher possibility of FAC occurrence exists, and then, wall thinning rate at the identified FAC occurrence zone is evaluated to obtain the preparation time for applying countermeasures. Wall thinning rates were calculated with two coupled models: 1.static electrochemical analysis and 2.dynamic oxide layer growth analysis. The anodic current density and the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) were calculated with the static electrochemistry model based on an Evans diagram. The ferrous ion release rate, determined by the anodic current density, was applied as input for the dynamic double oxide layer model. Some of the dissolved ferrous ion was removed to the bulk water and others precipitated on the surface as magnetite particles. The thickness of oxide layer was calculated with the dynamic oxide layer growth model and then its value was used as input in the electrochemistry model. It was confirmed that the calculated results (corrosion rate and ECP) based on the coupled models were in good agreement with the measured ones. Higher ECP was essential for preventing FAC rate. Moderated conditions due to lower mass transfer coefficients resulted in thicker oxide layer thickness and then higher ECP, while moderated corrosion conditions due to higher oxidant concentrations resulted in larger hematite/magnetite rate and then higher ECP.

  17. Evaluation of flow accelerated corrosion by coupled analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics (3), relationship of oxide film thickness, hematite/magnetite ratio, ECP and wall thinning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Uehara, Yasushi; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    Systematic approaches for evaluating flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) are desired before discussing application of countermeasures for FAC. Firstly, future FAC occurrence should be evaluated to identify locations where a higher possibility of FAC occurrence exists, and then, wall thinning rate at the identified FAC occurrence zone is evaluated to obtain the preparation time for applying countermeasures. Wall thinning rates were calculated with the coupled models of static electrochemical analysis and dynamic double oxide layer analysis. Anodic current density and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) were calculated with the static electrochemistry model based on an Evans diagram and ferrous ion release rate determined by the anodic current density was applied as input for the dynamic double oxide layer model. Some of the dissolved ferrous ion was removed to the bulk water and others precipitated on the surface as magnetite particles. The thickness of oxide layer was calculated with the dynamic double oxide layer model and then was applied as input for the electrochemistry model. It was confirmed that the calculated results based on the coupled models resulted good agreement with the measured ones. Higher ECP was essential for preventing FAC rate. Moderated conditions due to lower mass transfer coefficients resulted in thicker oxide layer thickness and then higher ECP, while moderated corrosion conditions due to higher oxidant concentrations resulted in larger hematite/magnetite rate and then higher ECP. (author)

  18. THz spectroscopy on superconducting NbN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daschke, Lena; Pracht, Uwe S.; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Ilin, Konstantin S.; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Epitaxial thin-film niobium nitride (NbN) is a conventional BCS superconductor. In presence of strong disorder, however, electronic inhomogeneities appear, which is not fully understood yet. To obtain a better insight into the physics of such disordered materials, studies on model systems such as structurally tailored films might be useful. Furthermore, disordered NbN films are used for single-photon detection devices, whose proper performance depends on a profound understanding of the superconducting properties. The studied NbN films have a T{sub c} ranging from 10 to 15 K and the superconducting energy gap is easily accessible with THz spectroscopy (0.4 - 5.6 meV). We investigate thin films of NbN sputtered on a sapphire substrate. With a Mach-Zehnder interferometer we measure the amplitude and phase shift of radiation transmitted through the thin-film sample. From there we can determine the real and imaginary parts of the optical conductivity. These results give information about the energy gap, Cooper pair density, and quasiparticle dynamics, including the temperature evolution of these quantities. We found that a film with 10 nm thickness roughly follows the BCS behavior, as expected. We will present results of our measurements on several different NbN samples.

  19. Measurement of the dynamic behavior of thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels and their phase transition temperatures measured using reflectometric interference spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Fuminori [Konica Minolta, INC. (Japan); Akiyama, Yoshikatsu, E-mail: akiyama.yoshikatsu@twmu.ac.jp, E-mail: akiyama.yoshikatsu@abmes.twmu.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Jun [Tokyo Women’s Medical University (TWIns), Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science (Japan); Ninomiya, Hidetaka [Konica Minolta, INC. (Japan); Kanazawa, Hideko [Keio University, Faculty of Pharmacy (Japan); Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo [Tokyo Women’s Medical University (TWIns), Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Temperature-responsive cell culture surfaces prepared by modifying tissue-culture polystyrene with nanoscale poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm) hydrogels are widely used as intelligent surfaces for the fabrication of various cell sheets that change with temperature. In this work, the characteristics of nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogels were phenomenologically elucidated on the basis of time-dependent surface evaluations under conditions of changing temperature. Because the dynamic characteristics of the nanoscale hydrogel did not exhibit good performance, the nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogel was analyzed by monitoring its temperature-dependent dynamic swelling/deswelling changes using reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) on an instrument equipped with a microfluidic system. RIfS measurements under ambient atmosphere provided the precise physical thickness of the dry PIPAAm hydrogel (6.7 nm), which agreed with the atomic force microscopy results (6.6 nm). Simulations of the reflectance spectra revealed that changes in the wavelength of the minimum reflectance (Δλ) were attributable to the changes in the refractive index of the thin PIPAAm hydrogel induced by a temperature-dependent volume phase transition. The temperature-dependent Δλ change was used to monitor the swelling/deswelling behavior of the nanoscale PIPAAm hydrogel. In addition, the phase transition temperature of the thin PIPAAm hydrogel under aqueous conditions was also determined to be the inflection point of the plot of the change in Δλ as a function of temperature. The dynamic behavior of a thin PIPAAm hydrogel chemically deposited on a surface was readily analyzed using a new analytical system with RIfS and microfluidic devices.

  20. Spectroscopy and Raman imaging of inhomogeneous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is aimed at developing methodologies in Raman spectroscopy and imaging. After reviewing the statistical instruments which allow treating giant amount of data (multivariate analysis and classification), the study is applied to two families of well-known materials which are used as models for testing the limits of the implemented developments. The first family is a series of carbon materials pyrolyzed at various temperatures and exhibiting inhomogeneities at a nm scale which is suitable for Raman-X-ray diffraction combination. Another results concern the polishing effect on carbon structure. Since it is found to induce Raman artifacts leading to the overestimation of the local structural disorder, a method based on the use of the G band width is therefore proposed in order to evaluate the crystallite size in both unpolished and polished nano-graphites. The second class of materials presents inhomogeneities at higher (micrometric) scales by the example of uranium dioxide ceramics. Being well adapted in terms of spatial scale, Raman imaging is thus used for probing their surfaces. Data processing is implemented via an approach combining the multivariate (principal component) analysis and the classical fitting procedure with Lorentzian profiles. The interpretation of results is supported via electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) analysis which enables us to distinguish the orientation effects of ceramic grains from other underlying contributions. The last ones are mainly localized at the grain boundaries, that is testified by the appearance of a specific Raman mode. Their origin seems to be caused by stoichiometric oxygen variations or impurities, as well as strain inhomogeneities. The perspectives of this work include both the implementation of other mathematical methods and in-depth analysis of UO 2 structure damaged by irradiation (anisotropic effects, role of grain boundaries). (author) [fr

  1. Curvaton and the inhomogeneous end of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-01-01

    We study the primordial density perturbations and non-Gaussianities generated from the combined effects of an inhomogeneous end of inflation and curvaton decay in hybrid inflation. This dual role is played by a single isocurvature field which is massless during inflation but acquire a mass at the end of inflation via the waterfall phase transition. We calculate the resulting primordial non-Gaussianity characterized by the non-linearity parameter, f NL , recovering the usual end-of-inflation result when the field decays promptly and the usual curvaton result if the field decays sufficiently late

  2. Nature of inhomogeneous states in superconducting junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivlev, B.I.; Kopnin, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting structure which arises in a superconducting film under a strong injection of a current through a tunnel junction is considered. If the current density in the film exceeds the critical Ginzburg-Landau value, an inhomogeneous resistive state with phase-slip centers can arise in it. This state is charcterized by the presence of regions with different chemical potentials of the Cooper pairs. These shifts of the pair chemical potential and the nonuniform structure of the order parameter may account for the so-called multigap states which have been observed experimentally

  3. Refractive index inhomogeneity within an aerogel block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellunato, T.; Calvi, M.; Da Silva Costa, C.F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Musy, M.; Perego, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Evaluating local inhomogeneities of the refractive index inside aerogel blocks to be used as Cherenkov radiator is important for a high energy physics experiment where angular resolution is crucial. Two approaches are described and compared. The first one is based on the bending of a laser beam induced by refractive index gradients along directions normal to the unperturbed optical path. The second method exploits the Cherenkov effect itself by shooting an ultra-relativistic collimated electron beam through different points of the aerogel surface. Local refractive index variations result in sizable differences in the Cherenkov photons distribution

  4. Albedo and transmittance of inhomogeneous stratus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.E.; Kasyanov, E.I.; Titov, G.A. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    A highly important topic is the study of the relationship between the statistical parameters of optical and radiative charactertistics of inhomogeneous stratus clouds. This is important because the radiation codes of general circulation models need improvement, and it is important for geophysical information. A cascade model has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to treat stratocumulus clouds with the simplest geometry and horizontal fluctuations of the liquid water path (optical thickness). The model evaluates the strength with which the stochastic geometry of clouds influences the statistical characteristics of albedo and the trnasmittance of solar radiation.

  5. Metric inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation in positive characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    We obtain asymptotic formulae for the number of solutions to systems of inhomogeneous linear Diophantine inequalities over the field of formal Laurent series with coefficients from a finite fields, which are valid for almost every such system. Here `almost every' is with respect to Haar measure...... of the coefficients of the homogeneous part when the number of variables is at least two (singly metric case), and with respect to the Haar measure of all coefficients for any number of variables (doubly metric case). As consequences, we derive zero-one laws in the spirit of the Khintchine-Groshev Theorem and zero...

  6. Metric inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation in positive characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.

    We obtain asymptotic formulae for the number of solutions to systems of inhomogeneous linear Diophantine inequalities over the field of formal Laurent series with coefficients from a finite fields, which are valid for almost every such system. Here 'almost every' is with respect to Haar measure...... of the coefficients of the homogeneous part when the number of variables is at least two (singly metric case), and with respect to the Haar measure of all coefficients for any number of variables (doubly metric case). As consequences, we derive zero-one laws in the spirit of the Khintchine--Groshev Theorem and zero...

  7. Waves in inhomogeneous plasma of cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.

    1966-01-01

    The conductivity tensor of a hot and inhomogeneous plasma has been calculated for a cylindrical geometry using Vlasov equations. The method used consists in a perturbation method involving the first integrals of the unperturbed movement. The conductivity tensor will be particularly useful for dealing with stability problems. In the case of a cold plasma the wave equation giving the electric fields as a function of the radius is obtained. This equation shows the existence of resonant layers which lead to an absorption analogous to the Landau absorption in a hot plasma. (author) [fr

  8. Fluctuations and transport in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevins, W.M.; Chen, L.

    1979-11-01

    A formalism is developed for calculating the equilibrium fluctuation level in an inhomogeneous plasma. This formalism is applied to the collisionless drift wave in a sheared magnetic field. The fluctuation level is found to be anomalously large due to both the presence of weakly damped normal modes and convective amplification. As the magnetic shear is reduced, the steady-state fluctuation spectrum is found to increase both in coherence and in amplitude. The transport associated with this mode is evaluated. The diffusion coefficient is found to scale as D is proportional to B 2 /nT/sup 1/2/

  9. Femtosecond optical detection of quasiparticle dynamics in high- T sub c YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 minus. delta. superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S.G.; Vardeny, Z.V.; Wong, K.S.; Symko, O.G. (Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Koren, G. (Department of Physics, Technion, 32000 Haifa (Israel))

    1990-11-19

    Femtosecond dynamics of photogenerated quasiparticles in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} superconducting thin films shows, at {ital T}{le}{ital T}{sub {ital c}}, two main electronic processes: (i) quasiparticle avalanche production during hot-carrier thermalization, which takes about 300 fsec; (ii) recombination of quasiparticles to form Cooper pairs, which is completed within 5 psec. In contrastr, nonsuperconducting epitaxial films such as PrBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 7} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6} show regular picosecond electronic response.

  10. Full-wave solution of short impulses in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferencz, Orsolya E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the problem of real impulse propagation in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media will be presented on a fundamentally new, general, theoretical way. The general problem of wave propagation of monochromatic signals in inhomogeneous media was enlightened. The earlier theoretical models for spatial inhomogeneities have some errors regarding the structure of the resultant signal originated from backward and forward propagating parts. The application of the method of inhomogeneous basic modes (MIBM) and the complete full-wave solution of arbitrarily shaped non-monochromatic plane waves in plasmas made it possible to obtain a better description of the problem, on a fully analytical way, directly from Maxwell's equations. The model investigated in this paper is inhomogeneous of arbitrary order (while the wave pattern can exist), anisotropic (magnetized), linear, cold plasma, in which the gradient of the one-dimensional spatial inhomogeneity is parallel to the direction of propagation. (author)

  11. OBSERVABLE DEVIATIONS FROM HOMOGENEITY IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giblin, John T. Jr. [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 N College Road Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D. [CERCA/ISO, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.

  12. OBSERVABLE DEVIATIONS FROM HOMOGENEITY IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giblin, John T. Jr.; Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2016-01-01

    How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.

  13. Investigation of inhomogeneous deformation in band amorphous alloys at constant heating rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Victor; Berezner, Arseniy; Pluzhnikova, Tatiana; Beskrovnyi, Anatolyi

    2017-11-01

    The present paper contains investigations of the creep process in the cobalt-based amorphous metallic alloy within the temperature range from 300 up to 1023 K. In all the curves of deformation there were observed jumps and dying oscillations. It is noted that the creep of the sample ribbons is unstable and results in the thinning of ribbons with tightening and crimping. There is suggested the mechanism of inhomogeneous deformation, which takes place in course of the process of creep under intermittent heating. For the evaluation of amorphism in the treated samples there have been carried out neutron-graphical and X-ray diffraction investigations, as well as thermal analysis.

  14. Self-pulsing and chaos in inhomogeneously broadened single mode lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R; Cho, Y

    1983-08-01

    A four-dimensional model and a six-dimensional model describing the self-pulsing instabilities and chaotic dynamics of inhomogeneously broadened single-mode lasers are derived as the first two steps of an infinite hierarchy of approximations increasing in accuracy and complexity. The results of a linear stability analysis of the time-independent states and some numerical solutions are given to show the various types of dynamic behavior which can occur in these models. The dynamic behavior is found to be much more complex than in the homogeneously broadened case and is obtained under physically more realistic conditions. 10 references.

  15. Acoustic Streaming and Its Suppression in Inhomogeneous Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Jonas Tobias; Qiu, Wei; Augustsson, Per

    2018-01-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of boundary-driven acoustic streaming in an inhomogeneous fluid with variations in density and compressibility. In a homogeneous fluid this streaming results from dissipation in the boundary layers (Rayleigh streaming). We show...... that in an inhomogeneous fluid, an additional nondissipative force density acts on the fluid to stabilize particular inhomogeneity configurations, which markedly alters and even suppresses the streaming flows. Our theoretical and numerical analysis of the phenomenon is supported by ultrasound experiments performed...

  16. Inhomogeneous quantum diffusion and decay of a meta-stable state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Barik, Debashis [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ray, Deb Shankar [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2007-01-29

    We consider the quantum stochastic dynamics of a system whose interaction with the reservoir is considered to be linear in bath co-ordinates but nonlinear in system co-ordinates. The role of the space-dependent friction and diffusion has been examined in the decay rate of a particle from a meta-stable well. We show how the decay rate can be hindered by inhomogeneous dissipation due to nonlinear system-bath coupling strength.

  17. Inhomogeneous quantum diffusion and decay of a meta-stable state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar; Barik, Debashis; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2007-01-01

    We consider the quantum stochastic dynamics of a system whose interaction with the reservoir is considered to be linear in bath co-ordinates but nonlinear in system co-ordinates. The role of the space-dependent friction and diffusion has been examined in the decay rate of a particle from a meta-stable well. We show how the decay rate can be hindered by inhomogeneous dissipation due to nonlinear system-bath coupling strength

  18. Inhomogeneous quantum diffusion and decay of a meta-stable state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Barik, Debashis [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ray, Deb Shankar [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2006-12-18

    We consider the quantum stochastic dynamics of a system whose interaction with the reservoir is considered to be linear in bath co-ordinates but nonlinear in system co-ordinates. The role of the space-dependent friction and diffusion has been examined in the decay rate of a particle from a meta-stable well. We show how the decay rate can be hindered by inhomogeneous dissipation due to nonlinear system-bath coupling strength.

  19. Inhomogeneous quantum diffusion and decay of a meta-stable state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar; Barik, Debashis; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2006-01-01

    We consider the quantum stochastic dynamics of a system whose interaction with the reservoir is considered to be linear in bath co-ordinates but nonlinear in system co-ordinates. The role of the space-dependent friction and diffusion has been examined in the decay rate of a particle from a meta-stable well. We show how the decay rate can be hindered by inhomogeneous dissipation due to nonlinear system-bath coupling strength

  20. Turbulent structure of stably stratified inhomogeneous flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Oaki

    2018-04-01

    Effects of buoyancy force stabilizing disturbances are investigated on the inhomogeneous flow where disturbances are dispersed from the turbulent to non-turbulent field in the direction perpendicular to the gravity force. Attaching the fringe region, where disturbances are excited by the artificial body force, a Fourier spectral method is used for the inhomogeneous flow stirred at one side of the cuboid computational box. As a result, it is found that the turbulent kinetic energy is dispersed as layered structures elongated in the streamwise direction through the vibrating motion. A close look at the layered structures shows that they are flanked by colder fluids at the top and hotter fluids at the bottom, and hence vertically compressed and horizontally expanded by the buoyancy related to the countergradient heat flux, though they are punctuated by the vertical expansion of fluids at the forefront of the layered structures, which is related to the downgradient heat flux, indicating that the layered structures are gravity currents. However, the phase between temperature fluctuations and vertical velocity is shifted by π/2 rad, indicating that temperature fluctuations are generated by the propagation of internal gravity waves.

  1. Robustness of inflation to inhomogeneous initial conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clough, Katy; Lim, Eugene A. [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Physics Department, Kings College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); DiNunno, Brandon S.; Fischler, Willy; Flauger, Raphael; Paban, Sonia, E-mail: katy.clough@kcl.ac.uk, E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com, E-mail: bsd86@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: fischler@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: flauger@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: paban@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We consider the effects of inhomogeneous initial conditions in both the scalar field profile and the extrinsic curvature on different inflationary models. In particular, we compare the robustness of small field inflation to that of large field inflation, using numerical simulations with Einstein gravity in 3+1 dimensions. We find that small field inflation can fail in the presence of subdominant gradient energies, suggesting that it is much less robust to inhomogeneities than large field inflation, which withstands dominant gradient energies. However, we also show that small field inflation can be successful even if some regions of spacetime start out in the region of the potential that does not support inflation. In the large field case, we confirm previous results that inflation is robust if the inflaton occupies the inflationary part of the potential. Furthermore, we show that increasing initial scalar gradients will not form sufficiently massive inflation-ending black holes if the initial hypersurface is approximately flat. Finally, we consider the large field case with a varying extrinsic curvature K , such that some regions are initially collapsing. We find that this may again lead to local black holes, but overall the spacetime remains inflationary if the spacetime is open, which confirms previous theoretical studies.

  2. Physical model of optical inhomogeneities of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shybanov, E. B.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to theoretical aspects of the light scattering of water that does not contain suspended particles. To be consistent with current physical point of view the water as far as any liquid is regarded as a complex unstable nonergodic media. It was proposed that at fixed time the water as a condensed medium had global inhomogeneities similar to linear and planar defects in a solid. Anticipated own global inhomogeneities of water have been approximated by the system randomly distributed spherical clusters filling the entire water bulk. An analytical expression for the single scattered light has been derived. The formula simultaneously describes both the high anisotropy of light scattering and the high degree of polarization which one close to those for molecular scattering. It is shown that at general angles there is a qualitative coincidence with the two-component Kopelevich's model for the light scattering by marine particles. On the contrary towards to forwards angles the spectral law becomes much more prominent i.e. it corresponds to results for model of optically soft particles.

  3. A theoretical description of inhomogeneous turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In this LDRD, we have developed a highly compact and descriptive formalism that allows us to broach the theoretically formidable morass of inhomogeneous turbulence. Our formalism has two novel aspects: (a) an adaptation of helicity basis functions to represent an arbitrary incompressible channel flow and (b) the invocation of a hypothesis of random phase. A result of this compact formalism is that the mathematical description of inhomogeneous turbulence looks much like that of homogeneous turbulence--at the moment, the most rigorously explored terrain in turbulence research. As a result, we can explore the effect of boundaries on such important quantities as the gradients of mean flow, mean pressure, triple-velocity correlations and pressure velocity correlations, all of which vanish under the conventional, but artificial, assumption that the turbulence is statistically spatially uniform. Under suitable conditions, we have predicted that a mean flow gradient can develop even when none is initially present

  4. Microstructural evolution in inhomogeneous elastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, H.J.; Leo, P.H.; Lowengrub, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    We simulate the diffusional evolution of microstructures produced by solid state diffusional transformations in elastically stressed binary alloys in two dimensions. The microstructure consists of arbitrarily shaped precipitates embedded coherently in an infinite matrix. The precipitate and matrix are taken to be elastically isotropic, although they may have different elastic constants (elastically inhomogeneous). Both far-field applied strains and mismatch strains between the phases are considered. The diffusion and elastic fields are calculated using the boundary integral method, together with a small scale preconditioner to remove ill-conditioning. The precipitate-matrix interfaces are tracked using a nonstiff time updating method. The numerical method is spectrally accurate and efficient. Simulations of a single precipitate indicate that precipitate shapes depend strongly on the mass flux into the system as well as on the elastic fields. Growing shapes (positive mass flux) are dendritic while equilibrium shapes (zero mass flux) are squarish. Simulations of multiparticle systems show complicated interactions between precipitate morphology and the overall development of microstructure (i.e., precipitate alignment, translation, merging, and coarsening). In both single and multiple particle simulations, the details of the microstructural evolution depend strongly o the elastic inhomogeneity, misfit strain, and applied fields. 57 refs., 24 figs

  5. The effect of inhomogeneity of microstructure on ducility in superplasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manonukul, A.; Dunne, F.P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Finite element cell models have been developed to represent inhomogeneous grain size fields that occur in commercial Ti-6Al-4V. The models are used to investigate the influence of microstructure on superplastic stress-strain behaviour, inhomogeneity of deformation, and on ductility in superplastic deformation. It is shown that increasing the level of initial microstructural inhomogeneity leads to increasing flow stress for given strain, and that the microstructural inhomogeneity leads to inhomogeneous deformation. As superplasticity proceeds, the level of microstructural inhomogeneity diminishes, but the inhomogeneity itself is preserved during the deformation. It is shown that the inhomogeneity of microstructure leads to strain localisation which increases in severity with deformation until material necking and failure occur. Increasing the initial microstructural inhomogeneity is shown to lead to a decrease in ductility, but the effect diminishes for grain size ranges in excess of 30 μm. An empirical relationship is presented that relates the ductility to the initial grain size range through a power law. (orig.)

  6. Acoustic Streaming and Its Suppression in Inhomogeneous Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Jonas T; Qiu, Wei; Augustsson, Per; Bruus, Henrik

    2018-02-02

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of boundary-driven acoustic streaming in an inhomogeneous fluid with variations in density and compressibility. In a homogeneous fluid this streaming results from dissipation in the boundary layers (Rayleigh streaming). We show that in an inhomogeneous fluid, an additional nondissipative force density acts on the fluid to stabilize particular inhomogeneity configurations, which markedly alters and even suppresses the streaming flows. Our theoretical and numerical analysis of the phenomenon is supported by ultrasound experiments performed with inhomogeneous aqueous iodixanol solutions in a glass-silicon microchip.

  7. Prediction of phonon thermal transport in thin GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires by molecular dynamics simulations: influence of the interatomic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrete, J; Longo, R C; Gallego, L J, E-mail: jesus.carrete@usc.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-05-06

    A number of different potentials are currently being used in molecular dynamics simulations of semiconductor nanostructures. Confusion can arise if an inappropriate potential is used. To illustrate this point, we performed direct molecular dynamics simulations to predict the room temperature lattice thermal conductivity {lambda} of thin GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires. In each case, simulations performed using the classical Harrison potential afforded values of {lambda} about an order of magnitude smaller than those obtained using more elaborate potentials (an Abell-Tersoff, as parameterized by Hammerschmidt et al for GaAs and InAs, and a potential of Vashishta type for InP). These results will be a warning to those wishing to use computer simulations to orient the development of quasi-one-dimensional systems as heat sinks or thermoelectric devices.

  8. Selectivity of the gas sensor based on the 50%In2O3-50%Ga2O3 thin film in dynamic mode of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, I. E.; Kozlov, A. G.

    2018-01-01

    The article considers the gas sensor with the sensitive layer based on the 50%In2O3 -50%Ga2O3 thin film. The temperature and concentration dependencies of gas-induced resistance response of this sensor and the dynamical dependencies of its resistance response on the test gases in air are investigated. The test gases were ethanol, acetone, ammonia and liquefied petroleum gas. The information parameters of the sensor in the dynamical mode of operation were considered to improve its selectivity. The presented results show that the selectivity of the sensor in this mode may be improved by using the following information parameters: gas-induced resistance response in steady state, activation energy of the response and pre-exponential factor of the temperature dependence of the response time constant.

  9. Integrability and soliton solutions for an inhomogeneous generalized fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing the inhomogeneous alpha helical proteins and Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pan; Tian, Bo; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    For describing the dynamics of alpha helical proteins with internal molecular excitations, nonlinear couplings between lattice vibrations and molecular excitations, and spin excitations in one-dimensional isotropic biquadratic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin with the octupole–dipole interactions, we consider an inhomogeneous generalized fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Based on the Ablowitz–Kaup–Newell–Segur system, infinitely many conservation laws for the equation are derived. Through the auxiliary function, bilinear forms and N-soliton solutions for the equation are obtained. Interactions of solitons are discussed by means of the asymptotic analysis. Effects of linear inhomogeneity on the interactions of solitons are also investigated graphically and analytically. Since the inhomogeneous coefficient of the equation h=α x+β, the soliton takes on the parabolic profile during the evolution. Soliton velocity is related to the parameter α, distance scale coefficient and biquadratic exchange coefficient, but has no relation with the parameter β. Soliton amplitude and width are only related to α. Soliton position is related to β

  10. Moessbauer spectroscopy of locally inhomogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusakov, V. S.; Kadyrzhanov, K. K.

    2004-01-01

    Substances with characteristic local inhomogeneities - with different from position to position neighborhood and properties of like atoms - gain recently increased scientific attention and wide practical application. We would call a system locally inhomogeneous if atoms in the system are in non-equivalent atomic locations and reveal different properties. Such systems are, first of all, variable composition phases, amorphous, multi-phase, admixture, defect and other systems. LIS are most convenient model objects for studies of structure, charge, and spin atomic states, interatomic interactions, relations between matter properties and its local characteristics as well as for studies of diffusion kinetics, phase formation, crystallization and atomic ordering; all that explains considerable scientific interest in such LIS. Such systems find their practical application due to wide spectrum of useful, and sometimes unique, properties that can be controlled varying character and degree of local inhomogeneity. Moessbauer spectroscopy is one of the most effective methods for investigation of LIS. Local character of obtained information combined with information on cooperative phenomena makes it possible to run investigations impossible for other methods. Moessbauer spectroscopy may provide with abundant information on peculiarities of macro- and microscopic state of matter including that for materials without regular structure. At the same time, analysis, processing and interpretation of Moessbauer spectra for LIS (that are sets of a large amount of partial spectra) face considerable difficulties. Development of computer technique is accompanied with development of mathematical methods used for obtaining physical information from experimental data. The methods make it possible to improve considerably, with some available a priori information, effectiveness of the research. Utilization of up-to-date mathematical methods in Moessbauer spectroscopy requires not only adaptation

  11. Static and dynamic buckling of large thin shells. (Design procedure, computation tools. Physical understanding of the mechanisms)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combescure, A.

    1986-04-01

    During the last ten years, the French Research Institute for Nuclear Energy (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) achieved many theoretical as well as experimental studies for designing the first large size pool type fast breeder reactor. Many of the sensitive parts of this reactor are thin shells subjected to high temperatures and loads. Special care has been given to buckling, because it often governs design. Most of the thin shells structures of the french breeder reactor are axisymmetric. However, imperfections have to be accounted for. In order to keep the advantage of an axisymmetric analysis (low computational costs), a special element has been implemented and used with considerable success in the recent years. This element (COMU) is described in the first chapter, its main features are: either non axisymmetric imperfection or non axisymmetric load, large displacement, non linear material behaviour, computational costs about ten times cheaper than the equivalent three dimensional analysis. This paper based on a careful comparison between experimental and computational results, obtained with the COMU, will analyse three problems: First: design procedure against buckling of thin shells structures subjected to primary loads; Second: static post buckling; Third: buckling under seismic loads [fr

  12. Determination of dynamic variations in the optical properties of graphene oxide in response to gas exposure based on thin-film interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Shawana; Dong, Liang; Kumar, Ratnesh

    2018-03-05

    We present an effective yet simple approach to study the dynamic variations in optical properties (such as the refractive index (RI)) of graphene oxide (GO) when exposed to gases in the visible spectral region, using the thin-film interference method. The dynamic variations in the complex refractive index of GO in response to exposure to a gas is an important factor affecting the performance of GO-based gas sensors. In contrast to the conventional ellipsometry, this method alleviates the need of selecting a dispersion model from among a list of model choices, which is limiting if an applicable model is not known a priori. In addition, the method used is computationally simpler, and does not need to employ any functional approximations. Further advantage over ellipsometry is that no bulky optics is required, and as a result it can be easily integrated into the sensing system, thereby allowing the reliable, simple, and dynamic evaluation of the optical performance of any GO-based gas sensor. In addition, the derived values of the dynamically changing RI values of the GO layer obtained from the method we have employed are corroborated by comparing with the values obtained from ellipsometry.

  13. Nonlocal inhomogeneous broadening in plasmonic nanoparticle ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.

    Nonclassical effects are increasingly more relevant in plasmonics as modern nanofabrication techniques rapidly approach the extreme nanoscale limits, for which departing from classical electrodynamics becomes important. One of the largest-scale necessary corrections towards this direction...... is to abandon the local response approximation (LRA) and take the nonlocal response of the metal into account, typically through the simple hydrodynamic Drude model (HDM), which predicts a sizedependent deviation of plasmon modes from the quasistatic (QS) limit. While this behaviour has been explored for simple...... metallic nanoparticles (NPs) or NP dimers, the possibility of inhomogeneous resonance broadening due to size variation in a large NP collection and the resulting spectral overlap of modes (as depicted in Fig. 1), has been so far overlooked. Here we study theoretically the effect of nonlocality on ensemble...

  14. Measurable inhomogeneities in stock trading volume flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortines, A. A. G.; Riera, R.; Anteneodo, C.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate the statistics of volumes of shares traded in stock markets. We show that the stochastic process of trading volumes can be understood on the basis of a mixed Poisson process at the microscopic time level. The beta distribution of the second kind (also known as q-gamma distribution), that has been proposed to describe empirical volume histograms, naturally results from our analysis. In particular, the shape of the distribution at small volumes is governed by the degree of granularity in the trading process, while the exponent controlling the tail is a measure of the inhomogeneities in market activity. Furthermore, the present case furnishes empirical evidence of how power law probability distributions can arise as a consequence of a fluctuating intrinsic parameter.

  15. Origin of Inhomogeneity in Glass Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The homogeneity of a glass plays a crucial role in many applications as the inhomogeneities can provide local changes in mechanical properties, optical properties, and thermal expansion coefficient. Homogeneity is not a single property of the glass, instead, it consists of several factors...... such as bubbles, striae, trace element concentration, undissolved species, and crystallised species. As it is not possible to address all the factors in a single study, this work focuses on one of the major factors: chemical striae. Up to now, the quantification of chemical striae in glasses, particularly......, in less transparent glasses, has been a challenge due to the lack of an applicable method. In this study, we have established a simple and accurate method for quantifying the extent of the striae, which is based on the scanning and picture processing through the Fourier transformation. By performing...

  16. Large sample neutron activation analysis of a reference inhomogeneous sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilopoulou, T.; Athens National Technical University, Athens; Tzika, F.; Stamatelatos, I.E.; Koster-Ammerlaan, M.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A benchmark experiment was performed for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) of a large inhomogeneous sample. The reference sample was developed in-house and consisted of SiO 2 matrix and an Al-Zn alloy 'inhomogeneity' body. Monte Carlo simulations were employed to derive appropriate correction factors for neutron self-shielding during irradiation as well as self-attenuation of gamma rays and sample geometry during counting. The large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) results were compared against reference values and the trueness of the technique was evaluated. An agreement within ±10% was observed between LSNAA and reference elemental mass values, for all matrix and inhomogeneity elements except Samarium, provided that the inhomogeneity body was fully simulated. However, in cases that the inhomogeneity was treated as not known, the results showed a reasonable agreement for most matrix elements, while large discrepancies were observed for the inhomogeneity elements. This study provided a quantification of the uncertainties associated with inhomogeneity in large sample analysis and contributed to the identification of the needs for future development of LSNAA facilities for analysis of inhomogeneous samples. (author)

  17. Collapse arresting in an inhomogeneous quintic nonlinear Schrodinger model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1999-01-01

    Collapse of (1 + 1)-dimensional beams in the inhomogeneous one-dimensional quintic nonlinear Schrodinger equation is analyzed both numerically and analytically. It is shown that in the vicinity of a narrow attractive inhomogeneity, the collapse of beams in which the homogeneous medium would blow up...

  18. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dec. 2001 physics pp. 969–979. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously doped fiber couplers. AJIT KUMAR. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India. Abstract. Switching between the bistable soliton states in a doubly and inhomogeneously doped.

  19. Scattering of a spherical pulse from a small inhomogeneity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    Perturbations in elastic constants and density distinguish a volume inhomogeneity from its homoge- neous surroundings. The equation of motion for the first order scattering is studied in the perturbed medium. The scattered waves are generated by the interaction between the primary waves and the inhomogeneity.

  20. Consideration of inhomogeneities in irradiation planning. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicker, H.; Felix, R.

    1976-01-01

    In radiation therapy, the focal doses during irradiation of a tumor are based on the values for water, since water has almost the same absorption coefficient as muscular tissue, even for different kinds and energies of radiation. But calculation of the tumor dose will become inaccurate if inhomogeneities in the ray path are not considered such as fat, bones, plaster, metal plates, Kuentscher nails, endoprotheses. These materials, having a density sigma different from water, represent inhomogeneities relative to water with regard to the absorption of high-energy radiation. The experiments yielded the following results: All measurements revealed that the change in the course of the depth dose curve caused by inhomogeneities in water depends essentially on the density sigma and on the thickness d of the inhomogeneity. If the density sigma of the inhomogeneity exceeds one, a shift of the depth dose curve in water results in the direction of the surface; if the density sigma is smaller than one, the depth dose curve will move towards greater depth because of the inhomogeneity. With Co-60 gamma radiation, the shift of the depth dose curve in water due to an inhomogeneity occurs almost parallel. A correlation obtained empirically allows a calculation of th extent of the shift the depth dose is subject to for different inhomogeneities. (orig./ORU) [de

  1. Evaluation of flow accelerated corrosion by coupled analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics (1), major features of coupled analysis and application for evaluation of wall thinning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitoh, Masanori; Uchida, Shunsuke; Okada, Hidetoshi; Uehara, Yasushi; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    Six calculation steps have been prepared for predicting flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) occurrence and evaluating wall thinning rate. (1) Flow pattern and temperature in each elemental volume along the flow path are obtained with a 1D plant system code, (2) Corrosive conditions, e.g., oxygen concentration and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) along the flow path are calculated with a hydrazine-oxygen reaction code, (3) Precise flow patterns and mass transfer coefficients at the structure surface are calculated with a 3D CFD code, (4) Danger zones are evaluated by combining major FAC parameters, (5) Wall thinning rates are calculated with the coupled models of static electrochemical analysis and dynamic double oxide layer analysis at the identified danger zone, and then, (6) Residual life and effects of countermeasures can be evaluated. Anodic and cathodic current densities and ECPs were calculated with the static electrochemistry model, and ferrous ion release rate determined by the anodic current density was used as input for the dynamic double oxide layer model. Thickness of the oxide film and its characteristics determined by the dynamic double oxide layer model were used for the electrochemistry model to determine the resistances of cathodic current from the bulk to the surface and anodic current from the surface to the bulk. The calculated results of the coupled models had been compared with the data measured at operating Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plants and it was demonstrated that the calculated results had good agreements with the measured ones. 6 step-evaluation procedures for liquid droplet impingement (LDI) were also proposed. (author)

  2. Effects of nanoscale density inhomogeneities on shearing fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben, Dalton,; Peter, Daivis,; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that density inhomogeneities at the solid-liquid interface can have a strong effect on the velocity profile of a nanoconfined fluid in planar Poiseuille flow. However, it is difficult to control the density inhomogeneities induced by solid walls, making this type of system...... systems. Using the sinusoidal transverse force method to produce shearing velocity profiles and the sinusoidal longitudinal force method to produce inhomogeneous density profiles, we are able to observe the interactions between the two property inhomogeneities at the level of individual Fourier components....... This gives us a method for direct measurement of the coupling between the density and velocity fields and allows us to introduce various feedback control mechanisms which customize fluid behavior in individual Fourier components. We briefly discuss the role of temperature inhomogeneity and consider whether...

  3. Dynamically assisted Sauter-Schwinger effect in inhomogeneous electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Christian; Schützhold, Ralf [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen,Lotharstrasse 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-02-24

    Via the world-line instanton method, we study electron-positron pair creation by a strong (but sub-critical) electric field of the profile E/cosh{sup 2} (kx) superimposed by a weaker pulse E{sup ′}/cosh{sup 2} (ωt). If the temporal Keldysh parameter γ{sub ω}=mω/(qE) exceeds a threshold value γ{sub ω}{sup crit} which depends on the spatial Keldysh parameter γ{sub k}=mk/(qE), we find a drastic enhancement of the pair creation probability — reporting on what we believe to be the first analytic non-perturbative result for the interplay between temporal and spatial field dependences E(t,x) in the Sauter-Schwinger effect. Finally, we speculate whether an analogous effect (drastic enhancement of tunneling probability) could occur in other scenarios such as stimulated nuclear decay, for example.

  4. Propagation of flexural waves in inhomogeneous plates exhibiting hysteretic nonlinearity: Nonlinear acoustic black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Vitalyi E; Ni, Chenyin; Lomonosov, Alexey; Shen, Zhonghua

    2015-08-01

    Theory accounting for the influence of hysteretic nonlinearity of micro-inhomogeneous material on flexural wave in the plates of continuously varying thickness is developed. For the wedges with thickness increasing as a power law of distance from its edge strong modifications of the wave dynamics with propagation distance are predicted. It is found that nonlinear absorption progressively disappearing with diminishing wave amplitude leads to complete attenuation of acoustic waves in most of the wedges exhibiting black hole phenomenon. It is also demonstrated that black holes exist beyond the geometrical acoustic approximation. Applications include nondestructive evaluation of micro-inhomogeneous materials and vibrations damping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bose-Einstein condensates with spatially inhomogeneous interaction and bright solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, H.J.; Radha, R.; Kumar, V. Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) with spatially inhomogeneous interaction and generate bright solitons for the condensates by solving the associated mean field description governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. We then investigate the properties of BECs in an optical lattice and periodic potential. We show that the GP equation in an optical lattice potential is integrable provided the interaction strength between the atoms varies periodically in space. The model discussed in the Letter offers the luxury of choosing the form of the lattice without destroying the integrability. Besides, we have also brought out the possible ramifications of the integrable model in the condensates of quasi-particles. -- Highlights: → We generate bright solitons for the collisionally inhomogeneous BECs. → We then study their properties in an optical lattice and periodic potential. → The model may have wider ramifications in the BECs of quasi-particles.

  6. Effects of inhomogeneity on the Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah and wake potentials in a streaming dusty magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.; Khan, M.I.U.; Amin, R.; Nitta, H.; Shukla, P.K.

    2005-10-01

    Detailed properties of the electrostatic Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah and the dynamical oscillatory wake potentials in an inhomogeneous dusty magnetoplasma in the presence of ion streaming, as in a laboratory discharge plasma, have been examined analytically. The potentials become sensitive functions of the external static magnetic field, the scale-length of inhomogeneity, and the deviation from the linear ion streaming velocity. For a decreasing ion density gradient, there is a limit of existence of the static modified shielding potential. For a strongly inhomogeneous dusty plasma, the effective length of the oscillatory wake potential increases with increasing deviation of the ion streaming velocity (u i0y ), but it does not depend on the external magnetic field. (author)

  7. Quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation in a Heisenberg XYZ chain with an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Huang, Aijun; Ming, Fei; Sun, Wenyang; Lu, Heping; Liu, Chengcheng; Ye, Liu

    2017-06-01

    The uncertainty principle provides a nontrivial bound to expose the precision for the outcome of the measurement on a pair of incompatible observables in a quantum system. Therefore, it is of essential importance for quantum precision measurement in the area of quantum information processing. Herein, we investigate quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation (QMA-EUR) in a two-qubit Heisenberg \\boldsymbol{X}\\boldsymbol{Y}\\boldsymbol{Z} spin chain. Specifically, we observe the dynamics of QMA-EUR in a realistic model there are two correlated sites linked by a thermal entanglement in the spin chain with an inhomogeneous magnetic field. It turns out that the temperature, the external inhomogeneous magnetic field and the field inhomogeneity can lift the uncertainty of the measurement due to the reduction of the thermal entanglement, and explicitly higher temperature, stronger magnetic field or larger inhomogeneity of the field can result in inflation of the uncertainty. Besides, it is found that there exists distinct dynamical behaviors of the uncertainty for ferromagnetism \\boldsymbol{}≤ft(\\boldsymbol{J}\\boldsymbol{0}\\right) chains. Moreover, we also verify that the measuring uncertainty is dramatically anti-correlated with the purity of the bipartite spin system, the greater purity can result in the reduction of the measuring uncertainty, vice versa. Therefore, our observations might provide a better understanding of the dynamics of the entropic uncertainty in the Heisenberg spin chain, and thus shed light on quantum precision measurement in the framework of versatile systems, particularly solid states.

  8. Effects of water chemistry and fluid dynamics on wall thinning behavior. Part 1. Development of FAC model focused on water chemistry and composition of material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Domae, Masafumi; Ohta, Joji; Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Inada, Fumio

    2009-01-01

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC), which is one of the important subjects at fossil and nuclear power plans, is caused by the accelerated dissolution of protective oxide film due to the turbulent flow. The influence factors on FAC such as water chemistry, material, and fluid dynamics are closely related to the oxide property so that the risk of FAC can be reduced by the suitable control of water chemistry. There are some FAC models and evaluation codes of FAC rate. Some of them are used in wall thinning management of nuclear power plant in some country. Nevertheless, these FAC codes include many empirical parameters so that some uncertainty to evaluate the synergistic effectiveness of factors are the controversial point for the application of FAC code to wall thinning management in Japanese nuclear power plant. In this study, a FAC model that can evaluate the effect of temperature, NH3 concentration, chromium content, and dissolved oxygen concentration on FAC rate was developed by considering the diffusion of dissolved species. The critical dissolved oxygen concentration, which can inhibit FAC, was also calculated by this model. (author)

  9. Ab initio molecular dynamics model for density, elastic properties and short range order of Co-Fe-Ta-B metallic glass thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostert, C; Music, D; Schneider, J M; Bednarcik, J; Keckes, J; Kapaklis, V; Hjörvarsson, B

    2011-01-01

    Density, elastic modulus and the pair distribution function of Co-Fe-Ta-B metallic glasses were obtained by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and measured for sputtered thin films using x-ray reflectivity, nanoindentation and x-ray diffraction using high energy photons. The computationally obtained density of 8.19 g cm -3 for Co 43 Fe 20 Ta 5.5 B 31.5 and 8.42 g cm -3 for Co 45.5 Fe 24 Ta 6 B 24.5 , as well as the Young’s moduli of 273 and 251 GPa, respectively, are consistent with our experiments and literature data. These data, together with the good agreement between the theoretical and the experimental pair distribution functions, indicate that the model established here is useful to describe the density, elasticity and short range order of Co-Fe-Ta-B metallic glass thin films. Irrespective of the investigated variation in chemical composition, (Co, Fe)-B cluster formation and Co-Fe interactions are identified by density-of-states analysis. Strong bonds within the structural units and between the metallic species may give rise to the comparatively large stiffness. (paper)

  10. In situ determination of the dynamic properties of thinly-layered rock to evaluate rock-structure interaction at a nuclear power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, William J.; Rizzo, Paul C.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of layers of weak sedimentary rock in a column of otherwise competent rock can significantly affect the seismic response of nuclear power plant structures due to rock-structure interaction effects. The determination of the dynamic properties of thinly-layered rock is, however, difficult. When borings are placed close enough to allow for a characterization of refracted waves, other potential problems such as the identification of clear P- and S-wave arrivals, extremely short duration of records, near-field waves, instrumental stability, and overall record resolution become magnified. Other problems such as cultural noise and signal amplitude can become critical when high resolution is required. Conventional storage oscilloscopes and seismographs are inadequate under these conditions, but modern digital recording systems with the application of stringent calibration and recording procedures can yield successful results. A case history of a high-precision cross-hole survey to a depth of 150 meters in thinly-bedded sedimentary rock at a nuclear power plant site is presented in order to illustrate the systems and procedures necessary to obtain successful results under adverse conditions. (author)

  11. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on the dynamics of singlet-singlet energy transfer of luminophores in thin films of polyvinyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryukhanov, V.V.; Samusev, I.G.; Slezhkin, V.A.; Tsibul'nikova, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of ablated silver nanoparticles (ANP) on the dynamics of non-radiative inductance-resonance energy transfer and phosphorescence in the donor-acceptor pair of molecules of eosin and methylene blue (MB) luminophores embedded in thin films of polyvinyl alcohol have been investigated. Increased fluorescence intensity of donor (eosin) and acceptor (MB) molecules, as well as a growth of the dipole-dipole transfer efficiency have been obtained under the resonant excitation of the silver ANP surface plasmons in the absorption band of the donor energy. The luminescence quantum yields and the fluorescence lifetimes have been measured. The energy transfer constants, degree of polarization and fluorescence anisotropy have been determined. (authors)

  12. Dynamic model of a thin layer photobioreactor, used for the cultivation of the microalga Chlorella sp. and bacteria in wastewater of high organic load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Gines Alfaro-Vives

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic mathematical model is presented to describe the symbiotic growth of the microalgae Chlorella sp. and bacteria in a photobioreactor thin film used in the wastewater treatment of high organic load. A good correlation is shown by the experimental results, since the variations of the process parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide and substrate concentration in the culture medium were compared with the experimental results and in 95 % of cases coincide with an error of + -3%. Furthermore, the influence of the operating parameters on the performance of algae obtained is evaluated, using the model, the total net productivity per unit area was obtained with a maximum error of + -2, 5 % with respect to the experimental values.

  13. Evaporation dynamics of a sessile droplet on glass surfaces with fluoropolymer coatings: focusing on the final stage of thin droplet evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatapova, Elizaveta Ya; Shonina, Anna M; Safonov, Alexey I; Sulyaeva, Veronica S; Kabov, Oleg A

    2018-03-07

    The evaporation dynamics of a water droplet with an initial volume of 2 μl from glass surfaces with fluoropolymer coatings are investigated using the shadow technique and an optical microscope. The droplet profile for a contact angle of less than 5° is constructed using an image-analyzing interference technique, and evaporation dynamics are investigated at the final stage. We coated the glass slides with a thin film of a fluoropolymer by the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition method at different deposition modes depending on the deposition pressure and the temperature of the activating wire. The resulting surfaces have different structures affecting the wetting properties. Droplet evaporation from a constant contact radius mode in the early stage of evaporation was found followed by the mode where both contact angle and contact radius simultaneously vary in time (final stage) regardless of wettability of the coated surfaces. We found that depinning occurs at small contact angles of 2.2-4.7° for all samples, which are smaller than the measured receding contact angles. This is explained by imbibition of the liquid into the developed surface of the "soft" coating that leads to formation of thin droplets completely wetting the surface. The final stage, which is little discussed in the literature, is also recorded. We have singled out a substage where the contact line velocity is abruptly increasing for all coated and uncoated surfaces. The critical droplet height corresponding to the transition to this substage is about 2 μm with R/h = 107. The duration of this substage is the same for all coated and uncoated surfaces. Droplets observed at this substage for all the tested surfaces are axisymmetric. The specific evaporation rate clearly demonstrates an abrupt increase at the final substage of the droplet evaporation. The classical R 2 law is justified for the complete wetting situation where the droplet is disappearing in an axisymmetric manner.

  14. Transfer equations for spectral densities of inhomogeneous MHD turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, C.-Y.; Marsch, E.

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of the dynamic equations governing the evolution of magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations expressed in terms of Elsaesser variables and of their correlation functions derived by Marsch and Tu, a new set of equations is presented describing the evolutions of the energy spectrum e ± and of the residual energy spectra e R and e S of MHD turbulence in an inhomogeneous magnetofluid. The nonlinearities associated with triple correlations in these equations are analysed in detail and evaluated approximately. The resulting energy-transfer functions across wavenumber space are discussed. For e ± they are shown to be approximately energy-conserving if the gradients of the flow speed and density are weak. New cascading functions are heuristically determined by an appropriate dimensional analysis and plausible physical arguments, following the standard phenomenology of fluid turbulence. However, for e R the triple correlations do not correspond to an 'energy' conserving process, but also represent a nonlinear source term for e R . If this source term can be neglected, the spectrum equations are found to be closed. The problem of dealing with the nonlinear source terms remains to be solved in future investigations. (author)

  15. LANGMUIR WAVE DECAY IN INHOMOGENEOUS SOLAR WIND PLASMAS: SIMULATION RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krafft, C. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Volokitin, A. S. [IZMIRAN, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krasnoselskikh, V. V., E-mail: catherine.krafft@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l’Environnement et de l’Espace, 3A Av. de la Recherche Scientifique, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-08-20

    Langmuir turbulence excited by electron flows in solar wind plasmas is studied on the basis of numerical simulations. In particular, nonlinear wave decay processes involving ion-sound (IS) waves are considered in order to understand their dependence on external long-wavelength plasma density fluctuations. In the presence of inhomogeneities, it is shown that the decay processes are localized in space and, due to the differences between the group velocities of Langmuir and IS waves, their duration is limited so that a full nonlinear saturation cannot be achieved. The reflection and the scattering of Langmuir wave packets on the ambient and randomly varying density fluctuations lead to crucial effects impacting the development of the IS wave spectrum. Notably, beatings between forward propagating Langmuir waves and reflected ones result in the parametric generation of waves of noticeable amplitudes and in the amplification of IS waves. These processes, repeated at different space locations, form a series of cascades of wave energy transfer, similar to those studied in the frame of weak turbulence theory. The dynamics of such a cascading mechanism and its influence on the acceleration of the most energetic part of the electron beam are studied. Finally, the role of the decay processes in the shaping of the profiles of the Langmuir wave packets is discussed, and the waveforms calculated are compared with those observed recently on board the spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory and WIND.

  16. Advancement of magma fragmentation by inhomogeneous bubble distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, M; Ichihara, M; Maruyama, S; Kurokawa, N; Aoki, Y; Okumura, S; Uesugi, K

    2017-12-01

    Decompression times reported in previous studies suggest that thoroughly brittle fragmentation is unlikely in actual explosive volcanic eruptions. What occurs in practice is brittle-like fragmentation, which is defined as the solid-like fracture of a material whose bulk rheological properties are close to those of a fluid. Through laboratory experiments and numerical simulation, the link between the inhomogeneous structure of bubbles and the development of cracks that may lead to brittle-like fragmentation was clearly demonstrated here. A rapid decompression test was conducted to simulate the fragmentation of a specimen whose pore morphology was revealed by X-ray microtomography. The dynamic response during decompression was observed by high-speed photography. Large variation was observed in the responses of the specimens even among specimens with equal bulk rheological properties. The stress fields of the specimens under decompression computed by finite element analysis shows that the presence of satellite bubbles beneath a large bubble induced the stress concentration. On the basis of the obtained results, a new mechanism for brittle-like fragmentation is proposed. In the proposed scenario, the second nucleation of bubbles near the fragmentation surface is an essential process for the advancement of fragmentation in an upward magma flow in a volcanic conduit.

  17. Inhomogeneity Based Characterization of Distribution Patterns on the Plasma Membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Paparelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface protein and lipid molecules are organized in various patterns: randomly, along gradients, or clustered when segregated into discrete micro- and nano-domains. Their distribution is tightly coupled to events such as polarization, endocytosis, and intracellular signaling, but challenging to quantify using traditional techniques. Here we present a novel approach to quantify the distribution of plasma membrane proteins and lipids. This approach describes spatial patterns in degrees of inhomogeneity and incorporates an intensity-based correction to analyze images with a wide range of resolutions; we have termed it Quantitative Analysis of the Spatial distributions in Images using Mosaic segmentation and Dual parameter Optimization in Histograms (QuASIMoDOH. We tested its applicability using simulated microscopy images and images acquired by widefield microscopy, total internal reflection microscopy, structured illumination microscopy, and photoactivated localization microscopy. We validated QuASIMoDOH, successfully quantifying the distribution of protein and lipid molecules detected with several labeling techniques, in different cell model systems. We also used this method to characterize the reorganization of cell surface lipids in response to disrupted endosomal trafficking and to detect dynamic changes in the global and local organization of epidermal growth factor receptors across the cell surface. Our findings demonstrate that QuASIMoDOH can be used to assess protein and lipid patterns, quantifying distribution changes and spatial reorganization at the cell surface. An ImageJ/Fiji plugin of this analysis tool is provided.

  18. Evolution of vacuum bubbles embedded in inhomogeneous spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannia, Florencia Anabella Teppa [Grupo de Astrofísica, Relatividad y Cosmología, Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina); Bergliaffa, Santiago Esteban Perez, E-mail: fteppa@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: sepbergliaffa@gmail.com [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado de Rio de Janeiro, CEP 20550-013, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    We study the propagation of bubbles of new vacuum in a radially inhomogeneous background filled with dust or radiation, and including a cosmological constant, as a first step in the analysis of the influence of inhomogeneities in the evolution of an inflating region. We also compare the cases with dust and radiation backgrounds and show that the evolution of the bubble in radiation environments is notably different from that in the corresponding dust cases, both for homogeneous and inhomogeneous ambients, leading to appreciable differences in the evolution of the proper radius of the bubble.

  19. Microinstabilities in a moderately inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    We describe the onset of plasma instability due to heat conduction in a fully ionized hydrogen plasma with small temperature, pressure, and electric potential gradients. The effect of these gradients on plasma stability depends on a single inhomogeneity parameter B/sub t/, which is a measure of the ratio of the electron mean free path to the scale height of the plasma. A large value of vertical-barB/sub t/vertical-bar indicates that the plasma is collisionless. We find the least value of vertical-barB/sub t/vertical-bar needed to produce instability for the range of electron to hydrogen ion temperature ratios T and ion to magnetic pressure ratios β/sub i/, relevant to the solar wind and other plasmas. The wave parameters of the first unstable modes (the modes which become unstable for the least value of vertical-barB/sub t/vertical-bar) are described. The fast mode is the first unstable mode at high β/sub i/, the intermediate mode is the first unstable mode at low β/sub i/, and low temperature ratios, and the slow mode is the first unstable mode at low β/sub i/ and higher temperature ratios

  20. Inhomogeneity and the foundations of concordance cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, Chris; Maartens, Roy

    2010-01-01

    The apparent accelerating expansion of the universe is forcing us to examine the foundational aspects of the standard model of cosmology-in particular, the fact that dark energy is a direct consequence of the homogeneity assumption. We discuss the foundations of the assumption of spatial homogeneity, in the case when the Copernican principle is adopted. We present results that show how (almost) homogeneity follows from (almost) isotropy of various observables. The analysis requires fully nonlinear field equations-i.e. it is not possible to use second- or higher-order perturbation theory, since one cannot assume a homogeneous and isotropic background. Then we consider what happens if the Copernican principle is abandoned in our Hubble volume. The simplest models are inhomogeneous but spherically symmetric universes which do not require dark energy to fit the distance modulus. Key problems in these models are to compute the CMB anisotropies and the features of large-scale structure. We review how to construct perturbation theory on a non-homogeneous cosmological background, and discuss the complexities that arise in using this to determine the growth of large-scale structure.

  1. Individual identification of free hole and electron dynamics in CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} thin films by simultaneous monitoring of two optical transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Makoto [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hagiya, Hideki; Sakurai, Takeaki; Akimoto, Katsuhiro [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Shibata, Hajime; Niki, Shigeru [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko, E-mail: kanemitu@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2015-05-04

    The photocarrier dynamics of CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films were studied using white-light transient absorption (TA) measurements, as an understanding of this behavior is essential for improving the performance of solar cells composed of CIGS thin films. A characteristic double-peak structure due to the splitting of the valence bands in the CIGS was observed in the TA spectra under near-band-gap resonant excitation. From a comparison of the TA decay dynamics monitored at these two peaks, it was found that the slow-decay components of the electron and hole relaxation are on the nanosecond timescale. This finding is clear evidence of the long lifetimes of free photocarriers in polycrystalline CIGS thin films.

  2. Drift effect and "negative" mass transport in an inhomogeneous medium: limiting case of a two-component lattice gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanets, Sergei P; Kliushnychenko, Oleksandr V

    2010-11-01

    The mass transport in an inhomogeneous medium is modeled as the limiting case of a two-component lattice gas with excluded volume constraint and one of the components fixed. In the long-wavelength approximation, the density relaxation of mobile particles is governed by diffusion and interaction with a medium inhomogeneity represented by the static component distribution. It is shown that the density relaxation can be locally accompanied by density distribution compression, i.e., the local mass transport directed from low-to high-density regions. The origin of such a "negative" mass transport is shown to be associated with the presence of a stationary drift flow defined by the medium inhomogeneity. In the quasi-one-dimensional case, the compression dynamics manifests itself in the hoppinglike motion of packet front position of diffusing substance due to staged passing through inhomogeneity barriers, and it leads to fragmentation of the packet and retardation of its spreading. The root-mean-square displacement reflects only the averaged packet front dynamics and becomes inappropriate as the transport characteristic in this regime. In the stationary case, the mass transport throughout the whole system may be directed from the boundary with lower concentration towards the boundary with higher concentration. Implications of the excluded volume constraint and particle distinguishability for these effects are discussed.

  3. Thermal quantum discord of spins in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinliang; Mi Yingjuan; Zhang Jian; Song Heshan

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with the thermal entanglement, we study the quantum discord and classical correlation in a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ model with an inhomogeneous magnetic field. It is shown that the effects of the external magnetic fields, including the uniform and inhomogeneous magnetic fields, on the thermal entanglement, quantum discord and classical correlation behave differently in various aspects, which depend on system temperature and model type. We can tune the inhomogeneous magnetic field to enhance the entanglement or classical correlation and meanwhile decrease the quantum discord. In addition, taking into account the inhomogeneous magnetic field, the sudden change in the behaviour of quantum discord still survives, which can detect the critical points of quantum phase transitions at finite temperature, but not for a uniform magnetic field.

  4. Cyclotron spectra from inhomogeneous accretion columns. II. Polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.; Chanmugam, G.

    1989-01-01

    Circularly and linearly polarized radiation from inhomogeneous cyclotron emission regions with uniform magnetic field and temperature but different electron density profiles are studied. Calculations show that the inhomogeneous models generally produce larger polarization for low harmonics and smaller polarization for high harmonics compared to the homogeneous models. Polarization light curves for different inhomogeneous models with a wide variety of parameters are presented, providing handy theoretical results to compare with observations. The observed polarization light curves of ST LMi, EF Eri, and BL Hydri are fitted using an inhomogeneous model for the first time, and good fits are obtained, supporting the hypothesis that the cyclotron emission regions of AM Her systems have a complicated structure. 37 refs

  5. On the penetration of solar wind inhomogeneities into the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimov, V.P.; Senatorov, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were used as a basis to study the process of interaction between solar wind inhomogeneities and the Earth's magnetosphere. The given inhomogeneity represents a lump of plasma characterized by an increased concentration of particles (nsub(e) approximately 20-30 cm -3 ), a discrete form (characteristic dimensions of the lump are inferior to the magnetosphere diameter) and the velocity v approximately 350 km/s. It is shown that there is the possibility of penetration of solar wind inhomogeneities inside the Earth's magnetosphere because of the appearance in the inhomogeneity of an electric field of transverse polarization. The said process is a possible mechanism of the formation of the magnetopshere entrance layer

  6. Anomalous transient behavior from an inhomogeneous initial optical vortex density

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . However, the decay curves contain oscillatory features that are counterintuitive: for a short while, the inhomogeneity actually increases. The author provides numerical simulations and analytic calculations to study the appearance of the anomalous features...

  7. Large linear magnetoresistivity in strongly inhomogeneous planar and layered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgadaev, S.A.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2005-01-01

    Explicit expressions for magnetoresistance R of planar and layered strongly inhomogeneous two-phase systems are obtained, using exact dual transformation, connecting effective conductivities of in-plane isotropic two-phase systems with and without magnetic field. These expressions allow to describe the magnetoresistance of various inhomogeneous media at arbitrary concentrations x and magnetic fields H. All expressions show large linear magnetoresistance effect with different dependencies on the phase concentrations. The corresponding plots of the x- and H-dependencies of R(x,H) are represented for various values, respectively, of magnetic field and concentrations at some values of inhomogeneity parameter. The obtained results show a remarkable similarity with the existing experimental data on linear magnetoresistance in silver chalcogenides Ag 2+δ Se. A possible physical explanation of this similarity is proposed. It is shown that the random, stripe type, structures of inhomogeneities are the most suitable for a fabrication of magnetic sensors and a storage of information at room temperatures

  8. Investigation of local optical inhomogeneities in flashlamp photolysis lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, B V; Borovkov, V V; Lazhintsev, B V; Nor-Arenian, V A; Sukhanov, L V; Ustinenko, V A

    1979-09-01

    Local changes in the refractive index which occur in the active medium under flashlamp-excited photolysis laser action are examined experimentally. Under conditions of the inverse population storage and suppression of the laser action by a strong quencher, local inhomogeneities have been absent. It is shown that the stimulated emission is inhomogeneous over the active medium and features regular character with the radiation density modulation within 20-30 percent and with typical size of inhomogeneities of not greater than 0.5 mm. On the basis of experimental results and estimation, a conclusion is drawn that the local optical inhomogeneities are caused by gasdynamic displacements of the gas due to different heat evolutions in the regions of the radiation density maximum and minimum.

  9. Controllable Interfacial Coupling Effects on the Magnetic Dynamic Properties of Perpendicular [Co/Ni]5/Cu/TbCo Composite Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minghong; Zhao, Bingcheng; Zhu, Weihua; Zhu, Zhendong; Jin, Q Y; Zhang, Zongzhi

    2018-02-07

    Dynamic magnetic properties in perpendicularly exchange-coupled [Co/Ni] 5 /Cu (t Cu = 0-2 nm)/TbCo structures show strong dependences on the interfacial antiferromagnetic strength J ex , which is controlled by the Cu interlayer thickness. The precession frequency f and effective damping constant α eff of a [Co/Ni] 5 multilayer differ distinctly for parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) magnetization orientation states. For samples with a thin t Cu , f of the AP state is apparently higher, whereas α eff is lower than that in the P state, owing to the unidirectional exchange bias effect (H EB ) from the TbCo layer. The differences in f and α eff between the two states gradually decrease with increasing t Cu . By using a uniform precession model including an additional H EB term, the field-dependent frequency curves can be well-fitted, and the fitted H EB value is in good agreement with the experimental data. Moreover, the saturation damping constant α 0 displays a nearly linear correlation with J ex . It decreases significantly with J ex and eventually approaches a constant value of 0.027 at t Cu = 2 nm where J ex vanishes. These results provide a better understanding and effective control of magnetization dynamics in exchange-coupled composite structures for spintronic applications.

  10. Detection of Buried Inhomogeneous Elliptic Cylinders by a Memetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Caorsi, Salvatore; Massa, Andrea; Pastorino, Matteo; Raffetto, Mirco; Randazzo, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    The application of a global optimization procedure to the detection of buried inhomogeneities is studied in the present paper. The object inhomogeneities are schematized as multilayer infinite dielectric cylinders with elliptic cross sections. An efficient recursive analytical procedure is used for the forward scattering computation. A functional is constructed in which the field is expressed in series solution of Mathieu functions. Starting by the input scattered data, the iterative minimiza...

  11. Random field assessment of nanoscopic inhomogeneity of bone

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, X. Neil; Luo, Qing; Sparkman, Daniel M.; Millwater, Harry R.; Wang, Xiaodu

    2010-01-01

    Bone quality is significantly correlated with the inhomogeneous distribution of material and ultrastructural properties (e.g., modulus and mineralization) of the tissue. Current techniques for quantifying inhomogeneity consist of descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. However, these parameters do not describe the spatial variations of bone properties. The objective of this study was to develop a novel statistical method to characterize and quanti...

  12. Nonlinear interaction of waves in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istomin, Ya.N.

    1988-01-01

    Nonlinear wave processes in a weakly inhomogeneous plasma are considered. A quasilinear equation is derived which takes into account the effect of the waves on resonance particles, provided that the inhomogeneity appreciably affects the nature of the resonance interaction. Three-wave interaction is investigated under the same conditions. As an example, the nonlinear interaction in a relativistic plasma moving along a strong curvilinear magnetic field is considered

  13. Radio frequency conductivity of plasma in inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae; Nishikawa, Kyoji; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Itoh, Kimitaka.

    1985-01-01

    Nonlocal conductivity tensor is obtained to study the kinetic effects on propagation and absorption of radio frequency (rf) waves in dispersive plasmas. Generalized linear propagator in the presence of the inhomogeneity of magnetic field strength along the field line is calculated. The influence of the inhomogeneity to the rf wave-energy deposition is found to be appreciable. Application to toroidal plasmas is shown. (author)

  14. Polymers undergoing inhomogeneous adsorption: exact results and Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliev, G K [Department of Mathematics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Orlandini, E [Dipartimento di Fisica, CNISM, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Whittington, S G, E-mail: giliev@yorku.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2011-10-07

    We consider several types of inhomogeneous polymer adsorption. In each case, the inhomogeneity is regular and resides in the surface, in the polymer or in both. We consider two different polymer models: a directed walk model that can be solved exactly and a self-avoiding walk model which we investigate using Monte Carlo methods. In each case, we compute the phase diagram. We compare and contrast the phase diagrams and give qualitative arguments about their forms. (paper)

  15. Solitons of an envelope in an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churilov, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Solutions of the Schroedinger nonlinear equation (SNE) used for the description of evolution of a wave packet envelope has been investigated in inhomogeneous and nonstationary media. It is shown that the SNE solution possessing two important properties exists. Firstly, the wave packet remains localized when propagating in an inhomogeneous medium. Secondly, the soliton width and amplitude are determined only with local characteristics of medium and don't depend on the prehistory. Problem of limits of obtained result applicability has been considered

  16. Off-center observers versus supernovae in inhomogeneous pressure universes

    OpenAIRE

    Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P.; Denkiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Exact luminosity distance and apparent magnitude formulas are applied to Union2 557 supernovae sample in order to constrain possible position of an observer outside of the center of symmetry in spherically symmetric inhomogeneous pressure Stephani universes which are complementary to inhomogeneous density Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) void models. Two specific models are investigated. The first which allows a barotropic equation of state at the center of symmetry with no scale factor function...

  17. Love waves in a structure with an inhomogeneous layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazaryan, K.B.; Piliposyan, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of the propagation of Love type waves in a structure consisting of a finite inhomogeneous layer sandwiched between two isotropic homogeneous half spaces is investigated. Two types of inhomogeneity are considered. It is shown that in one case the amplitude of vibrations in the middle layer is a sinusoidal function of distance from the plane of symmetry, but that in the other case it may be non-sinusoidal for certain values of the parameters of the problem

  18. Minimum weight design of inhomogeneous rotating discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahed, Hamid; Farshi, Behrooz; Bidabadi, Jalal

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous applications for gas turbine discs in the aerospace industry such as in turbojet engines. These discs normally work under high temperatures while subjected to high angular velocities. Minimizing the weight of such items in aerospace applications results in benefits such as low dead weights and lower costs. High speed of rotation causes large centrifugal forces in a disc and simultaneous application of high temperatures reduces disc material strength. Thus, the latter effects tend to increase deformations of the disc under the applied loads. In order to obtain a reliable disc analysis and arrive at the corresponding correct stress distribution, solutions should consider changes in material properties due to the temperature field throughout the disc. To achieve this goal, an inhomogeneous disc model with variable thickness is considered. Using the variable material properties method, stresses are obtained for the disc under rotation and a steady temperature field. In this paper this is done by modelling the rotating disc as a series of rings of different but constant properties. The optimum disc profile is arrived at by sequentially proportioning the thicknesses of each ring to satisfy the stress requirements. This method vis-a-vis a mathematical programming procedure for optimization shows several advantages. Firstly, it is simple iterative proportioning in each design cycle not requiring involved mathematical operations. Secondly, due to its simplicity it alleviates the necessity of certain simplifications that are common in so-called rigorous mathematical procedures. The results obtained, compared to those published in the literature show agreement and superiority. A further advantage of the proposed method is the independence of the end results from the initially assumed point in the iterative design routine, unlike most methods published so far

  19. Magnon localization and Bloch oscillations in finite Heisenberg spin chains in an inhomogeneous magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosevich, Yuriy A; Gann, Vladimir V

    2013-06-19

    We study the localization of magnon states in finite defect-free Heisenberg spin-1/2 ferromagnetic chains placed in an inhomogeneous magnetic field with a constant spatial gradient. Continuous transformation from the extended magnon states to the localized Wannier-Zeeman states in a finite spin chain placed in an inhomogeneous field is described both analytically and numerically. We describe for the first time the non-monotonic dependence of the energy levels of magnons, both long and short wavelength, on the magnetic field gradient, which is a consequence of magnon localization in a finite spin chain. We show that, in contrast to the destruction of the magnon band and the establishment of the Wannier-Stark ladder in a vanishingly small field gradient in an infinite chain, the localization of magnon states at the chain ends preserves the memory of the magnon band. Essentially, the localization at the lower- or higher-field chain end resembles the localization of the positive- or negative-effective-mass band quasiparticles. We also show how the beat dynamics of coherent superposition of extended spin waves in a finite chain in a homogeneous or weakly inhomogeneous field transforms into magnon Bloch oscillations of the superposition of localized Wannier-Zeeman states in a strongly inhomogeneous field. We provide a semiclassical description of the magnon Bloch oscillations and show that the correspondence between the quantum and semiclassical descriptions is most accurate for Bloch oscillations of the magnon coherent states, which are built from a coherent superposition of a large number of the nearest-neighbour Wannier-Zeeman states.

  20. Magnon localization and Bloch oscillations in finite Heisenberg spin chains in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosevich, Yuriy A; Gann, Vladimir V

    2013-01-01

    We study the localization of magnon states in finite defect-free Heisenberg spin-1/2 ferromagnetic chains placed in an inhomogeneous magnetic field with a constant spatial gradient. Continuous transformation from the extended magnon states to the localized Wannier–Zeeman states in a finite spin chain placed in an inhomogeneous field is described both analytically and numerically. We describe for the first time the non-monotonic dependence of the energy levels of magnons, both long and short wavelength, on the magnetic field gradient, which is a consequence of magnon localization in a finite spin chain. We show that, in contrast to the destruction of the magnon band and the establishment of the Wannier–Stark ladder in a vanishingly small field gradient in an infinite chain, the localization of magnon states at the chain ends preserves the memory of the magnon band. Essentially, the localization at the lower- or higher-field chain end resembles the localization of the positive- or negative-effective-mass band quasiparticles. We also show how the beat dynamics of coherent superposition of extended spin waves in a finite chain in a homogeneous or weakly inhomogeneous field transforms into magnon Bloch oscillations of the superposition of localized Wannier–Zeeman states in a strongly inhomogeneous field. We provide a semiclassical description of the magnon Bloch oscillations and show that the correspondence between the quantum and semiclassical descriptions is most accurate for Bloch oscillations of the magnon coherent states, which are built from a coherent superposition of a large number of the nearest-neighbour Wannier–Zeeman states. (paper)

  1. Thin yttrium iron garnet films grown by pulsed laser deposition: Crystal structure, static, and dynamic magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, N. S., E-mail: nsokolov@fl.ioffe.ru; Fedorov, V. V.; Korovin, A. M.; Suturin, S. M.; Baranov, D. A.; Gastev, S. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Bursian, V. E.; Lutsev, L. V. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Maksimova, K. Yu.; Grunin, A. I. [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Tabuchi, M. [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2016-01-14

    Pulsed laser deposition has been used to grow thin (10–84 nm) epitaxial layers of Yttrium Iron Garnet Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YIG) on (111)–oriented Gadolinium Gallium Garnet substrates at different growth conditions. Atomic force microscopy showed flat surface morphology both on micrometer and nanometer scales. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the films are coherent with the substrate in the interface plane. The interplane distance in the [111] direction was found to be by 1.2% larger than expected for YIG stoichiometric pseudomorphic film indicating presence of rhombohedral distortion in this direction. Polar Kerr effect and ferromagnetic resonance measurements showed existence of additional magnetic anisotropy, which adds to the demagnetizing field to keep magnetization vector in the film plane. The origin of the magnetic anisotropy is related to the strain in YIG films observed by XRD. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements revealed important role of magnetization rotation during magnetization reversal. An unusual fine structure of microwave magnetic resonance spectra has been observed in the film grown at reduced (0.5 mTorr) oxygen pressure. Surface spin wave propagation has been demonstrated in the in-plane magnetized films.

  2. Thin yttrium iron garnet films grown by pulsed laser deposition: Crystal structure, static, and dynamic magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, N. S.; Fedorov, V. V.; Korovin, A. M.; Suturin, S. M.; Baranov, D. A.; Gastev, S. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Bursian, V. E.; Lutsev, L. V.; Maksimova, K. Yu.; Grunin, A. I.; Tabuchi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition has been used to grow thin (10–84 nm) epitaxial layers of Yttrium Iron Garnet Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 (YIG) on (111)–oriented Gadolinium Gallium Garnet substrates at different growth conditions. Atomic force microscopy showed flat surface morphology both on micrometer and nanometer scales. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the films are coherent with the substrate in the interface plane. The interplane distance in the [111] direction was found to be by 1.2% larger than expected for YIG stoichiometric pseudomorphic film indicating presence of rhombohedral distortion in this direction. Polar Kerr effect and ferromagnetic resonance measurements showed existence of additional magnetic anisotropy, which adds to the demagnetizing field to keep magnetization vector in the film plane. The origin of the magnetic anisotropy is related to the strain in YIG films observed by XRD. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements revealed important role of magnetization rotation during magnetization reversal. An unusual fine structure of microwave magnetic resonance spectra has been observed in the film grown at reduced (0.5 mTorr) oxygen pressure. Surface spin wave propagation has been demonstrated in the in-plane magnetized films

  3. Inhomogeneous initial data and small-field inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, M. C. David; Barrow, John D.; Ganguly, Chandrima

    2018-05-01

    We consider the robustness of small-field inflation in the presence of scalar field inhomogeneities. Previous numerical work has shown that if the scalar potential is flat only over a narrow interval, such as in commonly considered inflection-point models, even small-amplitude inhomogeneities present at the would-be onset of inflation at τ = τi can disrupt the accelerated expansion. In this paper, we parametrise and evolve the inhomogeneities from an earlier time τIC at which the initial data were imprinted, and show that for a broad range of inflationary and pre-inflationary models, inflection-point inflation withstands initial inhomogeneities. We consider three classes of perturbative pre-inflationary solutions (corresponding to energetic domination by the scalar field kinetic term, a relativistic fluid, and isotropic negative curvature), and two classes of exact solutions to Einstein's equations with large inhomogeneities (corresponding to a stiff fluid with cylindrical symmetry, and anisotropic negative curvature). We derive a stability condition that depends on the Hubble scales H(τi) and H(τIC), and a few properties of the pre-inflationary cosmology. For initial data imprinted at the Planck scale, the absence of an inhomogeneous initial data problem for inflection-point inflation leads to a novel, lower limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio.

  4. Pulsed laser ablation of wire-shaped target in a thin water jet: effects of plasma features and bubble dynamics on the PLAL process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell’Aglio, Marcella; De Giacomo, Alessandro; Kohsakowski, Sebastian; Barcikowski, Stephan; Wagener, Philipp; Santagata, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, emission spectroscopy and fast imaging surveys during pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) for nanoparticles (NPs) production have been used, in order to provide further details about the process involved and the potentialities offered by a wire-shaped sample ablated in a flowing water jet. This kind of set-up has been explored because the laser ablation efficiency in water increases when a thin water layer and a wire-shaped target are used. In order to understand the physical processes causing the increasing ablation efficiency, both the laser-induced plasma and bubble dynamics generated in a flowing liquid jet have been analysed. The plasma parameters and the bubble behaviour in such a system have been compared with those observed in conventional PLAL experiments, where either a bulk or a wire-shaped target is immersed in bulk water. From the data presented here it is evidenced that the plasma and shockwave induced during the breakdown process can play a direct role in the ablation efficiency variation observed. With regard to the cavitation bubbles evolving near a free surface (the interface between water and air) it should be noted that these have to be treated with caution as a consequence of the strong influence played in these circumstances by the boundary of the water jet during its expansion dynamics. The effects due to the size of the liquid layer, the presence of the water/air interface, the liquid characteristics, the target shape, the plasma evolution and the bubble dynamics together with their outcomes on the NPs’ production, are presented and discussed. (paper)

  5. Cylindrical thin-shell wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    A general formalism for the dynamics of nonrotating cylindrical thin-shell wormholes is developed. The time evolution of the throat is explicitly obtained for thin-shell wormholes whose metric has the form associated with local cosmic strings. It is found that the throat collapses to zero radius, remains static, or expands forever, depending only on the sign of its initial velocity

  6. The dynamic behavior of thin-film ionic transition metal complex-based light-emitting electrochemical cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Sebastian B., E-mail: sebastian.meier@belectric.com, E-mail: wiebke.sarfert@siemens.com [Department of Materials Science VI: Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT RTC MAT IEC-DE, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Hartmann, David; Sarfert, Wiebke, E-mail: sebastian.meier@belectric.com, E-mail: wiebke.sarfert@siemens.com [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT RTC MAT IEC-DE, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Winnacker, Albrecht [Department of Materials Science VI: Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-09-14

    Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) have received increasing attention during recent years due to their simple architecture, based on solely air-stabile materials, and ease of manufacture in ambient atmosphere, using solution-based technologies. The LEC's active layer offers semiconducting, luminescent as well as ionic functionality resulting in device physical processes fundamentally different as compared with organic light-emitting diodes. During operation, electrical double layers (EDLs) form at the electrode interfaces as a consequence of ion accumulation and electrochemical doping sets in leading to the in situ development of a light-emitting p-i-n junction. In this paper, we comment on the use of impedance spectroscopy in combination with complex nonlinear squares fitting to derive key information about the latter events in thin-film ionic transition metal complex-based light-emitting electrochemical cells based on the model compound bis-2-phenylpyridine 6-phenyl-2,2´-bipyridine iridium(III) hexafluoridophosphate ([Ir(ppy)₂(pbpy)][PF₆]). At operating voltages below the bandgap potential of the ionic complex used, we obtain the dielectric constant of the active layer, the conductivity of mobile ions, the transference numbers of electrons and ions, and the thickness of the EDLs, whereas the transient thickness of the p-i-n junction is determined at voltages above the bandgap potential. Most importantly, we find that charge transport is dominated by the ions when carrier injection from the electrodes is prohibited, that ion movement is limited by the presence of transverse internal interfaces and that the width of the intrinsic region constitutes almost 60% of the total active layer thickness in steady state at a low operating voltage.

  7. Implementing optimal thinning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; J. Douglas Brodie

    1984-01-01

    Optimal thinning regimes for achieving several management objectives were derived from two stand-growth simulators by dynamic programming. Residual mean tree volumes were then plotted against stand density management diagrams. The results supported the use of density management diagrams for comparing, checking, and implementing the results of optimization analyses....

  8. Frame independence of the inhomogeneous mixmaster chaos via Misner-Chitre-like variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benini, Riccardo; Montani, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    We outline the covariant nature, with respect to the choice of a reference frame, of the chaos characterizing the generic cosmological solution near the initial singularity, i.e., the so-called inhomogeneous mixmaster model. Our analysis is based on a gauge independent Arnowitt-Deser-Misner reduction of the dynamics to the physical degrees of freedom. The resulting picture shows how the inhomogeneous mixmaster model is isomorphic point by point in space to a billiard on a Lobachevsky plane. Indeed, the existence of an asymptotic (energylike) constant of the motion allows one to construct the Jacobi metric associated with the geodesic flow and to calculate a nonzero Lyapunov exponent in each space point. The chaos covariance emerges from the independence of our scheme with respect to the form of the lapse function and the shift vector; the origin of this result relies on the dynamical decoupling of the space points which takes place near the singularity, due to the asymptotic approach of the potential term to infinite walls. At the ground of the obtained dynamical scheme is the choice of Misner-Chitre-like variables which allows one to fix the billiard potential walls

  9. SECTIONING METHOD APPLICATION AT ELLIPSOMETRY OF INHOMOGENEOUS REFLECTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gorlyak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with investigation of application peculiarities of ellipsometry methods and UF spectrophotometry at mechanical and chemical processing of optical engineering surface elements made of quartz glass. Ellipsometer LEF–3M–1, spectrophotometer SF–26 and interferometer MII–4 are used as experiment tools; they obtain widely known technical characteristics. Polarization characteristics of reflected light beam were measured by ellipsometry method; spectrophotometry method was used for measuring radiation transmission factor in UF spectrum area; by interference method surface layer thickness at quartz glass etching was measured. A method for HF–sectioning of inhomogeneous surface layer of polished quartz glass is developed based on ellipsometry equation for reflection system «inhomogeneous layer – inhomogeneous padding». The method makes it possible to carry out the measuring and analysis of optical characteristics for inhomogeneous layers system on inhomogeneous padding and to reconstruct optical profile of surface layers at quartz glass chemical processing. For definition of refractive index change along the layer depth, approximation of experimental values for polarization characteristics of homogeneous layers system is used. Inhomogeneous surface layer of polished quartz glass consists of an area (with thickness up to 20 nm and layer refractive index less than refractive index for quartz glass and an area (with thickness up to 0,1 μm and layer refractive index larger than refractive index for quartz glass. Ellipsometry and photometry methods are used for definition of technological conditions and optical characteristics of inhomogeneous layers at quartz glass chemical processing for optical elements with minimum radiation losses in UF spectrum area.

  10. ISM stripping from cluster galaxies and inhomogeneities in cooling flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Noam; Bregman, Joel N.; Sarazin, Craig L.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of the x ray surface brightness profiles of cluster cooling flows suggest that the mass flow rate decreases towards the center of the cluster. It is often suggested that this decrease results from thermal instabilities, in which denser blobs of gas cool rapidly and drop below x ray emitting temperatures. If the seeds for the thermal instabilities are entropy perturbations, these perturbations must enter the flow already in the nonlinear regime. Otherwise, the blobs would take too long to cool. Here, researchers suggest that such nonlinear perturbations might start as blobs of interstellar gas which are stripped out of cluster galaxies. Assuming that most of the gas produced by stellar mass loss in cluster galaxies is stripped from the galaxies, the total rate of such stripping is roughly M sub Interstellar Matter (ISM) approx. 100 solar mass yr(-1). It is interesting that the typical rates of cooling in cluster cooling flows are M sub cool approx. 100 solar mass yr(-1). Thus, it is possible that a substantial portion of the cooling gas originates as blobs of interstellar gas stripped from galaxies. The magnetic fields within and outside of the low entropy perturbations can help to maintain their identities, both by suppressing thermal conduction and through the dynamical effects of magnetic tension. One significant question concerning this scenario is: Why are cooling flows seen only in a fraction of clusters, although one would expect gas stripping to be very common. It may be that the density perturbations only survive and cool efficiently in clusters with a very high intracluster gas density and with the focusing effect of a central dominant galaxy. Inhomogeneities in the intracluster medium caused by the stripping of interstellar gas from galaxies can have a number of other effects on clusters. For example, these density fluctuations may disrupt the propagation of radio jets through the intracluster gas, and this may be one mechanism for producing Wide

  11. The inhomogeneous perfusion of the solitary pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shenjiang; Xiao Xiangsheng; Liu Shiyuan; Li Chengzhou; Zhang Chenshi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether the perfusion of the solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) is homogeneous derived with 16-slice spiral CT and 64-slice spiral CT. Methods: Eight-five patients with. SPNs (diameter≤4 cm; 57 maliagnant; 15 active inflammatory; 13 benign) underwent multi- location dynamic contrast material-enhanced serial CT. One scan was obtained every 1 seconds during 11-- 41 seconds without scanning interval after injection, one scan was obtained at 90 seconds. TOSHIBA AquilionMarconi 16: The section thickness was 8.0 mm for lesions 3.0-4.0 cm, 6.0 mm for 2.0- 3.0 cm, 4.0 mm for 1.5-2.0 cm, 3.0 mm for 1.0-1.5 cm and 2.0 mm for lesions -1 ·100 g -1 , the ratios of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (13.58±6.41)%, (10.95±5.76)%, (13.64± 6.20)% and the mean transit times (11.61±5.74), (11.97±3.55), (13.44±3.74) s. Statistically significant differences were found among three sections in the peak height (F=5.913, P=0.003), perfusion (F=6.464,P=0.002), ratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta(F=5.333,P=0.005) and mean transit time (F=3.837, P=0.023). No statistically significant differences were found among three sections in precontrast attenuation (F=0.032, P=0.968). Conclusion: The volume perfusion of the SPNs is inhomogeneous, it is suggested to evaluate blood flow patterns of the solitary pulmonary nodules with CT volume perfusion imaging. (authors)

  12. Drift wave coherent vortex structures in inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, X.N.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear drift wave vortex structures in magnetized plasmas are studied theoretically and numerically in the various physical environments. The effects of density and temperature gradients on drift wave vortex dynamics are analyzed using a fully nonlinear model with the Boltzmann density distribution. The equation, based on the full Boltzmann relation, possess no localized monopole solution in the short wavelength (∼ρ s ) region, while in the longer wavelength (∼(ρ s (r) n ) 1/2 ) region the density profile governs the existence of monopole-like solutions. In the longer wavelength regime, however, the monopoles cannot be localized sufficiently to avoid coupling to propagating drift waves due to the inhomogeneity of the plasma. Thus, the monopole vortex is a long lived coherent structure, but it is not precisely a stationary structure since the coupling results in a open-quote flapping close-quote tail. The tail causes energy of the vortex to leak out, but the effect of the temperature gradient is to reduce the leaking of this energy. Nonlinear coherent structures governing by the coupled drift wave-ion acoustic mode equations in sheared magnetic field are studied analytically and numerically. A solitary vortex equation that includes the effects of density and temperature gradients and magnetic shear is derived and analyzed. The results show that for a plasma in a sheared magnetic field, there exist the solitary vortex solutions. The new vortex structures are dipole-like in their symmetry, but not the modon type of dipoles. The numerical simulations are performed in 2-D with the coupled vorticity and parallel mass flow equations. The vortex structures in an unstable drift wave system driven by parallel shear flow are studied. The nonlinear solitary vortex solutions are given and the formation of the vortices from a turbulent state is observed from the numerical simulations

  13. Si-H bond dynamics in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, R. Jason; McGrane, Shawn D.

    2007-08-01

    The ultrafast structural dynamics of the Si-H bond in the rigid solvent environment of an amorphous silicon thin film is investigated using two-dimensional infrared four-wave mixing techniques. The two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) vibrational correlation spectrum resolves the homogeneous line shapes ( 4ps waiting times. The Si-H stretching mode anharmonic shift is determined to be 84cm-1 and decreases slightly with vibrational frequency. The 1→2 linewidth increases with vibrational frequency. Frequency dependent vibrational population times measured by transient grating spectroscopy are also reported. The narrow homogeneous line shape, large inhomogeneous broadening, and lack of spectral diffusion reported here present the ideal backdrop for using a 2DIR probe following electronic pumping to measure the transient structural dynamics implicated in the Staebler-Wronski degradation [Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 292 (1977)] in a-Si:H based solar cells.

  14. Surface transport properties of Fe-based superconductors: The influence of degradation and inhomogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecenik, T.; Gregor, M.; Sobota, R.; Truchly, M.; Satrapinskyy, L.; Kus, P.; Plecenik, A. [Department of Experimental Physics, FMPI, Comenius University, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kurth, F.; Holzapfel, B.; Iida, K. [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, P. O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-07-29

    Surface properties of Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} epitaxial superconducting thin films were inspected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM), and point contact spectroscopy (PCS). It has been shown that surface of Fe-based superconductors degrades rapidly if being exposed to air, what results in suppression of gap-like structure on PCS spectra. Moreover, SSRM measurements revealed inhomogeneous surface conductivity, what is consistent with strong dependence of PCS spectra on contact position. Presented results suggest that fresh surface and small probing area should be assured for surface sensitive measurements like PCS to obtain intrinsic properties of Fe-based superconductors.

  15. Transient growth of a Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Ratushnaya, Valeria

    2016-12-17

    We investigate the stability properties of a collisionless Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field using non-modal stability analysis. This is an important topic in a physics of tokamak plasma rich in various types of instabilities. We consider a thin tokamak plasma in a Maxwellian equilibrium, subjected to a small arbitrary perturbation. Within the framework of kinetic theory, we demonstrate the emergence of short time scale algebraic instabilities evolving in a stable magnetized plasma. We show that the linearized governing operator (Vlasov operator) is non-normal leading to the transient growth of the perturbations on the time scale of several plasma periods that is subsequently followed by Landau damping. We calculate the first-order distribution function and the electric field and study the dependence of the transient growth characteristics on the magnetic field strength and perturbation parameters of the system. We compare our results with uniformly magnetized plasma and field-free Vlasov plasma.

  16. Transient growth of a Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Ratushnaya, Valeria; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the stability properties of a collisionless Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field using non-modal stability analysis. This is an important topic in a physics of tokamak plasma rich in various types of instabilities. We consider a thin tokamak plasma in a Maxwellian equilibrium, subjected to a small arbitrary perturbation. Within the framework of kinetic theory, we demonstrate the emergence of short time scale algebraic instabilities evolving in a stable magnetized plasma. We show that the linearized governing operator (Vlasov operator) is non-normal leading to the transient growth of the perturbations on the time scale of several plasma periods that is subsequently followed by Landau damping. We calculate the first-order distribution function and the electric field and study the dependence of the transient growth characteristics on the magnetic field strength and perturbation parameters of the system. We compare our results with uniformly magnetized plasma and field-free Vlasov plasma.

  17. Effects of bias voltage on the corrosion resistance of titanium nitride thin films fabricated by dynamic plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiubo; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic plasma-based thin-film deposition incorporating ion mixing and plasma immersion is an effective technique to synthesize nitride-based hard films. We have fabricated TiN films using a filtered titanium vacuum arc in a nitrogen plasma environment. A pulsed high voltage is applied to the target for a short time when the metallic arc is fired to attain simultaneous plasma deposition and ion mixing. We investigate the dependence of the corrosion resistance and interfacial structure of the treated samples on the applied voltage. Our Auger results reveal an oxygen-rich surface film due to the non-ultra-high-vacuum conditions and high affinity of oxygen to titanium. The corrosion current is reduced by two orders of magnitude comparing the sample processed at 8 kV to the untreated sample, but the 23 kV sample unexpectedly shows worse results. The pitting potential diminishes substantially although the corrosion current is similar to that observed in the 8 kV sample. The polarization test data are consistent with our scanning electron microscopy observation, corroborating the difference in the pitting distribution and appearance. This anomalous behavior is believed to be due to the change in the chemical composition as a result of high-energy ion bombardment

  18. Automated method for relating regional pulmonary structure and function: integration of dynamic multislice CT and thin-slice high-resolution CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Jehangir K.; Kugelmass, Steven D.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1993-07-01

    We have developed a method utilizing x-ray CT for relating pulmonary perfusion to global and regional anatomy, allowing for detailed study of structure to function relationships. A thick slice, high temporal resolution mode is used to follow a bolus contrast agent for blood flow evaluation and is fused with a high spatial resolution, thin slice mode to obtain structure- function detail. To aid analysis of blood flow, we have developed a software module, for our image analysis package (VIDA), to produce the combined structure-function image. Color coded images representing blood flow, mean transit time, regional tissue content, regional blood volume, regional air content, etc. are generated and imbedded in the high resolution volume image. A text file containing these values along with a voxel's 3-D coordinates is also generated. User input can be minimized to identifying the location of the pulmonary artery from which the input function to a blood flow model is derived. Any flow model utilizing one input and one output function can be easily added to a user selectable list. We present examples from our physiologic based research findings to demonstrate the strengths of combining dynamic CT and HRCT relative to other scanning modalities to uniquely characterize pulmonary normal and pathophysiology.

  19. Highly sensitive on-site detection of drugs adulterated in botanical dietary supplements using thin layer chromatography combined with dynamic surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Qi, Yunpeng; Lu, Feng; Yang, Liangbao

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of botanical dietary supplements (BDS) doped with illegal adulterants has become a serious problem all over the world, which could cause great threat to human's health. Therefore, it is of great value to identify BDS. Herein, we put forward a highly sensitive method for on-site detection of antitussive and antiasthmatic drugs adulterated in BDS using thin layer chromatography (TLC) combined with dynamic surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (DSERS). Adulterants in BDS were separated on a TLC plate and located under UV illumination. Then DSERS detection was performed using a portable Raman spectrometer with 50% glycerol silver colloid serving as DSERS active substrate. Here, the effects of different solvents on detection efficacy were evaluated using phenformin hydrochloride (PHE) as a probe. It was shown that 50% glycerol resulted in higher SERS enhancement and relatively higher stability. Moreover, practical application of this novel TLC-DSERS method was demonstrated with rapid analysis of real BDS samples and one sample adulterated with benproperine phosphate (BEN) was found. Furthermore, the obtained result was verified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS). The sensitivity of the TLC-DSERS technique is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of TLC-SERS technique. The results turned out that this combined method would have good prospects for on-site and sensitive detection of adulterated BDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Two-point paraxial traveltime formula for inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic media: Tests of accuracy

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin; Psencik, Ivan; Cerveny, Vlastislav; Iversen, Einar; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    On several simple models of isotropic and anisotropic media, we have studied the accuracy of the two-point paraxial traveltime formula designed for the approximate calculation of the traveltime between points S' and R' located in the vicinity of points S and R on a reference ray. The reference ray may be situated in a 3D inhomogeneous isotropic or anisotropic medium with or without smooth curved interfaces. The twopoint paraxial traveltime formula has the form of the Taylor expansion of the two-point traveltime with respect to spatial Cartesian coordinates up to quadratic terms at points S and R on the reference ray. The constant term and the coefficients of the linear and quadratic terms are determined from quantities obtained from ray tracing and linear dynamic ray tracing along the reference ray. The use of linear dynamic ray tracing allows the evaluation of the quadratic terms in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media and, as shown by examples, it extends the region of accurate results around the reference ray between S and R (and even outside this interval) obtained with the linear terms only. Although the formula may be used for very general 3D models, we concentrated on simple 2D models of smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic (~8% and ~20% anisotropy) media only. On tests, in which we estimated twopoint traveltimes between a shifted source and a system of shifted receivers, we found that the formula may yield more accurate results than the numerical solution of an eikonal-based differential equation. The tests also indicated that the accuracy of the formula depends primarily on the length and the curvature of the reference ray and only weakly depends on anisotropy. The greater is the curvature of the reference ray, the narrower its vicinity, in which the formula yields accurate results.

  1. Two-point paraxial traveltime formula for inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic media: Tests of accuracy

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2013-09-01

    On several simple models of isotropic and anisotropic media, we have studied the accuracy of the two-point paraxial traveltime formula designed for the approximate calculation of the traveltime between points S\\' and R\\' located in the vicinity of points S and R on a reference ray. The reference ray may be situated in a 3D inhomogeneous isotropic or anisotropic medium with or without smooth curved interfaces. The twopoint paraxial traveltime formula has the form of the Taylor expansion of the two-point traveltime with respect to spatial Cartesian coordinates up to quadratic terms at points S and R on the reference ray. The constant term and the coefficients of the linear and quadratic terms are determined from quantities obtained from ray tracing and linear dynamic ray tracing along the reference ray. The use of linear dynamic ray tracing allows the evaluation of the quadratic terms in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media and, as shown by examples, it extends the region of accurate results around the reference ray between S and R (and even outside this interval) obtained with the linear terms only. Although the formula may be used for very general 3D models, we concentrated on simple 2D models of smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic (~8% and ~20% anisotropy) media only. On tests, in which we estimated twopoint traveltimes between a shifted source and a system of shifted receivers, we found that the formula may yield more accurate results than the numerical solution of an eikonal-based differential equation. The tests also indicated that the accuracy of the formula depends primarily on the length and the curvature of the reference ray and only weakly depends on anisotropy. The greater is the curvature of the reference ray, the narrower its vicinity, in which the formula yields accurate results.

  2. Surface-screening mechanisms in ferroelectric thin films and their effect on polarization dynamics and domain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kim, Yunseok; Fong, Dillon D.; Morozovska, Anna N.

    2018-03-01

    For over 70 years, ferroelectric materials have been one of the central research topics for condensed matter physics and material science, an interest driven both by fundamental science and applications. However, ferroelectric surfaces, the key component of ferroelectric films and nanostructures, still present a significant theoretical and even conceptual challenge. Indeed, stability of ferroelectric phase per se necessitates screening of polarization charge. At surfaces, this can lead to coupling between ferroelectric and semiconducting properties of material, or with surface (electro) chemistry, going well beyond classical models applicable for ferroelectric interfaces. In this review, we summarize recent studies of surface-screening phenomena in ferroelectrics. We provide a brief overview of the historical understanding of the physics of ferroelectric surfaces, and existing theoretical models that both introduce screening mechanisms and explore the relationship between screening and relevant aspects of ferroelectric functionalities starting from phase stability itself. Given that the majority of ferroelectrics exist in multiple-domain states, we focus on local studies of screening phenomena using scanning probe microscopy techniques. We discuss recent studies of static and dynamic phenomena on ferroelectric surfaces, as well as phenomena observed under lateral transport, light, chemical, and pressure stimuli. We also note that the need for ionic screening renders polarization switching a coupled physical–electrochemical process and discuss the non-trivial phenomena such as chaotic behavior during domain switching that stem from this. ).

  3. Entanglements in P3HT and their influence on thin-film mechanical properties: Insights from molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh; Risko, Chad; Bruner, Christopher; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Due to their inherent mechanical flexibility and stretchability, organic-based electronic devices have garnered a great deal of academic and industrial interest. Here, molecular-dynamics simulations are used to examine the molecular-scale details that govern the relationships among molecular weight, chain entanglement, persistence length, and the elastic characteristics of the widely studied π-conjugated polymer poly-(3-hexyl thiophene), P3HT. Oligomers containing at least 50 monomer units are required in the simulations to observe elastic behavior in P3HT, while much longer chains are required to ensure description of appropriate levels of entanglement: only when the molecular weight is greater than 50 kDa, that is, oligomers with approximately 400 monomer units, is truly entangled behavior observed. Interestingly, results from primitive path analysis of amorphous P3HT matches well with the observed onsets of inter-chain excitonic coherence with increased molecular weight. The simulations also indicate that the P3HT modulus saturates at 1.6 GPa for chain lengths of 50–100 monomers, a result that compares well with experimental results. This work highlights the care that needs to be taken to accurately model P3HT morphologies in relation to experimental measurements. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2015

  4. Magnetization dynamics of weak stripe domains in Fe-N thin films: a multi-technique complementary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Ibrahima; Tacchi, Silvia; Garnier, Louis-Charles; Eddrief, Mahmoud; Fortuna, Franck; Carlotti, Giovanni; Marangolo, Massimiliano

    2017-09-26

    The resonant eigenmodes of a nitrogen-implanted iron α'-FeN characterized by weak stripe domains are investigated by Brillouin light scattering and broadband ferromagnetic resonance experiments, assisted by micromagnetic simulations. The spectrum of the dynamic eigenmodes in the presence of the weak stripes is very rich and two different families of modes can be selectively detected using different techniques or different experimental configurations. Attention is paid to the evolution of the mode frequencies and spatial profiles under the application of an external magnetic field, of variable intensity, in the direction parallel or transverse to the stripes. The different evolution of the modes with the external magnetic field is accompanied by a distinctive spatial localization in specific regions, such as the closure domains at the surface of the stripes and the bulk domains localized in the inner part of the stripes. The complementarity of BLS and FMR techniques, based on different selection rules, is found to be a fruitful tool for the study of the wealth of localized mag-netic excitations generally found in nanostructures. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Surface-screening mechanisms in ferroelectric thin films and their effect on polarization dynamics and domain structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kim, Yunseok; Fong, Dillon D.; Morozovska, Anna N.

    2018-01-25

    For over 70 years, ferroelectric materials have been one of the central research topics for condensed matter physics and material science, an interest driven both by fundamental science and applications. However, ferroelectric surfaces, the key component of ferroelectric films and nanostructures, still present a significant theoretical and even conceptual challenge. Indeed, stability of ferroelectric phase per se necessitates screening of polarization charge. At surfaces, this can lead to coupling between ferroelectric and semiconducting properties of material, or with surface (electro) chemistry, going well beyond classical models applicable for ferroelectric interfaces. In this review, we summarize recent studies of surface-screening phenomena in ferroelectrics. We provide a brief overview of the historical understanding of the physics of ferroelectric surfaces, and existing theoretical models that both introduce screening mechanisms and explore the relationship between screening and relevant aspects of ferroelectric functionalities starting from phase stability itself. Given that the majority of ferroelectrics exist in multiple-domain states, we focus on local studies of screening phenomena using scanning probe microscopy techniques. We discuss recent studies of static and dynamic phenomena on ferroelectric surfaces, as well as phenomena observed under lateral transport, light, chemical, and pressure stimuli. We also note that the need for ionic screening renders polarization switching a coupled physical-electrochemical process and discuss the non-trivial phenomena such as chaotic behavior during domain switching that stem from this.

  6. Entanglements in P3HT and their influence on thin-film mechanical properties: Insights from molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2015-04-01

    Due to their inherent mechanical flexibility and stretchability, organic-based electronic devices have garnered a great deal of academic and industrial interest. Here, molecular-dynamics simulations are used to examine the molecular-scale details that govern the relationships among molecular weight, chain entanglement, persistence length, and the elastic characteristics of the widely studied π-conjugated polymer poly-(3-hexyl thiophene), P3HT. Oligomers containing at least 50 monomer units are required in the simulations to observe elastic behavior in P3HT, while much longer chains are required to ensure description of appropriate levels of entanglement: only when the molecular weight is greater than 50 kDa, that is, oligomers with approximately 400 monomer units, is truly entangled behavior observed. Interestingly, results from primitive path analysis of amorphous P3HT matches well with the observed onsets of inter-chain excitonic coherence with increased molecular weight. The simulations also indicate that the P3HT modulus saturates at 1.6 GPa for chain lengths of 50–100 monomers, a result that compares well with experimental results. This work highlights the care that needs to be taken to accurately model P3HT morphologies in relation to experimental measurements. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2015

  7. Time-resolved imaging of flyer dynamics for femtosecond laser-induced backward transfer of solid polymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinaeugle, M., E-mail: m.feinaeugle@utwente.nl [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Gregorčič, P. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 6, 1000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Heath, D.J. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Mills, B., E-mail: bm602@orc.soton.ac.uk [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Eason, R.W. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Laser-induced backward transfer was investigated by time-resolved shadowgraphy. • Flyer velocity was a function of carrier, donor thickness, delay and fluence. • We investigated the fluence window for intact transfer and the role of the receiver. • Donor-crater profile variation was studied for different ejection regimes. • Conditions for intact and fragmented flyers were determined. - Abstract: We have studied the transfer regimes and dynamics of polymer flyers from laser-induced backward transfer (LIBT) via time-resolved shadowgraphy. Imaging of the flyer ejection phase of LIBT of 3.8 μm and 6.4 μm thick SU-8 polymer films on germanium and silicon carrier substrates was performed over a time delay range of 1.4–16.4 μs after arrival of the laser pulse. The experiments were carried out with 150 fs, 800 nm pulses spatially shaped using a digital micromirror device, and laser fluences of up to 3.5 J/cm{sup 2} while images were recorded via a CCD camera and a spark discharge lamp. Velocities of flyers found in the range of 6–20 m/s, and the intact and fragmented ejection regimes, were a function of donor thickness, carrier and laser fluence. The crater profile of the donor after transfer and the resulting flyer profile indicated different flyer ejection modes for Si carriers and high fluences. The results contribute to better understanding of the LIBT process, and help to determine experimental parameters for successful LIBT of intact deposits.

  8. A study of low-dimensional inhomogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arredondo Leon, Yesenia

    2009-01-01

    While the properties of homogeneous one-dimensional systems, even with disorder, are relatively well-understood, very little is known about the properties of strongly interacting inhomogeneous systems. Their high-energy physics is determined by the underlying chemistry which, in the atomic scale, introduces Coulomb correlations and local potentials. On the other hand, at large length scales, the physics has to be described by the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) model. In order to establish a connection between the low-energy TLL and the quasi-one-dimensional systems synthesized in the laboratory, we investigate the density-density correlation function in inhomogeneous one-dimensional systems in the asymptotic region. To investigate homogeneous as well as inhomogeneous systems, we use the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present results for ground state properties, such as the density-density correlation function and the parameter K c , which characterizes its decay at large distances. (orig.)

  9. Time-dependent inhomogeneous jet models for BL Lac objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, A. T.; Urry, C. M.; George, I. M.

    1992-05-01

    Relativistic beaming can explain many of the observed properties of BL Lac objects (e.g., rapid variability, high polarization, etc.). In particular, the broadband radio through X-ray spectra are well modeled by synchrotron-self Compton emission from an inhomogeneous relativistic jet. We have done a uniform analysis on several BL Lac objects using a simple but plausible inhomogeneous jet model. For all objects, we found that the assumed power-law distribution of the magnetic field and the electron density can be adjusted to match the observed BL Lac spectrum. While such models are typically unconstrained, consideration of spectral variability strongly restricts the allowed parameters, although to date the sampling has generally been too sparse to constrain the current models effectively. We investigate the time evolution of the inhomogeneous jet model for a simple perturbation propagating along the jet. The implications of this time evolution model and its relevance to observed data are discussed.

  10. Solutions of the chemical kinetic equations for initially inhomogeneous mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilst, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Following the recent discussions by O'Brien (1971) and Donaldson and Hilst (1972) of the effects of inhomogeneous mixing and turbulent diffusion on simple chemical reaction rates, the present report provides a more extensive analysis of when inhomogeneous mixing has a significant effect on chemical reaction rates. The analysis is then extended to the development of an approximate chemical sub-model which provides much improved predictions of chemical reaction rates over a wide range of inhomogeneities and pathological distributions of the concentrations of the reacting chemical species. In particular, the development of an approximate representation of the third-order correlations of the joint concentration fluctuations permits closure of the chemical sub-model at the level of the second-order moments of these fluctuations and the mean concentrations.

  11. A study of low-dimensional inhomogeneous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo Leon, Yesenia

    2009-01-15

    While the properties of homogeneous one-dimensional systems, even with disorder, are relatively well-understood, very little is known about the properties of strongly interacting inhomogeneous systems. Their high-energy physics is determined by the underlying chemistry which, in the atomic scale, introduces Coulomb correlations and local potentials. On the other hand, at large length scales, the physics has to be described by the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) model. In order to establish a connection between the low-energy TLL and the quasi-one-dimensional systems synthesized in the laboratory, we investigate the density-density correlation function in inhomogeneous one-dimensional systems in the asymptotic region. To investigate homogeneous as well as inhomogeneous systems, we use the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present results for ground state properties, such as the density-density correlation function and the parameter K{sub c}, which characterizes its decay at large distances. (orig.)

  12. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  13. Molecular dynamics study on evaporation and condensation characteristics of thin film liquid Argon on nanostructured surface in nano-scale confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Sabah, Arefiny; Ahmed, Jannat; Kuri, Subrata Kumar; Rakibuzzaman, S. M.

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of Molecular level phase change phenomena are becoming important in heat and mass transfer research at a very high rate, driven both by the need to understand certain fundamental phenomena as well as by a plethora of new and forthcoming applications in the areas of micro- and nanotechnologies. Molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out to go through the evaporation and condensation characteristics of thin liquid argon film in Nano-scale confinement. In the present study, a cuboid system is modeled for understanding the Nano-scale physics of simultaneous evaporation and condensation. The cuboid system consists of hot and cold parallel platinum plates at the bottom and top ends. The fluid comprised of liquid argon film at the bottom plate and vapor argon in between liquid argon and upper plate of the domain. Three different simulation domains have been created here: (i) Both platinum plates are considered flat, (ii) Upper plate consisting of transverse slots of low height and (iii) Upper plate consisting of transverse slots of bigger height. Considering hydrophilic nature of top and bottom plates, two different high temperatures of the hot wall was set and an observation was made on normal and explosive vaporizations and their impacts on thermal transport. For all the structures, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. Then the lower wall is set to two different temperatures like 110 K and 250 K for all three models to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). For vaporization, higher temperature of the hot wall led to faster transport of the liquid argon as a cluster moving from hot wall to cold wall. But excessive temperature causes explosive boiling which seems not good for heat transportation because of less phase change. In case of condensation, an observation was made which indicates that the nanostructured transverse slots facilitate condensation. Two factors affect the rate of

  14. The problem of radioactive contamination inhomogeneity and simulation of the transport of radionuclides through agroecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girij, V.A.; Shpinar, L.I.; Yaskovets, I.I.; Zaitov, V.R.; Hille, R.

    1997-01-01

    The analyses of the measurement data on the territory of the Ukrainian Polesie region carried out by the Research Centre Juelich and the Ukrainian Institute of Radioecology shows that there is a high degree of inhomogeneity for the contamination pattern, they transfer from soil to the biosphere and for the food consumption. Therefore, a deterministic environmental assessment model may not be convenient because most processes are not known in detailed. In this situation a probabilistic approach seems to be more promising. In this report presented a dynamic model for the transfer of radioactivity in terrestrial food chains that fit to the regionally conditions and agricultural practice. The living organism will be treated as dynamic system subject to random action of radioactivity. This system is described by stochastic differential equations of Langevene's type. Starting from this base we calculated a distribution function of radionuclide body burdens for inhabitant ensembles under the assumptions that entering of activity into organisms is a random temporary function that can be approximated by certain impulse Poison processes. A comparison of calculated distribution function is carried out with measurement results of internal body burden. It shown a satisfactory description of the real situation found for four investigated villages of Ukrainian Polesie region (Olevsk, Narodichi, Vezhitsa and Stare Selo) that were characterized by different degree of contamination and different degree of inhomogeneity

  15. Inhomogeneous bimolecular recombination in partially crystallised tri-methylphenyl diamine glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldie, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    The rise and fall dynamics of transient photocurrents induced by exposure to ultraviolet radiation have been analysed for a series of glassy tri-methylphenyl diamine films that have been partially crystallised by ageing under ambient conditions following vapour deposition. An inhomogeneous bimolecular recombination model that uses coupled rate equations is found to provide a consistent fit for the observed photocurrent dynamics provided the recombination rate of holes in the crystallised regions of the films is lower compared to the amorphous regions. Parameters returned by the bimolecular model are investigated as a function of the film age but are observed to be highly sensitive to the initial experimental estimates that are supplied for the effective hole recombination time. The effective hole recombination time generated by the model is found to be relatively independent of film age, however, and has a value of around 0.16 s for a carrier generation rate of 7 × 10 14 cm −3 s −1 . The effective recombination time and steady-state photoconductivity magnitudes are found to be consistent with experimental hole mobility and photo-carrier generation efficiency values that are obtained using complementary time-of-flight and charge collection experiments. - Highlights: ► Transient photocurrents in evaporated diamine films have fast and slow components. ► Transient photocurrents are modelled using inhomogeneous bimolecular recombination. ► Recombination rates differ between crystallised and amorphous film regions. ► Recombination parameters evolve with film age as the films crystallise

  16. Brownian motion probe for water-ethanol inhomogeneous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Kazuki; Judai, Ken

    2017-12-01

    Brownian motion provides information regarding the microscopic geometry and motion of molecules, insofar as it occurs as a result of molecular collisions with a colloid particle. We found that the mobility of polystyrene beads from the Brownian motion in a water-ethanol mixture is larger than that predicted from the liquid shear viscosity. This indicates that mixing water and ethanol is inhomogeneous in micron-sized probe beads. The discrepancy between the mobility of Brownian motion and liquid mobility can be explained by the way the rotation of the beads in an inhomogeneous viscous solvent converts the translational movement.

  17. Transformation instability of oscillations in inhomogeneous beam-plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsenko, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Wave transformation is studied in a plasma system which was weak-inhomogeneous along beam velocity, in absence of external magnetic field. For the case of small density beam formulae are obtained which have set a coupling between the charge density beam wave amplitudes and the Langmuir wave on both sides of transformation point. It is shown that in collisionless plasma the wave production is a cause of the absorption of the charge density beam waves. Transformation mechanism of the absolute instability in the weak-inhomogeneous beam-plasma system is revealed

  18. Reflection of oblique electron thermal modes in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sanuki, H.

    1980-04-01

    In an inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, reflection of an oblique electron thermal mode radiated from a local source is investigated experimentally and theoretically near the electron plasma frequency layer. The experimental observation of reflection in the lower plasma density region than the f sub(p)-layer is found to be in qualitative accord with the theoretical reflection, which is obtained from a kinetic theory in an inhomogeneous magnetoplasma. The reflection of the thermal mode is also compared with that of an electromagnetic mode at the f sub(p)-layer. (author)

  19. Parallel application of plasma equilibrium fitting based on inhomogeneous platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Min; Zhang Jinhua; Chen Liaoyuan; Li Yongge; Pan Wei; Pan Li

    2008-01-01

    An online analysis and online display platform EFIT, which is based on the equilibrium-fitting mode, is inducted in this paper. This application can realize large data transportation between inhomogeneous platforms by designing a communication mechanism using sockets. It spends approximately one minute to complete the equilibrium fitting reconstruction by using a finite state machine to describe the management node and several node computers of cluster system to fulfill the parallel computation, this satisfies the online display during the discharge interval. An effective communication model between inhomogeneous platforms is provided, which could transport the computing results from Linux platform to Windows platform for online analysis and display. (authors)

  20. Phase synchronization in inhomogeneous globally coupled map lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Mingchung; Hung Yaochen; Jiang, I-M.

    2004-01-01

    The study of inhomogeneous-coupled chaotic systems has attracted a lot of attention recently. With simple definition of phase, we present the phase-locking behavior in ensembles of globally coupled non-identical maps. The inhomogeneous globally coupled maps consist of logistic map and tent map simultaneously. Average phase synchronization ratios, which are used to characterize the phase coherent phenomena, depend on different coupling coefficients and chaotic parameters. By using interdependence, the relationship between a single unit and the mean field is illustrated. Moreover, we take the effect of external noise and parameter mismatch into consideration and present the results by numerical simulation

  1. Dose inhomogeneities at various levels of biological organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    Dose inhomogeneities in both tumor and normal tissue, inherent to the application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), can be the result not only of ununiform distribution of 10 B at various levels of biological organization, but also of the distribution of the thermal neutrons and of the energy depositions from more energetic neutrons and other radiations comprising the externally-applied beams. The severity of the problems resulting from such inhomogeneities, and approaches to evaluating them, are illustrated by three examples, at the macro, micro and intermediate levels

  2. Ray tracing for inhomogeneous media applied to the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gonzalez, G.; Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.; Juarez-Salazar, R.

    2017-08-01

    Inhomogeneous or gradient index media exhibit a refractive index varying with the position. This kind of media are very interesting because they can be found in both synthetic as well as real life optical devices such as the human lens. In this work we present the development of a computational tool for ray tracing in refractive optical systems. Particularly, the human eye is used as the optical system under study. An inhomogeneous medium with similar characteristics to the human lens is introduced and modeled by the so-called slices method. The useful of our proposal is illustrated by several graphical results.

  3. Dependence of inhomogeneous vibrational linewidth broadening on attractive forces from local liquid number densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, S.M.; Harris, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of inhomogeneous vibrational linewidth broadening on attractive forces form slowly varying local liquid number densities is examined. The recently developed Schweizer--Chandler theory of vibrational dephasing is used to compute absolute inhomogeneous broadening linewidths. The computed linewidths are compared to measured inhomogeneous broadening linewidths determined using picosecond vibrational dephasing experiments. There is a similarity between correlations of the Schweizer--Chandler and George--Auweter--Harris predicted inhomogeneous broadening linewidths and the measured inhomogeneous broadening linewidths. For the methyl stretches under investigation, this correspondence suggests that the width of the number density distribution in the liquid determines the relative inhomogeneous broadening magnitudes

  4. Effect of Inhomogeneity correction for lung volume model in TPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Se Young; Lee, Sang Rok; Kim, Young Bum; Kwon, Young Ho

    2004-01-01

    The phantom that includes high density materials such as steel was custom-made to fix lung and bone in order to evaluation inhomogeneity correction at the time of conducting radiation therapy to treat lung cancer. Using this, values resulting from the inhomogeneous correction algorithm are compared on the 2 and 3 dimensional radiation therapy planning systems. Moreover, change in dose calculation was evaluated according to inhomogeneous by comparing with the actual measurement. As for the image acquisition, inhomogeneous correction phantom(Pig's vertebra, steel(8.21 g/cm 3 ), cork(0.23 g/cm 3 )) that was custom-made and the CT(Volume zoom, Siemens, Germany) were used. As for the radiation therapy planning system, Marks Plan(2D) and XiO(CMS, USA, 3D) were used. To compare with the measurement value, linear accelerator(CL/1800, Varian, USA) and ion chamber were used. Image, obtained from the CT was used to obtain point dose and dose distribution from the region of interest (ROI) while on the radiation therapy planning device. After measurement was conducted under the same conditions, value on the treatment planning device and measured value were subjected to comparison and analysis. And difference between the resulting for the evaluation on the use (or non-use) of inhomogeneity correction algorithm, and diverse inhomogeneity correction algorithm that is included in the radiation therapy planning device was compared as well. As result of comparing the results of measurement value on the region of interest within the inhomogeneity correction phantom and the value that resulted from the homogeneous and inhomogeneous correction, gained from the therapy planning device, margin of error of the measurement value and inhomogeneous correction value at the location 1 of the lung showed 0.8% on 2D and 0.5% on 3D. Margin of error of the measurement value and inhomogeneous correction value at the location 1 of the steel showed 12% on 2D and 5% on 3D, however, it is possible to

  5. The influence of inhomogeneous magnetic field over a NdFeB guideway on levitation force of the HTS bulk maglev system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lifeng; Deng, Jiangtao; Li, Linbo; Feng, Ning; Wei, Pu; Lei, Wei; Jiang, Jing; Wang, Xiqin; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yong

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic responses of high temperature superconducting bulk to inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution of permanent magnet guideway, as well as enlarged amplitude of magnetic field obtained by partially covering the permanent magnet guideway (PMG) with iron sheets in different thickness, are investigated. Experiments show that the instantaneous levitation force increases with the increase of the variation rate of magnetic field (dB/dt). Meanwhile, inhomogeneous magnetic field from PMG causes the decay of levitation force. The decay of levitation force almost increases linearly with the increase of alternating magnetic field amplitude. It should be very important for the application of high-speed maglev system.

  6. The Formation and Spatiotemporal Progress of the pH Wave Induced by the Temperature Gradient in the Thin-Layer H2O2-Na2S2O3-H2SO4-CuSO4 Dynamical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrusiak, Mikołaj; Orlik, Marek

    2016-03-31

    The H2O2-S2O3(2-)-H(+)-Cu(2+) dynamical system exhibits sustained oscillations under flow conditions but reveals only a single initial peak of the indicator electrode potential and pH variation under batch isothermal conditions. Thus, in the latter case, there is no possibility of the coupling of the oscillations and diffusion which could lead to formation of sustained spatiotemporal patterns in this process. However, in the inhomogeneous temperature field, due to dependence of the local reaction kinetics on temperature, spatial inhomogeneities of pH distribution can develop which, in the presence of an appropriate indicator, thymol blue, manifest themselves as the color front traveling along the quasi-one-dimensional reactor. In this work, we describe the experimental conditions under which the above-mentioned phenomena can be observed and present their numerical model based on thermokinetic coupling and spatial coordinate introduced to earlier isothermal homogeneous kinetic mechanism.

  7. Inhomogeneous Spin Diffusion in Traps with Cold Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    increases. The inhomogeneity and the smaller nite trap size signicantly reduce the spin diusion rate at low temperatures. The resulting spin diusion rates and spin drag at longer time scales are compatible with measurements at low to high temperatures for resonant attractive interactions...

  8. Motoneuron membrane potentials follow a time inhomogeneous jump diffusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Patrick; Berg, Rune W; Hounsgaard, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    models can only be applied over short time windows. However, experimental data show varying time constants, state dependent noise, a graded firing threshold and time-inhomogeneous input. In the present study we build a jump diffusion model that incorporates these features, and introduce a firing...

  9. Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.

    1991-07-01

    Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.

  10. Material inhomogeneities and their evolution a geometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    Presents a unified treatment of the inhomogeneity theory using some of the tools of modern differential geometry. This book deals with the geometrical description of uniform bodies and their homogeneity conditions. It also develops a theory of material evolution and discusses its relevance in various applied contexts.

  11. Flux and polarization signals of spatially inhomogeneous gaseous exoplanets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karalidi, T.; Stam, D.M.; Guirado, D.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. We present numerically calculated, disk-integrated, spectropolarimetric signals of starlight that is reflected by vertically and horizontally inhomogeneous gaseous exoplanets. We include various spatial features that are present on Solar System’s gaseous planets: belts and zones, cyclonic

  12. Coherent excitonic nonlinearity versus inhomogeneous broadening in single quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Borri, Paola; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    The coherent response of excitons in semiconductor nanostructures, as measured in four wave mixing (FWM) experiments, depends strongly on the inhomogeneous broadening of the exciton transition. We investigate GaAs-AlGaAs single quantum wells (SQW) of 4 nm to 25 nm well width. Two main mechanisms...

  13. Rate-optimal Bayesian intensity smoothing for inhomogeneous Poisson processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belitser, E.N.; Serra, P.; van Zanten, H.

    2015-01-01

    We apply nonparametric Bayesian methods to study the problem of estimating the intensity function of an inhomogeneous Poisson process. To motivate our results we start by analyzing count data coming from a call center which we model as a Poisson process. This analysis is carried out using a certain

  14. Rate-optimal Bayesian intensity smoothing for inhomogeneous Poisson processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belitser, E.; Andrade Serra, De P.J.; Zanten, van J.H.

    2013-01-01

    We apply nonparametric Bayesian methods to study the problem of estimating the intensity function of an inhomogeneous Poisson process. We exhibit a prior on intensities which both leads to a computationally feasible method and enjoys desirable theoretical optimality properties. The prior we use is

  15. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous bianisotropic media: Wave propagation and light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Shalin, Alexander S.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    We develop a technique for finding closed-form expressions for electromagnetic fields in radially inhomogeneous bianisotropic media, both the solutions of the Maxwell equations and material tensors being defined by the set of auxiliary two-dimensional matrices. The approach is applied to determine...

  16. An algorithm of computing inhomogeneous differential equations for definite integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Hiromasa; Nishiyama, Kenta

    2010-01-01

    We give an algorithm to compute inhomogeneous differential equations for definite integrals with parameters. The algorithm is based on the integration algorithm for $D$-modules by Oaku. Main tool in the algorithm is the Gr\\"obner basis method in the ring of differential operators.

  17. Baryon inhomogeneities due to cosmic string wakes at the quark ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    abundances of light elements if they persist up to the time of nucleosynthesis. These inhomogeneities ... the creation of compact baryon-rich objects as well as alter the abundances of light ele- ments if they persist up to the time ... The trajectories of collisionless particles bend while passing by the string. They overlap in the ...

  18. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally Bound ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-16

    Apr 16, 2012 ... on a gravitationally bound local system such as the solar system. We con- ... method to describe the large-scale inhomogeneity of the Universe. ..... is regular at the origin r = 0 where the central body is located, and that the test.

  19. Optical coherent control in semiconductors: Fringe contrast and inhomogeneous broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    in the interplay between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings are measured. Based on these experiments, a coherent control model describing the optical fringe contrast using different detection schemes, such as photoluminescence or four-wave mixing, is established. Significant spectral modulation...

  20. Lower hybrid waves instability in a velocity–sheared inhomogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An electrostatic linear kinetic analysis of velocity-sheared inhomogeneous charged dust streaming parallel to a magnetic field in plasma is presented. Excited mode and the growth rates are derived in the lower hybrid-like mode regime, with collisional effects included. In the case where the drift velocity u is very small the ...

  1. An inhomogeneous wave equation and non-linear Diophantine approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beresnevich, V.; Dodson, M. M.; Kristensen, S.

    2008-01-01

    A non-linear Diophantine condition involving perfect squares and arising from an inhomogeneous wave equation on the torus guarantees the existence of a smooth solution. The exceptional set associated with the failure of the Diophantine condition and hence of the existence of a smooth solution...

  2. Threshold of decay instability in an inhomogeneous plasma (Leningrad 1973)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piliia, A.D.

    It is shown that in a spatially inhomogeneous plasma there can exist an absolute decay instability with a threshold lower than that found earlier. This instability arises when two parametrically coupled waves have turning points inside the plasma layer. The cause of the instability is a positive inverse coupling, caused by a nonlinear conversion and a reflection of the waves

  3. Cluster tails for critical power-law inhomogeneous random graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hofstad, R.; Kliem, S.; van Leeuwaarden, J.S.H.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the scaling limit of cluster sizes for critical inhomogeneous random graphs of rank-1 type having finite variance but infinite third moment degrees was obtained in Bhamidi et al. (Ann Probab 40:2299–2361, 2012). It was proved that when the degrees obey a power law with exponent τ∈ (3 , 4)

  4. Spatial Inhomogeneity of Kinetic and Magnetic Dissipations in Thermal Convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, H. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba university, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan)

    2017-08-20

    We investigate the inhomogeneity of kinetic and magnetic dissipations in thermal convection using high-resolution calculations. In statistically steady turbulence, the injected and dissipated energies are balanced. This means that a large amount of energy is continuously converted into internal energy via dissipation. As in thermal convection, downflows are colder than upflows and the inhomogeneity of the dissipation potentially changes the convection structure. Our investigation of the inhomogeneity of the dissipation shows the following. (1) More dissipation is seen around the bottom of the calculation domain, and this tendency is promoted with the magnetic field. (2) The dissipation in the downflow is much larger than that in the upflow. The dissipation in the downflow is more than 80% of the total at maximum. This tendency is also promoted with the magnetic field. (3) Although 2D probability density functions of the kinetic and magnetic dissipations versus the vertical velocity are similar, the kinetic and magnetic dissipations are not well correlated. Our result suggests that the spatial inhomogeneity of the dissipation is significant and should be considered when modeling a small-scale strong magnetic field generated with an efficient small-scale dynamo for low-resolution calculations.

  5. Acoustic Force Density Acting on Inhomogeneous Fluids in Acoustic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Jonas Tobias; Augustsson, Per; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    , the theory predicts a relocation of the inhomogeneities into stable field-dependent configurations, which are qualitatively different from the horizontally layered configurations due to gravity. Experimental validation is obtained by confocal imaging of aqueous solutions in a glass-silicon microchip....

  6. Electron-Bernstein Waves in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, R. J.; Frederiksen, Å.; Pécseli, Hans

    1984-01-01

    The propagation of small amplitude electron-Bernstein waves in different inhomogeneous magnetic field geometries is investigated experimentally. Wave propagation towards both cut-offs and resonances are considered. The experimental results are supported by a numerical ray-tracing analysis. Spatia...

  7. Measurements of weak localization of graphene in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvall, N.; Shivayogimath, Abhay; Yurgens, A.

    2015-01-01

    attribute this to the inhomogeneous field caused by vortices in the superconductor. The deviation, which depends on the carrier concentration in graphene, can be tuned by the gate voltage. In addition, collective vortex motion, known as vortex avalanches, is observed through magnetoresistance measurements...

  8. Multiple solutions for inhomogeneous nonlinear elliptic problems arising in astrophyiscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Calahorrano

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Using variational methods we prove the existence and multiplicity of solutions for some nonlinear inhomogeneous elliptic problems on a bounded domain in $mathbb{R}^n$, with $ngeq 2$ and a smooth boundary, and when the domain is $mathbb{R}_+^n$

  9. Septic liver - Clinical relevance of early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver in patients with acute pyelonephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ga Jin; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk [Dept. of Radiology, Biomedical Research Inst., Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Pusan National Univ. School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)], e-mail: kimsuk@medimail.co.kr; Kim, Tae Un [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National Univ. Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National Univ. School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sang Heon [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Biomedical Research Inst., Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Pusan National Univ. School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Sung; Jo, Hong Jae [Dept. of Surgery, Biomedical Research Inst., Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Pusan National Univ. School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Background: CT scans of patients with febrile illness occasionally show hepatobiliary changes, although infection does not originate in the hepatobiliary system. These findings may cause radiologists and clinicians to misrecognize hepatobiliary diseases and initiate an inappropriate treatment. Thus, it is important to recognize hepatobiliary CT findings in cases of extrahepatobiliary infectious disease. Purpose: To evaluate extrarenal CT manifestations in patients with acute pyelonephritis and to determine the correlation between these extrarenal CT findings and septic liver based on laboratory parameters of sepsis. Material and Methods: This study included 157 retrospectively identified patients with confirmed acute pyelonephritis based on CT imaging and urine test, and who had also undergone multi-phase dynamic contrast-enhanced CT scan. Two radiologists reviewed CT findings including early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver, periportal low density and gallbladder edema, which were correlated with laboratory data including liver function enzymes, albumin, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and results of a blood culture by using the Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Forty-six patients (29.3%) showed early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver, which was associated with increased C-reactive protein (P < 0.001), a positive blood culture (P < 0.005), and decreased albumin level (P < 0.002). The periportal low density and gallbladder wall edema were noted in 15 patients (9.6%) and six patients (3.8%), respectively. These two CT findings were significantly associated with only decreased albumin level (P < 0.001 and P < 0.040). Conclusion: Early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver in patients with acute pyelonephritis was significantly associated with increased CRP level, a positive blood culture and decreased albumin level, reflecting sepsis and sepsis-associated liver dysfunction, requiring rapid and appropriate intensive

  10. Septic liver - Clinical relevance of early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver in patients with acute pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ga Jin; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk; Kim, Tae Un; Song, Sang Heon; Kim, Hyun Sung; Jo, Hong Jae

    2013-01-01

    Background: CT scans of patients with febrile illness occasionally show hepatobiliary changes, although infection does not originate in the hepatobiliary system. These findings may cause radiologists and clinicians to misrecognize hepatobiliary diseases and initiate an inappropriate treatment. Thus, it is important to recognize hepatobiliary CT findings in cases of extrahepatobiliary infectious disease. Purpose: To evaluate extrarenal CT manifestations in patients with acute pyelonephritis and to determine the correlation between these extrarenal CT findings and septic liver based on laboratory parameters of sepsis. Material and Methods: This study included 157 retrospectively identified patients with confirmed acute pyelonephritis based on CT imaging and urine test, and who had also undergone multi-phase dynamic contrast-enhanced CT scan. Two radiologists reviewed CT findings including early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver, periportal low density and gallbladder edema, which were correlated with laboratory data including liver function enzymes, albumin, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and results of a blood culture by using the Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Forty-six patients (29.3%) showed early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver, which was associated with increased C-reactive protein (P < 0.001), a positive blood culture (P < 0.005), and decreased albumin level (P < 0.002). The periportal low density and gallbladder wall edema were noted in 15 patients (9.6%) and six patients (3.8%), respectively. These two CT findings were significantly associated with only decreased albumin level (P < 0.001 and P < 0.040). Conclusion: Early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver in patients with acute pyelonephritis was significantly associated with increased CRP level, a positive blood culture and decreased albumin level, reflecting sepsis and sepsis-associated liver dysfunction, requiring rapid and appropriate intensive

  11. Integrability Aspects and Soliton Solutions for a System Describing Ultrashort Pulse Propagation in an Inhomogeneous Multi-Component Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Rui; Tian Bo; Lue Xing; Zhang Haiqiang; Xu Tao

    2010-01-01

    For the propagation of the ultrashort pulses in an inhomogeneous multi-component nonlinear medium, a system of coupled equations is analytically studied in this paper. Painleve analysis shows that this system admits the Painleve property under some constraints. By means of the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur procedure, the Lax pair of this system is derived, and the Darboux transformation (DT) is constructed with the help of the obtained Lax pair. With symbolic computation, the soliton solutions are obtained by virtue of the DT algorithm. Figures are plotted to illustrate the dynamical features of the soliton solutions. Characteristics of the solitons propagating in an inhomogeneous multi-component nonlinear medium are discussed: (i) Propagation of one soliton and two-peak soliton; (ii) Elastic interactions of the parabolic two solitons; (iii) Overlap phenomenon between two solitons; (iv) Collision of two head-on solitons and two head-on two-peak solitons; (v) Two different types of interactions of the three solitons; (vi) Decomposition phenomenon of one soliton into two solitons. The results might be useful in the study on the ultrashort-pulse propagation in the inhomogeneous multi-component nonlinear media. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  12. Observable relations in an inhomogeneous self-similar cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    An exact self-similar solution is taken in general relativity as a model for an inhomogeneous cosmology. The self-similarity property means (conceptually) that the model is scale-free and (mathematically) that its essential parameters are functions of only one dimensionless variable zeta (equivalentct/R, where R and t are distance and time coordinates and c is the velocity of light). It begins inhomogeneous (zeta=0 or t=0), and tends to a homogeneous Einstein--de Sitter type state as zeta (or t) →infinity. Such a model can be used (a) for evaluating the observational effects of a clumpy universe; (b) for studying astrophysical processes such as galaxy formation and the growth and decay of inhomogeneities in initially clumpy cosmologies; and (c) as a relativistic basis for cosmological models with extended clustering of the de Vaucouleurs and Peebles types. The model has two adjustable parameters, namely, the observer's coordinate zeta 0 and a constant α/sub s/ that fixes the effect of the inhomogeneity. Expressions are obtained for the redshift, Hubble parameter, deceleration parameter, magnitude-redshift relation, and (number density of objects) --redshift relation. Expected anisotropies in the 3 K microwave background are also examined. There is no conflict with observation if zeta 0 /α/sub s/> or approx. =10, and four tests of the model are suggested that can be used to further determine the acceptability of inhomogeneous cosmologies of this type. The ratio α/sub s//zeta 0 on presently available data is α/sub s//zeta 0 < or approx. =10% and this, loosely speaking, means that the universe at the present epoch is globally homogeneous to within about 10%

  13. Radio-Wave Tomography of Inhomogeneities in Biological Media with Multi-Frequency Sounding in the Range 2-8 GHZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipilov Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for detecting and mapping inhomogeneities in biological tissues using the radio-wave tomosynthesis method is presented. The proposed method of radio-wave tomosynthesis allows us to calculate the three-dimensional distribution of the permittivity of the space under study and, thereby, to detect tissue inhomogeneities and to determine their location and size. Due to their harmlessness for humans, these methods are suitable for dynamic observation of changes in the size of formation, in contrast to x-ray methods, for which regular doses of ionizing radiation are contraindicated. Therefore, the development of non-invasive methods for the search for inhomogeneities in biological media based on radio-wave sounding, which makes it possible to identify pathological formations, is now very relevant.

  14. Irradiation and inhomogeneity effects on ductility and toughness of (ODS)-7 -13Cr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preininger, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The superimposed effect of irradiation defect and structural inhomogeneity formation on tensile ductility and dynamic toughness of ferritic-martensitic 7-13CrW(Mo)VTa(Nb) and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS)-7-13CrWVTa(Ti)- RAFM steels has been examined by work hardening and local stress/strain-induced ductile fracture models. Structural inhomogeneities which strongly promoting plastic instability and localized flow might be formed by the applied fabrication process, high dose irradiation and additionally further during deformation by enhanced local dislocation generation around fine particles or due to slip band formation with localized heating at high impact strain rates ε'. The work hardening model takes into account superimposed dislocation multiplication from stored dislocations, dispersions and also grain boundaries as well as annihilation by cross-slip. Analytical relations have been deduced from the model describing uniform ductility and ductile upper shelf energy (USE) observed from Charpy-impact testes. Especially, the influence of different irradiation defects like atomic clusters, dislocation loops and coherent chromium-rich α'- precipitates have been considered together with effects from strain rate as well as irradiation (TI) and test temperature TT. Strengthening by clusters and more pronounced by dislocation loops formed at higher TI>250 deg. C reduces uniform ductility and also distinctly stronger dynamic toughness USE. A superimposed hardening by the α'- formation in higher Cr containing 9-13Cr steels strongly reduces toughness assisted by a combined grain-boundary embrittlement with reduction of the ductile fracture stress. But that improves work hardening and uniform ductility as observed particularly due to nano-scale Y 2 O 3 - dispersions in ODS-RAFM steels. For ODS- steels additionally the strength-induced reduction of toughness is diminished by a combined microstructural-induced increase of the ductile

  15. TU-H-206-03: Characterizing B1 Inhomogeneities in DCE MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gach, H [Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States); Mason, N [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) MRI is a valuable technique for measuring perfusion and permeability characteristics of tumors. Exogenous contrast concentrations are calculated based on changes in T{sub 1} measured using fast 3D gradient echo (FLASH) sequences. However, the slab selective pulses used in 3D MRI may result in B{sub 1} inhomogeneities across the volume of interest that can lead to errors in T{sub 1} and thus the estimated gadolinium concentration. We compared three FLASH DCE sequences (GRE, TWIST, and VIBE) to determine their signal homogeneity across slices and the accuracy in calculating T{sub 1} using acquisitions with variable flip angles. Methods: The sequences were tested at 3 T on a Siemens mMR (VB20P) using a doped water phantom 3.75 g/L NiSO{sub 4} - 6H{sub 2}O + 5 g/L NaCl (T{sub 1} = 104 ms) and a 2% agar, 0.67% NaCl phantom (T{sub 1}= 1.71 s). 2D EPI B{sub 1} maps and inversion recovery T{sub 1}maps were acquired for ground truth. 3D MRI was acquired at different flip angles to generate a T{sub 1} map. Regions of interest were drawn to measure signal inside the phantoms as a function of slice position. The T{sub 1} for each slice ROI was fit to the FLASH steady-state model of magnetization. Results: Based on the data, GRE gave the most uniform signal homogeneity and T{sub 1} values in the middle slices of the 3D volume. The 3D VIBE sequence had the largest region of signal inhomogeneity compared to the 3D GRE and TWIST sequences. VIBE’s B{sub 1} inhomogeneity is inconsistent at low flip angles. However, VIBE resulted in more slices with T{sub 1} values similar to the ground truth. Conclusion: The central 1/3 of the slices yielded signals that result in T{sub 1} fits consistent with the ground truth. However, the remaining slices required some form of B{sub 1} inhomogeneity correction for quantitative DCE analysis. The research was supported in part by NIH NCI Grant R01CA159471.

  16. TU-H-206-03: Characterizing B1 Inhomogeneities in DCE MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gach, H; Mason, N

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) MRI is a valuable technique for measuring perfusion and permeability characteristics of tumors. Exogenous contrast concentrations are calculated based on changes in T 1 measured using fast 3D gradient echo (FLASH) sequences. However, the slab selective pulses used in 3D MRI may result in B 1 inhomogeneities across the volume of interest that can lead to errors in T 1 and thus the estimated gadolinium concentration. We compared three FLASH DCE sequences (GRE, TWIST, and VIBE) to determine their signal homogeneity across slices and the accuracy in calculating T 1 using acquisitions with variable flip angles. Methods: The sequences were tested at 3 T on a Siemens mMR (VB20P) using a doped water phantom 3.75 g/L NiSO 4 - 6H 2 O + 5 g/L NaCl (T 1 = 104 ms) and a 2% agar, 0.67% NaCl phantom (T 1 = 1.71 s). 2D EPI B 1 maps and inversion recovery T 1 maps were acquired for ground truth. 3D MRI was acquired at different flip angles to generate a T 1 map. Regions of interest were drawn to measure signal inside the phantoms as a function of slice position. The T 1 for each slice ROI was fit to the FLASH steady-state model of magnetization. Results: Based on the data, GRE gave the most uniform signal homogeneity and T 1 values in the middle slices of the 3D volume. The 3D VIBE sequence had the largest region of signal inhomogeneity compared to the 3D GRE and TWIST sequences. VIBE’s B 1 inhomogeneity is inconsistent at low flip angles. However, VIBE resulted in more slices with T 1 values similar to the ground truth. Conclusion: The central 1/3 of the slices yielded signals that result in T 1 fits consistent with the ground truth. However, the remaining slices required some form of B 1 inhomogeneity correction for quantitative DCE analysis. The research was supported in part by NIH NCI Grant R01CA159471.

  17. Computation of demagnetizing fields and particle distribution in magnetic fluid with inhomogeneous density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshenichnikov, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    A new algorithm for calculating magnetic fields in a concentrated magnetic fluid with inhomogeneous density is proposed. Inhomogeneity of the fluid is caused by magnetophoresis. In this case, the diffusion and magnetostatic parts of the problem are tightly linked together and are solved jointly. The dynamic diffusion equation is solved by the finite volume method and, to calculate the magnetic field inside the fluid, an iterative process is performed in parallel. The solution to the problem is sought in Cartesian coordinates, and the computational domain is decomposed into rectangular elements. This technique eliminates the need to solve the related boundary-value problem for magnetic fields, accelerates computations and eliminates the error caused by the finite sizes of the outer region. Formulas describing the contribution of the rectangular element to the field intensity in the case of a plane problem are given. Magnetic and concentration fields inside the magnetic fluid filling a rectangular cavity generated under the action of the uniform external filed are calculated. - Highlights: ▶ New algorithm for calculating magnetic field intense magnetic fluid with account of magnetophoresis and diffusion of particles. ▶ We do not need to solve boundary-value problem, but we accelerate computations and eliminate some errors. ▶ We solve nonlinear flow equation by the finite volume method and calculate magnetic and focus fields in the fluid for plane case.

  18. Light Manipulation in Inhomogeneous Liquid Flow and Its Application in Biochemical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Zuo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Light manipulation has always been the fundamental subject in the field of optics since centuries ago. Traditional optical devices are usually designed using glasses and other materials, such as semiconductors and metals. Optofluidics is the combination of microfluidics and optics, which brings a host of new advantages to conventional solid systems. The capabilities of light manipulation and biochemical sensing are inherent alongside the emergence of optofluidics. This new research area promotes advancements in optics, biology, and chemistry. The development of fast, accurate, low-cost, and small-sized biochemical micro-sensors is an urgent demand for real-time monitoring. However, the fluid flow in the on-chip sensor is usually non-uniformed, which is a new and emerging challenge for the accuracy of optical detection. It is significant to reveal the principle of light propagation in an inhomogeneous liquid flow and the interaction between biochemical samples and light in flowing liquids. In this review, we summarize the current state of optofluidic lab-on-a-chip techniques from the perspective of light modulation by the unique dynamic properties of fluid in heterogeneous media, such as diffusion, heat transfer, and centrifugation etc. Furthermore, this review introduces several novel photonic phenomena in an inhomogeneous liquid flow and demonstrates their application in biochemical sensing.

  19. Transport mechanisms and wetting dynamics in molecularly thin films of long-chain alkanes at solid/vapour interface : relation to the solid-liquid phase transition

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Wetting and phase transitions play a very important role our daily life. Molecularly thin films of long-chain alkanes at solid/vapour interfaces (e.g. C30H62 on silicon wafers) are very good model systems for studying the relation between wetting behaviour and (bulk) phase transitions. Immediately above the bulk melting temperature the alkanes wet partially the surface (drops). In this temperature range the substrate surface is covered with a molecularly thin ordered, solid-like alkane film (...

  20. The importance of structural inhomogeneity in GaN thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Reis, Roberto dos; Weyher, Jan L.; Staszczak, Grzegorz; Jakieła, Rafał

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes two types of MOCVD-grown n-type GaN layers (Samples A and B) with similar carrier concentration but behaved differently under galvanic photo-etching. In order to understand this behavior, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for cross-section and plan-view samples, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and photoluminescence (PL) techniques were applied. SIMS studies showed that Si, C and O are approximately at the same concentration in both samples, but Sample B also contained Fe and Mg. Both GaN samples were grown on sapphire substrate with Ga growth polarity, which was confirmed by Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction (CBED). Despite a smaller layer thickness in Sample B, the density of edge dislocations is almost one order of magnitude lower than in Sample A. In addition, planar defects formed in this sample in the transition area between the undoped buffer and Si doped layers resulted in a substantial decrease in the density of screw dislocations at the sample surface. These planar defects most probably gave rise to the PL lines observed at 3.42 eV and 3.32 eV. The new PL lines that only appeared in Sample B might be related to Mg impurities found in this sample. There were no detectable gettering of these impurities at dislocations using different diffraction conditions. However, Fe rich platelets were found only in Sample B due to the presence of Fe as well as hexagonal features, similar to defects reported earlier in highly Mg-doped GaN. These structural and chemical non-uniformities between the two GaN samples can explain their different etching behaviors. This paper demonstrates that samples with similar carrier concentrations do not necessarily ensure similar structural and optical properties and that additional material characterization are needed to ensure that devices built on such samples have similar performance.