Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking
Shadmi, Y; Shadmi, Yael; Shirman, Yuri
2000-01-01
Supersymmetry is one of the most plausible and theoretically motivated frameworks for extending the Standard Model. However, any supersymmetry in Nature must be a broken symmetry. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) is an attractive idea for incorporating supersymmetry into a successful description of Nature. The study of DSB has recently enjoyed dramatic progress, fueled by advances in our understanding of the dynamics of supersymmetric field theories. These advances have allowed for direct analysis of DSB in strongly coupled theories, and for the discovery of new DSB theories, some of which contradict early criteria for DSB. We review these criteria, emphasizing recently discovered exceptions. We also describe, through many examples, various techniques for directly establishing DSB by studying the infrared theory, including both older techniques in regions of weak coupling, and new techniques in regions of strong coupling. Finally, we present a list of representative DSB models, their main properties, an...
Dynamical (Super)Symmetry Breaking
Murayama, H
2001-01-01
Dynamical Symmetry Breaking (DSB) is a concept theorists rely on very often in the discussions of strong dynamics, model building, and hierarchy problems. In this talk, I will discuss why this is such a permeating concept among theorists and how they are used in understanding physics. I also briefly review recent progress in using dynamical symmetry breaking to construct models of supersymmetry breaking and fermion masses.
Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking Why and How
Poppitz, E R
1998-01-01
This theoretical review is intended to give non-theorists a flavor of the ideas driving the current efforts to experimentally find supersymmetry. We discuss the main reasons behind the expectation that supersymmetry may be "just around the corner" and may be discovered in the near future. We use simple quantum-mechanical examples to illustrate the concept---and the power---of supersymmetry, the possible ways to break supersymmetry, and the dynamical generation of small scales. We then describe how this theoretical machinery helps shape our perception of what physics beyond the electroweak scale might be.
Dynamical supersymmetry breaking and unification of couplings
Dubovsky, S L; Troitsky, S V
1997-01-01
We consider the possibility of unification of the Supersymmetric Standard Model gauge groups with those of the dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) sector in theories with gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find constraints on the DSB gauge group beta function that come from unification of the gauge coupling constants of the two sectors. These constraints are satisfied by a fairly wide class of models. We discuss possible unification scenarios in the context of a simple model.
Chiral Gauge Dynamics and Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poppitz, Erich; /Toronto U.; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U.
2009-05-07
We study the dynamics of a chiral SU(2) gauge theory with a Weyl fermion in the I = 3/2 representation and of its supersymmetric generalization. In the former, we find a new and exotic mechanism of confinement, induced by topological excitations that we refer to as magnetic quintets. The supersymmetric version was examined earlier in the context of dynamical supersymmetry breaking by Intriligator, Seiberg, and Shenker, who showed that if this gauge theory confines at the origin of moduli space, one may break supersymmetry by adding a tree level superpotential. We examine the dynamics by deforming the theory on S{sup 1} x R{sup 3}, and show that the infrared behavior of this theory is an interacting CFT at small S{sup 1}. We argue that this continues to hold at large S{sup 1}, and if so, that supersymmetry must remain unbroken. Our methods also provide the microscopic origin of various superpotentials in SQCD on S{sup 1} x R{sup 3}--which were previously obtained by using symmetry and holomorphy--and resolve a long standing interpretational puzzle concerning a flux operator discovered by Affleck, Harvey, and Witten. It is generated by a topological excitation, a 'magnetic bion', whose stability is due to fermion pair exchange between its constituents. We also briefly comment on composite monopole operators as leading effects in two dimensional antiferromagnets.
A Supersymmetric Composite Model with Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking
Kitazawa, N; Kitazawa, Noriaki; Okada, Nobuchika
1997-01-01
We present a supersymmetric composite model with dynamical supersymmetry breaking. The model is based on the gauge group $SU(2)_S \\times SU(2)_H \\times SU(3)_c \\times SU(2)_L \\times U(1)_Y$. Supersymmetry is dynamically broken by the non-perturbative effect of the $SU(2)_S$ `supercolor' interaction. The large top Yukawa coupling is naturally generated by the $SU(2)_H$ `hypercolor' interaction as recently proposed by Nelson and Strassler. The supersymmetry breaking is mediated to the standard model sector by a new mechanism. The electroweak symmetry breaking is caused by the radiative correction due to the large top Yukawa coupling with the supersymmetry breaking. This is the `radiative breaking scenario', which originates from the dynamics of the supercolor and hypercolor gauge interactions.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Emilian Dudas
2009-01-01
We review the various mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking and its trans-mission to the observable sector. We argue that hybrid models where gauge dominates over gravity mediation, but gravity provides the main contributions to the Higgs sector masses and the neutralino mass, are able to combine the advantages and reduce the disadvantages of the two transmission mechanisms.
'Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking, with Flavor'
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Craig, Nathaniel; Essig, Rouven; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Franco, Sebastian; Kachru, Shamit; /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara
2010-08-26
We explore calculable models with low-energy supersymmetry where the flavor hierarchy is generated by quark and lepton compositeness, and where the composites emerge from the same sector that dynamically breaks supersymmetry. The observed pattern of Standard Model fermion masses and mixings is obtained by identifying the various generations with composites of different dimension in the ultraviolet. These 'single-sector' supersymmetry breaking models give rise to various spectra of soft masses which are, in many cases, quite distinct from what is commonly found in models of gauge or gravity mediation. In typical models which satisfy all flavor-changing neutral current constraints, both the first and second generation sparticles have masses of order 20 TeV, while the stop mass is a few TeV. In other cases, all sparticles obtain masses of order a few TeV predominantly from gauge mediation, even though the first two generations are composite.
Dynamical supersymmetry breaking on magnetized tori and orbifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroyuki Abe
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We construct several dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB models within a single ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang–Mills (SYM theory, compactified on magnetized tori with or without orbifolding. We study the case that the supersymmetry breaking is triggered by a strong dynamics of SU(NC SYM theory with NF flavors contained in the four-dimensional effective theory. We show several configurations of magnetic fluxes and orbifolds, those potentially yield, below the compactification scale, the field contents and couplings required for triggering DSB. We especially find a class of self-complete DSB models on orbifolds, where all the extra fields are eliminated by the orbifold projection and DSB successfully occurs within the given framework. Comments on some perspectives for associating the obtained DSB models with the other sectors, such as the visible sector and another hidden sector for, e.g., stabilizing moduli, are also given.
Dynamical supersymmetry breaking on magnetized tori and orbifolds
Abe, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Sumita, Keigo
2016-10-01
We construct several dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) models within a single ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory, compactified on magnetized tori with or without orbifolding. We study the case that the supersymmetry breaking is triggered by a strong dynamics of SU (NC) SYM theory with NF flavors contained in the four-dimensional effective theory. We show several configurations of magnetic fluxes and orbifolds, those potentially yield, below the compactification scale, the field contents and couplings required for triggering DSB. We especially find a class of self-complete DSB models on orbifolds, where all the extra fields are eliminated by the orbifold projection and DSB successfully occurs within the given framework. Comments on some perspectives for associating the obtained DSB models with the other sectors, such as the visible sector and another hidden sector for, e.g., stabilizing moduli, are also given.
Dynamical supersymmetry breaking on magnetized tori and orbifolds
Abe, Hiroyuki; Sumita, Keigo
2016-01-01
We construct several dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) models within a single ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory, compactified on magnetized tori with or without orbifolding. We study the case that the supersymmetry breaking is triggered by a strong dynamics of $SU(N_C)$ SYM theory with $N_F$ flavors contained in the four-dimensional effective theory. We show several configurations of magnetic fluxes and orbifolds, those potentially yield, below the compactification scale, the field contents and couplings required for triggering DSB. We especially find a class of self-complete DSB models on orbifolds, where all the extra fields are eliminated by the orbifold projection and DSB successfully occurs within the given framework. Comments on some perspectives for associating the obtained DSB models with the other sectors, such as the visible sector and another hidden sector for, e.g., stabilizing moduli, are also given.
Single sector supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John
1999-03-18
We review recent work on realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single sector. These models have a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents, and the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation sfermion masses.
A Gravity Dual of Metastable Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking
DeWolfe, Oliver; Mulligan, Michael
2008-01-01
Metastable, supersymmetry-breaking configurations can be created in flux geometries by placing antibranes in warped throats. Via gauge/gravity duality, such configurations should have an interpretation as supersymmetry-breaking states in the dual field theory. In this paper, we perturbatively determine the asymptotic supergravity solutions corresponding to anti-D3-brane probes placed at the tip of the cascading warped deformed conifold geometry, which is dual to an SU(N+M) x SU(N) gauge theory. The backreaction of the antibranes has the effect of introducing imaginary anti-self-dual flux, squashing the compact part of the space and forcing the dilaton to run. Using the generalization of holographic renormalization to cascading geometries, we determine the expectation values of operators in the dual field theory in terms of the asymptotic values of the supergravity fields.
A Gravity Dual of Metastable Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeWolfe, Oliver; /Colorado U.; Kachru, Shamit; Mulligan, Michael; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2008-02-04
Metastable, supersymmetry-breaking configurations can be created in flux geometries by placing antibranes in warped throats. Via gauge/gravity duality, such configurations should have an interpretation as supersymmetry-breaking states in the dual field theory. In this paper, we perturbatively determine the asymptotic supergravity solutions corresponding to D3-brane probes placed at the tip of the cascading warped deformed conifold geometry, which is dual to an SU(N+M) x SU(N) gauge theory. The backreaction of the antibranes has the effect of introducing imaginary anti-self-dual flux, squashing the compact part of the space and forcing the dilaton to run. Using the generalization of holographic renormalization to cascading geometries, we determine the expectation values of operators in the dual field theory in terms of the asymptotic values of the supergravity fields.
Gauge/gravity Duality and MetastableDynamical Supersymmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Argurio, Riccardo; Bertolini, Matteo; Franco, Sebastian; Kachru, Shamit
2006-10-24
We engineer a class of quiver gauge theories with several interesting features by studying D-branes at a simple Calabi-Yau singularity. At weak 't Hooft coupling we argue using field theory techniques that these theories admit both supersymmetric vacua and meta-stable non-supersymmetric vacua, though the arguments indicating the existence of the supersymmetry breaking states are not decisive. At strong 't Hooft coupling we find simple candidate gravity dual descriptions for both sets of vacua.
Analysis on a Nambu--Jona-Lasinio Model of Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking
Cheng, Yifan; Faisel, Gaber; Kong, Otto C W
2016-01-01
This is a report on our newly proposed model of dynamical supersymmetry breaking with some details of the analysis involved. The model in the simplest version has only a chiral superfield (multiplet), with a strong four-superfield interaction in the K\\"ahler potential that induces a real two-superfield composite with vacuum condensate. The latter has supersymmetry breaking parts, which we show to bear nontrivial solution following basically a standard nonperturbative analysis for a Nambu--Jona-Lasinio type model on a superfield setting. The real composite superfield has a spin one component but is otherwise quite unconventional. We discuss also the parallel analysis for the effective theory with the composite. Plausible vacuum solutions are illustrated and analyzed. The supersymmetry breaking solutions have generated soft mass(es) for the scalar avoiding the vanishing supertrace condition for the squared-masses of the superfield components. We also present some analysis of the resulted low energy effective th...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krivoshchekov, V.L.; Slavnov, A.A.; Chekhov, L.O.
1988-01-01
An effective meson action is constructed for supersymmetric quantum chromodynamics (SUSY-QCD) in the framework of the 1/N expansion. It is shown that there is no dynamical spontaneous breaking of the supersymmetry. The explicit expression obtained for the low-energy action with allowance for the anomaly is the supersymmetric generalization of the Weinberg-Wess-Zumino-Witten action.
String Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodie, John H
2001-07-25
We consider the 3+1 visible sector to live on a Hanany-Witten D-brane construction in type IIA string theory. The messenger sector consists of stretched strings from the visible brane to a hidden D6-brane in the extra spatial dimensions. In the open string channel supersymmetry is broken by gauge mediation while in the closed string channel supersymmetry is broken by gravity mediation. Hence, we call this kind of mediation ''string mediation''. We propose an extension of the Dimopoulos-Georgi theorem to brane models: only detached probe branes can break supersymmetry without generating a tachyon. Fermion masses are generated at one loop if the branes break a sufficient amount of the ten dimensional Lorentz group while scalar potentials are generated if there is a force between the visible brane and the hidden brane. Scalars can be lifted at two loops through a combination of brane bending and brane forces. We find a large class of stable non-supersymmetric brane configurations of ten dimensional string theory.
Supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Fabio Zwirner
2004-02-01
This talk reviews some aspects of supersymmetry breaking in the presence of extra dimensions. The first part is a general introduction, recalling the motivations for supersymmetry and extra dimensions, as well as some unsolved problems of four-dimensional models of supersymmetry breaking. The central part is a more focused introduction to a mechanism for (super)symmetry breaking, proposed first by Scherk and Schwarz, where extra dimensions play a crucial role. The last part is devoted to the description of some recent results and of some open problems.
Corpuscular Breaking of Supersymmetry
Dvali, Gia
2014-01-01
Are topological solitons elementary or composites? We answer this question by drawing up a corpuscular formalism in which solitons are coherent states of quantum constituents. This naturally leads to a functional integral representation, in which the classical saddle point is reached as the most probable distribution of corpuscles in the $\\hbar = 0$ limit and where quantum corpuscular corrections correspond to excursions away from such a distribution that occur only for finite $\\hbar$. Several striking features come up. Topological charge emerges as a collective flow of quantum numbers carried by individual corpuscles. Moreover, the corpuscular corrections are not reducible to any known form of quantum corrections, such as loop expansions in the coupling constant $\\hbar g^2$ or semiclassical $e^{-1/\\hbar g^2}$ effects. Corpuscular corrections are stronger and appear already at order $\\sqrt{\\hbar g^2}$. In SUSY theories quantum corpuscular corrections generically break supersymmetry. We show that a domain wall...
A Gauge Mediation Model of Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking without Color Instability
Nomura, Y; Yanagida, T; Nomura, Yasunori
1998-01-01
We construct a gauge mediation model of dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) based on a vector-like gauge theory, in which there is a unique color-preserving true vacuum. The DSB scale $\\Lambda$ turns out to be as high as $\\Lambda \\simeq 10^{8-9} GeV$, since the transmission of the DSB effects to the standard model sector is completed through much higher loops. This model is perfectly natural and phenomenologically consistent. We also stress that the dangerous D-term problem for the messenger U(1)_m is automatically solved by a charge conjugation symmetry in the vector-like gauge theory.
Improved single sector supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John
1998-12-09
Building on recent work by N. Arkani-Hamed and the present authors, we construct realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single strongly-coupled sector. The most important improvement compared to earlier models is that the second-generation composite states correspond to dimension-2 ''meson'' operators in the ultraviolet. This leads to a higher scale for flavor physics, and gives a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents. We also construct models in which the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. These models provide an interesting and viable alternative to gravity- and gauge-mediated models. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation squark and slepton masses. We also analyze large classes of models that give rise to both compositeness and supersymmetry breaking, based on gauge theories with confining, fixed-point, or free-magnetic dynamics.
Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking versus Run-away behavior in Supersymmetric Gauge Theories
Shirman, Yu
1996-01-01
We consider Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking (DSB) in models with classical flat directions. We analyze a number of examples, and develop a systematic approach to determine if classical flat directions are stabilized in the full quantum theory, or lead to run-away behavior. In some cases pseudo-flat directions remain even at the quantum level before taking into account corrections to the Kähler potential. We show that in certain limits these corrections are calculable. In particular, we find that in the Intriligator-Thomas $SU(2)$ and its generalizations, a potential for moduli is generated. Moreover, there is a region of the parameter space where Kähler potential corrections lead to calculable (local) minima at large but finite distance from the origin.
Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking
Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne
2013-01-01
We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll paramet
Gauge/gravity duality and meta-stable dynamical supersymmetry breaking
Argurio, R; Franco, S; Kachru, S; Argurio, Riccardo; Bertolini, Matteo; Franco, Sebastian; Kachru, Shamit
2007-01-01
We engineer a class of quiver gauge theories with several interesting features by studying D-branes at a simple Calabi-Yau singularity. At weak 't Hooft coupling we argue using field theory techniques that these theories admit both supersymmetric vacua and meta-stable non-supersymmetric vacua, though the arguments indicating the existence of the supersymmetry breaking states are not decisive. At strong 't Hooft coupling we find simple candidate gravity dual descriptions for both sets of vacua.
Kinematic dynamo, supersymmetry breaking, and chaos
Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Enßlin, Torsten A.
2016-04-01
The kinematic dynamo (KD) describes the growth of magnetic fields generated by the flow of a conducting medium in the limit of vanishing backaction of the fields onto the flow. The KD is therefore an important model system for understanding astrophysical magnetism. Here, the mathematical correspondence between the KD and a specific stochastic differential equation (SDE) viewed from the perspective of the supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS) is discussed. The STS is a novel, approximation-free framework to investigate SDEs. The correspondence reported here permits insights from the STS to be applied to the theory of KD and vice versa. It was previously known that the fast KD in the idealistic limit of no magnetic diffusion requires chaotic flows. The KD-STS correspondence shows that this is also true for the diffusive KD. From the STS perspective, the KD possesses a topological supersymmetry, and the dynamo effect can be viewed as its spontaneous breakdown. This supersymmetry breaking can be regarded as the stochastic generalization of the concept of dynamical chaos. As this supersymmetry breaking happens in both the diffusive and the nondiffusive cases, the necessity of the underlying SDE being chaotic is given in either case. The observed exponentially growing and oscillating KD modes prove physically that dynamical spectra of the STS evolution operator that break the topological supersymmetry exist with both real and complex ground state eigenvalues. Finally, we comment on the nonexistence of dynamos for scalar quantities.
Unified models of the QCD axion and supersymmetry breaking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keisuke Harigaya
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Similarities between the gauge meditation of supersymmetry breaking and the QCD axion model suggest that they originate from the same dynamics. We present a class of models where supersymmetry and the Peccei–Quinn symmetry are simultaneously broken. The messengers that mediate the effects of these symmetry breakings to the Standard Model are identical. Since the axion resides in the supersymmetry breaking sector, the saxion and the axino are heavy. We show constraints on the axion decay constant and the gravitino mass.
Dynamical determination of the unification scale by gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking
1998-01-01
We propose a mechanism for generating the GUT scale dynamically from the Planck scale. The idea is that the GUT scale is fixed by the vacuum expectation value of a "GUT modulus" field whose potential is exactly flat in the supersymmetric limit. If supersymmetry is broken by gauge mediation, a potential for the GUT modulus is generated at 2 loops, and slopes away from the origin for a wide range of parameters. This potential is stabilized by Planck-suppressed operators in the Kahler potential,...
Unconventional supersymmetry and its breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez, Pedro D., E-mail: alvarez@physics.ox.ac.uk [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Pais, Pablo, E-mail: pais@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Zanelli, Jorge, E-mail: z@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile)
2014-07-30
We present a gauge theory for a superalgebra that includes an internal gauge (G) and local Lorentz (so(1,D−1)) algebras. These two symmetries are connected by fermionic supercharges. The field content of the system includes a (non-)abelian gauge potential A, a spin-1/2 Dirac spinor ψ, the Lorentz connection ω{sup ab}, and the vielbein e{sub μ}{sup a}. The connection one-form A is in the adjoint representation of G, while ψ is in the fundamental. In contrast to standard supersymmetry and supergravity, the metric is not a fundamental field and is in the center of the superalgebra: it is not only invariant under the internal gauge group, G, and under Lorentz transformations, SO(1,D−1), but is also invariant under supersymmetry. The distinctive features of this theory that mark the difference with standard supersymmetries are: i) the number of fermionic and bosonic states is not necessarily the same; ii) there are no superpartners with equal mass; iii) although this supersymmetry originates in a local gauge theory and gravity is included, there is no gravitino; iv) fermions acquire mass from their coupling to the background or from higher order self-couplings, while bosons remain massless. In odd dimensions, the Chern–Simons (CS) form provides an action that is (quasi-)invariant under the entire superalgebra. In even dimensions, the Yang–Mills (YM) form is the only natural option and the symmetry breaks down to G⊗SO(1,D−1). In four dimensions, the construction follows the Townsend–Mac Dowell–Mansouri approach, starting with an osp(4|2)∼usp(2,2|1) connection. Due to the absence of osp(4|2)-invariant traces in four dimensions, the resulting Lagrangian is only invariant under u(1)⊕so(3,1), which includes a Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (NJL) term. In this case, the Lagrangian depends on a single dimensionful parameter that fixes Newton's constant, the cosmological constant and the NJL coupling.
Anomalous U(1) as a mediator of Supersymmetry Breaking
Dvali, Gia; Dvali, Gia; Pomarol, Alex
1996-01-01
We point out that an anomalous gauge U(1) symmetry is a natural candida= te for being the mediator and messenger of supersymmetry breaking. It facilitate= s dynamical supersymmetry breaking even in the flat limit. Soft masses are induced by both gravity and the U(1) gauge interactions giving an unusual= mass hierarchy in the sparticle spectrum which suppresses flavor violations. T= his scenario does not suffer from the Polonyi problem.
Supersymmetry breaking made easy, viable, and generic
Murayama, Hitoshi
2007-01-01
The kind of supersymmetry that can be discovered at the LHC must be very much flavor-blind, which used to require very special intelligently designed models of supersymmetry breaking. This led to the pessimism for some in the community that it is not likely for the LHC to discover supersymmetry. I point out that this is not so, because a garden-variety supersymmetric theories actually can do this job.
Dirac neutrino masses from generalized supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Demir, D.A. [Izmir Institute of Technology, IZTECH, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Physics]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Everett, L.L. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States), Dept. of Physics; Langacker, P. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences
2007-12-15
We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the Standard Model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the usual superpotential Yukawa couplings are forbidden by the additional gauge symmetry (such as a U(1){sup '}), effective Dirac mass terms involving the ''wrong Higgs'' field can arise either at tree level due to hard supersymmetry breaking fermion Yukawa couplings, or at one-loop due to nonanalytic or ''nonholomorphic'' soft supersymmetry breaking trilinear scalar couplings. As both of these operators are naturally suppressed in generic models of supersymmetry breaking, the resulting neutrino masses are naturally in the sub-eV range. The neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments resulting from the radiative mechanism also vanish at one-loop order. (orig.)
Gravitino condensation, supersymmetry breaking and inflation
Houston, N
2015-01-01
Motivated by dualistic considerations of the reality of quark condensation in quantum chromodynamics, and the connections of supergravity to the exotic physics of string and M-theory, in this thesis we investigate the dynamical breaking of local supersymmetry via gravitino condensation. We firstly demonstrate non-perturbative gravitino mass generation via this mechanism in flat spacetime, and from this derive the condensate mode wavefunction renormalisation. By then calculating the full canonically normalised one-loop effective potential for the condensate mode about a de Sitter background, we demonstrate that, contrary to claims in the literature, this process may both occur and function in a phenomenologically viable manner. In particular, we find that outside of certain unfortunate gauge choices, the stability of the condensate is intimately tied via gravitational degrees of freedom to the sign of the tree-level cosmological constant. Furthermore, we find that the energy density liberated may provide the n...
Inverse Supersymmetry Breaking in S1 × R3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasilis Oikonomou
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the influence of hard supersymmetry breaking terms in a N = 1, d = 4 supersymmetric model, in S1 × R3 spacetime topology. It is shown that when the radius of the compact dimension is large supersymmetry is unbroken, and dynamically breaks as the radius decreases. We point out that this resembles the inverse symmetry breaking of continuous symmetries at finite temperature (however, in the case of supersymmetry, the role of the temperature is played by the compact dimension’s radius. Furthermore, we also find a universality in the dependence of the critical length Lc as a function of a coupling g3, after comparing all cases.
Variations on supersymmetry breaking and neutrino spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borzumati, F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Nomura, Y.; Yanagida, T.
2000-12-11
The problem of generating light neutrinos within supersymmetric models is discussed. It is shown that the hierarchy of scales induced by supersymmetry breaking can give rise to suppression factors of the correct order of magnitude to produce experimentally allowed neutrino spectra.
Supernatural supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Jonathan L. [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Moroi, Takeo [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2000-05-01
We discuss the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. Such a scenario is envisioned to arise when supersymmetry breaking takes place in another world, i.e., on another brane. We review the anomaly-mediated framework and study in detail the minimal anomaly-mediated model parametrized by only 3+1 parameters: M{sub aux}, m{sub 0}, tan {beta}, and sgn({mu}). The renormalization group equations exhibit a novel ''focus point'' (as opposed to fixed point) behavior, which allows squark and slepton masses far above their usual naturalness bounds. We present the superparticle spectrum and highlight several implications for high energy colliders. Three lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) candidates exist: the W-ino, the stau, and the tau sneutrino. For the W-ino LSP scenario, light W-ino triplets with the smallest possible mass splittings are preferred; such W-inos are within reach of run II Fermilab Tevatron searches. Finally, we study a variety of sensitive low energy probes, including b{yields}s{gamma}, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the electric dipole moments of the electron and neutron. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Supernatural supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking
Feng, Jonathan L.; Moroi, Takeo
2000-05-01
We discuss the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. Such a scenario is envisioned to arise when supersymmetry breaking takes place in another world, i.e., on another brane. We review the anomaly-mediated framework and study in detail the minimal anomaly-mediated model parametrized by only 3+1 parameters: Maux, m0, tan β, and sgn(μ). The renormalization group equations exhibit a novel ``focus point'' (as opposed to fixed point) behavior, which allows squark and slepton masses far above their usual naturalness bounds. We present the superparticle spectrum and highlight several implications for high energy colliders. Three lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) candidates exist: the W-ino, the stau, and the tau sneutrino. For the W-ino LSP scenario, light W-ino triplets with the smallest possible mass splittings are preferred; such W-inos are within reach of run II Fermilab Tevatron searches. Finally, we study a variety of sensitive low energy probes, including b-->sγ, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the electric dipole moments of the electron and neutron.
Metastable spontaneous breaking of N = 2 supersymmetry
Légeret, Benoît; Scrucca, Claudio A.; Smyth, Paul
2013-05-01
We show that contrary to the common lore it is possible to spontaneously break N = 2 supersymmetry even in simple theories without constant Fayet-Iliopoulos terms. We consider the most general N = 2 supersymmetric theory with one hypermultiplet and one vector multiplet without Fayet-Iliopoulos terms, and show that metastable supersymmetry breaking vacua can arise if both the hyper-Kähler and the special-Kähler geometries are suitably curved. We then also prove that while all the scalars can be massive, the lightest one is always lighter than the vector boson. Finally, we argue that these results also directly imply that metastable de Sitter vacua can exist in N = 2 supergravity theories with Abelian gaugings and no Fayet-Iliopoulos terms, again contrary to common lore, at least if the cosmological constant is sufficiently large.
Metastable spontaneous breaking of N=2 supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Légeret, Benoît; Scrucca, Claudio A., E-mail: claudio.scrucca@epfl.ch; Smyth, Paul
2013-05-24
We show that contrary to the common lore it is possible to spontaneously break N=2 supersymmetry even in simple theories without constant Fayet–Iliopoulos terms. We consider the most general N=2 supersymmetric theory with one hypermultiplet and one vector multiplet without Fayet–Iliopoulos terms, and show that metastable supersymmetry breaking vacua can arise if both the hyper-Kähler and the special-Kähler geometries are suitably curved. We then also prove that while all the scalars can be massive, the lightest one is always lighter than the vector boson. Finally, we argue that these results also directly imply that metastable de Sitter vacua can exist in N=2 supergravity theories with Abelian gaugings and no Fayet–Iliopoulos terms, again contrary to common lore, at least if the cosmological constant is sufficiently large.
Generalized geometry and partial supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Triendl, Hagen Mathias
2010-08-15
This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part we use the formalism of (exceptional) generalized geometry to derive the scalar field space of SU(2) x SU(2)-structure compactifications. We show that in contrast to SU(3) x SU(3) structures, there is no dynamical SU(2) x SU(2) structure interpolating between an SU(2) structure and an identity structure. Furthermore, we derive the scalar manifold of the low-energy effective action for consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations as expected from N = 4 supergravity. In the second part we then determine the general conditions for the existence of stable Minkowski and AdS N = 1 vacua in spontaneously broken gauged N = 2 supergravities and construct the general solution under the assumption that two appropriate commuting isometries exist in the hypermultiplet sector. Furthermore, we derive the low-energy effective action below the scale of partial supersymmetry breaking and show that it satisfies the constraints of N = 1 supergravity. We then apply the discussion to special quaternionic-Kaehler geometries which appear in the low-energy limit of SU(3) x SU(3)-structure compactifications and construct Killing vectors with the right properties. Finally we discuss the string theory realizations for these solutions. (orig.)
Mediation of supersymmetry breaking in extra dimensions
Scrucca, C A
2004-01-01
I review the mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking mediation that occur in sequestered models, where the visible and the hidden sectors are separated by an extra dimension and communicate only via gravitational interactions. By locality, soft breaking terms are forbidden at the classical level and reliably computable within an effective field theory approach at the quantum level. I present a self-contained discussion of these radiative gravitational effects and the resulting pattern of soft masses, and give an overview of realistic model building based on this set-up. I consider both flat and warped extra dimensions, as well as the possibility that there be localized kinetic terms for the gravitational fields.
Strongly Coupled Semi-Direct Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibe, M.; /SLAC; Izawa, K.-I.; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto /Tokyo U., IPMU; Nakai, Y.; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto
2011-09-13
Supersymmetry (SUSY) is expected to be a crucial ingredient of basic laws in Nature. It is an attractive possibility that SUSY is broken at low energy within the experimental reach in the near future. Among others, low-energy dynamics with gauge mediation between a hidden sector of SUSY breaking and the visible sector of SUSY standard model may be phenomenologically viable. In particular, the gauge interactions are flavor blind, so that the unwanted flavor-changing processes are naturally suppressed. Strongly coupled semi-direct gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking through massive mediators with standard model charges are investigated by means of composite degrees of freedom. Sizable mediation is realized to generate the standard model gaugino masses for a small mediator mass without breaking the standard model symmetries.
Dirac Gauginos in Low Scale Supersymmetry Breaking
Goodsell, Mark D
2014-01-01
It has been claimed that Dirac gaugino masses are necessary for realistic models of low-scale supersymmetry breaking, and yet very little attention has been paid to the phenomenology of a light gravitino when gauginos have Dirac masses. We begin to address this deficit by investigating the couplings and phenomenology of the gravitino in the effective Lagrangian approach. We pay particular attention to the phenomenology of the scalar octets, where new decay channels open up. This leads us to propose a new simplified effective scenario including only light gluinos, sgluons and gravitinos, allowing the squarks to be heavy -- with the possible exception of the third generation. Finally, we comment on the application of our results to Fake Split Supersymmetry.
Dirac gauginos in low scale supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goodsell, Mark D., E-mail: mark.goodsell@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); Tziveloglou, Pantelis, E-mail: pantelis.tziveloglou@vub.ac.be [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium)
2014-12-15
It has been claimed that Dirac gaugino masses are necessary for realistic models of low-scale supersymmetry breaking, and yet very little attention has been paid to the phenomenology of a light gravitino when gauginos have Dirac masses. We begin to address this deficit by investigating the couplings and phenomenology of the gravitino in the effective Lagrangian approach. We pay particular attention to the phenomenology of the scalar octets, where new decay channels open up. This leads us to propose a new simplified effective scenario including only light gluinos, sgluons and gravitinos, allowing the squarks to be heavy – with the possible exception of the third generation. Finally, we comment on the application of our results to Fake Split Supersymmetry.
Tree Level Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nardecchia, Marco, E-mail: marco.nardecchia@sissa.it [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy)
2010-11-01
We propose a new scheme in which supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the MSSM sfermions by GUT gauge interactions at the tree level. The (positive) contribution of MSSM fields to Str(M{sup 2}) is automatically compensated by a (negative) contribution from heavy fields. Sfermion masses are flavour universal, thus solving the supersymmetric flavour problem. In the simplest SO(10) embedding, the ratio of different sfermion masses is predicted and differs from mSugra and other schemes, thus making this framework testable at the LHC. Gaugino masses are generated at the loop level but enhanced by model dependent factors.
A Model of Direct Gauge Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murayama, H. [Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
1997-07-01
We present the first phenomenologically viable model of gauge meditation of supersymmetry breaking without a messenger sector or gauge singlet fields. The standard model gauge groups couple directly to the sector which breaks supersymmetry dynamically. Despite the direct coupling, it can preserve perturbative gauge unification thanks to the inverted hierarchy mechanism. There is no dangerous negative contribution to m{sup 2}{sub {tilde q}} , m{sup 2}{sub {tilde l}} due to two-loop renormalization group equation. The potentially nonuniversal supergravity contribution to m{sup 2}{sub {tilde q}} and m{sup 2}{sub {tilde l}} can be suppressed enough. The model is completely chiral, and one does not need to forbid mass terms for the messenger fields by hand. Cosmology of the model is briefly discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
A New Venue of Spontaneous Supersymmetry Breaking in Supergravity
Guendelman, Eduardo; Pacheva, Svetlana; Vasihoun, Mahary
2015-01-01
We present a qualitatively new mechanism for dynamical spontaneous breakdown of supersymmetry in supergravity. Specifically, we construct a modified formulation of standard minimal N=1 supergravity as well as of anti-de Sitter supergravity in terms of a non-Riemannian spacetime volume-form (generally covariant integration measure density). The new supergravity formalism naturally triggers the appearance of a dynamically generated cosmological constant as an arbitrary integration constant which signifies spontaneous (dynamical) breaking of supersymmetry. Applying the new formalism to anti-de Sitter supergravity allows us to appropriately choose the above mentioned arbitrary integration constant so as to obtain simultaneously a very small effective observable cosmological constant as well as a large physical gravitino mass as required by modern cosmological scenarios for slowly expanding universe of the present epoch.
Metastable Supersymmetry Breaking and Minimal Gauge Mediation on Branes
Halyo, Edi
2010-01-01
We construct a model with D5 branes wrapped on a deformed and resolved $A_6$ singularity which realizes metastable supersymmetry breaking and minimal gauge mediation. Supersymmetry is broken at tree level by the F--term of singlet which also obtains a VEV as required in gauge mediation. Three nodes of the singularity are used to break supersymmetry whereas the other three realize gauge mediation. The supersymmetry breaking scale is suppressed due to brane instanton effects which are computed using a geometric transition.
Large-field inflation and supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchmueller, Wilfried; Wieck, Clemens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Dudas, Emilian; Heurtier, Lucien [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). CPht
2014-07-15
Large-field inflation is an interesting and predictive scenario. Its non-trivial embedding in supergravity was intensively studied in the recent literature, whereas its interplay with supersymmetry breaking has been less thoroughly investigated. We consider the minimal viable model of chaotic inflation in supergravity containing a stabilizer field, and add a Polonyi field. Furthermore, we study two possible extensions of the minimal setup. We show that there are various constraints: first of all, it is very hard to couple an O'Raifeartaigh sector with the inflaton sector, the simplest viable option being to couple them only through gravity. Second, even in the simplest model the gravitino mass is bounded from above parametrically by the inflaton mass. Therefore, high-scale supersymmetry breaking is hard to implement in a chaotic inflation setup. As a separate comment we analyze the simplest chaotic inflation construction without a stabilizer field, together with a supersymmetrically stabilized Kaehler modulus. Without a modulus, the potential of such a model is unbounded from below. We show that a heavy modulus cannot solve this problem.
D-branes, Supersymmetry Breaking, and Neutrinos
Seo, Jihye
2010-01-01
This thesis studies meta- and exactly stable supersymmetry breaking mechanisms in heterotic and type IIB string theories and constructs an F-theory Grand Unified Theory model for neutrino physics in which neutrino mass is determined by the supersymmetry breaking mechanism. Focussing attention on heterotic string theory compactified on a 4-torus, stability of non-supersymmetric states is studied. A non-supersymmetric state with robust stability is constructed, and its exact stability is proven in a large region of moduli space of T^4 against all the possible decay mechanisms allowed by charge conservation. Using string-string duality, the results are interpreted in terms of Dirichlet-branes in type IIA string theory compactified on an orbifold limit of a K3 surface. In type IIB string theory, metastable and exactly stable non-supersymmetric systems are constructed using D-branes and Calabi-Yau geometry. Branes and anti-branes wrap rigid and separate 2-spheres inside a non-compact Calabi-Yau three-fold: supersy...
Mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking in the minimal supersymmetric standard model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Probir Roy
2003-02-01
We provide a bird’s eyeview of current ideas on supersymmetry breaking mechanisms in the MSSM. The essentials of gauge, gravity, anomaly and gaugino/higgsino mediation mechanisms are covered brieﬂy and the phenomenology of the associated models is touched upon. A few statement are also made on braneworld supersymmetry breaking.
Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking via Anti-Generation Fields
Ito, M
2000-01-01
In the context of the weakly coupled heterotic string, we propose a new model of mediating supersymmetry breaking. The breakdown of supersymmetry in the hidden sector is transmitted to anti-generation fields via gravitational interactions. Subsequent transmission of the breaking to the MSSM sector occurs via gauge interactions. It is shown that the mass spectra of superparticles are phenomenologically viable.
Kinematic Dynamo, Supersymmetry Breaking, and Chaos
Ovchinnikov, Igor V
2015-01-01
The kinematic dynamo (KD) describes the growth of magnetic fields generated by the flow of a conducting medium in the limit of vanishing backaction of the fields onto the flow. The KD is therefore an important model system for understanding astrophysical magnetism. Here, the mathematical correspondence between the KD and a specific stochastic differential equation (SDE) viewed from the perspective of the supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS) is discussed. The STS is a novel, approximation-free framework to investigate SDEs. The correspondence reported here permits insights from the STS to be applied to the theory of KD and vice versa. It was previously known that the fast KD in the idealistic limit of no magnetic diffusion requires chaotic flows. The KD-STS correspondence shows that this is also true for the diffusive KD. From the STS perspective, the KD possesses a topological supersymmetry and the dynamo effect can be viewed as its spontaneous breakdown. This supersymmetry breaking can be regarded as t...
On Supersymmetry Breaking in String Theory and its Realization in Brane Worlds
Mayr, Peter
2001-01-01
We use string duality to describe instanton induced spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in string compactifications with additional background fields. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking by space-time instantons in the heterotic string theory is mapped to a tree level breaking in the type II string which can be explicitly calculated by geometric methods. It is argued that the instanton corrections resurrect the no-go theorem on partial supersymmetry breaking. The point particle limit describes the non-perturbative scalar potential of a SYM theory localized on a hypersurface of space-time. The N=0 vacuum displays condensation of magnetic monopoles and confinement. The supersymmetry breaking scale is determined by $M_{str}$, which can be in the TeV range, and the geometry transverse to the gauge theory.
Low Scale Supersymmetry Breaking and its LHC Signatures
Dudas, Emilian; Tziveloglou, Pantelis
2013-01-01
We study the most general extension of the MSSM Lagrangian that includes scenarios in which supersymmetry is spontaneously broken at a low scale f. The spurion that parametrizes supersymmetry breaking in the MSSM is promoted to a dynamical superfield involving the goldstino, with (and without) its scalar superpartner, the sgoldstino. The low energy effective Lagrangian is written as an expansion in terms of m_{SUSY}/sqrt{f}, where m_{SUSY} is the induced supersymmetry breaking scale, and contains, in addition to the usual MSSM Lagrangian with the soft terms, couplings involving the component fields of the goldstino superfield and the MSSM fields. This Lagrangian can provide significant corrections to the usual couplings in the Standard Model and the MSSM. We study how these new corrections affect the Higgs couplings to gauge bosons and fermions, and how LHC bounds can be used in order to constrain f. We also discuss that, from the effective field theory point of view, the couplings of the goldstino interactio...
Scanning of the supersymmetry breaking scale and the gravitino mass in supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farakos, Fotis [Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei”, Universita di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Kehagias, Alex [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Racco, Davide; Riotto, Antonio [Department of Theoretical Physics and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)
2016-06-21
We consider the minimal three-form N=1 supergravity coupled to nilpotent three-form chiral superfields. The supersymmetry breaking is sourced by the three-forms of the chiral multiplets, while the value of the gravitino mass is controlled by the three-form of the supergravity multiplet. The three-forms can nucleate membranes which scan both the supersymmetry breaking scale and the gravitino mass. The peculiar supergravity feature that the cosmological constant is the sum of a positive contribution from the supersymmetry breaking scale and a negative contribution from the gravitino mass makes the cosmological constant jump. This can lead to a phenomenologically allowed small value of the cosmological constant even though the supersymmetry breaking scale and the gravitino mass are dynamically large.
Scanning of the Supersymmetry Breaking Scale and the Gravitino Mass in Supergravity
Farakos, Fotis; Racco, Davide; Riotto, Antonio
2016-01-01
We consider the minimal three-form ${\\cal N}=1$ supergravity coupled to nilpotent three-form chiral superfields. The supersymmetry breaking is sourced by the three-forms of the chiral multiplets, while the value of the gravitino mass is controlled by the three-form of the supergravity multiplet. The three-forms can nucleate membranes which scan both the supersymmetry breaking scale and the gravitino mass. The peculiar supergravity feature that the cosmological constant is the sum of a positive contribution from the supersymmetry breaking scale and a negative contribution from the gravitino mass makes the cosmological constant jump. This can lead to a phenomenologically allowed small value of the cosmological constant even though the supersymmetry breaking scale and the gravitino mass are dynamically large.
Majorana Fermions, Supersymmetry Breaking, and Born-Infeld Theory
Ferrara, Sergio; Yeranyan, Armen
2015-01-01
This review is devoted to highlight some aspects of the relevance of Majorana fermions in rigid supersymmetry breaking in four spacetime dimensions. After introducing some basic facts on spinors, and on their symmetries and reality properties, we consider Goldstino actions describing partial breaking of rigid supersymmetry, then focussing on Born-Infeld non-linear theory, its duality symmetry, and its supersymmetric extensions, also including multi-field generalizations exhibiting doubly self-duality.
A Second Supersymmetry in Thermo Field Dynamics
Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.
2003-01-01
This article is an extension of the work done in \\cite{partha} by R. Parthasarathy and R. Sridhar. There they consider supersymmetry in an enlarged thermal system (in a thermo field dynamic formulation) and show that this supersymmetry is not broken at finite temperature. Here we show, using an SU(1,1) R-symmetry, that this system obeys a second supersymmetry. In addition, we proceed to see that this new supersymmetry also remains unbroken at finite temperatures.
Supersymmetry Breaking due to Moduli Stabilization in String Theory
Linde, Andrei; Olive, Keith A
2011-01-01
We consider the phenomenological consequences of fixing compactification moduli. In the simplest KKLT constructions, stabilization of internal dimensions is rather soft: weak scale masses for moduli are generated, and are of order m_\\sigma ~ m_{3/2}. As a consequence one obtains a pattern of soft supersymmetry breaking masses found in gravity and/or anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) models. These models may lead to destabilization of internal dimensions in the early universe, unless the Hubble constant during inflation is very small. Fortunately, strong stabilization of compactified dimensions can be achieved by a proper choice of the superpotential (e.g in the KL model with a racetrack superpotential). This allows for a solution of the cosmological moduli problem and for a successful implementation of inflation in supergravity. We show that strong moduli stabilization leads a very distinct pattern of soft supersymmetry breaking masses. In general, we find that soft scalar masses remain of order ...
Supersymmetry breaking metastable vacua in runaway quiver gauge theories
Garcia-Etxebarria, Inaki; Uranga, Angel M
2007-01-01
In this paper we consider quiver gauge theories with fractional branes whose infrared dynamics removes the classical supersymmetric vacua (DSB branes). We show that addition of flavors to these theories (via additional non-compact branes) leads to local meta-stable supersymmetry breaking minima, closely related to those of SQCD with massive flavors. We simplify the study of the one-loop lifting of the accidental classical flat directions by direct computation of the pseudomoduli masses via Feynman diagrams. This new approach allows to obtain analytic results for all these theories. This work extends the results for the $dP_1$ theory in hep-th/0607218. The new approach allows to generalize the computation to general examples of DSB branes, and for arbitrary values of the superpotential couplings.
Supersymmetry breaking effects by analytic continuation into superspace
Rattazzi, Riccardo
1999-01-01
I consider theories where supersymmetry breaking is communicated by renormalizable interactions and generated by the vacuum expectation value of a chiral superfield X=M+ theta /sup 2/F. I show that soft terms for the observable fields can be obtained by continuing the renormalization group and the matching procedure into superspace. The superspectrum is just determined by anomalous dimensions and beta functions, with no need to further compute any Feynman diagrams. This method greatly simplifies calculations that are rather involved if performed in components. For illustration I reproduce known results for theories with gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. I then use the method to obtain new results of phenomenological importance. (15 refs).
Supersymmetry Breaking by the Right-Handed Tau Neutrino
Halyo, Edi
2011-01-01
We describe supersymmetry breaking by the F-term of a heavy right-handed tau neutrino with a VEV. Due to the the tau neutrino Yukawa coupling, the neutralino, chargino and scalar mass matrices and the weak currents are modified. In addition, there are new cubic and quartic scalar and trilinear R parity violating interactions. For large $\\tan \\beta$ these effects may be quite large. The scenario requires low energy supersymmetry breaking with generic values of $F \\sim 10^{10}$~GeV.
Supersymmetry breaking in the Nambu - Jona-Lasinio approach
Peschanski, R; Peschanski, R; Savoy, C A
1995-01-01
Gaugino condensation in the hidden sector of supergravity models is described within a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type of approach by minimization of a one-loop scalar potential. The essential ingredients of the mechanism are auxiliary superfields whose v.e.v. generate gaugino condensation and supersymmetry breaking, introduced through Lagrange multipliers. For phenomenologically acceptable values of the gauge couplings, gaugino condensation is disfavoured in this approach. For completeness, it is shown that supersymmetry breaking would occur for a stronger coupling, but at a scale inconsistent with the expectations.
Holomorphic Bisectional Curvatures, Supersymmetry Breaking, and Affleck-Dine Baryogenesis
Dutta, Bhaskar
2012-01-01
Working in $D=4, N=1$ supergravity, we utilize relations between holomorphic sectional and bisectional curvatures of Kahler manifolds to constrain Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. We show the following No-Go result: Affleck-Dine baryogenesis cannot be performed if the holomorphic sectional curvature at the origin is isotropic in tangent space; as a special case, this rules out spaces of constant holomorphic sectional curvature (defined in the above sense) and in particular maximally symmetric coset spaces. We also investigate scenarios where inflationary supersymmetry breaking is identified with the supersymmetry breaking responsible for mass splitting in the visible sector, using conditions of sequestering to constrain manifolds where inflation can be performed.
Low-energy supersymmetry breaking and fermion mass hierarchies
Gherghetta, Tony; Poppitz, E R; Gherghetta, Tony; Jungman, Gerard; Poppitz, Erich
1995-01-01
In models with low-energy supersymmetry breaking, an anomalous Abelian horizontal gauge symmetry can simultaneously explain the fermion mass hierarchy and the values of the \\mu and B terms. We construct an explicit model where the anomaly is cancelled by the Green-Schwarz mechanism at the string scale. We show that with our charge assignments, the breaking of the horizontal symmetry generates the correct order of magnitude and correct hierarchy for all Yukawa couplings.
Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking on the lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wenger, Urs [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)
2013-07-01
We discuss various strategies for regularising supersymmetric quantum field theories on a space-time lattice. In general, simulations of lattice models with spontaneously broken supersymmetry suffer from a fermion sign problem related to the vanishing of the Witten index. We discuss a novel approach which evades this problem in low dimensions by formulating the path integral on the lattice in terms of fermion loops. Then we present exact results on the spectrum and the Witten index for N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics and results from simulations of the spontaneously broken N=1 Wess-Zumino model.
Bulk gauge fields in warped space and localized supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chacko, Z.; Ponton, Eduardo
2003-11-01
We consider five dimensional supersymmetric warped scenarios in which the Standard Model quark and lepton fields are localized on the ultraviolet brane, while the Standard Model gauge fields propagate in the bulk. Supersymmetry is assumed to be broken on the infrared brane. The relative sizes of supersymmetry breaking effects are found to depend on the hierarchy between the infrared scale and the weak scale. If the infrared scale is much larger than the weak scale the leading supersymmetry breaking effect on the visible brane is given by gaugino mediation. The gaugino masses at the weak scale are proportional to the square of the corresponding gauge coupling, while the dominant contribution to the scalar masses arises from logarithmically enhanced radiative effects involving the gaugino mass that are cutoff at the infrared scale. While the LSP is the gravitino, the NLSP which is the stau is stable on collider time scales. If however the infrared scale is close to the weak scale then the effects of hard supersymmetry breaking operators on the scalar masses can become comparable to those from gaugino mediation. These operators alter the relative strengths of the couplings of gauge bosons and gauginos to matter, and give loop contributions to the scalar masses that are also cutoff at the infrared scale. The gaugino masses, while exhibiting a more complicated dependence on the corresponding gauge coupling, remain hierarchical and become proportional to the corresponding gauge coupling in the limit of strong supersymmetry breaking. The scalar masses are finite and a loop factor smaller than the gaugino masses. The LSP remains the gravitino.
Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking and neutrino anomalies
Joshipura, A S; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Vempati, Sudhir K.
1999-01-01
Supersymmetric standard model with softly broken lepton symmetry provides a suitable framework to accommodate the solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies. This model contains a natural explanation for large mixing and hierarchal masses without fine tuning of the parameters. Neutrino spectrum is particularly constrained in the minimal messenger model (MMM) of gauge mediated SUSY breaking, since all SUSY breaking effects are controlled in MMM by a single parameter. We study the structure of neutrino masses and mixing both in MMM and in simple extensions of it in the context of solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies.
Extracting Supersymmetry-Breaking Effects from Wave-Function Renormalization
Giudice, Gian Francesco
1998-01-01
We show that in theories in which supersymmetry breaking is communicated by renormalizable perturbative interactions, it is possible to extract the soft terms for the observable fields from wave-function renormalization. Therefore all the information about soft terms can be obtained from anomalous dimensions and beta functions, with no need to further compute any Feynman diagram. This method greatly simplifies calculations which are rather involved if performed in terms of component fields. For illustrative purposes we reproduce known results of theories with gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking. We then use our method to obtain new results of phenomenological importance. We calculate the next-to-leading correction to the Higgs mass parameters, the two-loop soft terms induced by messenger-matter superpotential couplings, and the soft terms generated by messengers belonging to vector supermultiplets.
Note on moduli stabilization, supersymmetry breaking and axiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Higaki, Tetsutaro [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2011-06-15
We study properties of moduli stabilization in the four dimensional N=1 supergravity theory with heavy moduli and would-be saxion-axion multiplets including light string-theoretic axions. We give general formulation for the scenario that heavy moduli and saxions are stabilized while axions remain light, assuming that moduli are stabilized near the supersymmetric solution. One can find stable vacuum, i.e. nontachyonic saxions, in the non-supersymmetric Minkowski vacua. We also discuss the cases, where the moduli are coupled to the supersymmetry breaking sector and/or moduli have contributions to supersymmetry breaking. Furthermore we study the models with axions originating from matter-like fields. Our analysis on moduli stabilization is applicable even if there are not light axion multiplets. (orig.)
Supersymmetry Breaking and the Cosmological Constant
Banks, T
2014-01-01
I review three attempts to explain the small value of the cosmological constant, and their connection to SUSY breaking. They are The String Landscape, Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLED), and the Holographic Space-time Formalism invented by Fischler and myself.
Observations on the partial breaking of N=2 rigid supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Andrianopoli
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We study the partial breaking of N=2 rigid supersymmetry for a generic rigid special geometry of n abelian vector multiplets in the presence of Fayet–Iliopoulos terms induced by the hyper-Kähler momentum map. By exhibiting the symplectic structure of the problem we give invariant conditions for the breaking to occur, which rely on a quartic invariant of the Fayet–Iliopoulos charges as well as on a modification of the N=2 rigid symmetry algebra by a vector central charge.
Supersymmetry Breaking, Gauge Mediation, and the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shih, David [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)
2015-04-14
Gauge mediated SUSY breaking (GMSB) is a promising class of supersymmetric models that automatically satisfies the precision constraints. Prior work of Meade, Seiberg and Shih in 2008 established the full, model-independent parameter space of GMSB, which they called "General Gauge Mediation" (GGM). During the first half of 2010-2015, Shih and his collaborators thoroughly explored the parameter space of GGM and established many well-motivated benchmark models for use by the experimentalists at the LHC. Through their work, the current constraints on GGM from LEP, the Tevatron and the LHC were fully elucidated, together with the possible collider signatures of GMSB at the LHC. This ensured that the full discovery potential for GGM could be completely realized at the LHC.
ATLAS diboson excess from low scale supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petersson, Christoffer [Department of Fundamental Physics, Chalmers University of Technology,412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); International Solvay Institutes,1050 Brussels (Belgium); Torre, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)
2016-01-18
We provide an interpretation of the recent ATLAS diboson excess in terms of a class of supersymmetric models in which the scale of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking is in the few TeV range. The particle responsible for the excess is the scalar superpartner of the Goldstone fermion associated with SUSY breaking, the sgoldstino. This scalar couples strongly to the Standard Model vector bosons and weakly to the fermions, with all coupling strengths determined by ratios of soft SUSY breaking parameters over the SUSY breaking scale. Explaining the ATLAS excess selects particular relations and ranges for the gaugino masses, while imposing no constraints on the other superpartner masses. Moreover, this signal hypothesis predicts a rate in the Zγ final state that is expected to be observable at the LHC Run II already with a few fb{sup −1} of integrated luminosity.
Low-scale Inflation and Supersymmetry Breaking in Racetrack Models
Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Sinha, Kuver
2009-01-01
In many moduli stabilization schemes in string theory, the scale of inflation appears to be of the same order as the scale of supersymmetry breaking. For low-scale supersymmetry breaking, therefore, the scale of inflation should also be low, unless this correlation is avoided in specific models. We explore such a low-scale inflationary scenario in a racetrack model with a single modulus in type IIB string theory. Inflation occurs near a point of inflection in the K\\"ahler modulus potential. Obtaining acceptable cosmological density perturbations leads to the introduction of magnetized D7-branes sourcing non-perturbative superpotentials. The gravitino mass, m_{3/2}, is chosen to be around 30 TeV, so that gravitinos that are produced in the inflaton decay do not affect big-bang nucleosynthesis. Supersymmetry is communicated to the visible sector by a mixture of anomaly and modulus mediation. We find that the two sources contribute equally to the gaugino masses, while scalar masses are decided mainly by anomaly ...
Soft Supersymmetry Breaking in Anisotropic LARGE Volume Compactifications
Angus, Stephen
2014-01-01
We study soft supersymmetry breaking terms for anisotropic LARGE volume compactifications, where the bulk volume is set by a fibration with one small four-cycle and one large two-cycle. We consider scenarios where D7s wrap either a blow-up cycle or the small fibre cycle. Chiral matter can arise either from modes parallel or perpendicular to the brane. We compute soft terms for this matter and find that for the case where the D7 brane wraps the fibre cycle the scalar masses can be parametrically different, allowing a possible splitting of third-generation soft terms.
6D supergravity. Warped solution and gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luedeling, C.
2006-07-15
We consider compactified six-dimensional gauged supergravity and find the general warped solution with four-dimensional maximal symmetry. Important features of the solution such as the number and position of singularities are determined by a free holomorphic function. Furthermore, in a particular torus compactification we derive the supergravity coupling of brane fields by the Noether procedure and investigate gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking. The effective Kaehler potential is not sequestered, yet tree level gravity mediation is absent as long as the superpotential is independent of the radius modulus. (orig.)
Supersymmetry in a sector of Higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking
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Knochel, Alexander Karl
2009-05-11
In this thesis we have investigated phenomenological implications which arise for cosmology and collider physics when the electroweak symmetry breaking sector of warped higgsless models is extended to include warped supersymmetry with conserved R parity. The goal was to find the simplest supersymmetric extension of these models which still has a realistic light spectrum including a viable dark matter candidate. To accomplish this, we have used the same mechanism which is already at work for symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector to break supersymmetry as well, namely symmetry breaking by boundary conditions. While supersymmetry in five dimensions contains four supercharges and is therefore directly related to 4D N=2 supersymmetry, half of them are broken by the background leaving us with ordinary N=1 theory in the massless sector after Kaluza-Klein expansion. We thus use boundary conditions to model the effects of a breaking mechanism for the remaining two supercharges. The simplest viable scenario to investigate is a supersymmetric bulk and IR brane without supersymmetry on the UV brane. Even though parts of the light spectrum are effectively projected out by this mechanism, we retain the rich phenomenology of complete N=2 supermultiplets in the Kaluza-Klein sector. While the light supersymmetric spectrum consists of electroweak gauginos which get their O(100 GeV) masses from IR brane electroweak symmetry breaking, the light gluinos and squarks are projected out on the UV brane. The neutralinos, as mass eigenstates of the neutral bino-wino sector, are automatically the lightest gauginos, making them LSP dark matter candidates with a relic density that can be brought to agreement withWMAP measurements without extensive tuning of parameters. For chargino masses close to the experimental lower bounds at around m{sub {chi}{sup +}}{approx}100.. 110 GeV, the dark matter relic density points to LSP masses of around m{sub {chi}}{approx}90 GeV. At the LHC, the
Brane to brane gravity mediation of supersymmetry breaking
Rattazzi, Riccardo; Strumia, A; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Scrucca, Claudio A.; Strumia, Alessandro
2003-01-01
We extend the results of Mirabelli and Peskin to supergravity. We study the compactification on S_1/Z_2 of Zucker's off-shell formulation of 5D supergravity and its coupling to matter at the fixed points. We clarify some issues related to the off-shell description of supersymmetry breaking a la Scherk-Schwarz (here employed only as a technical tool) discussing how to deal with singular gravitino wave functions. We then consider `visible' and `hidden' chiral superfields localized at the two different fixed points and communicating only through 5D supergravity. We compute the one-loop corrections that mix the two sectors and the radion superfield. Locality in 5D ensures the calculability of these effects, which transmit supersymmetry breaking from the hidden to the visible sector. In the minimal set-up visible-sector scalars get a universal squared mass m_0^2 < 0. In general (e.g. in presence of a sizable gravitational kinetic term localized on the hidden brane) the radion-mediated contribution to m_0^2 can ...
A Definitive Signal of Multiple Supersymmetry Breaking at the LHC
Cheung, Clifford; Nomura, Yasunori; Thaler, Jesse
2010-01-01
If the lightest observable-sector supersymmetric particle (LOSP) is charged and long-lived, then it may be possible to indirectly measure the Planck mass at the LHC and provide a spectacular confirmation of supergravity as a symmetry of nature. Unfortunately, this proposal is only feasible if the gravitino is heavy enough to be measured at colliders, and this condition is in direct conflict with constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). In this work, we show that the BBN bound can be naturally evaded in the presence of multiple sectors which independently break supersymmetry, since there is a new decay channel of the LOSP to a goldstino. Certain regions of parameter space allow for a direct measurement of LOSP decays into both the goldstino and the gravitino at the LHC. If the goldstino/gravitino mass ratio is measured to be 2, as suggested by theory, then this would provide dramatic verification of the existence of multiple supersymmetry breaking and sequestering. A variety of consistent cosmological ...
Supersymmetry Breaking on Gauged Non-Abelian Vortices
Konishi, Kenichi; Vinci, Walter
2012-01-01
There are a large number of systems characterized by a completely broken gauge symmetry, but with an unbroken global color-flavor diagonal symmetry, i.e., systems in the so-called color-flavor locked phase. If the gauge symmetry breaking supports vortices, the latter develop non-Abelian orientational zero-modes and become non-Abelian vortices, a subject of intense study in the last several years. In this paper we consider the effects of weakly gauging the full exact global flavor symmetry in such systems, deriving an effective description of the light excitations in the presence of a vortex. Surprising consequences are shown to follow. The fluctuations of the vortex orientational modes get diffused to bulk modes through tunneling processes. When our model is embedded in a supersymmetric theory, the vortex is still 1/2 BPS saturated, but the vortex effective action breaks supersymmetry.
An extension for direct gauge mediation of metastable supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fuqiang, Xu; Jin Min, Yang [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academia Sinica - Beijing (China)
2009-03-15
We study the direct mediation of metastable supersymmetry breaking by a {phi}{sup 2}-deformation to the ISS (Intriligator, Seiberg and Shih) model and extend it by splitting both Tr{phi} and Tr{phi}{sup 2} terms in the superpotential and gauging the flavor symmetry. We find that with such an extension enough-long-lived metastable vacua can be obtained and the proper gaugino masses can be generated. Also, this allows for constructing a kind of models which can avoid the Landau pole problem. Especially, in our metastable vacua there exist a large region for the parameter m{sub 3} which can satisfy the phenomenology requirements and allow for a low SUSY-breaking scale (h{mu}{sub 2} {approx} 100 TeV). (authors)
Small extra dimensions from the interplay of gauge and supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchmueller, W. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Catena, R. [International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy); Schmidt-Hoberg, K. [Technische Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Physik-Department
2008-03-15
Higher-dimensional theories provide a promising framework for unified extensions of the supersymmetric standard model. Compactifications to four dimensions often lead to U(1) symmetries beyond the standard model gauge group, whose breaking scale is classically undetermined. Without supersymmetry breaking, this is also the case for the size of the compact dimensions. Fayet-Iliopoulos terms generically fix the scale M of gauge symmetry breaking. The interplay with supersymmetry breaking can then stabilize the compact dimensions at a size 1/M, much smaller than the inverse supersymmetry breaking scale 1/{mu}. We illustrate this mechanism with an SO(10) model in six dimensions, compactified on an orbifold. (orig.)
Closed superstrings in magnetic field instabilities and supersymmetry breaking
Tseytlin, Arkady A
1995-01-01
We consider a 2-parameter class of solvable closed superstring models which `interpolate' between Kaluza-Klein and dilatonic Melvin magnetic flux tube backgrounds. The spectrum of string states has similarities with Landau spectrum for a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. The presence of spin-dependent `gyromagnetic' interaction implies breaking of supersymmetry and possible existence (for certain values of magnetic parameters) of tachyonic instabilities. We study in detail the simplest example of the Kaluza-Klein Melvin model describing a superstring moving in flat but non-trivial 10-d space containing a 3-d factor which is a `twisted' product of a 2-plane and an internal circle. We also discuss the compact version of this model constructed by `twisting' the product of the two groups in SU(2) x U(1) WZNW theory without changing the local geometry (and thus the central charge). We explain how the supersymmetry is broken by continuous `magnetic' twist parameters and comment on possible implications ...
Supergravity and Supersymmetry Breaking in Four and Five Dimensions
Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Pokorski, Stefan; Thomas, S; Ellis, John; Lalak, Zygmunt; Pokorski, Stefan; Thomas, Steven
1999-01-01
We discuss supersymmetry breaking in the field-theoretical limit of the strongly-coupled heterotic string compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold, from the different perspectives of four and five dimensions. The former applies to light degrees of freedom below the threshold for five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein excitations, whereas the five-dimensional perspective is also valid up to the Calabi-Yau scale. We show how, in the latter case, two gauge sectors separated in the fifth dimension are combined to form a consistent four-dimensional supergravity. In the lowest order of the $\\kappa^{2/3}$ expansion, we show how a four-dimensional supergravity with gauge kinetic function $f_{1,2}=S$ is reproduced, and we show how higher-order terms give rise to four-dimensional operators that differ in the two gauge sectors. In the four-dimensional approach, supersymmetry is seen to be broken when condensates form on one or both walls, and the goldstino may have a non-zero dilatino component. As in the five-dimensional approach,...
Supergravity and supersymmetry breaking in four and five dimensions
Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Pokorski, Stefan; Thomas, S
1999-01-01
We discuss supersymmetry breaking in the field-theoretical limit of the strongly coupled heterotic string compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold, from the different perspectives of four and five dimensions. The former applies to light degrees of freedom below the threshold for five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein excitations, whereas the five-dimensional perspective is also valid up to the Calabi-Yau scale. We show how, in the latter case, two gauge sectors separated in the fifth dimension are combined to form a consistent four- dimensional supergravity. In the lowest order of the kappa /sup 2/3/ expansion, we show how a four-dimensional supergravity with gauge kinetic function f/sub 1,2/=S is reproduced, and we show how higher- order terms give rise to four-dimensional operators that differ in the two gauge sectors. In the four-dimensional approach, supersymmetry is seen to be broken when condensates form on one or both walls, and the goldstino may have a non-zero dilatino component. As in the five-dimensional appro...
Constraints on finite soft supersymmetry-breaking terms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kobayashi, T. [High Energy Accel. Res. Organ., Tokyo (Japan). Inst. of Particle and Nucl. Studies; Kubo, J. [Department of Physics, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Mondragon, M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 20-364, Mexico 01000 D.F. (Mexico); Zoupanos, G. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)
1998-02-02
Requiring the soft supersymmetry-breaking (SSB) parameters in finite gauge-Yukawa unified models to be finite up to and including two-loop order, we derive a two-loop sum rule for the soft scalar masses. It is shown that this sum rule coincides with that of a certain class of string models in which the massive string states are organized into N=4 supermultiplets. We investigate the SSB sector of two finite SU(5) models. Using the sum rule which allows non-universality of the SSB terms and requiring that the lightest superparticle particle is neutral, we constrain the parameter space of the SSB sector in each model. (orig.). 50 refs.
Multilepton signals of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Hondt, Jorgen [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium); De Causmaecker, Karen [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium); Theory Division, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Fuks, Benjamin [Theory Division, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien/Département Recherches Subatomiques, Université de Strasbourg/CNRS-IN2P3, 23 Rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Mariotti, Alberto [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Mawatari, Kentarou [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium); Petersson, Christoffer [International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium); Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, C.P. 231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Department of Fundamental Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Redigolo, Diego [International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium); Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, C.P. 231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)
2014-04-04
We investigate multilepton LHC signals arising from electroweak processes involving sleptons. We consider the framework of general gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, focusing on models where the low mass region of the superpartner spectrum consists of the three generations of charged sleptons and the nearly massless gravitino. We demonstrate how such models can provide an explanation for the anomalous four lepton events recently observed by the CMS Collaboration, while satisfying other existing experimental constraints. The best fit to the CMS data is obtained for a selectron/smuon mass of around 145 GeV and a stau mass of around 90 GeV. These models also give rise to final states with more than four leptons, offering alternative channels in which they can be probed and we estimate the corresponding production rates at the LHC.
Multilepton signals of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking at the LHC
D'Hondt, Jorgen; Fuks, Benjamin; Mariotti, Alberto; Mawatari, Kentarou; Petersson, Christoffer; Redigolo, Diego
2014-01-01
We investigate multilepton LHC signals arising from electroweak processes involving sleptons. We consider the framework of general gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, focusing on models where the low mass region of the superpartner spectrum consists of the three generations of charged sleptons and the nearly massless gravitino. We demonstrate how such models can provide an explanation for the anomalous four lepton events recently observed by the CMS collaboration, while satisfying other existing experimental constraints. The best fit to the CMS data is obtained for a selectron/smuon mass of around 145 GeV and a stau mass of around 90 GeV. These models also give rise to final states with more than four leptons, offering alternative channels in which they can be probed and we estimate the corresponding production rates at the LHC.
$\\mu$ term and supersymmetry breaking from six dimensional theory
Adachi, Yuki; Yamashita, Toshifumi
2014-01-01
We propose a new next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) which is on a six-dimensional spacetime compactified on a $T^2/Z_3$ orbifold. In this model, three gauge singlet fields $N, S_1$ and $S_2$ in addition to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) fields are introduced. These fields are localized at some fixed points except for the singlet $N$ and the gauge fields. The $\\mu$ parameter is provided from the vacuum expectation value (vev) of $N$. The $F$ terms get vevs simultaneously, and the gauginos mediate the supersymmetry breaking to the MSSM sector. Both of these parameters are strongly suppressed due to the profile of $N$. Thus these parameters induced from those of the order of the so-called GUT scale can become close to the electroweak scale without unnatural fine tuning.
Wiese, Kay Joerg
2004-01-01
In this article, we study an elastic manifold in quenched disorder in the limit of zero temperature. Naively it is equivalent to a free theory with elasticity in Fourier-space proportional to k^4 instead of k^2, i.e. a model without disorder in two space-dimensions less. This phenomenon, called dimensional reduction, is most elegantly obtained using supersymmetry. However, scaling arguments suggest, and functional renormalization shows that dimensional reduction breaks down beyond the Larkin ...
Leptogenesis after chaotic sneutrino inflation and the supersymmetry breaking scale
Björkeroth, Fredrik; King, Stephen F.; Schmitz, Kai; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.
2017-03-01
We discuss resonant leptogenesis arising from the decays of two nearly-degenerate right-handed neutrinos, identified as the inflaton and stabiliser superfields in a model of chaotic sneutrino inflation. We compare an analytical estimate of the baryon asymmetry ηB in the Boltzmann approximation to a numerical solution of the full density matrix equations, and find that the analytical result fails to capture the correct physics in certain regions of parameter space. The observed baryon asymmetry can be realised for a breaking of the mass degeneracy as small as O (10-8). The origin of such a small mass splitting is explained by considering supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking in supergravity, which requires a constant in the superpotential of the order of the gravitino mass m3/2 to cancel the cosmological constant. This yields additional terms in the (s)neutrino mass matrices, lifting the degeneracy and linking ηB to the SUSY breaking scale. We find that achieving the correct baryon asymmetry requires a gravitino mass m3/2 ≥ O (100) TeV.
Leptogenesis after chaotic sneutrino inflation and the supersymmetry breaking scale
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fredrik Björkeroth
2017-03-01
Full Text Available We discuss resonant leptogenesis arising from the decays of two nearly-degenerate right-handed neutrinos, identified as the inflaton and stabiliser superfields in a model of chaotic sneutrino inflation. We compare an analytical estimate of the baryon asymmetry ηB in the Boltzmann approximation to a numerical solution of the full density matrix equations, and find that the analytical result fails to capture the correct physics in certain regions of parameter space. The observed baryon asymmetry can be realised for a breaking of the mass degeneracy as small as O(10−8. The origin of such a small mass splitting is explained by considering supersymmetry (SUSY breaking in supergravity, which requires a constant in the superpotential of the order of the gravitino mass m3/2 to cancel the cosmological constant. This yields additional terms in the (sneutrino mass matrices, lifting the degeneracy and linking ηB to the SUSY breaking scale. We find that achieving the correct baryon asymmetry requires a gravitino mass m3/2≥O(100 TeV.
Leptogenesis after Chaotic Sneutrino Inflation and the Supersymmetry Breaking Scale
Björkeroth, Fredrik; Schmitz, Kai; Yanagida, Tsutomu T
2016-01-01
We discuss resonant leptogenesis arising from the decays of two nearly-degenerate right-handed neutrinos, identified as the inflaton and stabiliser superfields in a model of chaotic sneutrino inflation. We compare an analytical estimate of the baryon asymmetry $ \\eta_B $ in the Boltzmann approximation to a numerical solution of the full density matrix equations, and find that the analytical result fails to capture the correct physics in certain regions of parameter space. The observed baryon asymmetry can be realised for a breaking of the mass degeneracy as small as $ \\mathcal{O}(10^{-8}) $. The origin of such a small mass splitting is explained by considering supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking in supergravity, which requires a constant in the superpotential of the order of the gravitino mass $ m_{3/2} $ to cancel the cosmological constant. This yields additional terms in the (s)neutrino mass matrices, lifting the degeneracy and linking $ \\eta_B $ to the SUSY breaking scale. We find that achieving the correct bary...
Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in the two-dimensional N=1 Wess-Zumino model
Steinhauer, Kyle
2014-01-01
We study the phase diagram of the two-dimensional N=1 Wess-Zumino model on the lattice using Wilson fermions and the fermion loop formulation. We give a complete nonperturbative determination of the ground state structure in the continuum and infinite volume limit. We also present a determination of the particle spectrum in the supersymmetric phase, in the supersymmetry broken phase and across the supersymmetry breaking phase transition. In the supersymmetry broken phase we observe the emergence of the Goldstino particle.
Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in the 2d N=1 Wess-Zumino model
Baumgartner, David; Wenger, Urs
2013-01-01
We study the phase diagram of the two-dimensional N=1 Wess-Zumino model using Wilson fermions and the fermion loop formulation. We give a complete non-perturbative determination of the ground state structure in the continuum and infinite volume limit. We also present a determination of the particle spectrum in the supersymmetric phase, in the supersymmetry broken phase and across the supersymmetry breaking phase transition. In the supersymmetry broken phase we observe the emergence of the Goldstino particle.
The wave function of the universe and spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry
Obregón, O; Socorro, J; Tkach, V I
1998-01-01
In this work we define a scalar product ``weighted'' with the scalar factor $R$ and show how to find a normalized wave function for the supersymmetric quantum FRW cosmological model using the idea of supersymmetry breaking selection rules under local n=2 conformal supersymmetry. We also calculate the expectation value of the scalar factor R in this model and its corresponding behaviour.
Dynamical Contents of Unconventional Supersymmetry
Guevara, Alfredo; Zanelli, Jorge
2016-01-01
The Dirac Hamiltonian formalism is applied to a system in $(2+1)$-dimensions consisting of a Dirac field $\\psi$ minimally coupled to Chern-Simons $U(1)$ and $SO(2,1)$ connections, $A$ and $\\omega$, respectively. This theory is connected to a supersymmetric Chern-Simons form in which the gravitino has been projected out (unconventional supersymmetry) and, in the case of a flat background, corresponds to the low energy limit of graphene. The separation between first-class and second-class constraints is performed explicitly, and both the field equations and gauge symmetries of the Lagrangian formalism are fully recovered. The degrees of freedom of the theory in generic sectors shows that the propagating states correspond to fermionic modes in the background determined by the geometry of the graphene sheet and the nondynamical electromagnetic field. This is shown for the following canonical sectors: i) a conformally invariant generic description where the spinor field and the dreibein are locally rescaled; ii) a...
Dynamical contents of unconventional supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guevara, Alfredo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Pais, Pablo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Zanelli, Jorge [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)
2016-08-11
The Dirac Hamiltonian formalism is applied to a system in (2+1)-dimensions consisting of a Dirac field ψ minimally coupled to Chern-Simons U(1) and SO(2,1) connections, A and ω, respectively. This theory is connected to a supersymmetric Chern-Simons form in which the gravitino has been projected out (unconventional supersymmetry) and, in the case of a flat background, corresponds to the low energy limit of graphene. The separation between first-class and second-class constraints is performed explicitly, and both the field equations and gauge symmetries of the Lagrangian formalism are fully recovered. The degrees of freedom of the theory in generic sectors shows that the propagating states correspond to fermionic modes in the background determined by the geometry of the graphene sheet and the nondynamical electromagnetic field. This is shown for the following canonical sectors: i) a conformally invariant generic description where the spinor field and the dreibein are locally rescaled; ii) a specific configuration for the Dirac fermion consistent with its spin, where Weyl symmetry is exchanged by time reparametrizations; iii) the vacuum sector ψ=0, which is of interest for perturbation theory. For the latter the analysis is adapted to the case of manifolds with boundary, and the corresponding Dirac brackets together with the centrally extended charge algebra are found. Finally, the SU(2) generalization of the gauge group is briefly treated, yielding analogous conclusions for the degrees of freedom.
Brane induced supersymmetry breaking and de Sitter supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bandos, Igor [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Sorokin, Dmitri [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Tonin, Mario [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)
2016-02-12
We obtain a four-dimensional supergravity with spontaneously broken supersymmetry allowing for de Sitter vacua by coupling a superspace action of minimal N=1, D=4 supergravity to a locally supersymmetric generalization of the Volkov-Akulov goldstino action describing the dynamics of a space-filling non-BPS 3-brane in N=1, D=4 superspace. To the quadratic order in the goldstino field the obtained action coincides with earlier constructions of supergravities with nilpotent superfields, while matching the higher-order contributions will require a non-linear redefinition of fields. In the unitary gauge, in which the goldstino field is set to zero, the action coincides with that of Volkov and Soroka. We also show how a nilpotency constraint on a chiral curvature superfield emerges in this formulation.
Supersymmetry Breaking through Boundary Conditions Associated with the $U(1)_{R}$
Takenaga, K
1998-01-01
The effects of boundary conditions imposed on the fields for the compactified space directions to the supersymmetric theories are discussed. The boundary conditions can be taken to be periodic up to the degrees of freedom of localized $U(1)_{R}$ transformations. The boundary condition breaks the supersymmetry to yield universal soft supersymmetry breaking terms. The 4-dimensional supersymmetric QED with one flavour and the pure supersymmetric QCD are studied as toy models when one of the space coordinates is compactified on $S^1$.
D-foam-induced flavor condensates and breaking of supersymmetry in free Wess-Zumino fluids
Mavromatos, N E; Tarantino, W
2011-01-01
Recently {[}N. E. Mavromatos and S. Sarkar, New J. Phys. 10, 073009 (2008); N. E. Mavromatos, S. Sarkar, and W. Tarantino, Phys. Rev. D 80, 084046 (2009)], we argued that a particular model of string-inspired quantum space-time foam (D-foam) may induce oscillations and mixing among flavored particles. As a result, rather than the mass-eigenstate vacuum, the correct ground state to describe the underlying dynamics is the flavor vacuum, proposed some time ago by Blasone and Vitiello as a description of quantum field theories with mixing. At the microscopic level, the breaking of target-space supersymmetry is induced in our space-time foam model by the relative transverse motion of brane defects. Motivated by these results, we show that the flavor vacuum, introduced through an inequivalent representation of the canonical (anti-) commutation relations, provides a vehicle for the breaking of supersymmetry at a low-energy effective field-theory level; on considering the flavor-vacuum expectation value of the energy...
Low-Energy Brane-World Effective Actions and Partial Supersymmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klein, Matthias
2003-03-18
As part of a programme for the general study of the low-energy implications of supersymmetry breaking in brane-world scenarios, we study the nonlinear realization of supersymmetry which occurs when breaking N = 2 to N = 1 supergravity. We consider three explicit realizations of this supersymmetry breaking pattern, which correspond to breaking by one brane, by one antibrane or by two (or more) parallel branes. We derive the minimal field content, the effective action and supersymmetry transformation rules for the resulting N = 1 theory perturbatively in powers of {kappa} = 1/M{sub Planck}. We show that the way the massive gravitino and spin-1 fields assemble into N = 1 multiplets implies the existence of direct brane-brane contact interactions at order {Omicron}({kappa}). This result is contrary to the {Omicron}({kappa}{sup 2}) predicted by the sequestering scenario but in agreement with recent work of Anisimov et al. Our low-energy approach is model independent and is a first step towards determining the low-energy implications of more realistic brane models which completely break all supersymmetries.
Fuks, Benjamin; Klasen, Michael
2011-01-01
In minimal anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking models, tachyonic sleptons are avoided by introducing a common scalar mass similar to the one introduced in minimal supergravity. This may lead to non-minimal flavour-violating interactions, e.g., in the squark sector. In this paper, we analyze the viable anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking parameter space in the light of the latest limits on low-energy observables and LHC searches, complete our analytical calculations of flavour-violating supersymmetric particle production at hadron colliders with those related to gluino production, and study the phenomenological consequences of non-minimal flavour violation in anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios at the LHC. Related cosmological aspects are also briefly discussed.
Phenomenology of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry-breaking scenarios with nonminimal flavor violation
Fuks, Benjamin; Herrmann, Björn; Klasen, Michael
2012-07-01
In minimal anomaly-mediated supersymmetry-breaking models, tachyonic sleptons are avoided by introducing a common scalar mass similar to the one introduced in minimal supergravity. This may lead to nonminimal flavor-violating interactions, e.g., in the squark sector. In this paper, we analyze the viable anomaly-mediated supersymmetry-breaking parameter space in the light of the latest limits on low-energy observables and LHC searches, complete our analytical calculations of flavor-violating supersymmetric particle production at hadron colliders with those related to gluino production, and study the phenomenological consequences of nonminimal flavor violation in anomaly-mediated supersymmetry-breaking scenarios at the LHC. Related cosmological aspects are also briefly discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fuks, Benjamin [Strasbourg Univ. (France). Inst. Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien; Herrmann, Bjoern [Savoie Univ., Annecy-le-Vieux (France). LAPTh; Klasen, Michael [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1
2011-12-15
In minimal anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking models, tachyonic sleptons are avoided by introducing a common scalar mass similar to the one introduced in minimal supergravity. This may lead to non-minimal flavour-violating interactions, e.g., in the squark sector. In this paper, we analyze the viable anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking parameter space in the light of the latest limits on low-energy observables and LHC searches, complete our analytical calculations of flavour-violating supersymmetric particle production at hadron colliders with those related to gluino production, and study the phenomenological consequences of non-minimal flavour violation in anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios at the LHC. Related cosmological aspects are also briefly discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murayama, Hitoshi
1994-06-01
The author reviews phenomenologically interesting aspects of supersymmetry. First he points out that the discovery of the positron can be regarded as a historic analogue to the would-be discovery of supersymmetry. Second he reviews the recent topics on the unification of the gauge coupling constants, m{sub b}-M{sub {tau}} relation, proton decay, and baryogenesis. The author also briefly discusses the recent proposals to solve the problem of flavor changing neutral currents. Finally he argues that the measurements of supersymmetry parameters may probe the physics at the Planck scale.
Supersymmetry breaking on the lattice: the N=1 Wess-Zumino model
Baumgartner, David; Wenger, Urs
2011-01-01
We discuss spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in the N=1 Wess-Zumino model in two dimensions on the lattice using Wilson fermions and the fermion loop formulation. In that formulation the fermion sign problem related to the vanishing of the Witten index can be circumvented and the model can be simulated very efficiently using the recently introduced open fermion string algorithm. We present first results for the supersymmetry breaking phase transition and sketch the preliminary determination of a renormalised critical coupling in the continuum limit.
Supersymmetry breaking and gauge mediation in models with a generic superpotential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kitano, Ryuichiro [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ookouchi, Yutaka [CANADA
2008-01-01
In this note, we present a transparent scheme for finding or creating a (meta)stable vacuum in general supersymmetric models. We derive general conditions for having a supersymmetry breaking vacuum by connecting different models by a coordinate transformation, which is an application of the method used in [16]. In particular, we find that there can be a metastable supersymmetry breaking vacuum in models with the canonical Kahler potential and a generic superpotential. For example, the Wess-Zumino model coupled to the messenger fields possesses a metastable vacuum if coefficients of the superpotential terms satisfy certain inequalities.
Diagnosis of Supersymmetry Breaking Mediation Schemes by Mass Reconstruction at the LHC
Dutta, Bhaskar; Krislock, Abram; Sinha, Kuver; Wang, Kechen
2011-01-01
If supersymmetry is discovered at the LHC, the next question will be the determination of the underlying model. While this may be challenging or even intractable, a more optimistic question is whether we can understand the main contours of any particular paradigm of the mediation of supersymmetry breaking. The determination of superpartner masses through endpoint measurements of kinematic observables arising from cascade decays is a powerful diagnostic tool. In particular, the determination of the gaugino sector has the potential to discriminate between certain mediation schemes (not all schemes, and not between different UV realizations of a given scheme). We reconstruct gaugino masses, choosing a model where anomaly contributions to supersymmetry breaking are important (KKLT compactification), and find the gaugino unification scale. Moreover, reconstruction of other superpartner masses allows us to solve for the parameters defining the UV model. The analysis is performed in the stop and stau coannihilation ...
Supersymmetry breaking as a new source for the generalized uncertainty principle
Faizal, Mir
2016-06-01
In this letter, we will demonstrate that the breaking of supersymmetry by a non-anticommutative deformation can be used to generate the generalized uncertainty principle. We will analyze the physical reasons for this observation, in the framework of string theory. We also discuss the relation between the generalized uncertainty principle and the Lee-Wick field theories.
Note on Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking from Closed to Open Strings
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Taylor, Tomasz R.
2005-01-01
We discuss the mediation of supersymmetry breaking from closed to open strings, extending and improving previous analysis of the authors in Nucl. Phys. B 695 (2004) 103 [hep-th/0403293]. In the general case, we find the absence of anomaly mediation around any perturbative string vacuum. When supersymmetry is broken by Scherk-Schwarz boundary conditions along a compactification interval perpendicular to a stack of D-branes, the gaugino acquires a mass at two loops that behaves as $m_{1/2}\\sim g^4 m_{3/2}^3$ in string units, where $m_{3/2}$ is the gravitino mass and $g$ is the gauge coupling.
Six-dimensional origin of gravity mediated brane to brane supersymmetry breaking
Diamandis, G A; Kouroumalou, P; Lahanas, A B
2013-01-01
Four dimensional supergravities may be the right framework to describe particle physics at low energies. Its connection to the underlying string theory can be implemented through higher dimensional supergravities which bear special characteristics. Their reduction to four dimensions breaks supersymmetry whose magnitude depends both on the compactifying manifold and the mechanism that generates the breaking. In particular compactifications, notably on a $S_1/Z_2$ orbifold, the breaking of supersymmetry occuring on a hidden brane, residing at one end of $S_1/Z_2$, is communicated to the visible brane which lies at the other end, via gravitational interactions propagating in the bulk. This scenario has been exemplified in the framework of the $N=2$, $D=5$ supergravity. In this note, motivated by the recent developments in the field, related to the six-dimensional description of the supergravity theory, we study the $N=2$, $D=5$ supergravity theory as originating from a $D=6$ supergravity which, in addition to th...
New Supersoft Supersymmetry Breaking Operators and a Solution to the $\\mu$ Problem
Nelson, Ann E
2015-01-01
We propose the framework, "generalized supersoft supersymmetry breaking." "Supersoft" models, with D-type supersymmetry breaking and heavy Dirac gauginos, are considerably less constrained by the LHC searches than the well studied MSSM. These models also ameliorate the supersymmetric flavor and CP problems. However, previously considered mechanisms for obtaining a natural size Higgsino mass parameter (namely, $\\mu$) in supersoft models have been relatively complicated and contrived. Obtaining a 125 GeV for the mass of the lightest Higgs boson has also been difficult. Additional issues with the supersoft scenario arise from the fact that these models contain new scalars in the adjoint representation of the standard model, which may obtain negative squared-masses, breaking color and generating too large a T-parameter. In this work we introduce new operators into supersoft models which can potentially solve all these issues. A novel feature of this framework is that the new $\\mu$-term can give unequal masses to ...
Perturbative and Non-Perturbative Partial Supersymmetry Breaking $N=4 \\to N=2 \\to N=1$
Kiritsis, Elias B
1997-01-01
We show the existence of a supersymmetry breaking mechanism in string theory, where N=4 supersymmetry is broken spontaneously to N=2 and N=1 with moduli dependent gravitino masses. The spectrum of the spontaneously broken theory with lower supersymmetry is in one-to-one correspondence with the spectrum of the heterotic N=4 string. The mass splitting of the N=4 spectrum depends on the compactification moduli as well as the three R-symmetry charges. In the large moduli limit a restoration of the N=4 supersymmetry is obtained. As expected the graviphotons and some of the gauge bosons become massive in N=1 vacua. At some special points of the moduli space some of the N=4 states with non-zero winding numbers and with spin 0 and {1/2} become massless chiral superfields of the unbroken N=1 supersymmetry. Such vaccua have a dual type II description, in which there are magnetically charged states with spin 0 and {1/2} that become massless. The heterotic-type II duality suggests some novel non-perturbative transitions ...
Towards a resolution of certain dilemmas in preon dynamics through local supersymmetry
Pati, Jogesh C.; Cveti, Mirjam; Sharatchandra, H. S.
1987-03-01
A resolution of one of the major dilemmas of preon dynamics, i.e., why (mq,ml)<<(1/r0)≡Λ0, is provided. In a class of models, supersymmetry (SUSY) in its local rather than global form permits a breaking of SUSY and also a generation of composite-fermion masses, but both with a severe damping by powers of (Λ0/MPlanck).
Supersymmetry breaking, conserved charges and stability in N=1 Super KdV
Restuccia, A
2012-01-01
We analyse the non-abelian algebra and the supersymmetric cohomology associated to the local and non-local conserved charges of N=1 SKdV under Poisson brackets. We then consider the breaking of the supersymmetry and obtain an integrable model in terms of Clifford algebra valued fields. We discuss the remaining conserved charges of the new system and the stability of the solitonic solutions.
Mixed Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking in Models with Anomalous U(1) Gauge Symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Kiwoon, E-mail: kchoi@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2010-11-01
There can be various built-in sources of supersymmetry breaking in models with anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry, e.g. the U(1) D-term, the F-components of the modulus superfield required for the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation mechanism and the chiral matter superfields required to cancel the Fayet-Iliopoulos term, and finally the supergravity auxiliary component which can be parameterized by the F-component of chiral compensator. The relative strength between these supersymmetry breaking sources depends crucially on the characteristics of D-flat direction and also on how the D-flat direction is stabilized at a vacuum with nearly vanishing cosmological constant. We examine the possible pattern of the mediation of supersymmetry breaking in models with anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry, and find that various different mixed mediation scenarios can be realized, including the mirage mediation which corresponds to a mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, D-term domination giving a split sparticle spectrum, and also a mixed gauge-D-term mediation scenario.
Generalized Supersoft Supersymmetry Breaking and a Solution to the μ Problem
Nelson, Ann E.; Roy, Tuhin S.
2015-05-01
We propose the framework generalized supersoft supersymmetry breaking. "Supersoft" models, with D -type supersymmetry breaking and heavy Dirac gauginos, are considerably less constrained by the LHC searches than the well studied MSSM. These models also ameliorate the supersymmetric flavor and C P problems. However, previously considered mechanisms for obtaining a natural size Higgsino mass parameter (namely, μ ) in supersoft models have been relatively complicated and contrived. Obtaining a 125 GeV for the mass of the lightest Higgs boson has also been difficult. Additional issues with the supersoft scenario arise from the fact that these models contain new scalars in the adjoint representation of the standard model, which may obtain negative squared-masses, breaking color and generating too large a T parameter. In this Letter, we introduce new operators into supersoft models which can potentially solve all these issues. A novel feature of this framework is that the new μ term can give unequal masses to the up and down type Higgs fields, and the Higgsinos can be much heavier than the Higgs boson without fine-tuning. However, unequal Higgs and Higgsino masses also remove some attractive features of supersoft supersymmetry.
Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.
2011-10-01
In Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) from orbifold and various string constructions the generic vector-like particles do not need to form complete SU(5) or SO(10) representations. To realize them concretely, we present orbifold SU(5) models, orbifold SO(10) models where the gauge symmetry can be broken down to flipped SU(5) × U(1) X or Pati-Salam SU(4) C × SU(2) L × SU(2) R gauge symmetries, and F-theory SU(5) models. Interestingly, these vector-like particles can be at the TeV-scale so that the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass can be lifted, or play the messenger fields in the Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (GMSB). Considering GMSB, ultraviolet insensitive Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (AMSB), and the deflected AMSB, we study the general gaugino mass relations and their indices, which are valid from the GUT scale to the electroweak scale at one loop, in the SU(5) models, the flipped SU(5) × U(1) X models, and the Pati-Salam SU(4) C × SU(2) L × SU(2) R models. In the deflected AMSB, we also define the new indices for the gaugino mass relations, and calculate them as well. Using these gaugino mass relations and their indices, we may probe the messenger fields at intermediate scale in the GMSB and deflected AMSB, determine the supersymmetry breaking mediation mechanisms, and distinguish the four-dimensional GUTs, orbifold GUTs, and F-theory GUTs.
De Sitter Uplift with Dynamical Susy Breaking
Retolaza, Ander
2015-01-01
We propose the use of D-brane realizations of Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking (DSB) gauge sectors as sources of uplift in compactifications with moduli stabilization onto de Sitter vacua. This construction is fairly different from the introduction of anti D-branes, yet allows for tunably small contributions to the vacuum energy via their embedding into warped throats. The idea is explicitly exemplified by the embedding of the 1-family $SU(5)$ DSB model in a local warped throat with fluxes, which we discuss in detail in terms of orientifolds of dimer diagrams.
De Sitter uplift with Dynamical Susy Breaking
Retolaza, Ander; Uranga, Angel
2016-04-01
We propose the use of D-brane realizations of Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking (DSB) gauge sectors as sources of uplift in compactifications with moduli stabilization onto de Sitter vacua. This construction is fairly different from the introduction of anti D-branes, yet allows for tunably small contributions to the vacuum energy via their embedding into warped throats. The idea is explicitly exemplified by the embedding of the 1-family SU(5) DSB model in a local warped throat with fluxes, which we discuss in detail in terms of orientifolds of dimer diagrams.
Sequestered String Models: Supersymmetry Breaking and Cosmological Applications
Muia, Francesco
2016-01-01
In the present thesis I studied the phenomenology arising from a class of string models called sequestered compactifications, which were born with the aim of getting low-energy SUSY from strings. This is not an easy task if combined with cosmological constraints, since the mechanism of moduli stabilization fixes both the scale of supersymmetric particles and the scale of moduli, which tend to be of the same order. However, if on the one hand supersymmetric particles with TeV mass are desired in order to address the hierarchy problem, on the other hand the cosmological moduli problem requires the moduli to be heavier than 100 TeV. The specific setup of sequestered compactifications makes this hierarchy achievable, at least in principle: as in these models the visible sector is located on a stack of D3-branes at singularities, a physical separation between the visible degrees of freedom and the SUSY-breaking sources takes place. Such decoupling translates into a hierarchy between the scale of SUSY-breaking and ...
Supersymmetry and R-symmetry Breaking in Meta-stable Vacua at Finite Temperature and Density
Arai, Masato; Sasaki, Shin
2014-01-01
We study a meta-stable supersymmetry-breaking vacuum in a generalized O'Raifeartaigh model at finite temperature and chemical potentials. Fields in the generalized O'Raifeartaigh model possess different R-charges to realize R-symmetry breaking. Accordingly, at finite density and temperature, the chemical potentials have to be introduced in a non-uniform way. Based on the formulation elaborated in our previous work we study the one-loop thermal effective potential including the chemical potentials in the generalized O'Raifeartaigh model. We perform the numerical analysis and find that the R-symmetry breaking vacua, which exist at zero temperature and zero chemical potential, are destabilized for some parameter regions. In addition, we find that there are parameter regions where new R-symmetry breaking vacua are realized even at high temperature by the finite density effects.
Indirect Probes of Supersymmetry Breaking in Multi-Km3 Neutrino Telescopes
Albuquerque, Ivone Freire M
2012-01-01
Recently it has been shown that fluorescence telescopes with a large field of view can indirectly probe the scale of supersymmetry breaking. Here we show that depending on their ability to fight a large background, multi-Km3 volume neutrino telescopes might independently probe a similar breaking scale region, which lies between \\sim 10^5 and \\sim 5 x 10^6 GeV. The scenarios we consider have the gravitino as the lightest supersymmetric particle, and the next to lightest (NLSP) is a long lived slepton. Indirect probes complement a proposal that demonstrates that 1 Km3 telescopes can directly probe this breaking scale. A high energy flux of neutrinos might interact in the Earth producing NLSPs which decay into taus. We estimate the rate of taus, taking into account the regeneration process, and the rate of secondary muons, which are produced in tau decays, in multi-km3 detectors.
Large trilinear $A_t$ soft supersymmetry breaking coupling from 5D MSSM
Abdalgabar, Ammar
2015-01-01
The possibility of generating a large trilinear $A_t$ soft supersymmetry breaking coupling at low energies through renormalisation group evolution in the 5D MSSM is investigated. Using the power law running in five dimensions and a compactification scale in the 10-$10^3$ TeV range, to show that gluino mass may drive a large enough $A_t$ to reproduce the measured Higgs mass and have a light stop superpartner below $\\sim 1$ TeV as preferred by the fine tuning argument for the Higgs mass.
Choi, Kiwoon; Hwang, Kyuwan; Song, Wan Young
2002-04-01
In supersymmetric models with nonzero Majorana neutrino mass, the sneutrino and antisneutrino mix, which may lead to same-sign dilepton signals in future collider experiments. We point out that the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenario has a good potential to provide an observable rate of such signals for the neutrino masses suggested by the atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillations. It is noted also that the sneutrino-antisneutrino mixing can provide much stronger information on some combinations of the neutrino masses and mixing angles than the neutrino experiments.
Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Shu Hou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700 GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.
Varying the Universality of Supersymmetry-Breaking Contributions to MSSM Higgs Boson Masses
Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Sandick, Pearl
2008-01-01
We consider the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) with varying amounts of non-universality in the soft supersymmetry-breaking contributions to the Higgs scalar masses. In addition to the constrained MSSM (CMSSM) in which these are universal with the soft supersymmetry-breaking contributions to the squark and slepton masses at the input GUT scale, we consider scenarios in which both the Higgs scalar masses are non-universal by the same amount (NUHM1), and scenarios in which they are independently non-universal (NUHM2). We show how the NUHM1 scenarios generalize the (m_{1/2}, m_0) planes of the CMSSM by allowing either mu or m_A to take different (fixed) values and we also show how the NUHM1 scenarios are embedded as special cases of the more general NUHM2 scenarios. Generalizing from the CMSSM, we find regions of the NUHM1 parameter space that are excluded because the LSP is a selectron. We also find new regions where the neutralino relic density falls within the range preferred by ...
Li, Tianjun
2010-01-01
In Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) from orbifold and various string constructions the generic vector-like particles do not need to form complete SU(5) or SO(10) representations. To realize them concretely, we present orbifold SU(5) models, orbifold SO(10) models where the gauge symmetry can be broken down to flipped SU(5) X U(1)_X or Pati-Salam SU(4)_C X SU(2)_L X SU(2)_R gauge symmetries, and F-theory SU(5) models. Interestingly, these vector-like particles can be at the TeV-scale so that the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass can be lifted, or play the messenger fields in the Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (GMSB). Considering GMSB, ultraviolet insensitive Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (AMSB), and the deflected AMSB, we study the general gaugino mass relations and their indices, which are valid from the GUT scale to the electroweak scale at one loop, in the SU(5) models, the flipped SU(5) X U(1)_X models, and the Pati-Salam SU(4)_C X SU(2)_L X SU(2)_R models. In the deflected AMSB, we also defi...
Natural X-ray lines from the low scale supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Zhaofeng, E-mail: zhaofengkang@gmail.com [Center for High-Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, P., E-mail: pko@kias.re.kr [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Li, Tianjun, E-mail: tli@itp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China (KITPC), Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu, Yandong, E-mail: ydliu@itp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China (KITPC), Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2015-03-06
In the supersymmetric models with low scale supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking where the gravitino mass is around keV, we show that the 3.5 keV X-ray lines can be explained naturally through several different mechanisms: (I) a keV scale dark gaugino plays the role of sterile neutrino in the presence of bilinear R-parity violation. Because the light dark gaugino obtains Majorana mass only via gravity mediation, it is a decaying warm dark matter (DM) candidate; (II) the compressed cold DM states, whose mass degeneracy is broken by gravity mediated SUSY breaking, emit such a line via the heavier one decay into the lighter one plus photon(s). A highly supersymmetric dark sector may readily provide such kind of system; (III) the light axino, whose mass again is around the gravitino mass, decays to neutrino plus gamma in the R-parity violating SUSY. Moreover, we comment on dark radiation from dark gaugino.
Search for Supersymmetry with Gauge-Mediated Breaking in Diphoton Events at D0
Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Arnoud, Y; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Baldin, B Yu; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Beauceron, S; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Bhattacharjee, M; Binder, M; Bischoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Böhnlein, A; Bolton, T; Bonamy, P; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Butler, J M; Bystrický, J; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Chopra, S; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Del Signore, K; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisk, H E; Fleuret, F; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Goldmann, K S; Golling, T; Gómez, B; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L S; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S L; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Harder, K; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kau, D; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, K H; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Kopal, M; Korablev, V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kouchner, A; Kuznetsov, O; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Krane, J; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krzywdzinski, S; Kubantsev, M A; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuznetsov, V E; Lager, S; Lahrichi, N; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A C; Lebrun, P; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Leggett, C; Lehner, F; Leonidopoulos, C; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, X; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J T; Lipton, R; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Lü, J; Lubatti, H J; Lucotte, A; Lueking, L H; Luo, C; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Magnan, A M; Maity, M; Mal, P K; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Manankov, V; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Marshall, T; Martens, M; Martin, M I; Mattingly, S E K; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; McMahon, T; Meder, D; Melanson, H L; Melnitchouk, A S; Meng, X; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W B; Meyer, A; Miao, C; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mishra, C S; Mitrevski, J; Mokhov, N V; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Mostafa, M A; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Nang, F; Narain, M; Narasimham, V S; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Nöding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Nurse, E; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Olivier, B; Oshima, N; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Padley, P; Papageorgiou, K; Parashar, N; Park, J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Perea, P M; Pérez, E; Peters, O; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Phaf, L K; Piegaia, R; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pope, B G; Popkov, E; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Przybycien, M B; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rani, K J; Rapidis, P A; Ratoff, P N; Reay, N W; Renardy, J F; Reucroft, S; Rha, J; Ridel, M; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Sabirov, B M; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schukin, A; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sen-Gupta, S; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shephard, W D; Shpakov, D; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skow, D; Slattery, P F; Smith, R P; Smolek, K; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Song, Y; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sorin, V; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Stanton, N R; Stark, J; Steele, J; Steinbruck, G; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tentindo-Repond, S; Thomas, E; Thooris, B; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torborg, J; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trippe, T G; Tuchming, B; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vlimant, J R; Von Törne, E; Vreeswijk, M; Vu-Anh, T; Wahl, H D; Walker, R; Wallace, N; Wang, Z M; Warchol, J; Warsinsky, M; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wegner, M; White, A; White, V; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wijngaarden, D A; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wittlin, J; Wlodek, T; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wu, Z; Wyatt, T R; Xu, Q; Xuan, N; Yamada, R; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yen, Y; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zabi, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zdrazil, M; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, B; Zhang, D; Zhang, X; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zheng, H; Zhou, B; Zhou, Z; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zitoun, R; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A
2004-01-01
We report the results of a search for supersymmetry (SUSY) with gauge-mediated breaking in the missing transverse energy distribution of inclusive diphoton events using 263 pb$^{-1}$ of data collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider in 2002--2004. No excess is observed above the background expected from standard model processes, and lower limits on the masses of the lightest neutralino and chargino of about 108 and 195 GeV, respectively, are set at the 95% confidence level. These are the most stringent limits to date for models with gauge-mediated SUSY breaking with a short-lived neutralino as the next-lightest SUSY particle.
On the Role of Space-Time Foam in Breaking Supersymmetry via the Barbero-Immirzi Parameter
Ellis, John
2011-01-01
We discuss how: (i) a dilaton/axion superfield can play the role of a Barbero-Immirzi field in four-dimensional conformal quantum supergravity theories, (ii) a fermionic component of such a dilaton/axion superfield may play the role of a Goldstino in the low-energy effective action obtained from a superstring theory with F-type global supersymmetry breaking, (iii) this global supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the gravitational sector via the supergravity coupling of the Goldstino, and (iv) such a scenario may be realized explicitly in a D-foam model with D-particle defects fluctuating stochastically.
Dynamical supersymmetry of the spin particle-magnetic field interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ngome, J-P; Horvathy, P A [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et de Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson, CNRS Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Van Holten, J W, E-mail: juste.ngome@lmpt.univ-tours.f, E-mail: horvathy@lmpt.univ-tours.f, E-mail: t32@nikhef.n [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2010-07-16
We study the dynamical and supersymmetries of a fermion in a D = d = 3-dimensional monopole background. The Hamiltonian also involves an additional spin-orbit coupling term, which is parameterized by the gyromagnetic ratio. We construct the superinvariants associated with the system using a SUSY extension of a previously proposed algorithm, based on Grassmann-valued Killing tensors. Conserved quantities arise for certain definite values of the gyromagnetic factor: N=1 SUSY requires g = 2; a Kepler-type dynamical symmetry only arises, however, for the anomalous values g = 0 and g = 4. The two anomalous systems can be unified into an N=2 SUSY system built by doubling the number of Grassmann variables. For D = d = 2, the planar system also exhibits an N=2 supersymmetry without Grassmann variable doubling.
The Supersymmetry Soft-breaking Lagrangian Where Experiment and String Theory Meet
Kane, G L
2000-01-01
After an introduction recalling that we expect low energy supersymmetry to be part of our description of nature because of considerable indirect evidence and successful predictions, and a discussion of the essential role of data for formulating and testing string theory, these lectures focus on the role of the supersymmetry soft-breaking Lagrangian in connecting experiment and string theory. How to measure tan$\\beta$ and the soft parameters is examined via a number of applications, and the difficulty of measuring tan$\\beta$ at hadron colliders is explained. In each case the important role of soft phases is made explicit, and the true number of parameters is counted. Applications include the chargino and neutralino sectors, the Higgs sector and how its results change when phases are included, measuring the (relative) gluino phase, CP violation in K and B systems and whether all CP violation can be due to soft phases, how to learn if the LSP is the cold dark matter of the universe, and baryogenesis. It is empha...
The 750 GeV diphoton excess as a first light on supersymmetry breaking
Casas, J. A.; Espinosa, J. R.; Moreno, J. M.
2016-08-01
One of the most exciting explanations advanced for the recent diphoton excess found by ATLAS and CMS is in terms of sgoldstino decays: a signal of low-energy supersymmetry-breaking scenarios. The sgoldstino, a scalar, couples directly to gluons and photons, with strength related to gaugino masses, that can be of the right magnitude to explain the excess. However, fitting the suggested resonance width, Γ ≃ 45 GeV, is not so easy. In this paper we explore efficient possibilities to enhance the sgoldstino width, via the decay into two Higgses, two Higgsinos and through mixing between the sgoldstino and the Higgs boson. In addition, we present an alternative and more efficient mechanism to generate a mass splitting between the scalar and pseudoscalar components of the sgoldstino, which has been suggested as an interesting alternative explanation to the apparent width of the resonance.
The 750 GeV diphoton excess as a first light on supersymmetry breaking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.A. Casas
2016-08-01
Full Text Available One of the most exciting explanations advanced for the recent diphoton excess found by ATLAS and CMS is in terms of sgoldstino decays: a signal of low-energy supersymmetry-breaking scenarios. The sgoldstino, a scalar, couples directly to gluons and photons, with strength related to gaugino masses, that can be of the right magnitude to explain the excess. However, fitting the suggested resonance width, Γ≃45 GeV, is not so easy. In this paper we explore efficient possibilities to enhance the sgoldstino width, via the decay into two Higgses, two Higgsinos and through mixing between the sgoldstino and the Higgs boson. In addition, we present an alternative and more efficient mechanism to generate a mass splitting between the scalar and pseudoscalar components of the sgoldstino, which has been suggested as an interesting alternative explanation to the apparent width of the resonance.
The 750 GeV Diphoton Excess as a First Light on Supersymmetry Breaking
Casas, J A; Moreno, J M
2015-01-01
One of the most exciting explanations advanced for the recent diphoton excess found by ATLAS and CMS is in terms of sgoldstino decays: a signal of low-energy supersymmetry-breaking scenarios. The sgoldstino, a scalar, couples directly to gluons and photons, with strength related to gaugino masses, that can be of the right magnitude to explain the excess. However, fitting the suggested resonance width, Gamma ~ 45 GeV, is not so easy. In this paper we explore efficient possibilities to enhance the sgoldstino width, via the decay into two Higgses, two Higgsinos and through mixing between the sgoldstino and the Higgs boson. In addition, we present an alternative and more efficient mechanism to generate a mass splitting between the scalar and pseudoscalar components of the sgoldstino, which has been suggested as an interesting alternative explanation to the apparent width of the resonance.
Rajagopalan, Shibi
2010-01-01
In this thesis we examine three different models in the MSSM context, all of which have significant supergravity anomaly contributions to their soft masses. These models are the so-called Minimal, Hypercharged, and Gaugino Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking models. We explore some of the string theoretical motivations for these models and proceed by understanding how they would appear at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Our major results include calculating the LHC reach for each model's parameter space and prescribing a method for distinguishing the models after the collection of 100 fb^-1 at sqrt{s}=14 TeV. AMSB models are notorious for predicting too low a dark matter relic density. To counter this argument we explore several proposed mechanisms for $non$-$thermal$ dark matter production that act to augment abundances from the usual thermal calculations. Interestingly, we find that future direct detection dark matter experiments potentially have a much better reach than the LHC for these models.
Fuks, Benjamin; Herrmann, Björn; Klasen, Michael
2009-03-01
We present an extensive analysis of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking models with minimal and non-minimal flavour violation. We first demonstrate that low-energy, precision electroweak, and cosmological constraints exclude large "collider-friendly" regions of the minimal parameter space. We then discuss various possibilities how flavour violation, although naturally suppressed, may still occur in gauge-mediation models. The introduction of non-minimal flavour violation at the electroweak scale is shown to relax the stringent experimental constraints, so that benchmark points, that are also cosmologically viable, can be defined and their phenomenology, i.e. squark and gaugino production cross sections with flavour violation, at the LHC can be studied.
Fuks, B; Klasen, M
2008-01-01
We present an extensive analysis of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking models with minimal and non-minimal flavour violation. We first demonstrate that low-energy, precision electroweak, and cosmological constraints exclude large "collider-friendly" regions of the minimal parameter space. We then discuss various possibilities how flavour violation, although naturally suppressed, may still occur in gauge-mediation models. The introduction of non-minimal flavour violation at the electroweak scale is shown to relax the stringent experimental constraints, so that benchmark points, that are also cosmologically viable, can be defined and their phenomenology, i.e. squark and gaugino production cross sections with flavour violation, at the LHC can be studied.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fuks, Benjamin [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79106 Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Herrmann, Bjoern [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier/CNRS-IN2P3/INPG, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France); Klasen, Michael [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier/CNRS-IN2P3/INPG, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)], E-mail: klasen@lpsc.in2p3.fr
2009-03-21
We present an extensive analysis of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking models with minimal and non-minimal flavour violation. We first demonstrate that low-energy, precision electroweak, and cosmological constraints exclude large 'collider-friendly' regions of the minimal parameter space. We then discuss various possibilities how flavour violation, although naturally suppressed, may still occur in gauge-mediation models. The introduction of non-minimal flavour violation at the electroweak scale is shown to relax the stringent experimental constraints, so that benchmark points, that are also cosmologically viable, can be defined and their phenomenology, i.e. squark and gaugino production cross sections with flavour violation, at the LHC can be studied.
Supersymmetry and String Theory
Dine, Michael
2016-01-01
Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; A note on choice of metric; Text website; Part I. Effective Field Theory: The Standard Model, Supersymmetry, Unification: 1. Before the Standard Model; 2. The Standard Model; 3. Phenomenology of the Standard Model; 4. The Standard Model as an effective field theory; 5. Anomalies, instantons and the strong CP problem; 6. Grand unification; 7. Magnetic monopoles and solitons; 8. Technicolor: a first attempt to explain hierarchies; Part II. Supersymmetry: 9. Supersymmetry; 10. A first look at supersymmetry breaking; 11. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model; 12. Supersymmetric grand unification; 13. Supersymmetric dynamics; 14. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking; 15. Theories with more than four conserved supercharges; 16. More supersymmetric dynamics; 17. An introduction to general relativity; 18. Cosmology; 19. Astroparticle physics and inflation; Part III. String Theory: 20. Introduction; 21. The bosonic string; 22. The superstring; 23. The heterotic string; 24. Effective actions in ten dimensions; 25. Compactification of string theory I. Tori and orbifolds; 26. Compactification of string theory II. Calabi-Yau compactifications; 27. Dynamics of string theory at weak coupling; 28. Beyond weak coupling: non-perturbative string theory; 29. Large and warped extra dimensions; 30. The landscape: a challenge to the naturalness principle; 31. Coda: where are we headed?; Part IV. The Appendices: Appendix A. Two-component spinors; Appendix B. Goldstone's theorem and the pi mesons; Appendix C. Some practice with the path integral in field theory; Appendix D. The beta function in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory; References; Index.
Partial ${\\cal N}=2 \\to {\\cal N}=1$ supersymmetry breaking and gravity deformed chiral rings
David, J R; Narain, K S; David, Justin R.; Gava, Edi
2004-01-01
We present a derivation of the chiral ring relations, arising in ${\\cal N}=1$ gauge theories in the presence of (anti-)self-dual background gravitational field $G_{\\alpha\\beta\\gamma}$ and graviphoton field strength $F_{\\alpha\\beta}$. These were previously considered in the literature in order to prove the relation between gravitational F-terms in the gauge theory and coefficients of the topological expansion of the related matrix integral. We consider the spontaneous breaking of ${\\cal N} =2$ to ${\\cal N} =1$ supergravity coupled to vector- and hyper-multiplets, and take a rigid limit which keeps a non-trivial $G_{\\alpha\\beta\\gamma}$ and $F_{\\alpha\\beta}$ with a finite supersymmetry breaking scale. We derive the resulting effective, global, ${\\cal N}=1$ theory and show that the chiral ring relations are just a consequence of the standard ${\\cal N}=2$ supergravity Bianchi identities . We can also obtain models with matter in different representations and in particular quiver theories. We also show that, in the...
Indirect Probes of Supersymmetry Breaking in the JEM-EUSO Observatory
Albuquerque, Ivone F M
2012-01-01
In this paper we propose indirect probes of the scale of supersymmetry breaking, through observations in the Extreme Universe Space Observatory onboard Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EUSO). We consider scenarios where the lightest supersymmetric particle is the gravitino, and the next to lightest (NLSP) is a long lived slepton. We demonstrate that JEM-EUSO will be able to probe models where the NLSP decays, therefore probing supersymmetric breaking scales below $5 \\times 10^6$ GeV. The observatory field of view will be large enough to detect a few tens of events per year, depending on its energy threshold. This is complementary to a previous proposal (Albuquerque et al., 2004) where it was shown that 1 Km$^3$ neutrino telescopes can directly probe this scale. NLSPs will be produced by the interaction of high energy neutrinos in the Earth. Here we investigate scenarios where they subsequently decay, either in the atmosphere after escaping the Earth or right before leaving the Earth, producing taus. These can ...
Natural X-ray lines from the low scale supersymmetry breaking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaofeng Kang
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In the supersymmetric models with low scale supersymmetry (SUSY breaking where the gravitino mass is around keV, we show that the 3.5 keV X-ray lines can be explained naturally through several different mechanisms: (I a keV scale dark gaugino plays the role of sterile neutrino in the presence of bilinear R-parity violation. Because the light dark gaugino obtains Majorana mass only via gravity mediation, it is a decaying warm dark matter (DM candidate; (II the compressed cold DM states, whose mass degeneracy is broken by gravity mediated SUSY breaking, emit such a line via the heavier one decay into the lighter one plus photon(s. A highly supersymmetric dark sector may readily provide such kind of system; (III the light axino, whose mass again is around the gravitino mass, decays to neutrino plus gamma in the R-parity violating SUSY. Moreover, we comment on dark radiation from dark gaugino.
Self-Dual Tensors and Partial Supersymmetry Breaking in Five Dimensions
Grimm, Thomas W
2014-01-01
We study spontaneous supersymmetry breaking of five-dimensional supergravity theories from sixteen to eight supercharges in Minkowski vacua. This N=4 to N=2 breaking is induced by Abelian gaugings that require the introduction of self-dual tensor fields accompanying the vectors in the gravity multiplet and vector multiplets. These tensor fields have first-order kinetic terms and can become massive by a Stueckelberg-like mechanism. We identify the general class of N=2 vacua and show how the N=4 spectrum splits into massless and massive N=2 multiplets. In particular, we find a massive gravitino multiplet, containing two complex massive tensors, and a number of massive tensor multiplets and hypermultiplets. We determine the resulting N=2 effective action for the massless multiplets obtained by integrating out massive fields. We show that the metric and Chern-Simons terms of the vectors are corrected at one-loop by massive tensors as well as spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 fermions. These contributions are independent of t...
Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in String Models with D-branes
Kitazawa, Noriaki
2009-01-01
The possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong coupling gauge interaction in models with D-branes in String Theory is examined. Instead of elementary scalar Higgs doublet fields, the gauge symmetry with strong coupling (technicolor) is introduced. As the first step of this direction, a toy model, which is not fully realistic, is concretely analyzed in some detail. The model consists of D-branes and anti-D-branes at orbifold singularities in (T^2 x T^2 x T^2)/Z_3 which preserves supersymmetry. Supersymmetry is broken through the brane supersymmetry breaking. It is pointed out that the problem of large S parameter in dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scenario may be solved by natural existence of kinetic term mixings between hypercharge U(1) gauge boson and massive anomalous U(1) gauge bosons. The problems to be solved toward constructing more realistic models are clarified in the analysis.
Supersymmetry from the Top Down
Dine, Michael
2011-01-01
If supersymmetry turns out to be a symmetry of nature at low energies, the first order of business to measure the soft breaking parameters. But one will also want to understand the symmetry, and its breaking, more microscopically. Two aspects of this problem constitute the focus of these lectures. First, what sorts of dynamics might account for supersymmetry breaking, and its manifestation at low energies. Second, how might these features fit into string theory (or whatever might be the underlying theory in the ultraviolet). The last few years have seen a much improved understanding of the first set of questions, and at least a possible pathway to address the second.
Muon g -2 in gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking models with adjoint messengers
Gogoladze, Ilia; Ün, Cem Salih
2017-02-01
We explored the sparticle mass spectrum in light of the muon g -2 anomaly and the little hierarchy problem in a class of the gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking model. Here, the messenger fields transform in the adjoint representation of the Standard Model gauge symmetry. To avoid unacceptably light right-handed slepton masses, the Standard Model is supplemented by the additional U (1 )B-L gauge symmetry. A nonzero U (1 )B-L D term makes the right-handed slepton masses compatible with the current experimental bounds. We show that in the framework of Λ3muon g -2 anomaly and the observed 125 GeV Higgs boson mass can be simultaneously accommodated. The slepton masses in this case are predicted to lie in the few hundred GeV range, which can be tested at the LHC. Despite the heavy colored sparticle spectrum, the little hierarchy problem in this model can be ameliorated, and the electroweak fine-tuning parameter can be as low as 10 or so.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ion C. Baianu
2009-04-01
Full Text Available A novel algebraic topology approach to supersymmetry (SUSY and symmetry breaking in quantum field and quantum gravity theories is presented with a view to developing a wide range of physical applications. These include: controlled nuclear fusion and other nuclear reaction studies in quantum chromodynamics, nonlinear physics at high energy densities, dynamic Jahn-Teller effects, superfluidity, high temperature superconductors, multiple scattering by molecular systems, molecular or atomic paracrystal structures, nanomaterials, ferromagnetism in glassy materials, spin glasses, quantum phase transitions and supergravity. This approach requires a unified conceptual framework that utilizes extended symmetries and quantum groupoid, algebroid and functorial representations of non-Abelian higher dimensional structures pertinent to quantized spacetime topology and state space geometry of quantum operator algebras. Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier-Stieltjes transforms, and duality relations link, respectively, the quantum groups and quantum groupoids with their dual algebraic structures; quantum double constructions are also discussed in this context in relation to quasi-triangular, quasi-Hopf algebras, bialgebroids, Grassmann-Hopf algebras and higher dimensional algebra. On the one hand, this quantum algebraic approach is known to provide solutions to the quantum Yang-Baxter equation. On the other hand, our novel approach to extended quantum symmetries and their associated representations is shown to be relevant to locally covariant general relativity theories that are consistent with either nonlocal quantum field theories or local bosonic (spin models with the extended quantum symmetry of entangled, 'string-net condensed' (ground states.
BUDS 2013
2014-01-01
This is the seventh volume in a series on the general topics of supersymmetry, supergravity, black objects (including black holes), and the attractor mechanism. The present volume is based on lectures held in March 2013 at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati during the Breaking of supersymmetry and Ultraviolet Divergences in extended Supergravity Workshop (BUDS 2013), organized by Stefano Bellucci, with the participation of prestigious speakers including P. Aschieri, E. Bergshoeff, M. Cederwall, T. Dennen, P. Di Vecchia, S. Ferrara, R. Kallosh, A. Karlsson, M. Koehn, B. Ovrut, A. Van Proeyen, G. Ruppeiner. Special attention is devoted to discussing topics related to the cancellation of ultraviolet divergences in extended supergravity and Born-Infeld-like actions. All talks were followed by extensive discussions and subsequent reworking of the various contributions, a feature which is reflected in the unique "flavor" of this volume.
Ferrara, S
2015-01-01
Theories with elementary scalar degrees of freedom seem nowadays required for simple descriptions of the Standard Model and of the Early Universe. It is then natural to embed theories of inflation in supergravity, also in view of their possible ultraviolet completion in String Theory. After some general remarks on inflation in supergravity, we describe examples of minimal inflaton dynamics which are compatible with recent observations, including higher-curvature ones inspired by the Starobinsky model. We also discuss different scenarios for supersymmetry breaking during and after inflation, which include a revived role for non-linear realizations. In this spirit, we conclude with a discussion of the link, in four dimensions, between "brane supersymmetry breaking" and the super--Higgs effect in supergravity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, Stephen P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wells, James D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)
2012-08-01
We investigate the implications of models that achieve a Standard Model-like Higgs boson of mass near 125 GeV by introducing additional TeV-scale supermultiplets in the vector-like 10+\\bar{10} representation of SU(5), within the context of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking. We study the resulting mass spectrum of superpartners, comparing and contrasting to the usual gauge-mediated and CMSSM scenarios, and discuss implications for LHC supersymmetry searches. This approach implies that exotic vector-like fermions t'_{1,2}, b',and \\tau' should be within the reach of the LHC. We discuss the masses, the couplings to electroweak bosons, and the decay branching ratios of the exotic fermions, with and without various unification assumptions for the mass and mixing parameters. We comment on LHC prospects for discovery of the exotic fermion states, both for decays that are prompt and non-prompt on detector-crossing time scales.
Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Chwalek, T; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; di Giovanni, G P; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lovas, L; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neubauer, S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramanov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Peiffer, T; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Renz, M; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Rutherford, B; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Trovato, M; Tsai, S-Y; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Weinelt, J; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S
2010-01-08
We present the results of a search for supersymmetry with gauge-mediated breaking and chi(1)(0) --> gammaG in the gammagamma + missing transverse energy final state. In 2.6+/-0.2 fb(-1) of pp collisions at square root(s) = 1.96 TeV recorded by the CDF II detector we observe no candidate events, consistent with a standard model background expectation of 1.4+/-0.4 events. We set limits on the cross section at the 95% C.L. and place the world's best limit of 149 GeV/c2 on the chi(1)(0) mass at tau(chi(1)(0)) < 1 ns. We also exclude regions in the chi(1)(0) mass-lifetime plane for tau(chi(1)(0)) approximately < 2 ns.
Dynamical centrosymmetry breaking in graphene
Carvalho, David N; Biancalana, Fabio
2016-01-01
We discover an unusual phenomenon that occurs when a graphene monolayer is illuminated by a short and intense pulse at normal incidence. Due to the pulse-induced oscillations of the Dirac cones, a dynamical breaking of the layer's centrosymmetry takes place, leading to the generation of second harmonic waves. We prove that this result can only be found by using the full Dirac equation and show that the widely used semiconductor Bloch equations fail to reproduce this and some other important physics of graphene. Our results open new windows in the understanding of nonlinear light-matter interactions in a wide variety of new 2D materials with a gapped or ungapped Dirac-like dispersion.
Kimura, Tetsuji; Noumi, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Masahide
2016-01-01
We construct $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric nonlocal theories in four dimension. We discuss higher derivative extensions of chiral and vector superfields, and write down generic forms of K\\"ahler potential and superpotential up to quadratic order. We derive the condition in which an auxiliary field remains non-dynamical, and the dynamical scalars and fermions are free from the ghost degrees of freedom. We also investigate the nonlocal effects on the supersymmetry breaking and find that supertrace (mass) formula is significantly modified even at the tree level.
Dynamical gauge symmetry breaking on the lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farakos, K.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Zoupanos, G. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece))
1990-10-11
We study, using lattice techniques, the dynamical symmetry breaking of a three-dimensional theory that mimics the electroweak sector of the standard model. We show that in the strong coupling limit of a QCD-like theory the fermion condensates which are produced induce dynamical symmetry breaking of the sector corresponding to the electroweak gauge group. (orig.).
de Sitter vacua and supersymmetry breaking in six-dimensional flux compactifications
Buchmuller, Wilfried; Dierigl, Markus; Ruehle, Fabian; Schweizer, Julian
2016-07-01
We consider six-dimensional supergravity with Abelian bulk flux compactified on an orbifold. The effective low-energy action can be expressed in terms of N =1 chiral moduli superfields with a gauged shift symmetry. The D -term potential contains two Fayet-Iliopoulos terms which are induced by the flux and by the Green-Schwarz term canceling the gauge anomalies, respectively. The Green-Schwarz term also leads to a correction of the gauge kinetic function which turns out to be crucial for the existence of Minkowski and de Sitter vacua. Moduli stabilization is achieved by the interplay of the D -term and a nonperturbative superpotential. Varying the gauge coupling and the superpotential parameters, the scale of the extra dimensions can range from the GUT scale down to the TeV scale. Supersymmetry is broken by F - and D -terms, and the scale of gravitino, moduli, and modulini masses is determined by the size of the compact dimensions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Pati, J.C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-12-01
Recently a promising mechanism for supersymmetry breaking that utilizes both an anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry and an effective mass term m {approx} 1TeV of certain relevant fields has been proposed. In this paper we examine whether such a mechanism can emerge in superstring derived free fermionic models. We observe that certain three generation string solutions, though not all, lead to an anomalous U(1) which couples universally to all three families. The advantages of this three-family universality of U(1){sub A}, compared to the two-family case, proposed in earlier works, in yielding squark degeneracy, while avoiding radiative breaking of color and charge, are noted. The root cause of the flavor universality of U(1){sub A} is the cyclic permutation symmetry that characterizes the Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 2} orbifold compactification with standard embedding, realized in the free fermionic models by the NAHE set. It is shown that nonrenormalizable terms which contain hidden-sector condensates, generate the required suppression of the relevant mass term m, compared to the Planck scale. While the D-term of the family universal U(1){sub A} leads to squark degeneracy, those of the family dependent U(1)`s, remarkably enough, are found to vanish for the solutions considered, owing to minimization of the potential.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Pati, J.C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-12-01
Recently a promising mechanism for supersymmetry breaking that utilizes both an anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry and an effective mass term m {approx} 1TeV of certain relevant fields has been proposed. In this paper we examine whether such a mechanism can emerge in superstring derived free fermionic models. We observe that certain three generation string solutions, though not all, lead to an anomalous U(1) which couples universally to all three families. The advantages of this three-family universality of U(1){sub A}, compared to the two-family case, proposed in earlier works, in yielding squark degeneracy, while avoiding radiative breaking of color and charge, are noted. The root cause of the flavor universality of U(1){sub A} is the cyclic permutation symmetry that characterizes the Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 2} orbifold compactification with standard embedding, realized in the free fermionic models by the NAHE set. It is shown that nonrenormalizable terms which contain hidden-sector condensates, generate the required suppression of the relevant mass term m, compared to the Planck scale. While the D-term of the family universal U(1){sub A} leads to squark degeneracy, those of the family dependent U(1)`s, remarkably enough, are found to vanish for the solutions considered, owing to minimization of the potential.
Hard and soft supersymmetry breaking for ‘graphinos’ in uniform magnetic fields
Hernández-Ortíz, S.; Murguía, G.; Raya, A.
2012-01-01
Using irreducible and reducible representations of the Dirac matrices, we study the two- and four-component quantum mechanical supersymmetric (SUSY) theories for ultrarelativistic fermions in (2 + 1) dimensions (‘graphinos’) in a background uniform magnetic field perpendicular to their plane of motion. We then consider ordinary and parity-violating mass terms and identify the former as a soft SUSY breaking term and the latter as the hard SUSY breaking one.
Using rates to measure mixed modulus-anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking at the LHC
Conley, J A; Glaser, L; Kraemer, M; Tattersall, J
2011-01-01
If SUSY is discovered at the LHC, the task will immediately turn to determining the model of SUSY breaking. Here, we employ a Mixed Modulus-Anomaly Mediated SUSY Breaking (MMAMSB) model with very similar LHC phenomenology to the more conventionally studied Constrained Minimal SUSY Model (CMSSM) and minimal Anomaly Mediated SUSY Breaking (mAMSB) models. We then study whether the models can be distinguished and measured. If we only fit to the various mass edges and mass end-points from cascade decay chains that are normally studied, a unique determination and measurement of the model is problematic without substantial amounts of LHC data. However, if event rate information is included, we can quickly distinguish and measure the correct SUSY model and exclude alternatives.
Supersymmetry breaking and Nambu-Goldstone fermions in an extended Nicolai model
Sannomiya, Noriaki; Nakayama, Yu
2016-01-01
We study a model of interacting spinless fermions in a one dimensional lattice with supersymmetry (SUSY). The Hamiltonian is given by the anti-commutator of two supercharges $Q$ and $Q^\\dagger$, each of which is comprised solely of fermion operators and possesses one adjustable parameter $g$. When the parameter $g$ vanishes, the model is identical to the one studied by Nicolai [H. Nicolai, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. \\textbf{9}, 1497 (1976)], where the zero-energy ground state is exponentially degenerate. On the other hand, in the large-$g$ limit the model reduces to the free-fermion chain with a four-fold degenerate ground state. We show that for finite chains SUSY is spontaneously broken when $g > 0$. We also rigorously prove that for sufficiently large $g$ the ground-state energy density is nonvanishing in the infinite-volume limit. We further analyze the nature of the low-energy excitations by employing various techniques such as rigorous inequalities, exact numerical diagonalization, and renormalization group...
de Sitter vacua and supersymmetry breaking in six-dimensional flux compactifications
Buchmuller, Wilfried; Ruehle, Fabian; Schweizer, Julian
2016-01-01
We consider six-dimensional supergravity with Abelian bulk flux compactified on an orbifold. The effective low-energy action can be expressed in terms of N=1 chiral moduli superfields with a gauged shift symmetry. The D-term potential contains two Fayet-Iliopoulos terms which are induced by the flux and by the Green-Schwarz term canceling the gauge anomalies, respectively. The Green-Schwarz term also leads to a correction of the gauge kinetic function which turns out to be crucial for the existence of Minkowski and de Sitter vacua. Moduli stabilization is achieved by the interplay of the D-term and a nonperturbative superpotential. Varying the gauge coupling and the superpotential parameters, the scale of the extra dimensions can range from the GUT scale down to the TeV scale. Supersymmetry is broken by F- and D-terms, and the scale of gravitino, moduli, and modulini masses is determined by the size of the compact dimensions.
Neutralino Phenomenology at LEP2 in Supersymmetry with Bilinear Breaking of R-parity
Bartl, Alfred; Restrepo, D A; Romão, J C; Valle, José W F
2001-01-01
We discuss the phenomenology of the lightest neutralino in models where an effective bilinear term in the superpotential parametrizes the explicit breaking of R-parity. We consider supergravity scenarios where the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is the lightest neutralino and which can be explored at LEP2. We present a detailed study of the LSP decay properties and general features of the corresponding signals expected at LEP2.
Dimensional reduction and dynamical symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forgacs, P.; Zoupanos, G.
1984-11-22
We present a model in which the electroweak gauge group is broken according to a dynamical scenario based on the chiral symmetry breaking of high colour representations. The dynamical scenario requires also the existence of elementary Higgs fields, which in the present scheme come from the dimensional reduction of a pure gauge theory.
Dimensional reduction and dynamical symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forgacs, P.; Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))
1984-11-22
We present a model in which the electroweak gauge group is broken according to a dynamical scenario based on the chiral symmetry breaking of high colour representations. The dynamical scenario also requires the existence of elementary Higgs fields, which in the present scheme come from the dimensional reduction of a pure gauge theory.
Modified dynamical supergravity breaking and off-diagonal super-Higgs effects
Gheorghiu, Tamara; Vacaru, Olivia; Vacaru, Sergiu
2015-03-01
We argue that generic off-diagonal vacuum and nonvacuum solutions for Einstein manifolds mimic physical effects in modified gravity theories (MGTs) and encode certain models of the f(R,T,\\ldots ), Hořava type with dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking, induced effective mass for the graviton, etc. Our main goal is to investigate the dynamical breaking of local supersymmetry determined by off-diagonal solutions in MGTs and encoded as effective Einstein spaces. This includes the Deser-Zumino super-Higgs effect, for instance, for a one-loop potential in a simple but representative model of N=1,D=4 supergravity. We develop and apply new geometrical techniques that allow us to decouple the gravitational field equations and integrate them in a very general form with the metric and vielbein fields depending on all the spacetime coordinates by means of various generating and integration functions and parameters. We study how solutions in MGTs may be related to the dynamical generation of a gravitino mass and supersymmetry breaking.
Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Schwartz, Robert N.; Wang, Kang L.
2016-03-01
The concept of deterministic dynamical chaos has a long history and is well established by now. Nevertheless, its field theoretic essence and its stochastic generalization have been revealed only very recently. Within the newly found supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS), all stochastic differential equations (SDEs) possess topological or de Rahm supersymmetry and stochastic chaos is the phenomenon of its spontaneous breakdown. Even though the STS is free of approximations and thus is technically solid, it is still missing a firm interpretational basis in order to be physically sound. Here, we make a few important steps toward the construction of the interpretational foundation for the STS. In particular, we discuss that one way to understand why the ground states of chaotic SDEs are conditional (not total) probability distributions, is that some of the variables have infinite memory of initial conditions and thus are not “thermalized”, i.e., cannot be described by the initial-conditions-independent probability distributions. As a result, the definitive assumption of physical statistics that the ground state is a steady-state total probability distribution is not valid for chaotic SDEs.
Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in RN Quantum Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. T. Kotvytskiy
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We show that in the RN gravitation model, there is no dynamical symmetry breaking effect in the formalism of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (in flat background space-time. A general formula for the second variation of the gravitational action is obtained from the quantum corrections hμν (in arbitrary background metrics.
Symmetry Breaking in Pedestrian Dynamics
Morton, Nickolas A
2016-01-01
When two pedestrians travelling in opposite directions approach one another, each must decide on which side (the left or the right) they will attempt to pass. If both make the same choice then passing can be completed with ease, while if they make opposite choices an embarrassing stand-off or collision can occur. Pedestrians who encounter each other frequently can establish "social norms" that bias this decision. In this study we investigate the effect of binary decision-making by pedestrians when passing on the dynamics of pedestrian flows in order to study the emergence of a social norm in crowds with a mixture of individual biases. Such a situation may arise, for instance, when individuals from different communities mix at a large sporting event or at transport hubs. We construct a phase diagram that shows that a social norm can still emerge provided pedestrians are sufficiently attentive to the choices of others in the crowd. We show that this collective behaviour has the potential to greatly influence th...
Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in Warped Compactifications
Rius, N
2001-01-01
We study dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in the Randall-Sundrum scenario. We show that one extra dimension is enough to give the correct pattern of electroweak symmetry breaking in a simple model with gauge bosons and the right-handed top quark in the bulk. The top quark mass is also in agreement with experiment. Furthermore, we propose an extended scenario with all Standard Model gauge bosons and fermions propagating in the bulk, which naturally accommodates the fermion mass hierarchies. No new fields or interactions beyond the observed in the Standard Model are required.
An attractor for natural supersymmetry
Cohen, Timothy; Hook, Anson; Torroba, Gonzalo
2012-12-01
We propose an attractor mechanism which generates the more minimal supersymmetric standard model from a broad class of supersymmetry breaking boundary conditions. The hierarchies in the fermion masses and mixings are produced by the same dynamics and a natural weak scale results from gaugino mediation. These features arise from augmenting the standard model with a new SU(3) gauge group under which only the third generation quarks are charged. The theory flows to a strongly interacting fixed point which induces a negative anomalous dimension for the third generation quarks and a positive anomalous dimension for the Higgs. As a result, a split-family natural spectrum and the flavor hierarchies are dynamically generated.
Impact of supersymmetry on the nonperturbative dynamics of fuzzy spheres
Anagnostopoulos, K N; Nagao, K; Nishimura, J; Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos N.; Azuma, Takehiro; Nagao, Keiichi; Nishimura, Jun
2005-01-01
We study a 4d supersymmetric matrix model with a cubic term, which incorporates fuzzy spheres as classical solutions, using Monte Carlo simulations and perturbative calculations. The fuzzy sphere in the supersymmetric model turns out to be always stable if the large-N limit is taken in such a way that various correlation functions scale. This is in striking contrast to analogous bosonic models, where the fuzzy sphere decays into the pure Yang-Mills vacuum due to quantum effects when the coefficient of the cubic term becomes smaller than a critical value. We also find that the power-law tail of the eigenvalue distribution, which exists in the supersymmetric model without the cubic term, disappears in the presence of the fuzzy sphere in the large-N limit. Coincident fuzzy spheres turn out to be unstable, which implies that the dynamically generated gauge group is U(1).
Dynamical symmetry breaking in quantum field theories
Miransky, Vladimir A
1993-01-01
The phenomenon of dynamical symmetry breaking (DSB) in quantum field theory is discussed in a detailed and comprehensive way. The deep connection between this phenomenon in condensed matter physics and particle physics is emphasized. The realizations of DSB in such realistic theories as quantum chromodynamics and electroweak theory are considered. Issues intimately connected with DSB such as critical phenomenona and effective lagrangian approach are also discussed.
Dynamics of Symmetry Breaking and Tachyonic Preheating
Felder, G; Greene, P B; Kofman, L A; Linde, Andrei D; Tkachev, Igor I; Felder, Gary; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Greene, Patrick B.; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei; Tkachev, Igor
2001-01-01
We reconsider the old problem of the dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking using 3d lattice simulations, and develop a theory of tachyonic preheating, which occurs due to the spinodal instability of the scalar field. Tachyonic preheating is so efficient that symmetry breaking typically completes within a single oscillation of the field distribution as it rolls towards the minimum of its effective potential. As an application of this theory we consider preheating in the hybrid inflation scenario, including SUSY-motivated F-term and D-term inflationary models. We show that preheating in hybrid inflation is typically tachyonic and the stage of oscillations of a homogeneous component of the scalar fields driving inflation ends after a single oscillation. Our results may also be relevant for the theory of the formation of disoriented chiral condensates in heavy ion collisions.
Acosta, D; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Arguin, J F; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barker, G J; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Barone, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bölla, G; Bolshov, A; Booth, P S L; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, Yu A; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canepa, A; Casarsa, M; Carlsmith, D; Carron, S; Carosi, R; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chapman, J; Chen, C; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, M L; Chuang, S; Chung, J Y; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A G; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cranshaw, J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Culbertson, R; Currat, C; Cyr, D; Dagenhart, D; Da Ronco, S; D'Auria, S; De Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Agnello, S; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; Doksus, P; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; Donini, J; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, T; Drollinger, V; Ebina, K; Eddy, N; Ely, R; Erbacher, R; Erdmann, M; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernández, J P; Ferretti, C; Field, R D; Flanagan, G; Flaugher, B; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallas, A; Galyardt, J; Gallinaro, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D W; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, D; Goldstein, J; Gómez, G; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Yu; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Günther, M; Guimarães da Costa, J; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heider, E; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Hill, C; Hirschbuehl, D; Höcker, A; Hoffman, K D; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M A; Huffman, B T; Huang, Y; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Issever, C; Ivanov, A; Iwata, Y; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jarrell, J; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karagoz-Unel, M; Karchin, P E; Kartal, S; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, T H; Kim, Y K; King, B T; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Koehn, P; Kong, D J; Kondo, K; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korn, A J; Korytov, A; Kotelnikov, K; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuznetsova, N; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lander, R; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Lazzizzera, I; Le, Y; Lecci, C; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Liss, T M; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P F; Lu, R S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Malferrari, L; Manca, G; Marginean, R; Martin, M; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P M; McNamara, P; NcNulty, R; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, L; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Miyazaki, Y; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Müller, T; Mumford, R; Munar, A; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakamura, I; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Napora, R; Naumov, D V; Necula, V; Niell, F; Nielsen, J; Nelson, C; Nelson, T; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Newman-Holmes, C; Nicollerat, A S; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Österberg, K; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Ohsugi, T; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R G C; Orava, R; Orejudos, W; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Pauly, T; Paus, C; Pellett, D; Penzo, Aldo L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K T; Plager, C; Pompos, A; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Poukhov, O; Prakoshyn, F; Pratt, T; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rademacker, J; Rakitine, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Ray, H; Reichold, A; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P B; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Rinnert, K; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Rosenson, L; Roser, R; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Ruiz, A; Ryan, D; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Saint-Denis, R; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Sansoni, A; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semeria, F; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T G; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Siegrist, J; Siket, M; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Sissakian, A N; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spiegel, L; Spinella, F; Spiropulu, M; Squillacioti, P; Stadie, H; Stelzer, B; Stelzer--, O; Chilton; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A C; Tafirout, R; Takach, S F; Takano, H; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanimoto, N; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tesarek, R J; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tonnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tseng, J; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Turini, N; Turner, M; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vacavant, L; Vaiciulis, A W; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vejcik, S; Velev, G V; Veszpremi, V; Veramendi, G; Vickey, T; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vollrath, I; Volobuev, I P; Von der Mey, M; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Yamashita, T; Yamamoto, K; Wan, Z; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolter, M; Worcester, M; Worm, S; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Wyatt, A; Yagil, A; Yang, U K; Yao, W; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yoon, P; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S; Yu, Z; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhou, J; Zsenei, A; Zucchelli, S
2004-01-01
We present the results of a search for anomalous production of diphoton events with large missing transverse energy using the Collider Detector at Fermilab. In 202 $\\invpb$ of $\\ppbar$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV we observe no candidate events, with an expected standard model background of $0.27\\pm0.07({\\rm stat})\\pm0.10({\\rm syst})$ events. The results exclude a lightest chargino of mass less than 167 GeV/$c^2$, and lightest neutralino of mass less than 93 GeV/$c^2$ at 95% C.L. in a gauge--mediated supersymmetry-- breaking model with a light gravitino.
El-Ganainy, Ramy; Christodoulides, Demetrios N
2013-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of nonclassical states of light in coupled optical structures and we demonstrate a number of intriguing features associated with such arrangements. By diagonalizing the system's Hamiltonian, we show that these geometries can support eigenstates having anomalous optical intensity distribution with no classical counterpart. These features may provide new avenues towards manipulating light flow at the quantum level. By projecting the Hamiltonian operator on Hilbert subspaces spanning different numbers of photon excitations, we demonstrate that processes such as coherent transport, state localization and surface Bloch oscillations can take place in Fock space. Furthermore, we show that Hamiltonian representations of Fock space manifolds differing by one photon obey a discrete supersymmetry relation
A Composite Model of Quarks with the `Effective Supersymmetry'
Okada, N.
1998-04-01
We present a composite model of quarks with `effective supersymmetry'. The model is based on the gauge group (SU(2)S × SU(2)M) × (SU(2)U × SU(2)C × SU(2)T) × SU(5)SM , where SU(5)SM is the standard model gauge group. In the dynamical supersymmetry breaking sector based on the gauge group SU(2)S × SU(2)M , supersymmetry is dynamically broken. The preon sector is constructed by the model proposed by Nelson and Strassler. The fermion mass hierarchy among the up-type quarks originates from the SU(2)U × SU(2)C × SU(2)T gauge dynamics. The supersymmetry breaking is mediated to the minimal supersymmetric standard model sector by the `preon' superfields which compose the quarks in the first two generations. To obtain an experimentally acceptable mass spectrum, the scalar quarks in the first two generations need masses of order 10 TeV, while the other superpartners need masses less than 1 TeV. Therefore, the mass spectrum in our model is one example of the `effective supersymmetry' model proposed by Cohen, Kaplan and Nelson.
A Composite Model of Quarks with the "Effective Supersymmetry"
Okada, N
1998-01-01
We present a composite model of quarks with the `effective supersymmetry'. The model is based on the gauge group $(SU(2)_S \\times SU(2)_M) \\times (SU(2)_U standard model gauge group. In the dynamical supersymmetry breaking sector based on the gauge group $ SU(2)_S \\times SU(2)_M $, the supersymmetry is dynamically broken. The preon sector is constructed by the model proposed by Nelson and Strassler. The fermion mass hierarchy among the up-type quarks originates from the $ SU(2)_U \\times SU(2)_C \\times SU(2)_T $ gauge dynamics. The supersymmetry breaking is mediated to the minimal supersymmetric standard model sector by the `preon' superfields which compose the quarks in the first two generations. To obtain the experimentally acceptable mass spectrum, the scalar quarks in the first two generations have masses of order 10 TeV, while the other superpartners have masses of order 100 GeV. Therefore, the mass spectrum in our model is one of the type of the `effective supersymmetry' model proposed by Cohen, Kaplan a...
Pure gravity mediation and spontaneous B–L breaking from strong dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaladi S. Babu
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In pure gravity mediation (PGM, the most minimal scheme for the mediation of supersymmetry (SUSY breaking to the visible sector, soft masses for the standard model gauginos are generated at one loop rather than via direct couplings to the SUSY-breaking field. In any concrete implementation of PGM, the SUSY-breaking field is therefore required to carry nonzero charge under some global or local symmetry. As we point out in this note, a prime candidate for such a symmetry might be B–L, the Abelian gauge symmetry associated with the difference between baryon number B and lepton number L. The F-term of the SUSY-breaking field then not only breaks SUSY, but also B–L, which relates the respective spontaneous breaking of SUSY and B–L at a fundamental level. As a particularly interesting consequence, we find that the heavy Majorana neutrino mass scale ends up being tied to the gravitino mass, ΛN∼m3/2. Assuming nonthermal leptogenesis to be responsible for the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the universe, this connection may then explain why SUSY necessarily needs to be broken at a rather high energy scale, so that m3/2≳1000 TeV in accord with the concept of PGM. We illustrate our idea by means of a minimal model of dynamical SUSY breaking, in which B–L is identified as a weakly gauged flavor symmetry. We also discuss the effect of the B–L gauge dynamics on the superparticle mass spectrum as well as the resulting constraints on the parameter space of our model. In particular, we comment on the role of the B–L D-term.
Modified Dynamical Supergravity Breaking and Off-Diagonal Super-Higgs Effects
Gheorghiu, Tamara; Vacaru, Sergiu
2015-01-01
We argue that generic off-diagonal vacuum and nonvacuum solutions for Einstein manifolds mimic physical effects in modified gravity theories (MGTs) and encode certain models of $f(R,T,...)$, Ho\\vrava type with dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking, induced effective mass for graviton etc. Our main goal is to investigate the dynamical breaking of local supersymmetry determined by off--diagonal solutions in MGTs encoded as effective Einstein spaces. This includes the Deser-Zumino super--Higgs effect, for instance, for an one--loop potential in a (simple but representative) model of $\\mathcal{N}=1, D=4$ supergravity. We develop and apply a new geometric techniques which allows us to decouple the gravitational field equations and integrate them in very general forms with metrics and vierbein fields depending on all spacetime coordinates via various generating and integration functions and parameters. We study how solutions in MGTs may be related to dynamical generation of a gravitino mass and supergravity breaking.
Azuma, Yuya
A search for long-lived charginos in anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) mod- els is performed using 4.7 fb 1 data of pp collisions at p s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector. In the AMSB models, the wino is the lightest gaugino and the lightest chargino and neutralino (as the lightest supersymmetric particle) are dominantly composed of the charged and neutral winos, respectively. Furthermore, the masses of the charged and neutral winos are highly de- generate, which results in a significant lifetime of the chargino. The lightest chargino decays into a neutralino and a soft charged pion. Due to the mass degeneracy, the momentum of the pion originating from the chargino decay is too soft to be reconstructed in collider experiments. The neutralino escapes detection, therefore, the decaying chargino could be identified as a high- momentum track breaking up in the tracking volume ( disappearing track ). In this dissertation, a method for detecting such chargino tracks is newly developed. The tran- sition r...
Dynamic breaking of a single gold bond
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pobelov, Ilya V.; Lauritzen, Kasper Primdal; Yoshida, Koji
2017-01-01
. Conversely, if the force is loaded rapidly it is more likely that the maximum breaking force is measured. Paradoxically, no clear differences in breaking force were observed in experiments on gold nanowires, despite being conducted under very different conditions. Here we explore the breaking behaviour...
Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis
Kalinowski, Jan
2002-01-01
Supersymmetric particles can be produced copiously at future colliders. From the high-precision data taken at e+e- linear colliders, TESLA in particular, and combined with results from LHC, and CLIC later, the low-energy parameters of the supersymmetric model can be determined. Evolving the parameters from the low-energy scale to the high-scale by means of renormalization group techniques the fundamental supersymmetry parameters at the high scale, GUT or Planck, can be reconstructed to reveal the origin of supersymmetry breaking.
Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANGDian-Fu; SONGHe-Shan
2004-01-01
The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.
Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shah
2004-01-01
The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.
Abel, S A; Jaeckel, J; Khoze, V V; Abel, Steven A.; Chu, Chong-Sun; Jaeckel, Joerg; Khoze, Valentin V.
2007-01-01
Supersymmetry breaking in a metastable vacuum is re-examined in a cosmological context. It is shown that thermal effects generically drive the Universe to the metastable minimum even if it begins in the supersymmetry-preserving one. This is a generic feature of the ISS models of metastable supersymmetry breaking due to the fact that SUSY preserving vacua contain fewer light degrees of freedom than the metastable ground state at the origin. These models of metastable SUSY breaking are thus placed on an equal footing with the more usual dynamical SUSY breaking scenarios.
Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking from Extra Dimensions
Hashimoto, M; Yamawaki, K; Hashimoto, Michio; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Yamawaki, Koichi
2003-01-01
We study the dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking (DEWSB) in the $D (=6,8,...)$-dimensional bulk with compactified extra dimensions. We identify the critical binding strength for triggering the DEWSB, based on the ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation. In the top mode standard model with extra dimensions, where the standard model gauge bosons and the third generation of quarks and leptons are put in the bulk, we analyze the most attractive channel (MAC) by using renormalization group equations (RGEs) of (dimensionless) bulk gauge couplings and determine the effective cutoff where the MAC coupling exceeds the critical value. We then find that the top-condensation can take place for D=8. Combining RGEs of top-Yukawa and Higgs-quartic couplings with compositeness conditions, we predict the top mass, $m_t=173-180$ GeV, and the Higgs mass, $m_H=181-211$ GeV, for D=8, where we took the universal compactification scale $1/R = 1-100$ TeV.
Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking from Extra Dimensions
Hashimoto, Michio; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Yamawaki, Koichi
2003-08-01
We study the dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking (DEWSB) in the D(= 6, 8, ⋯)-dimensional bulk with compactified extra dimensions. We identify the critical binding strength for triggering the DEWSB, based on the ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation. In the top mode standard model with extra dimensions, where the standard model gauge bosons and the third generation of quarks and leptons are put in the bulk, we analyze the most attractive channel (MAC) by using renormalization group equations (RGEs) of (dimensionless) bulk gauge couplings and determine the effective cutoff where the MAC coupling exceeds the critical value. We then find that the top-condensation can take place for D = 8. Combining RGEs of top-Yukawa and Higgs-quartic couplings with compositeness conditions, we predict the top mass, mt = 173 - 180 GeV, and the Higgs mass, mH = 181 - 211 GeV, for D = 8, where we took the universal compactification scale 1/R = 1 - 100 TeV.
On p-adic Stochastic Dynamics, Supersymmetry and the Riemann Conjecture
Castro, C
2001-01-01
We construct (assuming the quantum inverse scattering problem has a solution) the operator that yields the zeroes of the Riemman zeta function by defining explicitly the supersymmetric quantum mechanical model (SUSY QM) associated with the p-adic stochastic dynamics of a particle undergoing a Brownian random walk . The zig-zagging occurs after collisions with an infinite array of scattering centers that fluctuate ~randomly. Since the prime numbers are themselves randomly distributed, this physical system can be reformulated as the scattering of the particle about the infinite locations of the prime numbers positions. We are able then to reformulate such p-adic stochastic process, that has an underlying hidden Parisi-Sourlas supersymmetry, as the effective motion of a particle in a potential due to an infinite collection of p-adic harmonic oscillators with fundamental (Wick-rotated imaginary) frequencies $\\omega_p = i log~p$ (p is a prime) and whose harmonics are $\\omega_{p, n} = i log ~ p^n$. The p-adic harmo...
Catalysis of Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking by Chiral Chemical Potential
Braguta, V V
2016-01-01
In this paper we study the properties of media with chiral imbalance parameterized by chiral chemical potential. It is shown that depending on the strength of interaction between constituents in the media the chiral chemical potential either creates or enhances dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Thus the chiral chemical potential plays a role of the catalyst of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Physically this effect results from the appearance of the Fermi surface and additional fermion states on this surface which take part in dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. An interesting conclusion which can be drawn is that at sufficiently small temperature chiral plasma is unstable with respect to condensation of Cooper pairs and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking even for vanishingly small interactions between constituents.
Dynamical symmetry breaking with hypercolour and high colour representations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zoupanos, G.
1985-03-01
A model is presented in which the electroweak gauge group is spontaneously broken according to a dynamical scenario based on the existence of high colour representations. An unattractive feature of this scenario was the necessity to introduce elementary Higgs fields in order to obtain the spontaneous symmetry breaking of part of the theory. In the present model, this breaking can also be understood dynamically with the introduction of hypercolour interactions.
Status of Supersymmetry: Foundations and Applications
Ferrara, Sergio
2011-01-01
We review some aspects of the foundations of supersymmetry as a conjectural invariance of the Laws of Nature. This symmetry bypasses the Coleman-Mandula Theorem by enlarging the fundamental space -time symmetries to the Superworld. Application of supersymmetry to particle physics requires its spontaneous breaking, as it happens for the electroweak symmetry of the Standard Model.
Supersymmetry and noncommutative geometry
Beenakker, Wim; Suijlekom, Walter D van
2016-01-01
In this work the question whether noncommutative geometry allows for supersymmetric theories is addressed. Noncommutative geometry has seen remarkable applications in high energy physics, viz. the geometrical interpretation of the Standard Model, however such a question has not been answered in a conclusive way so far. The book starts with a systematic analysis of the possibilities for so-called almost-commutative geometries on a 4-dimensional, flat background to exhibit not only a particle content that is eligible for supersymmetry, but also have a supersymmetric action. An approach is proposed in which the basic `building blocks' of potentially supersymmetric theories and the demands for their action to be supersymmetric are identified. It is then described how a novel kind of soft supersymmetry breaking Lagrangian arises naturally from the spectral action. Finally, the above formalism is applied to explore the existence of a noncommutative version of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model. This book is ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agashe, Kaustubh [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1998-05-01
In this thesis, the author argues that the supersymmetric Standard Model, while avoiding the fine tuning in electroweak symmetry breaking, requires unnaturalness/fine tuning in some (other) sector of the theory. For example, Baryon and Lepton number violating operators are allowed which lead to proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. He studies some of the constraints from the latter in this thesis. He has to impose an R-parity for the theory to be both natural and viable. In the absence of flavor symmetries, the supersymmetry breaking masses for the squarks and sleptons lead to too large flavor changing neutral currents. He shows that two of the solutions to this problem, gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking and making the scalars of the first two generations heavier than a few TeV, reintroduce fine tuning in electroweak symmetry breaking. He also constructs a model of low energy gauge mediation with a non-minimal messenger sector which improves the fine tuning and also generates required Higgs mass terms. He shows that this model can be derived from a Grand Unified Theory despite the non-minimal spectrum.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brennan, E.C. (ed.)
1985-07-01
Some lectures in these proceedings examine the theoretical basis for supersymmetry, recent developments in theories with compact dimensions, and experimental searches for supersymmetric signatures. Technologies are explored for obtaining very high energy electron-positron colliding beams. Separate abstracts were prepared for 35 papers in these conference proceedings. (LEW)
Cosmological aspects of gauge mediated supersymmetry breakdown
Dalianis, Ioannis
2011-01-01
In this thesis, we study the details of some fundamental cosmological problems of the gauge mediated supersymmetry breakdown and we probe the supersymmetry breaking sector by cosmological arguments. We manifest that problems like the metastable vacuum selection and the gravitino overproduction in the reheated early universe are naturally absent in the most general class of gauge mediation models without including additional ingredients or assumptions. We also find that the gravitino can generically account for the bulk dark matter of the universe. Cosmological implications of a stringy UV-completion of the supersymmetry breaking sector have been also considered.
New Mechanism of Flavor Symmetry Breaking from Supersymmetric Strong Dynamics
Carone, C D; Moroi, T; Carone, Christopher D.; Hall, Lawrence J.; Moroi, Takeo
1997-01-01
We present a class of supersymmetric models in which flavor symmetries are broken dynamically, by a set of composite flavon fields. The strong dynamics that is responsible for confinement in the flavor sector also drives flavor symmetry breaking vacuum expectation values, as a consequence of a quantum-deformed moduli space. Yukawa couplings result as a power series in the ratio of the confinement to Planck scale, and the fermion mass hierarchy depends on the differing number of preons in different flavor symmetry-breaking operators. We present viable non-Abelian and Abelian flavor models that incorporate this mechanism.
Dynamical R-parity Breaking at the LHC
Chen, Shao-Long; Mohapatra, Rabindra N; Zhang, Yue
2010-01-01
In a class of extensions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with (B-L)/left-right symmetry that explains the neutrino masses, breaking R-parity symmetry is an essential and dynamical requirement for successful gauge symmetry breaking. Two consequences of these models are: (i) a new kind of R-parity breaking interaction that protects proton stability but adds new contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay and (ii) an upper bound on the extra gauge and parity symmetry breaking scale which is within the large hadron collider (LHC) energy range. We point out that an important prediction of such theories is a potentially large mixing between the right-handed charged lepton ($e^c$) and the superpartner of the right-handed gauge boson ($\\widetilde W_R^+$), which leads to a brand new class of R-parity violating interactions of type $\\widetilde{\\mu^c}^\\dagger\
Fermion Determinant with Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Qin; YANG Hua; WANG Qing
2002-01-01
One-loop fermion determinant is discussed for the case in which the dynamical chiral symmetry breakingcaused by momentum-dependent fermion self-energy ∑(p2) takes place. The obtained series generalizes the heat kernelexpansion for hard fermion mass.
Dynamical P-parity breaking in effective quark model
Andrianov, A A; Yudichev, V L
1995-01-01
Fermion models with selfinteraction including derivatives of fields are investigated in the strong coupling regime. The existence of three phases is established in the two channel model near tricritical point. The special phase of dynamical P-parity breaking is found.
Dynamical Symmetry Breaking with Vector Bosons
Cynolter, G; Pócsik, G
2004-01-01
In the standard model of electroweak interactions the Higgs doublet is replaced by a complex vector doublet and a real vector singlet. The gauge symmetry is broken dynamically by a mixed condensate of the doublet and singlet vector fields. Gauge fields get their usual standard model masses by condensation. The new vector matter fields become massive by their gauge invariant selfcouplings and expected to have masses of few hundred GeV. Fermions are assigned to the gauge group in the usual manner. Fermion masses are coming from a gauge invariant fermion-vector field interaction by a mixed condensat, the Kobayashi-Maskawa description is unchanged. Perturbative unitarity estimates show that the model is valid up to 2-3 TeV. It is shown that from the new matter fields a large number of spin-one particle pairs is expected at future high energy e^{+}e^{-} linear colliders of 500-1500 GeV. The inclusive production cross section of new particle pairs is presented for hadron colliders, while at the Tevatron the new par...
Natural Supersymmetry from Extra Dimensions
Delgado, Antonio; Nardini, Germano; Quiros, Mariano
2016-01-01
We show that natural supersymmetry can be embedded in a five-dimensional theory with supersymmetry breaking \\`a la Scherk-Schwarz (SS). There is no 'gluino-sucks' problem for stops localized in the four-dimensional brane and gluinos propagating in the full five-dimensional bulk, and sub-TeV stops are easily accommodated. The $\\mu / B_\\mu$ problem is absent as well; the SS breaking generates a Higgsino Dirac mass and no bilinear Higgs mass parameter in the superpotential is required. Moreover, for non-maximal SS twists leading to $\\tan \\beta \\simeq 1$, the Higgs spectrum is naturally split, in agreement with LHC data. The 125-GeV Higgs mass and radiative electroweak symmetry breaking can be accommodated by minimally extending the Higgs sector with $Y=0$ $SU(2)_L$ triplets.
Bloch-like wave dynamics in disordered potentials based on supersymmetry
Yu, Sunkyu; Hong, Jiho; Park, Namkyoo
2015-01-01
Bloch's theorem for the description of waves in crystals was a major milestone, establishing the principle of bandgaps for electrical, optical, and vibrational waves. Although it was once believed that bandgaps could form only under conditions of periodicity and long-range correlations as the prerequisites for Bloch's theorem, this restriction was disproven by the groundbreaking discoveries of amorphous media and quasicrystals. While network and liquid models have been suggested for the interpretation of Bloch-like waves in disordered media, these approaches 'searching' for random networks with bandgaps have failed in the deterministic creation of bandgaps. Here, we reveal a deterministic pathway to bandgap engineering in disordered media, by applying the notion of supersymmetry to the fundamental wave equation. Inspired by the problem for isospectrality, we follow a methodology in stark contrast to previous methods: we 'transform' ordered potentials into disordered potentials while 'preserving' bandgaps. Our...
Natural Supersymmetry in Warped Space
Heidenreich, Ben
2014-01-01
We explore the possibility of solving the hierarchy problem by combining the paradigms of supersymmetry and compositeness. Both paradigms are under pressure from the results of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and combining them allows both a higher confinement scale -- due to effective supersymmetry in the low energy theory -- and heavier superpartners -- due to the composite nature of the Higgs boson -- without sacrificing naturalness. The supersymmetric Randall-Sundrum model provides a concrete example where calculations are possible, and we pursue a realistic model in this context. With a few assumptions, we are led to a model with bulk fermions, a left-right gauge symmetry in the bulk, and supersymmetry breaking on the UV brane. The first two generations of squarks are decoupled, reducing LHC signatures but also leading to quadratic divergences at two loops. The model predicts light $W'$ and $Z'$ gauge bosons, and present LHC constraints on exotic gauge bosons imply a high confinement scale and mild tuni...
Dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking with color-sextet quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fukazawa, Kenji; Muta, Taizo; Saito, Juichi; Watanabe, Isamu; Yonezawa, Minoru (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Inoue, Masato
1991-01-01
Massive quarks belonging to a sextet representation of the color SU(3) of quantum chromodynamics are assumed to exist and to trigger the dynamical breaking of the electroweak SU(2) x U(1) symmetry. Quantum numbers are assigned to the color-sextet quarks and their masses are estimated together with the mass of the top quark by using the mass formulae for the weak-boson masses. Phenomenological implication of the model is discussed. (author).
Measuring supersymmetry at the large hadron collider
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B C Allanach
2003-02-01
The large hadron collider (LHC) should have the ability to detect supersymmetric particles if low-energy supersymmetry solves the hierarchy problem. Studies of the LHC detection reach, and the ability to measure properties of supersymmetric particles are currently underway. We highlight some of these, such as the reach in minimal supergravity space and correlation with a ﬁne-tuning parameter, precision measurements of edge variables, anomaly- or gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Supersymmetry with baryon-number violation seems at ﬁrst glance more difﬁcult to detect, but proves to be possible by using leptons from cascade decays.
Catalysis of dynamical symmetry breaking by a magnetic field
Miransky, V A
1995-01-01
A constant magnetic field in 3+1 and 2+1 dimensions is a strong catalyst of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, leading to the generation of a fermion mass even at the weakest attractive interaction between fermions. The essence of this effect is the dimensional reduction D/rightarrow D-2 in the dynamics of fermion pairing in a magnetic field. The effect is illustrated in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and QED. Possible applications of this effect and its extension to inhomogeneous field configurations are discussed.
Naturalizing supersymmetry with a two-field relaxion mechanism
Evans, Jason L.; Gherghetta, Tony; Nagata, Natsumi; Thomas, Zachary
2016-09-01
We present a supersymmetric version of a two-field relaxion model that naturalizes tuned versions of supersymmetry. This arises from a relaxion mechanism that does not depend on QCD dynamics and where the relaxion potential barrier height is controlled by a second axion-like field. During the cosmological evolution, the relaxion rolls with a nonzero value that breaks supersymmetry and scans the soft supersymmetric mass terms. Electroweak symmetry is broken after the soft masses become of order the supersymmetric Higgs mass term and causes the relaxion to stop rolling for superpartner masses up to ˜ 109 GeV. This can explain the tuning in supersymmetric models, including split-SUSY models, while preserving the QCD axion solution to the strong CP problem. Besides predicting two very weakly-coupled axion-like particles, the supersymmetric spectrum may contain an extra Goldstino, which could be a viable dark matter candidate.
Naturalizing Supersymmetry with a Two-Field Relaxion Mechanism
Evans, Jason L; Nagata, Natsumi; Thomas, Zachary
2016-01-01
We present a supersymmetric version of a two-field relaxion model that naturalizes tuned versions of supersymmetry. This arises from a relaxion mechanism that does not depend on QCD dynamics and where the relaxion potential barrier height is controlled by a second axion-like field. During the cosmological evolution, the relaxion rolls with a nonzero value that breaks supersymmetry and scans the soft supersymmetric mass terms. Electroweak symmetry is broken after the soft masses become of order the supersymmetric Higgs mass term and causes the relaxion to stop rolling for superpartner masses up to $\\sim 10^9$ GeV. This can explain the tuning in supersymmetric models, including split-SUSY models, while preserving the QCD axion solution to the strong CP problem. Besides predicting two very weakly-coupled axion-like particles, the supersymmetric spectrum may contain an extra Goldstino, which could be a viable dark matter candidate.
Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare
2013-01-01
A search for direct chargino production in anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios is performed in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV using 4.7 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. In these models, the lightest chargino is predicted to have a lifetime long enough to be detected in the tracking detectors of collider experiments. This analysis explores such models by searching for chargino decays that result in tracks with few associated hits in the outer region of the tracking system. The transverse-momentum spectrum of candidate tracks is found to be consistent with the expectation from the Standard Model background processes and constraints on chargino properties are obtained.
Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste
2012-04-27
In models of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB), the lightest chargino is predicted to have a lifetime long enough to be detected in collider experiments. This letter explores AMSB scenarios in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV by attempting to identify decaying charginos which result in tracks that appear to have few associated hits in the outer region of the tracking system. The search was based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.02 fb^-1 collected with the ATLAS detector in 2011. The pT spectrum of candidate tracks is found to be consistent with the expectation from Standard Model background processes and constraints on the lifetime and the production cross section were obtained. In the minimal AMSB framework with m_3/2 0, a chargino having mass below 92 GeV and a lifetime between 0.5 ns and 2 ns is excluded at 95% confidence level.
Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare
2013-01-01
A search for direct chargino production in anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios is performed in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV using 4.7 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. In these models, the lightest chargino is predicted to have a lifetime long enough to be detected in the tracking detectors of collider experiments. This analysis explores such models by searching for chargino decays that result in tracks with few associated hits in the outer region of the tracking system. The transverse-momentum spectrum of candidate tracks is found to be consistent with the expectation from the Standard Model background processes and constraints on chargino properties are obtained.
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Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernandez, Carlos Medina; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imbault, Didier; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez Garcia, Yohany; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Wastie, Roy; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz
2012-01-01
In models of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB), the lightest chargino is predicted to have a lifetime long enough to be detected in collider experiments. This letter explores AMSB scenarios in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV by attempting to identify decaying charginos which result in tracks that appear to have few associated hits in the outer region of the tracking system. The search was based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.02 fb^-1 collected with the ATLAS detector in 2011. The pT spectrum of candidate tracks is found to be consistent with the expectation from Standard Model background processes and constraints on the lifetime and the production cross section were obtained. In the minimal AMSB framework with m_3/2 0, a chargino having mass below 92 GeV and a lifetime between 0.5 ns and 2 ns is excluded at 95% confidence level.
Symmetry Breaking Patterns for the Little Higgs from Strong Dynamics
Batra, Puneet
2007-01-01
We show how the symmetry breaking pattern of the simplest little Higgs model, and that of the smallest moose model that incorporates an approximate custodial SU(2), can be realized through the condensation of strongly coupled fermions. In each case a custodial SU(2) symmetry of the new strong dynamics limits the sizes of corrections to precision electroweak observables. In the case of the simplest little Higgs, there are no new light states beyond those present in the original model. However, our realization of the symmetry breaking pattern of the moose model predicts an additional scalar field with mass of order a TeV or higher that has exactly the same quantum numbers as the Standard Model Higgs and which decays primarily to third generation quarks.
Spontaneous Chiral Symmetry Breaking as Condensation of Dynamical Chirality
Alexandru, Andrei
2012-01-01
The occurrence of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (SChSB) is equivalent to sufficient abundance of Dirac near-zeromodes. However, dynamical mechanism leading to breakdown of chiral symmetry should be naturally reflected in chiral properties of the modes. Here we offer such connection, presenting evidence that SChSB in QCD proceeds via the appearance of modes exhibiting dynamical tendency for local chiral polarization. These modes form a band of finite width Lambda_ch (chiral polarization scale) around the surface of otherwise anti--polarized Dirac sea, and condense. Lambda_ch characterizes the dynamics of the breaking phenomenon and can be converted to a quark mass scale, thus offering conceptual means to determine which quarks of nature are governed by broken chiral dynamics. It is proposed that, within the context of SU(3) gauge theories with fundamental Dirac quarks, mode condensation is equivalent to chiral polarization, making Lambda_ch an "order parameter" of SChSB. Several uses of these features, ...
Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC
2008-02-05
These lectures give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.
Unified Maximally Natural Supersymmetry
Huang, Junwu
2016-01-01
Maximally Natural Supersymmetry, an unusual weak-scale supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model based upon the inherently higher-dimensional mechanism of Scherk-Schwarz supersymmetry breaking (SSSB), possesses remarkably good fine tuning given present LHC limits. Here we construct a version with precision $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ unification: $\\sin^2 \\theta_W(M_Z) \\simeq 0.231$ is predicted to $\\pm 2\\%$ by unifying $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ into a 5D $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ theory at a Kaluza-Klein scale of $1/R_5 \\sim 4.4\\,{\\rm TeV}$, where SSSB is simultaneously realised. Full unification with $SU(3)_{\\rm C}$ is accommodated by extending the 5D theory to a $N=4$ supersymmetric $SU(6)$ gauge theory on a 6D rectangular orbifold at $1/R_6 \\sim 40 \\,{\\rm TeV}$. TeV-scale states beyond the SM include exotic charged fermions implied by $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ with masses lighter than $\\sim 1.2\\,{\\rm TeV}$, and squarks in the mass range $1.4\\,{\\rm TeV} - 2.3\\,{\\rm TeV}$, providing distinct signature...
Dynamical evolution of supernova remnants breaking through molecular clouds
Cho, Wankee; Koo, Bon-Chul
2015-01-01
We carry out three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the supernova remnants (SNRs) produced inside molecular clouds (MCs) near their surface using the HLL code (Harten et al. 1983). We explore the dynamical evolution and the X-ray morphology of SNRs after breaking through the MC surface for ranges of the explosion depths below the surface and the density ratios of the clouds to the intercloud media (ICM). We find that if an SNR breaks out through an MC surface in its Sedov stage, the outermost dense shell of the remnant is divided into several layers. The divided layers are subject to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and fragmented. On the other hand, if an SNR breaks through an MC after the remnant enters the snowplow phase, the radiative shell is not divided to layers. We also compare the predictions of previous analytic solutions for the expansion of SNRs in stratified media with our onedimensional simulations. Moreover, we produce synthetic X-ray surface brightness in order to research the center-bri...
Introduction to weak interaction theories with dynamical symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lane, K.D.; Peskin, M.E.
1980-07-01
A straightforward introduction to theories of the weak interactions with dynamical symmetry breaking-theories of technicolor or hypercolor is presented. The intent is to inform experimentalists, but also to goad theorists. The motivation for considering theories of this type is described. The structure that such a theory must possess, including new gauge interactions at mass scales of 1-100 TeV is then outlined. Despite their reliance on phenomena at such enormous energies, these theories contain new phenomena observable at currently accessible energies. Three such effects which are especially likely to be observed are described.
BOOK REVIEW: Modern Supersymmetry
Kulish, Petr P.
2006-12-01
We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the `exact' SUSY β function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincaré algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical chartacteristics. Relations required by SUSY among β functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to `duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the Ad
Maximal supersymmetry and B-mode targets
Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Wrase, Timm; Yamada, Yusuke
2017-04-01
Extending the work of Ferrara and one of the authors [1], we present dynamical cosmological models of α-attractors with plateau potentials for 3 α = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. These models are motivated by geometric properties of maximally supersymmetric theories: M-theory, superstring theory, and maximal N = 8 supergravity. After a consistent truncation of maximal to minimal supersymmetry in a seven-disk geometry, we perform a two-step procedure: 1) we introduce a superpotential, which stabilizes the moduli of the seven-disk geometry in a supersymmetric minimum, 2) we add a cosmological sector with a nilpotent stabilizer, which breaks supersymmetry spontaneously and leads to a desirable class of cosmological attractor models. These models with n s consistent with observational data, and with tensor-to-scalar ratio r ≈ 10-2 - 10-3, provide natural targets for future B-mode searches. We relate the issue of stability of inflationary trajectories in these models to tessellations of a hyperbolic geometry.
Dynamical R-parity breaking at the LHC
Chen, Shao-Long; Kumar Ghosh, Dilip; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.; Zhang, Yue
2011-02-01
In a class of extensions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with (B-L)/left-right symmetry that explains the neutrino masses, breaking R-parity symmetry is an essential and dynamical requirement for successful gauge symmetry breaking. Two consequences of these models are: (i) a new kind of R-parity breaking interaction that protects proton stability but adds new contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay and (ii) an upper bound on the extra gauge and parity symmetry breaking scale which is within the large hadron collider (LHC) energy range. We point out that an important prediction of such theories is a potentially large mixing between the right-handed charged lepton ( e c ) and the superpartner of the right-handed gauge boson left( {tilde{W}_R+ } right) , which leads to a brand new class of R-parity violating interactions of type {tilde{μ }^{{c^dag }}}ν_μ^c{e^c} and {tilde{d}^{{c^dag }}}{u^c}{e^c} . We analyze the relevant constraints on the sparticle mass spectrum and the LHC signatures for the case with smuon/stau NLSP and gravitino LSP. We note the "smoking gun" signals for such models to be lepton flavor/number violating processes: pp!μ±μ±e+ e - jj (or τ±τ± e + e - jj) and pp to {μ^± }{e^± }boverline b jj (or {tau^± }{e^± }boverline b jj ) without significant missing energy. The predicted multi-lepton final states and the flavor structure make the model be distinguishable even in the early running of the LHC.
Prospects for Supersymmetry at the LHC & Beyond
AUTHOR|(CDS)2108556
2015-01-01
Run 1 of the LHC has provided three new motivations for supersymmetry: the need to stabilize the electroweak vacuum, the mass of the Higgs boson, and the fact that its couplings are Standard Model-like (so far). The prospects for discovering (and measuring) supersymmetry during future runs of the LHC are discussed in the frameworks of the constrained MSSM (CMSSM), models with non-universal soft supersymmetry-breaking contributions to Higgs masses (NUHM1,2) and the phenomenological MSSM with 10 arbitrary soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters (pMSSM10). In addition to the classic searches for missing transverse energy, searches for long-lived charged sparticles may also be promising. If supersymmetry does show up at the LHC, there are good prospects for measurements of the spectrum that can be compared with the indirect indications from other experiments. On the other hand, a higher-energy future circular proton-proton collider may be the best option for discovering supersymmetry if it does not appear at the L...
Dynamical matter-parity breaking and gravitino dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, Jonas; Weniger, Christoph [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Tokyo Univ. (JP). Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Tokyo Univ. (JP). Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU); Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2010-10-15
Scenarios where gravitinos with GeV masses make up dark matter are known to be in tension with high reheating temperatures, as required by e.g. thermal leptogenesis. This tension comes from the longevity of the NLSPs, which can destroy the successful predictions of the standard primordial nucleosynthesis. However, a small violation of matter parity can open new decay channels for the NLSP, avoiding the BBN problems, while being compatible with experimental cosmic-ray constraints. In this paper, we propose a model where matter parity, which we assume to be embedded in the U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry, is broken dynamically in a hidden sector at low scales. This can naturally explain the smallness of the matter parity breaking in the visible sector. We discuss the dynamics of the corresponding pseudo Nambu-Goldstone modes of B-L breaking in the hidden sector, and we comment on typical cosmic-ray and collider signatures in our model. (orig.)
Dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking due to strong Yukawa interactions
Beneš, Petr; Brauner, Tomáš; Smetana, Adam
2009-11-01
We present a new mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) based on a strong Yukawa dynamics. We consider an SU(2)L × U(1)Y gauge invariant model endowed with the usual Standard Model fermion multiplets and with two massive scalar doublets. We show that, unlike in the Standard Model, EWSB is possible even with vanishing vacuum expectation values of the scalars. Such EWSB is achieved dynamically by means of the (presumably strong) Yukawa couplings and manifests itself by the emergence of fermion and gauge boson masses and scalar mass splittings, which are expressed in a closed form in terms of the fermion and scalar proper self-energies. The 'would-be' Nambu-Goldstone bosons are shown to be composites of both the fermions and the scalars. We demonstrate that the simplest version of the model is compatible with basic experimental constraints.
Tachyonic Instability and Dynamics of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking
Felder, G; Linde, Andrei D; Felder, Gary; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei
2001-01-01
Spontaneous symmetry breaking usually occurs due to the tachyonic (spinodal) instability of a scalar field near the top of its effective potential at $\\phi = 0$. Naively, one might expect the field $\\phi$ to fall from the top of the effective potential and then experience a long stage of oscillations with amplitude O(v) near the minimum of the effective potential at $\\phi = v$ until it gives its energy to particles produced during these oscillations. However, it was recently found that the tachyonic instability rapidly converts most of the potential energy V(0) into the energy of colliding classical waves of the scalar field. This conversion, which was called "tachyonic preheating," is so efficient that symmetry breaking typically completes within a single oscillation of the field distribution as it rolls towards the minimum of its effective potential. In this paper we give a detailed description of tachyonic preheating and show that the dynamics of this process crucially depend on the shape of the effective ...
Cosmological signature change in Cartan Gravity with dynamical symmetry breaking
Magueijo, Joao; Westman, Hans; Zlosnik, T G
2013-01-01
We investigate the possibility for classical metric signature change in a straightforward generalization of the first order formulation of gravity, dubbed "Cartan gravity". The mathematical structure of this theory mimics the electroweak theory in that the basic ingredients are an $SO(1,4)$ Yang-Mills gauge field $A^{ab}_{\\phantom{ab}\\mu}$ and a symmetry breaking Higgs field $V^{a}$, with no metric or affine structure of spacetime presupposed. However, these structures can be recovered, with the predictions of General Relativity exactly reproduced, whenever the Higgs field breaking the symmetry to $SO(1,3)$ is forced to have a constant (positive) norm $V^aV_a$. This restriction is usually imposed "by hand", but in analogy with the electroweak theory we promote the gravitational Higgs field $V^a$ to a genuine dynamical field, subject to non-trivial equations of motion. Even though we limit ourselves to actions polynomial in these variables, we discover a rich phenomenology. Most notably we derive classical cos...
Dynamics of the universe and spontaneous symmetry breaking
Kazanas, D.
1980-01-01
It is shown that the presence of a phase transition early in the history of the universe, associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking (believed to take place at very high temperatures at which the various fundamental interactions unify), significantly modifies its dynamics and evolution. This is due to the energy 'pumping' during the phase transition from the vacuum to the substance, rather than the gravitating effects of the vacuum. The expansion law of the universe then differs substantially from the relation considered so far for the very early time expansion. In particular it is shown that under certain conditions this expansion law is exponential. It is further argued that under reasonable assumptions for the mass of the associated Higgs boson this expansion stage could last long enough to potentially account for the observed isotropy of the universe.
Dynamics of the universe and spontaneous symmetry breaking
Kazanas, D.
1980-01-01
It is shown that the presence of a phase transition early in the history of the universe, associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking (believed to take place at very high temperatures at which the various fundamental interactions unify), significantly modifies its dynamics and evolution. This is due to the energy 'pumping' during the phase transition from the vacuum to the substance, rather than the gravitating effects of the vacuum. The expansion law of the universe then differs substantially from the relation considered so far for the very early time expansion. In particular it is shown that under certain conditions this expansion law is exponential. It is further argued that under reasonable assumptions for the mass of the associated Higgs boson this expansion stage could last long enough to potentially account for the observed isotropy of the universe.
Matter Mass Generation and Theta Vacuum Dynamical Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking
Roh, H S
2001-01-01
This work proposes a stringent concept of matter mass generation and Theta vacuum in the context of local gauge theory for the strong force under the constraint of the flat universe. The matter mass is generated as the consequence of dynamical spontaneous symmetry breaking (DSSB) of gauge symmetry and discrete symmetries, which is motivated by the parameter Theta representing the surface term. Matter mass generation introduces the typical features of constituent particle mass, dual Meissner effect, and hyperfine structure. The Theta term plays important roles on the DSSB of the gauge group and on the quantization of the matter and vacuum space. The Theta vacuum exhibits the intrinsic principal number and intrinsic angular momentum for intrinsic space quantization in analogy with the extrinsic principal number and extrinsic angular momentum for extrinsic space quantization.
Type 1 2HDM as Effective Theory of Supersymmetry
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邵华
2012-01-01
It is generally believed that the low energy effective theory of the minimal supersymmetric standard model is the type 2 two Higgs doublet model. We will show that the type 1 two Higge doublet model can also be as the effective of supersymmetry in a specific ease with high scale supersymmetry breaking and gauge mediation. If the other electroweak doublet obtain the vacuum expectation value after the electroweak symmetry breaking, the Higgs spectrum is quite different. A remarkable feature is that the physical Higgs boson mass can be 125 GeV unlike in the ordinary models with high scale supersymmetry in which the Higgs mass is generally around 140 GeV.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Labonne, B
2007-01-15
Supersymmetry is an interesting extension of the Standard Model. Hence, its formal and phenomenological aspects need to be understood before establishing it as realized in Nature. Supersymmetry offers a natural dark matter candidate. To check this hypothesis, a crucial point would be the indirect detection of neutralino annihilation products. Among annihilation channels, the one with a Z boson and a Higgs scalar, is of interest because of the hard spectrum it yields. However, the spectra needs to be weighted by branching ratios.The Zh channel is then known to be suppressed. We notice that the deeper broken the supersymmetry, the stronger the suppression. Thus the channel suppression has to be understood in terms of gauge independence of different diagrams involved, and high energy unitarity. A key element of the suppression for this channel is the Z boson polarization, which comes from the initial Majorana particles at rest. Finally, we investigate the role of polarization in the WW channel. Here, polarization does not suppress the channel but modifies the shape of the decay products spectra. This could be important from an experimental point of view. On a more formal side, we point out different kinds of representations of the (0,1/2) multiplet in superspace. First we focus on a new kind of superfield called X. Next we present a duality in 4 dimensions, before showing its extension to superspace. Without supersymmetry, this duality links a 3-form to a constant. In superspace, we find that the duality links a 3-form superfield to the new X superfield. It is essential to understand that some components of the 3-form and the X superfield seem to help supersymmetry breaking. Finally we try to transmit this breaking to usual chiral superfields. (author)
Dynamical Messengers for Gauge Mediation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hook, Anson; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2011-08-17
We construct models of indirect gauge mediation where the dynamics responsible for breaking supersymmetry simultaneously generates a weakly coupled subsector of messengers. This provides a microscopic realization of messenger gauge mediation where the messenger and hidden sector fields are unified into a single sector. The UV theory is SQCD with massless and massive quarks plus singlets, and at low energies it flows to a weakly coupled quiver gauge theory. One node provides the primary source of supersymmetry breaking, which is then transmitted to the node giving rise to the messenger fields. These models break R-symmetry spontaneously, produce realistic gaugino and sfermion masses, and give a heavy gravitino.
Non-equilibrium evolution of a "Tsunami" Dynamical Symmetry Breaking
Boyanovsky, D; Holman, R; Kumar, S P; Pisarski, R D; Boyanovsky, Daniel; Vega, Hector J. de; Holman, Richard; Pisarski, Robert D.
1998-01-01
We propose to study the non-equilibrium features of heavy-ion collisions by following the evolution of an initial state with a large number of quanta with a distribution around a momentum |\\vec k_0| corresponding to a thin spherical shell in momentum space, a `tsunami'. An O(N); ({\\vec \\Phi}^2)^2 model field theory in the large N limit is used as a framework to study the non-perturbative aspects of the non-equilibrium dynamics including a resummation of the effects of the medium (the initial particle distribution). In a theory where the symmetry is spontaneously broken in the absence of the medium, when the initial number of particles per correlation volume is chosen to be larger than a critical value the medium effects can restore the symmetry of the initial state. We show that if one begins with such a symmetry-restored, non-thermal, initial state, non-perturbative effects automatically induce spinodal instabilities leading to a dynamical breaking of the symmetry. As a result there is explosive particle pro...
Supersymmetry for Fermion Masses
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Chun
2007-01-01
It is proposed that supersymmetry (SUSY) may be used to understand fermion mass hierarchies. A family symmetry Z3L is introduced, which is the cyclic symmetry among the three generation SU(2) doublets. SUSY breaks at a high energy scale ～ 1011 GeV. The electroweak energy scale ～ 100 GeV is unnaturally small. No additional global symmetry, like the R-parity, is imposed. The Yukawa couplings and R-parity violating couplings all take their natural values, which are (&)(100 ～ 10-2). Under the family symmetry, only the third generation charged fermions get their masses. This family symmetry is broken in the soft SUSY breaking terms, which result in a hierarchical pattern of the fermion masses. It turns out that for the charged leptons, the τ mass is fromthe Higgs vacuum expectation value (VEV)and the sneutrino VEVs, the muon mass is due to the sneutrino VEVs, and the electron gains its mass due to both Z3L and SUSY breaking. The large neutrino mixing are produced with neutralinos playing the partial role of right-handed neutrinos. |Ve3|, which is for ve-vτ mixing, is expected to be about 0.1. For the quarks, the third generation masses are from the Higgs VEVs, the second generation masses are from quantum corrections, and the down quark mass due to the sneutrino VEVs. It explains mc/ms, ms/me, md ＞ mu, and so on. Other aspects of the model are discussed.
Deconstruction, Holography and Emergent Supersymmetry
Nakai, Yuichiro
2014-01-01
We study a gauge theory in a 5D warped space via the dimensional deconstruction that a higher dimensional gauge theory is constructed from a moose of 4D gauge groups. By the AdS/CFT correspondence, a 5D warped gauge theory is dual to a 4D conformal field theory (CFT) with a global symmetry. As far as physics of the gauge theory, we obtain the one-to-one correspondence between each component of a moose of gauge groups and that of a CFT. We formulate a supersymmetric extension of deconstruction and explore the framework of natural supersymmetry in a 5D warped space -- the supersymmetric Randall-Sundrum model with the IR-brane localized Higgs and bulk fermions -- via the gauge moose. In this model, a supersymmetry breaking source is located at the end of the moose corresponding to the UV brane and the first two generations of squarks are decoupled. With left-right gauge symmetries in the bulk of the moose, we demonstrate realization of accidental or emergent supersymmetry of the Higgs sector in comparison with t...
Unraveling supersymmetry at future colliders
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Xerxes Tata
2004-02-01
After a quick review of the current limits on sparticle masses, we outline the prospects for their discovery at future colliders. We then proceed to discuss how precision measurements of sparticle masses can provide information about how SM suprpartners acquire their masses. Finally, we examine how we can proceed to establish whether or not any new physics discovered in the future is supersymmetry, and describe how we might zero in on the framework of SUSY breaking. In this connection, we review sparticle mass measurements at future colliders, and point out that some capabilities of experiments at $e^{+}e^{-}$ linear colliders may have been over-stated in the literture.
Evidence for discrete chiral symmetry breaking in $N = 1$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory
Kirchner, R; Montvay, István; Spanderen, K; Westphalen, J
1999-01-01
In a numerical Monte Carlo simulation of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with dynamical gauginos we find evidence for two degenerate ground states at the supersymmetry point corresponding to zero gaugino mass. This is consistent with the expected pattern of spontaneous discrete chiral symmetry breaking $Z_4 \\to Z_2$ caused by gaugino condensation.
Evidence for discrete chiral symmetry breaking in N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory
Desy-Münster Collaboration; Kirchner, R.; Montvay, I.; Westphalen, J.; Luckmann, S.; Spanderen, K.
1999-01-01
In a numerical Monte Carlo simulation of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with dynamical gauginos we find evidence for two degenerate ground states at the supersymmetry point corresponding to zero gaugino mass. This is consistent with the expected pattern of spontaneous discrete chiral symmetry breaking Z4-->Z2 caused by gaugino condensation.
Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in unquenched QED3
Fischer, C. S.; Alkofer, R.; Dahm, T.; Maris, P.
2004-10-01
We investigate dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in unquenched QED3 using the coupled set of Dyson-Schwinger equations for the fermion and photon propagators. For the fermion-photon interaction we employ an ansatz which satisfies its Ward-Green-Takahashi identity. We present self-consistent analytical solutions in the infrared as well as numerical results for all momenta. In Landau gauge, we find a phase transition at a critical number of flavors of Ncritf≈4. In the chirally symmetric phase the infrared behavior of the propagators is described by power laws with interrelated exponents. For Nf=1 and Nf=2 we find small values for the chiral condensate in accordance with bounds from recent lattice calculations. We investigate the Dyson-Schwinger equations in other linear covariant gauges as well. A comparison of their solutions to the accordingly transformed Landau gauge solutions shows that the quenched solutions are approximately gauge covariant, but reveals a significant amount of violation of gauge covariance for the unquenched solutions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Catterall, Simon; Kaplan, David B.; Unsal, Mithat
2009-03-31
We provide an introduction to recent lattice formulations of supersymmetric theories which are invariant under one or more real supersymmetries at nonzero lattice spacing. These include the especially interesting case of N = 4 SYM in four dimensions. We discuss approaches based both on twisted supersymmetry and orbifold-deconstruction techniques and show their equivalence in the case of gauge theories. The presence of an exact supersymmetry reduces and in some cases eliminates the need for fine tuning to achieve a continuum limit invariant under the full supersymmetry of the target theory. We discuss open problems.
Nomura, Yasunori
2014-01-01
We argue that under a set of simple assumptions the multiverse leads to low energy supersymmetry with the spectrum often called spread or mini-split supersymmetry: the gauginos are in the TeV region with the other superpartners two or three orders of magnitude heavier. We present a particularly simple realization of supersymmetric grand unified theory using this idea.
Noncommutative Nonlinear Supersymmetry
Nishino, H; Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash
2002-01-01
We present noncommutative nonlinear supersymmetric theories. The first example is a non-polynomial Akulov-Volkov-type lagrangian with noncommutative nonlinear global supersymmetry in arbitrary space-time dimensions. The second example is the generalization of this lagrangian to Dirac-Born-Infeld lagrangian with nonlinear supersymmetry realized in dimensions D=2,3,4 and 6 (mod 8).
Quantum Extended Supersymmetries
Grigore, D R; Grigore, Dan Radu; Scharf, Gunter
2003-01-01
We analyse some quantum multiplets associated with extended supersymmetries. We study in detail the general form of the causal (anti)commutation relations. The condition of positivity of the scalar product imposes severe restrictions on the (quantum) model. It is problematic if one can find out quantum extensions of the standard model with extended supersymmetries.
Framework for an asymptotically safe standard model via dynamical breaking
Abel, Steven; Sannino, Francesco
2017-09-01
We present a consistent embedding of the matter and gauge content of the Standard Model into an underlying asymptotically safe theory that has a well-determined interacting UV fixed point in the large color/flavor limit. The scales of symmetry breaking are determined by two mass-squared parameters with the breaking of electroweak symmetry being driven radiatively. There are no other free parameters in the theory apart from gauge couplings.
Stealth Supersymmetry Simplified
Fan, JiJi; Pinner, David; Reece, Matthew; Ruderman, Joshua T
2015-01-01
In Stealth Supersymmetry, bounds on superpartners from direct searches can be notably weaker than in standard supersymmetric scenarios, due to suppressed missing energy. We present a set of simplified models of Stealth Supersymmetry that motivate 13 TeV LHC searches. We focus on simplified models within the Natural Supersymmetry framework, in which the gluino, stop, and Higgsino are assumed to be lighter than other superpartners. Our simplified models exhibit novel decay patterns that differ significantly from topologies of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, with and without $R$-parity. We determine limits on stops and gluinos from searches at the 8 TeV LHC. Existing searches constitute a powerful probe of Stealth Supersymmetry gluinos with certain topologies. However, we identify simplified models where the gluino can be considerably lighter than 1 TeV. Stops are significantly less constrained in Stealth Supersymmetry than the MSSM, and we have identified novel stop decay topologies that are complete...
Electroweak Symmetry Breaking via UV Insensitive Anomaly Mediation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kitano, Ryuichiro; Kribs, Graham D.; Murayama, Hitoshi
2004-02-19
Anomaly mediation solves the supersymmetric flavor and CP problems. This is because the superconformal anomaly dictates that supersymmetry breaking is transmitted through nearly flavor-blind infrared physics that is highly predictive and UV insensitive. Slepton mass squareds, however, are predicted to be negative. This can be solved by adding D-terms for U(1)_Y and U(1)_{B-L} while retaining the UV insensitivity. In this paper we consider electroweak symmetry breaking via UV insensitive anomaly mediation in several models. For the MSSM we find a stable vacuum when tanbeta< 1, but in this region the top Yukawa coupling blows up only slightly above the supersymmetry breaking scale. For the NMSSM, we find a stable electroweak breaking vacuum but with a chargino that is too light. Replacing the cubic singlet term in the NMSSM superpotential with a term linear in the singlet wefind a stable vacuum and viable spectrum. Most of the parameter region with correct vacua requires a large superpotential coupling, precisely what is expected in the"Fat Higgs'" model in which the superpotential is generated dynamically. We have therefore found the first viable UV complete, UV insensitive supersymmetry breaking model that solves the flavor and CP problems automatically: the Fat Higgs model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation. Moreover, the cosmological gravitino problem is naturally solved, opening up the possibility of realistic thermal leptogenesis.
Dynamical symmetry breaking in chiral gauge theories with direct-product gauge groups
Shi, Yan-Liang; Shrock, Robert
2016-09-01
We analyze patterns of dynamical symmetry breaking in strongly coupled chiral gauge theories with direct-product gauge groups G . If the gauge coupling for a factor group Gi⊂G becomes sufficiently strong, it can produce bilinear fermion condensates that break the Gi symmetry itself and/or break other gauge symmetries Gj⊂G . Our comparative study of a number of strongly coupled direct-product chiral gauge theories elucidates how the patterns of symmetry breaking depend on the structure of G and on the relative sizes of the gauge couplings corresponding to factor groups in the direct product.
Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in Chiral Gauge Theories with Direct-Product Gauge Groups
Shi, Yan-Liang
2016-01-01
We analyze patterns of dynamical symmetry breaking in strongly coupled chiral gauge theories with direct-product gauge groups $G$. If the gauge coupling for a factor group $G_i \\subset G$ becomes sufficiently strong, it can produce bilinear fermion condensates that break the $G_i$ symmetry itself and/or break other gauge symmetries $G_j \\subset G$. Our comparative study of a number of strongly coupled direct-product chiral gauge theories elucidates how the patterns of symmetry breaking depend on the structure of $G$ and on the relative sizes of the gauge couplings corresponding to factor groups in the direct product.
A Generalized Yang-Mills Model and Dynamical Breaking of Gauge Symmetry
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shan
2005-01-01
A generalized Yang-Mills model, which contains, besides the vector part Vμ, also a scalar part S, is constructed and the dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry in the model is also discussed. It is shown, in terms of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills model. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills model and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.
2+1-Gravity and The Embedding its Dynamical Symmetry and Para-Supersymmetry into SO(4,c) Group
Jafarizadeh, M A; Moayedi, S K
1999-01-01
Some special solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell action with a non-negative cosmological constant and a very heavy point mass particle have been obtained. The solutions correspond to static spacetime of locally constant curvature in its spatial part and a constant magnetic field of a magnetic monopole together with deficit of angle at the location of point mass. The quantum mechanics of a point particle in these spacetimes in the absence of angular deficit has been solved algebraically both relativistically and non-relativistically. It has been also shown that these 2-dimensional Hamiltonians have the degeneracy group of GL(2,c) type and para-supersymmetry of arbitrary order or shape invariance, which is originated from a SO(4,c) group.
The heterotic string yields natural supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krippendorf, Sven, E-mail: krippendorf@th.physik.uni-bonn.de [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Nilles, Hans Peter, E-mail: nilles@th.physik.uni-bonn.de [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Ratz, Michael, E-mail: michael.ratz@tum.de [Physik-Department T30, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Winkler, Martin Wolfgang, E-mail: martin.winkler@tum.de [Physik-Department T30, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2012-05-30
The most promising MSSM candidates of the heterotic string reveal some distinctive properties. These include gauge-top unification, a specific solution to the {mu}-problem and mirage pattern for the gaugino masses. The location of the top- and the Higgs-multiplets in extra dimensions differs significantly from that of the other quarks and leptons leading to a characteristic signature of suppressed soft breaking terms, reminiscent of a scheme known as natural supersymmetry.
Massive Gravity with N=1 local Supersymmetry
Malaeb, Ola
2013-01-01
A consistent theory of massive gravity, where the graviton acquires mass by spontaneously breaking diffeomorphism invariance, is now well established. We supersymmetrize this construction using N =1 fields. Coupling to N = 1 supergravity is done by applying the rules of tensor calculus to construct an action invariant under local N = 1 supersymmetry. The supersymmetric action is shown, at the quadratic level, to be free of ghosts and have as its spectrum a massive graviton, two gravitinos with different masses, and a massive vector.
Electroweak Supersymmetry with an Approximate U(1)_PQ
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, L.J.; Watari, T.
2004-05-12
A predictive framework for supersymmetry at the TeV scale is presented, which incorporates the Ciafaloni-Pomarol mechanism for the dynamical determination of the \\mu parameter of the MSSM. It is replaced by (\\lambda S), where S is a singlet field, and the axion becomes a heavy pseudoscalar, G, by adding a mass, m_G, by hand. The explicit breaking of Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is assumed to be sufficiently weak at the TeV scale that the only observable consequence is the mass m_G. Three models for the explicit PQ breaking are given; but the utility of this framework is that the predictions for all physics at the electroweak scale are independent of the particular model for PQ breaking. Our framework leads to a theory similar to the MSSM, except that \\mu is predicted by the Ciafaloni-Pomarol relation, and there are light, weakly-coupled states in the spectrum. The production and cascade decay of superpartners at colliders occurs as in the MSSM, except that there is one extra stage of the cascade chain, with the next-to-LSP decaying to its"superpartner" and \\tilde{s}, dramatically altering the collider signatures for supersymmetry. The framework is compatible with terrestrial experiments and astrophysical observations for a wide range of m_G and. If G is as light as possible, 300 keV< m_G< 3 MeV, it can have interesting effects on the radiation energy density during the cosmological eras of nucleosynthesis and acoustic oscillation, leading to predictions for N_{\
Superworld without Supersymmetry
Chakdar, Shreyashi; Nandi, S
2015-01-01
It is a possibility that the superworld (supersymmetric partners of our world) does exist without supersymmetry. The two worlds are being distinguished by an unbroken discrete $Z_2$ symmetry (similar to R-parity in supersymmetry). We lose the solution to the hierarchy problem. However, such a scenario has several motivations. For example, the lightest neutral superworld particle will be a candidate for dark matter. The other being, as in supersymmetry, it is possible to achieve gauge coupling unification. One major difference with the supersymmetric theory is that such a theory is much more general since it is not constrained by supersymmetry. For example, some of the gauge couplings connecting the Standard Model particles with the superpartners now become free Yukawa couplings. As a result, the final state signals as well as the limits on the superworld particles can be modified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The reach for these superworld particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be much high...
SU(3) centre vortices underpin confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking
O'Malley, Elyse-Ann; Leinweber, Derek; Moran, Peter
2011-01-01
The mass function of the nonperturbative quark propagator in SU(3) gauge theory shows only a weak dependence on the vortex content of the gauge configurations. Of particular note is the survival of dynamical mass generation on vortex-free configurations having a vanishing string tension. This admits the possibility that mass generation associated with dynamical chiral symmetry breaking persists without confinement. In this presentation, we examine the low-lying ground-state hadron spectrum of the pi, rho, N and Delta and discover that while dynamical mass generation persists in the vortex-free theory, it is not connected to dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. In this way, centre vortices in SU(3) gauge theory are intimately linked to both confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. We conclude that centre vortices are the essential underlying feature of the QCD vacuum.
Supersymmetry Searches with ATLAS
Hill, Ewan; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
Supersymmetry is one of the best motivated and studied theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results on searches for supersymmetric particles. Weak and strong production Supersymmetry scenarios are considered, along with direct production of third generation supersymmtric particles. The searches involve final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, leptons, and long lived particles. Sensitivity projections for the 13 TeV data are also presented.
The Status of Supersymmetry after the LHC Run 1
Bechtle, Philip; Sander, Christian
2015-01-01
Supersymmetry (SUSY) is a complete and renormalisable candidate for an extension of the Standard Model. At an energy scale not too far above the electroweak scale it would solve the hierarchy problem of the SM Higgs boson, dynamically explain electroweak symmetry breaking, and provide a dark-matter candidate. Since it doubles the Standard Model degrees of freedom, SUSY predicts a large number of additional particles, whose properties and effects on precision measurements can be explicitly predicted in a given SUSY model. In this review the motivation for SUSY is outlined, the various searches strategies for SUSY particles at the LHC are described, and the status of SUSY in global analyses after the LHC Run 1 is summarized.
Supersymmetry and string theory beyond the standard model
Dine, Michael
2015-01-01
The past decade has witnessed dramatic developments in the fields of experimental and theoretical particle physics and cosmology. This fully updated second edition is a comprehensive introduction to these recent developments and brings this self-contained textbook right up to date. Brand new material for this edition includes the groundbreaking Higgs discovery, results of the WMAP and Planck experiments. Extensive discussion of theories of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking and a new chapter on the landscape, as well as a completely rewritten coda on future directions gives readers a modern perspective on this developing field. A focus on three principle areas: supersymmetry, string theory, and astrophysics and cosmology provide the structure for this book which will be of great interest to graduates and researchers in the fields of particle theory, string theory, astrophysics and cosmology. The book contains several problems, and password-protected solutions will be available to lecturers at www.cambrid...
Dark matter in gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wells, J.D.
1997-05-01
In R parity conserving supersymmetric theories, the lightest superpartner (LSP) is stable. The LSPs may comprise a large fraction of the energy density of the current universe, which would lead to dramatic astrophysical consequences. In this talk, he discusses some of the main points they have learned about supersymmetric models from relic abundance considerations of the LSP.
Gaugino condensation, duality and supersymmetry breaking
Quevedo, Fernando
1995-01-01
The status of gaugino condensation in low-energy string theory is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the determination of the efective action below condensation scale in terms of the 2PI and Wilson actions. We illustrate how the different perturbative duality symmetries survive this simple nonperturbative phenomenon, providing evidence for the believe that these are exact nonperturbative symmetries of string theory. Consistency with T duality lifts the moduli degeneracy. The B_{\\mu\
Higher Curvature Supergravity, Supersymmetry Breaking and Inflation
Ferrara, Sergio
2014-01-01
In these lectures, after a short introduction to cosmology, we discuss the supergravity embedding of higher curvature models of inflation. The supergravity description of such models is presented for the two different formulations of minimal supergravity.
On Setting Limits for Supersymmetry
Simeon, Paul; Toback, David
2004-10-01
When searching for new particles two separate production mechanisms from the same theory may produce the same final state. For example, in gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking with \\chi^0_1arrow γ tildeG at least two production mechanisms, \\chi^0_1\\chi^±1 and \\chi^0_2\\chi^±_1, can cascade to produce events with two photons and missing transverse energy. If there is no discovery one wants to set the best possible limits. While it seems obvious that the goal is to find the lowest possible cross section limit, one should be careful and focus on excluding the largest amount of parameter space for a theory. We show that the combined cross section limit from both (or all) production mechanisms that produce the same final state is the most sensitive way to attempt to exclude a theory.
A Supersymmetry Model of Leptons
Liu, C
2005-01-01
If supersymmetry (SUSY) is not for stabilizing the electroweak energy scale, what is it used for in particle physics? We propose that it is for flavor problems. A cyclic family symmetry is introduced. Under the family symmetry, only the $\\tau$-lepton is massive due to the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the Higgs field. This symmetry is broken by a sneutrino VEV which results in the muon mass. The comparatively large sneutrino VEV does not result in a large neutrino mass due to requiring heavy gauginos. SUSY breaks at a high scale $\\sim 10^{13}$ GeV. The electroweak energy scale is unnaturally small. No additional global symmetry, like the R-parity, is imposed. Other aspects of the model are discussed.
A new dynamics of electroweak symmetry breaking with classically scale invariance
Haba, Naoyuki; Kitazawa, Noriaki; Yamaguchi, Yuya
2015-01-01
We propose a new dynamics of the electroweak symmetry breaking in a classically scale invariant version of the standard model. The scale invariance is broken by the condensations of additional fermions under a strong coupling dynamics. The electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered by negative mass squared of the elementary Higgs doublet, which is dynamically generated through the bosonic seesaw mechanism. We introduce a real pseudo-scalar singlet field interacting with additional fermions and Higgs doublet in order to avoid massless Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the chiral symmetry breaking in a strong coupling sector. We investigate the mass spectra and decay rates of these pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons, and show they can decay fast enough without cosmological problems. We further evaluate the energy dependences of the couplings between elementary fields perturbatively, and find that our model is the first one which realizes the flatland scenario with the dimensional transmutation by the strong coupling dynam...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dian-Fu
2008-01-01
In terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry for the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model is investigated. The gauge symmetry behavior at finite temperature is also investigated and it is shown that the gauge symmetry broken dynamically at zero temperature can be restored at finite temperatures.
Jump dynamics with structural breaks for crude oil prices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Yen-Hsien [Department of Finance, Chung Yuan Christian University (China); Hu, Hsu-Ning [Department of Money, Banking and Finance, TamKang University (China); Chiou, Jer-Shiou [Department of Finance and Banking, Shih Chien University, 70 Ta-Chih Street, Taipei 104 (China)
2010-03-15
This study investigates the joint phenomena of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance and jump intensity along with verification of structural breaks for crude oil prices. We adopt a Component-ARJI model with structural break analysis, utilizing daily data on West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot and futures contracts. The analytical results verify the existence of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance, with the permanent component of conditional variance increasing with the occurrence of a sudden major event (such as the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait, Operation Desert Storm and the war between the US and Iraq), and a relatively greater increase in the transitory component over the same period. Notably, jump intensity fluctuates with an increase in the transitory component of conditional variance in response to abnormal events. It is the transitory component which serves as the primary influential factor for jumps in returns; therefore, speculators are willing to take large risks, particularly with respect to anticipating future price movements, or gambling, in the hopes of rapidly making substantial gains; thus, speculators prefer the temporary volatility component and engage in trade activities. However, investors prefer the permanent volatility component, because they may well be better off relocating their assets into more stable portfolios to outperform the market portfolio over the long run. (author)
Ovchinnikov, Igor V
2012-01-01
Here it is shown that the most general Parisi-Sourlas-Wu stochastic quantization procedure applied to any stochastic differential equation (SDE) leads to a Witten-type topological field theory - a model with a global topological Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin supersymmetry (Q-symmetry). Q-symmetry can be dynamically broken only by (anti-)instantons - ultimately nonlinear sudden tunneling processes of (creation)annihilation of solitons, e.g., avalanches in self-organized criticality (SOC) or (creation)annihilation of vortices in turbulent water. The phases with unbroken Q-symmetry are essentially markovian and can be understood solely in terms of the conventional Fokker-Plank evolution of the probability density. For these phases, Ito interpretation of SDEs and/or Martin-Siggia-Rose approximation of the stochastic quantization are applicable. SOC, turbulence, glasses, quenches etc. constitute the "generalized turbulence" category of stochastic phases with broken Q-symmetry. In this category, (anti-)instantons conde...
A new dynamics of electroweak symmetry breaking with classically scale invariance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naoyuki Haba
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We propose a new dynamics of the electroweak symmetry breaking in a classically scale invariant version of the standard model. The scale invariance is broken by the condensations of additional fermions under a strong coupling dynamics. The electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered by negative mass squared of the elementary Higgs doublet, which is dynamically generated through the bosonic seesaw mechanism. We introduce a real pseudo-scalar singlet field interacting with additional fermions and Higgs doublet in order to avoid massless Nambu–Goldstone bosons from the chiral symmetry breaking in a strong coupling sector. We investigate the mass spectra and decay rates of these pseudo-Nambu–Goldstone bosons, and show they can decay fast enough without cosmological problems. We further show that our model can make the electroweak vacuum stable.
Linking natural supersymmetry to flavour physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dudas, Emilian [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS,Palaiseau (France); Gersdorff, Gero von [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo State University,Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pokorski, Stefan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Warsaw (Poland); Ziegler, Robert [TUM-IAS and Physik Department, Technische Universität München,Munich (Germany)
2014-01-22
With the aim of linking natural supersymmetry to flavour physics, a model is proposed based on a family symmetry G×U(1), where G is a discrete nonabelian subgroup of SU(2), with both F-term and (abelian) D-term supersymmetry breaking. A good fit to the fermion masses and mixing is obtained with the same U(1) charges for the left- and right- handed quarks of the first two families and the right-handed bottom quark, and with zero charge for the left-handed top-bottom doublet and the the right handed top. The model shows an interesting indirect correlation between the correct prediction for the V{sub ub}/V{sub cb} ratio and large right-handed rotations in the (s,b) sector, required to diagonalise the Yukawa matrix. For the squarks, one obtains almost degenerate first two generations. The main source of the FCNC and CP violation effects is the splitting between the first two families and the right-handed sbottom determined by the relative size of F-term and D-term supersymmetry breaking. The presence of the large right-handed rotation implies that the bounds on the masses of the first two families of squarks and the right handed sbottom are in a few to a few tens TeV range. The picture that emerges is light stops and left handed sbottom and much heavier other squarks.
Pair-breaking and superconducting state recovery dynamics in MgB2.
Demsar, J; Averitt, R D; Taylor, A J; Kabanov, V V; Kang, W N; Kim, H J; Choi, E M; Lee, S I
2003-12-31
We present studies of the photoexcited quasiparticle dynamics in MgB2 where, using femtosecond optical techniques, Cooper pair-breaking dynamics (PBD) have been temporally resolved for the first time. The PBD are strongly temperature and photoexcitation intensity dependent. Analysis of the PBD using the Rothwarf-Taylor equations suggests that the anomalous PBD arises from the fact that in MgB2 photoexcitation is initially followed by energy relaxation to high frequency phonons instead of, as commonly assumed, e-e thermalization. Furthermore, the bare quasiparticle recombination rate and the probability for pair breaking by phonons have been determined.
Sizing of the Series Dynamic Breaking Resistor in a Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soliman, Hammam; Wang, Huai; Zhou, Dao
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the effect of Series Dynamic Breaking Resistor (SDBR) sizing on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind power conversion system. The boundary of the SDBR value is firstly derived by taking into account the controllability of the rotor side converter and the maxi......This paper investigates the effect of Series Dynamic Breaking Resistor (SDBR) sizing on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind power conversion system. The boundary of the SDBR value is firstly derived by taking into account the controllability of the rotor side converter...
Sea quark transverse momentum distributions and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schweitzer, Peter [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Strikman, Mark [Penn State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Weiss, Christian [JLAB Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-01-01
Recent theoretical studies have provided new insight into the intrinsic transverse momentum distributions of valence and sea quarks in the nucleon at a low scale. The valence quark transverse momentum distributions (q - qbar) are governed by the nucleon's inverse hadronic size R{sup -1} ~ 0.2 GeV and drop steeply at large p{sub T}. The sea quark distributions (qbar) are in large part generated by non-perturbative chiral-symmetry breaking interactions and extend up to the scale rho{sup -1} ~ 0.6 GeV. These findings have many implications for modeling the initial conditions of perturbative QCD evolution of TMD distributions (starting scale, shape of p{sub T}. distributions, coordinate-space correlation functions). The qualitative difference between valence and sea quark intrinsic p{sub T}. distributions could be observed experimentally, by comparing the transverse momentum distributions of selected hadrons in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, or those of dileptons produced in pp and pbar-p scattering.
Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS
Kuwertz, Emma Sian; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. Weak and strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, including those those tagged as originating from b-quark decays, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons, as well as long-lived particle signatures. An overview of the constraints on supersymmetry from the run1 results is presented, as well as sensitivity projections for the data that will be collected in 2015.
Division algebras and supersymmetry
Baez, John C
2009-01-01
Supersymmetry is deeply related to division algebras. Nonabelian Yang--Mills fields minimally coupled to massless spinors are supersymmetric if and only if the dimension of spacetime is 3, 4, 6 or 10. The same is true for the Green--Schwarz superstring. In both cases, supersymmetry relies on the vanishing of a certain trilinear expression involving a spinor field. The reason for this, in turn, is the existence of normed division algebras in dimensions 1, 2, 4 and 8: the real numbers, complex numbers, quaternions and octonions. Here we provide a self-contained account of how this works.
Supersymmetry for mathematicians
Varadarajan, V S
2004-01-01
Supersymmetry has been the object of study by theoretical physicists since the early 1970's. In recent years it has attracted the interest of mathematicians because of its novelty, and because of significance, both in mathematics and physics, of the main issues it raises. This book presents the foundations of supersymmetry to the mathematically minded reader in a cogent and self-contained manner. It begins with a brief introduction to the physical foundations of the theory, especially the classification of relativistic particles and their wave equations, such as the equations of Dirac and Weyl
Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis : SPA Convention and Project
Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Allanach, Benjamin C; Arnowitt, R; Baer, H A; Bagger, J A; Balázs, C; Barger, V; Barnett, M; Bartl, Alfred; Battaglia, M; Bechtle, P; Belyaev, A; Berger, E L; Blair, G; Boos, E; Bélanger, G; Carena, M S; Choi, S Y; Deppisch, F; Desch, Klaus; Djouadi, A; Dutta, B; Dutta, S; Díaz, M A; Eberl, H; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Erler, Jens; Fraas, H; Freitas, A; Fritzsche, T; Godbole, Rohini M; Gounaris, George J; Guasch, J; Gunion, J F; Haba, N; Haber, Howard E; Hagiwara, K; Han, L; Han, T; He, H J; Heinemeyer, S; Hesselbach, S; Hidaka, K; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirsch, M; Hohenwarter-Sodek, K; Hollik, W; Hou, W S; Hurth, Tobias; Jack, I; Jiang, Y; Jones, D R T; Kalinowski, Jan; Kamon, T; Kane, G; Kang, S K; Kernreiter, T; Kilian, W; Kim, C S; King, S F; Kittel, O; Klasen, M; Kneur, J L; Kovarik, K; Kraml, Sabine; Krämer, M; Lafaye, R; Langacker, P; Logan, H E; Ma, W G; Majerotto, Walter; Martyn, H U; Matchev, K; Miller, D J; Mondragon, M; Moortgat-Pick, G; Moretti, S; Mori, T; Moultaka, G; Muanza, S; Mukhopadhyaya, B; Mühlleitner, M M; Nauenberg, U; Nojiri, M M; Nomura, D; Nowak, H; Okada, N; Olive, Keith A; Oller, W; Peskin, M; Plehn, T; Polesello, G; Porod, Werner; Quevedo, Fernando; Rainwater, D L; Reuter, J; Richardson, P; Rolbiecki, K; de Roeck, A; Weber, Ch.
2006-01-01
High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim at reconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breaking mechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed when higher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme, Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set of conventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs is provided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate the Lagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e+e- linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths and production cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition, programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, the density of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the cross sections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme still requires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental side before data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the d...
Supersymmetry - When Theory Inspires Experimental Searches
AUTHOR|(CDS)2070740
2014-01-01
We review, in the first part of this work, many pioneering works on supersymmetry and organize these results to show how supersymmetric quantum field theories arise from spin-statistics, N{\\oe}ther and a series of no-go theorems. We then introduce the so-called superspace formalism dedicated to the natural construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians and detail the most popular mechanisms leading to soft supersymmetry breaking. As an application, we describe the building of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and investigate current experimental limits on the parameter space of its most constrained versions. To this aim, we use various flavor, electroweak precision, cosmology and collider data. We then perform several phenomenological excursions beyond this minimal setup and probe effects due to non-minimal flavor violation in the squark sector, revisiting various constraints arising from indirect searches for superpartners. Next, we use several interfaced high-energy physics tools, including the FeynRule...
Searches for Supersymmetry at the Tevatron
Meyer, A; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Abazov, V M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Arnoud, Y; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Baldin, B Yu; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Beauceron, S; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Bhattacharjee, M; Binder, M; Bischoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Böhnlein, A; Bolton, T; Bonamy, P; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Butler, J M; Bystrický, J; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Chopra, S; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Del Signore, K; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisk, H E; Fleuret, F; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Goldmann, K S; Golling, T; Gómez, B; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L S; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S L; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Harder, K; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kau, D; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, K H; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Kopal, M; Korablev, V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kouchner, A; Kuznetsov, O; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Krane, J; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krzywdzinski, S; Kubantsev, M A; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuznetsov, V E; Lager, S; Lahrichi, N; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A C; Lebrun, P; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Leggett, C; Lehner, F; Leonidopoulos, C; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, X; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J T; Lipton, R; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Lü, J; Lubatti, H J; Lucotte, A; Lueking, L H; Luo, C; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Magnan, A M; Maity, M; Mal, P K; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Manankov, V; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Marshall, T; Martens, M; Martin, M I; Mattingly, S E K; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; McMahon, T; Meder, D; Melanson, H L; Melnitchouk, A S; Meng, X; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W B; Miao, C; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mishra, C S; Mitrevski, J; Mokhov, N V; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Mostafa, M A; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Nang, F; Narain, M; Narasimham, V S; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Nöding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Nurse, E; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Olivier, B; Oshima, N; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Padley, P; Papageorgiou, K; Parashar, N; Park, J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Perea, P M; Pérez, E; Peters, O; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Phaf, L K; Piegaia, R; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pope, B G; Popkov, E; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Przybycien, M B; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rani, K J; Rapidis, P A; Ratoff, P N; Reay, N W; Renardy, J F; Reucroft, S; Rha, J; Ridel, M; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Sabirov, B M; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schukin, A; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sen-Gupta, S; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shephard, W D; Shpakov, D; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skow, D; Slattery, P F; Smith, R P; Smolek, K; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Song, Y; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sorin, V; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Stanton, N R; Stark, J; Steele, J; Steinbruck, G; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tentindo-Repond, S; Thomas, E; Thooris, B; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torborg, J; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trippe, T G; Tuchming, B; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vlimant, J R; Von Törne, E; Vreeswijk, M; Vu-Anh, T; Wahl, H D; Walker, R; Wallace, N; Wang, Z M; Warchol, J; Warsinsky, M; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wegner, M; White, A; White, V; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wijngaarden, D A; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wittlin, J; Wlodek, T; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wu, Z; Wyatt, T R; Xu, Q; Xuan, N; Yamada, R; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yen, Y; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zabi, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zdrazil, M; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, B; Zhang, D; Zhang, X; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zheng, H; Zhou, B; Zhou, Z; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zitoun, R; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A; Meyer, Arnd
2004-01-01
Both Tevatron experiments, D0 and CDF, have searched for signs of Supersymmetry in the present Run II data sample, using integrated luminosities of up to 260/pb collected in ppbar collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96TeV. In these proceedings, new results are presented in the search for squarks and gluinos in the jets and missing transverse energy final state, associated production of charginos and neutralinos with multilepton final states, search for the rare decay B_s->mumu, searches allowing R-parity violation (muons+jets, multileptons), and searches in the gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking framework with the final state of two photons and missing transverse energy. In the absence of any significant deviation from Standard Model expectations, limits on the presence of new physics are set, which in many cases are the most stringent to date.
New method for dynamical fermions and chiral-symmetry breaking
Azcoiti, V; Grillo, A F; Laliena, V; Luo, X Q
1994-01-01
The reasons for the feasibility of the Microcanonical Fermionic Average ($MFA$) approach to lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermions are discussed. We then present a new exact algorithm, which is free from systematic errors and convergent even in the chiral limit.
UNIVERSALITY OF PHASE TRANSITION DYNAMICS: TOPOLOGICAL DEFECTS FROM SYMMETRY BREAKING
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zurek, Wojciech H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Del Campo, Adolfo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-02-13
In the course of a non-equilibrium continuous phase transition, the dynamics ceases to be adiabatic in the vicinity of the critical point as a result of the critical slowing down (the divergence of the relaxation time in the neighborhood of the critical point). This enforces a local choice of the broken symmetry and can lead to the formation of topological defects. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) was developed to describe the associated nonequilibrium dynamics and to estimate the density of defects as a function of the quench rate through the transition. During recent years, several new experiments investigating formation of defects in phase transitions induced by a quench both in classical and quantum mechanical systems were carried out. At the same time, some established results were called into question. We review and analyze the Kibble-Zurek mechanism focusing in particular on this surge of activity, and suggest possible directions for further progress.
Maximally Generalized Yang-Mills Model and Dynamical Breaking of Gauge Symmetry
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
A maximally generalized Yang-Mills model, which contains, besides the vector part Vμ, also an axial-vector part Aμ, a scalar part S, a pseudoscalar part P, and a tensor part Tμv, is constructed and the dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry in the model is also discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model. The combination of the maximally generalized Yang-Mills model and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.
Initial Wave Breaking Dynamics of Peregrine-Type Rogue Waves: A Numerical and Experimental Study
Peric, R; Chabchoub, A
2014-01-01
The Peregrine breather, today widely regarded as a prototype for spatio-temporally localized rogue waves on the ocean caused by nonlinear focusing, is analyzed by direct numerical simulations based on two-phase Navier-Stokes equations. A finite-volume approach with a volume of fluid method is applied to study the Peregrine breather dynamics up to the initial stages of wave breaking. The comparison of the numerical results with laboratory experiments to validate the numerical approach shows very good agreement and suggests that the chosen method is an effective tool to study modulation instability and breather dynamics in water waves with high accuracy even up to the onset of wave breaking. The numerical results also indicate some previously unnoticed characteristics of the flow fields below the water surface of breathers, which might be of significance for short-term prediction of rogue waves. Recurrent wave breaking is also observed.
Supersymmetry in singular spaces
Bergshoeff, E; Kallosh, R; Van Proeyen, A
2000-01-01
We develop the concept of supersymmetry in singular spaces, apply it in an example for 3-branes in D = 5 and comment on 8-branes in D = 10. The new construction has an interpretation that the brane is a sink for the flux and requires adding to the standard supergravity a (D - 1)-form field and a sup
Ughetto, Michael; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles, with focus on those obtained using proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 13 TeV.
Supersymmetry in singular spaces
Bergshoeff, E; Kallosh, R; Van Proeyen, A
2000-01-01
We develop the concept of supersymmetry in singular spaces, apply it in an example for 3-branes in D = 5 and comment on 8-branes in D = 10. The new construction has an interpretation that the brane is a sink for the flux and requires adding to the standard supergravity a (D - 1)-form field and a
Supersymmetry in Singular Spaces
Bergshoeff, E. A.; Kallosh, R.; Proeyen, A. van
2000-01-01
Published in: J. High Energy Phys. 10 (2000) 033 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We develop the concept of supersymmetry in singular spaces, apply it in an example for 3-branes in D=5 and comment on 8-branes in D=10. The new construction has an interpretation that the brane
Superworld without supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shreyashi Chakdar
2016-03-01
Full Text Available It is a possibility that the superworld (supersymmetric partners of our world does exist without supersymmetry. The two worlds are being distinguished by an unbroken discrete Z2 symmetry (similar to R-parity in supersymmetry. We lose the solution to the hierarchy problem. However, such a scenario has several motivations. For example, the lightest neutral superworld particle will be a candidate for dark matter. The other being, as in supersymmetry, it is possible to achieve gauge coupling unification. One major difference with the supersymmetric theory is that such a theory is much more general since it is not constrained by supersymmetry. For example, some of the gauge couplings connecting the Standard Model particles with the superpartners now become free Yukawa couplings. As a result, the final state signals as well as the limits on the superworld particles can be modified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The reach for these superworld particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC can be much higher than the superpartners, leading to the increased possibility of discovering new physics at the LHC.
Superworld without supersymmetry
Chakdar, Shreyashi; Ghosh, Kirtiman; Nandi, S.
2016-03-01
It is a possibility that the superworld (supersymmetric partners of our world) does exist without supersymmetry. The two worlds are being distinguished by an unbroken discrete Z2 symmetry (similar to R-parity in supersymmetry). We lose the solution to the hierarchy problem. However, such a scenario has several motivations. For example, the lightest neutral superworld particle will be a candidate for dark matter. The other being, as in supersymmetry, it is possible to achieve gauge coupling unification. One major difference with the supersymmetric theory is that such a theory is much more general since it is not constrained by supersymmetry. For example, some of the gauge couplings connecting the Standard Model particles with the superpartners now become free Yukawa couplings. As a result, the final state signals as well as the limits on the superworld particles can be modified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The reach for these superworld particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be much higher than the superpartners, leading to the increased possibility of discovering new physics at the LHC.
Ventura, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
New and recents results on Supersymmetry searches are shown for the ATLAS and the CMS experiments. Analyses with about 36 fb^-1 are considered for searches concerning light squarks and gluinos, direct pair production of 3rd generation squarks, electroweak production of charginos, neutralinos, sleptons, R-parity violating scenarios and long-lived particles.
Precision measurements in supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Johnathan Lee [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
1995-05-01
Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed.
Doran, C F; Gates, S J, Jr; Hübsch, T; Iga, K M; Landweber, G D
2008-01-01
We explain how the redefinitions of supermultiplet component fields, comprising what we call "frame shifts", can be used in conjuction with the graphical technology of multiplet Adkinras to render manifest the reducibility of off-shell representations of supersymmetry. This technology speaks to possibility of organizing multiplet constraints in a way which complements and extends the possibilities afforded by superspace methods.
Explicit versus Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking and Mass Matrix of Quarks and Leptons
Handa, O.; Ishida, S.; Sekiguchi, M.
1992-02-01
By recourse to an analogy between strong and weak interactions, quark mass-matrices consisting of the two parts are proposed, which represent, respectively, dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and explicit one due to small preon mass. The sum rules among quark masses and mixing-matrix elements derived from it seem consistent with present experiments.
Octonionic Realizations of 1-dimensional Extended Supersymmetries. A Classification
Carrion, H L; Toppan, F
2003-01-01
The classification of the octonionic realizations of the one-dimensional extended supersymmetries is here furnished. These are non-associative realizations which, albeit inequivalent, are put in correspondence with a subclass of the already classified associative representations for 1D extended supersymmetries. Examples of dynamical systems invariant under octonionic realizations of the extended supersymmetries are given. We cite among the others the octonionic spinning particles, the N=8 KdV, etc. Possible applications to supersymmetric systems arising from dimensional reduction of the octonionic superstring and M-theory are mentioned.
Octonionic realizations of 1-dimensional extended supersymmetries. A classification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carrion, H.L.; Rojas, M.; Toppan, F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]. E-mail: hleny@cbpf.br; mrojas@cbpf.br; toppan@cbpf.br
2002-12-01
The classification of the octonionic realizations of the one-dimensional extended supersymmetries is here furnished. These are non-associative realizations which, albeit inequivalent, are put in correspondence with a subclass of the already classified associative representations for 1D extended supersymmetries. Examples of dynamical systems invariant under octonionic realizations of the extended supersymmetries are given. We cite among the others the octonionic spinning particles, the N = 8 KdV, etc. Possible applications to supersymmetric systems arising from dimensional reduction of the octonionic superstring and M-theory are mentioned. (author)
Chromatin dynamics at DNA breaks: what, how and why?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Théo Lebeaupin
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Chromatin has a complex, dynamic architecture in the interphase nucleus, which regulates the accessibility of the underlying DNA and plays a key regulatory role in all the cellular functions using DNA as a template, such as replication, transcription or DNA damage repair. Here, we review the recent progresses in the understanding of the interplay between chromatin architecture and DNA repair mechanisms. Several reports based on live cell fluorescence imaging show that the activation of the DNA repair machinery is associated with major changes in the compaction state and the mobility of chromatin. We discuss the functional consequences of these changes in yeast and mammals in the light of the different repair pathways utilized by these organisms. In the final section of this review, we show how future developments in high-resolution light microscopy and chromatin modelling by polymer physics should contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between the structural changes in chromatin and the activity of the repair processes.
Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Sato, Daisuke
2016-01-01
We analyze the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theory with the nonperturbative renormalization group equation (NPRGE), which is a first order nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE). In case that the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking occurs, the NPRGE encounters some non-analytic singularities at the finite critical scale even though the initial function is continuous and smooth. Therefore there is no usual solution of the PDE beyond the critical scale. In this paper, we newly introduce the notion of a weak solution which is the global solution of the weak NPRGE. We show how to evaluate the physical quantities with the weak solution.
Enhanced Higgs Mass in Compact Supersymmetry
Tobioka, Kohsaku; Murayama, Hitoshi
2015-01-01
The current LHC results make weak scale supersymmetry difficult due to relatively heavy mass of the discovered Higgs boson and the null results of new particle searches. Geometrical supersymmetry breaking from extra dimensions, Scherk-Schwarz mechanism, is possible to accommodate such situations. A concrete example, the Compact Supersymmetry model, has a compressed spectrum ameliorating the LHC bounds and large mixing in the top and scalar top quark sector with $|A_t|\\sim 2m_{\\tilde{t}}$ which radiatively raises the Higgs mass. While the zero mode contributions of the model has been considered, in this paper we calculate the Kaluza-Klein tower effect to the Higgs mass. Although such contributions are naively expected to be as small as a percent level for 10 TeV Kaluza-Klein modes, we find the effect significantly enhances the radiative correction to the Higgs quartic coupling by from 10 to 50 %. This is mainly because the top quark wave function is pushed out from the brane, which makes the top Yukawa couplin...
Enhanced Higgs mass in Compact Supersymmetry
Tobioka, Kohsaku; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi
2016-04-01
The current LHC results make weak scale supersymmetry difficult due to relatively heavy mass of the discovered Higgs boson and the null results of new particle searches. Geometrical supersymmetry breaking from extra dimensions, Scherk-Schwarz mechanism, is possible to accommodate such situations. A concrete example, the Compact Supersymmetry model, has a compressed spectrum ameliorating the LHC bounds and large mixing in the top and scalar top quark sector with |{A}_t|˜ 2{m}_{tilde{t}} which radiatively raises the Higgs mass. While the zero mode contribution of the model has been considered, in this paper we calculate the Kaluza-Klein tower effect to the Higgs mass. Although such contributions are naively expected to be as small as a percent level for 10 TeV Kaluza-Klein modes, we find the effect significantly enhances the radiative correction to the Higgs quartic coupling by from 10 to 50%. This is mainly because the top quark wave function is pushed out from the brane, which makes the top mass depend on higher powers in the Higgs field. As a result the Higgs mass is enhanced up to 15 GeV from the previous calculation. We also show the whole parameter space is testable at the LHC run II.
Finding the Higgs Boson through Supersymmetry
De Campos, F; Magro, M B; Restrepo, D; Valle, J W F
2008-01-01
The study of displaced vertices containing two b--jets may provide a double discovery at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): we show how it may not only reveal evidence for supersymmetry, but also provide a way to uncover the Higgs boson necessary in the formulation of the electroweak theory in a large region of the parameter space. We quantify this explicitly using the simplest minimal supergravity model with bilinear breaking of R-parity, which accounts for the observed pattern of neutrino masses and mixings seen in neutrino oscillation experiments.
Qian, Hong; Ao, Ping; Tu, Yuhai; Wang, Jin
2016-11-01
By integrating four lines of thoughts: symmetry breaking originally advanced by Anderson, bifurcation from nonlinear dynamical systems, Landau's phenomenological theory of phase transition, and the mechanism of emergent rare events first studied by Kramers, we introduce a possible framework for understanding mesoscopic dynamics that links (i) fast microscopic (lower level) motions, (ii) movements within each basin-of-attraction at the mid-level, and (iii) higher-level rare transitions between neighboring basins, which have slow rates that decrease exponentially with the size of the system. In this mesoscopic framework, the fast dynamics is represented by a rapidly varying stochastic process and the mid-level by a nonlinear dynamics. Multiple attractors arise as emergent properties of the nonlinear systems. The interplay between the stochastic element and nonlinearity, the essence of Kramers' theory, leads to successive jump-like transitions among different basins. We argue each transition is a dynamic symmetry breaking, with the potential of exhibiting Thom-Zeeman catastrophe as well as phase transition with the breakdown of ergodicity (e.g., cell differentiation). The slow-time dynamics of the nonlinear mesoscopic system is not deterministic, rather it is a discrete stochastic jump process. The existence of these discrete states and the Markov transitions among them are both emergent phenomena. This emergent stochastic jump dynamics then serves as the stochastic element for the nonlinear dynamics of a higher level aggregates on an even larger spatial and slower time scales (e.g., evolution). This description captures the hierarchical structure outlined by Anderson and illustrates two distinct types of limit of a mesoscopic dynamics: A long-time ensemble thermodynamics in terms of time t → ∞ followed by the size of the system N → ∞ , and a short-time trajectory steady state with N → ∞ followed by t → ∞ . With these limits, symmetry breaking and cusp
Supersymmetry and cosmic censorship
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortin, T. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias C-XVI, C. U. Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2007-05-15
We show that requiring unbroken supersymmetry everywhere in black-hole-type solutions of N=2, d=4 supergravity coupled to vector supermultiplets ensures in most cases absence of naked singularities. We show that the requirement of global supersymmetry implies the absence of sources for NUT charge, angular momentum, scalar hair and negative energy, for which there is no microscopic interpretation in String Theory. These conditions exclude, for instance, singular solutions such as the Kerr-Newman with M= vertical stroke q vertical stroke, which fails to be everywhere supersymmetric. There are, nevertheless, everywhere supersymmetric solutions with global angular momentum and non-trivial scalar fields. We also present similar preliminary results in N=1, d=5 supergravity coupled to vector multiplets. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Supersymmetry, supergravity, and unification
Nath, Pran
2017-01-01
This unique book gives a modern account of particle physics and gravity based on supersymmetry and supergravity, two of the most significant developments in theoretical physics since general relativity. The book begins with a brief overview of the history of unification and then goes into a detailed exposition of both fundamental and phenomenological topics. The topics in fundamental physics include Einstein gravity, Yang-Mills theory, anomalies, the standard model, supersymmetry and supergravity, and the construction of supergravity couplings with matter and gauge fields, as well as computational techniques for SO(10) couplings. The topics of phenomenological interest include implications of supergravity models at colliders, CP violation, and proton stability, as well as topics in cosmology such as inflation, leptogenesis, baryogenesis, and dark matter. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers seeking to master the techniques for building grand unified models.
Dimensional Enhancement via Supersymmetry
Faux, M G; Landweber, G D
2009-01-01
We explain how the representation theory associated with supersymmetry in diverse dimensions is encoded within the representation theory of supersymmetry in one time-like dimension. This is enabled by algebraic criteria, derived, exhibited, and utilized in this paper, which indicate which subset of one-dimensional supersymmetric models describe "shadows" of higher-dimensional models. This formalism delineates that minority of one-dimensional supersymmetric models which can "enhance" to accommodate extra dimensions. As a consistency test, we use our formalism to reproduce well-known conclusions about supersymmetric field theories using one-dimensional reasoning exclusively. And we introduce the notion of "phantoms" which usefully accommodate higher-dimensional gauge invariance in the context of shadow multiplets in supersymmetric quantum mechanics.
Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS
Torro Pastor, Emma; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
Weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. Weak and strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons, as well as long-lived particle signatures.
Supersymmetry Searches in ATLAS
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237280; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. Weak and strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons, as well as long-lived particle signatures.
Supersymmetry: Experimental Status
Ulmer, Keith A
2016-01-01
This talk presents results from the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations from searches for physics beyond the Standard Model motivated by supersymmetry from Run 1 of the LHC. Representative searches are described to illustrate the diverse nature of the search program in both background estimation techniques and final state topologies. The status of preparation for Run 2 searches at 13 TeV is also presented.
Ho, Chiu Man; Okada, Nobuchika
2014-01-01
Supersymmetry does not dictate the way we should quantize the fields in the supermultiplets, and so we have the freedom to quantize the Standard Model (SM) particles and their superpartners differently. We propose a generalized quantization scheme under which a particle can only appear off-shell, while its contributions to quantum corrections are exactly the same as those in the usual quantum field theory. We apply this quantization scheme solely to the sparticles in the $R$-parity preserving...
Dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management – Part 1: Theoretical framework
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Peng
2013-02-01
Full Text Available An evacuation decision for dam breaks is a very serious issue. A late decision may lead to loss of lives and properties, but a very early evacuation will incur unnecessary expenses. This paper presents a risk-based framework of dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management (DYDEM. The dam-break emergency management in both time scale and space scale is introduced first to define the dynamic decision problem. The probability of dam failure is taken as a stochastic process and estimated using a time-series analysis method. The flood consequences are taken as functions of warning time and evaluated with a human risk analysis model (HURAM based on Bayesian networks. A decision criterion is suggested to decide whether to evacuate the population at risk (PAR or to delay the decision. The optimum time for evacuating the PAR is obtained by minimizing the expected total loss, which integrates the time-related probabilities and flood consequences. When a delayed decision is chosen, the decision making can be updated with available new information. A specific dam-break case study is presented in a companion paper to illustrate the application of this framework to complex dam-breaching problems.
Sizing of the Series Dynamic Breaking Resistor in a Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soliman, Hammam; Wang, Huai; Zhou, Dao
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the effect of Series Dynamic Breaking Resistor (SDBR) sizing on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind power conversion system. The boundary of the SDBR value is firstly derived by taking into account the controllability of the rotor side converter and the maxi......This paper investigates the effect of Series Dynamic Breaking Resistor (SDBR) sizing on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind power conversion system. The boundary of the SDBR value is firstly derived by taking into account the controllability of the rotor side converter...... and the maximum allowable voltage of the stator. Then the impact of the SDBR value on the rotor current, stator voltage, DC-link voltage, reactive power capability and introduced power loss during voltage sag operation is evaluated by simulation. The presented study enables a trade-off sizing of the SDBR among...
Kolesnychenko, O. Yu.; Toonen, A. J.; Shklyarevskii, O. I.; van Kempen, H.
2001-10-01
The thermal expansion dynamics of W, Pt-Ir, and Au mechanically controllable break junction electrodes was studied in the millisecond range. By measuring a transient tunnel current as a function of time, we found that, at low temperatures, the electrode elongation Δs˜t1/2 due to the large values of thermal diffusivity of metals. The magnitude of Δs varies in direct proportion to the power P dissipated in the electrodes.
Instanton-dyon Ensemble with two Dynamical Quarks: the Chiral Symmetry Breaking
Larsen, Rasmus
2015-01-01
This is the second paper of the series aimed at understanding of the ensemble of the instanton-dyons, now with two flavors of light dynamical quarks. The partition function is appended by the fermionic factor, $(det T)^{N_f}$ and Dirac eigenvalue spectra at small values are derived from the numerical simulation of 64 dyons. Those spectra show clear chiral symmetry breaking pattern at high dyon density. Within current accuracy, the confinement and chiral transitions occur at very similar densities.
Intrinsic Axial Flows in CSDX and Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in ITG Turbulence
Li, Jiacong; Diamond, P. H.; Hong, R.; Thakur, S. C.; Xu, X. Q.; Tynan, G. R.
2016-10-01
Toroidal plasma rotation can enhance confinement when combined with weak magnetic shear. Also, external rotation drive in future fusion devices (e.g. ITER) will be weak. Together, these two considerations drive us to study intrinsic rotations with weak magnetic shear. In particular, a global transition is triggered in CSDX when magnetic field B exceeds a critical strength threshold. At the transition an ion feature emerges in the core turbulence. Recent studies show that a dynamical symmetry breaking mechanism in drift wave turbulence can drive intrinsic axial flows in CSDX, as well as enhance intrinsic rotations in tokamaks. Here, we focus on what happens when ion features emerge in CSDX, and how ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence drives intrinsic rotations with weak magnetic shear. The effect of dynamical symmetry breaking in ITG turbulence depends on the stability regime. In a marginally stable regime, dynamical symmetry breaking results in an augmented turbulence viscosity (chi-phi). However, when ITG is far from the stability boundary, a negative increment in turbulent viscosity is induced. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under Award No. DE-FG02-04ER54738.
Searches for supersymmetry at CMS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collaboration: F. Giordano on behalf of the CMS Collaboration
2017-11-15
Among the most promising prospects for a theory of physics beyond the standard model is supersymmetry. In this talk, the latest results from the CMS experiment at the LHC on searches for supersymmetry produced through strong production and electroweak production channels are presented using 20/fb of data from the 8 TeV LHC run, with particular focus on gluino and stop searches.
Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS
Meloni, Federico; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. Weak and strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons, as well as long-lived particle signatures. Sensitivity projections for the data that will be collected in 2015 are also presented.
The Discovery of Supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Riva Francesco
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Recent LHC searches have provided strong evidence for the Higgs, a boson whose gauge quantum numbers coincide with those of a SM fermion, the neutrino. This raises the question of whether Higgs and neutrino can be related by supersymmetry. I will show explicitly the implications of models where the Higgs is the sneutrino: from a theoretical point of view an R-symmetry, acting as lepton number, is necessary; on the experimental side, squarks exhibit novel decays into quarks and leptons, allowing to differentiate these scenarios from the ordinary MSSM.
Dimensional Enhancement via Supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. G. Faux
2011-01-01
of supersymmetry in one time-like dimension. This is enabled by algebraic criteria, derived, exhibited, and utilized in this paper, which indicate which subset of one-dimensional supersymmetric models describes “shadows” of higher-dimensional models. This formalism delineates that minority of one-dimensional supersymmetric models which can “enhance” to accommodate extra dimensions. As a consistency test, we use our formalism to reproduce well-known conclusions about supersymmetric field theories using one-dimensional reasoning exclusively. And we introduce the notion of “phantoms” which usefully accommodate higher-dimensional gauge invariance in the context of shadow multiplets in supersymmetric quantum mechanics.
Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS
Meloni, Federico; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
This document summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric particles using LHC proton-proton collision data. Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. We consider both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios. The searches involve final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons, as well as long-lived particle signatures. Sensitivity projections for the data that will be collected in 2015 are also presented.
Supersymmetry and chiral symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walker, Michael Luke [Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics and College of Natural Sciences, Kyung-Hee University, KyongGi, Yong-In 449-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: m.walker@aip.org.au
2004-12-01
We dispute the nonperturbative non-renormalisation theorem stating that mass cannot be spontaneously generated in supersymmetric QED. Our analysis, which requires no truncation and is fully gauge and supersymmetry consistent, finds instead that there is no reason for the mass corrections to be exactly zero. We concede that an achiral solution is yet to be found. We also extend a long-standing perturbative result, that the effective potential is zero to all orders of perturbation theory, to the nonperturbative regime for arbitrary numbers of flavours. (author)
Dynamical instability induced by the zero mode under symmetry breaking external perturbation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takahashi, J., E-mail: phyco-sevenface@asagi.waseda.jp; Nakamura, Y., E-mail: nakamura@aoni.waseda.jp; Yamanaka, Y., E-mail: yamanaka@waseda.jp
2014-08-15
A complex eigenvalue in the Bogoliubov–de Gennes equations for a stationary Bose-Einstein condensate in the ultracold atomic system indicates the dynamical instability of the system. We also have the modes with zero eigenvalues for the condensate, called the zero modes, which originate from the spontaneous breakdown of symmetries. Although the zero modes are suppressed in many theoretical analyses, we take account of them in this paper and argue that a zero mode can change into one with a pure imaginary eigenvalue by applying a symmetry breaking external perturbation potential. This emergence of a pure imaginary mode adds a new type of scenario of dynamical instability to that characterized by the complex eigenvalue of the usual excitation modes. For illustration, we deal with two one-dimensional homogeneous Bose–Einstein condensate systems with a single dark soliton under a respective perturbation potential, breaking the invariance under translation, to derive pure imaginary modes. - Highlights: • Zero modes are important but ignored in many theories for the cold atomic system. • We discuss the zero mode under symmetry breaking potential in this system. • We consider the zero mode of translational invariance for a single dark soliton. • We show that it turns into an anomalous or pure imaginary mode.
Spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking of lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO XiangQian
2007-01-01
One of the most challenging issues in QCD is the investigation of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking,which is characterized by the non-vanishing chiral condensate when the bare fermion mass is zero.In standard methods of the lattice gauge theory,one has to perform expensive simulations at multiple bare quark masses,and employ some modeled functions to extrapolate the data to the chiral limit.This paper applies the probability distribution function method to computing the chiral condensate in lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks,without any ambiguous mass extrapolation.The results for staggered quarks indicate that this might be a promising and efficient method for investigating the spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking in lattice QCD,which deserves further investigation.
Spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking of lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
One of the most challenging issues in QCD is the investigation of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking, which is characterized by the non-vanishing chiral condensate when the bare fermion mass is zero. In standard methods of the lattice gauge theory, one has to perform expensive simulations at multiple bare quark masses, and employ some modeled functions to extrapolate the data to the chiral limit. This paper applies the probability distribution function method to computing the chiral condensate in lattice QCD with massless dynamical quarks, without any ambiguous mass extrapolation. The results for staggered quarks indicate that this might be a promising and efficient method for investigating the spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking in lattice QCD, which deserves further investigation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
廖敏夫; 段雄英; 邹积岩
2004-01-01
Based on the dynamic dielectric recovery process in the vacuum gaps in series, investigations were made on post-arc insulation state in double and multi-breaks operation in high voltage power system. From the research on the breakdown weak points in high voltage vacuum gaps, their turnout and distribution, some theoretic work were made to set up the models for describing the statistical property of multi-breaks vacuum circuit-breakers' breakdown and post-arc re-strike, which can be used for explaining the mechanism of the improvement in the breaking capacity of multi-breaks units compared with that of single-break ones which have the same equivalent gap length. The advantages of vacuum breakers with multi-breaks are proposed.
2016-01-01
DNA double-strand breaks are lesions that form during metabolism, DNA replication and exposure to mutagens. When a double-strand break occurs one of a number of repair mechanisms is recruited, all of which have differing propensities for mutational events. Despite DNA repair being of crucial importance, the relative contribution of these mechanisms and their regulatory interactions remain to be fully elucidated. Understanding these mutational processes will have a profound impact on our knowledge of genomic instability, with implications across health, disease and evolution. Here we present a new method to model the combined activation of non-homologous end joining, single strand annealing and alternative end joining, following exposure to ionising radiation. We use Bayesian statistics to integrate eight biological data sets of double-strand break repair curves under varying genetic knockouts and confirm that our model is predictive by re-simulating and comparing to additional data. Analysis of the model suggests that there are at least three disjoint modes of repair, which we assign as fast, slow and intermediate. Our results show that when multiple data sets are combined, the rate for intermediate repair is variable amongst genetic knockouts. Further analysis suggests that the ratio between slow and intermediate repair depends on the presence or absence of DNA-PKcs and Ku70, which implies that non-homologous end joining and alternative end joining are not independent. Finally, we consider the proportion of double-strand breaks within each mechanism as a time series and predict activity as a function of repair rate. We outline how our insights can be directly tested using imaging and sequencing techniques and conclude that there is evidence of variable dynamics in alternative repair pathways. Our approach is an important step towards providing a unifying theoretical framework for the dynamics of DNA repair processes. PMID:27741226
Generalised universality of gauge thresholds in heterotic vacua with and without supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlo Angelantonj
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We study one-loop quantum corrections to gauge couplings in heterotic vacua with spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. Although in non-supersymmetric constructions these corrections are not protected and are typically model dependent, we show how a universal behaviour of threshold differences, typical of supersymmetric vacua, may still persist. We formulate specific conditions on the way supersymmetry should be broken for this to occur. Our analysis implies a generalised notion of threshold universality even in the case of unbroken supersymmetry, whenever extra charged massless states appear at enhancement points in the bulk of moduli space. Several examples with universality, including non-supersymmetric chiral models in four dimensions, are presented.
Generalised universality of gauge thresholds in heterotic vacua with and without supersymmetry
Angelantonj, Carlo; Tsulaia, Mirian
2015-01-01
We study one-loop quantum corrections to gauge couplings in heterotic vacua with spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. Although in non-supersymmetric constructions these corrections are not protected and are typically model dependent, we show how a universal behaviour of threshold differences, typical of supersymmetric vacua, may still persist. We formulate specific conditions on the way supersymmetry should be broken for this to occur. Our analysis implies a generalised notion of threshold universality even in the case of unbroken supersymmetry, whenever extra charged massless states appear at enhancement points in the bulk of moduli space. Several examples with universality, including non-supersymmetric chiral models in four dimensions, are presented.
Holographic renormalization and supersymmetry
Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Cassani, Davide; Martelli, Dario; Sparks, James
2017-02-01
Holographic renormalization is a systematic procedure for regulating divergences in observables in asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes. For dual boundary field theories which are supersymmetric it is natural to ask whether this defines a supersymmetric renormalization scheme. Recent results in localization have brought this question into sharp focus: rigid supersymmetry on a curved boundary requires specific geometric structures, and general arguments imply that BPS observables, such as the partition function, are invariant under certain deformations of these structures. One can then ask if the dual holographic observables are similarly invariant. We study this question in minimal N = 2 gauged supergravity in four and five dimensions. In four dimensions we show that holographic renormalization precisely reproduces the expected field theory results. In five dimensions we find that no choice of standard holographic counterterms is compatible with supersymmetry, which leads us to introduce novel finite boundary terms. For a class of solutions satisfying certain topological assumptions we provide some independent tests of these new boundary terms, in particular showing that they reproduce the expected VEVs of conserved charges.
Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.
1982-01-01
This report deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. It is concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/anti K/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed. The report is organized as follows. Section I consists of a brief review of supersymmetry and the salient features of existing supersymmetric models; this section can be ignored by those familiar with such models since it contains nothing new. Section 2 deals with the consequences for nucleon decay of SUSY. The remaining sections then discuss the physics possibilities of various machines; e anti e in Section 3, ep in Section 4, pp (or anti pp) colliders in Section 5 and fixed target hadron machines in Section 6.
Symmetries, Supersymmetries, and Pairing in Nuclei
Balantekin, A B
2011-01-01
These summer school lectures cover the use of algebraic techniques in various subfields of nuclear physics. After a brief description of groups and algebras, concepts of dynamical symmetry, dynamical supersymmetry, and supersymmetric quantum mechanics are introduced. Appropriate tools such as quasiparticles, quasispin, and Bogoliubov transformations are discussed with an emphasis on group theoretical foundations of these tools. To illustrate these concepts three physics applications are worked out in some detail: i) Pairing in nuclear physics; ii) Subbarrier fusion and associated group transformations; and iii) Symmetries of neutrino mass and of a related neutrino many-body problem.
Marzuola, Jeremy L
2009-01-01
We consider a class nonlinear Schr\\"odinger / Gross-Pitaevskii equations (NLS/GP) with a focusing (attractive) nonlinear potential and symmetric double well linear potential. NLS/GP plays a central role in the modeling of nonlinear optical and mean-field quantum many-body phenomena. It is known that there is a critical $L^2$ norm (optical power / particle number) at which there is a symmetry breaking bifurcation of the ground state. We study the rich dynamical behavior near the symmetry breaking point. The source of this behavior in the full Hamiltonian PDE is related to the dynamics of a finite-dimensional Hamiltonian reduction. We derive this reduction, analyze a part of its phase space and prove a {\\it shadowing theorem} on the persistence of solutions, with oscillating mass-transport between wells, on very long, but finite, time scales within the full NLS/GP. The infinite time dynamics for NLS/GP are expected to depart, from the finite dimensional reduction, due to resonant coupling of discrete and contin...
Superworldvolume dynamics of superbranes from nonlinear realizations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellucci, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Ivanov, E. [Paris Univ., Paris (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique et des Hautes Energies]|[Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna, Moscow (USSR); Krivonos, S. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna, Moscow (USSR)
2000-07-01
Based on the concept of the partial breaking of global supersymmetry (PBGS), it has been derived the worldvolume superfield equations of motion for N=1, D=4 supermembrane, as well as for the space-time filling D2- and D3-branes, from nonlinear realizations of the corresponding supersymmetries. It has been argued that it is of no need to take care of the relevant automorphism groups when being interested in the dynamical equations. This essentially facilitates computations. As a by-product, it has been obtained a new polynomial representation for the d=3,4 Born-Infeld equations, with merely a cubic nonlinearity.
Head/tail Breaks for Visualization of City Structure and Dynamics
Jiang, Bin
2015-01-01
The things surrounding us vary dramatically, which implies that there are far more small things than large ones, e.g., far more small cities than large ones in the world. This dramatic variation is often referred to as fractal or scaling. To better reveal the fractal or scaling structure, a new classification scheme, namely head/tail breaks, has been developed to recursively derive different classes or hierarchical levels. The head/tail breaks works as such: divide things into a few large ones in the head (those above the average) and many small ones (those below the average) in the tail, and recursively continue the dividing process for the large ones (or the head) until the notion of far more small things than large ones has been violated. This paper attempts to argue that head/tail breaks can be a powerful visualization tool for illustrating structure and dynamics of natural cities. Natural cities refer to naturally or objectively defined human settlements based on a meaningful cutoff averaged from a massi...
Atmospheric Transport and Mixing linked to Rossby Wave Breaking in GFDL Dynamical Core
Liu, C.; Barnes, E. A.
2015-12-01
Atmospheric transport and mixing plays an important role in the global energy balance and the distribution of health-related chemical constituents. Previous studies suggest a close linkage between large-scale transport and Rossby wave breaking (RWB). In this work, we use the GFDL spectral dynamical core to investigate this relationship and study the response of RWB-related transport in different climate scenarios. In a standard control run, we quantify the contribution of RWB to the total transport and mixing of an idealized tracer. In addition, we divide the contribution further into the two types of RWB - anticyclonic wave breaking (AWB) and cyclonic wave breaking (CWB) -- and contrast their efficiency at transport and mixing. Our results are compared to a previous study in which the transport ability of the two types of RWB is studied for individual baroclinic wave life-cycles. In a series of sensitivity runs, we study the response of RWB-related transport and mixing to various states of the jet streams. The responses of the mean strength, frequency, and the efficiency of RWB-related transport are documented and the implications for the transport and mixing in a warmer climate are discussed.
Models with quartic potential of dynamical SUSY breaking in meta-stable vacua
Hirano, Shinji
2007-05-01
We search for models of dynamical SUSY breaking in meta-stable vacua which might have dual string descriptions with a few brane probes. Two models with quartic superpotential are proposed: One of them might be closely related to the dual gauge theory to the flavored Maldacena-Nuñez geometry by Casero, Nuñez, and Paredes with a few additional brane probes corresponding to massive flavors. The other model might be dual to the Klebanov-Strassler geometry with one fractional D3-brane and a few D7-branes as probes.
Models with Quartic Potential of Dynamical SUSY Breaking in Meta-Stable Vacua
Hirano, Shinji
2007-01-01
We search for models of dynamical SUSY breaking in meta-stable vacua which might have dual string descriptions with a few brane probes. Two models with quartic superpotential are proposed: One of them might be closely related to the dual gauge theory to the flavored Maldacena-Nunez geometry by Casero, Nunez, and Paredes with a few additional brane probes corresponding to massive flavors. The other model might be dual to the Klebanov-Strassler geometry with one fractional D3-brane and a few D7-branes as probes.
Imaging dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking: pion wave function on the light front.
Chang, Lei; Cloët, I C; Cobos-Martinez, J J; Roberts, C D; Schmidt, S M; Tandy, P C
2013-03-29
We project onto the light front the pion's Poincaré-covariant Bethe-Salpeter wave function obtained using two different approximations to the kernels of quantum chromodynamics' Dyson-Schwinger equations. At an hadronic scale, both computed results are concave and significantly broader than the asymptotic distribution amplitude, φ(π)(asy)(x)=6x(1-x); e.g., the integral of φ(π)(x)/φ(π)(asy)(x) is 1.8 using the simplest kernel and 1.5 with the more sophisticated kernel. Independent of the kernels, the emergent phenomenon of dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking is responsible for hardening the amplitude.
Black holes in an expanding universe and supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dietmar Klemm
2016-02-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the supersymmetric solutions to five and six-dimensional minimal (ungauged supergravities for which the bilinear Killing vector constructed from the Killing spinor is null. We focus on the spacetimes which admit an additional SO(1,1 boost symmetry. Upon the toroidal dimensional reduction along the Killing vector corresponding to the boost, we show that the solution in the ungauged case describes a charged, nonextremal black hole in a Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW universe with an expansion driven by a massless scalar field. For the gauged case, the solution corresponds to a charged, nonextremal black hole embedded conformally into a Kantowski–Sachs universe. It turns out that these dimensional reductions break supersymmetry since the bilinear Killing vector and the Killing vector corresponding to the boost fail to commute. This represents a new mechanism of supersymmetry breaking that has not been considered in the literature before.
Patching Broken DNA: Nucleosome Dynamics and the Repair of DNA Breaks.
Gursoy-Yuzugullu, Ozge; House, Nealia; Price, Brendan D
2016-05-08
The ability of cells to detect and repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is dependent on reorganization of the surrounding chromatin structure by chromatin remodeling complexes. These complexes promote access to the site of DNA damage, facilitate processing of the damaged DNA and, importantly, are essential to repackage the repaired DNA. Here, we will review the chromatin remodeling steps that occur immediately after DSB production and that prepare the damaged chromatin template for processing by the DSB repair machinery. DSBs promote rapid accumulation of repressive complexes, including HP1, the NuRD complex, H2A.Z and histone methyltransferases at the DSB. This shift to a repressive chromatin organization may be important to inhibit local transcription and limit mobility of the break and to maintain the DNA ends in close contact. Subsequently, the repressive chromatin is rapidly dismantled through a mechanism involving dynamic exchange of the histone variant H2A.Z. H2A.Z removal at DSBs alters the acidic patch on the nucleosome surface, promoting acetylation of the H4 tail (by the NuA4-Tip60 complex) and shifting the chromatin to a more open structure. Further, H2A.Z removal promotes chromatin ubiquitination and recruitment of additional DSB repair proteins to the break. Modulation of the nucleosome surface and nucleosome function during DSB repair therefore plays a vital role in processing of DNA breaks. Further, the nucleosome surface may function as a central hub during DSB repair, directing specific patterns of histone modification, recruiting DNA repair proteins and modulating chromatin packing during processing of the damaged DNA template.
Electroweak breaking in supersymmetric models
Ibáñez, L E
1992-01-01
We discuss the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric versions of the standard model. After briefly reviewing the possible sources of supersymmetry breaking, we show how the required pattern of symmetry breaking can automatically result from the structure of quantum corrections in the theory. We demonstrate that this radiative breaking mechanism works well for a heavy top quark and can be combined in unified versions of the theory with excellent predictions for the running couplings of the model. (To be published in ``Perspectives in Higgs Physics'', G. Kane editor.)
Cohen, Timothy; Larkoski, Andrew J
2016-01-01
Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with supersymmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective theory for $\\mathcal{N} = 1$ SUSY Yang-Mills is constructed and shown to be consistent. For contrast, arguments are given that chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model, are incompatible with the collinear expansion. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance -- given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence between SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions a...
Collider interplay for supersymmetry, Higgs and Dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchmueller, O.; Citron, M.; Vries, K. de [Imperial College, High Energy Physics Group, Blackett Lab., London (United Kingdom); Ellis, J. [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Physics Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Guha, S. [CERN, Physics Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); BITS Pilani, Goa (India); Marrouche, J. [Imperial College, High Energy Physics Group, Blackett Lab., London (United Kingdom); CERN, Physics Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Olive, K.A.; Zheng, Jiaming [Univ. of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
2015-10-15
We discuss the potential impacts on the CMSSM of future LHC runs and possible e{sup +}e{sup -} and higher-energy proton-proton colliders, considering searches for supersymmetry via E{sub T} events, precision electroweak physics, Higgs measurements and dark matter searches. We validate and present estimates of the physics reach for exclusion or discovery of supersymmetry via E{sub T} searches at the LHC, which should cover the low-mass regions of the CMSSM parameter space favoured in a recent global analysis. As we illustrate with a low-mass benchmark point, a discovery would make possible accurate LHC measurements of sparticle masses using the MT2 variable, which could be combined with cross-section and other measurements to constrain the gluino, squark and stop masses and hence the soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters m{sub 0}, m{sub 1/2} and A{sub 0} of the CMSSM. Slepton measurements at CLIC would enable m{sub 0} and m{sub 1/2} to be determined with high precision. If supersymmetry is indeed discovered in the low-mass region, precision electroweak and Higgs measurements with a future circular e{sup +}e{sup -} collider (FCC-ee, also known as TLEP) combined with LHCmeasurements would provide tests of the CMSSM at the loop level. If supersymmetry is not discovered at the LHC, it is likely to lie somewhere along a focus-point, stopcoannihilation strip or direct-channel A/H resonance funnel. We discuss the prospects for discovering supersymmetry along these strips at a future circular proton-proton collider such as FCC-hh. Illustrative benchmark points on these strips indicate that also in this case FCC-ee could provide tests of the CMSSM at the loop level. (orig.)
Academic training: Introduction to Supersymmetry
2007-01-01
2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 12, 13, 14, 15 February, from 11:00 to 12:00 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Introduction to Supersymmetry D. Kaplan, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA In these lectures, I will introduce supersymmetry as an extension to spacetime symmetries both formally and physically. I will present motivations for why we think supersymmetry may exist in the real world, and may manifest itself at the LHC. I will describe the current set of models of softly broken supersymmetry at the electroweak scale and the parts that make them exciting and the parts that make people sick. I will then cover the phenomenology of the various models - the spectra and some of the best studied collider signals. Finally, I will describe the phenomenology of the full supersymmetric parameter space in general terms and discuss this collider signals not covered by the classic models.
A subtle sign of supersymmetry?
Cho, A
2001-01-01
In experiments conducted by HEAT in 94/95 in the upper atomosphere, more positrons were detected than expected. Last year a revamped detector confirmed the excess. Physicists Gordon Kane and Lian-Tao think this could be evidence of supersymmetry. They postulate the extra positrons come from rare collisions between the lightest particle predicted by supersymmetry and its antimatter partner (1/2 page).
Natural Supersymmetry and Unification in Five Dimensions
Abdalgabar, Ammar; Deandrea, Aldo; McGarrie, Moritz
2015-01-01
We explore unification and natural supersymmetry in a five dimensional extension of the standard model in which the extra dimension may be large, of the order of 1-10 TeV. Power law running generates a TeV scale A_ term allowing for the observed 125 GeV Higgs and allowing for stop masses below 2 TeV, compatible with a natural SUSY spectrum. We supply the full one-loop RGEs for various models and use metastability to give a prediction that the gluino mass should be lighter than 3.5 TeV for A_t <= 2.5 TeV, for such a compactification scale, with brane localised 3rd generation matter. We discuss why models in which the 1st and 2nd generation of matter fields are located in the bulk are likely to be ruled out. We also look at electroweak symmetry breaking in these models.
Gauged flavor, supersymmetry and grand unification
Mohapatra, Rabindra N.
2012-07-01
I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group SU(5)L×SU(5)R which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.
Gauged Flavor, Supersymmetry and Grand Unification
Mohapatra, Rabindra N
2012-01-01
I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group $SU(5)_L\\times SU(5)_R$ which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.
On the stability of multiscale models of dynamical symmetry breaking from holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faedo, Anton F. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom); Departament de Física Fonamental and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Piai, Maurizio; Schofield, Daniel [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom)
2014-03-15
We consider two classes of backgrounds of Type IIB supergravity obtained by wrapping D5-branes on a two-cycle inside the conifold. The field theory dual exhibits confinement and, in addition, a region in which the dynamics is walking, at least in the weak sense that the running of the coupling is anomalously slow. We introduce quenched matter in the fundamental, modeled by probe D7-branes which wrap an internal three-dimensional manifold and lie at the equator of the transverse two-sphere. In the space spanned by the remaining internal angle and the radial coordinate, the branes admit two embeddings. The first one is U-shaped: the branes merge at some finite value of the radius. The second one is disconnected and extends along the entire radial direction at fixed angular separation. We interpret these two configurations as corresponding to chiral-symmetry breaking and preserving phases, respectively. We present a simple diagnostic tool to examine the classical stability of the embedding, based on the concavity/convexity conditions for the relevant thermodynamic potentials. We use this criterion to show that U-shaped probes that explore the walking region are unstable, hence providing a dynamical origin for the tachyonic mode found in the literature. Whenever this occurs, the disconnected solution becomes favored energetically. We find that in one of the two classes of backgrounds the U-shaped embedding is always unstable, and thus never realized dynamically. Consequently, these models cannot be used to describe chiral-symmetry breaking. In the second category of solutions, our analysis reveals the presence of a first-order phase transition between chiral-symmetry broken and restored phases. Interestingly, this is in the same class that contains a parametrically light scalar in the spectrum of glueballs of the dual field theory.
Collider Interplay for Supersymmetry, Higgs and Dark Matter
Buchmueller, O; Ellis, J; Guha, S; Marrouche, J; Olive, K A; de Vries, K; Zheng, Jiaming
2015-01-01
We discuss the potential impacts on the CMSSM of future LHC runs and possible electron-positron and higher-energy proton-proton colliders, considering searches for supersymmetry via MET events, precision electroweak physics, Higgs measurements and dark matter searches. We validate and present estimates of the physics reach for exclusion or discovery of supersymmetry via MET searches at the LHC, which should cover the low-mass regions of the CMSSM parameter space favoured in a recent global analysis. As we illustrate with a low-mass benchmark point, a discovery would make possible accurate LHC measurements of sparticle masses using the MT2 variable, which could be combined with cross-section and other measurements to constrain the gluino, squark and stop masses and hence the soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters m_0, m_{1/2} and A_0 of the CMSSM. Slepton measurements at CLIC would enable m_0 and m_{1/2} to be determined with high precision. If supersymmetry is indeed discovered in the low-mass region, precisi...
Explicitly Broken Supersymmetry with Exactly Massless Moduli
Dong, Xi; Zhao, Yue
2014-01-01
There is an avatar of the little hierarchy problem of the MSSM in 3-dimensional supersymmetry. We propose a solution to this problem in AdS$_3$ based on the AdS/CFT correspondence. The bulk theory is a supergravity theory in which U(1) $\\times$ U(1) R-symmetry is gauged by Chern-Simons fields. The bulk theory is deformed by a boundary term quadratic in the gauge fields. It breaks SUSY completely and sources an exactly marginal operator in the dual CFT. SUSY breaking is communicated by gauge interactions to bulk scalar fields and their spinor superpartners. Since the R-charges of scalar and spinor differ, this generates a SUSY breaking shift of their masses. The Ward identity facilitates the calculation of these mass shifts to any desired order in the strength of the deformation. Moduli fields are massless $R$-neutral bulk scalars with vanishing potential in the undeformed theory. These properties are maintained to all orders in the deformation despite the fact that moduli couple in the bulk to loops of R-char...
Supersymmetry, Duality And Holonomy
Wen, W
2005-01-01
In this thesis, I study various aspects of solutions to eleven-dimensional supergravity and its descendents. The former is at one corner of the moduli space of M-theory. While it is not clear how to formulate M-theory; it is equally interesting to see how far we can proceed from this low energy window. First of all, various techniques are applied to construct supergravity solutions preserving partial supersymmetry. A seven-dimensional membrane solution in the gauged supergravity is constructed by lifting a self-dual string in six dimensions, and its supersymmetric property is explored in certain detail. Then fractional BPS solutions from Sn × Sn reduction of six and ten-dimensional supergravities are constructed via the method of G-structures. The form of the solutions is totally determined by Laplace equations with specified boundary conditions. Secondly, the concept of duality is realized in two aspects. A certain type of *-theory, obtained from time-like T-dualization of the usual string and M-t...
Pankovic, V; Predojevic, M; Krmar, M; Pankovic, Vladan; Hubsch, Tristan; Predojevic, Milan; Krmar, Miodrag
2004-01-01
Developing an earlier proposal (Ne'eman, Damnjanovic, etc), we show herein that there is a Landau continuous phase transition from the exact quantum dynamics to the effectively classical one, occurring via spontaneous superposition breaking (effective hiding), as a special case of the corresponding general formalism (Bernstein). Critical values of the order parameters for this transition are determined by Heisenberg's indeterminacy relations, change continuously, and are in excellent agreement with the recent and remarkable experiments with Bose condensation. It is also shown that such a phase transition can sucessfully model self-collapse (self-decoherence), as an effective classical phenomenon, on the measurement device. This then induces a relative collapse (relative decoherence) as an effective quantum phenomenon on the measured quantum object by measurement. We demonstrate this (including the case of Bose-Einstein condensation) in the well-known cases of the Stern-Gerlach spin measurement, Bell's inequal...
Dynamical centrosymmetry breaking — A novel mechanism for second harmonic generation in graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carvalho, David N. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Marini, Andrea [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Biancalana, Fabio, E-mail: f.biancalana@hw.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
2017-03-15
We discover an unusual phenomenon that occurs when a graphene monolayer is illuminated by a short and intense pulse at normal incidence. Due to the pulse-induced oscillations of the Dirac cones, a dynamical breaking of the layer’s centrosymmetry takes place, leading to the generation of second harmonic waves. We prove that this result can only be found by using the full Dirac equation and show that the widely used semiconductor Bloch equations fail to reproduce this and some other important physics of graphene. Our results open new windows in the understanding of nonlinear light-matter interactions in a wide variety of new 2D materials with a gapped or ungapped Dirac-like dispersion.
Quinto, A. G.; Ferrari, A. F.; Lehum, A. C.
2016-06-01
In this work, we investigate the consequences of the Renormalization Group Equation (RGE) in the determination of the effective superpotential and the study of Dynamical Symmetry Breaking (DSB) in an N = 1 supersymmetric theory including an Abelian Chern-Simons superfield coupled to N scalar superfields in (2 + 1) dimensional spacetime. The classical Lagrangian presents scale invariance, which is broken by radiative corrections to the effective superpotential. We calculate the effective superpotential up to two-loops by using the RGE and the beta functions and anomalous dimensions known in the literature. We then show how the RGE can be used to improve this calculation, by summing up properly defined series of leading logs (LL), next-to-leading logs (NLL) contributions, and so on... We conclude that even if the RGE improvement procedure can indeed be applied in a supersymmetric model, the effects of the consideration of the RGE are not so dramatic as it happens in the non-supersymmetric case.
Dynamical centrosymmetry breaking - A novel mechanism for second harmonic generation in graphene
Carvalho, David N.; Marini, Andrea; Biancalana, Fabio
2017-03-01
We discover an unusual phenomenon that occurs when a graphene monolayer is illuminated by a short and intense pulse at normal incidence. Due to the pulse-induced oscillations of the Dirac cones, a dynamical breaking of the layer's centrosymmetry takes place, leading to the generation of second harmonic waves. We prove that this result can only be found by using the full Dirac equation and show that the widely used semiconductor Bloch equations fail to reproduce this and some other important physics of graphene. Our results open new windows in the understanding of nonlinear light-matter interactions in a wide variety of new 2D materials with a gapped or ungapped Dirac-like dispersion.
Cohen, Timothy; Elor, Gilly; Larkoski, Andrew J.
2017-03-01
Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with super-symmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective Lagrangian for N=1 SUSY Yang-Mills is cconstructed and shown to be a complete description for the infrared of this model. For contrast, we also construct the effective Lagrangian for chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model. Only a subset of the infrared divergences are reproduced by the Lagrangian — to account for the complete low energy description requires the inclusion of local operators. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance — given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence be-tween SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions as two-component Weyl spinors, and SCET in light-cone gauge. By expressing SUSY Yang-Mills in "collinear superspace", a slice of superspace derived by integrating out half the fermionic coordinates, the light-cone gauge SUSY SCET theory can be written in terms of superfields. As a byproduct, bootstrapping up to the full theory yields the first algorithmic approach for determining the SUSY Yang-Mills on-shell superspace action. This work paves the way toward discovering the effective theory for the collinear limit of N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chanjo Woo
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The present study numerically analyzed the dynamic behavior of 3D framed structures subject to impulsive slamming forces by violent breaking waves. The structures were modeled using multiple lumped masses for the vertical projections of each member, and the slamming forces from the breaking waves were concentrated on these lumped masses. A numerical algorithm was developed to properly incorporate the slamming forces into a dynamic analysis to numerically determine the structural responses. Then, the validity of the numerical analysis was verified using the results of an existing hydraulic experiment. The numerical and experimental results for various model structures were generally in good agreement. The uncertainties concerning the properties of the breaking waves used in the verification are also discussed here.
Split supersymmetry in brane models
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ignatios Antoniadis
2006-11-01
Type-I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split supersymmetry. To lowest order, gauginos are massless while squarks and sleptons are superheavy. For weak magnetic fields, the correct Standard Model spectrum guarantees gauge coupling unification with sin2 W = 3/8 at the com-pactification scale of GUT ≃ 2 × 1016 GeV. I discuss mechanisms for generating gaugino and higgsino masses at the TeV scale, as well as generalizations to models with split extended supersymmetry in the gauge sector.
A Geometric Formulation of Supersymmetry
Freedman, Daniel Z; Van Proeyen, Antoine
2016-01-01
The scalar fields of supersymmetric models are coordinates of a geometric space. We propose a formulation of supersymmetry that is covariant with respect to reparametrizations of this target space. Employing chiral multiplets as an example, we introduce modified supersymmetry variations and redefined auxiliary fields that transform covariantly under reparametrizations. The resulting action and transformation laws are manifestly covariant and highlight the geometric structure of the supersymmetric theory. The covariant methods are developed first for general theories (not necessarily supersymmetric) whose scalar fields are coordinates of a Riemannian target space.
Split Supersymmetry in String Theory
Antoniadis, Ignatios
2006-01-01
Type I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split supersymmetry. To lowest order, gauginos are massless while squarks and sleptons are superheavy. For weak magnetic fields, the correct Standard Model spectrum guarantees gauge coupling unification with \\sin^2{\\theta_W}=3/8 at the compactification scale of M_{\\rm GUT}\\simeq 2 \\times 10^{16} GeV. I discuss mechanisms for generating gaugino and higgsino masses at the TeV scale, as well as generalizations to models with split extended supersymmetry in the gauge sector.
The early universe with high-scale supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, Sibo [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China)
2015-08-15
A small tensor-to-scalar ratio r may lead to distinctive phenomenology of high-scale supersymmetry. Assuming the same origin of SUSY breaking between the inflation and visible sector, we show model independent features. The simplest hybrid inflation, together with a new linear term for the inflaton field which is induced by a large gravitino mass, is shown to be consistent with all experimental data for r of order 10{sup -5}. For superpartner masses far above the weak scale we find that the reheating temperature after inflation might be below the value required by thermal leptogenesis if the inflaton decays to its products perturbatively, but above it if the decay is non-perturbatively instead. Remarkably, the gravitino overproduction can be evaded in such high-scale supersymmetry because of the kinematically blocking effect. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
We show using numerical simulations that vortices in honeycomb pinning arrays can exhibit a remarkable variety of dynamical phases that are distinct from those found for triangular and square pinning arrays. In the honeycomb arrays, it is possible for the interstitial vortices to form dimer or higher n-mer states which have an additional orientational degree of freedom that can lead to the formation of vortex molecular crystals. For filling fractions where dimer states appear, a dynamical symmetry breaking can occur when the dimers flow in one of two possible alignment directions. This leads to transport in the direction transverse to the applied drive. We show that dimerization produces distinct types of moving phases which depend on the direction of the driving force with respect to the pinning lattice symmetry. When the dimers are driven along certain directions, a reorientation of the dimers can produce a jamming phenomenon which results in a strong enhancement in the critical depinning force. The jamming can also cause unusual effects such as an increase in the critical depinning force when the size of the pinning sites is reduced.
A kinematic description of dynamic midfoot break in children using a multi-segment foot model.
Maurer, Jessica D; Ward, Valerie; Mayson, Tanja A; Davies, Karen R; Alvarez, Christine M; Beauchamp, Richard D; Black, Alec H
2013-06-01
Midfoot break (MFB) is a foot deformity that occurs most commonly in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but may also affect children with other developmental disorders. Dynamic MFB develops because the muscles that cross the ankle joint are hypertonic, resulting in a breakdown and dysfunction of the bones within the foot. In turn, this creates excessive motion at the midfoot. With the resulting inefficient lever arm, the foot is then unable to push off the ground effectively, resulting in an inadequate and painful gait pattern. Currently, there is no standard quantitative method for detecting early stages of MFB, which would allow early intervention before further breakdown occurs. The first step in developing an objective tool for early MFB diagnosis is to examine the difference in dynamic function between a foot with MFB and a typical foot. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to compare the differences in foot motion between children with MFB and children with typical feet (Controls) using a multi-segment kinematic foot model. We found that children with MFB had a significant decrease in peak ankle dorsiflexion compared to Controls (1.3 ± 6.4° versus 8.6 ± 3.4°) and a significant increase in peak midfoot dorsiflexion compared to Controls (15.2 ± 4.9° versus 6.4 ± 1.9°). This study may help clinicians track the progression of MFB and help standardize treatment recommendations for children with this type of foot deformity.
Supersymmetry Without Prejudice
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
We begin an exploration of the physics associated with the general CP-conserving MSSM with Minimal Flavor Violation, the pMSSM. The 19 soft SUSY breaking parameters in this scenario are chosen so as to satisfy all existing experimental and theoretical constraints assuming that the WIMP is a conventional thermal relic, ie, the lightest neutralino. We scan this parameter space twice using both flat and log priors for the soft SUSY breaking mass parameters and compare the results which yield similar conclusions. Detailed constraints from both LEP and the Tevatron searches play a particularly important role in obtaining our final model samples. We find that the pMSSM leads to a much broader set of predictions for the properties of the SUSY partners as well as for a number of experimental observables than those found in any of the conventional SUSY breaking scenarios such as mSUGRA. This set of models can easily lead to atypical expectations for SUSY signals at the LHC.
Supersymmetry Without Prejudice
Berger, C F; Hewett, J L; Rizzo, T G
2009-01-01
We begin an exploration of the physics associated with the general CP-conserving MSSM with Minimal Flavor Violation, the pMSSM. The 19 soft SUSY breaking parameters in this scenario are chosen so as to satisfy all existing experimental and theoretical constraints assuming that the WIMP is a thermal relic, ie, the lightest neutralino. We scan this parameter space twice using both flat and log priors for the soft SUSY breaking mass parameters and compare the results which yield similar conclusions. Detailed constraints from both LEP and the Tevatron searches play a particularly important role in obtaining our final model samples. We find that the pMSSM leads to a much broader set of predictions for the properties of the SUSY partners as well as for a number of experimental observables than those found in any of the conventional SUSY breaking scenarios such as mSUGRA. This set of models can easily lead to atypical expectations for SUSY signals at the LHC.
Supersymmetry, Naturalness, and Signatures at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kitano, Ryuichiro; Nomura, Yasunori
2006-02-21
Weak scale supersymmetry is often said to be fine-tuned, especially if the matter content is minimal. This is not true if there is a large {Alpha} term for the top squarks. We present a systematic study on fine-tuning in minimal supersymmetric theories and identify low energy spectra that do not lead to severe .ne-tuning. Characteristic features of these spectra are: a large {Alpha} term for the top squarks, small top squark masses, moderately large tan {beta}, and a small {mu} parameter. There are classes of theories leading to these features, which are discussed. In one class, which allows a complete elimination of fine-tuning, the Higgsinos are the lightest among all the superpartners of the standard model particles, leading to three nearly degenerate neutralino/chargino states. This gives interesting signals at the LHC--the dilepton invariant mass distribution has a very small endpoint and shows a particular shape determined by the Higgsino nature of the two lightest neutralinos. We demonstrate that these signals are indeed useful in realistic analyses by performing Monte Carlo simulations, including detector simulations and background estimations. We also present a method that allows the determination of all the relevant superparticle masses without using input from particular models, despite the limited kinematical information due to short cascades. This allows us to test various possible models, which is demonstrated in the case of a model with mixed moduli-anomaly mediation. We also give a simple derivation of special renormalization group properties associated with moduli mediated supersymmetry breaking, which are relevant in a model without fine-tuning.
Supersymmetry, Naturalness, and Signatures at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kitano, Ryuichiro; Nomura, Yasunori
2006-02-10
Weak scale supersymmetry is often said to be fine-tuned, especially if the matter content is minimal. This is not true if there is a large A term for the top squarks. We present a systematic study on fine-tuning in minimal supersymmetric theories and identify low energy spectra that do not lead to severe fine-tuning. Characteristic features of these spectra are: a large A term for the top squarks, small top squark masses, moderately large tan {beta}, and a small {mu} parameter. There are classes of theories leading to these features, which are discussed. In one class, which allows a complete elimination of fine-tuning, the Higgsinos are the lightest among all the superpartners of the standard model particles, leading to three nearly degenerate neutralino/chargino states. This gives interesting signals at the LHC--the dilepton invariant mass distribution has a very small endpoint and shows a particular shape determined by the Higgsino nature of the two lightest neutralinos. We demonstrate that these signals are indeed useful in realistic analyses by performing Monte Carlo simulations, including detector simulations and background estimations. We also present a method that allows the determination of all the relevant superparticle masses without using input from particular models, despite the limited kinematical information due to short cascades. This allows us to test various possible models, which is demonstrated in the case of a model with mixed moduli-anomaly mediation. We also give a simple derivation of special renormalization group properties associated with moduli mediated supersymmetry breaking, which are relevant in a model without fine-tuning.
Symmetry Breaking in Space-Time Hierarchies Shapes Brain Dynamics and Behavior.
Pillai, Ajay S; Jirsa, Viktor K
2017-06-07
In order to maintain brain function, neural activity needs to be tightly coordinated within the brain network. How this coordination is achieved and related to behavior is largely unknown. It has been previously argued that the study of the link between brain and behavior is impossible without a guiding vision. Here we propose behavioral-level concepts and mechanisms embodied as structured flows on manifold (SFM) that provide a formal description of behavior as a low-dimensional process emerging from a network's dynamics dependent on the symmetry and invariance properties of the network connectivity. Specifically, we demonstrate that the symmetry breaking of network connectivity constitutes a timescale hierarchy resulting in the emergence of an attractive functional subspace. We show that behavior emerges when appropriate conditions imposed upon the couplings are satisfied, justifying the conductance-based nature of synaptic couplings. Our concepts propose design principles for networks predicting how behavior and task rules are represented in real neural circuits and open new avenues for the analyses of neural data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Breaking the buildup-time limit of sensitivity in avalanche photodiodes by dynamic biasing.
Hayat, Majeed M; Zarkesh-Ha, Payman; El-Howayek, Georges; Efroymson, Robert; Campbell, Joe C
2015-09-07
Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are the preferred photodetectors for direct-detection, high data-rate long-haul optical telecommunications. APDs can detect low-level optical signals due to their internal amplification of the photon-generated electrical current, which is attributable to the avalanche of electron and hole impact ionizations. Despite recent advances in APDs aimed at reducing the average avalanche-buildup time, which causes intersymbol interference and compromises receiver sensitivity at high data rates, operable speeds of commercially available APDs have been limited to 10Gbps. We report the first demonstration of a dynamically biased APD that breaks the traditional sensitivity-versus-speed limit by employing a data-synchronous sinusoidal reverse-bias that drastically suppresses the average avalanche-buildup time. Compared with traditional DC biasing, the sensitivity of germanium APDs at 3Gbps is improved by 4.3 dB, which is equivalent to a 3,500-fold reduction in the bit-error rate. The method is APD-type agnostic and it promises to enable operation at rates of 25Gbps and beyond.
On the stability of multi-scale models of dynamical symmetry breaking from holography
Faedo, Anton F; Schofield, Daniel
2013-01-01
We consider two classes of backgrounds of Type IIB supergravity obtained by wrapping D5-branes on a two-cycle inside the conifold. The field theory dual exhibits confinement and, in addition, a region in which the dynamics is walking, at least in the weak sense that the running of the coupling is anomalously slow. We introduce quenched matter in the fundamental, modelled by probe D7-branes which wrap an internal three-dimensional manifold and lie at the equator of the transverse two-sphere. In the space spanned by the remaining internal angle and the radial coordinate the branes admit two embeddings. The first one is U-shaped: the branes merge at some finite value of the radius. The second one is disconnected and extends along the entire radial direction at fixed angular separation. We interpret these two configurations as corresponding to chiral-symmetry breaking and preserving phases, respectively. We present a simple diagnostic tool to examine the classical stability of the embedding, based on the concavit...
Dynamical virial masses of Lyman-break galaxy haloes at z=3
Weatherley, S J; Weatherley, Stephen J.; Warren, Stephen J.
2005-01-01
We improve on our earlier dynamical estimate of the virial masses of the haloes of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at redshift z=3 by accounting for the effects of seeing, slit width, and observational uncertainties. From an analysis of the small number of available rotation curves for LBGs we determine a relation Vc7=(1.9+/-0.2)sigma between circular velocity at a radius of 7kpc, and central line velocity width. We use this relation to transform the measured velocity widths of 32 LBGs to the distribution of circular velocities, for the population of LBGs brighter than R=25.5. We compare this distribution against the predicted distribution for the 'massive-halo' model in which LBGs pinpoint all of the highest mass dark matter haloes at that epoch. The observed LBG circular velocities are smaller than the predicted circular velocities by a factor >1.4+/-0.15. This is a lower limit as we have ignored any increase of circular velocity caused by baryonic dissipation. The massive-halo model predicts a median halo viri...
Current-current interactions, dynamical symmetry-breaking, and quantum chromodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neuenschwander, D.E. Jr.
1983-01-01
Quantum Chromodynamics with massive gluons (gluon mass triple bond xm/sub p/) in a contact-interaction limit called CQCD (strong coupling g..-->..infinity; x..-->..infinity), despite its non-renormalizability and lack of hope of confinement, is nevertheless interesting for at least two reasons. Some authors have suggested a relation between 4-Fermi and Yang-Mills theories. If g/x/sup 2/ much less than 1, then CQCD is not merely a 4-Fermi interaction, but includes 4,6,8 etc-Fermi non-Abelian contact interactions. With possibility of infrared slavery, perturbative evaluation of QCD in the infrared is a dubious practice. However, if g/sup 2//x/sup 2/ much less than 1 in CQCD, then the simplest 4-Fermi interaction is dominant, and CQCD admits perturbative treatment, but only in the infrared. With the dominant interaction, a dynamical Nambu-Goldstone realization of chiral symmetry-breaking (XSB) is found. Although in QCD the relation between confinement and XSB is controversial, XSB occurs in CQCD provided confinement is sacrificed.
Ruderman, A; Santos, E; Pastawski, H M
2015-01-01
In this work we show that the molecular chemical bond formation and dissociation in presence of the d-band of a metal catalyst can be described as a Quantum Dynamical Phase Transition (QDPT). This agree with DFT calculations that predict sudden jumps in some observables as the molecule breaks. According to our model this phenomenon emerges because the catalyst provides for a non- Hermitian Hamiltonian. We show that when the molecule approaches the surface, as occurs in the Heyrovsky reaction of H 2, the bonding H 2 orbital has a smooth crossover into a bonding molecular orbital built with the closest H orbital and the surface metal d-states. The same occurs for the antibonding state. Meanwhile, two resonances appear within the continuous spectrum of the d- band which are associated with bonding and antibonding orbitals between the furthest H atom and the d-states at the second metallic layer. These move towards the band center where they collapse into a pure metallic resonance and an almost isolated H orbital...
Ruderman, A.; Dente, A. D.; Santos, E.; Pastawski, H. M.
2015-08-01
In this work we show that molecular chemical bond formation and dissociation in the presence of the d-band of a metal catalyst can be described as a quantum dynamical phase transition (QDPT). This agrees with DFT calculations that predict sudden jumps in some observables as the molecule breaks. According to our model this phenomenon emerges because the catalyst provides for a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. We show that when the molecule approaches the surface, as occurs in the Heyrovsky reaction of H2, the bonding H2 orbital has a smooth crossover into a bonding molecular orbital built with the closest H orbital and the surface metal d-states. The same occurs for the antibonding state. Meanwhile, two resonances appear within the continuous spectrum of the d-band, which are associated with bonding and antibonding orbitals between the furthest H atom and the d-states at the second metallic layer. These move toward the band center, where they collapse into a pure metallic resonance and an almost isolated H orbital. This phenomenon constitutes a striking example of the non-trivial physics enabled when one deals with non-Hermitian Hamiltonian beyond the usual wide band approximation.
Symmetry breaking in the opinion dynamics of a multi-group project organization
Zhu, Zhen-Tao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Ping; Chen, Xing-Guang
2012-10-01
A bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics in multi-group projects is presented in which each group's opinion evolution is driven by two types of forces: (i) the group's cohesive force which tends to restore the opinion back towards the initial status because of its company culture; and (ii) nonlinear coupling forces with other groups which attempt to bring opinions closer due to collaboration willingness. Bifurcation analysis for the case of a two-group project shows a cusp catastrophe phenomenon and three distinctive evolutionary regimes, i.e., a deadlock regime, a convergence regime, and a bifurcation regime in opinion dynamics. The critical value of initial discord between the two groups is derived to discriminate which regime the opinion evolution belongs to. In the case of a three-group project with a symmetric social network, both bifurcation analysis and simulation results demonstrate that if each pair has a high initial discord, instead of symmetrically converging to consensus with the increase of coupling scale as expected by Gabbay's result (Physica A 378 (2007) p. 125 Fig. 5), project organization (PO) may be split into two distinct clusters because of the symmetry breaking phenomenon caused by pitchfork bifurcations, which urges that apart from divergence in participants' interests, nonlinear interaction can also make conflict inevitable in the PO. The effects of two asymmetric level parameters are tested in order to explore the ways of inducing dominant opinion in the whole PO. It is found that the strong influence imposed by a leader group with firm faith on the flexible and open minded follower groups can promote the formation of a positive dominant opinion in the PO.
Symmetry breaking in the opinion dynamics of a multi-group project organization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhu Zhen-Tao; Zhou Jing; Li Ping; Chen Xing-Guang
2012-01-01
A bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics in multi-group projects is presented in which each group's opinion evolution is driven by two types of forces:(i) the group's cohesive force which tends to restore the opinion back towards the initial status because of its company culture; and (ii) nonlinear coupling forces with other groups which attempt to bring opinions closer due to collaboration willingness.Bifurcation analysis for the case of a two-group project shows a cusp catastrophe phenomenon and three distinctive evolutionary regimes,i.e.,a deadlock regime,a convergence regime,and a bifurcation regime in opinion dynamics.The critical value of initial discord between the two groups is derived to discriminate which regime the opinion evolution belongs to.In the case of a three-group project with a symmetric social network,both bifurcation analysis and simulation results demonstrate that if each pair has a high initial discord,instead of symmetrically converging to consensus with the increase of coupling scale as expected by Gabbay's result (Physica A 378 (2007) p.125 Fig.5),project organization (PO) may be split into two distinct clusters because of the symmetry breaking phenomenon caused by pitchfork bifurcations,which urges that apart from divergence in participants' interests,nonlinear interaction can also make conflict inevitable in the PO.The effects of two asymmetric level parameters are tested in order to explore the ways of inducing dominant opinion in the whole PO.It is found that the strong influence imposed by a leader group with firm faith on the flexible and open minded follower groups can promote the formation of a positive dominant opinion in the PO.
Dynamical virial masses of Lyman-break galaxy haloes at z= 3
Weatherley, Stephen J.; Warren, Stephen J.
2005-10-01
We improve on our earlier dynamical estimate of the virial masses of the haloes of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at redshift z= 3 by accounting for the effects of seeing, slit width and observational uncertainties. From an analysis of the small number of available rotation curves for LBGs we determine a relation Vc7= (1.9 +/- 0.2)σ between circular velocity at a radius of 7 kpc, Vc7, and central line velocity width, σ. We use this relation to transform the measured velocity widths of 32 LBGs to the distribution of circular velocities, Vc7, for the population of LBGs brighter than . We compare this distribution against the predicted distribution for the `massive-halo' model in which LBGs pinpoint all of the highest mass dark matter haloes at that epoch. The observed LBG circular velocities are smaller than the predicted circular velocities by a factor of >1.4 +/- 0.15. This is a lower limit, as we have ignored any increase of circular velocity caused by baryonic dissipation. The massive-halo model predicts a median halo virial mass of 1012.3Msolar, and a small spread of circular velocities, Vc7. Our median estimated dynamical mass is <1011.6+/-0.3Msolar, which is significantly smaller; furthermore, the spread of our derived circular velocities is much larger than the massive-halo prediction. These results are consistent with a picture which leaves some of the most massive haloes available for occupation by other populations which do not meet the LBG selection criteria. Our new dynamical mass limit is a factor of 3 larger than our earlier estimate which neglected the effects of seeing and slit width. The median halo mass recently estimated by Adelberger et al. from the measured clustering of LBGs is 1011.86+/-0.3Msolar. Our dynamical analysis appears to favour lower masses and to be more in line with the median mass predicted by the collisional starburst model of Somerville et al., which is 1011.3Msolar.
Effect of Single-Strand Break on Branch Migration and Folding Dynamics of Holliday Junctions
Palets, Dmytro; Lushnikov, Alexander Y.; Karymov, Mikhail A.; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.
2010-01-01
The Holliday junction (HJ), or four-way junction, is a central intermediate state of DNA for homologous genetic recombination and other genetic processes such as replication and repair. Branch migration is the process by which the exchange of homologous DNA regions occurs, and it can be spontaneous or driven by proteins. Unfolding of the HJ is required for branch migration. Our previous single-molecule fluorescence studies led to a model according to which branch migration is a stepwise process consisting of consecutive migration and folding steps. Folding of the HJ in one of the folded conformations terminates the branch migration phase. At the same time, in the unfolded state HJ rapidly migrates over entire homology region of the HJ in one hop. This process can be affected by irregularities in the DNA double helical structure, so mismatches almost terminate a spontaneous branch migration. Single-stranded breaks or nicks are the most ubiquitous defects in the DNA helix; however, to date, their effect on the HJ branch migration has not been studied. In addition, although nicked HJs are specific substrates for a number of enzymes involved in DNA recombination and repair, the role of this substrate specificity remains unclear. Our main goal in this work was to study the effect of nicks on the efficiency of HJ branch migration and the dynamics of the HJ. To accomplish this goal, we applied two single-molecule methods: atomic force microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The atomic force microscopy data show that the nick does not prevent branch migration, but it does decrease the probability that the HJ will pass the DNA lesion. The single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer approaches were instrumental in detailing the effects of nicks. These studies reveal a dramatic change of the HJ dynamics. The nick changes the structure and conformational dynamics of the junctions, leading to conformations with geometries that are different from those
Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis: SPA Convention andProject
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Ali, A.; Allanach, B.C.; Arnowitt, R.; Baer, H.A.; Bagger, J.A.; Balazs, C.; Barger, V.; Barnett, M.; Bartl, A.; Battaglia, M.; Bechtle, P.; Belanger, G.; Belyaev, A.; Berger, E.L.; Blair, G.; Boos, E.; Carena, M.; Choi, S.Y.; Deppisch, F.; De Roeck, A.; /Lisbon, IST /DESY /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Texas A-M /Florida State
2005-12-02
High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim at reconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breaking mechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed when higher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme, Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set of conventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs is provided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate the Lagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths and production cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition, programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, the density of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the cross sections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme still requires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental side before data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the desired precision. We take here an initial step of testing the SPA scheme by applying the techniques involved to a specific supersymmetry reference point.
Soflty broken supersymmetry and the fine-tuning problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foda, O.E.
1984-02-20
The supersymmetry of the simple Wess-Zumino model is broken, in the tree-approximation, by adding all possible parity-even(mass)-dimension 2 and 3 terms. The model is then renormalized using BPHZ and the normal product algorithm, such that supersymmetry is only softly broken (in the original sense of Schroer and Symanzik). We show that, within the above renormalization scheme, none of the added breaking terms give rise to technical fine-tuning problems (defined in the sense of Gildener) in larger models, with scalar multiplets and hierarchy of mass scales, which is in contrast to what we obtain via analytic schemes such as dimensional renormalization, or supersymmetry extension of which. The discrepancy (which can be shown to persist in more general models) originates in the inherent local ambiguity in the finite parts of subtracted Feynman integrals. Emphasizing that the issue is purely technical (as opposed to physical) in origin, and that all physical properties are scheme-independent (as they should be), we conclude that the technical fine-tuning problem, in the specific sense used in this paper, being scheme dependent, is not a well-defined issue within the context of renormalized perturbation theory. 30 references.
Simulations of a supersymmetry inspired model on a fuzzy sphere
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volkholz, J. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Bietenholz, W. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2007-11-15
We present a numerical study of a two dimensional model of the Wess-Zumino type. We formulate this model on a sphere, where the fields are expanded in spherical harmonics. The sphere becomes fuzzy by a truncation in the angular momenta. This leads to a finite set of degrees of freedom without explicitly breaking the space symmetries. The corresponding field theory is expressed in terms of a matrix model, which can be simulated. We present first numerical results for the phase structure of a variant of this model on a fuzzy sphere. The prospect to restore exact supersymmetry in certain limits is under investigation. (orig.)
Dynamics of Peccei-Quinn breaking field after inflation and axion isocurvature perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harigaya, Keisuke; Ibe, Masahiro; Kawasaki, Masahiro [ICRR, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)
2015-11-04
The Peccei-Quinn mechanism suffers from the problem of the isocurvature perturbations. The isocurvature perturbations are suppressed if the Peccei-Quinn breaking scale is large during inflation. The oscillation of the Peccei-Quinn breaking field after inflation, however, leads to the formation of domain walls due to the parametric resonance effect. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of the Peccei-Quinn breaking field after inflation in detail, and propose a model where the parametric resonance is ineffective and hence domain walls are not formed. We also discuss consistency of our model with supersymmetric theory.
Search for supersymmetry with diphotons in pp collisions at 13 TeV at CMS
Xie, Si
2016-01-01
We present results on searches for supersymmetry with photons in the final state using pp collision at a center of mass energy of 13 TeV collisions with the CMS experiment. Results for searches for excesses at high missing transverse energy in the diphoton and single photon final states are shown, as well as a search for anomalous Higgs boson production in the diphoton decay channel. We interpret the results in terms of limits on the production cross section for simplified models of gluino-pair and sbottom-pair production as well as chargino-neutralinoproduction in the gauge mediation supersymmetry breaking scenario.
N=2 Super-Born-Infeld from Partially Broken N=3 Supersymmetry in d=4
De Castro, A; Restuccia, A
2004-01-01
We employ the non-linear realization techniques to relate the N=1 chiral, and the N=2 vector multiplets to the Goldstone spin 1/2 superfield arising from partial supersymmetry breaking of N=2 and N=3 respectively. In both cases, we obtain a family of non-linear transformation laws realizing an extra supersymmetry, giving rise to a set of invariant Lagrangians. In the N=2 case, we find an invariant action which is the low energy limit of the supersymmetric Born-Infeld theory expected to describe a D3-brane in six dimensions.
Akram, F; Gutierrez-Guerrero, L X; Masud, B; Rodriguez-Quintero, J; Calcaneo-Roldan, C; Tejeda-Yeomans, M E
2012-01-01
We study chiral symmetry breaking for fundamental charged fermions coupled electromagnetically to photons with the inclusion of four-fermion contact self-interaction term. We employ multiplicatively renormalizable models for the photon dressing function and the electron-photon vertex which minimally ensures mass anomalous dimension = 1. Vacuum polarization screens the interaction strength. Consequently, the pattern of dynamical mass generation for fermions is characterized by a critical number of massless fermion flavors above which chiral symmetry is restored. This effect is in diametrical opposition to the existence of criticality for the minimum interaction strength necessary to break chiral symmetry dynamically. The presence of virtual fermions dictates the nature of phase transition. Miransky scaling laws for the electromagnetic interaction strength and the four-fermion coupling, observed for quenched QED, are replaced by a mean-field power law behavior corresponding to a second order phase transition. T...
Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics
Peskin, Michael E.
2008-01-01
These lectures, presented at the 2006 TASI summer school, give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions...
Flavors of Supersymmetry Beyond Vanilla
Evans, Jared A
2015-01-01
This review surveys the territory of supersymmetry beyond the vanilla MSSM. With a viewpoint guided by electroweak naturalness, the review focuses on constructions that weaken or bypass current LHC constraints. Models of SUSY containing Dirac gluinos, compressed spectra, flavor-violating squarks, R-parity violation, stealth sectors, exotic detector objects, and more are discussed. In addition to presenting ways of hiding SUSY, these models highlight a few opportunities to improve LHC coverage.
Supersymmetry in mathematics and physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrara, Sergio [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland). Div. Theorie; Fioresi, Rita [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Mathematics; Varadarajan, V.S. (eds.) [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics
2011-07-01
Supersymmetry was created by the physicists in the 1970's to give a unified treatment of fermions and bosons, the basic constituents of matter. Since then its mathematical structure has been recognized as that of a new development in geometry, and mathematicians have busied themselves with exploring this aspect. This volume collects recent advances in this field, both from a physical and a mathematical point of view, with an accent on a rigorous treatment of the various questions raised. (orig.)
Semi-Hopf Algebra and Supersymmetry
Gunara, Bobby Eka
1999-01-01
We define a semi-Hopf algebra which is more general than a Hopf algebra. Then we construct the supersymmetry algebra via the adjoint action on this semi-Hopf algebra. As a result we have a supersymmetry theory with quantum gauge group, i.e., quantised enveloping algebra of a simple Lie algebra. For the example, we construct the Lagrangian N=1 and N=2 supersymmetry.
Dynamical properties of breaking waves: dissipation, air entrainment and spray generation
Deike, Luc; Melville, W. Kendall; Popinet, Stephane
2016-11-01
Wave breaking in the ocean is of fundamental importance in order to quantify wave dissipation and air-sea interaction, including gas and momentum exchange, and to improve parametrization for ocean-atmosphere exchange in weather and climate models. Here, we present 2D and 3D direct numerical simulations of breaking waves, compared with laboratory measurements. The dissipation due to breaking in the 2D and 3D simulations is found to be in good agreement with experimental observations and inertial-scaling arguments. We discuss the transition from a 2D to a 3D flow during breaking. We present a model for air entrainment and bubble statistics that describes well the experimental and numerical data, and is based on turbulent fragmentation of the bubbles and a balance between buoyancy forces and viscous dissipation. Finally we discuss the generation of large drops during the impact and splashing process.
arXiv Framework for an asymptotically safe Standard Model via dynamical breaking
Abel, Steven
2017-09-15
We present a consistent embedding of the matter and gauge content of the Standard Model into an underlying asymptotically safe theory that has a well-determined interacting UV fixed point in the large color/flavor limit. The scales of symmetry breaking are determined by two mass-squared parameters with the breaking of electroweak symmetry being driven radiatively. There are no other free parameters in the theory apart from gauge couplings.
Supersymmetry in Open Superstring Field Theory
Erler, Theodore
2016-01-01
We realize the 16 unbroken supersymmetries on a BPS D-brane as invariances of the action of the corresponding open superstring field theory. We work in the small Hilbert space approach, where a symmetry of the action translates into a symmetry of the associated cyclic $A_\\infty$ structure. We compute the supersymmetry algebra, being careful to disentangle the components which produce a translation, a gauge transformation, and a symmetry transformation which vanishes on-shell. Via the minimal model theorem, we illustrate how supersymmetry of the action implies supersymmetry of the tree level open string scattering amplitudes.
Supersymmetry of RS bulk and brane
Bergshoeff, E A; Van Proeyen, A; Bergshoeff, Eric; Kallosh, Renata; Proeyen, Antoine Van
2001-01-01
We review the construction of actions with supersymmetry on spaces with a domain wall. The latter objects act as sources inducing a jump in the gauge coupling constant. Despite these singularities, supersymmetry can be formulated, maintaining its role as a square root of translations in this singular space. The setup is designed for the application in five dimensions related to the Randall-Sundrum (RS) scenario. The space has two domain walls. We discuss the solutions of the theory with fixed scalars and full preserved supersymmetry, in which case one of the branes can be pushed to infinity, and solutions where half of the supersymmetries are preserved.
Black Holes versus Supersymmetry at the LHC
Roy, Arunava; Cavaglia, Marco
2007-11-01
Supersymmetry and extra dimensions are the two most promising candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. Supersymmetric particles or extra-dimensional effects could soon be observed at the Large Hadron Collider. In this paper we assess the distinguishability of supersymmetry and black hole events at the LHC. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET, the latter providing the mass spectrum. Our analysis shows that supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider can be easily discriminated.
Generalized Supersymmetries and Composite Structure in M-Theory
Lukierski, J
2002-01-01
We describe generalized D=11 Poincar\\'{e} and conformal supersymmetries. The corresponding generalization of twistor and supertwistor framework is outlined with $OSp(1|64)$ superspinors describing BPS preons. The $\\frac{k}{32}$ BPS states as composed out of $n=32 - k$ preons are introduced, and basic ideas concerning BPS preon dynamics is presented. The lecture is based on results obtained by J.A. de Azcarraga, I. Bandos, J.M. Izquierdo and the author$^1$.
Generalized Supersymmetries and Composite Structure in M-Theory
Iajkierski, Jerzy
2002-11-01
We describe generalized D = 11 Poincaré and conformal supersymmetries. The corresponding generalization of twistor and supertwistor framework is outlined with OSp(l|64) superspinors describing BPS preons. The (k)/(32) BPS states as composed out of n = 32 - k preons are introduced, and basic ideas concerning BPS preon dynamics is presented. The lecture is based on results obtained by J.A. de Azcarraga, I. Bandos, J.M. Izquierdo and the author.
Searching for Supersymmetry with the ATLAS detector
White, Martin J
2006-01-01
This thesis presents a new method by which one may use data from the ATLAS detector of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to measure the parameters of the theory of supersymmetry (SUSY). The technique uses a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm to combine measurements of exclusive variables, in the form of kinematic endpoints that arise in the invariant mass distributions of leptons and jets given out in sparticle decay chains, with inclusive data, in the form of the cross-section of events passing a missing transverse energy cut. This improves the precision of sparticle mass measurements (beyond that obtained using exclusive data alone), whilst also enabling experimental uncertainties to be handled in an intuitive fashion. The method is demonstrated on an mSUGRA benchmark model, and is also used to constrain a model with a greater number of parameters. Throughout, an attempt is made to break some of the unrealistic assumptions that characterise current SUSY search techniques, and to this end it is succ...
Supersymmetry Without Prejudice at the LHC
Conley, John A; Hewett, JoAnne L; Le, My Phuong; Rizzo, Thomas G
2010-01-01
The discovery and exploration of Supersymmetry in a model-independent fashion will be a daunting task due to the large number of soft-breaking parameters, $\\sim 100$, in the MSSM. In this paper, we explore the capability of the ATLAS detector at the LHC ($\\sqrt s=14$ TeV, 1 fb$^{-1}$) to find SUSY within the 19-dimensional pMSSM subspace of the MSSM using their standard MET and long-lived particle searches that were essentially designed for mSUGRA. To this end, we employ a set of $\\sim 71$k previously generated model points in the 19-dimensional parameter space that satisfy all of the existing experimental and theoretical constraints. Employing ATLAS-generated SM backgrounds and following their approach in each of 11 MET analyses as closely as possible, we explore all of these $\\sim 71$k model points for a possible SUSY signal. To test our analysis procedure, we first verify that we faithfully reproduce the published ATLAS results for the signal distributions for their benchmark mSUGRA model points. We then s...
A light neutralino in hybrid models of supersymmetry breaking
Dudas, Emilian; Parmentier, Jeanne; 10.1016
2008-01-01
We show that in gauge mediation models where heavy messenger masses are provided by the adjoint Higgs field of an underlying SU(5) theory, a generalized gauge mediation spectrum arises with the characteristic feature of having a neutralino much lighter than in the standard gauge or gravity mediation schemes. This naturally fits in a hybrid scenario where gravity mediation, while subdominant with respect to gauge mediation, provides mu and B mu parameters in the TeV range.
Metastable Supersymmetry Breaking Vacua on Abelian Brane Models
Halyo, Edi
2009-01-01
We construct Abelian brane models with metastable vacua which are obtained from deformations of ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric brane configurations. One such model lives on a D4 brane stretched between two displaced and rotated NS5 branes. Another one lives on a D5 brane wrapped on a deformed and fibered $A_2$ singularity.
Topics in supersymmetry breaking and gauge/gravity dualities
Peters, Vanessa Lynn
This design-based study was the first empirical investigation of a new model of learning and instruction called Knowledge Community and Inquiry (KCI). In KCI, students are engaged as a learning community as they work on scaffolded inquiry activities that target specific science learning objectives. Although community-oriented approaches have been successful at the elementary level, there has been relatively little uptake of such methods at the secondary school level -- particularly in science. The pedagogical framework of KCI addresses the challenges of community models by blending established inquiry based approaches with community-oriented pedagogy. This dissertation tested the validity of KCI by designing, implementing, and empirically evaluating a curriculum based on the KCI model. This was achieved through curriculum trials involving two separate cohorts of grade-ten biology students (n = 102; n = 112). The first implementation consisted of a two-week physiology lesson that engaged students in co-authoring wiki artifacts about human system diseases, which students then used as a resource for solving medical case studies. The second implementation, an eight-week lesson on Canada's biodiversity, was a deeper application of the model, and focused on students' collaborative processes during the construction of their wiki-based knowledge repository. In both cases, the curriculum was evaluated according to its design, enactment, and learning outputs, as evidenced by students' knowledge artifacts and performance on the final exam. Technology scaffolds ensured that students focused on the physiology and biodiversity science curriculum expectations. Analyses of the data revealed that KCI engaged students in collaborative learning processes that were characteristic of a knowledge community. Additionally, final exam scores demonstrated increased learning performance when compared to those from previous years where students did not participate in KCI. The findings from this research provide the first empirical support for KCI, and demonstrate its potential for engaging secondary science students in the kinds of collaborative inquiry processes of authentic knowledge communities. This dissertation provides insight into the conditions necessary for such engagement, and contributes design recommendations for blending knowledge community and inquiry in secondary school science curriculum.
Supersymmetry With Prejudice: Fitting the Wrong Model to LHC Data
Allanach, B C
2011-01-01
We critically examine interpretations of hypothetical supersymmetric LHC signals, fitting to alternative wrong models of supersymmetry breaking. The signals we consider are some of the most constraining on the sparticle spectrum: invariant mass distributions with edges and end-points from the golden cascade decay chain \\tilde{q}_L -> q \\chi_2^0 (-> \\tilde{l}^{\\pm} l^{\\mp} q) -> \\chi_1^0 l^+ l^- q. We assume a CMSSM point to be the `correct' one, and fit the signals instead to minimal gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking models (mGMSB) with a neutralino quasi-stable lightest supersymmetric particle, minimal anomaly mediation (mAMSB) and large volume string compactification models (LVS). mAMSB and LVS can be unambiguously discriminated against the CMSSM for the parameter point assumed and 1 inverse femtobarn of LHC data at 14 TeV. However, mGMSB would not be discriminated on the basis of the kinematic end-points alone, and would require further, more detailed investigation. The best-fit points of mGMSB and CMS...
Supersymmetry with prejudice: Fitting the wrong model to LHC data
Allanach, B. C.; Dolan, Matthew J.
2012-09-01
We critically examine interpretations of hypothetical supersymmetric LHC signals, fitting to alternative wrong models of supersymmetry breaking. The signals we consider are some of the most constraining on the sparticle spectrum: invariant mass distributions with edges and endpoints from the golden decay chain q˜→qχ20(→l˜±l∓q)→χ10l+l-q. We assume a constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM) point to be the ‘correct’ one, but fit the signals instead with minimal gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking models (mGMSB) with a neutralino quasistable lightest supersymmetric particle, minimal anomaly mediation and large volume string compactification models. Minimal anomaly mediation and large volume scenario can be unambiguously discriminated against the CMSSM for the assumed signal and 1fb-1 of LHC data at s=14TeV. However, mGMSB would not be discriminated on the basis of the kinematic endpoints alone. The best-fit point spectra of mGMSB and CMSSM look remarkably similar, making experimental discrimination at the LHC based on the edges or Higgs properties difficult. However, using rate information for the golden chain should provide the additional separation required.
Exchange rate dynamics, structural breaks, and central bank interventions in Colombia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Mario Uribe
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We evaluate the effectiveness of the Colombian Central Bank´s interventions in the foreign exchange market during the period 2000 to 2014. We examine the stochastic process that describes the exchange rate, with a focus on the detection of structural breaks or unit roots in the data to determine whether the Central Bank´s interventions were effective. We find that the exchange rate can be described either by a random walk or by a trend-stationary model with multiple breaks. In neither cases do we find any evidence that the exchange rate was affected by the Central Bank interventions.
Interacting spins in a cavity: Finite-size effects and symmetry-breaking dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, Søren; Mølmer, Klaus
2012-01-01
, and for small chains, we find significant and nontrivial finite-size effects. Below the first-order phase transition, even quite large spin chains of 30–40 spins give rise to a mean photon number and number fluctuations significantly above the mean-field vacuum result. Near the second-order phase critical point......-transition the random character of the measurement process causes a measurement-induced symmetry breaking in the system. This symmetry breaking occurs on the time scale needed for an observer to gather sufficient information to distinguish between the two possible (mean-field) symmetry-broken states....
Perspectives on Higgs Boson and Supersymmetry
Nath, Pran
2013-01-01
We review the recent discovery of the Higgs like particle at $\\sim 125$ GeV and its implications for particle physics models. Specifically the implications of the relatively high Higgs mass for the discovery of supersymmetry are discussed. Several related topics such as naturalness and supersymmetry, dark matter and unification are also discussed.
Supersymmetry Projection Rules on Exotic Branes
Kimura, Tetsuji
2016-01-01
We study the supersymmetry projection rules on exotic branes in type II string theories and M-theory. They justify the validity of the exotic duality between standard branes and exotic branes of codimension two. By virtue of the supersymmetry projection rules on various branes, we can apply the exotic duality to a system which involves multiple non-parallel branes.
Diffeomorphism Invariant Theories and Vector Supersymmetry
Piguet, O
2000-01-01
Einstein gravity in the Palatini first order formalism is shown to possess a vector supersymmetry of the type encountered in the topological gauge theories. A peculiar feature of the gravitationel theory is the link of this vector supersymmetry with the field equation of motion of the Faddeev-Popov ghost associated to diffeomorphism invariance.
Quantum gravity via supersymmetry and holography
Elvang, Henriette; Horowitz, Gary T.
2013-01-01
We review the approach to quantum gravity based on supersymmetry, strings, and holography. This includes a survey of black holes in higher-dimensions, supersymmetry and supergravity, as well as string theory, black hole microstates, and the gauge/gravity duality. This presentation will appear as a chapter in "General Relativity and Gravitation: A Centennial Perspective", to be published by Cambridge University Press.
Garcia, R. R.
1986-01-01
The influence of breaking gravity waves on the dynamics and chemical composition of the 60 to 110 km region is investigated with a two dimensional model that includes a parameterization of gravity wave momentum deposition and diffusion. The dynamical model is described by Garcia and Solomon (1983) and Solomon and Garcia (1983) and includes a complete chemical scheme for the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The parameterization of Lindzen (1981) is used to calculate the momentum deposited and the turbulent diffusion produced by the gravity waves. It is found that wave momentum deposition drives a very vigorous mean meridional circulation, produces a very cold summer mesopause and reverse the zonal wind jets above about 85 km. The seasonal variation of the turbulent diffusion coefficient is consistent with the behavior of mesospheric turbulences inferred from MST radar echoes. The large degree of consistency between model results and various types of dynamical and chemical data supports very strongly the hypothesis that breaking gravity waves play a major role in determining the zonally-averaged dynamical and chemical structure of the 60 to 110 km region of the atmosphere.
Supersymmetry in random matrix theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kieburg, Mario
2010-05-04
I study the applications of supersymmetry in random matrix theory. I generalize the supersymmetry method and develop three new approaches to calculate eigenvalue correlation functions. These correlation functions are averages over ratios of characteristic polynomials. In the first part of this thesis, I derive a relation between integrals over anti-commuting variables (Grassmann variables) and differential operators with respect to commuting variables. With this relation I rederive Cauchy- like integral theorems. As a new application I trace the supermatrix Bessel function back to a product of two ordinary matrix Bessel functions. In the second part, I apply the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation to arbitrary rotation invariant ensembles of real symmetric and Hermitian self-dual matrices. This extends the approach for unitarily rotation invariant matrix ensembles. For the k-point correlation functions I derive supersymmetric integral expressions in a unifying way. I prove the equivalence between the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and the superbosonization formula. Moreover, I develop an alternative mapping from ordinary space to superspace. After comparing the results of this approach with the other two supersymmetry methods, I obtain explicit functional expressions for the probability densities in superspace. If the probability density of the matrix ensemble factorizes, then the generating functions exhibit determinantal and Pfaffian structures. For some matrix ensembles this was already shown with help of other approaches. I show that these structures appear by a purely algebraic manipulation. In this new approach I use structures naturally appearing in superspace. I derive determinantal and Pfaffian structures for three types of integrals without actually mapping onto superspace. These three types of integrals are quite general and, thus, they are applicable to a broad class of matrix ensembles. (orig.)
Supersymmetry results at the Tevatron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manca, Giulia; /Liverpool U.
2005-05-01
The Run II physics programme of the Tevatron is proceeding with more than 300 pb{sup -1} of analysis quality data, collected at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. Searches for supersymmetric particles are starting to set new limits, improving over the LEP and Run I results and exploring new regions of parameter space. They present recent results in Supersymmetry with the upgraded CDF and D0 detectors and give some prospects for the future of these searches.
Supersymmetry, attractors and cosmic censorship
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellorin, Jorge [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias C-XVI, C.U. Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: jorge.bellorin@uam.es; Meessen, Patrick [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias C-XVI, C.U. Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: patrick.meessen@cern.ch; Ortin, Tomas [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias C-XVI, C.U. Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: tomas.ortin@cern.ch
2007-01-29
We show that requiring unbroken supersymmetry everywhere in black-hole-type solutions of N=2, d=4 supergravity coupled to vector supermultiplets ensures in most cases absence of naked singularities. We formulate three specific conditions which we argue are equivalent to the requirement of global supersymmetry. These three conditions can be related to the absence of sources for NUT charge, angular momentum, scalar hair and negative energy, although the solutions can still have globally defined angular momentum and non-trivial scalar fields, as we show in an explicit example. Furthermore, only the solutions satisfying these requirements seem to have a microscopic interpretation in string theory since only they have supersymmetric sources. These conditions exclude, for instance, singular solutions such as the Kerr-Newman with M=|q|, which fails to be everywhere supersymmetric. We also present a re-derivation of several results concerning attractors in N=2, d=4 theories based on the explicit knowledge of the most general solutions in the timelike class.
Fluid Dynamical Control of Spacing and Symmetry Breaking in Orbital Wave Ripples
Nienhuis, J.; Perron, J.; Kao, J. C.; Myrow, P.
2013-12-01
select ripple crests become increasingly sinuous before breaking up. The origins of these transient phenomena are not yet understood. We extracted side-looking 1D-profiles from field-scale laboratory experiments in a wave tank to study the incipient response of ripples to a step change in wave conditions, and used the numerical flow model to calculate stresses over the evolving bed. Combining these calculations with real-time video and time-lapse imagery, we tracked the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic evolution of individual ripples. When the wave orbital diameter is shortened, incipient secondary crests act as 'speed bumps,' shortening the separation zone and encouraging the growth of crests on the next flank. This feedback appears to be the mechanism that systematically favors incipient crests on the same side of each trough. When the orbital diameter is lengthened, the nearly straight crests of equilibrium ripples become unstable: crests migrate preferentially towards the nearest adjacent crest that is closer, which amplifies crest sinuosity and may lead to the observed bulging instability. Understanding the mechanisms of ripple adjustment provides insight into bedform dynamics and paleoenvironmental reconstructions, and should aid in the development of reduced-complexity morphodynamic models by providing a basis for parameterizing complicated flow effects.
Moulin, F.; Flor, J.
We present the results of an experimental investigation on the material transport across the shear zone of a cyclonic vortex induced by the breaking of inertia-gravity waves. As has been suggested by McIntyre (1995) this could be a possible mechamism of ozone transport across the dynamical barrier of the polar vortex. The experiments were conducted in a 1 meter size tank containing a rotating stratified fluid. Barotropic vortices were generated by siphoning off fluid with a long perforated tube and per- turbed by planar internal waves generated by the vertical oscillation of a horizontal circular cylinder. As predicted by theorical results based on the WKB approximation, the waves opposing the vortex velocity field were trapped in the outer edge of the vor- tex. In some cases, the increase of wave energy in this region was strong enough to lead to 3-dimensional breaking of the wave pattern. Experimental visualization tech- niques were used to determine the class of instability responsible for this breaking and to measure the induced mixing. A simple model to predict the efficiency of the mixing process will be presented.
Flach, S
1995-01-01
We study tangent bifurcation of band edge plane waves in nonlinear Hamiltonian lattices. The lattice is translationally invariant. We argue for the breaking of permutational symmetry by the new bifurcated periodic orbits. The case of two coupled oscillators is considered as an example for the perturbation analysis, where the symmetry breaking can be traced using Poincare maps. Next we consider a lattice and derive the dependence of the bifurcation energy on the parameters of the Hamiltonian function in the limit of large system sizes. A necessary condition for the occurence of the bifurcation is the repelling of the band edge plane wave's frequency from the linear spectrum with increasing energy. We conclude that the bifurcated orbits will consequently exponentially localize in the configurational space.
Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking with a Heavy Fermion in Light of Recent LHC Results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pham Q. Hung
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The recent announcement of a discovery of a possible Higgs-like particle—its spin and parity are yet to be determined—at the LHC with a mass of 126 GeV necessitates a fresh look at the nature of the electroweak symmetry breaking, in particular if this newly-discovered particle will turn out to have the quantum numbers of a Standard Model Higgs boson. Even if it were a 0+ scalar with the properties expected for a SM Higgs boson, there is still the quintessential hierarchy problem that one has to deal with and which, by itself, suggests a new physics energy scale around 1 TeV. This paper presents a minireview of one possible scenario: the formation of a fermion-antifermion condensate coming from a very heavy fourth generation, carrying the quantum number of the SM Higgs field, and thus breaking the electroweak symmetry.
SUSY breaking with D term and gauge mediation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ogasahara, Atsushi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2012-07-27
We classify supersymmetry breaking models with the F- and U(1) D-term potentials. In addition to the classification in our previous paper [1], we consider the other class where the F-term potential shows runaway behaviors. It is shown that the runaway in the F-term potential can be uplifted by the D-term effect, and supersymmetry breaking is realized. The vacuum in this class has no pseudomoduli and is useful for gauge mediation because gaugino masses are generated at the one-loop order. We provide such an example without the Fayet-Iliopoulous term.
Split Dirac Supersymmetry: An Ultraviolet Completion of Higgsino Dark Matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; Kribs, Graham D. [Oregon U.; Martin, Adam [Notre Dame U.
2014-10-07
Motivated by the observation that the Higgs quartic coupling runs to zero at an intermediate scale, we propose a new framework for models of split supersymmetry, in which gauginos acquire intermediate scale Dirac masses of $\\sim 10^{8-11}$ GeV. Scalar masses arise from one-loop finite contributions as well as direct gravity-mediated contributions. Like split supersymmetry, one Higgs doublet is fine-tuned to be light. The scale at which the Dirac gauginos are introduced to make the Higgs quartic zero is the same as is necessary for gauge coupling unification. Thus, gauge coupling unification persists (nontrivially, due to adjoint multiplets), though with a somewhat higher unification scale $\\gtrsim 10^{17}$ GeV. The $\\mu$-term is naturally at the weak scale, and provides an opportunity for experimental verification. We present two manifestations of Split Dirac Supersymmetry. In the "Pure Dirac" model, the lightest Higgsino must decay through R-parity violating couplings, leading to an array of interesting signals in colliders. In the "Hypercharge Impure" model, the bino acquires a Majorana mass that is one-loop suppressed compared with the Dirac gluino and wino. This leads to weak scale Higgsino dark matter whose overall mass scale, as well as the mass splitting between the neutral components, is naturally generated from the same UV dynamics. We outline the challenges to discovering pseudo-Dirac Higgsino dark matter in collider and dark matter detection experiments.
Cosmological selection of multi-TeV supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keisuke Harigaya
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We discuss a possible answer to the fundamental question of why nature would actually prefer low-scale supersymmetry, but end up with a supersymmetry scale that is not completely natural. This question is inevitable if we postulate that low-energy supersymmetry is indeed realized in nature, despite the null observation of superparticles below a TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. As we argue in this paper, superparticles masses in the multi-TeV range can, in fact, be reconciled with the concept of naturalness by means of a cosmological selection effect—a selection effect based on the assumption of an exact discrete R-symmetry that is spontaneously broken by gaugino condensation in a pure supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. In such theories, the dynamical scale of the Yang–Mills gauge interactions is required to be higher than the inflationary Hubble scale, in order to avoid the formation of domain walls. This results in a lower limit on the superparticle masses and leads us to conclude that, according to the idea of naturalness, the most probable range of superparticle masses is potentially located at the multi-TeV, if the inflationary Hubble rate is of O(1014 GeV. Our argument can be partially tested by future measurements of the tensor fraction in the Cosmic Microwave Background fluctuations.
Supersymmetry without prejudice at the LHC
Conley, John A.; Gainer, James S.; Hewett, JoAnne L.; Le, My Phuong; Rizzo, Thomas G.
2011-07-01
The discovery and exploration of Supersymmetry in a model-independent fashion will be a daunting task due to the large number of soft-breaking parameters in the MSSM. In this paper, we explore the capability of the ATLAS detector at the LHC (sqrt{s}=14 TeV, 1 fb-1) to find SUSY within the 19-dimensional pMSSM subspace of the MSSM using their standard transverse missing energy and long-lived particle searches that were essentially designed for mSUGRA. To this end, we employ a set of ˜71k previously generated model points in the 19-dimensional parameter space that satisfy all of the existing experimental and theoretical constraints. Employing ATLAS-generated SM backgrounds and following their approach in each of 11 missing energy analyses as closely as possible, we explore all of these 71k model points for a possible SUSY signal. To test our analysis procedure, we first verify that we faithfully reproduce the published ATLAS results for the signal distributions for their benchmark mSUGRA model points. We then show that, requiring all sparticle masses to lie below 1(3) TeV, almost all (two-thirds) of the pMSSM model points are discovered with a significance S>5 in at least one of these 11 analyses assuming a 50% systematic error on the SM background. If this systematic error can be reduced to only 20% then this parameter space coverage is increased. These results are indicative that the ATLAS SUSY search strategy is robust under a broad class of Supersymmetric models. We then explore in detail the properties of the kinematically accessible model points which remain unobservable by these search analyses in order to ascertain problematic cases which may arise in general SUSY searches.
Supersymmetry Without Prejudice at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Conley, John A.; /Bonn U.; Gainer, James S.; /Argonne /Northwestern U.; Hewett, JoAnne L.; Le, My Phuong; Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC
2011-08-19
The discovery and exploration of Supersymmetry in a model-independent fashion will be a daunting task due to the large number of soft-breaking parameters in the MSSM. In this paper, we explore the capability of the ATLAS detector at the LHC ({radical}s = 14 TeV, 1 fb{sup -1}) to find SUSY within the 19-dimensional pMSSM subspace of the MSSM using their standard transverse missing energy and long-lived particle searches that were essentially designed for mSUGRA. To this end, we employ a set of {approx} 71k previously generated model points in the 19-dimensional parameter space that satisfy all of the existing experimental and theoretical constraints. Employing ATLAS-generated SM backgrounds and following their approach in each of 11 missing energy analyses as closely as possible, we explore all of these 71k model points for a possible SUSY signal. To test our analysis procedure, we first verify that we faithfully reproduce the published ATLAS results for the signal distributions for their benchmark mSUGRA model points. We then show that, requiring all sparticle masses to lie below 1(3) TeV, almost all(two-thirds) of the pMSSM model points are discovered with a significance S > 5 in at least one of these 11 analyses assuming a 50% systematic error on the SM background. If this systematic error can be reduced to only 20% then this parameter space coverage is increased. These results are indicative that the ATLAS SUSY search strategy is robust under a broad class of Supersymmetric models. We then explore in detail the properties of the kinematically accessible model points which remain unobservable by these search analyses in order to ascertain problematic cases which may arise in general SUSY searches.
Dynamic Excitation of Monopiles by Steep and Breaking Waves: Experimental and Numerical Study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bredmose, Henrik; Slabiak, Peter; Sahlberg-Nielsen, Lasse;
2013-01-01
. The measured data for structural acceleration is analysed with respect to individual wave parameters. It is found that the largest accelerations occur for breaking waves. The measured wave field and structural response are reproduced numerically with a fully nonlinear potential flow solver for the undisturbed...... wave kinematics, combined with a finite element model with Morison-based forcing. A good overall reproduction of the wave field and structural response is achieved for two selected episodes. For some of the waves, however, the numerical response magnitude does not match the observed excitations...
R-symmetric axion/natural inflation in supergravity via deformed moduli dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keisuke Harigaya
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We construct a natural inflation model in supergravity where the inflaton is identified with a modulus field possessing a shift symmetry. The superpotential for the inflaton is generated by meson condensation due to strong dynamics with deformed moduli constraints. In contrast to models based on gaugino condensation, the inflaton potential is generated without R-symmetry breaking and hence does not depend on the gravitino mass. Thus, our model is compatible with low scale supersymmetry.
Search for supersymmetry at CDF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CDF Collaboration
1994-05-01
We have conducted a search for trilepton events from supersymmetry (SUSY) in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV. In the Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), trilepton events are expected from chargino-neutralino ({tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup {plus_minus}}{tilde {chi}}{sub 2}{sup {minus}0}) pair production, with subsequent decay into leptons. In all possible combinations of electron and muon channels in 19 pb{sup {minus}1} data, we observe no events which pass our trilepton selection criteria. Employing the GUT hypothesis within the framework of the MSSM, our preliminary excludes M({tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup {plus_minus}}) <46 GeV/c{sup 2} c{sup 2} for {minus}500 < {mu} < {minus}400 GeV, 2.0 < tan({beta}) < 15.0, and M({tilde q}) = 1.2 {times} M({tilde g}).
Torsion and Supersymmetry in Omega-background
Ito, Katsushi; Sasaki, Shin
2012-01-01
We study the dimensional reduction of ten-dimensional super Yang-Mills theory in curved backgrounds with torsion. We examine the parallel spinor conditions and the constraints for the torsion parameters which preserve supersymmetry and gauge symmetry in four dimensions. In particular we examine the ten-dimensional Omega-background with the torsion which is identified with the R-symmetry Wilson line gauge fields. After the dimensional reduction, we obtain the Omega-deformed N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. Solving the parallel spinor conditions and the torsion constraints, we classify the deformed supersymmetry associated with the topological twist of N=4 supersymmetry. We also study deformed supersymmetries in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit.
Supersymmetry: Early Roots That Did Not Grow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cecilia Jarlskog
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is about early roots of supersymmetry, as found in the literature from 1940s and early 1950s. There were models where the power of “partners” in alleviating divergences in quantum field theory was recognized. However, other currently known remarkable features of supersymmetry, such as its role in the extension of the Poincaré group, were not known. There were, of course, no supersymmetric nonabelian quantum field theories in those days.
Supersymmetry protected topological phases of isostatic lattices and kagome antiferromagnets
Lawler, Michael J.
2016-10-01
I generalize the theory of phonon topological band structures of isostatic lattices to frustrated antiferromagnets. I achieve this with a discovery of a many-body supersymmetry (SUSY) in the phonon problem of balls and springs and its connection to local constraints satisfied by ground states. The Witten index of the SUSY model demands the Maxwell-Calladine index of mechanical structures. "Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking" is identified as the need to gap all modes in the bulk to create the topological isostatic lattice state. Since ground states of magnetic systems also satisfy local constraint conditions (such as the vanishing of the total spin on a triangle), I identify a similar SUSY structure for many common models of antiferromagnets including the square, triangluar, kagome, pyrochlore nearest-neighbor antiferromagnets, and the J2=J1/2 square-lattice antiferromagnet. Remarkably, the kagome family of antiferromagnets is the analog of topological isostatic lattices among this collection of models. Thus, a solid-state realization of the theory of phonon topological band structure may be found in frustrated magnetic materials.
Supersymmetry, the flavour puzzle and rare B decays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Straub, David Michael
2010-07-14
The gauge hierarchy problem and the flavour puzzle belong to the most pressing open questions in the Standard Model of particle physics. Supersymmetry is arguably the most popular framework of physics beyond the Standard Model and provides an elegant solution to the gauge hierarchy problem; however, it aggravates the flavour puzzle. In the first part of this thesis, I discuss several approaches to address the flavour puzzle in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model and experimental tests thereof: supersymmetric grand unified theories with a unification of Yukawa couplings at high energies, theories with minimal flavour violation and additional sources of CP violation and theories with gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking and a large ratio of Higgs vacuum expectation values. In the second part of the thesis, I discuss the phenomenology of two rare B meson decay modes which are promising probes of physics beyond the Standard Model: The exclusive B {yields} K{sup *}l{sup +}l{sup -} decay, whose angular decay distribution will be studied at LHC and gives access to a large number of observables and the b{yields}s{nu}anti {nu} decays, which are in the focus of planned high-luminosity Super B factories. I discuss the predictions for these observables in the Standard Model and their sensitivity to New Physics. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arshian Sharif
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the Carbon dioxide emission-urbanization-growth nexus in Pakistan by taking time series data from the period of 1972 to 2013. The study applied three approaches of co-integration (ARDL bounds test, Johansen and Juselius and Gregory and Hansen structural break test to confirm the valid long-run positive interaction between carbon dioxide emission and urbanization. The robustness of cointegrating vectors are further checked using FMOLS and DOLS tests and the results validate the long-run coefficients. The results of VDM exhibit the uni-directional causality between carbon dioxide emission and urbanization running from urbanization to carbon dioxide emission. It was therefore noted that policies in which the government needs to allocate greater portion to environmental safeguard and energy saving components in the planning, such as encouraging energy saving framework and creating a chain of increasing indicators of environmental protection and energy saving.
Is the Higgs boson associated with Coleman-Weinberg dynamical symmetry breaking?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hill, Christopher T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2014-04-01
The Higgs mechanism may be a quantum phenomenon, i.e., a Coleman-Weinberg potential generated by the explicit breaking of scale symmetry in Feynman loops. We review the relationship of scale symmetry, trace anomalies, and emphasize the role of the renormalization group in determining Coleman- Weinberg potentials. We propose a simple phenomenological model with "maximal visibility" at the LHC containing a "dormant" Higgs doublet (no VEV, coupled to standard model gauge interactions $SU(2)\\times U(1)$) with a mass of $\\sim 380$ GeV. We discuss the LHC phenomenology and UV challenges of such a model. We also give a schematic model in which new heavy fermions, with masses $\\sim 230$ GeV, can drive a Coleman-Weinberg potential at two-loops. The role of the "improved stress tensor" is emphasized, and we propose a non-gravitational term, analogous to the $\\theta$-term in QCD, which generates it from a scalar action.
The dynamical impact of Rossby wave breaking upon UK PM10 concentration
Webber, Christopher P.; Dacre, Helen F.; Collins, William J.; Masato, Giacomo
2017-01-01
Coarse particulate matter (PM10) has long been understood to be hazardous to human health, with mortality rates increasing as a result of raised ground level concentrations. We explore the influence of synoptic-scale meteorology on daily mean observed PM10 concentration ([PM10]) using Rossby wave breaking (RWB). Meteorological reanalysis data for the winter months (DJF) between January 1999 and December 2008 and observed PM10 data for three urban background UK (Midland) sites were analysed. Three RWB diagnostics were used to identify RWB that had significant influence on UK Midland PM10. RWB events were classified according to whether the RWB was cyclonic or anticyclonic in its direction of breaking and whether the RWB event was influenced more by poleward or equatorial air masses. We find that there is a strong link between RWB events and UK [PM10]. Significant increases (p UK [PM10] were seen 1 day following RWB occurring in spatially constrained northeast Atlantic-European regions. Analysis into episodic PM10 exceedance events shows increased probability of [PM10] exceedance associated with all RWB subsets. The greatest probability of exceeding the UK [PM10] threshold was associated with cyclonic RWB preceded by anticyclonic RWB forming an Ω block synoptic pattern. This mechanism suggests an easterly advection of European PM10 followed by prolonged stagnant conditions within the UK and led to an almost threefold increase in the probability of the UK Midlands exceeding a hazardous [PM10] threshold (0.383), when compared to days where no RWB was detected (0.129).
Chiolo, Irene; Minoda, Aki; Colmenares, Serafin U; Polyzos, Aris; Costes, Sylvain V; Karpen, Gary H
2011-03-04
Double-strand breaks (DSBs) in heterochromatic repetitive DNAs pose significant threats to genome integrity, but information about how such lesions are processed and repaired is sparse. We observe dramatic expansion and dynamic protrusions of the heterochromatin domain in response to ionizing radiation (IR) in Drosophila cells. We also find that heterochromatic DSBs are repaired by homologous recombination (HR) but with striking differences from euchromatin. Proteins involved in early HR events (resection) are rapidly recruited to DSBs within heterochromatin. In contrast, Rad51, which mediates strand invasion, only associates with DSBs that relocalize outside of the domain. Heterochromatin expansion and relocalization of foci require checkpoint and resection proteins. Finally, the Smc5/6 complex is enriched in heterochromatin and is required to exclude Rad51 from the domain and prevent abnormal recombination. We propose that the spatial and temporal control of DSB repair in heterochromatin safeguards genome stability by preventing aberrant exchanges between repeats.
Dynamics of associative polymer solutions: Capillary break-up, jetting and rheology
Sharma, Vivek; Serdy, James G.; Threfall-Holmes, Phil; McKinley, Gareth H.
2011-11-01
Associative polymer solutions are used in extensively in the formulations for water-borne paints, food, inks, cosmetics, etc to control the rheology and processing behavior of multi-component dispersions. These complex dispersions are processed and used over a broad range of shear and extensional rates. Furthermore, the commercially relevant formulations use dilute solutions of associative polymers, which have low viscosity and short relaxation times, and hence their non-Newtonian response is not apparent in a conventional rheometer. In this talk, we explore several methods for systematically exploring the linear and nonlinear solution rheology of associative polymer dispersions, including: fractional model description of physical gelation, high frequency oscillatory tests at frequencies up to 10 kHz, microfluidic shear rheometry at deformation rates up to 1000000 /s and the influence of transient extensional rheology in the jet breakup. We show that high deformation rates can be obtained in jetting flows, and the growth and evolution of instability during jetting and break-up of these viscoelastic fluids shows the influence of both elasticity and extensibility.
Yukawa CFTs and Emergent Supersymmetry
Fei, Lin; Klebanov, Igor R; Tarnopolsky, Grigory
2016-01-01
We study conformal field theories with Yukawa interactions in dimensions between 2 and 4; they provide UV completions of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio and Gross-Neveu models which have four-fermion interactions. We compute the sphere free energy and certain operator scaling dimensions using dimensional continuation. In the Gross-Neveu CFT with $N$ fermion degrees of freedom we obtain the first few terms in the $4-\\epsilon$ expansion using the Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model, and the first few terms in the $2+\\epsilon$ expansion using the four-fermion interaction. We then apply Pade approximants to produce estimates in $d=3$. For $N=1$, which corresponds to one 2-component Majorana fermion, it has been suggested that the Yukawa theory flows to a ${\\cal N}=1$ supersymmetric CFT. We provide new evidence that the $4-\\epsilon$ expansion of the $N=1$ Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model respects the supersymmetry. Our extrapolations to $d=3$ appear to be in good agreement with the available results obtained using the numerical conformal boo...
Stop searches in flavourful supersymmetry
Crivellin, Andreas; Tunstall, Lewis C.
2016-01-01
Natural realisations of supersymmetry require light stops ${\\tilde t}_1$, making them a prime target of LHC searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Depending on the kinematic region, the main search channels are ${\\tilde t_1}\\to t \\tilde \\chi^0_1$, ${\\tilde t_1}\\to W b \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ and ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$. We first examine the interplay of these decay modes with ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ in a model-independent fashion, revealing the existence of large regions in parameter space which are excluded for any ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ branching ratio. This effect is then illustrated for scenarios with stop-scharm mixing in the right-handed sector, where it has previously been observed that the stop mass limits can be significantly weakened for large mixing. Our analysis shows that once the LHC bounds from ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ searches are taken into account, non-zero stop-scharm mixing leads only to a modest increase in the allowed regions of parameter...
Stop searches in flavourful supersymmetry
Crivellin, Andreas; Haisch, Ulrich; Tunstall, Lewis C.
2016-09-01
Natural realisations of supersymmetry require light stops {tilde{t}}_1 , making them a prime target of LHC searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Depending on the kinematic region, the main search channels are {tilde{t}}_1to t{tilde{χ}}_1^0 , {tilde{t}}_1to W b{tilde{χ}}_1^0 and {tilde{t}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 . We first examine the interplay of these decay modes with {tilde{c}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 in a model-independent fashion, revealing that a large parameter space region with stop mass values {m_{tilde{t}}}{_1} up to 530 GeV is excluded for any {tilde{t}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 branching ratio by LHC Run I data. The impact of {tilde{c}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 decays is further illustrated for scenarios with stop-scharm mixing in the right-handed sector, where it has previously been observed that the stop mass limits can be significantly weakened for large mixing. Our analysis shows that once the {tilde{c}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 bounds are taken into account, non-zero stop-scharm mixing can lead to an increase in the allowed parameter space by at most 35%, with large areas excluded for arbitrary mixing.
Supersymmetry as a cosmic censor
Kallosh, Renata E; Ortín, Tomas; Peet, A W; Van Proeyen, A; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Ort\\'in, Tom\\'as; Peet, Amanda; Proeyen, Antoine Van
1992-01-01
In supersymmetric theories the mass of any state is bounded below by the values of some of its charges. The corresponding bounds in case of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes are known to coincide with the requirement that naked singularities be absent. Here we investigate charged dilaton black holes in this context. We show that the extreme solutions saturate the supersymmetry bound of $N=4\\ d=4$ supergravity, or dimensionally reduced superstring theory. Specifically, we have shown that extreme dilaton black holes, with electric and magnetic charges, admit super-covariantly constant spinors. The supersymmetric positivity bound for dilaton black holes, $M \\geq \\frac{1}{\\sqrt 2}(|Q|+|P|)$, takes care of the absence of naked singularities of the dilaton black holes and is, in this sense, equivalent to the cosmic censorship condition. The temperature, entropy and singularity are discussed. The Euclidean action (entropy) of the extreme black hole is given by $2\\pi |PQ|$. We argue that this result,...
Supersymmetry at the electroweak scale
Chankowski, P H
1996-01-01
The simplest interpretation of the global success of the Standard Model is that new physics decouples well above the electroweak scale. Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model offers the possibility of light chargino and the right-handed stop (with masses below $M_Z$), and still maintaining the successful predictions of the Standard Model. The value of $R_b$ can then be enhanced up to $\\sim 0.218$ (the Standard Model value is $\\sim 0.216$). Light chargino and stop give important contribution to rare processes such as $b\\rightarrow s \\gamma$, $\\overline K^0-K^0$ and $\\overline B^0-B^0$ mixing but consistency with experimental results is maintained in a large region of the parameter space. The exotic four-jet events reported by ALEPH (if confirmed) may constitute a signal for supersymmetry with such a light spectrum and with explicitly broken $R-$parity. Their interpretation as pair production of charginos with $m_C\\sim 60$ GeV, with subsequent decay $C\\rightarrow \\tilde t_R b \\rightarrow dsb$ (where $m_...
Study of constrained minimal supersymmetry
Kane, G L; Roszkowski, Leszek; Wells, J D; Chris Kolda; Leszek Roszkowski; James D Wells
1994-01-01
Taking seriously phenomenological indications for supersymmetry, we have made a detailed study of unified minimal SUSY, including effects at the few percent level in a consistent fashion. We report here a general analysis without choosing a particular unification gauge group. We find that the encouraging SUSY unification results of recent years do survive the challenge of a more complete and accurate analysis. Taking into account effects at the 5-10% level leads to several improvements of previous results, and allows us to sharpen our predictions for SUSY in the light of unification. We perform a thorough study of the parameter space. The results form a well-defined basis for comparing the physics potential of different facilities. Very little of the acceptable parameter space has been excluded by LEP or FNAL so far, but a significant fraction can be covered when these accelerators are upgraded. A number of initial applications to the understanding of the SUSY spectrum, detectability of SUSY at LEP II or FNAL...
Yukawa-unified natural supersymmetry
Baer, Howard; Kulkarni, Suchita
2012-01-01
Previous work on t-b-\\tau Yukawa-unified supersymmetry, as expected from SUSY GUT theories based on the gauge group SO(10), tended to have exceedingly large electroweak fine-tuning (EWFT). Here, we examine supersymmetric models where we simultaneously require low EWFT ("natural SUSY") and a high degree of Yukawa coupling unification, along with a light Higgs scalar with m_h\\sim125 GeV. As Yukawa unification requires large tan\\beta\\sim50, while EWFT requires rather light third generation squarks and low \\mu\\sim100-250 GeV, B-physics constraints from BR(B\\to X_s\\gamma) and BR(B_s\\to \\mu+\\mu-) can be severe. We are able to find models with EWFT \\Delta\\lesssim 50-100 (better than 1-2% EWFT) and with Yukawa unification as low as R_yuk\\sim1.3 (30% unification) if B-physics constraints are imposed. This may be improved to R_yuk\\sim1.2 if additional small flavor violating terms conspire to improve accord with B-constraints. We present several Yukawa-unified natural SUSY (YUNS) benchmark points. LHC searches will be a...
Testing split supersymmetry with inflation
Craig, Nathaniel; Green, Daniel
2014-07-01
Split supersymmetry (SUSY) — in which SUSY is relevant to our universe but largely inaccessible at current accelerators — has become increasingly plausible given the absence of new physics at the LHC, the success of gauge coupling unification, and the observed Higgs mass. Indirect probes of split SUSY such as electric dipole moments (EDMs) and flavor violation offer hope for further evidence but are ultimately limited in their reach. Inflation offers an alternate window into SUSY through the direct production of superpartners during inflation. These particles are capable of leaving imprints in future cosmological probes of primordial non-gaussianity. Given the recent observations of BICEP2, the scale of inflation is likely high enough to probe the full range of split SUSY scenarios and therefore offers a unique advantage over low energy probes. The key observable for future experiments is equilateral non-gaussianity, which will be probed by both cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large scale structure (LSS) surveys. In the event of a detection, we forecast our ability to find evidence for superpartners through the scaling behavior in the squeezed limit of the bispectrum.
Killing-Yano tensors and generalized supersymmetries in black hole and monopole geometries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holten, J.W. van
1994-09-14
New kinds of supersymmetry arise in supersymmetric {sigma}-models describing the motion of spinning point-particles in classical backgrounds, for example black-holes, or the dynamics of monopoles. Their geometric origin is the existence of Killing-Yano tensors. The relation between these concepts is explained and examples are given. (orig.).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yuan-Sheng, E-mail: joiningnow@126.com; Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhou, Zhu-Wen; Diao, Xin-Feng
2014-01-03
Highlights: •We investigate the symmetry breaking of a dipolar Bose–Einstein condensate. •The anisotropy of dipolar interaction affects the ground state structure. •Tuning the scattering length can realize the symmetry breaking phenomena. •Increasing the barrier height can realize the symmetry breaking phenomena.
Comments on the spontaneous symmetry breaking in supersymmetric theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Girardi, G.; Sorba, P.; Stora, R. (Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules)
1984-08-30
The role of the complex extension of the symmetry group in supersymmetric theories is revisited. We prove, in particular, that if symmetry breaking occurs at an extremum of the superpotential, then supersymmetry will be preserved if and only if the complex stabilizer of the vacuum is the complexified of its maximal compact part.
Emergent kinetic constraints, ergodicity breaking, and cooperative dynamics in noisy quantum systems
Everest, B.; Marcuzzi, M.; Garrahan, J. P.; Lesanovsky, I.
2016-11-01
Kinetically constrained spin systems play an important role in understanding key properties of the dynamics of slowly relaxing materials, such as glasses. Recent experimental studies have revealed that manifest kinetic constraints govern the evolution of strongly interacting gases of highly excited atoms in a noisy environment. Motivated by this development we explore which types of kinetically constrained dynamics can generally emerge in quantum spin systems subject to strong noise and show how, in this framework, constraints are accompanied by conservation laws. We discuss an experimentally realizable case of a lattice gas, where the interplay between those and the geometry of the lattice leads to collective behavior and time-scale separation even at infinite temperature. This is in contrast to models of glass-forming substances which typically rely on low temperatures and the consequent suppression of thermal activation.
Carbon nanorings with inserted acenes: breaking symmetry in excited state dynamics
Franklin-Mergarejo, R.; Alvarez, D. Ondarse; Tretiak, S.; Fernandez-Alberti, S.
2016-08-01
Conjugated cycloparaphenylene rings have unique electronic properties being the smallest segments of carbon nanotubes. Their conjugated backbones support delocalized electronic excitations, which dynamics is strongly influenced by cyclic geometry. Here we present a comparative theoretical study of the electronic and vibrational energy relaxation and redistribution in photoexcited cycloparaphenylene carbon nanorings with inserted naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene units using non-adiabatic excited-state molecular dynamics simulations. Calculated excited state structures reflect modifications of optical selection rules and appearance of low-energy electronic states localized on the acenes due to gradual departure from a perfect circular symmetry. After photoexcitation, an ultrafast electronic energy relaxation to the lowest excited state is observed on the time scale of hundreds of femtoseconds in all molecules studied. Concomitantly, the efficiency of the exciton trapping in the acene raises when moving from naphthalene to anthracene and to tetracene, being negligible in naphthalene, and ~60% and 70% in anthracene and tetracene within the first 500 fs after photoexcitation. Observed photoinduced dynamics is further analyzed in details using induced molecular distortions, delocatization properties of participating electronic states and non-adiabatic coupling strengths. Our results provide a number of insights into design of cyclic molecular systems for electronic and light-harvesting applications.
Gravity dual of dynamically broken supersymmetry
Cottrell, William; Hashimoto, Akikazu
2013-01-01
We study a renormalization group flow of ABJM theory embedded into the warped A_8 geometry and explore the dependence of the vacuum structure on the parameters of the theory. This model has a product group gauge structure U(N)xU(n+l) and comes equipped with discrete parameters N, l and k, a continuous parameter b related to the ratio of the Yang-Mills coupling for the two gauge groups, and one dimensionful parameter gYM^2 setting the overall scale. A supersymmetric supergravity solution exists when Q=N-l(l-k)/2k-k/24 is positive and is interpretable as a RG flow from a Yang-Mills like UV fixed point to a superconformal IR fixed point with free energy of order Q^3/2. The fate of the theory when Q is taken to be negative is less clear. We explore the structure of the possible gravity solution for small negative Q by considering the linearized gravitational back reaction from adding a small number of anti-branes on the Q=0 background. Following the work of Bena, et.al., we find that a sensible solution satisfyin...
On Anomaly Mediated SUSY Breaking
de Alwis, S P
2008-01-01
A discrepancy between the Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (AMSB) gaugino mass calculated from the work of Kaplunovsky and Louis (hep-th/9402005) (KL) and other calculations in the literature is explained, and it is argued that the KL expression is the correct one relevant to the Wilsonian action. Furthermore it is argued that the AMSB contribution to the squark and slepton masses should be replaced by the contribution pointed out by Dine and Seiberg (DS) which has nothing to do with Weyl anomalies. This is not in general equivalent to the AMSB expression, and it is shown that there are models in which the usual AMSB expression would vanish but the DS one is non-zero. In fact the latter has aspects of both AMSB and gauge mediated SUSY breaking. In particular like the latter, it gives positive squared masses for sleptons.
Gravitinos and hidden supersymmetry at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bobrovskyi, Sergei
2012-08-15
We investigate phenomenological consequences of locally supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model consistent with primordial nucleosynthesis, leptogenesis and dark matter constraints. An unequivocal prediction of local supersymmetry is the existence of the gravitino, the spin-3/2 superpartner of the graviton. Due to its extremely weak couplings, decays involving the gravitino in the initial or the final state may cause problems in the early universe. One class of models solving the gravitino problem makes the gravitino either the heaviest or the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), while predicting a higgsino-like neutralino as the LSP or the next-to-lightest superparticle (NLSP), respectively. In both cases the LHC phenomenology is determined by the higgsino states. The mass degeneracy between the charged and neutral states, together with very heavy colored states, prevent an early discovery at the LHC, especially if one demands a lightest Higgs mass compatible with the recent LHC signal excess. Another class of models, in which the gravitino is also a dark matter candidate, introduces a small violation of R-parity to render the cosmology consistent. In this case, the phenomenology at the LHC is determined by the R-parity violating decays of the NLSP which can be a bino-like or a higgsino-like neutralino or a stau. Using a novel approach to describing bilinear R-parity violation, we compute decay rates of the gravitino and the possible NLSP. Due to a connection between the gravitino and neutralino decay widths, we can predict the neutralino NLSP decay length at the LHC directly from the recent Fermi-LAT results for decaying dark matter searches. The decays of the NLSP in the detectors distort the missing transverse energy (MET) signature, which complicates the searches relying on it, while creating a new secondary vertex signature. We conclude that for gluino and squark masses accessible at the LHC, searches based on secondary vertices can probe values of
Reid, Dylan A; Keegan, Sarah; Leo-Macias, Alejandra; Watanabe, Go; Strande, Natasha T; Chang, Howard H; Oksuz, Betul Akgol; Fenyo, David; Lieber, Michael R; Ramsden, Dale A; Rothenberg, Eli
2015-05-19
Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is a major repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), involving synapsis and ligation of the broken strands. We describe the use of in vivo and in vitro single-molecule methods to define the organization and interaction of NHEJ repair proteins at DSB ends. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy allowed the precise visualization of XRCC4, XLF, and DNA ligase IV filaments adjacent to DSBs, which bridge the broken chromosome and direct rejoining. We show, by single-molecule FRET analysis of the Ku/XRCC4/XLF/DNA ligase IV NHEJ ligation complex, that end-to-end synapsis involves a dynamic positioning of the two ends relative to one another. Our observations form the basis of a new model for NHEJ that describes the mechanism whereby filament-forming proteins bridge DNA DSBs in vivo. In this scheme, the filaments at either end of the DSB interact dynamically to achieve optimal configuration and end-to-end positioning and ligation.
LSD: Lyman-break galaxies Stellar populations and Dynamics - I. Mass, metallicity and gas at z ~ 3.1
Mannucci, F.; Cresci, G.; Maiolino, R.; Marconi, A.; Pastorini, G.; Pozzetti, L.; Gnerucci, A.; Risaliti, G.; Schneider, R.; Lehnert, M.; Salvati, M.
2009-10-01
We present the first results of a project, Lyman-break galaxies Stellar populations and Dynamics (LSD), aimed at obtaining spatially resolved, near-infrared (IR) spectroscopy of a complete sample of Lyman-break galaxies at z ~ 3. Deep observations with adaptive optics resulted in the detection of the main optical lines, such as [OII] λ3727, Hβ and [OIII] λ5007, which are used to study sizes, star formation rates (SFRs), morphologies, gas-phase metallicities, gas fractions and effective yields. Optical, near-IR and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera photometry are used to measure stellar mass. We obtain that morphologies are usually complex, with the presence of several peaks of emissions and companions that are not detected in broad-band images. Typical metallicities are 10-50 per cent solar, with a strong evolution of the mass-metallicity relation from lower redshifts. Stellar masses, gas fraction and evolutionary stages vary significantly among the galaxies, with less massive galaxies showing larger fractions of gas. In contrast with observations in the local universe, effective yields decrease with stellar mass and reach solar values at the low-mass end of the sample. This effect can be reproduced by gas infall with rates of the order of the SFRs. Outflows are present but are not needed to explain the mass-metallicity relation. We conclude that a large fraction of these galaxies is actively creating stars after major episodes of gas infall or merging. Based on observations collected with European Southern Observatory/Very Large Telescope (ESO/VLT) (proposals 075.A-0300 and 076.A-0711), with the Italian TNG, operated by FGG (INAF) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, and with the Spitzer Space Telescope, operated by JPL (Caltech) under a contract with NASA.
Lagrangian supersymmetries depending on derivatives. Global analysis and cohomology
Giachetta, G; Sardanashvily, G
2004-01-01
Lagrangian contact supersymmetries (depending on derivatives of arbitrary order) are treated in very general setting. The cohomology of the variational bicomplex on an arbitrary graded manifold and the iterated cohomology of a generic nilpotent contact supersymmetry are computed. In particular, the first variational formula and conservation laws for Lagrangian systems on graded manifolds using contact supersymmetries are obtained.
The heavy top quark and supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, L.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1996-05-08
Three aspects of supersymmetric theories are discussed: electroweak symmetry breaking, the issues of flavor, and gauge unification. The heavy top quark plays an important, sometimes dominant, role in each case. Additional symmetries lead to extensions of the standard model which can provide an understanding for many of the outstanding problems of particle physics. A broken supersymmetric extension of spacetime allows electroweak symmetry breaking to follow from the dynamics of the heavy top quark; an extension of isospin provides a constrained framework for understanding the pattern of quark and lepton masses; and a grand unified extension of the standard model gauge group provides an elegant understanding of the gauge quantum numbers of the components of a generation. Experimental signatures for each of these additional symmetries are discussed.
The heavy top quark and supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, L.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1997-01-01
Three aspects of supersymmetric theories are discussed: electroweak symmetry breaking, the issues of flavor, and gauge unification. The heavy top quark plays an important, sometimes dominant, role in each case. Additional symmetries lead to extensions of the Standard Model which can provide an understanding for many of the outstanding problems of particle physics. A broken supersymmetric extension of spacetime allows electroweak symmetry breaking to follow from the dynamics of the heavy top quark; an extension of isospin provides a constrained framework for understanding the pattern of quark and lepton masses; and a grand unified extension of the Standard Model gauge group provides an elegant understanding of the gauge quantum numbers of the components of a generation. Experimental signatures for each of these additional symmetries are discussed.
Yukawa-unified natural supersymmetry
Baer, Howard; Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita
2012-12-01
Previous work on t - b - τ Yukawa-unified supersymmetry, as expected from SUSY GUT theories based on the gauge group SO(10), tended to have exceedingly large electroweak fine-tuning (EWFT). Here, we examine supersymmetric models where we simultaneously require low EWFT ("natural SUSY") and a high degree of Yukawa coupling unification, along with a light Higgs scalar with m h 125 GeV. As Yukawa unification requires large tan β 50, while EWFT requires rather light third generation squarks and low μ ≈ 100 - 250 GeV, B-physics constraints from BR( B → X s γ) and BR( B s → μ + μ -) can be severe. We are able to find models with EWFT Δ ≲ 50 - 100 (better than 1-2% EWFT) and with Yukawa unification as low as R yuk 1.2 (20% unification). The unification is lessened to R yuk 1.3 when B-physics constraints are imposed. We present several Yukawa-unified natural SUSY (YUNS) benchmark points. LHC searches will be able to access gluinos in the lower 1 - 2 TeV portion of their predicted mass range although much of YUNS parameter space may lie beyond LHC14 reach. If heavy Higgs bosons can be accessed at a high rate, then the rare H, A → μ + μ - decay might allow a determination of tan β 50 as predicted by YUNS models. Finally, the predicted light higgsinos should be accessible to a linear e + e - collider with sqrt{s}˜ 0.5 TeV.
Supersymmetry versus black holes at the LHC
Roy, Arunava
2007-01-01
Supersymmetry and extra dimensions are the two most promising candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. Supersymmetric particles or extra-dimensional effects could soon be observed at the Large Hadron Collider. We propose a simple but powerful method to discriminate the two models: the analysis of isolated leptons with high transverse momentum. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET, the latter providing the mass spectrum. Our results show the measure of the dilepton invariant mass provides a strong signature to differentiate supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider. Analysis of event-shape variables and multilepton events complement and strengthen this conclusion.
Supersymmetry Versus Black Holes at the Lhc
Roy, Arunava; Cavaglià, Marco
Supersymmetry and extra dimensions are the two most promising candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. Supersymmetric particles or extra-dimensional effects could soon be observed at the Large Hadron Collider. We propose a simple but effective method to discriminate the two models: the analysis of isolated leptons with high transverse momentum. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET, the latter providing the mass spectrum. Our results show that the measure of the dilepton invariant mass provides a promising signature to differentiate supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider. Analysis of event-shape variables and multilepton events complement and strengthen this conclusion.
Generalised supersymmetry and p-brane actions
Hewson, S F
1997-01-01
We investigate the most general N=1 graded extension of the Poincare algebra, and find the corresponding supersymmetry transformations and the associated superspaces. We find that the supersymmetry for which {Q,Q}=P is not special, and in fact must be treated democratically with a whole class of supersymmetries. We show that there are two distinct types of grading, and a new class of general spinors is defined. The associated superspaces are shown to be either of the usual type, or flat with no torsion. p-branes are discussed in these general superspaces and twelve dimensions emerges as maximal. New types of brane are discovered which could explain many features of the standard p-brane theories.
Supersymmetry on a space-time lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaestner, Tobias
2008-10-28
In this thesis the WZ model in one and two dimensions has been thoroughly investigated. With the help of the Nicolai map it was possible to construct supersymmetrically improved lattice actions that preserve one of several supersymmetries. For the WZ model in one dimension SLAC fermions were utilized for the first time leading to a near-perfect elimination of lattice artifacts. In addition the lattice superpotential does not get modified which in two dimensions becomes important when further (discrete) symmetries of the continuum action are considered. For Wilson fermions two new improvements have been suggested and were shown to yield far better results than standard Wilson fermions concerning lattice artifacts. In the one-dimensional theory Ward Identities were studied.However, supersymmetry violations due to broken supersymmetry could only be detected at coarse lattices and very strong couplings. For the two-dimensional models a detailed analysis of supersymmetric improvement terms was given, both for Wilson and SLAC fermions. (orig.)
Magnetic Fixed Points and Emergent Supersymmetry
Antipin, Oleg; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2011-01-01
We establish the existence of fixed points for certain gauge theories candidate to be magnetic duals of QCD with one adjoint Weyl fermion. In the perturbative regime of the magnetic theory the existence of a very large number of fixed points is unveiled. We classify them by analyzing their basin of attraction. The existence of several nonsupersymmetric fixed points for the magnetic gauge theory lends further support towards the existence of gauge-gauge duality beyond supersymmetry. We also discover that among these very many fixed points there are supersymmetric ones emerging from a generic nonsupersymmetric renormalization group flow. We therefore conclude that supersymmetry naturally emerges as a fixed point theory from a nonsupersymmetric Lagrangian without the need for fine-tuning of the bare couplings. Our results suggest that supersymmetry can be viewed as an emergent phenomenon in field theory. In particular there should be no need for fine-tuning the bare couplings when performing Lattice simulations ...
Search for gravitinos in R-parity violating supersymmetry at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horn, C.
2006-07-15
In this thesis a search for gravitinos in R{sub P}-violating supersymmetry is presented using data recorded with the ZEUS detector in the years 1996 to 2005, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 300 pb{sup -1}. Collisions are recorded from e{sup -}p and e{sup +}p scattering at center-of-mass energies of 300 GeV and 318 GeV, using unpolarised as well as polarised lepton beams. Gravitinos are naturally expected in Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (GMSB) models where the gravitino is the lightest supersymmetric particle. At HERA gravitinos may result from the GMSB decay of neutralinos ({chi}{sup 0}{yields}{gamma}G) produced in t-channel slepton exchange processes (eq{yields}q'{chi}) via an R{sub P}-violating (R{sub P}) Yukawa coupling {lambda}'{sub ijk}. It was assumed that only one of the R{sub P} couplings {lambda}'{sub 111}, {lambda}'{sub 121}, {lambda}'{sub 112} or {lambda}'{sub 113} is different from zero at a time. To extend the investigated GMSB parameter space, also the two dominant R{sub P}-violating decay channels ({chi}{yields}e{sup {+-}}qq and {chi}{yields}{nu}qq) were taken into account. For the signal-to-background optimisation a dynamic discriminant method was developed. The data was observed to be well described by the expected Standard Model processes and no evidence for the production of supersymmetric particles was found. Limits were calculated for the masses of the left-handed selectron and the lightest neutralino and the variation of these limits was investigated in the entire GMSB parameter space. For some parameter regions, selectron masses of up to 360 GeV and neutralino masses of up to 190 GeV can be excluded at 95% CL. Similar mass limits were found to hold for large regions of GMSB parameter space. (orig.)
Compressing molecular dynamics trajectories: breaking the one-bit-per-sample barrier
Huwald, Jan; Dittrich, Peter
2016-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations yield large amounts of trajectory data. For their durable storage and accessibility an efficient compression algorithm is paramount. State of the art domain-specific algorithms combine quantization, Huffman encoding and occasionally domain knowledge. We propose the high resolution trajectory compression scheme (HRTC) that relies on piecewise linear functions to approximate quantized trajectories. By splitting the error budget between quantization and approximation, our approach beats the current state of the art by several orders of magnitude given the same error tolerance. It allows storing samples at far less than one bit per sample. It is simple and fast enough to be integrated into the inner simulation loop, store every time step, and become the primary representation of trajectory data.
Spatiotemporal dynamics of the Calvin cycle: multistationarity and symmetry breaking instabilities.
Grimbs, Sergio; Arnold, Anne; Koseska, Aneta; Kurths, Jürgen; Selbig, Joachim; Nikoloski, Zoran
2011-02-01
The possibility of controlling the Calvin cycle has paramount implications for increasing the production of biomass. Multistationarity, as a dynamical feature of systems, is the first obvious candidate whose control could find biotechnological applications. Here we set out to resolve the debate on the multistationarity of the Calvin cycle. Unlike the existing simulation-based studies, our approach is based on a sound mathematical framework, chemical reaction network theory and algebraic geometry, which results in provable results for the investigated model of the Calvin cycle in which we embed a hierarchy of realistic kinetic laws. Our theoretical findings demonstrate that there is a possibility for multistationarity resulting from two sources, homogeneous and inhomogeneous instabilities, which partially settle the debate on multistability of the Calvin cycle. In addition, our tractable analytical treatment of the bifurcation parameters can be employed in the design of validation experiments.
Supersymmetry and integrability in planar mechanical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assis, Leonardo P.G. de; Helayel-Neto, Jose A. [Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lpgassis@cbpf.br; helayel@cbpf.br; Paschoal, Ricardo C. [Centro de Tecnologia da Industria Quimica e/ Textil (SENAI/CETIQT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: paschoal@cbpf.br
2005-05-15
We present an N = 2-supersymmetric mechanical system whose bosonic sector, with two degrees of freedom, stems from the reduction of an SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with the assumption of spatially homogeneous field configurations and a particular Ansatz imposed on the gauge potentials in the dimensional reduction procedure. The Painleve test is adopted to discuss integrability and we focus on the role of supersymmetry and parity invariance in two space dimensions for the attainment of integrable or chaotic models. Our conclusion is that the relationships among the parameters imposed by supersymmetry seem to drastically reduce the number of possibilities for integrable interaction potentials of the mechanical system under consideration. (author)
Natural inflation and low energy supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rolf Kappl
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Natural (axionic inflation provides a well-motivated and predictive scheme for the description of the early universe. It leads to sizeable primordial tensor modes and thus a high mass scale of the inflationary potential. Naïvely this seems to be at odds with low (TeV scale supersymmetry, especially when embedded in superstring theory. We show that low scale supersymmetry is compatible with natural (high scale inflation. The mechanism requires the presence of two axions that are provided through the moduli of string theory.
Cosmological constant, supersymmetry, nonassociativity, and big numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir [KazNU, Department of Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); IETP, Al-Farabi KazNU, Almaty (Kazakhstan)
2015-02-01
The nonassociative generalization of supersymmetry is considered. It is shown that the associator of four supersymmetry generators has the coefficient ∝ ℎ/l{sub 0}{sup 2} where l0 is some characteristic length. Two cases are considered: (a) l{sub 0}{sup -2} coincides with the cosmological constant; (b) l{sub 0} is the classical radius of the electron. It is also shown that the scaled constant is of the order of 10{sup -120} for the first case and 10{sup -30} for the second case. The possible manifestation and smallness of nonassociativity is discussed. (orig.)
Peculiar Quantum Phase Transitions and Hidden Supersymmetry in a Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Gang; LIANG Jiu-Qing
2009-01-01
In this paper we theoretically report an unconventional quantum phase transition of a simple Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model: an interacting collective spin system without external magnetic field. It is shown that this model with integer-spin can exhibit a first-order quantum phase transition between different disordered phases, and more intriguingly, possesses a hidden supersymmetry at the critical point. However, for half-integer spin we predict another first-order quantum phase transition between two different long-range-ordered phases with a vanishing energy gap, which is induced by the destructive topological quantum interference between the intanton and anti-instanton tunneling paths and accompanies spontaneously breaking of supersymmetry at the same critical point. We also show that, when the total spin-value varies from half-integer to integer this model can exhibit an abrupt variation of Berry phase from π to zero.
Calabi-Yau black holes and enhancement of supersymmetry in five dimensions
Chamseddine, A. H.; Sabra, W. A.
1999-08-01
BPS electric and magnetic black hole solutions which break half of supersymmetry in the theory of N=2 five-dimensional supergravity are discussed. For models which arise as compactifications of M-theory on a Calabi-Yau manifold, these solutions correspond, respectively, to the two and five branes wrapping around the homology cycles of the Calabi-Yau compact space. The electric solutions are reviewed and the magnetic solutions are constructed. The near-horizon physics of these solutions is examined and in particular the phenomenon of the enhancement of supersymmetry. The solutions for the supersymmetric Killing spinor of the near horizon geometry, identified as AdS3xS2 and AdS2xS3 are also given.
Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dobur, Didar; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Aly, Reham; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elkafrawy, Tamer
2016-06-10
A search for supersymmetry involving events with at least one photon, one electron or muon, and large missing transverse momentum has been performed by the CMS experiment. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$ of pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 8 TeV, produced at the CERN LHC. No excess of events is observed beyond expectations from standard model processes. The result of the search is interpreted in the context of a general model of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, where the charged and neutral winos are the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particles. Within this model, winos with a mass up to 360 GeV are excluded at the 95% confidence level. Two simplified models inspired by gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking are also examined, and used to derive upper limits on the production cross sections of specific supersymmetric processes.
Study of Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking in (2 + 1 Dimensional Abelian Higgs Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian-Feng Li
2010-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the dynamical mass generation in the Abelian Higgs model in 2 + 1 dimensions. Instead of adopting the approximations in [Jiang H et al., J. Phys. A 41 2008 255402.], we numerically solve the coupled Dyson–Schwinger Equations (DSEs for the fermion and gauge boson propagators using a specific truncation for the fermion-photon vertex ansatz and compare our results with the corresponding ones in the above mentioned paper. It is found that the results quoted in the above paper remain qualitatively unaffected by refining the truncation scheme of the DSEs, although there exist large quantitative differences between the results presented in the above paper and ours. In addition, our numerical results show that the critical number of fermion flavor Nc decreases steeply with the the gauge boson mass ma (or the ratio of the Higgs mass mh to the gauge boson mass ma, r = mh/ma increasing. It is thus easier to generate a finite fermion mass by the mechanism of DCSB for a small ratio r for a given ma.
Forbidden phonon: Dynamical signature of bond symmetry breaking in the iron chalcogenides
Fobes, David M.; Zaliznyak, Igor A.; Tranquada, John M.; Xu, Zhijun; Gu, Genda; He, Xu-Gang; Ku, Wei; Zhao, Yang; Matsuda, Masaaki; Garlea, V. Ovidiu; Winn, Barry
2016-09-01
Investigation of the inelastic neutron scattering spectra in Fe1 +yTe1 -xSex near a signature wave vector Q =(1 ,0 ,0 ) for the bond-order wave (BOW) formation of parent compound Fe1 +yTe [D. Fobes et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 187202 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.187202] reveals an acoustic-phonon-like dispersion present in all structural phases. While a structural Bragg peak accompanies the mode in the low-temperature phase of Fe1 +yTe , it is absent in the high-temperature tetragonal phase, where Bragg scattering at this Q is forbidden by symmetry. Notably, this mode is also observed in superconducting FeTe0.55Se0.45 , where structural and magnetic transitions are suppressed, and no BOW has been observed. The presence of this "forbidden" phonon indicates that the lattice symmetry is dynamically or locally broken by magneto-orbital BOW fluctuations, which are strongly coupled to lattice in these materials.
A Dynamic Analysis of a Record Breaking Winter Season Blocking Event
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew D. Jensen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work is to study in detail a strong North Pacific, large amplitude, and long-lived blocking event that occurred during January 23–February 16, 2014. Indeed, it was the 11th strongest Northern Hemisphere event lasting longer than 20 days since 1968. This event formed out of the strong ridge that was associated with the devastating drought in the Western United States during the winter season of 2013-2014. This blocking event had many outstanding dynamical characteristics, the chief of which was that it survived an abrupt change in the planetary-scale flow when the Pacific North American pattern index changed from positive to negative in early February. The block then reintensified and persisted into mid-February. Several diagnostic techniques are employed to investigate the change in the planetary-scale flow during early February 2014 that have been applied to blocking before but aren’t as well known in the blocking literature.
Z' mass limits and the naturalness of supersymmetry
Athron, P; Williams, A G
2015-01-01
The discovery of a 125 GeV Higgs boson and rising lower bounds on the masses of superpartners have lead to concerns that supersymmetric models are now fine tuned. Large stop masses, required for a 125 GeV Higgs, feed into the electroweak symmetry breaking conditions through renormalisation group equations forcing one to fine tune these parameters to obtain the correct electroweak vacuum expectation value. Nonetheless this fine tuning depends crucially on our assumptions about the supersymmetry breaking scale. At the same time $U(1)$ extensions provide the most compelling solution to the $\\mu$-problem, which is also a naturalness issue, and allow the tree level Higgs mass to be raised substantially above $M_Z$. These very well motivated supersymmetric models predict a new $Z'$ boson which could be discovered at the LHC and the naturalness of the model requires that the $Z'$ boson mass should not be too far above the TeV scale. Moreover this fine tuning appears at the tree level, making it less dependent on ass...
Supersymmetry Searches in Dilepton Final States with the ATLAS Experiment
Lungwitz, Matthias
One of the main goals of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadr on Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva is the search for new physics beyond the Standa rd Model. In 2011, proton- proton collisions were performed at the LHC at a center of mas s energy of 7 TeV and an in- tegrated luminosity of 4 . 7 fb − 1 was recorded. This dataset can be tested for one of the most promising theories beyond limits achieved thus far: supers ymmetry. Final states in supersym- metry events at the LHC contain highly energetic jets and siz eable missing transverse energy. The additional requirement of events with highly energetic leptons simplifies the control of the backgrounds. This work presents results of a search for supe rsymmetry in the inclusive dilepton channel. Special emphasis is put on the search within the Gau ge-Mediated Symmetry Breaking (GMSB) scenario in which the supersymmetry breaking is medi ated via gauge fields. Statis- tically independent Control Regions for the dominant Stand ard Model backgrounds as well as ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Rahmanpour
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The size and the axial and radial velocity distributions of electrically controlled droplets generated from Taylor cone operating in the stable cone-jet regime are simulated by numerical modeling of electrosprays. A model is formulated as function of liquid flow rate, needle-to-counter electrode distance, applied voltage, and electrical conductivity and surface tension of the liquid in a DC electric field is presented with a 2D electrohydrodynamic model. The droplet size reduction can be explained by evaporation and/or Coulomb explosion. Results show that moving downstream, the average velocity of droplets decreases monotonically. This paper reports a numerical study of the effects of an externally applied electric field on the dynamics of drop formation from a vertical metal capillary. The fluid issuing out of the capillary is a viscous liquid, the surrounding ambient fluid is air, and the electric field is generated by establishing a potential difference between the capillary and a horizontal, electrode placed downstream of the capillary outlet. The Primary jet Break-up and droplet transport and evaporation of electrohydrodynamic sprays is investigated by modeling of droplet size and velocity distribution in spray cones and a series of drop migrations under the influence of an electric field were carried out and the results are in good agreement with other theoretical and experimental studies.
Gupta, Anupam
2015-01-01
The effects of viscoelasticity on the dynamics and break-up of fluid threads in microfluidic T-junctions are investigated using numerical simulations of dilute polymer solutions at changing the Capillary number ($\\mbox {Ca}$), i.e. at changing the balance between the viscous forces and the surface tension at the interface, up to $\\mbox{Ca} \\approx 3 \\times 10^{-2}$. A Navier-Stokes (NS) description of the solvent based on the lattice Boltzmann models (LBM) is here coupled to constitutive equations for finite extensible non-linear elastic dumbbells with the closure proposed by Peterlin (FENE-P model). We present the results of three-dimensional simulations in a range of $\\mbox{Ca}$ which is broad enough to characterize all the three characteristic mechanisms of breakup in the confined T-junction, i.e. ${\\it squeezing}$, ${\\it dripping}$ and ${\\it jetting}$ regimes. The various model parameters of the FENE-P constitutive equations, including the polymer relaxation time $\\tau_P$ and the finite extensibility para...
Stationary axion/dilaton solutions and supersymmetry
Bergshoeff, E. A.; Kallosh, R.; Ortín, Tomas
1996-01-01
We present a new set of supersymmetric stationary solutions of pure N = 4, d = 4 supergravity (and, hence, of low-energy effective string theory) that generalize (and include) the Israel-Wilson-Pejes solutions of Einstein-Maxwell theory. All solutions have 1/4 of the supersymmetries unbroken and som
Testing supersymmetry at the next linear collider
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, J.L.
1994-09-01
If new particles are discovered, it will be important to determine if they are the supersymmetric partners of standard model bosons and fermions. Supersymmetry predicts relations among the couplings and masses of these particles. The authors discuss the prospects for testing these relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider with measurements that exploit the availability of polarized beams.
Supersymmetry in the Fractional Quantum Hall Regime
Sagi, Eran
2016-01-01
Supersymmetry (SUSY) is a symmetry transforming bosons to fermions and vice versa. Indications of its existence have been extensively sought after in high-energy experiments. However, signatures of SUSY have yet to be detected. In this manuscript we propose a condensed matter realization of SUSY on the edge of a Read-Rezayi quantum Hall state, given by filling factors of the form $\
Playing with the enveloping algebra of supersymmetry
Cattaruzza, E.; Gozzi, E.
2016-10-01
In this paper, we show how to obtain from a scalar superfield its first component via a similarity transformation. We prove that in D = 4 the generators of this similarity transformation live in the enveloping algebra of supersymmetry while for D = 1 they belong to the basic algebra.
New strings with world-sheet supersymmetry
Nichols, A; Savvidy, G K
2004-01-01
We suggest a new model of string theory with world-sheet supersymmetry. It possesses an additional global fermionic symmetry which is similar in many ways to BRST symmetry. The spectrum consists of massless states of Rarita-Schwinger fields describing infinite tower of half-integer spins.
Singularity development and supersymmetry in holography
Buchel, Alex
2017-08-01
We study the effects of supersymmetry on singularity development scenario in holography presented in [1] (BBL). We argue that the singularity persists in a supersymmetric extension of the BBL model. The challenge remains to find a string theory embedding of the singularity mechanism.
Coupled SU(3)-structures and Supersymmetry
Fino, Anna
2015-01-01
We review coupled ${\\rm SU}(3)$-structures, also known in the literature as restricted half-flat structures, in relation to supersymmetry. In particular, we study special classes of examples admitting such structures and the behaviour of flows of ${\\rm SU}(3)$-structures with respect to the coupled condition.
Report of the Supersymmetry Theory Subgroup
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wells, James D
2003-05-23
We provide a mini-guide to some of the possible manifestations of weak-scale supersymmetry. For each of six scenarios we provide: a brief description of the theoretical underpinnings, the adjustable parameters, a qualitative description of the associated phenomenology at future colliders, and comments on how to simulate each scenario with existing event generators.
Report of the Supersymmetry Theory Subgroup
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amundson, J. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Anderson, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Baer, H. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)] [and others
1996-09-17
We provide a mini-guide to some or the possible manifestations of weak scale supersymmetry. For each of six scenarios we provide: a brief description of the theoretical underpinnings, the adjustable parameters, a qualitative description of the associated phenomenology at future colliders, comments on how to simulate each scenario with existing event generators,
Playing with the enveloping algebra of supersymmetry
Cattaruzza, E
2016-01-01
In this paper we show how to obtain from a scalar superfield its first component via a similarity transformation. We prove that in D=4 the generators of this similarity transformation live in the enveloping algebra of supersymmetry while for D=1 they belong to the basic algebra.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Peng
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Tangjiashan landslide dam, which was triggered by the M_{s} = 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 in China, threatened 1.2 million people downstream of the dam. All people in Beichuan Town 3.5 km downstream of the dam and 197 thousand people in Mianyang City 85 km downstream of the dam were evacuated 10 days before the breaching of the dam. Making such an important decision under uncertainty was difficult. This paper applied a dynamic decision-making framework for dam-break emergency management (DYDEM to help rational decision in the emergency management of the Tangjiashan landslide dam. Three stages are identified with different levels of hydrological, geological and social-economic information along the timeline of the landslide dam failure event. The probability of dam failure is taken as a time series. The dam breaching parameters are predicted with a set of empirical models in stage 1 when no soil property information is known, and a physical model in stages 2 and 3 when knowledge of soil properties has been obtained. The flood routing downstream of the dam in these three stages is analyzed to evaluate the population at risk (PAR. The flood consequences, including evacuation costs, flood damage and monetized loss of life, are evaluated as functions of warning time using a human risk analysis model based on Bayesian networks. Finally, dynamic decision analysis is conducted to find the optimal time to evacuate the population at risk with minimum total loss in each of these three stages.
Supersymmetry Without (Too Much) Prejudice
Rizzo, Thomas G
2009-01-01
We have recently completed a detailed scan of the 19-dimensional parameter space of the phenomenological MSSM, i.e., the CP-conserving MSSM assuming Minimal Flavor Violation(MFV) with the first two sfermion generations degenerate. We found a large set of parameter space points that satisfied all of the existing experimental and theoretical constraints. This analysis allows us to examine the general features of the MSSM without reference to any particular SUSY breaking scenario or any other assumptions about physics at higher scales. This study opens up new possibilities for SUSY phenomenology both at colliders and in astrophysical observations.
Supersymmetry Without (Too Much) Prejudice
Rizzo, Thomas G.
2010-02-01
We have recently completed a detailed scan of the 19-dimensional parameter space of the phenomenological MSSM, i.e., the CP-conserving MSSM assuming Minimal Flavor Violation(MFV) with the firs two sfermion generations degenerate. We found a large set of parameter space points that satisfie all of the existing experimental and theoretical constraints. This analysis allows us to examine the general features of the MSSM without reference to any particular SUSY breaking scenario or any other assumptions about physics at higher scales. This study opens up new possibilities for SUSY phenomenology both at colliders and in astrophysical observations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bret R Adams
Full Text Available The DNA double-strand break (DSB is the most toxic form of DNA damage. Studies aimed at characterizing DNA repair during development suggest that homologous recombination repair (HRR is more critical in pluripotent cells compared to differentiated somatic cells in which nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ is dominant. We have characterized the DNA damage response (DDR and quality of DNA double-strand break (DSB repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, and in vitro-derived neural cells. Resolution of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF was used as a surrogate for DSB repair. The resolution of gamma-H2AX foci occurred at a slower rate in hESCs compared to neural progenitors (NPs and astrocytes perhaps reflective of more complex DSB repair in hESCs. In addition, the resolution of RAD51 foci, indicative of active homologous recombination repair (HRR, showed that hESCs as well as NPs have high capacity for HRR, whereas astrocytes do not. Importantly, the ATM kinase was shown to be critical for foci formation in astrocytes, but not in hESCs, suggesting that the DDR is different in these cells. Blocking the ATM kinase in astrocytes not only prevented the formation but also completely disassembled preformed repair foci. The ability of hESCs to form IRIF was abrogated with caffeine and siRNAs targeted against ATR, implicating that hESCs rely on ATR, rather than ATM for regulating DSB repair. This relationship dynamically changed as cells differentiated. Interestingly, while the inhibition of the DNA-PKcs kinase (and presumably non-homologous endjoining [NHEJ] in astrocytes slowed IRIF resolution it did not in hESCs, suggesting that repair in hESCs does not utilize DNA-PKcs. Altogether, our results show that hESCs have efficient DSB repair that is largely ATR-dependent HRR, whereas astrocytes critically depend on ATM for NHEJ, which, in part, is DNA-PKcs-independent.
Gauge Symmetry Breaking Patterns in an SU(5) Grand Gauge-Higgs Unification
Kojima, Kentaro; Yamashita, Toshifumi
2016-01-01
We study gauge symmetry breaking patterns of the five-dimensional $SU(5)$ grand gauge-Higgs unification compactified on an orbifold $S^1/{\\mathbb Z}_2$ with the Hosotani mechanism in the framework of the diagonal embedding method. We find matter contents that lead to the $SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ gauge symmetry on the global minimum of the effective potential and also present examples of matter content for which each regular subgroup of $SU(5)$ is realized as vacuum configuration. The finite temperature phase transitions for the models with the gauge symmetry of the standard model at zero temperature and also for supersymmetric models are studied. We show in a certain model with supersymmetry that the vacuum of the standard model selected dynamically before the inflation continues to stay there up to the present.
Vacuum stability and supersymmetry at high scales with two Higgs doublets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagnaschi, E.; Buchmueller, W.; Voigt, A.; Weiglein, G. [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Bruemmer, F. [Montpellier Univ. (France). Lab. Univers et Particules de Montpellier
2016-02-15
We investigate the stability of the electroweak vacuum for two-Higgs doublet models with a supersymmetric UV completion. The supersymmetry breaking scale is taken to be of the order of the grand unification scale. We first study the case where all superpartners decouple at this scale. We show that contrary to the Standard Model with one Higgs doublet, matching to the supersymmetric UV completion is possible if the low-scale model contains two Higgs doublets. In this case vacuum stability and experimental constraints point towards low values of tanβ
Photons, missing energy and the quest for supersymmetry at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gebbert, Ulla
2012-03-15
In this thesis a search for supersymmetry in events with at least one photon, jets and missing transverse energy (E{sub T}) in an integrated luminosity of 4.32 fb{sup -1} of pp collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV is presented. The data is recorded by the CMS detector in 2011. Final states with photons are expected in models with gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, where the lightest supersymmetric particle is the gravitino. The gravitino leaves the detector without energy deposition and thus leads to missing transverse momentum in the event. E{sub T} is crucial to distinguish the signal from the Standard Model events and is reconstructed from all energy deposits in the detector. Due to the non-linearity of the response in the calorimeter, additional corrections are required. In this thesis, a data driven technique to determine the correction for unclustered energy deposits, using the transverse momentum balance between a Z boson and the hadronic recoil, is presented. For the search for supersymmetry the E{sub T} distribution measured in data is compared to the expected Standard Model distribution. For this purpose the main Standard Model background processes from QCD multi- and photon-jet or electro-weak processes are modelled using data events. No excess over the Standard Model expectation is observed. Exclusion limits at the 95% CL are set and interpreted in the GMSB parameter space.
Lawler, Michael
I generalize the theory of phonon topological band structures of isostatic lattices to highly frustrated antiferromagnets. I achieve this with a discovery of a many-body supersymmetry (SUSY) in the phonon problem of balls and springs which also applies to geometrically frustrated magnets. The Witten index of the SUSY model, when restricted to the single body problem (meaningful for linearized phonons), is then shown to be the Calladine-Kane-Lubensky index of mechanical structures that forms the cornerstone of the phonon topological band structure theory. ``Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking'' is then identified as the need to gap all modes in the bulk to create the topological state. The many-body SUSY formulation shows that the topology is not restricted to a band structure problem but extends to systems of coupled bosons and fermions that are in principle also realizable in solid state systems. The analogus supersymmetry of the magnon problem turns out to be particularly useful for highly frustrated magnets with the kagome family of antiferromagnets an analog of topological isostatic lattices. Thus, a solid state realization of the theory of phonon topological band structure may be found in highly frustrated magnets. However, our results show that this topology is protected not
Dark Energy density in models with Split Supersymmetry and degenerate vacua
Froggatt, C; Nielsen, H B
2011-01-01
The breakdown of global symmetries, which protect a zero value for the cosmological constant in supergravity (SUGRA) models, may lead to a set of degenerate vacua with broken and unbroken supersymmetry (SUSY) whose vacuum energy densities vanish in the leading approximation. Assuming the degeneracy of vacua with broken and unbroken SUSY originating in the hidden sector, we estimate the value of the cosmological constant. We argue that the observed value of the dark energy density can be reproduced in the Split-SUSY scenario if the SUSY breaking scale is of order of 10^{10} GeV.
Nonuniversal gaugino masses and seminatural supersymmetry in view of the Higgs boson discovery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, Stephen P. [Santa Barbara, KITP
2014-02-20
I consider models with non-universal gaugino masses at the gauge coupling unification scale, taking into account the Higgs boson discovery. Viable regions of parameter space are mapped and studied in the case of non-universality following from an F-term in a linear combination of singlet and adjoint representations of SU(5). I consider, in particular, "semi-natural" models that have small \\mu, with gaugino masses dominating the supersymmetry breaking terms at high energies. Higgsino-like particles are then much lighter than all other superpartners, and the prospects for discovery at the Large Hadron Collider can be extremely challenging.