Dongen, C.J.G. van; Maanen, P.P. van
Future platforms are envisioned in which human-machine teams are able to share and trade tasks as demands in situations change. It seems that human-machine coordination has not received the attention it deserves by past and present approaches to task allocation. In this paper a simple way to make
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...
Mayr, Ulrich; Kuhns, David; Rieter, Miranda
With the goal to determine the cognitive architecture that underlies flexible changes of control settings, we assessed within-trial and across-trial dynamics of attentional selection by tracking of eye movements in the context of a cued task-switching paradigm. Within-trial dynamics revealed a switch-induced, discrete delay in onset of…
Schatz, Enid; Gilbert, Leah
Compromised health negatively impacts older persons' ability to participate in expected social roles. Researchers have published little empirical work, however, to explore these issues in HIV endemic African settings. Qualitative interviews with 30 women, aged 60-plus, in rural South Africa, provide insight into the relationship between health and daily activities, with attention to the fulfillment of social roles. In this poor HIV endemic context, older women make connections between their compromised health and their (lack of) capacity to perform the daily tasks that they view as expected of them. By expanding the conceptualization of health to include the capacity to achieve the expectations and perform the tasks expected of one, we better understand how and why health and performance of daily activities are so intricately linked in the minds of respondents. This also provides a starting point for thinking about the social and structural support needed by older persons in these settings, especially as HIV erodes familial supports.
Determination of fetch requirements for accurate Bowen-ratio measurements of latent- and sensible-heat fluxes is more involved than for eddy-correlation measurements because Bowen-ratio sensors are located at two heights, rather than just one. A simple solution to the diffusion equation is used to derive an expression for Bowen-ratio fetch requirements, downwind of a step change in surface fluxes. These requirements are then compared to eddy-correlation fetch requirements based on the same diffusion equation solution. When the eddy-correlation and upper Bowen-ratio sensor heights are equal, and the available energy upwind and downwind of the step change is constant, the Bowen-ratio method requires less fetch than does eddy correlation. Differences in fetch requirements between the two methods are greatest over relatively smooth surfaces. Bowen-ratio fetch can be reduced significantly by lowering the lower sensor, as well as the upper sensor. The Bowen-ratio fetch model was tested using data from a field experiment where multiple Bowen-ratio systems were deployed simultaneously at various fetches and heights above a field of bermudagrass. Initial comparisons were poor, but improved greatly when the model was modified (and operated numerically) to account for the large roughness of the upwind cotton field.
Turcsán, Borbála; Szánthó, Flóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő
Research using the two-object choice paradigm showed that dogs prefer the object associated with the happy human emotion. However, they provided rather ambiguous results regarding the negative emotions. We assumed that differences between the dogs' and owners' interest towards the 'negative' object might be responsible for this. In our experiment, dogs observed their owner expressing different emotions towards two uniform plastic bottles. Five dog groups were tested based on the condition they received: (1) happy versus neutral, (2) happy versus disgust, (3) neutral versus disgust and (4-5) neutral vs neutral, as control groups. Contrary to previous studies using free choice paradigm, we used a task-driven approach. After the demonstration, the dogs had to retrieve one object to the owner. The dogs' performance in the two neutral-neutral groups did not differ from the chance level. In contrast, subjects were able to distinguish between the happy and neutral expression of the owner: they both approached and fetched the 'happy' object. In the happy-disgusted and neutral-disgusted groups, the dogs approached the bottles randomly, suggesting that they found the 'disgusting' and 'neutral' objects equally attractive. Nevertheless, the dogs preferentially retrieved the object marked with the relatively more positive emotion (happy or neutral) to the owner in both conditions. Our results demonstrate that dogs are able to recognize which is the more positive among two emotions, and in a fetching task situation, they override their own interest in the 'disgusting' object and retrieve what the owner prefers.
Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N.O.
heat flux and momentum (phi(h) and phi(m)) and analysed as a function of atmospheric stability and fetch. For heat, the influences of the roughness sublayer and the internal boundary layer were in agreement with previous studies. For momentum, the strong vertical gradient of the flow just above...... surface. The different influence of the roughness sublayer on phi(h) and phi(m) is reflected in the aerodynamic resistance for the site. The aerodynamic resistance for sensible heat is considerably smaller than the corresponding value for momentum.......The influence of an internal boundary layer and a roughness sublayer on flux-profile relationships for momentum and sensible heat have been investigated for a closed beech forest canopy with limited fetch conditions. The influence was quantified by derivation of local scaling functions for sensible...
Karimpour, Arash; Chen, Qin; Twilley, Robert R.
Wetland dominated estuaries serve as one of the most productive natural ecosystems through their ecological, economic and cultural services, such as nursery grounds for fisheries, nutrient sequestration, and ecotourism. The ongoing deterioration of wetland ecosystems in many shallow estuaries raises concerns about the contributing erosive processes and their roles in restraining coastal restoration efforts. Given the combination of wetlands and shallow bays as landscape components that determine the function of estuaries, successful restoration strategies require knowledge of wind wave behavior in fetch and depth limited water as a critical design feature. We experimentally evaluate physics of wind wave growth in fetch and depth limited estuaries. We demonstrate that wave growth rate in shallow estuaries is a function of wind fetch to water depth ratio, which helps to develop a new set of parametric wave growth equations. We find that the final stage of wave growth in shallow estuaries can be presented by a product of water depth and wave number, whereby their product approaches 1.363 as either depth or wave energy increases. Suggested wave growth equations and their asymptotic constraints establish the magnitude of wave forces acting on wetland erosion that must be included in ecosystem restoration design.
Tajima, Satohiro; Koida, Kowa; Tajima, Chihiro I; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Komatsu, Hidehiko
The capacity for flexible sensory-action association in animals has been related to context-dependent attractor dynamics outside the sensory cortices. Here, we report a line of evidence that flexibly modulated attractor dynamics during task switching are already present in the higher visual cortex in macaque monkeys. With a nonlinear decoding approach, we can extract the particular aspect of the neural population response that reflects the task-induced emergence of bistable attractor dynamics in a neural population, which could be obscured by standard unsupervised dimensionality reductions such as PCA. The dynamical modulation selectively increases the information relevant to task demands, indicating that such modulation is beneficial for perceptual decisions. A computational model that features nonlinear recurrent interaction among neurons with a task-dependent background input replicates the key properties observed in the experimental data. These results suggest that the context-dependent attractor dynamics involving the sensory cortex can underlie flexible perceptual abilities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26868.001 PMID:28737487
Giraldo, Luis Felipe; Passino, Kevin M
In the study of the behavior of human groups, it has been observed that there is a strong interaction between the cohesiveness of the group, its performance when the group has to solve a task, and the patterns of communication between the members of the group. Developing mathematical and computational tools for the analysis and design of task-solving groups that are not only cohesive but also perform well is of importance in social sciences, organizational management, and engineering. In this paper, we model a human group as a dynamical system whose behavior is driven by a task optimization process and the interaction between subsystems that represent the members of the group interconnected according to a given communication network. These interactions are described as attractions and repulsions among members. We show that the dynamics characterized by the proposed mathematical model are qualitatively consistent with those observed in real-human groups, where the key aspect is that the attraction patterns in the group and the commitment to solve the task are not static but change over time. Through a theoretical analysis of the system we provide conditions on the parameters that allow the group to have cohesive behaviors, and Monte Carlo simulations are used to study group dynamics for different sets of parameters, communication topologies, and tasks to solve.
Full Text Available Imaging satellite scheduling is an NP-hard problem with many complex constraints. This paper researches the scheduling problem for dynamic tasks oriented to some emergency cases. After the dynamic properties of satellite scheduling were analyzed, the optimization model is proposed in this paper. Based on the model, two heuristic algorithms are proposed to solve the problem. The first heuristic algorithm arranges new tasks by inserting or deleting them, then inserting them repeatedly according to the priority from low to high, which is named IDI algorithm. The second one called ISDR adopts four steps: insert directly, insert by shifting, insert by deleting, and reinsert the tasks deleted. Moreover, two heuristic factors, congestion degree of a time window and the overlapping degree of a task, are employed to improve the algorithm’s performance. Finally, a case is given to test the algorithms. The results show that the IDI algorithm is better than ISDR from the running time point of view while ISDR algorithm with heuristic factors is more effective with regard to algorithm performance. Moreover, the results also show that our method has good performance for the larger size of the dynamic tasks in comparison with the other two methods.
Giele, T.R.A.; Mioch, T.; Neerincx, M.A.; Meyer, J.J.C.
Artificial agents, such as robots, are increasingly deployed for teamwork in dynamic, high-demand environments. This paper presents a framework, which applies context information to establish task (re)allocations that improve human-robot team’s performance. Based on the framework, a model for
Ursem, Rasmus Kjær; Krink, Thiemo; Jensen, Mikkel Thomas
Most applications of evolutionary algorithms deal with static optimization problems. However, in recent years, there has been a growing interest in time-varying (dynamic) problems, which are typically found in real-world scenarios. One major challenge in this field is the design of realistic test......-case generators (TCGs), which requires a systematic analysis of dynamic optimization tasks. So far, only a few TCGs have been suggested. Our investigation leads to the conclusion that these TCGs are not capable of generating realistic dynamic benchmark tests. The result of our research is the design of a new TCG...
James M. Rehg
Full Text Available There is an emerging class of real‐time interactive applications that require the dynamic integration of task and data parallelism. An example is the Smart Kiosk, a free‐standing computer device that provides information and entertainment to people in public spaces. The kiosk interface is computationally demanding: It employs vision and speech sensing and an animated graphical talking face for output. The computational demands of an interactive kiosk can vary widely with the number of customers and the state of the interaction. Unfortunately this makes it difficult to apply current techniques for integrated task and data parallel computing, which can produce optimal decompositions for static problems. Using experimental results from a color‐based people tracking module, we demonstrate the existence of a small number of distinct operating regimes in the kiosk application. We refer to this type of program behavior as constrained dynamism. An application exhibiting constrained dynamism can execute efficiently by dynamically switching among a small number of statically determined fixed data parallel strategies. We present a novel framework for integrating task and data parallelism for applications that exhibit constrained dynamism. Our solution has been implemented using Stampede, a cluster programming system developed at the Cambridge Research Laboratory.
Kurt, Mehmet Can [Quantcast Corporation, San Francisco, CA; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA; Agrawal, Gagan [The Ohio State University, Neil Avenue Columbus, OH; Ren, Bin [The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA
The emergence of the multi-core era has led to increased interest in designing effective yet practical parallel programming models. Models based on task graphs that operate on single-assignment data are attractive in several ways: they can support dynamic applications and precisely represent the available concurrency. However, they also require nuanced algorithms for scheduling and memory management for efficient execution. In this paper, we consider memory-efficient dynamic scheduling of task graphs. Specifically, we present a novel approach for dynamically recycling the memory locations assigned to data items as they are produced by tasks. We develop algorithms to identify memory-efficient store recycling functions by systematically evaluating the validity of a set of (user-provided or automatically generated) alternatives. Because recycling function can be input data-dependent, we have also developed support for continued correct execution of a task graph in the presence of a potentially incorrect store recycling function. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that our approach to automatic store recycling incurs little to no overheads, achieves memory usage comparable to the best manually derived solutions, often produces recycling functions valid across problem sizes and input parameters, and efficiently recovers from an incorrect choice of store recycling functions.
Geernaert, G. L.; Smith, J. A.
a maximum when the phase speed of the dominant wind wave has a value near 7 u*, where u* is the friction velocity. This corresponds to a maximum near 2 km fetch during moderate windspeed, and the maximum value of the drag coefficient corresponds to an increased fetch of 13 km for windspeeds of 20 m/sec. We......The drag coefficient has been postulated by many investigators to depend on fetch. For constant windspeed and stability, laboratory data generally show an increasing drag coefficient with fetch while field observations show a decreasing dependence. In this study, we show that if one combines...... the spectral form of the roughness length proposed by Kitaigorodskii with the JONSWAP wave spectrum and extrapolate to very short fetch, then the predicted drag coefficient exhibits a behaviour which coarsely reproduces field and laboratory observations. The results indicate that the drag coefficient exhibits...
Mønster, Dan; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær
Recent research suggests that shared behavioral dynamics during interpersonal interaction are indicative of subjective and objective outcomes of the interaction, such as feelings of rapport and success of performance. The role of shared physiological dynamics to quantify interpersonal interaction...... production task. Moreover, high team synchrony is found indicative of team cohesion, while low team synchrony is found indicative of a teams' decision to adopt a new behavior across multiple production sessions. We conclude that team-level measures of synchrony offer new and complementary information...
Full Text Available An EOD robot system, SUPER-PLUS, which has a novel semi-automatic bomb fetching function is presented in this paper. With limited support of human, SUPER-PLUS scans the cluttered environment with a wrist-mounted laser distance sensor and plans the manipulator a collision free path to fetch the bomb. The model construction of manipulator, bomb and environment, C-space map, path planning and the operation procedure are introduced in detail. The semi-automatic bomb fetching function has greatly improved the operation performance of EOD robot.
Full Text Available An EOD robot system, SUPER-PLUS, which has a novel semi-automatic bomb fetching function is presented in this paper. With limited support of human, SUPER-PLUS scans the cluttered environment with a wrist-mounted laser distance sensor and plans the manipulator a collision free path to fetch the bomb. The model construction of manipulator, bomb and environment, C-space map, path planning and the operation procedure are introduced in detail. The semi-automatic bomb fetching function has greatly improved the operation performance of EOD robot.
Pfleging, Johannes; Stücheli, Marius; Iovita, Radu; Buchli, Jonas
Reconstructing ancient technical gestures associated with simple tool actions is crucial for understanding the co-evolution of the human forelimb and its associated control-related cognitive functions on the one hand, and of the human technological arsenal on the other hand. Although the topic of gesture is an old one in Paleolithic archaeology and in anthropology in general, very few studies have taken advantage of the new technologies from the science of kinematics in order to improve replicative experimental protocols. Recent work in paleoanthropology has shown the potential of monitored replicative experiments to reconstruct tool-use-related motions through the study of fossil bones, but so far comparatively little has been done to examine the dynamics of the tool itself. In this paper, we demonstrate that we can statistically differentiate gestures used in a simple scraping task through dynamic monitoring. Dynamics combines kinematics (position, orientation, and speed) with contact mechanical parameters (force and torque). Taken together, these parameters are important because they play a role in the formation of a visible archaeological signature, use-wear. We present our new affordable, yet precise methodology for measuring the dynamics of a simple hide-scraping task, carried out using a pull-to (PT) and a push-away (PA) gesture. A strain gage force sensor combined with a visual tag tracking system records force, torque, as well as position and orientation of hafted flint stone tools. The set-up allows switching between two tool configurations, one with distal and the other one with perpendicular hafting of the scrapers, to allow for ethnographically plausible reconstructions. The data show statistically significant differences between the two gestures: scraping away from the body (PA) generates higher shearing forces, but requires greater hand torque. Moreover, most benchmarks associated with the PA gesture are more highly variable than in the PT gesture
Full Text Available Reconstructing ancient technical gestures associated with simple tool actions is crucial for understanding the co-evolution of the human forelimb and its associated control-related cognitive functions on the one hand, and of the human technological arsenal on the other hand. Although the topic of gesture is an old one in Paleolithic archaeology and in anthropology in general, very few studies have taken advantage of the new technologies from the science of kinematics in order to improve replicative experimental protocols. Recent work in paleoanthropology has shown the potential of monitored replicative experiments to reconstruct tool-use-related motions through the study of fossil bones, but so far comparatively little has been done to examine the dynamics of the tool itself. In this paper, we demonstrate that we can statistically differentiate gestures used in a simple scraping task through dynamic monitoring. Dynamics combines kinematics (position, orientation, and speed with contact mechanical parameters (force and torque. Taken together, these parameters are important because they play a role in the formation of a visible archaeological signature, use-wear. We present our new affordable, yet precise methodology for measuring the dynamics of a simple hide-scraping task, carried out using a pull-to (PT and a push-away (PA gesture. A strain gage force sensor combined with a visual tag tracking system records force, torque, as well as position and orientation of hafted flint stone tools. The set-up allows switching between two tool configurations, one with distal and the other one with perpendicular hafting of the scrapers, to allow for ethnographically plausible reconstructions. The data show statistically significant differences between the two gestures: scraping away from the body (PA generates higher shearing forces, but requires greater hand torque. Moreover, most benchmarks associated with the PA gesture are more highly variable than in
Robert W Mill
Full Text Available Classical signal detection theory attributes bias in perceptual decisions to a threshold criterion, against which sensory excitation is compared. The optimal criterion setting depends on the signal level, which may vary over time, and about which the subject is naïve. Consequently, the subject must optimise its threshold by responding appropriately to feedback. Here a series of experiments was conducted, and a computational model applied, to determine how the decision bias of the ferret in an auditory signal detection task tracks changes in the stimulus level. The time scales of criterion dynamics were investigated by means of a yes-no signal-in-noise detection task, in which trials were grouped into blocks that alternately contained easy- and hard-to-detect signals. The responses of the ferrets implied both long- and short-term criterion dynamics. The animals exhibited a bias in favour of responding "yes" during blocks of harder trials, and vice versa. Moreover, the outcome of each single trial had a strong influence on the decision at the next trial. We demonstrate that the single-trial and block-level changes in bias are a manifestation of the same criterion update policy by fitting a model, in which the criterion is shifted by fixed amounts according to the outcome of the previous trial and decays strongly towards a resting value. The apparent block-level stabilisation of bias arises as the probabilities of outcomes and shifts on single trials mutually interact to establish equilibrium. To gain an intuition into how stable criterion distributions arise from specific parameter sets we develop a Markov model which accounts for the dynamic effects of criterion shifts. Our approach provides a framework for investigating the dynamics of decisions at different timescales in other species (e.g., humans and in other psychological domains (e.g., vision, memory.
Mønster, Dan; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Wallot, Sebastian
Recent research suggests that shared behavioral dynamics during interpersonal interaction are indicative of subjective and objective outcomes of the interaction, such as feelings of rapport and success of performance. The role of shared physiological dynamics to quantify interpersonal interaction, however, has received comparatively little attention. In the present study, we investigate the coordination dynamics of multiple psychophysiological measures and their utility in capturing emotional dynamics in teams. We use data from an experiment where teams of three people built origami boats together in an assembly-line manner while their heart rate, skin conductance, and facial muscle activity were recorded. Our results show that physiological synchrony of skin conductance measures and eletromyographic measures of the corrugator supercilii develops spontaneously among team members during this cooperative production task. Moreover, high team synchrony is found indicative of team cohesion, while low team synchrony is found indicative of a teams' decision to adopt a new behavior across multiple production sessions. We conclude that team-level measures of synchrony offer new and complementary information compared to measures of individual levels of physiological activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bender, Angela D.; Filmer, Hannah L.; Naughtin, Claire K.; Dux, Paul E.
The ability to perform multiple tasks concurrently is an ever-increasing requirement in our information-rich world. Despite this, multitasking typically compromises performance due to the processing limitations associated with cognitive control and decision-making. While intensive dual-task training is known to improve multitasking performance, only limited evidence suggests that training-related performance benefits can transfer to untrained tasks that share overlapping processes. In the real world, however, coordinating and selecting several responses within close temporal proximity will often occur in high-interference environments. Over the last decade, there have been notable reports that training on video action games that require dynamic multitasking in a demanding environment can lead to transfer effects on aspects of cognition such as attention and working memory. Here, we asked whether continuous and dynamic multitasking training extends benefits to tasks that are theoretically related to the trained tasks. To examine this issue, we asked a group of participants to train on a combined continuous visuomotor tracking task and a perceptual discrimination task for six sessions, while an active control group practiced the component tasks in isolation. A battery of tests measuring response selection, response inhibition, and spatial attention was administered before and immediately after training to investigate transfer. Multitasking training resulted in substantial, task-specific gains in dual-task ability, but there was no evidence that these benefits generalized to other action control tasks. The findings suggest that training on a combined visuomotor tracking and discrimination task results in task-specific benefits but provides no additional value for untrained action selection tasks.
In this paper we show how to formalise false-belief tasks like the Sally-Anne task and the second-order chocolate task in Dynamic Epistemic Logic (DEL). False-belief tasks are used to test the strength of the Theory of Mind (ToM) of humans, that is, a human’s ability to attribute mental states...
Full Text Available Relationship between practice and serial position effects was investigated, in order to obtain more evidence for underlying short-term memory processes. The investigated relationship is termed the dynamics of serial position change. To address this issue, the present study investigated mean latency, errors, and performed Ex-Gaussian convolution analysis. In six-block trials the probe-recognition task was used in the so-called fast experimental procedure. The serial position effect was significant in all six blocks. Both primacy and recency effects were detected, with primacy located in the first two blocks, producing a non-linear serial position effect. Although the serial position function became linear from the third block on, the convolution analysis revealed a non-linear change of the normal distribution parameter, suggesting special status of the last two serial positions. Further, separation of convolution parameters for serial position and practice was observed, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. In order to account for these findings, a strategy shift mechanism is suggested, rather then a mechanism based on changing the manner of memory scanning. Its influence is primarily located at the very beginning of the experimental session. The pattern of results of errors regarding the dynamics of serial position change closely paralleled those on reaction times. Several models of short-term memory were evaluated in order to account for these findings.
Muraskin, Jordan; Dodhia, Sonam; Lieberman, Gregory; Garcia, Javier O.; Verstynen, Timothy; Vettel, Jean M.; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul
Abstract Post?task resting state dynamics can be viewed as a task?driven state where behavioral performance is improved through endogenous, non?explicit learning. Tasks that have intrinsic value for individuals are hypothesized to produce post?task resting state dynamics that promote learning. We measured simultaneous fMRI/EEG and DTI in Division?1 collegiate baseball players and compared to a group of controls, examining differences in both functional and structural connectivity. Participant...
Full Text Available Why is the human brain fundamentally limited when attempting to execute two tasks at the same time or in close succession? Two classical paradigms, psychological refractory period (PRP and task switching, have independently approached this issue, making significant advances in our understanding of the architecture of cognition. Yet, there is an apparent contradiction between the conclusions derived from these two paradigms. The PRP paradigm, on the one hand, suggests that the simultaneous execution of two tasks is limited solely by a passive structural bottleneck in which the tasks are executed on a first-come, first-served basis. The task-switching paradigm, on the other hand, argues that switching back and forth between task configurations must be actively controlled by a central executive system (the system controlling voluntary, planned, and flexible action. Here we have explicitly designed an experiment mixing the essential ingredients of both paradigms: task uncertainty and task simultaneity. In addition to a central bottleneck, we obtain evidence for active processes of task setting (planning of the appropriate sequence of actions and task disengaging (suppression of the plan set for the first task in order to proceed with the next one. Our results clarify the chronometric relations between these central components of dual-task processing, and in particular whether they operate serially or in parallel. On this basis, we propose a hierarchical model of cognitive architecture that provides a synthesis of task-switching and PRP paradigms.
Chambers, S.; Zahorowski, W.; Werczynski, S.; Wang, T.; Poon, S.; Kim, J.; Oh, S.-N.; Knag, H.; Uematsu, M.; Matsumoto, K.
Seasonal variations in fetch regions for air masses exhibiting the greatest and least terrestrial influence at three sites in East Asia are discussed. Results are based on the first year of hourly atmospheric radon concentration observations made as part of the Asian Aerosol Characterisation Experiment (ACE-Asia). Fetch regions for Asian continental outflow to the Pacific Basin within the boundary layer are shown to be distinct from corresponding tropospheric outflow events. Analysis of the hourly radon time series in conjunction with back trajectory analysis indicates the presence of a large localised radon source in south eastern China
Commissaris, D.A.C.M.; Könemann, R.; Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S.; Burford, E.M.; Botter, J.; Douwes, M.; Ellegast, R.P.
Sedentary work entails health risks. Dynamic (or active) workstations, at which computer tasks can be combined with physical activity, may reduce the risks of sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to evaluate short term task performance while working on three dynamic workstations: a
Leung, Allen; Lee, Arthur Man Sang
This paper describes a task-based dynamic geometry platform that is able to record student responses in a collective fashion to pre-designed dragging tasks. The platform provides a new type of data and opens up a quantitative dimension to interpret students' geometrical perception in dynamic geometry environments. The platform is capable of…
Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Besides cognitive factors, children's learning at school may be influenced by more dynamic phenomena, such as motivation and achievement-related task-avoidant behavior. The present study examined the developmental dynamics of task-avoidant behavior and math performance from kindergarten to Grade 4. A total of 225 children were tested for their arithmetic skills in kindergarten and in Grades 1, 2, and 4 of elementary school. Children's task-avoidant behavior in learning situations was rated by...
Full Text Available Background: In everyday life, people engage in situations involving the concurrent processing of motor (balance and cognitive tasks (i.e., “dual task situations” that result in performance declines in at least one of the given tasks. The concurrent practice of both the motor and cognitive task may counteract these performance decrements. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of single task (ST compared to dual task (DT practice on learning a dynamic balance task.Methods: Forty-eight young adults were randomly assigned to either a ST (i.e., motor or cognitive task training only or a DT (i.e., motor-cognitive training practice condition. The motor task required participants to stand on a platform and keeping the platform as close to horizontal as possible. In the cognitive task, participants were asked to recite serial subtractions of three. For 2 days, participants of the ST groups practiced the motor or cognitive task only, while the participants of the DT group concurrently performed both. Root-mean-square error (RMSE for the motor and total number of correct calculations for the cognitive task were computed.Results: During practice, all groups improved their respective balance and/or cognitive task performance. With regard to the assessment of learning on day 3, we found significantly smaller RMSE values for the ST motor (d = 1.31 and the DT motor-cognitive (d = 0.76 practice group compared to the ST cognitive practice group but not between the ST motor and the DT motor-cognitive practice group under DT test condition. Further, we detected significantly larger total numbers of correct calculations under DT test condition for the ST cognitive (d = 2.19 and the DT motor-cognitive (d = 1.55 practice group compared to the ST motor practice group but not between the ST cognitive and the DT motor-cognitive practice group.Conclusion: We conclude that ST practice resulted in an effective modulation of the trained domain (i.e., motor
Patterson, Janet L; Rodríguez, Barbara L; Dale, Philip S
The purpose of this study was to determine whether typically developing preschool children with bilingual experience show evidence of learning within brief dynamic assessment language tasks administered in a graduated prompting framework. Dynamic assessment has shown promise for accurate identification of language impairment in bilingual children, and a graduated prompting approach may be well-suited to screening for language impairment. Three dynamic language tasks with graduated prompting were presented to 32 typically developing 4-year-olds in the language to which the child had the most exposure (16 Spanish, 16 English). The tasks were a novel word learning task, a semantic task, and a phonological awareness task. Children's performance was significantly higher on the last 2 items compared with the first 2 items for the semantic and the novel word learning tasks among children who required a prompt on the 1st item. There was no significant difference between the 1st and last items on the phonological awareness task. Within-task improvements in children's performance for some tasks administered within a brief, graduated prompting framework were observed. Thus, children's responses to graduated prompting may be an indicator of modifiability, depending on the task type and level of difficulty.
Svendsen, Jacob H; Samani, Afshin; Mayntzhusen, Klaus; Madeleine, Pascal
This study examined muscular activity patterns of extensor and flexor muscles and variability of forces during static and dynamic tracking tasks using compensatory and pursuit display. Fourteen volunteers performed isometric actions in two conditions: (i) a static tracking task consisting of flexion/pronation, ulnar deviation, extension/supination and radial deviation of the wrist at 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and (ii) a dynamic tracking task aiming at following a moving target at 20% MVC in the four directions of contraction. Surface electromyography (SEMG) from extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum superficialis muscles and exerted forces in the transverse and sagittal plane were recorded. Normalized root mean square and mutual information (index of functional connectivity within muscles) of SEMGs and the standard deviation and sample entropy of force signals were extracted. Larger SEMG amplitudes were found for the dynamic task (pstatic task (pforce) concomitant with smaller sample entropy was observed for the dynamic task compared with the static task (pforce variability relying on feedback and feed-forward control strategies in relation to display modes during static and dynamic tracking tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Modern embedded systems are being modeled as Reconfigurable High Speed Computing System (RHSCS where Reconfigurable Hardware, that is, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA, and softcore processors configured on FPGA act as computing elements. As system complexity increases, efficient task distribution methodologies are essential to obtain high performance. A dynamic task distribution methodology based on Minimum Laxity First (MLF policy (DTD-MLF distributes the tasks of an application dynamically onto RHSCS and utilizes available RHSCS resources effectively. The DTD-MLF methodology takes the advantage of runtime design parameters of an application represented as DAG and considers the attributes of tasks in DAG and computing resources to distribute the tasks of an application onto RHSCS. In this paper, we have described the DTD-MLF model and verified its effectiveness by distributing some of real life benchmark applications onto RHSCS configured on Virtex-5 FPGA device. Some benchmark applications are represented as DAG and are distributed to the resources of RHSCS based on DTD-MLF model. The performance of the MLF based dynamic task distribution methodology is compared with static task distribution methodology. The comparison shows that the dynamic task distribution model with MLF criteria outperforms the static task distribution techniques in terms of schedule length and effective utilization of available RHSCS resources.
The advent of dynamic geometry software has changed the way students draw, construct, and measure by using virtual tools instead of or along with physical tools. Use of technology in general and of dynamic geometry in particular has gained traction in mathematics education, as evidenced in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI…
Since the industrial revolution, machines have taken over many tasks from humans, increasing labor productivity and prosperity. In the 20th century, the introduction of robots created a second wave of automation, increasing the labor productivity even further. In order to create a third wave of
The specific goal of this research was to examine the role of individual differences in cognitive and non-cognitive abilities on individual and team performance in a real-time dynamic team-task environment...
Dahl, Torbjorn S; Mataric, Maja J; Sukhatme, Gaurav S
.... We present a multi-robot task allocation algorithm that is sensitive to group dynamics. Our algorithm is based on vacancy chains, a resource distribution process common in human and animal societies...
Evan Peter Williamson
Full Text Available OpenRefine is a powerful tool for exploring, cleaning, and transforming data. An earlier Programming Historian lesson, “Cleaning Data with OpenRefine”, introduced the basic functionality of Refine to efficiently discover and correct inconsistency in a data set. Building on those essential data wrangling skills, this lesson focuses on Refine’s ability to fetch URLs and parse web content. Examples introduce some of the advanced features to transform and enhance a data set including: - fetch URLs using Refine - construct URL queries to retrieve information from a simple web API - parse HTML and JSON responses to extract relevant data - use array functions to manipulate string values - use Jython to extend Refine’s functionality It will be helpful to have basic familiarity with OpenRefine, HTML, and programming concepts such as variables and loops to complete this lesson.
Since the industrial revolution, machines have taken over many tasks from humans, increasing labor productivity and prosperity. In the 20th century, the introduction of robots created a second wave of automation, increasing the labor productivity even further. In order to create a third wave of automation, it is necessary to develop a new generation of robots that is able to act in unknown, unstructured environments, such as households, space and factories in which humans and robots collabora...
Yuanlong Cao; Jianfeng Guan; Wei Quan; Jia Zhao; Changqiao Xu; Hongke Zhang
In recent years, network management is commonly regarded as an essential and promising function for managing and improving the security of network infrastructures. However, as networks get faster and network centric applications get more complex, there is still significant ongoing work addressing many challenges of the network management. Traditional passive network censoring systems lack of adaptive policy pre-fetching scheme, as a result, preventing malicious behavior (such as hacker, malwa...
Lange, B. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Hoejstrup, J. [NEG Micon, Randers (Denmark)
The increasing interest in harvesting wind energy offshore requires reliable tools for the wind resource estimation at these sites. Most commonly used for wind resource predictions on land as well as offshore is the WAsP program. This program has been validated extensively for sites on land and at the coast. However, due to the lack of suitable measurements there is still a need for further validation for offshore sites. New data from ongoing measurements in the Danish Baltic Sea region are available now. The wind resources estimated from these measurements are compared to WAsP-predictions. They are found to agree well. The only deviation found is for two sites with comparable distance to the coast but with a different distribution of land. Here the measurements show slightly different wind resources which are not predicted by WAsP. Wind speed ratios of several pairs of stations are modelled with WAsP for 12 directional sectors and compared with the measurements. Deviations in the directional wind speed predictions were found to be dependent on the corresponding sea fetches: For smaller sea fetches WAsP seems to slightly overpredict the wind speed, while for long fetches of more than 30 km an underprediction is found. (au)
Michioka, Takenobu; Takimoto, Hiroshi; Ono, Hiroki; Sato, Ayumu
The effects of fetch on turbulent flow and pollutant dispersion within a canopy formed by regularly-spaced cubical objects is investigated using large-eddy simulation. Six tracer gases are simultaneously released from a ground-level continuous pollutant line source placed parallel to the spanwise axis at the first, second, third, fifth, seventh and tenth rows. Beyond the seventh row, the standard deviations of the fluctuations in the velocity components and the Reynolds shear stresses reach nearly equivalent states. Low-frequency turbulent flow is generated near the bottom surface around the first row and develops as the fetch increases. The turbulent flow eventually passes through the canopy at a near-constant interval. The mean concentration within the canopy reaches a near-constant value beyond the seventh row. In the first and second rows, narrow coherent structures frequently affect the pollutant escape from the top of the canopy. These structures increase in width as the fetch increases, and they mainly affect the removal of pollutants from the canopy.
Shiota, Kotomi; Tokui, Akane
[Purpose] This study compares the orientation sense of sighted and visually impaired participants to provide basic research on the audiospatial cognitive ability of visually impaired athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included nine blind athletes and seven sighted subjects wearing eyeshades during static and dynamic tasks. In the static spatial cognitive task, a coin was dropped towards the right, center, or left of the subject, and the task consisted of identifying the location of the coin. In the dynamic spatial cognitive task, performed with the participant walking, an auditory stimulus was provided. In both spatial cognitive tasks, the independent variables consisted of the "blind athlete" and "sight" groups, as well as three directions; a one-way analysis of variance was performed with the mean error angle as a dependent variable using IBM SPSS Statistics. [Results] The error angles found in the rightward and leftward directions during the static task showed no significant differences, but in the dynamic task, the sight group showed a markedly greater error in the left side, indicating a right-and-left asymmetry in spatial cognition. [Conclusion] Our results suggest a highly developed skill of instantly determining the spatial orientation of auditory information in dynamic situations in blind athletes.
Page, Andrew J.; Keane, Thomas M.; Naughton, Thomas J.
We present a multi-heuristic evolutionary task allocation algorithm to dynamically map tasks to processors in a heterogeneous distributed system. It utilizes a genetic algorithm, combined with eight common heuristics, in an effort to minimize the total execution time. It operates on batches of unmapped tasks and can preemptively remap tasks to processors. The algorithm has been implemented on a Java distributed system and evaluated with a set of six problems from the areas of bioinformatics, biomedical engineering, computer science and cryptography. Experiments using up to 150 heterogeneous processors show that the algorithm achieves better efficiency than other state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms. PMID:20862190
Wu, Husheng; Li, Hao; Xiao, Renbin; Liu, Jie
The problem of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) task allocation not only has the intrinsic attribute of complexity, such as highly nonlinear, dynamic, highly adversarial and multi-modal, but also has a better practicability in various multi-agent systems, which makes it more and more attractive recently. In this paper, based on the classic fixed response threshold model (FRTM), under the idea of "problem centered + evolutionary solution" and by a bottom-up way, the new dynamic environmental stimulus, response threshold and transition probability are designed, and a dynamic ant colony's labor division (DACLD) model is proposed. DACLD allows a swarm of agents with a relatively low-level of intelligence to perform complex tasks, and has the characteristic of distributed framework, multi-tasks with execution order, multi-state, adaptive response threshold and multi-individual response. With the proposed model, numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the effectiveness of the distributed task allocation scheme in two situations of UAV swarm combat (dynamic task allocation with a certain number of enemy targets and task re-allocation due to unexpected threats). Results show that our model can get both the heterogeneous UAVs' real-time positions and states at the same time, and has high degree of self-organization, flexibility and real-time response to dynamic environments.
Richardson, Michael J; Harrison, Steven J; Kallen, Rachel W; Walton, Ashley; Eiler, Brian A; Saltzman, Elliot; Schmidt, R C
Understanding stable patterns of interpersonal movement coordination is essential to understanding successful social interaction and activity (i.e., joint action). Previous research investigating such coordination has primarily focused on the synchronization of simple rhythmic movements (e.g., finger/forearm oscillations or pendulum swinging). Very few studies, however, have explored the stable patterns of coordination that emerge during task-directed complementary coordination tasks. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate and model the behavioral dynamics of a complementary collision-avoidance task. Participant pairs performed a repetitive targeting task in which they moved computer stimuli back and forth between sets of target locations without colliding into each other. The results revealed that pairs quickly converged onto a stable, asymmetric pattern of movement coordination that reflected differential control across participants, with 1 participant adopting a more straight-line movement trajectory between targets, and the other participant adopting a more elliptical trajectory between targets. This asymmetric movement pattern was also characterized by a phase lag between participants and was essential to task success. Coupling directionality analysis and dynamical modeling revealed that this dynamic regime was due to participant-specific differences in the coupling functions that defined the task-dynamics of participant pairs. Collectively, the current findings provide evidence that the dynamical coordination processes previously identified to underlie simple motor synchronization can also support more complex, goal-directed, joint action behavior, and can participate the spontaneous emergence of complementary joint action roles. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Burford, E.M.; Botter, J.; Commissaris, D.; Könemann, R.; Hiemstra-Van Mastrigt, S.; Ellegast, R.P.
The effect of different workstations, conventional and dynamic, on different types of performance measures for several different office and computer based task was investigated in this research paper. The two dynamic workstations assessed were the Lifespan Treadmill Desk and the RightAngle
Causse, Mickaël; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Démonet, Jean François; Pastor, Josette
The paper deals with the links between physiological measurements and cognitive and emotional functioning. As long as the operator is a key agent in charge of complex systems, the definition of metrics able to predict his performance is a great challenge. The measurement of the physiological state is a very promising way but a very acute comprehension is required; in particular few studies compare autonomous nervous system reactivity according to specific cognitive processes during task performance and task related psychological stress is often ignored. We compared physiological parameters recorded on 24 healthy subjects facing two neuropsychological tasks: a dynamic task that require problem solving in a world that continually evolves over time and a logical task representative of cognitive processes performed by operators facing everyday problem solving. Results showed that the mean pupil diameter change was higher during the dynamic task; conversely, the heart rate was more elevated during the logical task. Finally, the systolic blood pressure seemed to be strongly sensitive to psychological stress. A better taking into account of the precise influence of a given cognitive activity and both workload and related task-induced psychological stress during task performance is a promising way to better monitor operators in complex working situations to detect mental overload or pejorative stress factor of error.
Ivanoff, Jason; Blagdon, Ryan; Feener, Stefanie; McNeil, Melanie; Muir, Paul H
The Simon effect refers to the performance (response time and accuracy) advantage for responses that spatially correspond to the task-irrelevant location of a stimulus. It has been attributed to a natural tendency to respond toward the source of stimulation. When location is task-relevant, however, and responses are intentionally directed away (incompatible) or toward (compatible) the source of the stimulation, there is also an advantage for spatially compatible responses over spatially incompatible responses. Interestingly, a number of studies have demonstrated a reversed, or reduced, Simon effect following practice with a spatial incompatibility task. One interpretation of this finding is that practicing a spatial incompatibility task disables the natural tendency to respond toward stimuli. Here, the temporal dynamics of this stimulus-response (S-R) transfer were explored with speed-accuracy trade-offs (SATs). All experiments used the mixed-task paradigm in which Simon and spatial compatibility/incompatibility tasks were interleaved across blocks of trials. In general, bidirectional S-R transfer was observed: while the spatial incompatibility task had an influence on the Simon effect, the task-relevant S-R mapping of the Simon task also had a small impact on congruency effects within the spatial compatibility and incompatibility tasks. These effects were generally greater when the task contexts were similar. Moreover, the SAT analysis of performance in the Simon task demonstrated that the tendency to respond to the location of the stimulus was not eliminated because of the spatial incompatibility task. Rather, S-R transfer from the spatial incompatibility task appeared to partially mask the natural tendency to respond to the source of stimulation with a conflicting inclination to respond away from it. These findings support the use of SAT methodology to quantitatively describe rapid response tendencies.
Ivanoff, Jason; Blagdon, Ryan; Feener, Stefanie; McNeil, Melanie; Muir, Paul H.
The Simon effect refers to the performance (response time and accuracy) advantage for responses that spatially correspond to the task-irrelevant location of a stimulus. It has been attributed to a natural tendency to respond toward the source of stimulation. When location is task-relevant, however, and responses are intentionally directed away (incompatible) or toward (compatible) the source of the stimulation, there is also an advantage for spatially compatible responses over spatially incompatible responses. Interestingly, a number of studies have demonstrated a reversed, or reduced, Simon effect following practice with a spatial incompatibility task. One interpretation of this finding is that practicing a spatial incompatibility task disables the natural tendency to respond toward stimuli. Here, the temporal dynamics of this stimulus-response (S-R) transfer were explored with speed-accuracy trade-offs (SATs). All experiments used the mixed-task paradigm in which Simon and spatial compatibility/incompatibility tasks were interleaved across blocks of trials. In general, bidirectional S-R transfer was observed: while the spatial incompatibility task had an influence on the Simon effect, the task-relevant S-R mapping of the Simon task also had a small impact on congruency effects within the spatial compatibility and incompatibility tasks. These effects were generally greater when the task contexts were similar. Moreover, the SAT analysis of performance in the Simon task demonstrated that the tendency to respond to the location of the stimulus was not eliminated because of the spatial incompatibility task. Rather, S-R transfer from the spatial incompatibility task appeared to partially mask the natural tendency to respond to the source of stimulation with a conflicting inclination to respond away from it. These findings support the use of SAT methodology to quantitatively describe rapid response tendencies. PMID:25191217
Groenesteijn, L.; Ellegast, R.P.; Keller, K.; Krause, F.; Berger, H.; Looze, M.P.de
In the present study, we investigated the effect of office tasks on posture and movements in field settings, and the comfort rating for chair characteristics and correlation with type of task. The tasks studied were: computer work, telephoning, desk work and conversation. Postures, movements, chair
This book describes interactive learning environments (ILEs) and their underlying concepts. It explains how ILEs can be used to improve the decision-making process and how these improvements can be empirically verified. The objective of this book is to enhance our understanding of and to gain insights into the process by which human facilitated ILEs are effectively designed and used in improving users’ decision making in complex, dynamic tasks. This book is divided into four major parts. Part I serves as an introduction to the importance and complexity of decision making in dynamic tasks. Part II provides background material, drawing upon relevant literature, for the development of an integrated process model on the effectiveness of human facilitated ILEs in improving decision making in dynamic tasks. Part III focuses on the design, development, and application of FishBankILE in laboratory experiments to gather empirical evidence for the validity of the process model. Finally, part IV presents a comprehensi...
Pain, C.C.; Gomes, J.L.M.A.; Eaton, M.D.; Ziver, A.K.; Umpleby, A.P.; Oliveira, C.R.E. de; Goddard, A.J.H.
The development and application of a generic model for modelling criticality in fluidised granular materials is described within the Finite Element Transient Criticality (FETCH) code - which models criticality transients in spatial and temporal detail from fundamental principles, as far as is currently possible. The neutronics model in FETCH solves the neutron transport in full phase space with a spherical harmonics angle of travel representation, multi-group in neutron energy, Crank Nicholson based in time stepping, and finite elements in space. The fluids representation coupled with the neutronics model is a two-fluid-granular-temperature model, also finite element fased. A separate fluid is used to represent the liquid/vapour gas and the solid fuel particle phases, respectively. Particle-particle, particle-wall interactions are modelled using a kinetic theory approach on an analogy between the motion of gas molecules subject to binary collisions and granular flows. This model has been extensively validated by comparison with fluidised bed experimental results. Gas-fluidised beds involve particles that are often extremely agitated (measured by granular temperature) and can thus be viewed as a particularly demanding application of the two-fluid model. Liquid fluidised systems are of criticality interest, but these can become demanding with the production of gases (e.g. radiolytic and water vapour) and large fluid/particle velocities in energetic transients. We present results from a test transient model in which fissile material ( 239 Pu) is presented as spherical granules subsiding in water, located in a tank initially at constant temperature and at two alternative over-pressures in order to verify the theoretical model implemented in FETCH. (author)
Xu, Zhenzhen; Xia, Feng; Zhang, Xianchao
This paper presents a dynamic task allocation algorithm for multiple robots to visit multiple targets. This algorithm is specifically designed for the environment where robots have dissimilar starting and ending locations. And the constraint of balancing the number of targets visited by each robot is considered. More importantly, this paper takes into account the dynamicity of multi-robot system and the obstacles in the environment. This problem is modeled as a constrained MTSP which can not be transformed to TSP and can not be solved by classical Ant Colony System (ACS). The Modified Ant Colony System (MACS) is presented to solve this problem and the unvisited targets are allocated to appropriate robots dynamically. The simulation results show that the output of the proposed algorithm can satisfy the constraints and dynamicity for the problem of multi-robot task allocation.
Yang, Lin-Dong; Yu, Rui-Feng; Lin, Xue-Lian; Xie, Ya-Qing; Ma, Liang
Visual lobe is a useful tool for predicting visual search performance. Up till now, no study has focused on dynamic visual lobe. This study developed a dynamic visual lobe measurement system (DVLMS) that could effectively map dynamic visual lobe and calculate visual lobe shape indices. The effects of display movement velocity on lobe shape indices were examined under four velocity conditions: 0, 4, 8 and 16 deg/s. In general, with the increase of display movement velocity, visual lobe area and perimeter became smaller, whereas lobe shape roundness, boundary smoothness, symmetry and regularity deteriorated. The elongation index was not affected by velocity. Regression analyses indicated that display movement velocity was important in determining dynamic visual lobe shape indices. Dynamic visual lobe provides another option for better understanding dynamic vision, in addition to dynamic visual acuity. Findings of this study can provide guidelines for analysing and designing dynamic visual tasks. Practitioner Summary: Dynamic visual lobe is important in reflecting the visual ability of searching for a moving target. We developed a dynamic visual lobe measurement system (DVLMS) and examined display movement velocity's effects on lobe shape. Findings revealed that velocity was a key factor affecting dynamic visual lobe shape indices.
Gao, Wei; Gilmore, John H; Alcauter, Sarael; Lin, Weili
The default-mode network has been reported to possess highly versatile and even contrasting functions but the underlying functioning mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we adopt a dynamic view of the default-mode network structure and hypothesize that it could potentially contribute to different functions through dynamic reorganization of its functional interaction pattern within and across network boundaries depending on the ongoing cognitive demands. With four experimental states and functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging, we show that the default-mode network is characterized by within-network desynchronization and outside-network integration during the transition from resting state to an external visual classification task. Such default-mode network dynamics are task demand-dependent and return to their original status during the transition back to resting. More importantly, the degree of within-network desynchronization correlates with reaction time while the level of outside-network integration indexes task performance accuracy. Overall, the documented dynamic reorganization of the default-mode network and the significant behavioral correlations provide new insights into our understanding of this complex network and emphasize a dynamic view in future studies of its functioning mechanism.
White, Olivier; Diedrichsen, Jörn
To produce skilled movements, the brain flexibly adapts to different task requirements and movement contexts. Two core abilities underlie this flexibility. First, depending on the task, the motor system must rapidly switch the way it produces motor commands and how it corrects movements online, i.e. it switches between different (feedback) control policies. Second, it must also adapt to environmental changes for different tasks separately. Here we show these two abilities are related. In a bimanual movement task, we show that participants can switch on a movement-by-movement basis between two feedback control policies, depending only on a static visual cue. When this cue indicates that the hands control separate objects, reactions to force field perturbations of each arm are purely unilateral. In contrast, when the visual cue indicates a commonly controlled object, reactions are shared across hands. Participants are also able to learn different force fields associated with a visual cue. This is however only the case when the visual cue is associated with different feedback control policies. These results indicate that when the motor system can flexibly switch between different control policies, it is also able to adapt separately to the dynamics of different environmental contexts. In contrast, visual cues that are not associated with different control policies are not effective for learning different task dynamics.
Zhang, Xiaofan; Yi, Hu; Bai, Wenwen; Tian, Xin
Working memory plays an important role in complex cognitive tasks. A popular theoretical view is that transient properties of neuronal dynamics underlie cognitive processing. The question raised here as to how the transient dynamics evolve in working memory. To address this issue, we investigated the multiple single-unit activity dynamics in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during a Y-maze working memory task. The approach worked by reconstructing state space from delays of the original single-unit firing rate variables, which were further analyzed using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). Then the neural trajectories were obtained to visualize the multiple single-unit activity. Furthermore, the maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE) was calculated to quantitatively evaluate the neural trajectories during the working memory task. The results showed that the neuronal activity produced stable and reproducible neural trajectories in the correct trials while showed irregular trajectories in the incorrect trials, which may establish a link between the neurocognitive process and behavioral performance in working memory. The MLEs significantly increased during working memory in the correctly performed trials, indicating an increased divergence of the neural trajectories. In the incorrect trials, the MLEs were nearly zero and remained unchanged during the task. Taken together, the trial-specific neural trajectory provides an effective way to track the instantaneous state of the neuronal population during the working memory task and offers valuable insights into working memory function. The MLE describes the changes of neural dynamics in working memory and may reflect different neuronal population states in working memory.
Wolniakowski, Adam; Miatliuk, Konstantsin; Gosiewski, Z.
In this work, we present a generic approach to optimize the design of a parametrized robot gripper including both selected gripper mechanism parameters, and parameters of the finger geometry. We suggest six gripper quality indices that indicate different aspects of the performance of a gripper...... given a CAD model of an object and a task description. These quality indices are then used to learn task-specific finger designs based on dynamic simulation. We demonstrate our gripper optimization on a parallel finger type gripper described by twelve parameters. We furthermore present a parametrization...
Bindschadler, Michael; Modgil, Dimple; Branch, Kelley R.; La Riviere, Patrick J.; Alessio, Adam M.
Abstract. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) acquisitions for perfusion assessment can be performed in a dynamic or static mode. Either method may be used for a variety of clinical tasks, including (1) stratifying patients into categories of ischemia and (2) using a quantitative myocardial blood flow (MBF) estimate to evaluate disease severity. In this simulation study, we compare method performance on these classification and quantification tasks for matched radiation dose levels and for different flow states, patient sizes, and injected contrast levels. Under conditions simulated, the dynamic method has low bias in MBF estimates (0 to 0.1 ml/min/g) compared to linearly interpreted static assessment (0.45 to 0.48 ml/min/g), making it more suitable for quantitative estimation. At matched radiation dose levels, receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the static method, with its high bias but generally lower variance, had superior performance (pstatic assessment with a correctly tuned exponential relationship between the apparent CT number and MBF has superior quantification performance to static assessment with a linear relationship and to dynamic assessment. However, tuning the exponential relationship to the patient and scan characteristics will likely prove challenging. This study demonstrates that the selection and optimization of static or dynamic acquisition modes should depend on the specific clinical task. PMID:27175377
Bauer, Anna-Katharina R; Jaeger, Manuela; Thorne, Jeremy D; Bendixen, Alexandra; Debener, Stefan
The dynamic attending theory as originally proposed by Jones, 1976. Psychol. Rev. 83(5), 323-355 posits that tone sequences presented at a regular rhythm entrain attentional oscillations and thereby facilitate the processing of sounds presented in phase with this rhythm. The increased interest in neural correlates of dynamic attending requires robust behavioral indicators of the phenomenon. Here we aimed to replicate and complement the most prominent experimental implementation of dynamic attending (Jones et al., 2002. Psychol. Sci. 13(4), 313-319). The paradigm uses a pitch comparison task in which two tones, the initial and the last of a longer series, have to be compared. In-between the two, distractor tones with variable pitch are presented, at a regular pace. A comparison tone presented in phase with the entrained rhythm is hypothesized to lead to better behavioral performance. Aiming for a conceptual replication, four different variations of the original paradigm were created which were followed by an exact replication attempt. Across all five experiments, only 40 of the 140 tested participants showed the hypothesized pattern of an inverted U-shaped profile in task accuracy, and the group average effects did not replicate the pattern reported by Jones et al., 2002. Psychol. Sci. 13(4), 313-319 in any of the five experiments. However, clear evidence for a relationship between musicality and overall behavioral performance was found. This study casts doubt on the suitability of the pitch comparison task for demonstrating auditory dynamic attending. We discuss alternative tasks that have been shown to support dynamic attending theory, thus lending themselves more readily to studying its neural correlates. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Neural activity of behaving animals, especially in the prefrontal cortex, is highly heterogeneous, with selective responses to diverse aspects of the executed task. We propose a general model of recurrent neural networks that perform complex rule-based tasks, and we show that the diversity of neuronal responses plays a fundamental role when the behavioral responses are context dependent. Specifically, we found that when the inner mental states encoding the task rules are represented by stable patterns of neural activity (attractors of the neural dynamics, the neurons must be selective for combinations of sensory stimuli and inner mental states. Such mixed selectivity is easily obtained by neurons that connect with random synaptic strengths both to the recurrent network and to neurons encoding sensory inputs. The number of randomly connected neurons needed to solve a task is on average only three times as large as the number of neurons needed in a network designed ad hoc. Moreover, the number of needed neurons grows only linearly with the number of task-relevant events and mental states, provided that each neuron responds to a large proportion of events (dense/distributed coding. A biologically realistic implementation of the model captures several aspects of the activity recorded from monkeys performing context dependent tasks. Our findings explain the importance of the diversity of neural responses and provide us with simple and general principles for designing attractor neural networks that perform complex computation.
Zoethout, Kees; Jager, Wander; Molleman, Eric
Multi-agent simulation is applied to explore how different types of task variety cause workgroups to change their task allocation accordingly. We studied two groups, generalists and specialists. We hypothesised that the performance of the specialists would decrease when task variety increases. The
Full Text Available The current study investigated the movement dynamics of a complementary collision-avoidance task. Participant pairs performed a repetitive targeting task in which they moved computer stimuli back and forth between sets of target locations without colliding into each other. Pairs converged onto a stable relative phase relationship of around 35°, with one participant spontaneously adopting the role of "phase leader" and the other participant adopting the role of "phase follower". In addition, those participants who adopted the role of phase leader tended to exhibit more of a straight-line trajectory between targets, whereas participants who adopted the role of phase follower tended to exhibit a more elliptical trajectory. This role differentiation was essential to task success and reflected the spontaneous relaxation and recruitment of available movement degrees-of-freedom defined across the joint-action system.
Xin Yi; Anmin Zhu; Yang, Simon X; Chaomin Luo
Intending to mimic the operating mechanism of biological neural systems, a self organizing map-based approach to task assignment of a swarm of robots in 3-D dynamic environments is proposed in this paper. This approach integrates the advantages and characteristics of biological neural systems. It is capable of dynamically planning the paths of a swarm of robots in 3-D environments under uncertain situations, such as when some robots are presented in or broken down or when more than one robot is needed for some special task locations. A Bezier path optimizing algorithm and a parameter adjusting algorithm are integrated in this paper. It is capable of reducing the complexity of the robot navigation control and limiting the number of convergence iterations. The simulation results with different environments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Mcruer, D. T.; Klein, R.
A regulation task which subjected the automobile to a random gust disturbance which is countered by driver control action is used to study the effects of various automobile steering characteristics on the driver/vehicle system. The experiments used a variable stability automobile specially configured to permit insertion of the simulated gust disturbance and the measurement of the driver/vehicle system characteristics. Driver/vehicle system dynamics were measured and interpreted as an effective open loop system describing function. Objective measures of system bandwidth, stability, and time delays were deduced and compared. These objective measures were supplemented by driver ratings. A tentative optimum range of vehicle dynamics for the directional regulation task was established.
Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman
In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~15–20cm) of a single bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study
Full Text Available This paper presents a task allocation-oriented framework to enable efficient in-network processing and cost-effective multi-hop resource sharing for dynamic multi-hop multimedia wireless sensor networks with low node mobility, e.g., pedestrian speeds. The proposed system incorporates a fast task reallocation algorithm to quickly recover from possible network service disruptions, such as node or link failures. An evolutional self-learning mechanism based on a genetic algorithm continuously adapts the system parameters in order to meet the desired application delay requirements, while also achieving a sufficiently long network lifetime. Since the algorithm runtime incurs considerable time delay while updating task assignments, we introduce an adaptive window size to limit the delay periods and ensure an up-to-date solution based on node mobility patterns and device processing capabilities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that yields multi-objective task allocation in a mobile multi-hop wireless environment under dynamic conditions. Simulations are performed in various settings, and the results show considerable performance improvement in extending network lifetime compared to heuristic mechanisms. Furthermore, the proposed framework provides noticeable reduction in the frequency of missing application deadlines.
Full Text Available The global burden of fetching water, particularly its effects on individuals and societies, is largely unknown because comparative analysis of the global data available is incomplete and scarce. To address this information gap, this article presents a synthesis of the data on water-fetching from households in 23 countries. In rural areas of the dataset almost 50% of the population still have to bring water from a source outside of their home or yard. Women generally carry the main responsibility for fetching water; however, in many countries and in particular in urban areas, men also take on a great share of this work. The mean single trip time to collect water ranges from 10 to 65 minutes in urban areas with an average increase or decrease of 2 to 13 minutes in rural areas. Further, up to 60% of children support the collection of wood and water, in some countries spending up to 11.3 hours per week. Water fetching continues to have the greatest impact on women and children in poorer rural areas and is likely to be a substantial barrier to household water security and sustainable development in regions most in need of sustainable development
Bindschadler, Michael; Modgil, Dimple; Branch, Kelley R.; La Riviere, Patrick J.; Alessio, Adam M.
Cardiac CT acquisitions for perfusion assessment can be performed in a dynamic or static mode. In this simulation study, we evaluate the relative classification and quantification performance of these modes for assessing myocardial blood flow (MBF). In the dynamic method, a series of low dose cardiac CT acquisitions yields data on contrast bolus dynamics over time; these data are fit with a model to give a quantitative MBF estimate. In the static method, a single CT acquisition is obtained, and the relative CT numbers in the myocardium are used to infer perfusion states. The static method does not directly yield a quantitative estimate of MBF, but these estimates can be roughly approximated by introducing assumed linear relationships between CT number and MBF, consistent with the ways such images are typically visually interpreted. Data obtained by either method may be used for a variety of clinical tasks, including 1) stratifying patients into differing categories of ischemia and 2) using the quantitative MBF estimate directly to evaluate ischemic disease severity. Through simulations, we evaluate the performance on each of these tasks. The dynamic method has very low bias in MBF estimates, making it particularly suitable for quantitative estimation. At matched radiation dose levels, ROC analysis demonstrated that the static method, with its high bias but generally lower variance, has superior performance in stratifying patients, especially for larger patients.
Mehdizadeh, Sina; Arshi, Ahmed Reza; Davids, Keith
A number of studies have investigated effects of speed on local dynamic stability of walking, although this relationship has been rarely investigated under changing task constraints, such as during forward and backward running. To rectify this gap in the literature, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of running speed on local dynamic stability of forward and backward running on a treadmill. Fifteen healthy male participants took part in this study. Participants ran in forward and backward directions at speeds of 80%, 100% and 120% of their preferred running speed. The three-dimensional motion of a C7 marker was recorded using a motion capture system. Local dynamic stability of the marker was quantified using short- and long-term largest finite-time Lyapunov exponents (LyE). Results showed that short-term largest finite-time LyE values increased with participant speed meaning that local dynamic stability decreased with increasing speed. Long-term largest finite-time LyEs, however, remained unaffected as speed increased. Results of this study indicated that, as in walking, slow running is more stable than fast running. These findings improve understanding of how stability is regulated when constraints on the speed of movements is altered. Implications for the design of rehabilitation or sport practice programmes suggest how task constraints could be manipulated to facilitate adaptations in locomotion stability during athletic training.
Aunola, Kaisa; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
It has been suggested that children's learning motivation and interest in a particular subject play an important role in their school performance, particularly in mathematics. However, few cross-lagged longitudinal studies have been carried out to investigate the prospective relationships between academic achievement and task motivation. Moreover, the role that the classroom context plays in this development is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental dynamics of maths-related motivation and mathematical performance during children's transition to primary school. The role of teachers' pedagogical goals and classroom characteristics on this development was also investigated. A total of 196 Finnish children were examined four times: (0) in October during their preschool year; (1) in October and (2) April during their first grade of primary school; and (3) in October during their second grade. Children's mathematical performance was tested at each measurement point. Task motivation was examined at measurement points 2, 3, and 4 using the Task-value scale for children. First-grade teachers were interviewed in November about their pedagogical goals and classroom characteristics. The results showed that children's mathematical performance and related task motivation formed a cumulative developmental cycle: a high level of maths performance at the beginning of the first grade increased subsequent task motivation towards mathematics, which further predicted a high level of maths performance at the beginning of the second grade. The level of maths-related task motivation increased in those classrooms where the teachers emphasized motivation or self-concept development as their most important pedagogical goal.
Sheremata, Summer L; Shomstein, Sarah
Successful interaction with the environment requires the ability to flexibly allocate resources to different locations in the visual field. Recent evidence suggests that visual short-term memory (VSTM) resources are distributed asymmetrically across the visual field based upon task demands. Here, we propose that context, rather than the stimulus itself, determines asymmetrical distribution of VSTM resources. To test whether context modulates the reallocation of resources to the right visual field, task set, defined by memory-load, was manipulated to influence visual short-term memory performance. Performance was measured for single-feature objects embedded within predominantly single- or two-feature memory blocks. Therefore, context was varied to determine whether task set directly predicts changes in visual field biases. In accord with the dynamic reallocation of resources hypothesis, task set, rather than aspects of the physical stimulus, drove improvements in performance in the right- visual field. Our results show, for the first time, that preparation for upcoming memory demands directly determines how resources are allocated across the visual field.
Sambataro, Fabio; Visintin, Eleonora; Doerig, Nadja; Brakowski, Janis; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Seifritz, Erich; Spinelli, Simona
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with alterations in several functional brain networks. Previous studies investigating brain networks in MDD during the performance of a task have yielded inconsistent results with the function of the brain at rest. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest and during a goal-directed task to investigate dynamics of functional connectivity in 19 unmedicated patients with MDD and 19 healthy controls across both experimental paradigms. Patients had spatial differences in the default mode network (DMN), in the executive network (EN), and in the dorsal attention network (DAN) compared to controls at rest and during task performance. In patients the amplitude of the low frequency (LFO) oscillations was reduced in the motor and in the DAN networks during both paradigms. There was a diagnosis by paradigm interaction on the LFOs amplitude of the salience network, with increased amplitude change between task and rest in patients relative to controls. Our findings suggest that the function of several networks could be intrinsically affected in MDD and this could be viable phenotype for the investigation on the neurobiological mechanisms of this disorder and its treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Ayama, Miyoshi; Matsuzawa, Maki; Mekada, Yoshito; Kasuga, Masao
The functional visual field (FVF) of target localization against a dynamic background simulating highway driving was precisely measured under four different auditory task conditions to investigate whether conversing on a mobile phone affects a driver’s FVF. The FVF is the visual field in which a person can achieve some kind of visual task, such as target detection or localization. The task conditions were no auditory information, listening to BGM, listening to a simple conversation and understanding it, and listening to a simple question and answering it orally. Individual differences were found in the size of the FVF and the effect of the tasks. The FVF area of the largest subject was twice that of the smallest subject under the same condition. Shrinkage of the FVF was found under the oral answer condition for the two subjects who had never used a mobile phone while driving, while no significant change under any condition was found for the subject who made a long drive every day and was used to talking on a mobile phone while driving. This suggests that conversation can reduce a drivers’ attention and shrink the FVF of some drivers.
Troy Karen L
Full Text Available Abstract Background People exhibit increased difficulty balancing when they perform secondary attention-distracting tasks while walking. However, a previous study by Grabiner and Troy (J. Neuroengineering Rehabil., 2005 found that young healthy subjects performing a concurrent Stroop task while walking on a motorized treadmill exhibited decreased step width variability. However, measures of variability do not directly quantify how a system responds to perturbations. This study re-analyzed data from Grabiner and Troy 2005 to determine if performing the concurrent Stroop task directly affected the dynamic stability of walking in these same subjects. Methods Thirteen healthy volunteers walked on a motorized treadmill at their self-selected constant speed for 10 minutes both while performing the Stroop test and during undisturbed walking. This Stroop test consisted of projecting images of the name of one color, printed in text of a different color, onto a wall and asking subjects to verbally identify the color of the text. Three-dimensional motions of a marker attached to the base of the neck (C5/T1 were recorded. Marker velocities were calculated over 3 equal intervals of 200 sec each in each direction. Mean variability was calculated for each time series as the average standard deviation across all strides. Both "local" and "orbital" dynamic stability were quantified for each time series using previously established methods. These measures directly quantify how quickly small perturbations grow or decay, either continuously in real time (local or discretely from one cycle to the next (orbital. Differences between Stroop and Control trials were evaluated using a 2-factor repeated measures ANOVA. Results Mean variability of trunk movements was significantly reduced during the Stroop tests compared to normal walking. Conversely, local and orbital stability results were mixed: some measures showed slight increases, while others showed slight decreases
Tisserand, R; Armand, S; Allali, G; Schnider, A; Baillieul, S
Gait asymmetry and dynamic balance impairments observed in post-stroke individuals increase their risk of fall. Moreover, walking while performing a cognitive task (i.e. dual-task) disturbs the control of balance in post-stroke individuals. Here we investigated the mediolateral dynamic stability in twenty-two community-dwelling participants (12 post-strokes and 10 healthy controls) while walking in single-task (normal gait) and four different dual-tasks (cognitive-motor interference). Positions of the extrapolated center of mass and mediolateral widths of both margin of stability and base of support were extracted from 35 marker trajectories. Post-stroke participants presented larger margin of stability and base of support than controls during single-task (both p dual-task was found between groups. In post-stroke participants, dual-task induced slight modification of the mediolateral stability strategy, as the margin of stability was not different between the two limbs at foot-strike, and significantly reduced the performance in every cognitive task. Post-stroke participants increased their dynamic stability in the frontal plane in single-task by extending their base of support and mainly relying on their non-paretic limb. Under cognitive-motor interference (dual-task), post-stroke participants prioritized dynamic stability over cognitive performance to ensure a safe locomotion. Thus, rehabilitation programs should consider both dynamic balance and dual-task training, even at a chronic delay following stroke, to reduce the risk of fall in post-stroke individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kiefer, Markus; Kammer, Thomas
One aspect of consciousness phenomena, the temporal emergence of visual awareness, has been subject of a controversial debate. How can visual awareness, that is the experiential quality of visual stimuli, be characterized best? Is there a sharp discontinuous or dichotomous transition between unaware and fully aware states, or does awareness emerge gradually encompassing intermediate states? Previous studies yielded conflicting results and supported both dichotomous and gradual views. It is well conceivable that these conflicting results are more than noise, but reflect the dynamic nature of the temporal emergence of visual awareness. Using a psychophysical approach, the present research tested whether the emergence of visual awareness is context-dependent with a temporal two-alternative forced choice task. During backward masking of word targets, it was assessed whether the relative temporal sequence of stimulus thresholds is modulated by the task (stimulus presence, letter case, lexical decision, and semantic category) and by mask type. Four masks with different similarity to the target features were created. Psychophysical functions were then fitted to the accuracy data in the different task conditions as a function of the stimulus mask SOA in order to determine the inflection point (conscious threshold of each feature) and slope of the psychophysical function (transition from unaware to aware within each feature). Depending on feature-mask similarity, thresholds in the different tasks were highly dispersed suggesting a graded transition from unawareness to awareness or had less differentiated thresholds indicating that clusters of features probed by the tasks quite simultaneously contribute to the percept. The latter observation, although not compatible with the notion of a sharp all-or-none transition between unaware and aware states, suggests a less gradual or more discontinuous emergence of awareness. Analyses of slopes of the fitted psychophysical functions
Full Text Available Humans commonly engage in tasks that require or are made more efficient by coordinating with other humans. In this paper we introduce a task dynamics approach for modeling multi-agent interaction and decision making in a pick and place task where an agent must move an object from one location to another and decide whether to act alone or with a partner. Our aims were to identify and model (1 the affordance related dynamics that define an actor's choice to move an object alone or to pass it to their co-actor and (2 the trajectory dynamics of an actor's hand movements when moving to grasp, relocate, or pass the object. Using a virtual reality pick and place task, we demonstrate that both the decision to pass or not pass an object and the movement trajectories of the participants can be characterized in terms of a behavioral dynamics model. Simulations suggest that the proposed behavioral dynamics model exhibits features observed in human participants including hysteresis in decision making, non-straight line trajectories, and non-constant velocity profiles. The proposed model highlights how the same low-dimensional behavioral dynamics can operate to constrain multiple (and often nested levels of human activity and suggests that knowledge of what, when, where and how to move or act during pick and place behavior may be defined by these low dimensional task dynamics and, thus, can emerge spontaneously and in real-time with little a priori planning.
Full Text Available Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip (MPSoC allow the implementation of heterogeneous architectures with a high integration capacity. In recent years, computational requirements MPSoC are increasing exponentially. This complexity, coupled with constantly evolving specifications, has forced designers to consider intrinsically flexible implementations. Deploying applications typical of multimedia domains is difficult, not only due to the heterogeneous parallelism in the platforms, but also due to the performance constraints that typify these systems. An application can be modeled as a set of cooperative tasks. A task can be implemented in software or in hardware depending on its complexity and the involved cost. Our proposal is a fault tolerance approach which combines the results of a performance model and a technical’s fault tolerance. We interest of the dynamic migration task to resolve the Fault-Tolerant for Multiprocessors Embedded System. We exploited an example of multimedia application (MJPEG decoder to find optimal Fault tolerance systems. Our aim in this paper is to exploit the classic technique of fault tolerance. The solution chosen is the transformation of software processing into hardware processing. And also, exploitation of hybrid models (simulation/analytics. The goal is to have a Fault Tolerant Embedded System.
Fusco, Augusto; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Iosa, Marco; Morone, Giovanni; Iasevoli, Luigi; Trifoglio, Domenica; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria; Paolucci, Stefano; Baldari, Carlo; Guidetti, Laura
Recently, Motor Imagery (MI) has been associated with the execution of movements miming in part the mentally represented action (dynamic MI, dMI). Preliminary studies have reported as dMI may improve trainings in sport, with imagery timing close to the physical execution one. This study was aimed to investigate time and spatial parameters of dMI with actual locomotion in people with stroke. Twelve patients (stroke group, SG) were compared with twelve healthy elderly (elderly group, EG) and twenty young adults (young group, YG). Subjects performed mental representations of different walking (forward, FW; lateral, LW, backward, BW), accompanied or not by movements imitating walking (dMI and static MI, sMI). Then, they performed actual locomotion (AL). Outcome measures were related to the time and the number of steps spent for completing the tasks for all the given locomotor conditions. Significant differences were found in patients with respect to healthy subjects, with time in sMI significantly shorter than in dMI (p locomotion. Healthy groups did not reveal differences among tasks in BW, while significant differences were found in LW. Analogous results were found in terms of number of performed steps. In patients with stroke, a spatiotemporal functional equivalence with AL was found only for dMI, and not for sMI, in forward walking. This could be due to familiarity with this task. These results might have implications for the rehabilitative techniques based on MI.
Emerson, Rebeca Lauren; García-Molina, Alberto; López Carballo, Jaume; García Fernández, Juan; Aparicio-López, Celeste; Novo, Junquera; Sánchez-Carrión, Rocío; Enseñat-Cantallops, Antonia; Peña-Casanova, Jordi
The objective of this study was to examine visual scanning performance in patients with Unilateral Spatial Neglect (USN) in a visual search task. Thirty-one right hemisphere stroke patients with USN were recruited. They performed a dynamic visual search task with two conditions, with and without distractors, while eye movements were monitored with an eye-tracker. The main goal of the task was to select target stimuli that appeared from the top of the screen and moved vertically downward. Target detection and visual scanning percentage were assessed over two hemispaces (right, left) on two conditions (distractor, no distractor). Most Scanned Regions (MSR) were calculated to analyze the areas of the screen where most points of fixation were directed to. Higher target detection rate and visual scanning percentages were found on the right hemispace on both conditions. From the MSRs we found that participants with a center of attention further to the right of the screen also presented smaller overall MSRs. Right hemisphere stroke patients with USN presented not only a significant rightward bias but reduced overall search areas, implying hyperattention does not only restrict search on the horizontal (right-left) axis but the vertical axis (top-bottom) too.
Blinowska, Katarzyna J; Kaminski, Maciej; Kaminski, Jan; Brzezicka, Aneta
We studied the dynamical pattern of transmission involved in the information processing during cognitive experiments engaging working memory. The ensemble averaging approach was used to fit a multichannel autoregressive model to the EEG signals recorded during the transitive reasoning task. The short-time directed transfer function was estimated for finding dynamical patterns of functional connectivity during the memory and reasoning task. The results indicated that there exist particular areas where information is processed as envisaged by transmissions between closely located electrodes. In case of reasoning task these local circuits were located in frontal and parietal regions. These areas (these local circuits) from time to time exchange information between each other‥
Davoudabadi Farahani, Saeed; Svinin, Mikhail; Andersen, Michael Skipper; de Zee, Mark; Rasmussen, John
This paper deals with the analysis of human arm movement in a crank-rotation task that is an example of environmentally constrained movements. Opening a door, rotating a steering wheel, and pushing a carriage are other typical examples of movements where the physical constraints, imposed on the hand position/orientation, influence the joint angles of the shoulder and the elbow. To predict kinematic and kinetic patterns for human arm movement in crank-rotation tasks, we use an optimization-based technique. The method enables dynamic prediction of closed-chain movements and force exertion using inverse dynamics musculoskeletal simulation. An anatomically detailed musculoskeletal model is parameterized by means of time functions controlling selected degrees-of-freedom. Subsequently, the parameters of these functions are optimized to produce an optimal motion according to a user-defined objective function and constraints given by the anthropometry of the body and physics of the environment. In this study, we use a physiology-based objective function expressing the muscle metabolic energy expenditure and validation metrics to assess the accuracy of the computational model. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons between predicted results and experimental data from a group of four healthy males indicate that the method reproduces natural kinetic and kinematic patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Driver distraction is a significant cause of traffic accidents. The aim of this study is to investigate Electroencephalography (EEG dynamics in relation to distraction during driving. To study human cognition under a specific driving task, simulated real driving using virtual reality (VR-based simulation and designed dual-task events are built, which include unexpected car deviations and mathematics questions. Methods We designed five cases with different stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA to investigate the distraction effects between the deviations and equations. The EEG channel signals are first converted into separated brain sources by independent component analysis (ICA. Then, event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP changes of the EEG power spectrum are used to evaluate brain dynamics in time-frequency domains. Results Power increases in the theta and beta bands are observed in relation with distraction effects in the frontal cortex. In the motor area, alpha and beta power suppressions are also observed. All of the above results are consistently observed across 15 subjects. Additionally, further analysis demonstrates that response time and multiple cortical EEG power both changed significantly with different SOA. Conclusions This study suggests that theta power increases in the frontal area is related to driver distraction and represents the strength of distraction in real-life situations.
Brown, Nicholas A T; Jensen, Jody L
Purposeful movement requires that an individual produce appropriate joint torques to accelerate segments, and when environmental contact is involved, to develop task-appropriate contact forces. Developmental research has been confined largely to the mastery of unconstrained movement skills (pointing, kicking). The purpose of this study was to study the developmental progression that characterizes the interaction of muscular and non-muscular forces in tasks constrained by contact with the environment. Seven younger children (YC, 6-8 years), 7 older children (OC, 9-11 years) and 7 adults (AD) pedaled an ergometer (80 rpm) at an anthropometrically scaled cycling power. Resultant forces measured at the pedal's surface were decomposed into muscle, inertia and gravity components. Muscle pedal forces were further examined in terms of the underlying lower extremity joint torques and kinematic weights that constitute the muscular component of the pedal force. Data showed children applied muscle forces to the pedal in a significantly different manner compared to adults, and that this was due to the children's lower segmental mass and inertia. The children adjusted the contribution of the proximal joint muscle torques to compensate for reduced contributions to the resultant pedal force by gravitational and inertial components. These data show that smaller segmental mass and inertia limit younger children's ability to construct the dynamic-contact task of cycling in an adult-like form. On the basis of these results, however, the children's response was not "immature". Rather, the results show a task-appropriate adaptation to lower segmental mass and inertia. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Sathe, Ameya; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Pena Diaz, Alfredo
that represent long marine fetch are considered. It was observed that within a long marine fetch, the conditions in the North Sea are dominated by unstable [41% at Egmond aan Zee Offshore Wind Farm (OWEZ) and 33% at HR] and near-neutral conditions (49% at OWEZ and 47% at HR), and stable conditions (10% at OWEZ...... was not noticeable. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Kinjo, Ken; Uchibe, Eiji; Doya, Kenji
Linearly solvable Markov Decision Process (LMDP) is a class of optimal control problem in which the Bellman's equation can be converted into a linear equation by an exponential transformation of the state value function (Todorov, 2009b). In an LMDP, the optimal value function and the corresponding control policy are obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem in a discrete state space or an eigenfunction problem in a continuous state using the knowledge of the system dynamics and the action, state, and terminal cost functions. In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of the LMDP framework in real robot control, in which the dynamics of the body and the environment have to be learned from experience. We first perform a simulation study of a pole swing-up task to evaluate the effect of the accuracy of the learned dynamics model on the derived the action policy. The result shows that a crude linear approximation of the non-linear dynamics can still allow solution of the task, despite with a higher total cost. We then perform real robot experiments of a battery-catching task using our Spring Dog mobile robot platform. The state is given by the position and the size of a battery in its camera view and two neck joint angles. The action is the velocities of two wheels, while the neck joints were controlled by a visual servo controller. We test linear and bilinear dynamic models in tasks with quadratic and Guassian state cost functions. In the quadratic cost task, the LMDP controller derived from a learned linear dynamics model performed equivalently with the optimal linear quadratic regulator (LQR). In the non-quadratic task, the LMDP controller with a linear dynamics model showed the best performance. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the LMDP framework in real robot control even when simple linear models are used for dynamics learning.
Shadrin, A. V.; Kontrimas, A. A.
A number of tasks for improving the spectral-acoustic method for forecasting dynamic phenomena and controlling stress condition in coalmines is considered. They are: considering the influence of a gas factor on the danger indicator, dependence of a relative pressure coefficient on the distance between the source and the receiver of the probing acoustic signal, correct selection of operating frequencies, the importance of developing the techniques for defining the critical value of the outburst danger index The influence of the rock mass stress condition ahead of the preliminary opening face on the relative pressure coefficient defined for installing the sound receiver in the wall of the opening behind the opening face is also justified in the article.
Eyetrackers which allow for free head movements are in many cases imprecise to the extent that reading patterns become heavily distorted. The poor usability and interpretability of these gaze patterns is corroborated by a "naïve" fixation-to-symbol mapping, which often wrongly maps the possibly...... drifted center of the observed fixation onto the symbol directly below it. In this paper I extend this naïve fixation-to-symbol mapping by introducing background knowledge about the translation task. In a first step, the sequence of fixation-to- symbol mappings is extended into a lattice of several...... possible fixated symbols, including those on the line above and below the naïve fixation mapping. In a second step a dynamic programming algorithm applies a number of heuristics to find the best path through the lattice, based on the probable distance in characters, in words and in pixels between...
Gladwin, T.E.; Mohr, S.E.; Wiers, R.W.
Attractive cues have been shown to evoke automatic approach biases in tasks such as the Automatic Approach Task or Stimulus Response Compatibility task. An important but as yet not studied question is the role of temporal dynamics in such tasks: the impact of automatic processes may depend on the
Gulart, Aline Almeida; Munari, Anelise Bauer; Tressoldi, Caroline; Dos Santos, Karoliny; Karloh, Manuela; Mayer, Anamaria Fleig
This cross-sectional study compared the physiological responses and dynamic hyperinflation (DH) of the Glittre-ADL test (TGlittre) and its specific tasks in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thirty patients with COPD performed the TGlittre. The individual tasks included stand up and sit down (TSS); climb up and down stairs (TSTAIRS); walk on a flat surface (TWALK); and move objects onto and off a shelf (TSHELF). While performing these tasks, the physiological responses were evaluated and inspiratory capacity measured before and immediately after the tests. All physiological variables and inspiratory capacity were different at the end of the TGlittre and its tasks compared with baseline (P .05), which were the tasks with the greatest physiological requirement, whereas the TSS represented the lowest metabolic, cardiovascular, and ventilatory demands among TGlittre's tasks. DH did not differ significantly among TGlittre's tasks. TWALK and TSHELF were the tasks that resulted in greater physiological overload, whereas TSS induced the lowest metabolic and ventilatory demands. Despite this, DH did not differ among the TGlittre's tasks in patients with COPD.
Crouch, Dustin L.; (Helen Huang, He
Objective. We investigated the feasibility of a novel, customizable, simplified EMG-driven musculoskeletal model for estimating coordinated hand and wrist motions during a real-time path tracing task. Approach. A two-degree-of-freedom computational musculoskeletal model was implemented for real-time EMG-driven control of a stick figure hand displayed on a computer screen. After 5-10 minutes of undirected practice, subjects were given three attempts to trace 10 straight paths, one at a time, with the fingertip of the virtual hand. Able-bodied subjects completed the task on two separate test days. Main results. Across subjects and test days, there was a significant linear relationship between log-transformed measures of accuracy and speed (Pearson’s r = 0.25, p bodied subjects in 8 of 10 trials. For able-bodied subjects, tracing accuracy was lower at the extremes of the model’s range of motion, though there was no apparent relationship between tracing accuracy and fingertip location for the amputee. Our result suggests that, unlike able-bodied subjects, the amputee’s motor control patterns were not accustomed to the multi-joint dynamics of the wrist and hand, possibly as a result of post-amputation cortical plasticity, disuse, or sensory deficits. Significance. To our knowledge, our study is one of very few that have demonstrated the real-time simultaneous control of multi-joint movements, especially wrist and finger movements, using an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model, which differs from the many data-driven algorithms that dominate the literature on EMG-driven prosthesis control. Real-time control was achieved with very little training and simple, quick (~15 s) calibration. Thus, our model is potentially a practical and effective control platform for multifunctional myoelectric prostheses that could restore more life-like hand function for individuals with upper limb amputation.
Full Text Available Numerous devices have been designed to support the back during lifting tasks. To improve the utility of such devices, this research explores the use of preparatory muscle activity to classify muscle loading and initiate appropriate device activation. The goal of this study was to determine the earliest time window that enabled accurate load classification during a dynamic lifting task.Nine subjects performed thirty symmetrical lifts, split evenly across three weight conditions (no-weight, 10-lbs and 24-lbs, while low-back muscle activity data was collected. Seven descriptive statistics features were extracted from 100 ms windows of data. A multinomial logistic regression (MLR classifier was trained and tested, employing leave-one subject out cross-validation, to classify lifted load values. Dimensionality reduction was achieved through feature cross-correlation analysis and greedy feedforward selection. The time of full load support by the subject was defined as load-onset.Regions of highest average classification accuracy started at 200 ms before until 200 ms after load-onset with average accuracies ranging from 80% (±10% to 81% (±7%. The average recall for each class ranged from 69-92%.These inter-subject classification results indicate that preparatory muscle activity can be leveraged to identify the intent to lift a weight up to 100 ms prior to load-onset. The high accuracies shown indicate the potential to utilize intent classification for assistive device applications.Active assistive devices, e.g. exoskeletons, could prevent back injury by off-loading low-back muscles. Early intent classification allows more time for actuators to respond and integrate seamlessly with the user.
del Pilar García Mayo, Maria; Imaz Agirre, Ainara
Little research has been carried out on the effect of task repetition on young learners' negotiation of meaning (NoM) strategies and on pair dynamics. The present study aims to fill this gap by analysing the interaction of 60 dyads of third- and fourth-year primary English as a foreign language learners (8-9, 9-10 years old, respectively) while…
Eyetrackers which allow for free head movement are in many cases imprecise to the extent that reading pattern become heavily distorted. As a result, a "naïve" gazeto-symbol mapping approach wrongly maps also the drifted center of the xation on the symbol directly below it. In this talk, I extend...... this "naïve" gaze-to-word mapping by introducing background knowledge about the gazing task. In a first step, the sequence of "naïve" gaze-to-symbol mappings is projected into a lattice of several possible gaze locations above and below the current fixation on the text. In a second step a dynamic programming...... problems and noise that we observe when using eyetrackers to record and analyse gazing behavior of translators. I describe the mapping algorithm and show how it rectifies and re-aligns the noisy gaze data to provide a more intelligible gaze path. I show examples of re-mapped fixations which better explain...
Trampenau, Leif; Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Johann P; van Eimeren, Thilo
Advance information, such as object weight, size and texture, modifies predictive scaling of grip forces in a grip-lift task. Here, we examined the influence of probabilistic advance information about object weight. Fifteen healthy volunteers repeatedly grasped and lifted an object equipped with a force transducer between their thumb and index finger. Three clearly distinguishable object weights were used. Prior to each lift, the probabilities for the three object weights were given by a visual cue. We examined the effect of probabilistic pre-cues on grip and lift force dynamics. We expected predictive scaling of grip force parameters to follow predicted values calculated according to probabilistic contingencies of the cues. We observed that probabilistic cues systematically influenced peak grip and load force rates, as an index of predictive motor scaling. However, the effects of probabilistic cues on force rates were nonlinear, and anticipatory adaptations of the motor output generally seemed to overestimate high probabilities and underestimate low probabilities. These findings support the suggestion that anticipatory adaptations and force scaling of the motor system can integrate probabilistic information. However, probabilistic information seems to influence motor programs in a nonlinear fashion.
Full Text Available Exploiting potential thread-level parallelism (TLP is becoming the key factor to improving performance of programs on multicore or many-core systems. Among various kinds of parallel execution models, the software-based speculative parallel model has become a research focus due to its low cost, high efficiency, flexibility, and scalability. The performance of the guest program under the software-based speculative parallel execution model is closely related to the speculation accuracy, the control overhead, and the rollback overhead of the model. In this paper, we first analyzed the conventional speculative parallel model and presented an analytic model of its expectation of the overall overhead, then optimized the conventional model based on the analytic model, and finally proposed a novel speculative parallel model named HEUSPEC. The HEUSPEC model includes three key techniques, namely, the heuristic value prediction, the value based correctness checking, and the dynamic task granularity resizing. We have implemented the runtime system of the model in ANSI C language. The experiment results show that when the speedup of the HEUSPEC model can reach 2.20 on the average (15% higher than conventional model when depth is equal to 3 and 4.51 on the average (12% higher than conventional model when speculative depth is equal to 7. Besides, it shows good scalability and lower memory cost.
Xu, Fan; Shen, Li; Wang, Zhiying; Su, Bo; Guo, Hui; Chen, Wei
Exploiting potential thread-level parallelism (TLP) is becoming the key factor to improving performance of programs on multicore or many-core systems. Among various kinds of parallel execution models, the software-based speculative parallel model has become a research focus due to its low cost, high efficiency, flexibility, and scalability. The performance of the guest program under the software-based speculative parallel execution model is closely related to the speculation accuracy, the control overhead, and the rollback overhead of the model. In this paper, we first analyzed the conventional speculative parallel model and presented an analytic model of its expectation of the overall overhead, then optimized the conventional model based on the analytic model, and finally proposed a novel speculative parallel model named HEUSPEC. The HEUSPEC model includes three key techniques, namely, the heuristic value prediction, the value based correctness checking, and the dynamic task granularity resizing. We have implemented the runtime system of the model in ANSI C language. The experiment results show that when the speedup of the HEUSPEC model can reach 2.20 on the average (15% higher than conventional model) when depth is equal to 3 and 4.51 on the average (12% higher than conventional model) when speculative depth is equal to 7. Besides, it shows good scalability and lower memory cost.
Madehkhaksar, F.; Egges, J.
Stair gait is a common daily activity with great potential risk for falls. Stairs have varying inclinations and people may perform other tasks concurrently with stair gait. This study investigated dual-task interference in the context of complex gait tasks, such as stair gait at different
Le, Peter; Aurand, Alexander; Dufour, Jonathan S; Knapik, Gregory G; Best, Thomas M; Khan, Safdar N; Mendel, Ehud; Marras, William S
Many methods exist to describe coactivation between muscles. However, most methods have limited capability in the assessment of coactivation during complex dynamic tasks for multi-muscle systems such as the lumbar spine. The ability to assess coactivation is important for the understanding of neuromuscular inefficiency. In the context of this manuscript, inefficiency is defined as the effort or level of coactivation beyond what may be necessary to accomplish a task (e.g., muscle guarding during postural stabilization). The objectives of this study were to describe the development of an index to assess coactivity for the lumbar spine and test its ability to differentiate between various complex dynamic tasks. The development of the coactivation index involved the continuous agonist/antagonist classification of moment contributions for the power-producing muscles of the torso. Different tasks were employed to test the range of the index including lifting, pushing, and Valsalva. The index appeared to be sensitive to conditions where higher coactivation would be expected. These conditions of higher coactivation included tasks involving higher degrees of control. Precision placement tasks required about 20% more coactivation than tasks not requiring precision, lifting at chest height required approximately twice the coactivation as mid-thigh height, and pushing fast speeds with turning also required at least twice the level of coactivity as slow or preferred speeds. Overall, this novel coactivation index could be utilized to describe the neuromuscular effort in the lumbar spine for tasks requiring different degrees of postural control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brookham, Rebecca L; Cudlip, Alan C; Dickerson, Clark R
Upper limb morbidities within the breast cancer population can interfere with completing daily life activities. Current knowledge of upper limb capabilities is limited; previous increases in muscle activation on the affected cancer side suggest this population works at a higher fraction of their capability. The purposes of this study were to describe upper limb capabilities and dysfunction of breast cancer survivors through muscle activation monitoring via surface electromyography and muscle-specific strength tests during functional tasks. Fifty survivors performed 88 dynamic tasks (divided into range of motion-reach or rotate, activities of daily life and work tasks). Muscle activation was examined for functional and strength testing tasks. Total muscle effort (summation of integrated electromyography across measured muscles) was up to 5.1% greater on the affected side during work tasks (p=0.0258). Increased activations existed in posterior deltoid, supraspinatus, upper trapezius and serratus anterior (ptasks, including daily living tasks. Reduced activation occurred in affected pectoralis major sternal during all tasks (ptasks (p=0.0002-0.0328). The affected side infraspinatus, supraspinatus and upper trapezius muscles demonstrated significant reductions in targeted strength testing (p=0.0001-0.0057). Both primary and secondary muscles (outside surgery and radiation fields) were affected. In general, this population works at higher levels of muscle effort for the affected side yet demonstrates weakness in strength testing, which may reflect tissue damage. Strengthening exercises for the posterior rotator cuff and upper trapezius may be the most beneficial. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Motor unit activity is coordinated between many synergistic muscle pairs but the functional role of this coordination for the motor output is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term modality of coordinated motor unit activity-the synchronized discharge of individual motor units across muscles within time intervals of 5ms-for the Vastus Medialis (VM and Lateralis (VL. Furthermore, we studied the task-dependency of intermuscular motor unit synchronization between VM and VL during static and dynamic squatting tasks to provide insight into its functional role.Sixteen healthy male and female participants completed four tasks: Bipedal squats, single-leg squats, an isometric squat, and single-leg balance. Monopolar surface electromyography (EMG was used to record motor unit activity of VM and VL. For each task, intermuscular motor unit synchronization was determined using a coherence analysis between the raw EMG signals of VM and VL and compared to a reference coherence calculated from two desynchronized EMG signals. The time shift between VM and VL EMG signals was estimated according to the slope of the coherence phase angle spectrum.For all tasks, except for singe-leg balance, coherence between 15-80Hz significantly exceeded the reference. The corresponding time shift between VM and VL was estimated as 4ms. Coherence between 30-60Hz was highest for the bipedal squat, followed by the single-leg squat and the isometric squat.There is substantial short-term motor unit synchronization between VM and VL. Intermuscular motor unit synchronization is enhanced for contractions during dynamic activities, possibly to facilitate a more accurate control of the joint torque, and reduced during single-leg tasks that require balance control and thus, a more independent muscle function. It is proposed that the central nervous system scales the degree of intermuscular motor unit synchronization according to the requirements of the movement
Ko, Ji-Hyun; Challis, John H; Newell, Karl M
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the coordination between center of mass (COM) and center of pressure (COP) could be a candidate collective variable of a dynamical system that captures the organization of the multi-segmental whole body postural control system. We examined the transition of the COM-COP coordination pattern in a moving platform balance control paradigm. 10 young healthy adults stood on a moving surface of support that within a trial was sinusoidally translated in the anterior-posterior direction continuously scaling up and then down its frequency within the range from 0Hz to 3.0Hz. The COP was derived from a single force platform mounted on the moving surface of support. 4 angular joint motions (ankle, knee, hip, and neck) were measured by a 3D motion analysis system that also allowed COM to be derived. The COM-COP coordination changed from in-phase/anti-phase to anti-phase/in-phase at a certain frequency of the support surface, showed hysteresis as a function of the direction of frequency change and higher variability at the transition region. Conversely, the transition of the ankle-hip coordination consistently occurred at 0.3Hz across subjects with little between or within subject variability as a function of transition frequency and before the COM-COP transition. The findings provide evidence that: (1) the transition of the COM-COP coordination pattern is that of a non-equilibrium phase transition with critical fluctuations and hysteresis; and (2) that COM-COP coupling is a candidate collective variable of the multi-segmental whole body postural control system acting on a redundant postural task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The procedures are detailed below. All procedures were planned and carried out in consultation with a research meteorologist, familiar with the...received over time. 43 Page 25 Verbal Protocols Examples of the verbalizations are provided in Appendix A. The protocolo indicate that during...as a familiar task to the subjects (low task complexity) with a relatively easy task structure (the step-by-step procedure given to the subjects in
Skotte, J H; Essendrop, M; Hansen, A F; Schibye, B
The objective of this study was to investigate the low-back loading during common patient-handling tasks. Ten female health care workers without formal training in patient handling performed nine patient-handling tasks including turning, lifting and repositioning a male stroke patient. The low-back loading was quantified by net moment, compression, and shear forces at the L4/L5 joint, measured muscle activity (EMG) in erector spinae muscles and rate of perceived exertion (RPE; Borg scale). The experiments were videotaped with a 50Hz video system using five cameras, and the ground and bedside reaction forces of the health care worker were recorded by means of force platforms and force transducers on the bed. The biomechanical load was calculated using a dynamic 3D seven-segment model of the lower part of the body, and the forces at the L4/L5 joint were estimated by a 14 muscles cross-sectional model of the low back (optimisation procedure). Compression force and torque showed high task dependency whereas the EMG data and the RPE values were more dependent on the subject. The peak compression during two tasks involving lifting the patient (4132/4433N) was significantly higher than all other tasks. Four tasks involving repositioning the patient in the bed (3179/3091/2932/3094N) did not differ, but showed higher peak compression than two tasks turning the patient in the bed (1618/2197N). Thus, in this study the patient-handling tasks could be classified into three groups-characterised by lifting, repositioning or turning-with different levels of peak net torque and compression at the L4/L5 joint.
Dinov, Martin; Lorenz, Romy; Scott, Gregory; Sharp, David J; Fagerholm, Erik D; Leech, Robert
Dynamic time warping, or DTW, is a powerful and domain-general sequence alignment method for computing a similarity measure. Such dynamic programming-based techniques like DTW are now the backbone and driver of most bioinformatics methods and discoveries. In neuroscience it has had far less use, though this has begun to change. We wanted to explore new ways of applying DTW, not simply as a measure with which to cluster or compare similarity between features but in a conceptually different way. We have used DTW to provide a more interpretable spectral description of the data, compared to standard approaches such as the Fourier and related transforms. The DTW approach and standard discrete Fourier transform (DFT) are assessed against benchmark measures of neural dynamics. These include EEG microstates, EEG avalanches, and the sum squared error (SSE) from a multilayer perceptron (MLP) prediction of the EEG time series, and simultaneously acquired FMRI BOLD signal. We explored the relationships between these variables of interest in an EEG-FMRI dataset acquired during a standard cognitive task, which allowed us to explore how DTW differentially performs in different task settings. We found that despite strong correlations between DTW and DFT-spectra, DTW was a better predictor for almost every measure of brain dynamics. Using these DTW measures, we show that predictability is almost always higher in task than in rest states, which is consistent to other theoretical and empirical findings, providing additional evidence for the utility of the DTW approach.
Full Text Available Dynamic time warping, or DTW, is a powerful and domain-general sequence alignment method for computing a similarity measure. Such dynamic programming-based techniques like DTW are now the backbone and driver of most bioinformatics methods and discoveries. In neuroscience it has had far less use, though this has begun to change. We wanted to explore new ways of applying DTW, not simply as a measure with which to cluster or compare similarity between features but in a conceptually different way. We have used DTW to provide a more interpretable spectral description of the data, compared to standard approaches such as the Fourier and related transforms. The DTW approach and standard discrete Fourier transform (DFT are assessed against benchmark measures of neural dynamics. These include EEG microstates, EEG avalanches and the sum squared error (SSE from a multilayer perceptron (MLP prediction of the EEG timeseries, and simultaneously acquired FMRI BOLD signal. We explored the relationships between these variables of interest in an EEG-FMRI dataset acquired during a standard cognitive task, which allowed us to explore how DTW differentially performs in different task settings. We found that despite strong correlations between DTW and DFT-spectra, DTW was a better predictor for almost every measure of brain dynamics. Using these DTW measures, we show that predictability is almost always higher in task than in rest states, which is consistent to other theoretical and empirical findings, providing additional evidence for the utility of the DTW approach.
Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom
The somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) posits that the role of emotions and mental states in decision-making manifests through bodily responses to stimuli of import to the organism's welfare. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), proposed by Bechara and Damasio in the mid-1990s, has provided the major source of empirical validation to the role of somatic markers in the service of flexible and cost-effective decision-making in humans. In recent years the IGT has been the subject of much criticism concerning: (1) whether measures of somatic markers reveal that they are important for decision-making as opposed to behaviour preparation; (2) the underlying neural substrate posited as critical to decision-making of the type relevant to the task; and (3) aspects of the methodological approach used, particularly on the canonical version of the task. In this paper, a cognitive robotics methodology is proposed to explore a dynamical systems approach as it applies to the neural computation of reward-based learning and issues concerning embodiment. This approach is particularly relevant in light of a strongly emerging alternative hypothesis to the SMH, the reversal learning hypothesis, which links, behaviourally and neurocomputationally, a number of more or less complex reward-based decision-making tasks, including the 'A-not-B' task - already subject to dynamical systems investigations with a focus on neural activation dynamics. It is also suggested that the cognitive robotics methodology may be used to extend systematically the IGT benchmark to more naturalised, but nevertheless controlled, settings that might better explore the extent to which the SMH, and somatic states per se, impact on complex decision-making.
Zhang, Jianhua; Yin, Zhong; Wang, Rubin
This paper developed a cognitive task-load (CTL) classification algorithm and allocation strategy to sustain the optimal operator CTL levels over time in safety-critical human-machine integrated systems. An adaptive human-machine system is designed based on a non-linear dynamic CTL classifier, which maps a set of electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) related features to a few CTL classes. The least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is used as dynamic pattern classifier. A series of electrophysiological and performance data acquisition experiments were performed on seven volunteer participants under a simulated process control task environment. The participant-specific dynamic LSSVM model is constructed to classify the instantaneous CTL into five classes at each time instant. The initial feature set, comprising 56 EEG and ECG related features, is reduced to a set of 12 salient features (including 11 EEG-related features) by using the locality preserving projection (LPP) technique. An overall correct classification rate of about 80% is achieved for the 5-class CTL classification problem. Then the predicted CTL is used to adaptively allocate the number of process control tasks between operator and computer-based controller. Simulation results showed that the overall performance of the human-machine system can be improved by using the adaptive automation strategy proposed.
Zhu, Chunmao; Yoshikawa-Inoue, Hisayuki; Matsueda, Hidekadzu; Sawa, Yosuke; Niwa, Yosuke; Wada, Akira; Tanimoto, Hiroshi
Atmospheric 222Rn was monitored from December 2008 to November 2010 on Rishiri Island (45°07‧N, 141°12‧E), northernmost Japan. Seasonal 222Rn variation was characterized by high concentrations from November to February and low concentrations from May to July, caused by the alternation of continental and maritime fetch regions. 222Rn tracer and back trajectory cluster analyses indicated that the predominant continental fetch region was southeastern Siberia and northeastern China. 222Rn emitted from China and South Korea, whose economies are growing rapidly, did not significantly affect the Rishiri site. The major maritime fetch region was the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. A global three-dimensional model (NICAM-TM) accurately simulated 222Rn concentrations on Rishiri Island and in the seasonal fetch regions. The time series of 222Rn data will make it possible to evaluate the sources and sinks of atmospheric greenhouse gases being monitored at Rishiri Island, which complements other sites in the Asia-Pacific rim region, and to validate model simulations used to examine trans-boundary air pollution.
Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian
This study investigates interpersonal processes underlying dialog by comparing two approaches, "interactive alignment" and "interpersonal synergy", and assesses how they predict collective performance in a joint task. While the interactive alignment approach highlights imitative patterns between interlocutors, the synergy…
Desender, Kobe; Van Opstal, Filip; Hughes, Gethin; Van den Bussche, Eva
In recent years, neuroscience research spent much effort in revealing brain activity related to metacognition. Despite this endeavor, it remains unclear exactly when metacognitive experiences develop during task performance. To investigate this, the current study used EEG to temporally and spatially dissociate task-related activity from metacognitive activity. In a masked priming paradigm, metacognitive experiences of difficulty were induced by manipulating congruency between prime and target. As expected, participants more frequently rated incongruent trials as difficult and congruent trials as easy, while being completely unable to perceive the masked primes. Results showed that both the N2 and the P3 ERP components were modulated by congruency, but that only the P3 modulation interacted with metacognitive experiences. Single-trial analysis additionally showed that the magnitude of the P3 modulation by congruency accurately predicted the metacognitive response. Source localization indicated that the N2 task-related activity originated in the ACC, whereas the P3-interplay between task-related activation and metacognitive experiences originated from the precuneus. We conclude that task-related activity can be dissociated from later metacognitive processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian
This study investigates interpersonal processes underlying dialog by comparing two approaches, interactive alignment and interpersonal synergy, and assesses how they predict collective performance in a joint task. While the interactive alignment approach highlights imitative patterns between...... interlocutors, the synergy approach points to structural organization at the level of the interaction - such as complementary patterns straddling speech-turns and interlocutors. We develop a general, quantitative method to assess lexical, prosodic and speech/pause patterns related to the two approaches...... does not improve the model. This suggests that structural organization at the level of the interaction plays a crucial role in task-oriented conversations, possibly constraining and integrating processes related to alignment....
While learners of a second language (L2) are increasingly interacting in small groups as part of a communicative methodological paradigm, very few studies have investigated the social dynamics that occur in such groups. The aim of this study is to introduce a group work dynamic measuring instrument and to investigate the relationship between group…
Gillam, Sandra Laing; Fargo, Jamison; Foley, Beth; Olszewski, Abbie
Purpose: The purpose of the project was to design a nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme deletion that may prove useful with individuals who demonstrate complex communication needs (CCN) and are unable to communicate using natural speech or who present with moderate-severe speech impairments. Method: A nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme…
Ellegast, R.; Hamburger, R.; Keller, K.; Krause, F.; Groenesteijn, L.; Vink, P.; Berger, H.
In the paper a measuring system for the comparative posture and EMG analysis of office chairs is presented. With the system four specific dynamic office chairs that promote dynamic sitting and therefore aim to prevent musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), were analyzed in comparison to a reference chair
Hopstaken, J.; Linden, D. van der; Bakker, A.B.; Kompier, M.A.J.
Although mental fatigue is a complex, multi-facetted state that involves changes in motivation, cognition, and mood, one of its main characteristics is reduced task engagement. Despite its relevance for performance and safety, knowledge about the underlying neurocognitive processes in mental fatigue
All intrinsic properties of the earliest deadline task scheduling discipline are compiled and discussed in order to show that this is the most advantageous scheme at hand, characterised by efficiency and allowing predictable system behaviour. It is then pointed out how the method naturally extends
Emerging parallel processing and increased flexibility during the acquisition of cognitive skills form a combination that is hard to reconcile with rule-based models that often produce brittle behavior. Rule-based models can exhibit these properties by adhering to 2 principles: that the model gradually learns task-specific rules from instructions…
O'Sullivan, Kieran; McCarthy, Raymond; White, Alison; O'Sullivan, Leonard; Dankaerts, Wim
Low back pain (LBP) is a common musculoskeletal disorder and prolonged sitting often aggravates LBP. A novel dynamic ergonomic chair ('Back App'), which facilitates less hip flexion while sitting on an unstable base has been developed. This study compared lumbar posture and trunk muscle activation on this novel chair with a standard backless office chair. Twelve painfree participants completed a typing task on both chairs. Lumbar posture and trunk muscle activation were collected simultaneously and were analysed using paired t-tests. Sitting on the novel dynamic chair significantly (p 0.05) between chairs. Maintaining lordosis with less muscle activation during prolonged sitting could reduce the fatigue associated with upright sitting postures. Studies with longer sitting durations, and in people with LBP, are required. Sitting on a novel dynamic chair resulted in less lumbar flexion and less back muscle activation than sitting on a standard backless office chair during a typing task among pain-free participants. Facilitating lordotic sitting with less muscle activation may reduce the fatigue and discomfort often associated with lordotic sitting postures.
Lions, Cynthia; Bucci, Maria Pia; Bonnet, Cédrick
To challenge the validity of existing cognitive models of postural control, we recorded eye movements and postural sway during two visual tasks (a control free-viewing task and a difficult searching task), and two postural tasks (one static task in which the platform was maintained stable and a dynamic task in which the platform moved in a sway-referenced manner.) We expected these models to be insufficient to predict the results in postural control both in static-as already shown in the literature reports-and in dynamic platform conditions. Twelve healthy, young adults (17.3 to 34.1 years old) participated in this study. Postural performances were evaluated using the Multitest platform (Framiral®) and ocular recording was performed with Mobile T2 (e(ye)BRAIN®). In the free-viewing task, the participants had to look at an image, without any specific instruction. In the searching task, the participants had to look at an image and also to locate the position of an object in the scene. Postural sway was only significantly higher in the dynamic free-viewing condition than in the three other conditions with no significant difference between these three other conditions. Visual task performance was slightly higher in dynamic than in static conditions. As expected, our results did not confirm the main assumption of the current cognitive models of postural control-i.e. that the limited attentional resources of the brain should explain changes in postural control in our conditions. Indeed, 1) the participants did not sway significantly more in the sway-referenced dynamic searching condition than in any other condition; 2) the participants swayed significantly less in both static and dynamic searching conditions than in the dynamic free-viewing condition. We suggest that a new cognitive model illustrating the adaptive, functional role of the brain to control upright stance is necessary for future studies.
Full Text Available To challenge the validity of existing cognitive models of postural control, we recorded eye movements and postural sway during two visual tasks (a control free-viewing task and a difficult searching task, and two postural tasks (one static task in which the platform was maintained stable and a dynamic task in which the platform moved in a sway-referenced manner. We expected these models to be insufficient to predict the results in postural control both in static-as already shown in the literature reports-and in dynamic platform conditions.Twelve healthy, young adults (17.3 to 34.1 years old participated in this study. Postural performances were evaluated using the Multitest platform (Framiral® and ocular recording was performed with Mobile T2 (e(yeBRAIN®. In the free-viewing task, the participants had to look at an image, without any specific instruction. In the searching task, the participants had to look at an image and also to locate the position of an object in the scene.Postural sway was only significantly higher in the dynamic free-viewing condition than in the three other conditions with no significant difference between these three other conditions. Visual task performance was slightly higher in dynamic than in static conditions.As expected, our results did not confirm the main assumption of the current cognitive models of postural control-i.e. that the limited attentional resources of the brain should explain changes in postural control in our conditions. Indeed, 1 the participants did not sway significantly more in the sway-referenced dynamic searching condition than in any other condition; 2 the participants swayed significantly less in both static and dynamic searching conditions than in the dynamic free-viewing condition. We suggest that a new cognitive model illustrating the adaptive, functional role of the brain to control upright stance is necessary for future studies.
This document describes the System Requirements Specifications (SyRS) of the Dynamic Mobility Applications (DMA) Open Source Application Development Portal (OSADP) system in details according to IEEE-Std. 1233-1998. The requirement statements discuss...
that are nested from Division to Corps to Joint Force Land Component (Operational level of war) and all the way to the Combined Joint Task Force...entities followed during specific phases of the operation. This allowed for filtering of the TOEL to depict only those entities we were concerned with as...provide another way to filter information as the model was being developed from the TOEL. Secondly, for each phase of the operation, the events were
Wamsley, Erin J; Perry, Karen; Djonlagic, Ina; Reaven, Laura Babkes; Stickgold, Robert
Studies of neural activity in animals and humans suggest that experiences are "replayed" in cortical and hippocampal networks during NREM sleep. Here, we examine whether memory reactivation in sleeping humans might also be evident within reports of concomitant subjective experience (i.e., dreaming). Participants were trained on an engaging visuomotor learning task across a period of one or more days, and sleep onset mentation was collected at variable intervals using the "Nightcap" home-monitoring device. Verbal reports of sleep onset mentation were obtained either at the beginning of the night, or following 2 h of initial sleep. Data were collected in participants' home environments, via the Nightcap monitoring system, and at The Center for Sleep and Cognition, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston MA. 43 healthy, medication-free college students (16 males, age 18-25 years). N/A. The learning task exerted a powerful, direct effect on verbal reports of mentation during light NREM sleep (stages 1 and 2). On post-training nights, a full 30% of all verbal reports were related to the task. The nature of this cognitive "replay" effect was altered with increasing durations of sleep, becoming more abstracted from the original experience as time into sleep increased. These observations are interpreted in light of memory consolidation theory, and demonstrate that introspective reports can provide a valuable window on cognitive processing in the sleeping brain.
Gallagher, S.; Marras, W.S.; Davis, K.G.; Kovacs, K. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.
Spinal loads associated with lifting and hanging heavy mining cable in a variety of postures were evaluated. This electrical cable can weigh up to 10 kg per metre and is often lifted in restricted spaces in underground coal mines. Seven male subjects performed eight cable lifting and hanging tasks, while trunk kinematic data and trunk muscle electromyograms (EMGs) were obtained. The eight tasks were combinations of four postures (standing, stooping, kneeling on one knee, or kneeling on both knees) and two levels of cable load (0 N or 100 N load added to the existing cable weight). An EMG-assisted model was used to calculate forces and moments acting on the lumbar spine. A two-way split-plot ANOVA showed that increased load (p<0.05) and changes in lifting posture (p<0.05) independently affected trunk muscle recruitment and spinal loading. The increase in cable load resulted in higher EMG activity of all trunk muscles and increased axial and lateral bending moments on the spine (p<0.05). Changes in posture caused more selective adjustments in muscle recruitment and affected the sagittal plane moment (p<0.05). Despite the more selective nature of trunk EMG changes due to posture, the magnitude of changes in spinal loading was often quite dramatic. However, average compression values exceeded 3400 N for all cable lifting tasks.
Fields, Eric C; Kuperberg, Gina R
We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the interactions between task, emotion, and contextual self-relevance on processing words in social vignettes. Participants read scenarios that were in either third person (other-relevant) or second person (self-relevant) and we recorded ERPs to a neutral, pleasant, or unpleasant critical word. In a previously reported study (Fields and Kuperberg, 2012) with these stimuli, participants were tasked with producing a third sentence continuing the scenario. We observed a larger LPC to emotional words than neutral words in both the self-relevant and other-relevant scenarios, but this effect was smaller in the self-relevant scenarios because the LPC was larger on the neutral words (i.e., a larger LPC to self-relevant than other-relevant neutral words). In the present work, participants simply answered comprehension questions that did not refer to the emotional aspects of the scenario. Here we observed quite a different pattern of interaction between self-relevance and emotion: the LPC was larger to emotional vs. neutral words in the self-relevant scenarios only, and there was no effect of self-relevance on neutral words. Taken together, these findings suggest that the LPC reflects a dynamic interaction between specific task demands, the emotional properties of a stimulus, and contextual self-relevance. We conclude by discussing implications and future directions for a functional theory of the emotional LPC.
Weir, D. H.; Mcruer, D. T.
Measurements and interpretations of single and mutiloop pilot response properties during simulated instrument approach are presented. Pilot subjects flew Category 2-like ILS approaches in a fixed base DC-8 simulaton. A conventional instrument panel and controls were used, with simulated vertical gust and glide slope beam bend forcing functions. Reduced and interpreted pilot describing functions and remmant are given for pitch attitude, flight director, and multiloop (longitudinal) control tasks. The response data are correlated with simultaneously recorded eye scanning statistics, previously reported in NASA CR-1535. The resulting combined response and scanning data and their interpretations provide a basis for validating and extending the theory of manual control displays.
Wolniakowski, Adam; Jørgensen, Jimmy Alison; Miatliuk, Konstantsin
In this work, we present a generic approach to optimize the design of a parametrized robot gripper including both gripper parameters and parameters of the finger geometry. We demonstrate our gripper optimization on a parallel jaw type gripper which we have parametrized in a 11 dimensional space. We...... furthermore present a parametrization of the grasping task and context, which is essential as input to the computation of gripper performance. We exemplify the feasibility of our approach by computing several optimized grippers on a real world industrial object in three different scenarios....
Previous research on dynamic decision behaviour consistently indicated that individuals tend to use a judgment-oriented strategy. When faced with deteriorating system perfor-mance people prefer to select information before they apply an action, even when the straightforward application of actions
Gladwin, Thomas E; Mohr, Sören E; Wiers, Reinout W
Attractive cues have been shown to evoke automatic approach biases in tasks such as the Automatic Approach Task or Stimulus Response Compatibility task. An important but as yet not studied question is the role of temporal dynamics in such tasks: the impact of automatic processes may depend on the interval between cue and response. The current proof of principle study tested this hypothesized time-dependence of the approach bias. Secondary goals included the exploration of effects of alcohol cues and virtual hand stimuli. 22 participants performed an SRC task in which the delay between the presentation of the cue and the possibility to select the response was manipulated. Results revealed an approach bias that decayed over longer delays. Thus, the approach bias was indeed dependent on processes that are transiently evoked by cues. The results did not show significant effects of alcohol cues or a virtual hand. Temporal dynamics may be an essential feature of approach biases.
Shuggi, Isabelle M; Oh, Hyuk; Shewokis, Patricia A; Gentili, Rodolphe J
The assessment of mental workload can inform attentional resource allocation during task performance that is essential for understanding the underlying principles of human cognitive-motor behavior. While many studies have focused on mental workload in relation to human performance, a modest body of work has examined it in a motor practice/learning context without considering individual variability. Thus, this work aimed to examine mental workload by employing the NASA TLX as well as the changes in motor performance resulting from the practice of a novel reaching task. Two groups of participants practiced a reaching task at a high and low nominal difficulty during which a group-level analysis assessed the mental workload, motor performance and motor improvement dynamics. A secondary cluster analysis was also conducted to identify specific individual patterns of cognitive-motor responses. Overall, both group- and cluster-level analyses revealed that: (i) all participants improved their performance throughout motor practice, and (ii) an increase in mental workload was associated with a reduction of the quality of motor performance along with a slower rate of motor improvement. The results are discussed in the context of the optimal challenge point framework and in particular it is proposed that under the experimental conditions employed here, functional task difficulty: (i) would possibly depend on an individuals' information processing capabilities, and (ii) could be indexed by the level of mental workload which, when excessively heightened can decrease the quality of performance and more generally result in delayed motor improvements. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Malling, Anne Sofie B; Jensen, Bente R
Recent studies indicate that the effect of training on motor performance in persons with Parkinson's disease (PDP) is dependent on motor intensity. However, training of high motor intensity can be hard to apply in PDP due to e.g. bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability. Therefore, the aim was to study the effect of motor intensive training performed in a safe anti-gravity environment using lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) technology on performance during dynamic balance related tasks. Thirteen male PDP went through an 8-week control period followed by 8 weeks of motor intensive antigravity training. Seventeen healthy males constituted a control group (CON). Performance during a five repetition sit-to-stand test (STS; sagittal plane) and a dynamic postural balance test (DPB; transversal plane) was evaluated. Effect measures were completion time, functional rates of force development, directional changes and force variance. STS completion time improved by 24% to the level of CON which was explained by shorter sitting-time and standing-time and larger numeric rate of force change during lowering to the chair, indicating faster vertical directional change and improved relaxation. DPB completion time tended to improve and was accompanied by improvements of functional medial and lateral rates of force development and higher vertical force variance during DPB. Our results suggest that the performance improvements may relate to improved inter-limb coordination. It is concluded that 8 weeks of motor intensive training in a safe LBPP environment improved performance during dynamic balance related tasks in PDP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
R.L. van den Brink
Full Text Available For some patients, coma is followed by a state of unresponsiveness, while other patients develop signs of awareness. In practice, detecting signs of awareness may be hindered by possible impairments in the patient's motoric, sensory, or cognitive abilities, resulting in a substantial proportion of misdiagnosed disorders of consciousness. Task-free paradigms that are independent of the patient's sensorimotor and neurocognitive abilities may offer a solution to this challenge. A limitation of previous research is that the large majority of studies on the pathophysiological processes underlying disorders of consciousness have been conducted using cross-sectional designs. Here, we present a study in which we acquired a total of 74 longitudinal task-free EEG measurements from 16 patients (aged 6–22 years, 12 male suffering from severe acquired brain injury, and an additional 16 age- and education-matched control participants. We examined changes in amplitude and connectivity metrics of oscillatory brain activity within patients across their recovery. Moreover, we applied multi-class linear discriminant analysis to assess the potential diagnostic and prognostic utility of amplitude and connectivity metrics at the individual-patient level. We found that over the course of their recovery, patients exhibited nonlinear frequency band-specific changes in spectral amplitude and connectivity metrics, changes that aligned well with the metrics' frequency band-specific diagnostic value. Strikingly, connectivity during a single task-free EEG measurement predicted the level of patient recovery approximately 3 months later with 75% accuracy. Our findings show that spectral amplitude and connectivity track patient recovery in a longitudinal fashion, and these metrics are robust pathophysiological markers that can be used for the automated diagnosis and prognosis of disorders of consciousness. These metrics can be acquired inexpensively at bedside, and are
I T I ONS OF CUL T URE I 75 culture is individualistic if each person is expected to look after him or herself and collectivistic if there...country, region, or culture. With respect to human dynamics, these documents should include perspectives of factions (tribes, clans, villages), fears...military and technology studies, Iraqi and terrorist perspectives , religious and ideological studies, and new disciplines in social sciences. Commercial
Full Text Available In this paper, a system for modeling of service robot tasks is presented. Our work is motivated by the idea that a robotic task may be represented as a set of tractable modules each responsible for a certain part of the task. For general fetch-and-carry robotic applications, there will be varying demands for precision and degrees of freedom involved depending on complexity of the individual module. The particular research problem considered here is the development of a system that supports simple design of complex tasks from a set of basic primitives. The three system levels considered are: i task graph generation which allows the user to easily design or model a task, ii task graph execution which executes the task graph, and iii at the lowest level, the specification and development of primitives required for general fetch-and-carry robotic applications. In terms of robustness, we believe that one way of increasing the robustness of the whole system is by increasing the robustness of individual modules. In particular, we consider a number of different parameters that effect the performance of a model-based tracking system. Parameters such as color channels, feature detection, validation gates, outliers rejection and feature selection are considered here and their affect to the overall system performance is discussed. Experimental evaluation shows how some of these parameters can successfully be evaluated (learned on-line and consequently improve the performance of the system.
Full Text Available In this paper, a system for modeling of service robot tasks is presented. Our work is motivated by the idea that a robotic task may be represented as a set of tractable modules each responsible for a certain part of the task. For general fetch-and-carry robotic applications, there will be varying demands for precision and degrees of freedom involved depending on complexity of the individual module. The particular research problem considered here is the development of a system that supports simple design of complex tasks from a set of basic primitives. The three system levels considered are: i task graph generation which allows the user to easily design or model a task, ii task graph execution which executes the task graph, and iii at the lowest level, the specification and development of primitives required for general fetch-and-carry robotic applications. In terms of robustness, we believe that one way of increasing the robustness of the whole system is by increasing the robustness of individual modules. In particular, we consider a number of different parameters that effect the performance of a model-based tracking system. Parameters such as color channels, feature detection, validation gates, outliers rejection and feature selection are considered here and their affect to the overall system performance is discussed. Experimental evaluation shows how some of these parameters can successfully be evaluated (learned on-line and consequently improve the performance of the system.
Ge, M; Lam, K Y; Gollmann, Dieter
mechanisms. In this paper, we tackle issues critical to asymmetric key management in MANET, which almost invariably serves as a basis of security services in a network environment. To address the deficiencies of existing key management schemes, we propose the concept of mission-specific certificate to manage......In emergency tasks, cross-agency operations being carried out in disaster-hit areas require some supporting communication system for command and control. Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a very suitable way to meet such communication requirements since it can function without any pre......-installed communication infrastructure. Owing to potential threats in the field environment and the unique features of MANET (e.g. the open nature of wireless links and the absence of security infrastructure), security of communications over MANET is a serious issue that is typically addressed by asymmetric cryptographic...
Kulvicius, Tomas; Biehl, Martin; Aein, Mohamad Javad
to learn an adaptive, sensor-driven interaction based on DMPs. The coupled conventional (no-sensors, no learning) DMP-system automatically equilibrates and can still be solved analytically allowing us to derive conditions for stability. When adding adaptive sensor control we can show that both agents learn......Abstract Since several years dynamic movement primitives (DMPs) are more and more getting into the center of interest for flexible movement control in robotics. In this study we introduce sensory feedback together with a predictive learning mechanism which allows tightly coupled dual-agent systems...
Full Text Available Dual-task testing is relevant in the assessment of postural control. A combination of a primary (motor and a secondary (distracting cognitive tasks is most often used. It remains a challenge however, to standardize and monitor the cognitive task. In this study a new dual-task testing approach with a facilitating, rather than distracting, cognitive component was evaluated.Thirty-one community-dwelling elderly and fifteen young people were tested with respect to their ability to use anticipatory postural control strategies. The motor task consisted of twenty-five repetitive tasks in which the participants needed to exceed their limit of stability in order to touch one out of eight lights. The participants performed three tests. In two of the tests the color cues of the lights allowed the participants to utilize cognitive strategies to plan their next movement and improve their performance time.The young performed the baseline motor task test in an average of 29 seconds, while the average time for the elderly was 44 seconds. When comparing the performance time with a leading cue to the time with no cue, the young group improved their performance time significantly better than the elderly did: young: 17% (5, elderly: 5% (8; p<0.001. Similar differences were seen with a more complicated leading cue: young: 12% (5, elderly: 4% (9; p<0.01. The reliability of the test showed moderate to substantial agreement (ICC = 0.74, with a small learning effect between two sessions.The dual-task test was sensitive enough to discriminate between elderly and young people. It revealed that the elderly did not utilize cognitive cues for their anticipatory postural control strategies as well as the young were able to. The test procedure was feasible and comprehensible for the participants, and it may be relevant to standardize a similar test for an alternative dual-task approach in the clinical setting.
Full Text Available Background: Studies investigating event-related potential (ERP evoked in a Cue-Go/NoGo paradigm have shown lower frontal N1, N2 and central P3 in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD compared to typically developing children (TDC. However, the electroencephalographic (EEG dynamics underlying these ERPs remain largely unexplored in ADHD. Methods: We investigate the event-related spectral perturbation and inter-trial coherence linked to the ERP triggered by visual Cue-Go/NoGo stimuli, in 14 children (7 ADHD and 7 TDC aged 8 to 12 years. Results: Compared to TDC, the EEG dynamics of children with ADHD showed a lower theta-alpha ITC concomitant to lower occipito-parietal P1-N2 and frontal N1-P2 potentials in response to Cue, Go and Nogo stimuli; an upper alpha power preceding lower central Go-P3; a lower theta-alpha power and ITC were coupled to a lower frontal Nogo-N3; a lower low-gamma power overall scalp at 300 ms after Go and Nogo stimuli. Conclusion: These findings suggest impaired ability in children with ADHD to conserve the brain oscillations phase associated with stimulus processing. This physiological trait might serve as a target for therapeutic intervention or be used as monitoring of their effects.
Thomas Alexander Daniel
Full Text Available The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered.
Læssøe, Uffe; Grarup, Bo; Bangshaab, Jette
-task testing approach with a facilitating, rather than distracting, cognitive component was evaluated. Methods: Thirty-one community-dwelling elderly and fifteen young people were tested with respect to their ability to use anticipatory postural control strategies. The motor task consisted of twenty......-five repetitive tasks in which the participants needed to exceed their limit of stability in order to touch one out of eight lights. The participants performed three tests. In two of the tests the color cues of the lights allowed the participants to utilize cognitive strategies to plan their next movement...... and improve their performance time. Results: The young performed the baseline motor task test in an average of 29 seconds, while the average time for the elderly was 44 seconds. When comparing the performance time with a leading cue to the time with no cue, the young group improved their performance time...
Janecky, D.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Ott, M.; Mitchell, A.
This report summarizes the results of continuing experiments on the behavior of tracers during fracture flow in saturated, welded tuff. These experiments were completed during the past year as part of the Dynamic Transport Task of geochemical investigations for the Yucca Mountain Project sponsored by the US Department of Energy. These experiments are designed to investigate the effects of fluid movement in fractures when coupled with matrix diffusion and sorption but isolated from the effects of capillary suction and two-phase flow characteristic of unsaturated conditions. The experiments reported here are continuations of experimental efforts reported previously. The behavior of three tracers [HTO (tritiated water), TcO 4 - (pertechnetate), and sulforhodamine B dye] have been investigated during flow through a saturated column of densely welded tuff from the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, southern Nevada. 31 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs
Laessoe, Uffe; Grarup, Bo; Bangshaab, Jette
Dual-task testing is relevant in the assessment of postural control. A combination of a primary (motor) and a secondary (distracting cognitive) tasks is most often used. It remains a challenge however, to standardize and monitor the cognitive task. In this study a new dual-task testing approach with a facilitating, rather than distracting, cognitive component was evaluated. Thirty-one community-dwelling elderly and fifteen young people were tested with respect to their ability to use anticipatory postural control strategies. The motor task consisted of twenty-five repetitive tasks in which the participants needed to exceed their limit of stability in order to touch one out of eight lights. The participants performed three tests. In two of the tests the color cues of the lights allowed the participants to utilize cognitive strategies to plan their next movement and improve their performance time. The young performed the baseline motor task test in an average of 29 seconds, while the average time for the elderly was 44 seconds. When comparing the performance time with a leading cue to the time with no cue, the young group improved their performance time significantly better than the elderly did: young: 17% (5), elderly: 5% (8); ptask test was sensitive enough to discriminate between elderly and young people. It revealed that the elderly did not utilize cognitive cues for their anticipatory postural control strategies as well as the young were able to. The test procedure was feasible and comprehensible for the participants, and it may be relevant to standardize a similar test for an alternative dual-task approach in the clinical setting.
Miller, Rikki L A; Francoeur, Miranda J; Gibson, Brett M; Mair, Robert G
The mediodorsal nucleus (MD) interacts with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to support learning and adaptive decision-making. MD receives driver (layer 5) and modulatory (layer 6) projections from PFC and is the main source of driver thalamic projections to middle cortical layers of PFC. Little is known about the activity of MD neurons and their influence on PFC during decision-making. We recorded MD neurons in rats performing a dynamic delayed nonmatching to position (dDNMTP) task and compared results to a previous study of mPFC with the same task (Onos et al., 2016). Criterion event-related responses were observed for 22% (254/1179) of neurons recorded in MD, 237 (93%) of which exhibited activity consistent with mPFC response types. More MD than mPFC neurons exhibited responses related to movement (45% vs. 29%) and reinforcement (51% vs. 27%). MD had few responses related to lever presses, and none related to preparation or memory delay, which constituted 43% of event-related activity in mPFC. Comparison of averaged normalized population activity and population response times confirmed the broad similarity of common response types in MD and mPFC and revealed differences in the onset and offset of some response types. Our results show that MD represents information about actions and outcomes essential for decision-making during dDNMTP, consistent with evidence from lesion studies that MD supports reward-based learning and action-selection. These findings support the hypothesis that MD reinforces task-relevant neural activity in PFC that gives rise to adaptive behavior.
Moscicki, Jakub Tomasz
Scientic communities are using a growing number of distributed systems, from lo- cal batch systems, community-specic services and supercomputers to general-purpose, global grid infrastructures. Increasing the research capabilities for science is the raison d'^etre of such infrastructures which provide access to diversied computational, storage and data resources at large scales. Grids are rather chaotic, highly heterogeneous, de- centralized systems where unpredictable workloads, component failures and variability of execution environments are commonplace. Understanding and mastering the hetero- geneity and dynamics of such distributed systems is prohibitive for end users if they are not supported by appropriate methods and tools. The time cost to learn and use the interfaces and idiosyncrasies of dierent distributed environments is another challenge. Obtaining more reliable application execution times and boosting parallel speedup are important to increase the research capabilities of scientic communities. L...
Breazeale, K. [ed.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.
This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.
Ellappan, Vijayan; Ashwini, J.
In programming change organizations from medium to inconceivable scale broadens, the issue of wander orchestrating is amazingly unusual and testing undertaking despite considering it a manual system. Programming wander-organizing requirements to deal with the issue of undertaking arranging and in addition the issue of human resource portion (also called staffing) in light of the way that most of the advantages in programming ventures are individuals. We propose a machine learning approach with finds respond in due order regarding booking by taking in the present arranging courses of action and an event based scheduler revives the endeavour arranging system moulded by the learning computation in perspective of the conformity in event like the begin with the Ander, the instant at what time possessions be free starting to ended errands, and the time when delegates stick together otherwise depart the wander inside the item change plan. The route toward invigorating the timetable structure by the even based scheduler makes the arranging method dynamic. It uses structure components to exhibit the interrelated surges of endeavours, slip-ups and singular all through different progression organizes and is adjusted to mechanical data. It increases past programming wander movement ask about by taking a gander at a survey based process with a one of a kind model, organizing it with the data based system for peril assessment and cost estimation, and using a choice showing stage.
Ju, Bin; Qian, Yuntao; Ye, Minchao; Ni, Rong; Zhu, Chenxi
Predicting what items will be selected by a target user in the future is an important function for recommendation systems. Matrix factorization techniques have been shown to achieve good performance on temporal rating-type data, but little is known about temporal item selection data. In this paper, we developed a unified model that combines Multi-task Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Linear Dynamical Systems to capture the evolution of user preferences. Specifically, user and item features are projected into latent factor space by factoring co-occurrence matrices into a common basis item-factor matrix and multiple factor-user matrices. Moreover, we represented both within and between relationships of multiple factor-user matrices using a state transition matrix to capture the changes in user preferences over time. The experiments show that our proposed algorithm outperforms the other algorithms on two real datasets, which were extracted from Netflix movies and Last.fm music. Furthermore, our model provides a novel dynamic topic model for tracking the evolution of the behavior of a user over time.
Full Text Available Predicting what items will be selected by a target user in the future is an important function for recommendation systems. Matrix factorization techniques have been shown to achieve good performance on temporal rating-type data, but little is known about temporal item selection data. In this paper, we developed a unified model that combines Multi-task Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Linear Dynamical Systems to capture the evolution of user preferences. Specifically, user and item features are projected into latent factor space by factoring co-occurrence matrices into a common basis item-factor matrix and multiple factor-user matrices. Moreover, we represented both within and between relationships of multiple factor-user matrices using a state transition matrix to capture the changes in user preferences over time. The experiments show that our proposed algorithm outperforms the other algorithms on two real datasets, which were extracted from Netflix movies and Last.fm music. Furthermore, our model provides a novel dynamic topic model for tracking the evolution of the behavior of a user over time.
Perlinger, J. A.; Tobias, D. E.; Rowe, M. D.
Coastal waters including the Laurentian Great Lakes are particularly susceptible to local, regional, and long- range transport and deposition of semivolatile organic contaminants (SOCs) as gases and/or associated with particles. Recently-marketed SOCs can be expected to undergo net deposition in surface waters, whereas legacy SOCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are likely to be at equilibrium with respect to air-water exchange, or, if atmospheric concentrations decrease through, e.g., policy implementation, to undergo net gas emission. SOC air-water exchange flux is usually estimated using the two-film model. This model describes molecular diffusion through the air and water films adjacent to the air-water interface. Air-water exchange flux is estimated as the product of SOC fugacity, typically based on on-shore gaseous concentration measurements, and a transfer coefficient, the latter which is estimated from SOC properties and environmental conditions. The transfer coefficient formulation commonly applied neglects resistance to exchange in the internal boundary layer under atmospherically stable conditions, and the use of on-shore gaseous concentration neglects fetch-dependent equilibration, both of which will tend to cause overestimation of flux magnitude. Thus, for legacy chemicals or in any highly contaminated surface water, the rate at which the water is cleansed through gas emission tends to be over-predicted using this approach. Micrometeorological measurement of air-water exchange rates of legacy SOCs was carried out on ships during four transect experiments during off-shore flow in Lake Superior using novel multicapillary collection devices and thermal extraction technology to measure parts-per-quadrillion SOC levels. Employing sensible heat in the modified Bowen ratio, fluxes at three over-water stations along the transects were measured, along with up-wind, onshore gaseous concentration and aqueous concentration. The atmosphere was unstable for
Cheng, Lin; Zhu, Yang; Sun, Junfeng; Deng, Lifu; He, Naying; Yang, Yang; Ling, Huawei; Ayaz, Hasan; Fu, Yi; Tong, Shanbao
Task-related reorganization of functional connectivity (FC) has been widely investigated. Under classic static FC analysis, brain networks under task and rest have been demonstrated a general similarity. However, brain activity and cognitive process are believed to be dynamic and adaptive. Since static FC inherently ignores the distinct temporal patterns between rest and task, dynamic FC may be more a suitable technique to characterize the brain's dynamic and adaptive activities. In this study, we adopted [Formula: see text]-means clustering to investigate task-related spatiotemporal reorganization of dynamic brain networks and hypothesized that dynamic FC would be able to reveal the link between resting-state and task-state brain organization, including broadly similar spatial patterns but distinct temporal patterns. In order to test this hypothesis, this study examined the dynamic FC in default-mode network (DMN) and motor-related network (MN) using Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD)-fMRI data from 26 healthy subjects during rest (REST) and a hand closing-and-opening (HCO) task. Two principal FC states in REST and one principal FC state in HCO were identified. The first principal FC state in REST was found similar to that in HCO, which appeared to represent intrinsic network architecture and validated the broadly similar spatial patterns between REST and HCO. However, the second FC principal state in REST with much shorter "dwell time" implied the transient functional relationship between DMN and MN during REST. In addition, a more frequent shifting between two principal FC states indicated that brain network dynamically maintained a "default mode" in the motor system during REST, whereas the presence of a single principal FC state and reduced FC variability implied a more temporally stable connectivity during HCO, validating the distinct temporal patterns between REST and HCO. Our results further demonstrated that dynamic FC analysis could offer unique
Advances in computer and control technology offer the opportunity for task-offload aiding in human-machine systems. A task-offload aid (e.g., an autopilot, an intelligent assistant) can be selectively engaged by the human operator to dynamically delegate tasks to an automated system. Successful design and performance prediction in such systems requires knowledge of the factors influencing the strategy the operator develops and uses for managing interaction with the task-offload aid. A model is presented that shows how such strategies can be predicted as a function of three task context properties (frequency and duration of secondary tasks and costs of delaying secondary tasks) and three aid design properties (aid engagement and disengagement times, aid performance relative to human performance). Sensitivity analysis indicates how each of these contextual and design factors affect the optimal aid aid usage strategy and attainable system performance. The model is applied to understanding human-automation interaction in laboratory experiments on human supervisory control behavior. The laboratory task allowed subjects freedom to determine strategies for using an autopilot in a dynamic, multi-task environment. Modeling results suggested that many subjects may indeed have been acting appropriately by not using the autopilot in the way its designers intended. Although autopilot function was technically sound, this aid was not designed with due regard to the overall task context in which it was placed. These results demonstrate the need for additional research on how people may strategically manage their own resources, as well as those provided by automation, in an effort to keep workload and performance at acceptable levels.
Marshall, Deborah A; Burgos-Liz, Lina; IJzerman, Maarten J; Crown, William; Padula, William V; Wong, Peter K; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Higashi, Mitchell K; Osgood, Nathaniel D
In a previous report, the ISPOR Task Force on Dynamic Simulation Modeling Applications in Health Care Delivery Research Emerging Good Practices introduced the fundamentals of dynamic simulation modeling and identified the types of health care delivery problems for which dynamic simulation modeling can be used more effectively than other modeling methods. The hierarchical relationship between the health care delivery system, providers, patients, and other stakeholders exhibits a level of complexity that ought to be captured using dynamic simulation modeling methods. As a tool to help researchers decide whether dynamic simulation modeling is an appropriate method for modeling the effects of an intervention on a health care system, we presented the System, Interactions, Multilevel, Understanding, Loops, Agents, Time, Emergence (SIMULATE) checklist consisting of eight elements. This report builds on the previous work, systematically comparing each of the three most commonly used dynamic simulation modeling methods-system dynamics, discrete-event simulation, and agent-based modeling. We review criteria for selecting the most suitable method depending on 1) the purpose-type of problem and research questions being investigated, 2) the object-scope of the model, and 3) the method to model the object to achieve the purpose. Finally, we provide guidance for emerging good practices for dynamic simulation modeling in the health sector, covering all aspects, from the engagement of decision makers in the model design through model maintenance and upkeep. We conclude by providing some recommendations about the application of these methods to add value to informed decision making, with an emphasis on stakeholder engagement, starting with the problem definition. Finally, we identify areas in which further methodological development will likely occur given the growing "volume, velocity and variety" and availability of "big data" to provide empirical evidence and techniques
Mansfield, Karen L; van der Molen, Maurits W; Falkenstein, Michael; van Boxtel, Geert J M
Behavioral and brain potential measures were employed to compare interference in Eriksen and Simon tasks. Assuming a dual-process model of interference elicited in speeded response tasks, we hypothesized that only lateralized stimuli in the Simon task induce fast S-R priming via direct unconditional processes, while Eriksen interference effects are induced later via indirect conditional processes. Delays to responses for incongruent trials were indeed larger in the Eriksen than in the Simon task. Only lateralized stimuli in the Simon task elicited early S-R priming, maximal at parietal areas. Incongruent flankers in the Eriksen task elicited interference later, visible as a lateralized N2. Eriksen interference also elicited an additional component (N350), which accounted for the larger behavioral interference effects in the Eriksen task. The findings suggest that interference and its resolution involve different processes for Simon and Eriksen tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crespi, Sofia; Robino, Carlo; Silva, Ottavia; de'Sperati, Claudio
In sports, as in other activities and knowledge domains, expertise is a highly valuable asset. We assessed whether expertise in billiards is associated with specific patterns of eye movements in a visual prediction task. Professional players and novices were presented a number of simplified billiard shots on a computer screen, previously filmed in a real set, with the last part of the ball trajectory occluded. They had to predict whether or not the ball would have hit the central skittle. Experts performed better than novices, in terms of both accuracy and response time. By analyzing eye movements, we found that during occlusion, experts rarely extrapolated with the gaze the occluded part of the ball trajectory-a behavior that was widely diffused in novices-even when the unseen path was long and with two bounces interposed. Rather, they looked selectively at specific diagnostic points on the cushions along the ball's visible trajectory, in accordance with a formal metrical system used by professional players to calculate the shot coordinates. Thus, the eye movements of expert observers contained a clear signature of billiard expertise and documented empirically a strategy upgrade in visual problem solving from dynamic, analog simulation in imagery to more efficient rule-based, conceptual knowledge.
Mansfield, K.L.; van der Molen, M.W.; Falkenstein, M.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.
Behavioral and brain potential measures were employed to compare interference in Eriksen and Simon tasks. Assuming a dual-process model of interference elicited in speeded response tasks, we hypothesized that only lateralized stimuli in the Simon task induce fast S–R priming via direct unconditional
Full Text Available Understanding and predicting patterns of distribution and abundance of marine resources is important for conservation and management purposes in small-scale artisanal fisheries and industrial fisheries worldwide. The goose barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes is an important shellfish resource and its distribution is closely related to wave exposure at different spatial scales. We modelled the abundance (percent coverage of P. pollicipes as a function of a simple wave exposure index based on fetch estimates from digitized coastlines at different spatial scales. The model accounted for 47.5% of the explained deviance and indicated that barnacle abundance increases non-linearly with wave exposure at both the smallest (metres and largest (kilometres spatial scales considered in this study. Distribution maps were predicted for the study region in SW Portugal. Our study suggests that the relationship between fetch-based exposure indices and P. pollicipes percent cover may be used as a simple tool for providing stakeholders with information on barnacle distribution patterns. This information may improve assessment of harvesting grounds and the dimension of exploitable areas, aiding management plans and supporting decision making on conservation, harvesting pressure and surveillance strategies for this highly appreciated and socio-economically important marine resource.
Lee, Matthew H; Schemmel, Andrew J; Pooler, B Dustin; Hanley, Taylor; Kennedy, Tabassum A; Field, Aaron S; Wiegmann, Douglas; Yu, John-Paul J
To assess the impact of separate non-image interpretive task and image-interpretive task workflows in an academic neuroradiology practice. A prospective, randomized, observational investigation of a centralized academic neuroradiology reading room was performed. The primary reading room fellow was observed over a one-month period using a time-and-motion methodology, recording frequency and duration of tasks performed. Tasks were categorized into separate image interpretive and non-image interpretive workflows. Post-intervention observation of the primary fellow was repeated following the implementation of a consult assistant responsible for non-image interpretive tasks. Pre- and post-intervention data were compared. Following separation of image-interpretive and non-image interpretive workflows, time spent on image-interpretive tasks by the primary fellow increased from 53.8% to 73.2% while non-image interpretive tasks decreased from 20.4% to 4.4%. Mean time duration of image interpretation nearly doubled, from 05:44 to 11:01 (p = 0.002). Decreases in specific non-image interpretive tasks, including phone calls/paging (2.86/hr versus 0.80/hr), in-room consultations (1.36/hr versus 0.80/hr), and protocoling (0.99/hr versus 0.10/hr), were observed. The consult assistant experienced 29.4 task switching events per hour. Rates of specific non-image interpretive tasks for the CA were 6.41/hr for phone calls/paging, 3.60/hr for in-room consultations, and 3.83/hr for protocoling. Separating responsibilities into NIT and IIT workflows substantially increased image interpretation time and decreased TSEs for the primary fellow. Consolidation of NITs into a separate workflow may allow for more efficient task completion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In this paper a multi-agent model for a domestic heating task is introduced and analysed. The model includes two alternative heating agents (for gas-based heating and for heatpump-based heating), and a third allocation agent which determines the most economic allocation of the heating task to these
Samani, Afshin; Srinivasan, Divya; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Madeleine, Pascal
The spatio-temporal distribution of muscle activity has been suggested to be a determinant of fatigue development. Pursuing this hypothesis, we investigated the pattern of muscular activity in the shoulder and arm during a repetitive dynamic task performed until participants' rating of perceived exertion reached 8 on Borg's CR-10 scale. We collected high-density surface electromyogram (HD-EMG) over the upper trapezius, as well as bipolar EMG from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, deltoideus anterior, serratus anterior, upper and lower trapezius from 21 healthy women. Root-mean-square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MNF) were calculated for all EMG signals. The barycenter of RMS values over the HD-EMG grid was also determined, as well as normalized mutual information (NMI) for each pair of muscles. Cycle-to-cycle variability of these metrics was also assessed. With time, EMG RMS increased for most of the muscles, and MNF decreased. Trapezius activity became higher on the lateral side than on the medial side of the HD-EMG grid and the barycenter moved in a lateral direction. NMI between muscle pairs increased with time while its variability decreased. The variability of the metrics during the initial 10 % of task performance was not associated with the time to task termination. Our results suggest that the considerable variability in force and posture contained in the dynamic task per se masks any possible effects of differences between subjects in initial motor variability on the rate of fatigue development.
Gohel, Bakul; Lee, Peter; Jeong, Yong
Brain regions that respond to more than one sensory modality are characterized as multisensory regions. Studies on the processing of shape or object information have revealed recruitment of the lateral occipital cortex, posterior parietal cortex, and other regions regardless of input sensory modalities. However, it remains unknown whether such regions show similar (modality-invariant) or different (modality-specific) neural oscillatory dynamics, as recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG), in response to identical shape information processing tasks delivered to different sensory modalities. Modality-invariant or modality-specific neural oscillatory dynamics indirectly suggest modality-independent or modality-dependent participation of particular brain regions, respectively. Therefore, this study investigated the modality-specificity of neural oscillatory dynamics in the form of spectral power modulation patterns in response to visual and tactile sequential shape-processing tasks that are well-matched in terms of speed and content between the sensory modalities. Task-related changes in spectral power modulation and differences in spectral power modulation between sensory modalities were investigated at source-space (voxel) level, using a multivariate pattern classification (MVPC) approach. Additionally, whole analyses were extended from the voxel level to the independent-component level to take account of signal leakage effects caused by inverse solution. The modality-specific spectral dynamics in multisensory and higher-order brain regions, such as the lateral occipital cortex, posterior parietal cortex, inferior temporal cortex, and other brain regions, showed task-related modulation in response to both sensory modalities. This suggests modality-dependency of such brain regions on the input sensory modality for sequential shape-information processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Jinguo; Zhu, Min; Yang, Jun; Shi, Longxing
An AdaBoost-based face detection system is proposed, on a Coarse Grain Reconfigurable Architecture (CGRA) named “REMUS-II”. Our work is quite distinguished from previous ones in three aspects. First, a new hardware-software partition method is proposed and the whole face detection system is divided into several parallel tasks implemented on two Reconfigurable Processing Units (RPU) and one micro Processors Unit (µPU) according to their relationships. These tasks communicate with each other by a mailbox mechanism. Second, a strong classifier is treated as a smallest phase of the detection system, and every phase needs to be executed by these tasks in order. A phase of Haar classifier is dynamically mapped onto a Reconfigurable Cell Array (RCA) only when needed, and it's quite different from traditional Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) methods in which all the classifiers are fabricated statically. Third, optimized data and configuration word pre-fetch mechanisms are employed to improve the whole system performance. Implementation results show that our approach under 200MHz clock rate can process up-to 17 frames per second on VGA size images, and the detection rate is over 95%. Our system consumes 194mW, and the die size of fabricated chip is 23mm2 using TSMC 65nm standard cell based technology. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first implementation of the cascade Haar classifier algorithm on a dynamically CGRA platform presented in the literature.
Bhatt, Tanvi; Yang, Feng; Mak, Margaret K Y; Hui-Chan, Christina W-Y; Pai, Yi-Chung
Previous studies have shown that people with Parkinson disease (PD) have difficulty performing the sit-to-stand task because of mobility and stability-related impairments. Despite its importance, literature on the quantification of dynamic stability control in people with PD during this task is limited. The study objective was to examine differences in dynamic stability control between people with PD and people who were healthy and the extent to which externally cued training could improve such control during the sit-to-stand task in people with PD. This was a quasi-experimental controlled trial. The performance of 21 people with PD was compared with that of 12 older adults who dwelled in the community. People with PD were randomly assigned to 2 groups: a group that did not receive training and a group that received audiovisually cued training (3 times per week for 4 weeks) for speeding up performance on the sit-to-stand task. Outcome measures recorded at baseline and after 4 weeks included center-of-mass position, center-of-mass velocity, and stability against either backward or forward balance loss (backward or forward stability) at seat-off and movement termination. Compared with people who were healthy, people with PD had greater backward stability resulting from a more anterior center-of-mass position at seat-off. This feature, combined with decreased forward stability at movement termination, increased their risk of forward balance loss at movement termination. After training, people with PD achieved greater backward stability through increased forward center-of-mass velocity at seat-off and reduced the likelihood of forward balance loss at movement termination through a posterior shift in the center-of-mass position. The study applied stability limits derived from adults who were healthy to people with PD, and the suggested impact on the risk of balance loss and falling is based on these theoretical stability limits. For people with PD, postural stability
McLean, Scott G; Borotikar, Bhushan; Lucey, Sarah M
Female neuromuscular control during dynamic landings is considered central to their increased ACL injury risk relative to males. There is limited insight, however, into the neuromuscular parameters governing this risk, which may hinder prevention success. This study targeted a new screenable and potentially trainable neuromuscular risk factor. Specifically, we examined whether lower limb muscle pre-motor times, being the time between stimulus presentation and initiation of the muscle EMG burst, elicited during a simple choice reaction task correlated with knee abduction loads during separate single leg landings. Twenty female NCAA athletes had muscle (n=8) pre-motor time and knee biomechanics data recorded bilaterally during a choice reaction task. Knee biomechanics were also quantified during anticipated and unanticipated single (dominant and non-dominant) leg landings. Mean peak knee abduction loads during landings were submitted to a two-way ANOVA to test for limb and decision effects. Individual regression coefficients were initially computed between-limb-based muscle pre-motor times and peak abduction moments elicited during both the choice reaction and landing tasks. Limb-based linear stepwise regression coefficients were also computed between muscle PMT's demonstrating significant (Pmuscle pre-motor times during a specific choice reaction task are associated with peak knee abduction loads during separate single leg landings. These muscles appear critical in stabilizing the knee against the extreme dynamic load states associated with such tasks. Targeted screening and training of supraspinal processes governing these muscle pre-motor times may ultimately enable external knee loads associated with landings to be more effectively countered by the overarching neuromuscular strategy. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lohmann, Gabriele; Stelzer, Johannes; Zuber, Verena; Buschmann, Tilo; Margulies, Daniel; Bartels, Andreas; Scheffler, Klaus
The formation of transient networks in response to external stimuli or as a reflection of internal cognitive processes is a hallmark of human brain function. However, its identification in fMRI data of the human brain is notoriously difficult. Here we propose a new method of fMRI data analysis that tackles this problem by considering large-scale, task-related synchronisation networks. Networks consist of nodes and edges connecting them, where nodes correspond to voxels in fMRI data, and the weight of an edge is determined via task-related changes in dynamic synchronisation between their respective times series. Based on these definitions, we developed a new data analysis algorithm that identifies edges that show differing levels of synchrony between two distinct task conditions and that occur in dense packs with similar characteristics. Hence, we call this approach “Task-related Edge Density” (TED). TED proved to be a very strong marker for dynamic network formation that easily lends itself to statistical analysis using large scale statistical inference. A major advantage of TED compared to other methods is that it does not depend on any specific hemodynamic response model, and it also does not require a presegmentation of the data for dimensionality reduction as it can handle large networks consisting of tens of thousands of voxels. We applied TED to fMRI data of a fingertapping and an emotion processing task provided by the Human Connectome Project. TED revealed network-based involvement of a large number of brain areas that evaded detection using traditional GLM-based analysis. We show that our proposed method provides an entirely new window into the immense complexity of human brain function. PMID:27341204
Full Text Available The formation of transient networks in response to external stimuli or as a reflection of internal cognitive processes is a hallmark of human brain function. However, its identification in fMRI data of the human brain is notoriously difficult. Here we propose a new method of fMRI data analysis that tackles this problem by considering large-scale, task-related synchronisation networks. Networks consist of nodes and edges connecting them, where nodes correspond to voxels in fMRI data, and the weight of an edge is determined via task-related changes in dynamic synchronisation between their respective times series. Based on these definitions, we developed a new data analysis algorithm that identifies edges that show differing levels of synchrony between two distinct task conditions and that occur in dense packs with similar characteristics. Hence, we call this approach "Task-related Edge Density" (TED. TED proved to be a very strong marker for dynamic network formation that easily lends itself to statistical analysis using large scale statistical inference. A major advantage of TED compared to other methods is that it does not depend on any specific hemodynamic response model, and it also does not require a presegmentation of the data for dimensionality reduction as it can handle large networks consisting of tens of thousands of voxels. We applied TED to fMRI data of a fingertapping and an emotion processing task provided by the Human Connectome Project. TED revealed network-based involvement of a large number of brain areas that evaded detection using traditional GLM-based analysis. We show that our proposed method provides an entirely new window into the immense complexity of human brain function.
Donohue, Sarah E.; Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; McKay, Cameron C.; Woldorff, Marty G.
Both stimulus and response conflict can disrupt behavior by slowing response times and decreasing accuracy. Although several neural activations have been associated with conflict processing, it is unclear how specific any of these are to the type of stimulus conflict or the amount of response conflict. Here, we recorded electrical brain activity, while manipulating the type of stimulus conflict in the task (spatial [Flanker] versus semantic [Stroop]) and the amount of response conflict (two versus four response choices). Behaviorally, responses were slower to incongruent versus congruent stimuli across all task and response types, along with overall slowing for higher response-mapping complexity. The earliest incongruency-related neural effect was a short-duration frontally-distributed negativity at ~200 ms that was only present in the Flanker spatial-conflict task. At longer latencies, the classic fronto-central incongruency-related negativity ‘Ninc’ was observed for all conditions, which was larger and ~100 ms longer in duration with more response options. Further, the onset of the motor-related lateralized readiness potential (LRP) was earlier for the two vs. four response sets, indicating that smaller response sets enabled faster motor-response preparation. The late positive complex (LPC) was present in all conditions except the two-response Stroop task, suggesting this late conflict-related activity is not specifically related to task type or response-mapping complexity. Importantly, across tasks and conditions, the LRP onset at or before the conflict-related Ninc, indicating that motor preparation is a rapid, automatic process that interacts with the conflict-detection processes after it has begun. Together, these data highlight how different conflict-related processes operate in parallel and depend on both the cognitive demands of the task and the number of response options. PMID:26827917
Mohammadi-Rad, Shahrzad; Salavati, Mahyar; Ebrahimi-Takamjani, Ismail; Akhbari, Behnam; Sherafat, Shiva; Negahban, Hossein; Lali, Pezhman; Mazaheri, Masood
Purpose: To compare the effect of dual tasking on postural stability between patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) and healthy controls. Methods: Single-limb postural stability was assessed in 17 athletes with ACL-R and 17 healthy matched athletes while standing on a Biodex
Luis Daniel Lledó
Full Text Available This paper presents an application formed by a classification method based on the architecture of ART neural network (Adaptive Resonance Theory and the Fuzzy Set Theory to classify physiological reactions in order to automatically and dynamically adapt a robot-assisted rehabilitation therapy to the patient needs, using a three-dimensional task in a virtual reality system. Firstly, the mathematical and structural model of the neuro-fuzzy classification method is described together with the signal and training data acquisition. Then, the virtual designed task with physics behavior and its development procedure are explained. Finally, the general architecture of the experimentation for the auto-adaptive therapy is presented using the classification method with the virtual reality exercise.
Full Text Available Introduction: Balance disorders are common in people with intellectual disability (ID. Aim of the research: The continuation of the project is aimed at finding out whether extension of the unstable surface dual-task functional exercises programme by another 12 weeks affects the level of dynamic balance in adolescents with ID and what those changes are like after the 8-week summer holidays. Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescents with ID aged 14–16 years (E performed functional exercises for another 12 weeks on unstable surfaces, and a group of 17 individuals with ID were the controls. Dynamic balance was assessed three times: after the first stage of the programme (test 2, after another 12 weeks (test 3, after the 8-week holiday (test 4. ALFA AC An International East stabilometric platform was used for measurements. Results : No statistical differences were discovered in group E, in dynamic balance assessment between test 2 and 3; however, the mean scores in group E, in test 3, were slightly better than in test 2, and notably better than in group C. No significant differences between test 3 and 4 were found in group E either. Conclusions : Extension of the intervention program helped to maintain improved dynamic balance. Discontinuation of the program for the period of 8 weeks resulted in decreased level of balance; however, it was still higher than at the beginning of the project. Dual-task functional exercises based on activities of daily living (ADLs and stimulation of righting reactions may enhance dynamic balance in individuals with ID, but it should be constantly stimulated.
Full Text Available Two experiments are reported that further explore the processes underlying dynamic search. In Experiment 1, observers’ oculomotor behavior was monitored while they searched for a randomly oriented T among oriented L distractors under static and dynamic viewing conditions. Despite similar search slopes, eye movements were less frequent and more spatially constrained under dynamic viewing relative to static, with misses also increasing more with target eccentricity in the dynamic condition. These patterns suggest that dynamic search involves a form of sit-and-wait strategy in which search is restricted to a small group of items surrounding fixation. To evaluate this interpretation, we developed a computational model of a sit-and-wait process hypothesized to underlie dynamic search. In Experiment 2 we tested this model by varying fixation position in the display and found that display positions optimized for a sit-and-wait strategy resulted in higher d' values relative to a less optimal location. We conclude that different strategies, and therefore underlying processes, are used to search static and dynamic displays.
The Dynamic Mobility Applications (DMA) program seeks to promote the highest level of collaboration and preservation of intellectual capital generated from application development and associated research activities funded by the program. The program ...
Baldock, T E; Golshani, A; Atkinson, A; Shimamoto, T; Wu, S; Callaghan, D P; Mumby, P J
A one-dimensional wave model is combined with an analytical sediment transport model to investigate the likely influence of sea-level rise on net cross-shore sediment transport on fetch-limited barrier reef and lagoon island beaches. The modelling considers if changes in the nearshore wave height and wave period in the lagoon induced by different water levels over the reef flat are likely to lead to net offshore or onshore movement of sediment. The results indicate that the effects of SLR on net sediment movement are highly variable and controlled by the bathymetry of the reef and lagoon. A significant range of reef-lagoon bathymetry, and notably shallow and narrow reefs, appears to lead hydrodynamic conditions and beaches that are likely to be stable or even accrete under SLR. Loss of reef structural complexity, particularly on the reef flat, increases the chance of sediment transport away from beaches and offshore. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hamacher, Dennis; Hamacher, Daniel; Rehfeld, Kathrin; Schega, Lutz
Extreme levels of gait variability and local dynamic stability of walking are associated with risk of falling and reduced executive functions. However, it is not sufficiently investigated how gait variability and local dynamic stability of human walking develop in the course of a motor-cognitive intervention. As dancing implies high demands on (and therewith trains) executive functioning and motor control, it might increase local dynamic stability or reduce gait variability. 32 older healthy participants were randomly assigned to either a health-related exercise group (age: mean=68.33 years, standard deviation=3.17 years; BMI: mean=27.46, standard deviation=2.94; female/male: 10/6) or a dancing group (age: mean=66.73 years, standard deviation=3.33 years; BMI: mean=26.02, standard deviation=3.55; female/male: 11/5). Based on angular velocity data of trunk kinematics, local dynamic stability and stride-to-stride variability in level overground walking were assessed prior to and after the specific intervention. The data were analysed by a blinded observer using two-way repeated measures ANOVAs. Based on one-way ANOVAs, time and group effects were determined. Regarding the variability of trunk movements, no interaction effect was observed (F 1,30=0.506, P=.482; η2=0.017). For local dynamic stability of trunk movements, an interaction effect in favour of the dancing group was observed (F 1,30=5,436; P=.026; η2=0.146). Our data indicate that a dancing programme (which combines cognitive and motor efforts) might increase local dynamic stability in older people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Bouma, Henri; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; ter Haar, Frank B.; Burghouts, Gertjan J.
Video analytics is essential for managing large quantities of raw data that are produced by video surveillance systems (VSS) for the prevention, repression and investigation of crime and terrorism. Analytics is highly sensitive to changes in the scene, and for changes in the optical chain so a VSS with analytics needs careful configuration and prompt maintenance to avoid false alarms. However, there is a trend from static VSS consisting of fixed CCTV cameras towards more dynamic VSS deployments over public/private multi-organization networks, consisting of a wider variety of visual sensors, including pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras, body-worn cameras and cameras on moving platforms. This trend will lead to more dynamic scenes and more frequent changes in the optical chain, creating structural problems for analytics. If these problems are not adequately addressed, analytics will not be able to continue to meet end users' developing needs. In this paper, we present a three-part solution for managing the performance of complex analytics deployments. The first part is a register containing meta data describing relevant properties of the optical chain, such as intrinsic and extrinsic calibration, and parameters of the scene such as lighting conditions or measures for scene complexity (e.g. number of people). A second part frequently assesses these parameters in the deployed VSS, stores changes in the register, and signals relevant changes in the setup to the VSS administrator. A third part uses the information in the register to dynamically configure analytics tasks based on VSS operator input. In order to support the feasibility of this solution, we give an overview of related state-of-the-art technologies for autocalibration (self-calibration), scene recognition and lighting estimation in relation to person detection. The presented solution allows for rapid and robust deployment of Video Content Analysis (VCA) tasks in large scale ad-hoc networks.
Powell, Douglas W; Williams, D S Blaise; Windsor, Brett; Butler, Robert J; Zhang, Songning
High- (HA) and low-arched (LA) athletes have an exaggerated risk of injury. Ankle joint stiffness is a potential underlying mechanism for the greater rate of injury within these two functionally different groups. An alternative candidate mechanism of injury in HA and LA athletes pertains to the efficacy of the foot as a rigid lever during propulsion. The purpose of this study was to quantify the differences in ankle dynamic joint stiffness, and ankle braking work and ankle propulsive work during stance phase of running. Ten HA and ten LA athletes performed five barefoot running trials while ground reaction forces and three-dimensional kinematics were recorded. Ankle dynamic joint stiffness was calculated as the slope of the ankle joint moment-ankle joint angle plot during load attenuation. Ankle braking and propulsive work values were calculated for the stance phase. HA athletes had significantly greater ankle dynamic joint stiffness and significantly smaller ankle net and propulsive work than LA athletes. These data demonstrate that HA and LA athletes exhibit unique biomechanical patterns during running. These patterns may be related to lower extremity injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rodolphe J. Gentili
Full Text Available This study investigated changes in brain hemodynamics, as measured by functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIR, during performance of a cognitive-motor adaptation task. The adaptation task involved the learning of a novel visuo-motor transformation (a 60 degree counterclockwise screen-cursor rotation, which required inhibition of a pre-potent visuo-motor response. A control group experienced a familiar transformation and thus, did not face any executive challenge. Analysis of the experimental group hemodynamic responses revealed that the performance enhancement was associated with a monotonic reduction in the oxygenation level in the prefrontal cortex. This finding confirms and extends functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG studies of visuo-motor adaptation and learning. The changes in prefrontal brain activation suggest an initial recruitment of frontal executive functioning to inhibit pre-potent visuo-motor mappings followed by a progressive de-recruitment of the same prefrontal regions. The prefrontal hemodynamic changes observed in the experimental group translated into enhanced motor performance revealed by a reduction in movement time, movement extent, root mean square error and the directional error. These kinematic adaptations are consistent with the acquisition of an internal model of the novel visuo-motor transformation. No comparable change was observed in the control group for either the hemodynamics or for the kinematics. This study 1 extends our understanding of the frontal executive processes from the cognitive to the cognitive-motor domain and 2 suggests that optical brain imaging can be employed to provide hemodynamic based-biomarkers to assess and monitor the level of adaptive cognitive-motor performance.
Full Text Available Neuromusculoskeletal models are a common method to estimate muscle forces. Developing accurate neuromusculoskeletal models is a challenging task due to the complexity of the system and large inter-subject variability. The estimation of muscles force is based on the mechanical properties of tendon-aponeurosis complex. Most neuromusculoskeletal models use a generic definition of the tendon-aponeurosis complex based on in vitro test, perhaps limiting their validity. Ultrasonography allows subject-specific estimates of the tendon-aponeurosis complex's mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of subject-specific mechanical properties of the tendon-aponeurosis complex on a neuromusculoskeletal model of the ankle joint. Seven subjects performed isometric contractions from which the tendon-aponeurosis force-strain relationship was estimated. Hopping and running tasks were performed and muscle forces were estimated using subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis and generic tendon properties. Two ultrasound probes positioned over the muscle-tendon junction and the mid-belly were combined with motion capture to estimate the in vivo tendon and aponeurosis strain of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle. The tendon-aponeurosis force-strain relationship was scaled for the other ankle muscles based on tendon and aponeurosis length of each muscle measured by ultrasonography. The EMG-driven model was calibrated twice - using the generic tendon definition and a subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis force-strain definition. The use of subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis definition leads to a higher muscle force estimate for the soleus muscle and the plantar-flexor group, and to a better model prediction of the ankle joint moment compared to the model estimate which used a generic definition. Furthermore, the subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis definition leads to a decoupling behaviour between the muscle fibre and muscle-tendon unit
The demonstration by the CERN Fire Brigade at the last Discovery Monday at Microcosm proved a roaring success. The range of workshops on offer captured the imagination of young and old alike. Everybody had the chance to slip into the role of a rescuer for the evening and to become acquainted with different first aid techniques. In order for the accident simulations to appear more realistic, the firemen put their excellent make-up skills to good use. The audience was completely taken in! Follow the rope! A simple yet vital exercise: how to find your way in a room that is ablaze and filled with smoke, where there is virtually no visibility. All you need to do is use the lifeline consisting of several strands of differing lengths to find your way out or to the source of the fire.The victim is carried on a stretcher but he is comfortable thanks to the rescuers from the Hazardous Environments Response Team.The fundamental steps of first aid can be learnt at all ages! Knowing how to give mouth-to-mouth resuscitati...
Sibert, Catherine; Gray, Wayne D; Lindstedt, John K
Tetris provides a difficult, dynamic task environment within which some people are novices and others, after years of work and practice, become extreme experts. Here we study two core skills; namely, (a) choosing the goal or objective function that will maximize performance and (b)a feature-based analysis of the current game board to determine where to place the currently falling zoid (i.e., Tetris piece) so as to maximize the goal. In Study 1, we build cross-entropy reinforcement learning (CERL) models (Szita & Lorincz, 2006) to determine whether different goals result in different feature weights. Two of these optimization strategies quickly rise to performance plateaus, whereas two others continue toward higher but more jagged (i.e., variable) heights. In Study 2, we compare the zoid placement decisions made by our best CERL models with those made by 67 human players. Across 370,131 human game episodes, two CERL models picked the same zoid placements as our lowest scoring human for 43% of the placements and as our three best scoring experts for 65% of the placements. Our findings suggest that people focus on maximizing points, not number of lines cleared or number of levels reached. They also show that goal choice influences the choice of zoid placements for CERLs and suggest that the same is true of humans. Tetris has a repetitive task structure that makes Tetris more tractable and more like a traditional experimental psychology paradigm than many more complex games or tasks. Hence, although complex, Tetris is not overwhelmingly complex and presents a right-sized challenge to cognitive theories, especially those of integrated cognitive systems. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Full Text Available Finger enslaving is defined as the inability of the fingers to move or to produce force independently. Such finger enslaving has predominantly been investigated for isometric force tasks. The aim of this study was to assess whether the extent of force enslaving is dependent on relative finger movements. Ten right-handed subjects (22-30 years flexed the index finger while counteracting constant resistance forces (4, 6 and 8 N orthogonal to the fingertip. The other, non-instructed fingers were held in extension. EMG activities of the mm. flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS and extensor digitorum (ED in the regions corresponding to the index, middle and ring fingers were measured. Forces exerted by the non-instructed fingers increased substantially (by 0.2 to 1.4 N with flexion of the index finger, increasing the enslaving effect with respect to the static, pre-movement phase. Such changes in force were found 260-370 ms after the initiation of index flexion. The estimated MCP joint angle of the index finger at which forces exerted by the non-instructed fingers started to increase varied between 4° and 6°. In contrast to the finger forces, no significant changes in EMG activity of the FDS regions corresponding to the non-instructed fingers upon index finger flexion were found. This mismatch between forces and EMG of the non-instructed fingers, as well as the delay in force development are in agreement with connective tissue linkages being slack when the positions of the fingers are similar, but pulled taut when one finger moves relative to the others. Although neural factors cannot be excluded, our results suggest that mechanical connections between muscle-tendon structures were (at least partly responsible for the observed increase in force enslaving during index finger flexion.
Stone, Michael A.; Moore, Brian C. J.
Using a ``noise-vocoder'' cochlear implant simulator [Shannon et al., Science 270, 303-304 (1995)], the effect of the speed of dynamic range compression on speech intelligibility was assessed, using normal-hearing subjects. The target speech had a level 5 dB above that of the competing speech. Initially, baseline performance was measured with no compression active, using between 4 and 16 processing channels. Then, performance was measured using a fast-acting compressor and a slow-acting compressor, each operating prior to the vocoder simulation. The fast system produced significant gain variation over syllabic timescales. The slow system produced significant gain variation only over the timescale of sentences. With no compression active, about six channels were necessary to achieve 50% correct identification of words in sentences. Sixteen channels produced near-maximum performance. Slow-acting compression produced no significant degradation relative to the baseline. However, fast-acting compression consistently reduced performance relative to that for the baseline, over a wide range of performance levels. It is suggested that fast-acting compression degrades performance for two reasons: (1) because it introduces correlated fluctuations in amplitude in different frequency bands, which tends to produce perceptual fusion of the target and background sounds and (2) because it reduces amplitude modulation depth and intensity contrasts.
Powell, Douglas W; Long, Benjamin; Milner, Clare E; Zhang, Songning
The functions of the medial longitudinal arch have been the focus of much research in recent years. Several studies have shown kinematic differences between high- and low-arched runners. No literature currently compares the inter-segmental foot motion of high- and low-arched recreational athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine inter-segmental foot motion in the frontal plane during dynamic loading activities in high- and low-arched female athletes. Inter-segmental foot motions were examined in 10 high- and 10 low-arched female recreational athletes. Subjects performed five barefooted trials in each of the following randomized movements: walking, running, downward stepping and landing. Three-dimensional kinematic data were recorded. High-arched athletes had smaller peak ankle eversion angles in walking, running and downward stepping than low-arched athletes. At the rear-midfoot joint high-arched athletes reached peak eversion later in walking and downward stepping than the low-arched athletes. The high-arched athletes had smaller peak mid-forefoot eversion angles in walking, running and downward stepping than the low-arched athletes. The current findings show that differences in foot kinematics between the high- and low-arched athletes were in position and not range of motion within the foot. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sara J. Hanrahan
Full Text Available Subthalamic nucleus (STN local field potentials (LFP are neural signals that have been shown to reveal motor and language behavior, as well as pathological parkinsonian states. We use a research-grade implantable neurostimulator (INS with data collection capabilities to record STN-LFP outside the operating room to determine the reliability of the signals over time and assess their dynamics with respect to behavior and dopaminergic medication. Seven subjects were implanted with the recording augmented deep brain stimulation (DBS system, and bilateral STN-LFP recordings were collected in the clinic over twelve months. Subjects were cued to perform voluntary motor and language behaviors in on and off medication states. The STN-LFP recorded with the INS demonstrated behavior-modulated desynchronization of beta frequency (13–30 Hz and synchronization of low gamma frequency (35–70 Hz oscillations. Dopaminergic medication did not diminish the relative beta frequency oscillatory desynchronization with movement. However, movement-related gamma frequency oscillatory synchronization was only observed in the medication on state. We observed significant inter-subject variability, but observed consistent STN-LFP activity across recording systems and over a one-year period for each subject. These findings demonstrate that an INS system can provide robust STN-LFP recordings in ambulatory patients, allowing for these signals to be recorded in settings that better represent natural environments in which patients are in a variety of medication states.
Full Text Available It has been proposed that non-conventional presentations of visual information could be very useful as a scaffolding strategy in the learning of Western music notation. As a result, this study has attempted to determine if there is any effect of static and dynamic presentation modes of visual information in the recognition of sound patterns. An intervention-based quasi-experimental design was adopted with two groups of fifth-grade students in a Spanish city. Students did tasks involving discrimination, auditory recognition and symbolic association of the sound patterns with non-musical representations, either static images (S group, or dynamic images (D group. The results showed neither statistically significant differences in the scores of D and S, nor influence of the covariates on the dependent variable, although statistically significant intra-group differences were found for both groups. This suggests that both types of graphic formats could be effective as digital learning mediators in the learning of Western musical notation.
Haber, Cassandra Kay; Ritchie, Laura J; Strike, Siobhan C
In a dynamic elastic response prosthesis (DERP), spring-like properties aim to replace the loss of musculature and soft tissues and optimise dynamic movement biomechanics, yet higher intact limb (IL) loading exists. It is unknown how amputees wearing a DERP will perform in start-stop movements and how altering the prosthetic stiffness will influence the performance and loading. This study assessed movement dynamics through comparisons in spatiotemporal, kinematic and kinetic variables and leg stiffness of intact, prosthetic and control limbs. The effect of prosthetic stiffness on movement dynamics was also determined. Eleven male unilateral transtibial amputees performed a start-stop task with one DERP set at two different stiffness - Prescribed and Stiffer. Eleven control participants performed the movement with the dominant limb. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected by a twelve-camera motion capture system synchronised with a Kistler force platform. Selected variables were compared between intact, prosthetic and control limbs, and against prosthetic stiffness using ANOVA and effect size. Pearson's Correlation was used to analyse relationship between leg stiffness and prosthetic deflection. Amputees showed a more horizontal approach to the bound during the start-stop movement, with lower horizontal velocities and a longer stance time on the IL compared to controls. In both stiffness conditions, the IL showed selected higher anteroposterior and vertical forces and impulses when compared to the controls. Leg stiffness was not significantly different between limbs as a result of the interplay between angle swept and magnitude of force, even with the change in prosthetic stiffness. A main effect for prosthetic stiffness was found only in higher impact forces of the prosthetic limb and more horizontal touchdown angles of the IL when using the prescribed DERP. In conclusion, amputees achieve the movement with a horizontal approach when compared to controls which
Mittelstädt, Victor; Miller, Jeff; Kiesel, Andrea
In the present study, we introduce a novel, self-organized task-switching paradigm that can be used to study more directly the determinants of switching. Instead of instructing participants to randomly switch between tasks, as in the classic voluntary task-switching paradigm (Arrington & Logan, 2004), we instructed participants to optimize their task performance in a voluntary task-switching environment in which the stimulus associated with the previously selected task appeared in each trial after a delay. Importantly, the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) increased further with each additional repetition of this task, whereas the stimulus needed for a task switch was always immediately available. We conducted two experiments with different SOA increments (i.e., Exp. 1a = 50 ms, Exp. 1b = 33 ms) to see whether this procedure would induce switching behavior, and we explored how people trade off switch costs against the increasing availability of the stimulus needed for a task repetition. We observed that participants adapted their behavior to the different task environments (i.e., SOA increments) and that participants switched tasks when the SOA in task switches approximately matched the switch costs. Moreover, correlational analyses indicated relations between individual switch costs and individual switch rates across participants. Together, these results demonstrate that participants were sensitive to the increased availability of switch stimuli in deciding whether to switch or to repeat, which in turn demonstrates flexible adaptive task selection behavior. We suggest that performance limitations in task switching interact with the task environment to influence switching behavior.
Edwards, Harold C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ibanez, Daniel Alejandro [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
This report documents the ASC/ATDM Kokkos deliverable "Production Portable Dy- namic Task DAG Capability." This capability enables applications to create and execute a dynamic task DAG ; a collection of heterogeneous computational tasks with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) of "execute after" dependencies where tasks and their dependencies are dynamically created and destroyed as tasks execute. The Kokkos task scheduler executes the dynamic task DAG on the target execution resource; e.g. a multicore CPU, a manycore CPU such as Intel's Knights Landing (KNL), or an NVIDIA GPU. Several major technical challenges had to be addressed during development of Kokkos' Task DAG capability: (1) portability to a GPU with it's simplified hardware and micro- runtime, (2) thread-scalable memory allocation and deallocation from a bounded pool of memory, (3) thread-scalable scheduler for dynamic task DAG, (4) usability by applications.
Dimitriadis, S I; Laskaris, N A; Micheloyannis, S
We studied how maturation influences the organization of functional brain networks engaged during mental calculations and in resting state. Surface EEG measurements from 20 children (8-12 years) and 25 students (21-26 years) were analyzed. Interregional synchronization of brain activity was quantified by means of Phase Lag Index and for various frequency bands. Based on these pairwise estimates of functional connectivity, we formed graphs which were then characterized in terms of local structure [local efficiency (LE)] and overall integration (global efficiency). The overall data analytic scheme was applied twice, in a static and time-varying mode. Our results showed a characteristic trend: functional segregation dominates the network organization of younger brains. Moreover, in childhood, the overall functional network possesses more prominent small-world network characteristics than in early acorrect in xmldulthood in accordance with the Neural Efficiency Hypothesis. The above trends were intensified by the time-varying approach and identified for the whole set of tested frequency bands (from δ to low γ). By mapping the time-indexed connectivity patterns to multivariate timeseries of nodal LE measurements, we carried out an elaborate study of the functional segregation dynamics and demonstrated that the underlying network undergoes transitions between a restricted number of stable states, that can be thought of as "network-level microstates". The rate of these transitions provided a robust marker of developmental and task-induced alterations, that was found to be insensitive to reference montage and independent component analysis denoising.
Yuvaraj, Surya V J; Zhdanov, Ravil K; Belosludov, Rodion V; Belosludov, Vladimir R; Subbotin, Oleg S; Kanie, Kiyoshi; Funaki, Kenji; Muramatsu, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takashi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki
The solvation behavior of task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) containing a common, L-histidine derived imidazolium cation [C20H28N3O3](+) and different anions, bromide-[Br](-) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide-[NTF2](-), in water is examined, computationally. These amino acid functionalized ionic liquids (ILs) are taken into account because of their ability to react with rare earth metal salts. It has been noted that the TSIL with [Br](-) is more soluble than its counterpart TSIL with [NTF2](-), experimentally. In this theoretical work, the combined classical molecular dynamics (CMD) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to study the behavior of the bulk phase of these two TSILs in the vicinity of water (H2O) molecules with different concentrations. Initially, all the constructed systems are equilibrated using the CMD method. The final structures of the equilibrated systems are extracted for DFT calculations. Under CMD operation, the radial distribution function (RDF) plots and viscosity of TSILs are analyzed to understand the effect of water on TSILs. In the DFT regime, binding energy per H2O, charge transfer, charge density mapping, and electronic density of states (EDOS) analyses are done. The CMD results along with the DFT results are consolidated to support the hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature of the TSILs. Interestingly, we have found a strong correlation between the viscosity and the EDOS results that leads to an understanding of the hydration properties of the TSILs.
Li, Bingbing; Zhang, Meng; Luo, Junlong; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Yijun
High-density, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to explore differences in spatiotemporal dynamics between modus ponens (MP) and modus tollens (MT) in the Wason selection task. Results showed that MP elicits a more positive P3b-like component than MT from 400 to 800 ms. MP appeared to occur earlier than MT in various stages of proposition testing, such as stimulus processing and response selection. ERP results showed that MT has a longer duration and more negative later negative component (LNC) than MP at 2,000 ms. This result suggests that MT occupies more cognitive resources than MP in the final stages of proposition testing. The short and small left frontal LNC obtained by MP implies examination of the expectable conclusion, whereas the long and large left frontal LNC elicited by MT may be involved in the retention operation of the card in working memory from the monitoring and inspecting putative conclusion in the later stages of proposition testing. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
is symmetric about the velocity vector and the body mounted solar panels form a wedge pointing in the same direction (see Figure 1). SMDC expects...modeled for solar maximum and solar minimum conditions. The ΔV required to offset atmospheric losses is also calculated. Finally, a hypothetical ΔV...satellites is desired (V-fold coverage), a minimum of 2V +3 satellites are required. This is consistent with Walker’s claim that five satellites is the
Beaton, Lauren E; Azma, Sheeva; Marinkovic, Ksenija
Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing. This study used anatomically-constrained MEG to examine the underlying neural dynamics in a flanker task that manipulated S-R incongruity at the stimulus (SI) and response levels (RI). Though irrelevant, flankers evoked automatic preparation of motor plans which had to be suppressed and reversed following the target presentation on RI trials. Event-related source power estimates in beta (15-25 Hz) frequency band in the sensorimotor cortex tracked motor preparation and response in real time and revealed switching from the incorrectly-primed to the correctly-responding hemisphere. In contrast, theta oscillations (4-7 Hz) were sensitive to the levels of incongruity as the medial and ventrolateral frontal cortices were especially activated by response conflict. These two areas are key to cognitive control and their integrated contributions to response inhibition and switching were revealed by phase-locked co-oscillations. These processes were pharmacologically manipulated with a moderate alcohol beverage or a placebo administered to healthy social drinkers. Alcohol selectively decreased accuracy to response conflict. It strongly attenuated theta oscillations during decision making and partly re-sculpted relative contributions of the frontal network without affecting the motor switching process subserved by beta band. Our results indicate that motor preparation is initiated automatically even when counterproductive but that it is monitored and regulated by
Lauren E Beaton
Full Text Available Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing. This study used anatomically-constrained MEG to examine the underlying neural dynamics in a flanker task that manipulated S-R incongruity at the stimulus (SI and response levels (RI. Though irrelevant, flankers evoked automatic preparation of motor plans which had to be suppressed and reversed following the target presentation on RI trials. Event-related source power estimates in beta (15-25 Hz frequency band in the sensorimotor cortex tracked motor preparation and response in real time and revealed switching from the incorrectly-primed to the correctly-responding hemisphere. In contrast, theta oscillations (4-7 Hz were sensitive to the levels of incongruity as the medial and ventrolateral frontal cortices were especially activated by response conflict. These two areas are key to cognitive control and their integrated contributions to response inhibition and switching were revealed by phase-locked co-oscillations. These processes were pharmacologically manipulated with a moderate alcohol beverage or a placebo administered to healthy social drinkers. Alcohol selectively decreased accuracy to response conflict. It strongly attenuated theta oscillations during decision making and partly re-sculpted relative contributions of the frontal network without affecting the motor switching process subserved by beta band. Our results indicate that motor preparation is initiated automatically even when counterproductive but that it is monitored
You, Joshua H; Shetty, Anand; Jones, Tawaih; Shields, Kimberli; Belay, Yordanos; Brown, Deborah
The present study highlights the effects of the dual-task cognitive-gait intervention (CGI) on working memory and gait functions in older adults with a history of falls. Thirteen older adults with a history of falls were recruited from local community centers and randomly stratified into either the control (n = 5) or experimental (n = 8) group. The experimental group received the dual-task cognitive-motor intervention involving simultaneous motor (walking) and cognitive (memory recall) task whereas the control group received a placebo treatment (walking with simple music). The intervention was provided 30 minutes per session, over a 6-week period. Memory measures included a combination of word recall and arithmetic task. Gait function measures included velocity and center of pressure (COP) stability. Non-parametric tests were used at p memory performance than the control (p long-term dual-task cognitive-motor intervention improved memory of older adults with a history of falls under the dual cognitive motor task condition.
Amy J. Haufler
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the biobehavioral correlates of adaptive behavior in the context of a standardized laboratory-based mission-relevant challenge [the Soldier Performance and Effective, Adaptable Response (SPEAR task]. Participants were 26 healthy male volunteers (M = 34.85 years, SD = 4.12 with active military duty and leadership experience within the last 5 years (i.e., multiple leadership positions, operational deployments in combat, interactions with civilians and partner nation forces on the battlefield, experience making decisions under fire. The SPEAR task simultaneously engages perception, cognition, and action aspects of human performance demands similar to those encountered in the operational setting. Participants must engage with military-relevant text, visual, and auditory stimuli, interpret new information, and retain the commander’s intent in working memory to create a new plan of action for mission success. Time-domain measures of heart period and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA were quantified, and saliva was sampled [later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA] before-, during-, and post-SPEAR. Results revealed a predictable pattern of withdraw and recovery of the cardiac vagal tone during repeated presentation of battlefield challenges. Recovery of vagal inhibition following executive function challenge was strongly linked to better task-related performance. Rate of RSA recovery was also associated with better recall of the commander’s intent. Decreasing magnitude in the skin conductance response prior to the task was positively associated with better overall task-related performance. Lower levels of RSA were observed in participants who reported higher rates of combat deployments, and reduced RSA flexibility was associated with higher rates of casualty exposure. Greater RSA flexibility during SPEAR was associated with greater self-reported resilience. There was no consistent
Stewart, Timothy; スチュワート, ティモシー
This paper describes an approach to task evaluation that emerged out of the process of course development. The multi-layered approach to task evaluation described synthesizes student and teacher evaluations of tasks written in journals with more traditional course evaluation data in a reflective process of course development. Ultimately, the approach opens up dynamic insights into the appropriateness of tasks by incorporating the views of both students and teachers.The paper concludes by illu...
Goodman, Lawrence E
Beginning text presents complete theoretical treatment of mechanical model systems and deals with technological applications. Topics include introduction to calculus of vectors, particle motion, dynamics of particle systems and plane rigid bodies, technical applications in plane motions, theory of mechanical vibrations, and more. Exercises and answers appear in each chapter.
Hirigoyen María Amelia
findings from a descriptive, instructional designs based on the impact of tasks considered the Science-Technology-Society-Environment (contextualized tasks and those who did not (not contextualized tasks, the dynamics of students' interest in the subject Technology Education. That is to say, we aimed to analyze and discuss whether the proposed tasks produced a greater or lesser interest in the students for their achievement. Data were collected through classroom observations, which responded to the qualitative paradigm of research, conducted in 2009. We worked with students in sixth grade, freshman and junior year and with their teachers in the city of Rio Cuarto (Cordoba, Argentina and in a nearby locality. The results confirmed that the contextualized tasks that were included in the content of technology (biotechnology, greenhouse, etc. To pose problems related to scientific, social and environmental generated interest among students. However, the study showed that contextualize the work was not always sufficient and necessary factors were linked to the promotion of interest-called situational interest factors, such as mode of presentation of tasks, explanations of the goals of the tasks and feedback on its realization, etc. Thus, we identified indicators of student interest (request for assistance, consultation questions, showing progress, permanence tasks, etc. and situational interest factors already mentioned. Consideration of situational interest and the contextualization of the tasks in the teaching of technology becomes important to promote the interests of individual students.
Nagaraja, K. S.; Kraft, R. H.
The HSCT Flight Controls Group has developed longitudinal control laws, utilizing PTC aeroelastic flexible models to minimize aeroservoelastic interaction effects, for a number of flight conditions. The control law design process resulted in a higher order controller and utilized a large number of sensors distributed along the body for minimizing the flexibility effects. Processes were developed to implement these higher order control laws for performing the dynamic gust loads and flutter analyses. The processes and its validation were documented in Reference 2, for selected flight condition. The analytical results for additional flight conditions are presented in this document for further validation.
Verstraaten, M.; Kok, S.; Poss, R.; Grelck, C.; Grelck, C.; Hammond, K.; Scholz, S.B.
We propose an extension to S-NET’s light-weight parallel execution layer (LPEL): dynamic migration of tasks between cores for improved load balancing and higher throughput of S-NET streaming networks. We sketch out the necessary implementation steps and empirically analyse the impact of task
Berkowitz, Evan; Jansen, Gustav R.; McElvain, Kenneth; Walker-Loud, André
High Performance Computing is often performed on scarce and shared computing resources. To ensure computers are used to their full capacity, administrators often incentivize large workloads that are not possible on smaller systems. Measurements in Lattice QCD frequently do not scale to machine-size workloads. By bundling tasks together we can create large jobs suitable for gigantic partitions. We discuss METAQ and mpi_jm, software developed to dynamically group computational tasks together, that can intelligently backfill to consume idle time without substantial changes to users' current workflows or executables.
An attempt has been made in the article to locate grey areas in the present grading system, pricing policy and marketing strategy, with a view to find avenues for obtaining additional revenue for coal being marketed presently, which could also improve the satisfaction of the consumers and safeguard their future interest. (author). 5 tabs
surface gravity waves. While it assumes a flat bottom, it is valid both inside and outside the surf zone (Guza and Thornton 1980). Early research, such...J., T. Crawford, J. Crescenti, T. Farrar, J. French , et al. 2007: The coupled boundary layers and air-sea transfer experiment in low winds (CBLAST...before reaching the deployment site ( ). Map created in Google Earth , October 12, 2015, http://www.google.com/ earth /. 30 Elevations around the
Marx, Ronald W.; Walsh, John
Offers a descriptive theory of the nature of classroom tasks. Describes the interplay among (1) the conditions under which tasks are set; (2) the cognitive plans students use to accomplish tasks; and (3) the products students create as a result of their task-related efforts. (SKC)
Soo Ji Kim
Full Text Available Given the interplay between cognitive and motor functions during walking, cognitive demands required during gait have been investigated with regard to dual task performance. Along with the needs to understand how the type of concurrent task while walking affects gait performance, there are calls for diversified dual tasks that can be applied to older adults with varying levels of cognitive decline. Therefore, this study aimed to examine how rhythm-motor tasks affect dual task performance and gait control, compared to a traditional cognitive-motor task. Also, it examined whether rhythm-motor tasks are correlated with traditional cognitive-motor task performance and cognitive measures. Eighteen older adults without cognitive impairment participated in this study. Each participant was instructed to walk at self-paced tempo without performing a concurrent task (single walking task and walk while separately performing two types of concurrent tasks: rhythm-motor and cognitive-motor tasks. Rhythm-motor tasks included instrument playing (WalkIP, matching to rhythmic cueing (WalkRC, and instrument playing while matching to rhythmic cueing (WalkIP+RC. The cognitive-motor task involved counting forward by 3s (WalkCount.f3. In each condition, dual task costs (DTC, a measure for how dual tasks affect gait parameters, were measured in terms of walking speed and stride length. The ratio of stride length to walking speed, a measure for dynamic control of gait, was also examined. The results of this study demonstrated that the task type was found to significantly influence these measures. Rhythm-motor tasks were found to interfere with gait parameters to a lesser extent than the cognitive-motor task (WalkCount.f3. In terms of ratio measures, stride length remained at a similar level, walking speed greatly decreased in the WalkCount.f3 condition. Significant correlations between dual task-related measures during rhythm-motor and cognitive-motor tasks support the
Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik
Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...
Workman, Terri Elizabeth
The objective of this work is to examine the efficacy of natural language processing (NLP) in summarizing bibliographic text for multiple purposes. Researchers have noted the accelerating growth of bibliographic databases. Information seekers using traditional information retrieval techniques when searching large bibliographic databases are often…
Sworden, P. G.
The purpose of this report is to document Dow Corning's decision making process in establishing a fuelwood supply and procurement system with emphasis on how this relates to private forest landowners. The report will provide background on the decision to investigate wood energy systems and key management questions in that decision process. Information used to answer the key management questions will be high-lighted and its usefulness documented, including resource assessment and requirements. The report will discuss the development and implementation of the landowner assistance program and supplier-producer program. At the end of the report, Dow Corning's experiences will be summarized and some conclusions drawn concerning the success of the program.
An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching
The Transport Task Force (TTF) was initiated as a broad-based US magnetic fusion community activity during the fall of 1988 to focus attention on and encourage development of an increased understanding of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The overall TTF goal is to make progress on Characterizing, Understanding and Identifying how to Reduce plasma transport in tokamaks -- to CUIR transport
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC exhibits activation during some cognitive tasks, including episodic memory, reasoning, attention, multitasking, task sets, decision making, mentalizing, and processing of self-referenced information. However, the medial part of anterior PFC is part of the default mode network (DMN, which shows deactivation during various goal-directed cognitive tasks compared to a resting baseline. One possible factor for this pattern is that activity in the anterior medial PFC (MPFC is affected by dynamic allocation of attentional resources depending on task demands. We investigated this possibility using an event related fMRI with a face working memory task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixteen students participated in a single fMRI session. They were asked to form a task set to remember the faces (Face memory condition or to ignore them (No face memory condition, then they were given 6 seconds of preparation period before the onset of the face stimuli. During this 6-second period, four single digits were presented one at a time at the center of the display, and participants were asked to add them and to remember the final answer. When participants formed a task set to remember faces, the anterior MPFC exhibited activation during a task preparation period but deactivation during a task execution period within a single trial. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the anterior MPFC plays a role in task set formation but is not involved in execution of the face working memory task. Therefore, when attentional resources are allocated to other brain regions during task execution, the anterior MPFC shows deactivation. The results suggest that activation and deactivation in the anterior MPFC are affected by dynamic allocation of processing resources across different phases of processing.
Loriaux, E.F.; Jehee, J.N.T.
Report on CRP-OSS Task 4.1.1. ''Survey of existing documentation relevant to this programme's goals'' and report on CRP-OSS Task 4.1.2. ''Survey of existing Operator Support Systems and the experience with them'' are presented. 2 tabs
India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks · India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas · Broadband Access Options for India · Broadband driven by DSL: ...
At this meeting, the main tasks of the study group were to discuss their task report with other task groups and to formulate the five-year research program, including next year's plans. A summary of the discussion with other task groups is presented. The general objective of the five-year program is to gather all elements necessary for a decision on the technical feasibility of the subseabed option. In addition, site selection criteria consistent with both radiological assessment and engineering capability will be produced. The task group report discussed radiological assessments, normal or base-case assessments, operational failures, low-probability postdisposal events, engineering studies, radiological criteria, legal aspects, social aspects, institutional aspects, generic comparison with other disposal options, and research priorities. The text of the report is presented along with supporting documents
Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David
Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.
Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld
made lenses, capable of providing the desired light distribution. The user test shows that when working with general lighti ng of 100 lx in the room the developed task lig ht with its wide light distribution provides flexibility in choosing a reading task area on the desk and provides more visibility......The objectives of this work is to develop a task light for office lighting that fulfils the minimum requirements of the European standard EN12464 - 1 : Light and lighting – Lighting of work places, Part 1: Indoor workplaces and the Danish standard DS 700 : Lys og belysning I arbejdsrum , or more...... specifically the requirements that apply to the work area and the immediate surrounding area. By providing a task light that fulfils the requirements for task lighting and the immediate surrounding area, the general lighting only needs to provide the illuminance levels required for background lighting...
Caulfield, H. John
Since the early 1960s, a major part of optical computing systems has been Fourier pattern recognition, which takes advantage of high speed filter changes to enable powerful nonlinear discrimination in `real time.' Because filter has a task quite independent of the tasks of the other filters, they can be applied and evaluated in parallel or, in a simple approach I describe, in sequence very rapidly. Thus I use the name ITFF (independent task Fourier filter). These filters can also break very complex discrimination tasks into easily handled parts, so the wonderful space invariance properties of Fourier filtering need not be sacrificed to achieve high discrimination and good generalizability even for ultracomplex discrimination problems. The training procedure proceeds sequentially, as the task for a given filter is defined a posteriori by declaring it to be the discrimination of particular members of set A from all members of set B with sufficient margin. That is, we set the threshold to achieve the desired margin and note the A members discriminated by that threshold. Discriminating those A members from all members of B becomes the task of that filter. Those A members are then removed from the set A, so no other filter will be asked to perform that already accomplished task.
Pedersen, Michael Svendsen
Definition af task-baseret sprogundervisning, kriterier for task. Forskning i Second Language Acquisition med brug af task, tilrettelæggelse af task-baseret kommunikativ undervisning. Begrænsninger i og perspektiver for videreudvikling af task-baseret sprogundervising-......Definition af task-baseret sprogundervisning, kriterier for task. Forskning i Second Language Acquisition med brug af task, tilrettelæggelse af task-baseret kommunikativ undervisning. Begrænsninger i og perspektiver for videreudvikling af task-baseret sprogundervising-...
Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina
influence board tasks, and how the context moderates the relationship between processes and tasks. Our hypotheses are tested on a survey-based dataset of 535 medium-sized and large industrial firms in Italy and Norway, which are considered to substantially differ along legal and cultural dimensions...... identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings...
he present rapid development of advanced information technology and its use for support of operators of complex technical systems are changing the content of task analysis towards the analysis of mental activities in decision making. Automation removes the humans from routine tasks, and operators...... are left with disturbance control and critical diagnostic tasks, for which computers are suitable for support, if it is possible to match the computer strategies and interface formats dynamically to the requirements of the current task by means of an analysis of the cognitive task....
Johnson, Heather Lynn; Coles, Alf; Clarke, David
We articulate a student perspective on task design in mathematics education, foregrounding a dynamic relationship between intentions of task designers, teachers, and students. First, we characterize a student perspective on task design. Second, we provide theoretical perspectives that we use as tools to account for different facets of task design…
.... They will want to use the resources to perform computing tasks. Today's computing infrastructure does not support this model of computing very well because computers interact with users in terms of low level abstractions...
Civil servants conduct the work which makes welfare states functions on an everyday bases: Police men police, school teachers teach, and tax inspectors inspect. Focus in this paper is on the core tasks of tax inspectors. The paper argues that their core task of securing the collection of revenue...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...... has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...
Yamamoto, Naohide; Incera, Sara; McLennan, Conor T
In a reverse Stroop task, observers respond to the meaning of a color word irrespective of the color in which the word is printed-for example, the word red may be printed in the congruent color (red), an incongruent color (e.g., blue), or a neutral color (e.g., white). Although reading of color words in this task is often thought to be neither facilitated by congruent print colors nor interfered with incongruent print colors, this interference has been detected by using a response method that does not give any bias in favor of processing of word meanings or processing of print colors. On the other hand, evidence for the presence of facilitation in this task has been scarce, even though this facilitation is theoretically possible. By modifying the task such that participants respond to a stimulus color word by pointing to a corresponding response word on a computer screen with a mouse, the present study investigated the possibility that not only interference but also facilitation would take place in a reverse Stroop task. Importantly, in this study, participants' responses were dynamically tracked by recording the entire trajectories of the mouse. Arguably, this method provided richer information about participants' performance than traditional measures such as reaction time and accuracy, allowing for more detailed (and thus potentially more sensitive) investigation of facilitation and interference in the reverse Stroop task. These trajectories showed that the mouse's approach toward correct response words was significantly delayed by incongruent print colors but not affected by congruent print colors, demonstrating that only interference, not facilitation, was present in the current task. Implications of these findings are discussed within a theoretical framework in which the strength of association between a task and its response method plays a critical role in determining how word meanings and print colors interact in reverse Stroop tasks.
Hamel, W.R.; Osborn, J.
Many nuclear projects such as environmental restoration and waste management challenges involve radiation or other hazards that will necessitate the use of remote operations that protect human workers from dangerous exposures. Remote work is far more costly to execute than what workers could accomplish directly with conventional tools and practices because task operations are slow and tedious due to difficulties of remote manipulation and viewing. Decades of experience within the nuclear remote operations community show that remote tasks may take hundreds of times longer than hands-on work; even with state-of-the-art force- reflecting manipulators and television viewing, remote task performance execution is five to ten times slower than equivalent direct contact work. Thus the requirement to work remotely is a major cost driver in many projects. Modest improvements in the work efficiency of remote systems can have high payoffs by reducing the completion time of projects. Additional benefits will accrue from improved work quality and enhanced safety
Vatansever, D; Menon, D K; Manktelow, A E; Sahakian, B J; Stamatakis, E A
Initially described as task-induced deactivations during goal-directed paradigms of high attentional load, the unresolved functionality of default mode regions has long been assumed to interfere with task performance. However, recent evidence suggests a potential default mode network involvement in fulfilling cognitive demands. We tested this hypothesis in a finger opposition paradigm with task and fixation periods which we compared with an independent resting state scan using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a comprehensive analysis pipeline including activation, functional connectivity, behavioural and graph theoretical assessments. The results indicate task specific changes in the default mode network topography. Behaviourally, we show that increased connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex with the left superior frontal gyrus predicts faster reaction times. Moreover, interactive and dynamic reconfiguration of the default mode network regions' functional connections illustrates their involvement with the task at hand with higher-level global parallel processing power, yet preserved small-world architecture in comparison with rest. These findings demonstrate that the default mode network does not disengage during this paradigm, but instead may be involved in task relevant processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mouthon, A; Ruffieux, J; Wälchli, M; Keller, M; Taube, W
Non-physical balance training has demonstrated to be efficient to improve postural control in young people. However, little is known about the potential to increase corticospinal excitability by mental simulation in lower leg muscles. Mental simulation of isolated, voluntary contractions of limb muscles increase corticospinal excitability but more automated tasks like walking seem to have no or only minor effects on motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This may be related to the way of performing the mental simulation or the task itself. Therefore, the present study aimed to clarify how corticospinal excitability is modulated during AO+MI, MI and action observation (AO) of balance tasks. For this purpose, MEPs and H-reflexes were elicited during three different mental simulations (a) AO+MI, (b) MI and (c) passive AO. For each condition, two balance tasks were evaluated: (1) quiet upright stance (static) and (2) compensating a medio-lateral perturbation while standing on a free-swinging platform (dynamic). AO+MI resulted in the largest facilitation of MEPs followed by MI and passive AO. MEP facilitation was significantly larger in the dynamic perturbation than in the static standing task. Interestingly, passive observation resulted in hardly any facilitation independent of the task. H-reflex amplitudes were not modulated. The current results demonstrate that corticospinal excitability during mental simulation of balance tasks is influenced by both the type of mental simulation and the task difficulty. As H-reflexes and background EMG were not modulated, it may be argued that changes in excitability of the primary motor cortex were responsible for the MEP modulation. From a functional point of view, our findings suggest best training/rehabilitation effects when combining MI with AO during challenging postural tasks. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Friedman, Joseph H
A patient reported bilateral hand tremors when writing but not with other tasks. These "task specific" tremors are considered subcategories of essential tremor. Primary writing tremor, in which the tremor occurs only with writing, is probably the most common. The important teaching point is that the "standard" tremor assessment, watching the patient holding a sustained posture and touching his finger to the examiner's and then back to the nose is not adequate. Patients should be tested doing the activity that causes them the most difficulty.
Doshi-Velez, Finale; Konidaris, George
Control applications often feature tasks with similar, but not identical, dynamics. We introduce the Hidden Parameter Markov Decision Process (HiP-MDP), a framework that parametrizes a family of related dynamical systems with a low-dimensional set of latent factors, and introduce a semiparametric regression approach for learning its structure from data. We show that a learned HiP-MDP rapidly identifies the dynamics of new task instances in several settings, flexibly adapting to task variation.
Sato, Tomomasa; Matsui, Toshihiro; Hirai, Shigeoki
This paper proposes a new teleoperation system where man and robot cooperatively execute tasks. First, in the new system, the roles of man and robot in the generation of task procedures and task execution change dynamically. That is, while in the conventional supervisory system the role of man is limited to the generation of task procedures and that of the robot to task execution, in this new system man can participate in task execution and the robot can participate in the generation of task procedures. Second, in the new system, the generation of task procedures and task execution are interspersed. That is, while in the supervisory system a task proceeds as batch process, in the newly proposed cooperative system it proceeds interactively. MEISTER (Model Enhanced Intelligent and Skilful Teleoperational Robot) is an example of a cooperative task execution system which integrates a teleoperation oriented knowledge base, a cooperative maneuvering system, and a teleoperated-motion understanding system. A chemical experiment task demonstrates the effectiveness of man-robot cooperation. (author)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Gun Dynamics Laboratory is a research multi-task facility, which includes two firing bays, a high bay area and a second floor laboratory space. The high bay area...
Investigates the relationship between tasks and learners in task-based learning. Findings suggest that manipulation of task characteristics and conditions may not achieve the intended pedagogic outcomes, and that new ways are needed to focus learners' attention of form without sacrificing the meaning-driven principles of task-based learning.…
Temares, M. Lewis; Lutheran, Joseph A.
Operations tasking for data center management is discussed. The original and revised organizational structures of the data center at the University of Miami are also described. The organizational strategy addresses the functions that should be performed by the data center, anticipates the specialized skills required, and addresses personnel…
Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo
introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...
Laenger, C. J., Sr.
The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.
Full Text Available Due to the fact that proxy-driven proxy cache management and the client-driven streaming solution of Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH are two independent processes, some difficulties and challenges arise in media data management at the proxy cache and rate adaptation at the DASH client. This paper presents a novel client-driven joint proxy cache management and DASH rate adaptation method, named CLICRA, which moves prefetching intelligence from the proxy cache to the client. Based on the philosophy of CLICRA, this paper proposes a rate adaptation algorithm, which selects bitrates for the next media segments to be requested by using the predicted buffered media time in the client. CLICRA is realized by conveying information on the segments that are likely to be fetched subsequently to the proxy cache so that it can use the information for prefetching. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional segment-fetch-time-based rate adaptation and the proxy-driven proxy cache management significantly not only in streaming quality at the client but also in bandwidth and storage usage in proxy caches.
Zhou Yong; Zhang Li
Diagnosis tasks in nuclear power plants characterized as high-dynamic uncertainties are complex reasoning tasks. Diagnosis errors are the main causes for the error of commission. Firstly, based on mental model theory and perception/action cycle theory, a cognitive model for analyzing operators' diagnosis tasks is proposed. Then, the model is used to investigate a trip event which occurred at crystal river nuclear power plant. The application demonstrates typical cognitive bias and mistakes which operators may make when performing diagnosis tasks. They mainly include the strong confirmation tendency, difficulty to produce complete hypothesis sets, group mindset, non-systematic errors in hypothesis testing, and etc. (authors)
This paper describes a multi-task monitor program for microprocessors. Although written for the Intel 8085, it incorporates features that would be beneficial for implementation in other microprocessors used in controlling and monitoring experiments and accelerators. The monitor places permanent programs (tasks) arbitrarily located throughout ROM in a priority ordered queue. The programmer is provided with the flexibility to add new tasks or modified versions of existing tasks, without having to comply with previously defined task boundaries or having to reprogram all of ROM. Scheduling of tasks is triggered by timers, outside stimuli (interrupts), or inter-task communications. Context switching time is of the order of tenths of a milllisecond
Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt
In the paper, we deal with how to organize work for cross-professional knowledge sharing. We do so inspired by relational coordination theory, which is affiliated with positive organizational scholarship. Relational coordination theory is constituted by a combination of relationships marked...... by shared goals and knowledge as well as mutual respect and frequent, timely, accurate and problem-solving ways of communication with the purpose of dealing with the tasks at hand in an integrated way. We introduce and discuss relational coordination theory through a case-study within public healthcare....... Here cross-professional coordination of work was done by scheduled communication twice a day. When we proposed a way for further integration of tasks through an all-inclusive team organization, we were met with resistance. We use the study to discuss whether relational coordination theory is able to do...
methods included task analysis as a critical phase in developing instruction and training. Mon- temerlo and Tennyson (1976) noted that from 1951 to 1976...designed. The trend in the U.S . Department of Defense toward extensive procedural documentation noted by Montemerlo and Tennyson (1976) has not...M. Gagne’ (Ed.), Psychological principles in system development (pp. 187-228). New York: Holt. Montemerlo, M. D., & Tennyson , M. E. (1975
This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several open-quotes big pictureclose quotes issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald
One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...
Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.
The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.
Full Text Available In classic Psychological-Refractory-Period (PRP dual-task paradigms, decreasing stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA between the two tasks typically lead to increasing reaction times (RT to the second task and, when task order is non-predictable, to prolonged RTs to the first task. Traditionally, both RT effects have been advocated to originate exclusively from the dynamics of a central bottleneck. By focusing on two specific electroencephalographic brain responses directly linkable to perceptual or motor processing stages, respectively, the present study aimed to provide a more detailed picture as to the origin(s of these behavioral PRP effects. In particular, we employed two 2-alternative forced-choice tasks requiring participants to identify the pitch of a tone (high versus low in the auditory, and the orientation of a target object (vertical versus horizontal in the visual, task, with task order being either predictable or non-predictable. Our findings show that task order predictability and inter-task SOA interactively determine the speed of (visual perceptual processes (as indexed by the PCN timing for both the first and the second task. By contrast, motor response execution times (as indexed by the LRP timing are influenced independently by task order predictability for the first, and SOA for the second, task. Overall, this set of findings complements classical as well as advanced versions of the central bottleneck model by providing electrophysiological evidence for modulations of both perceptual and motor processing dynamics that, in summation with central capacity limitations, give rise to the behavioral PRP outcome.
Lopez-Benitez, Noe; Djomehri, M. Jahed; Biswas, Rupak
This paper proposes a task graph (TG) model to represent a single discrete step of multi-block overset grid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. The TG model is then used to not only balance the computational workload across the overset grids but also to reduce inter-grid communication costs. We have developed a set of task assignment heuristics based on the constraints inherent in this class of CFD problems. Two basic assignments, the smallest task first (STF) and the largest task first (LTF), are first presented. They are then systematically costs. To predict the performance of the proposed task assignment heuristics, extensive performance evaluations are conducted on a synthetic TG with tasks defined in terms of the number of grid points in predetermined overlapping grids. A TG derived from a realistic problem with eight million grid points is also used as a test case.
Full Text Available Switching between tasks is assumed to be accompanied by inhibiting currently irrelevant, but competing tasks. A dominant task that strongly interferes with performing a weaker task may receive especially strong inhibition. We tested this prediction by letting participants switch among three tasks that differ in dominance: a location discrimination task with strong stimulus–response bindings (responding with left-hand and right-hand button presses to stimuli presented left or right to the fixation cross was combined with a color/pattern and a shape discrimination task, for which stimulus–response mappings were arbitrary (e.g., left-hand button press mapped to a red stimulus. Across three experiments, the dominance of the location task was documented by faster and more accurate responses than in the other tasks. This even held for incompatible stimulus–response mappings (i.e., right-hand response to a left-presented stimulus and vice versa, indicating that set-level compatibility (i.e., “dimension overlap” was sufficient for making this location task dominant. As a behavioral marker for backward inhibition, we utilized n-2 repetition costs that are defined by higher reaction times for a switch back to a just abandoned and thus just inhibited task (ABA sequence than for a switch to a less recently inhibited task (CBA, n-2 non-repetition. Reliable n-2 task repetition costs were obtained for all three tasks. Importantly, these costs were largest for the location task, suggesting that inhibition indeed was stronger for the dominant task. This finding adds to other evidence that the amount of inhibition is adjusted in a context-sensitive way.
Orasanu, Judith; Tada, Yuri; Kraft, Norbert; Fischer, Ute
Sending astronauts into space, especially on long-durations missions (e.g. three-year missions to Mars), entails enormous risk. Threats include both physical dangers of radiation, bone loss and other consequences of weightlessness, and also those arising from interpersonal problems associated with extended life in a high-risk isolated and confined environment. Before undertaking long-duration missions, NASA seeks to develop technologies to monitor indicators of potentially debilitating stress at both the individual and team level so that countermeasures can be introduced to prevent further deterioration. Doing so requires a better understanding of indicators of team health and performance. To that end, a study of team problem solving in a simulation environment was undertaken to explore effects of team and task stress. Groups of four males (25-45 yrs) engaged in six dynamic computer-based Antarctic search and rescue missions over four days. Both task and team stressors were manipulated. Physiological responses (ECG, respiration rate and amplitude, SCL, EMG, and PPG); communication (voice and email); individual personality and subjective team dynamics responses were collected and related to task performance. Initial analyses found that physiological measures can be used to identify transient stress, predict performance, and reflect subjective workload. Muscle tension and respiration were the most robust predictors. Not only the level of arousal but its variability during engagement in the task is important to consider. In general, less variability was found to be associated with higher levels of performance. Individuals scoring high on specific personality characteristics responded differently to task stress.
Kahn, Kevin; Saxena, Shreya; Eskandar, Emad; Thakor, Nitish; Schieber, Marc; Gale, John T; Averbeck, Bruno; Eden, Uri; Sarma, Sridevi V
Since task related neurons cannot be specifically targeted during surgery, a critical decision to make is to select which neurons are task-related when performing data analysis. Including neurons unrelated to the task degrade decoding accuracy and confound neurophysiological results. Traditionally, task-related neurons are selected as those with significant changes in firing rate when a stimulus is applied. However, this assumes that neurons' encoding of stimuli are dominated by their firing rate with little regard to temporal dynamics. This paper proposes a systematic approach for neuron selection, which uses a likelihood ratio test to capture the contribution of stimulus to spiking activity while taking into account task-irrelevant intrinsic dynamics that affect firing rates. This approach is denoted as the model deterioration excluding stimulus (MDES) test. MDES is compared to firing rate selection in four case studies: a simulation, a decoding example, and two neurophysiology examples. The MDES rankings in the simulation match closely with ideal rankings, while firing rate rankings are skewed by task-irrelevant parameters. For decoding, 95% accuracy is achieved using the top 8 MDES-ranked neurons, while the top 12 firing-rate ranked neurons are needed. In the neurophysiological examples, MDES matches published results when firing rates do encode salient stimulus information, and uncovers oscillatory modulations in task-related neurons that are not captured when neurons are selected using firing rates. These case studies illustrate the importance of accounting for intrinsic dynamics when selecting task-related neurons and following the MDES approach accomplishes that. MDES selects neurons that encode task-related information irrespective of these intrinsic dynamics which can bias firing rate based selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Töllner, Thomas; Strobach, Tilo; Schubert, Torsten; Müller, Hermann J
In classic Psychological-Refractory-Period (PRP) dual-task paradigms, decreasing stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the two tasks typically lead to increasing reaction times (RT) to the second task and, when task order is non-predictable, to prolonged RTs to the first task. Traditionally, both RT effects have been advocated to originate exclusively from the dynamics of a central bottleneck. By focusing on two specific electroencephalographic brain responses directly linkable to perceptual or motor processing stages, respectively, the present study aimed to provide a more detailed picture as to the origin(s) of these behavioral PRP effects. In particular, we employed 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) tasks requiring participants to identify the pitch of a tone (high versus low) in the auditory, and the orientation of a target object (vertical versus horizontal) in the visual, task, with task order being either predictable or non-predictable. Our findings show that task order predictability (TOP) and inter-task SOA interactively determine the speed of (visual) perceptual processes (as indexed by the PCN timing) for both the first and the second task. By contrast, motor response execution times (as indexed by the LRP timing) are influenced independently by TOP for the first, and SOA for the second, task. Overall, this set of findings complements classical as well as advanced versions of the central bottleneck model by providing electrophysiological evidence for modulations of both perceptual and motor processing dynamics that, in summation with central capacity limitations, give rise to the behavioral PRP outcome.
The Pragian-Emsian strata of Kitab Reserve and Barrandian Area: The 2008 SDS research task on magnetic susceptibility logs and their stratigraphic correlation by means of the dynamic time warping techniques
Hladil, Jindřich; Vondra, Martin; Slavík, Ladislav; Koptíková, Leona; Čejchan, Petr; Vích, Robert
-, č. 26 (2011), s. 54-56 ISSN 2074-7268 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00130702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : dynamic time warping * magnetic suscpetibility * stratigraphy * Lower Devonian Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://unica2.unica.it/ sds /images/ SDS 26%20-%202011.pdf
Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Qi
Multi-task learning (MTL) methods have shown promising performance by learning multiple relevant tasks simultaneously, which exploits to share useful information across relevant tasks. Among various MTL methods, clustered multi-task learning (CMTL) assumes that all tasks can be clustered into groups and attempts to learn the underlying cluster structure from the training data. In this paper, we present a new approach for CMTL, called flexible clustered multi-task (FCMTL), in which the cluster structure is learned by identifying representative tasks. The new approach allows an arbitrary task to be described by multiple representative tasks, effectively soft-assigning a task to multiple clusters with different weights. Unlike existing counterpart, the proposed approach is more flexible in that (a) it does not require clusters to be disjoint, (b) tasks within one particular cluster do not have to share information to the same extent, and (c) the number of clusters is automatically inferred from data. Computationally, the proposed approach is formulated as a row-sparsity pursuit problem. We validate the proposed FCMTL on both synthetic and real-world data sets, and empirical results demonstrate that it outperforms many existing MTL methods.
In this article, the author describes a creative way to demystify contemporary art for students. TASK is artist Oliver Herring's creation, where participants actively interpret instructions found on little pieces of paper--what he calls "tasks." An art classroom has all the key ingredients for a TASK event: (1) people; (2) materials; (3) space;…
Schweighofer, Nicolas; Choi, Younggeun; Winstein, Carolee; Gordon, James
Task-oriented training is emerging as the dominant and most effective approach to motor rehabilitation of upper extremity function after stroke. Here, the authors propose that the task-oriented training framework provides an evidence-based blueprint for the design of task-oriented robots for the rehabilitation of upper extremity function in the form of three design principles: skill acquisition of functional tasks, active participation training, and individualized adaptive training. The previous robotic systems that incorporate elements of task-oriented trainings are then reviewed. Finally, the authors critically analyze their own attempt to design and test the feasibility of a TOR robot, ADAPT (Adaptive and Automatic Presentation of Tasks), which incorporates the three design principles. Because of its task-oriented training-based design, ADAPT departs from most other current rehabilitation robotic systems: it presents realistic functional tasks in which the task goal is constantly adapted, so that the individual actively performs doable but challenging tasks without physical assistance. To maximize efficacy for a large clinical population, the authors propose that future task-oriented robots need to incorporate yet-to-be developed adaptive task presentation algorithms that emphasize acquisition of fine motor coordination skills while minimizing compensatory movements.
Dohn, Anders Høeg
to scheduling problems with temporal dependencies between tasks. However, these problems appear in various contexts and with different properties. A group of the problems considered are related to vehicle routing problems, where transportation and time windows are important factors that must be accounted for....... Mathematical and logic-based models are presented for the problems considered. Novel components are added to existing models and the modeling decisions are justified. In one case, the model is solved by a simple, but efficient greedy construction heuristic. In the remaining cases, column generation is applied....... Column generation is an iterative exact solution method based on the theory of linear programming and is capable of providing provably optimal solutions. In some of the applications, the approach is modified to provide feasible solutions of high-quality in less time. The exceptional solution quality...
Dean, B.; Rombos, P.
Two methodologies for maintenance task selection, Reliability Centre Maintenance (RCM) and Degradation Mode Analysis (DMA), are compared with regard to application in the nuclear industry and potential for application at CANDU nuclear power plants. RCM is the favoured one of the two methodologies. It is more thorough than DMA, is well supported within the US nuclear industry, and - with experience in application - is gaining cost effectiveness. There is interest in the use of RCM in other nations, including France and Japan, and it is already being implemented at Bruce A NGS and Bruce B NGS in Canada. DMA lags behind RCM in development and currently there is little experience to support claims of major benefits at reduced cost. Significant advantages over RCM need to be demonstrated if DMA is to gain acceptance in the nuclear industry. (author). 41 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs
Gaaloul, Khaled; Miseldine, Philip; Charoy, François
International audience; Delegation mechanisms are receiving increasing interest from the research community. Task delegation is a mechanism that supports organisational flexibility in the human-centric workflow systems, and ensures delegation of authority in access control systems. In this paper, we consider task delegation as an advanced security mechanism supporting policy decision. We define an approach to support dynamic delegation of authority within an access control framework. The nove...
Chizh, I M
The article discusses the actual problems of prophylaxis in common system of troops medical supply and defines the subsequent reformative ways of preventive medicine. First of all, the necessity of organized principles revision of prophylactic direction is connected with the fact of main health indices negative dynamics of Armed Forces personal, indicative of weakening of all types of prophylactic work. These are prophylactic work among recruits during their adaptation to military service conditions, prophylactic medical examination, tempering, fiscal training and prophylaxis of infectious diseases. However, we shouldn't forget about positive experience accumulated in the past, as much as possible we should use the achievements of military medical science. For further development of preventive direction of troops and fleet medical supply the priority ways of essential tasks decision of military medicine have been planned. It is necessary to connect the decision of concrete tasks with general perspective of introduction in Armed Forces of region system of servicemen medical supply.
Pacheco, Matheus M; Newell, Karl M
The practice of a motor task has been conceptualized as a process of search through a perceptual-motor workspace. The present study investigated the influence of information and task constraints on the search strategy as reflected in the sequential relations of the outcome in a discrete movement virtual projectile task. The results showed that the relation between the changes of trial-to-trial movement outcome to performance level was dependent on the landscape of the task dynamics and the influence of inherent variability. Furthermore, the search was in a constrained parameter region of the perceptual-motor workspace that depended on the task constraints. These findings show that there is not a single function of trial-to-trial change over practice but rather that local search strategies (proportional, discontinuous, constant) adapt to the level of performance and the confluence of constraints to action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: TASK channels belong to the two-pore-domain potassium (K2P channel family. TASK-1 is discussed to contribute to chronic atrial fibrillation (AFib and has been together with uncoupling protein 1 found as a marker protein of brown adipose tissue (BAT fat. In addition, TASK-1 was linked in a genome-wide association study to an increased body mass index. A recent study showed that TASK-1 inhibition is causing obesity in mice by a BAT whitening and that these effects are linked to the mineralocorticoid receptor pathway, albeit the mechanism remained elusive. Therefore, we aimed to probe whether K2P channels are regulated by serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinases (SGKs which are known to modify many cellular functions by modulating ion channels. Methods: To this end we used functional co-expression studies and chemiluminescence-assays in Xenopus oocytes, together with fluorescence imaging and quantitative PCR experiments. Results: SGKs and proteinkinase B (PKB induced a strong, dose- and time-dependent current reduction of TASK-1 and TASK-3. SGK co-expression reduced the surface expression of TASK-1/3, leading to a predominant localization of the channels into late endosomes. The down regulation of TASK-3 channels was abrogated by the dynamin inhibitor dynasore, confirming a role of SGKs in TASK-1/3 channel endocytosis. Conclusion: Stress-mediated changes in SGK expression pattern or activation is likely to alter TASK-1/3 expression at the surface membrane. The observed TASK-1 regulation might contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic AFib and provide a mechanistic link between increased mineralocorticoid levels and TASK-1 reduction, both linked to BAT whitening.
Ezercan Kayır, H. Hilal
In multi robot system applications, itis possible that the robots transform their past experiences into usefulinformation which will be used for next task allocation processes by usinglearning-based task allocation mechanisms. The major disadvantages of multi-robotQ-learning algorithm are huge learning space and computational cost due togeneralized state and joint action spaces of robots. In this study, experiencedtask-based multi robot task allocation approach is proposed. According to thisa...
Rangelov, Dragan; Töllner, Thomas; Müller, Hermann J; Zehetleitner, Michael
Performing two randomly alternating tasks typically results in higher reaction times (RTs) following a task switch, relative to a task repetition. These task switch costs (TSC) reflect processes of switching between control settings for different tasks. The present study investigated whether task sets operate as a single, integrated representation or as an agglomeration of relatively independent components. In a cued task switch paradigm, target detection (present/absent) and discrimination (blue/green/right-/left-tilted) tasks alternated randomly across trials. The target was either a color or an orientation singleton among homogeneous distractors. Across two trials, the task and target-defining dimension repeated or changed randomly. For task switch trials, agglomerated task sets predict a difference between dimension changes and repetitions: joint task and dimension switches require full task set reconfiguration, while dimension repetitions permit re-using some control settings from the previous trial. By contrast, integrated task sets always require full switches, predicting dimension repetition effects (DREs) to be absent across task switches. RT analyses showed significant DREs across task switches as well as repetitions supporting the notion of agglomerated task sets. Additionally, two event-related potentials (ERP) were analyzed: the Posterior-Contralateral-Negativity (PCN) indexing spatial selection dynamics, and the Sustained-Posterior-Contralateral-Negativity (SPCN) indexing post-selective perceptual/semantic analysis. Significant DREs across task switches were observed for both the PCN and SPCN components. Together, DREs across task switches for RTs and two functionally distinct ERP components suggest that re-using control settings across different tasks is possible. The results thus support the "agglomerated-task-set" hypothesis, and are inconsistent with "integrated task sets."
Full Text Available Performing two randomly alternating tasks typically results in higher reaction times (RTs following a task switch, relative to a task repetition. These task switch costs (TSC reflect processes of switching between control settings for different tasks. The present study investigated whether task sets operate as a single, integrated representation or as an agglomeration of relatively independent components. In a cued task switch paradigm, target detection (present/absent and discrimination (blue/green/right-/left-tilted tasks alternated randomly across trials. The target was either a color or an orientation singleton among homogeneous distractors. Across two trials, the task and target-defining dimension repeated or changed randomly. For task switch trials, agglomerated task sets predict a difference between dimension changes and repetitions: joint task and dimension switches require full task set reconfiguration, while dimension repetitions permit re-using some control settings from the previous trial. By contrast, integrated task sets always require full switches, predicting dimension repetition effects (DREs to be absent across task switches. RT analyses showed significant DREs across task switches as well as repetitions supporting the notion of agglomerated task sets. Additionally, two event-related potentials (ERP were analyzed: the Posterior-Contralateral-Negativity (PCN indexing spatial selection dynamics, and the Sustained-Posterior-Contralateral-Negativity (SPCN indexing post-selective perceptual/semantic analysis. Significant DREs across task switches were observed for both the PCN and SPCN components. Together, DREs across task switches for RTs and two functionally distinct ERP components suggest that re-using control settings across different tasks is possible. The results thus support the ‘agglomerated-task-set’ hypothesis, and are inconsistent with ‘integrated task sets’.
operations of the method applied to interior water bodies (where the shore is a restraint condition may not assure a satisfactory precision degree, unless an accurate enough graphic base of the shore with the addition of the operator’s subjectivity is used.Thus, this scientific community brings this discussion to light, proposing a classic solution based on the application of the adequate method to interior waters (Saville et al., 1954, via automatized processing. Therefore, a program in AutoLISP, a computational language, has been developed. The application of the program has determined the maximum wind fetches in Ilha Solteira, state of São Paulo, reservoir as being between 9.5 and 12.5 km, in contrast with a previous study which has predicted far longer fetches (factor of three.
Howell, David R; Osternig, Louis R; Chou, Li-Shan
To compare single-task and dual-task tandem gait test performance between athletes after concussion with controls on observer-timed, spatio-temporal, and center-of-mass (COM) balance control measurements. Ten participants (19.0±5.5years) were prospectively identified and completed a tandem gait test protocol within 72h of concussion and again 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months post-injury. Seven uninjured controls (20.0±4.5years) completed the same protocol in similar time increments. Tandem gait test trials were performed with (dual-task) and without (single-task) concurrently performing a cognitive test as whole-body motion analysis was performed. Outcome variables included test completion time, average tandem gait velocity, cadence, and whole-body COM frontal plane displacement. Concussion participants took significantly longer to complete the dual-task tandem gait test than controls throughout the first 2 weeks post-injury (mean time=16.4 [95% CI: 13.4-19.4] vs. 10.1 [95% CI: 6.4-13.7] seconds; p=0.03). Single-task tandem gait times were significantly lower 72h post-injury (p=0.04). Dual-task cadence was significantly lower for concussion participants than controls (89.5 [95% CI: 68.6-110.4] vs. 127.0 [95% CI: 97.4-156.6] steps/minute; p=0.04). Moderately-high to high correlations between tandem gait test time and whole-body COM medial-lateral displacement were detected at each time point during dual-task gait (r s =0.70-0.93; p=0.03-0.001). Adding a cognitive task during the tandem gait test resulted in longer detectable deficits post-concussion compared to the traditional single-task tandem gait test. As a clinical tool to assess dynamic motor function, tandem gait may assist with return to sport decisions after concussion. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
We present a method for Cognitive Task Analysis that guides the early stages of software development, aiming at an optimal cognitive load for operators of process control systems. The method is based on a practical theory of cognitive task load and support. In addition to the classical measure
Milgram, N; Marshevsky, S; Sadeh, C
The relationships among five aspects of academic procrastination--behavioral delay, personal upset about the delay, task aversiveness, task capability, and the desire to reduce behavioral delay--were investigated in 10th-grade Israeli students (N = 195). Upset about delay was weakly related to delay itself, and--unlike delay--was strongly related to perceived capability to perform academic tasks and to the desire to change delaying behavior. Students delayed more on academic tasks labeled unpleasant than pleasant, were neutral in between, and were correspondingly more upset about the former than the latter. They more frequently acknowledged reasons for academic procrastination that were less threatening to their self-image (e.g., problems in time management) than reasons that were more threatening (e.g., lack of ability). Interest in reducing delay is related more to self-perceived ability to handle tasks than to time spent procrastinating or reasons given for procrastinating.
Full Text Available Aims: The objective was to evaluate the electrical cortical activity during two static and two dynamic tasks, comparing between tasks with single support tasks and tasks with two feet on the platform. Settings and Design: Sixteen young males participated in this cross-sectional study. Methods and Material: Electrical cortical activity was assessed using the Enobio device. Two static and two dynamic tasks were performed, all of them on the Biodex Balance System device. Statistical analysis used: Mean power spectrum for the Alpha band was analyzed. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare tasks with one single support and tasks with the two feet on the platform. Results: No significant difference was observed when comparing the balance tasks. Conclusions: The number of supports did not significantly modify the EEG signal in the alpha band. However, cognitive demands in the single support dynamic task seemed to be somewhat higher compared with the rest of the tasks. These results may be relevant to design future programs based on dual task.
Tuneski, Atanasko; Babunski, Darko
An adaptive algorithm for identification of the unknown parameters of the dynamic environment in contact tasks is proposed in this paper using the augmented least square estimation method. An approximate environment digital simulator for the continuous environment dynamics is derived, i.e. a discrete transfer function which has the approximately the same characteristics as the continuous environment dynamics is found. For solving this task a method named hold equivalence is used. The general model of the environment dynamics is given and the case when the environment dynamics is represented by second order models with parameter uncertainties is considered. (Author)
Longstreet, Phil; Xiao, Xiao; Sarker, Saonee
's CSE is often a cumbersome process. Thus, we introduce the theoretical concept of self-prophecy (SP) and examine how this social influence strategy can be used to improve computer-related task performance. Two experiments are conducted to examine the influence of SP on task performance. Results show...
Gilbert, Sam J.; Shallice, Tim
When subjects switch between a pair of stimulus-response tasks, reaction time is slower on trial N if a different task was performed on trial N--1. We present a parallel distributed processing (PDP) model that simulates this effect when subjects switch between word reading and color naming in response to Stroop stimuli. Reaction time on "switch…
Schubert, Cynthia; Van Patten, Kelda
Most teenagers do not really like to be told what to do. For that matter, most adults don't either. This article discusses contemporary artist Oliver Herring's TASK, which is an opportunity for participants to bend or define the rules on their own terms. It is about choice, and, for many, it is a dream come true. TASK is controlled chaos that can…
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the cosmetology series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…
Wampold, Bruce E.; Mondin, Gregory W.; Ahn, Hyun-nie
Investigates preference of Social (S) and Investigative (I) people for performing S and I tasks with S or I people or alone. Upper-division undergraduates in S majors (n=38) or I majors (n=15) were utilized in study. S participants preferred working with S people. I participants most preferred to perform I tasks with I people and least preferred…
Hart, Sarah J; Green, Steven R; Casp, Michael; Belger, Aysenil
The ability to make decisions within an emotional context requires a balance between two functionally integrated neural systems that primarily support executive control and affective processing. Several studies have demonstrated effects of emotional interference presented during an ongoing cognitive task, but it is unclear how activating the emotional circuitry prior to a cognitive task may enhance or disrupt the executive system. In this study we used fMRI to examine the effects of emotional priming on executive processing during a number Stroop task. Our results indicated that during trials with less executive requirements, there was a greater aversive emotional attenuation effect in a network of regions including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), insula and cingulate gyrus. This attenuation effect was counteracted during trials with increased executive demand, suggesting that while pre-activation of the emotional system may lead to an automatic attenuation of activity in multiple regions, requirements for executive function may override the aversive emotional attenuation effect. Furthermore, this override effect was found to be associated with faster reaction times during executive processing. These findings demonstrate that activity in the vlPFC, cingulate and insula is dynamically adjusted in order to optimize performance, and illustrate the importance of the timing of each system's engagement in determining how competing cognitive and emotional information is processed. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Mathiesen, Birgit Bork
The debut as a clinical supervisor is still rather unknown. The aim of this study is to explore what kind of tasks novice supervisors undertake and how they are prepared for these. During 2009–2010, 350 Danish clinical psychologists have responded to the Development of Psychotherapists Common Cor...... parallel to, the first supervisor tasks, preparing the novice supervisors for the often complicated tasks they are meeting.......The debut as a clinical supervisor is still rather unknown. The aim of this study is to explore what kind of tasks novice supervisors undertake and how they are prepared for these. During 2009–2010, 350 Danish clinical psychologists have responded to the Development of Psychotherapists Common Core...... Questionnaire covering a wide range of items on professional development, experience, and practice. In this paper we focus on background data (experience, training and practice), specifically the tasks and training of the respondents as novice supervisors. The results show, that a majority of novice supervisors...
Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard
We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials
This paper argues that a State can reconstruct it’s own politics in such a way that allows for more reliance on conflict resolving international organizations and institutions and can reduce the need for military force and/or power politics. Accordingly, the complexities of the security dilemma can be reduced or eliminated. I utilize a single case study approach that analyzes the 2010 territorial conflict known as the ‘Isla Calero’ dispute between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Using both an induc...
The fact that cells with glial characteristics such as forebrain radial glia during development and astroglial stem cells in the adult neurogenic zones serve as neuronal precursors provokes the question why glia in most other areas of the adult central nervous system are apparently incapable of generating new neurons. Besides being of pivotal biological interest answers to this question may also open new avenues for cell-based therapies of neurodegenerative diseases that involve a permanent loss of neurons which are not replaced naturally. For if one could indeed instruct glia to generate neurons, such a strategy would carry the enormous advantage of making use of a large pool of endogenous, and hence autologous cells, thereby circumventing many of the problems associated with therapeutic strategies based on transplantation. Accordingly, the recent years have seen increasing effort in assessing the plasticity of astroglia and other types of resident non-neuronal cells as a potential source for new neurons in the injured brain or eye. For instance, following injury astroglia in the cerebral cortex and Müller glia in the retina can de-differentiate and acquire stem or precursor cell like properties. Moreover, it has been shown that astroglia can be reprogrammed in vitro by forced expression of neurogenic transcription factors to transgress their lineage restriction and stably acquire a neuronal identity. In this review I will discuss the status quo of these early attempts, the limitations currently encountered and the future challenges before the full potential of this approach can be weighed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper introduces the first asynchronous, task-based implementation of the polar decomposition on manycore architectures. Based on a new formulation of the iterative QR dynamically-weighted Halley algorithm (QDWH) for the calculation of the polar decomposition, the proposed implementation replaces the original and hostile LU factorization for the condition number estimator by the more adequate QR factorization to enable software portability across various architectures. Relying on fine-grained computations, the novel task-based implementation is also capable of taking advantage of the identity structure of the matrix involved during the QDWH iterations, which decreases the overall algorithmic complexity. Furthermore, the artifactual synchronization points have been severely weakened compared to previous implementations, unveiling look-ahead opportunities for better hardware occupancy. The overall QDWH-based polar decomposition can then be represented as a directed acyclic graph (DAG), where nodes represent computational tasks and edges define the inter-task data dependencies. The StarPU dynamic runtime system is employed to traverse the DAG, to track the various data dependencies and to asynchronously schedule the computational tasks on the underlying hardware resources, resulting in an out-of-order task scheduling. Benchmarking experiments show significant improvements against existing state-of-the-art high performance implementations (i.e., Intel MKL and Elemental) for the polar decomposition on latest shared-memory vendors\\' systems (i.e., Intel Haswell/Broadwell/Knights Landing, NVIDIA K80/P100 GPUs and IBM Power8), while maintaining high numerical accuracy.
Tamagnone, Irene; Casadio, Maura; Sanguineti, Vittorio
Motor skill learning has different components. When we acquire a new motor skill we have both to learn a reliable action-value map to select a highly rewarded action (task model) and to develop an internal representation of the novel dynamics of the task environment, in order to execute properly the action previously selected (internal model). Here we focus on a 'pure' motor skill learning task, in which adaptation to a novel dynamical environment is negligible and the problem is reduced to the acquisition of an action-value map, only based on knowledge of results. Subjects performed point-to-point movement, in which start and target positions were fixed and visible, but the score provided at the end of the movement depended on the distance of the trajectory from a hidden viapoint. Subjects did not have clues on the correct movement other than the score value. The task is highly redundant, as infinite trajectories are compatible with the maximum score. Our aim was to capture the strategies subjects use in the exploration of the task space and in the exploitation of the task redundancy during learning. The main findings were that (i) subjects did not converge to a unique solution; rather, their final trajectories are determined by subject-specific history of exploration. (ii) with learning, subjects reduced the trajectory's overall variability, but the point of minimum variability gradually shifted toward the portion of the trajectory closer to the hidden via-point.
Cheah, Chien Chern
This book presents recent advances in robot control theory on task space sensory feedback control of robot manipulators. By using sensory feedback information, the robot control systems are robust to various uncertainties in modelling and calibration errors of the sensors. Several sensory task space control methods that do not require exact knowledge of either kinematics or dynamics of robots, are presented. Some useful methods such as approximate Jacobian control, adaptive Jacobian control, region control and multiple task space regional feedback are included. These formulations and methods give robots a high degree of flexibility in dealing with unforeseen changes and uncertainties in its kinematics and dynamics, which is similar to human reaching movements and tool manipulation. It also leads to the solution of several long-standing problems and open issues in robot control, such as force control with constraint uncertainty, control of multi-fingered robot hand with uncertain contact points, singularity i...
This document contains information relating to Category B, C, and D generic technical activities. The specific information provided for each task includes the reactor type to which the generic issue applies, the NRC division with lead responsibility and a description of the problem to be addressed by the task. Also provided in this document is a listing of Category A generic technical activities and definitions of Priority Categories A, B, C, and D
Nazarpour, Kianoush; Barnard, Amy; Jackson, Andrew
Correlation structure in the activity of muscles across movements is often interpreted as evidence for low-level, hardwired constraints on upper-limb function. However, muscle synergies may also emerge from optimal strategies to achieve high-level task goals within a redundant control space. To distinguish these contrasting interpretations, we examined the structure of muscle variability during operation of a myoelectric interface in which task constraints were dissociated from natural limb biomechanics. We found that, with practice, human subjects learned to shape patterns of covariation between arbitrary pairs of hand and forearm muscles appropriately for elliptical targets whose orientation varied on a trial-by-trial basis. Thus, despite arriving at the same average location in the effector space, performance was improved by buffering variability into those dimensions that least impacted task success. Task modulation of beta-frequency intermuscular coherence indicated that differential recruitment of divergent corticospinal pathways contributed to positive correlations among muscles. However, this feedforward mechanism could not account for negative correlations observed in the presence of visual feedback. A second experiment revealed the development of fast, target-dependent visual responses consistent with "minimum intervention" control correcting predominantly task-relevant errors. Together, these mechanisms contribute to the dynamic emergence of task-specific muscle synergies appropriate for a wide range of abstract task goals.
Worthy, Darrell A.; Otto, A. Ross; Maddox, W. Todd
We examined the role of working memory (WM) in dynamic decision making by having participants perform decision-making tasks under single-task or dual-task conditions. In 2 experiments participants performed dynamic decision-making tasks in which they chose 1 of 2 options on each trial. The decreasing option always gave a larger immediate reward…
The purpose of this task was to provide lecturing and curriculum development support, as needed, to the Naval Postgraduate School's Physics Department/Weapons Curriculum in the area of High Energy Laser systems...
Guenter, Hannes; van Emmerik, Hetty; Schreurs, Bert; Kuypers, Tom; van Iterson, Ad; Notelaers, Guy
Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association. We test a three-wave longitudinal model by means of random coefficient growth modeling, using data from 60 ongoing teams working in a health care organization. Results provide partial support for our hypotheses. Only when perceived team performance is low, do task conflicts relate with growth in relationship conflict. We conclude that perceived team performance seems to enable teams to uncouple task from relationship conflict. PMID:28190944
This was a presentation at the TDWG Annual Meeting in Costa Rica, 2016-12-08 in a Task Group report session. Abstract: The Vocabulary Maintenance Task Group has completed drafts of a Standards Documentation Specification and a Vocabulary Management Specification (https://github.com/tdwg/vocab). This session will outline the important aspects of the specifications and answer questions about their content and implementation.
Many models of concurrency and concurrent programming have been proposed; most can be categorized as either task-parallel (based on functional decomposition) or data-parallel (based on data decomposition). Task-parallel models are most effective for expressing irregular computations; data-parallel models are most effective for expressing regular computations. Some computations, however, exhibit both regular and irregular aspects. For such computations, a better programming model is one that i...
Doc 80151501 ,i ii page 11. § 2. erinciple of the step v b, cnaszzaucticn of optimum ccntrol. rhus, dynamic programa ..j -.,a o. step...moves, receiing from plane ABC into tai uapca ot simrlex. 14 Fiq. 10.4. DOC =30151505 FAGE § 11. Task about the distr iatiou Qf rasources/lifetimes
Dutt-Mazumder, A; Newell, K M
The experiment investigated the progressions of the qualitative and quantitative changes in the movement dynamics of learning the ski-simulator as a function of prior-related task experience. The focus was the differential timescales of change in the candidate collective variable, neuromuscular synergies, joint motions, and task outcome as a function of learning over 7 days of practice. Half of the novice participants revealed in day 1 a transition of in-phase to anti-phase coupling of center of mass (CoM)-platform motion whereas the remaining novices and experienced group all produced on the first trial an anti-phase CoM-platform coupling. The experienced group also had initially greater amplitude and velocity of platform motion-a performance advantage over the novice group that was reduced but not eliminated with 7 days of practice. The novice participants who had an in-phase CoM-platform coupling on the initial trials of day 1 also showed the most restricted platform motion in those trials. Prior-related practice experience differentially influenced the learning of the task as evidenced by both the qualitative organization and the quantitative motion properties of the individual degrees of freedom (dof) to meet the task demands. The findings provide further evidence to the proposition that CoM-platform coupling is a candidate collective variable in the ski-simulator task that provides organization and boundary conditions to the motions of the individual joint dof and their couplings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pain, Christopher C.; Eaton, Matthew D.; Gomes, Jefferson L.M.A.; Oliveira, Cassiano R.E. de; Umpleby, Adrian P.; Ziver, Kemal; Ackroyd, Ron T.; Miles, Bryan; Goddard, Antony J.H.; Dam, H. van; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der; Lathouwers, D.
Previous work into the space-dependent kinetics of the conceptual nuclear fluidized bed has highlighted the sensitivity of fission power to particle movements within the bed. The work presented in this paper investigates a method of stabilizing the fission power by making it less sensitive to fuel particle movement. Steady-state neutronic calculations are performed to obtain a suitable design that is stable to radial and axial fuel particle movements in the bed. Detailed spatial/temporal simulations performed using the finite element transient criticality (FETCH) code investigate the dynamics of the new reactor design. A dual requirement of the design is that it has a moderate power output of ∼300 MW(thermal)
Kukulka, Tobias; Jenkins, Robert L.; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan; Scarborough, Robert W.
This study presents a broad overview of surface gravity wave dynamics in Delaware Bay and the adjacent continental shelf by employing the wave model Simulating Waves Nearshore one-way coupled to the ocean model Regional Ocean Modeling System for a period from 2006 to 2012. The distributions of simulated wave statistics agree well with observations obtained from three wave buoys located on the shelf, in the bay near the open ocean, and about 35 km up the bay. A partitioning analysis to separate the two-dimensional wave height spectrum into wind-forced and swell parts reveals that waves on the shelf are predominantly remotely generated swell. Bathymetric refraction shelters the bay from energetic open ocean waves, which is supported by an idealized ray tracing analysis. Waves near the bay entrance are also refracted by oblique tidal currents, whose refraction characteristics critically depend on the detailed spatial distributions of the currents. Opposing tidal currents, flowing against the wave propagation direction, focus wave energy outside the bay entrance and in the deeper bay channels, where currents are relatively strong. A spectral partitioning analysis for waves in the bay indicates that less energetic wave fields are likely not directly forced by the wind. More energetic waves, on the other hand, are dominantly driven by winds and the wave response in the bay depends on the fetch-setting wind direction. Our results for wind-driven waves in the bay are consistent with previous fetch-limited observations, but we find a systematic bias between wind and wave directions due to bathymetric refraction.
Kovalchuk, Sergey V.; Zakharchuk, Artem V.; Liao, Jiaqi; Ivanov, Sergey V.; Boukhanovsky, Alexander V.
The article presents a technology for dynamic knowledge-based building of Domain-Specific Languages (DSL) to describe data-intensive scientific discovery tasks using BigData technology. The proposed technology supports high level abstract definition of analytic and simulation parts of the task as well as integration into the composite scientific solutions. Automatic translation of the abstract task definition enables seamless integration of various data sources within single solution.
Huang, Amy I-Yu
This study reports findings from a teaching experiment in which 4th grade children engaged in solving multiplication tasks with rectangular arrays in a computer environment. The environment provided flexible task-solving through dynamic virtual manipulatives (VMs) so children could use their existing knowledge of multiplication to complete array…
V. G. Polnikov
Full Text Available A modern version of a numerical wind wave model of the fourth generation is constructed for a case of deep water. The following specific terms of the model source function are used: (a a new analytic parameterization of the nonlinear evolution term proposed recently in Zakharov and Pushkarev (1999; (b a traditional input term added by the routine for an atmospheric boundary layer fitting to a wind wave state according to Makin and Kudryavtsev (1999; (c a dissipative term of the second power in a wind wave spectrum according to Polnikov (1991. The direct fetch testing results showed an adequate description of the main empirical wave evolution effects. Besides, the model gives a correct description of the boundary layer parameters' evolution, depending on a wind wave stage of development. This permits one to give a physical treatment of the dependence mentioned. These performances of the model allow one to use it both for application and for investigation aims in the task of the joint description of wind and wave fields.
Polnikov, V. G.; Volkov, Y. A.; Pogarskii, F. A.
A modern version of a numerical wind wave model of the fourth generation is constructed for a case of deep water. The following specific terms of the model source function are used: (a) a new analytic parameterization of the nonlinear evolution term proposed recently in Zakharov and Pushkarev (1999); (b) a traditional input term added by the routine for an atmospheric boundary layer fitting to a wind wave state according to Makin and Kudryavtsev (1999); (c) a dissipative term of the second power in a wind wave spectrum according to Polnikov (1991). The direct fetch testing results showed an adequate description of the main empirical wave evolution effects. Besides, the model gives a correct description of the boundary layer parameters' evolution, depending on a wind wave stage of development. This permits one to give a physical treatment of the dependence mentioned. These performances of the model allow one to use it both for application and for investigation aims in the task of the joint description of wind and wave fields.
One significant difference between real and simulated flight on the ground are the stimuli or cues provided to the pilot. Due to physical and/or cost constraints, it is nearly impossible to match all the cues experienced in the air in ground-based si...
equipment, actions, and event coordination. This is a process that not only takes a great deal of time, but also one that requires the pro- grammer to have...within the gaming industry. Professor Stavros Vassos states that behavior trees provide “separation between the work of the pro- grammer and the game
Hueting, T.F.; Rypkema, J.A.
The present research was conducted as part of the Early Research Program Human Enhancement in the domain of Adaptive Maritime Automation, which strives to develop knowledge regarding the support of operators based on adaptively automated systems. To apply the developed knowledge about adaptive
Full Text Available Las redes en circuito integrado (NoC representan un importante paradigma de uso creciente para los sistemas multiprocesador en circuito integrado (MPSoC, debido a su flexibilidad y escalabilidad. Las estrategias de tolerancia a fallos han venido adquiriendo importancia, a medida que los procesos de manufactura incursionan en dimensiones por debajo del micrómetro y la complejidad de los diseños aumenta. Este artículo describe un algoritmo de aprendizaje incremental basado en población (PBIL, orientado a optimizar el proceso de mapeo en tiempo de diseño, así como a encontrar soluciones de mapeo óptimas en tiempo de ejecución, para hacer frente a fallos de único nodo en la red. En ambos casos, los objetivos de optimización corresponden al tiempo de ejecución de las aplicaciones y al ancho de banda pico que aparece en la red. Las simulaciones se basaron en un algoritmo de ruteo XY determinístico, operando sobre una topología de malla 2D para la NoC. Los resultados obtenidos son prometedores. El algoritmo propuesto exhibe un desempeño superior a otras técnicas reportadas cuando el tamaño del problema aumenta.
Greef, T. de
This dissertation promotes a focus shift from automation extending human capabilities to automation partnering with the human. Highly automated systems tend to be incompatible with humans, leading to degradations in performance that may lead to serious problems in high-risk professional domains,
Small, D.E.; McDonald, M.J.
With a goal of producing faster, safer, and cheaper technologies for nuclear waste cleanup, Sandia is actively developing and extending intelligent systems technologies. Graphical Programming is a key technology for robotic waste cleanup that Sandia is developing for this goal. This paper describes Sancho, Sandia most advanced Graphical Programming supervisory software. Sancho, now operational on several robot systems, incorporates all of Sandia's recent advances in supervisory control. Sancho, developed to rapidly apply Graphical Programming on a diverse set of robot systems, uses a general set of tools to implement task and operational behavior. Sancho can be rapidly reconfigured for new tasks and operations without modifying the supervisory code. Other innovations include task-based interfaces, event-based sequencing, and sophisticated GUI design. These innovations have resulted in robot control programs and approaches that are easier and safer to use than teleoperation, off-line programming, or full automation
De, K; Golubkov, D; Klimentov, A; Potekhin, M; Vaniachine, A
This document describes the design of the new Production System of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC . The Production System is the top level workflow manager which translates physicists' needs for production level processing and analysis into actual workflows executed across over a hundred Grid sites used globally by ATLAS. As the production workload increased in volume and complexity in recent years (the ATLAS production tasks count is above one million, with each task containing hundreds or thousands of jobs) there is a need to upgrade the Production System to meet the challenging requirements of the next LHC run while minimizing the operating costs. In the new design, the main subsystems are the Database Engine for Tasks (DEFT) and the Job Execution and Definition Interface (JEDI). Based on users' requests, DEFT manages inter-dependent groups of tasks (Meta-Tasks) and generates corresponding data processing workflows. The JEDI component then dynamically translates the task definitions from DEFT into actual workload jobs executed in the PanDA Workload Management System . We present the requirements, design parameters, basics of the object model and concrete solutions utilized in building the new Production System and its components.
Full Text Available This study addresses force/movement control in a dynamic "hybrid" task: the master sub-task is continuous manual tracking of a target moving along an eight-shaped Lissajous figure, with the tracking error as the primary performance index; the slave sub-task is compensation of a disturbing curl viscous field, compatibly with the primary performance index. The two sub-tasks are correlated because the lateral force the subject must exert on the eight-shape must be proportional to the longitudinal movement speed in order to perform a good tracking. The results confirm that visuo-manual tracking is characterized by an intermittent control mechanism, in agreement with previous work; the novel finding is that the overall control patterns are not altered by the presence of a large deviating force field, if compared with the undisturbed condition. It is also found that the control of interaction-forces is achieved by a combination of arm stiffness properties and direct force control, as suggested by the systematic lateral deviation of the trajectories from the nominal path and the comparison between perturbed trials and catch trials. The coordination of the two sub-tasks is quickly learnt after the activation of the deviating force field and is achieved by a combination of force and the stiffness components (about 80% vs. 20%, which is a function of the implicit accuracy of the tracking task.
Hammell, Cecilia; Chan, Amy Y C
Counterfactual thinking (reflecting on "what might have been") has been shown to enhance future performance by translating information about past mistakes into plans for future action. Prefactual thinking (imagining "what might be if…") may serve a greater preparative function than counterfactual thinking as it is future-orientated and focuses on more controllable features, thus providing a practical script to prime future behaviour. However, whether or not this difference in hypothetical thought content may translate into a difference in actual task performance has been largely unexamined. In Experiment 1 (n = 42), participants performed trials of a computer-simulated physical task, in between which they engaged in either task-related hypothetical thinking (counterfactual or prefactual) or an unrelated filler task (control). As hypothesised, prefactuals contained more controllable features than counterfactuals. Moreover, participants who engaged in either form of hypothetical thinking improved significantly in task performance over trials compared to participants in the control group. The difference in thought content between counterfactuals and prefactuals, however, did not yield a significant difference in performance improvement. Experiment 2 (n = 42) replicated these findings in a dynamic balance task environment. Together, these findings provide further evidence for the preparatory function of counterfactuals, and demonstrate that prefactuals share this same functional characteristic.
Lim, Hayoung A; Watson, Angela L
Music is widely recognized as a motivating stimulus. Investigators have examined the use of music to improve a variety of motivation-related outcomes; however, these studies have focused primarily on passive music listening rather than active participation in musical activities. To examine the influence of participation in musical tasks and unique participant characteristics on energetic arousal. We used a one-way Welch's ANOVA to examine the influence of musical participation (i.e., a non-musical control and four different musical task conditions) upon energetic arousal. In addition, ancillary analyses of participant characteristics including personality, age, gender, sleep, musical training, caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol revealed their possible influence upon pretest and posttest energetic arousal scores. Musical participation yielded a significant relationship with energetic arousal, F(4, 55.62) = 44.38, p = .000, estimated ω2 = 0.60. Games-Howell post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed statistically significant differences between five conditions. Descriptive statistics revealed expected differences between introverts' and extraverts' energetic arousal scores at the pretest, F(1, 115) = 6.80, p = .010, partial η2= .06; however, mean differences failed to reach significance at the posttest following musical task participation. No other measured participant characteristics yielded meaningful results. Passive tasks (i.e., listening to a story or song) were related to decreased energetic arousal, while active musical tasks (i.e., singing, rhythm tapping, and keyboard playing) were related to increased energetic arousal. Musical task participation appeared to have a differential effect for individuals with certain personality traits (i.e., extroverts and introverts).
Giebel, Gregor; Cline, Joel; Frank, Helmut; Shaw, Will; Pinson, Pierre; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Kariniotakis, Georges; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Draxl, Caroline
Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Wind Power Forecasting tries to organise international collaboration, among national weather centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, UK MetOffice, …) and operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets for verification. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts aiming at industry and forecasters alike. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions, especially probabilistic ones. The Operating Agent is Gregor Giebel of DTU, Co-Operating Agent is Joel Cline of the US Department of Energy. Collaboration in the task is solicited from everyone interested in the forecasting business. We will collaborate with IEA Task 31 Wakebench, which developed the Windbench benchmarking platform, which this task will use for forecasting benchmarks. The task runs for three years, 2016-2018. Main deliverables are an up-to-date list of current projects and main project results, including datasets which can be used by researchers around the world to improve their own models, an IEA Recommended Practice on performance evaluation of probabilistic forecasts, a position paper regarding the use of probabilistic forecasts
Nielsen, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Mathiesen, Birgit Bork
were confronted with complicated jobs, e.g., group, internal and interdisciplinary supervision, but were not prepared, i.e. trained, prior to these tasks. These findings imply that more training is needed for novice supervisors. Preferably, this training should be introduced before, or at least...... Questionnaire covering a wide range of items on professional development, experience, and practice. In this paper we focus on background data (experience, training and practice), specifically the tasks and training of the respondents as novice supervisors. The results show, that a majority of novice supervisors...
Zhang, Yu; Yeung, Dit-Yan
Multi-task learning is a learning paradigm which seeks to improve the generalization performance of a learning task with the help of some other related tasks. In this paper, we propose a regularization formulation for learning the relationships between tasks in multi-task learning. This formulation can be viewed as a novel generalization of the regularization framework for single-task learning. Besides modeling positive task correlation, our method, called multi-task relationship learning (MT...
Rubin, Orit; Meiran, Nachshon
Poorer performance in conditions involving task repetition within blocks of mixed tasks relative to task repetition within blocks of single task is called mixing cost (MC). In 2 experiments exploring 2 hypotheses regarding the origins of MC, participants either switched between cued shape and color tasks, or they performed them as single tasks.…
Wirzberger, Maria; Esmaeili Bijarsari, Shirin; Rey, Günter Daniel
Cognitive processes related to schema acquisition comprise an essential source of demands in learning situations. Since the related amount of cognitive load is supposed to change over time, plausible temporal models of load progression based on different theoretical backgrounds are inspected in this study. A total of 116 student participants completed a basal symbol sequence learning task, which provided insights into underlying cognitive dynamics. Two levels of task complexity were determined by the amount of elements within the symbol sequence. In addition, interruptions due to an embedded secondary task occurred at five predefined stages over the task. Within the resulting 2x5-factorial mixed between-within design, the continuous monitoring of efficiency in learning performance enabled assumptions on relevant resource investment. From the obtained results, a nonlinear change of learning efficiency over time seems most plausible in terms of cognitive load progression. Moreover, different effects of the induced interruptions show up in conditions of task complexity, which indicate the activation of distinct cognitive mechanisms related to structural aspects of the task. Findings are discussed in the light of evidence from research on memory and information processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The present rapid development if advanced information technology and its use for support of operators of complex technical systems are changing the content of task analysis towards the analysis of mental activities in decision making. Automation removes the humans from routine tasks, and operators are left with disturbance control and critical diagnostic tasks, for which computers are suitable for support, if it is possible to match the computer strategies and interface formats dynamically to the requirements of the current task by means of an analysis of the cognitive task. Such a cognitive task analysis will not aim at a description of the information processes suited for particular control situations. It will rather aim at an analysis in order to identify the requirements to be considered along various dimensions of the decision tasks, in order to give the user - i.e. a decision maker - the freedom to adapt his performance to system requirements in a way which matches his process resources and subjective preferences. To serve this purpose, a number of analyses at various levels are needed to relate the control requirements of the system to the information processes and to the processing resources offered by computers and humans. The paper discusses the cognitive task analysis in terms of the following domains: The problem domain, which is a representation of the functional properties of the system giving a consistent framework for identification of the control requirements of the system; the decision sequences required for typical situations; the mental strategies and heuristics which are effective and acceptable for the different decision functions; and the cognitive control mechanisms used, depending upon the level of skill which can/will be applied. Finally, the end-users' criteria for choice of mental strategies in the actual situation are considered, and the need for development of criteria for judging the ultimate user acceptance of computer support is
performance, and pilot data suggest that the task can distinguish between cognitive processes that are impaired by sleep deprivation and those that are...0247 Background Accomplishments Validation studies Modeling Other publications Table of Contents Pilot study: Effects of sleep deprivation ...Altmann, Hambrick, & Fenn) to assess individual differences in susceptibility to effects of sleep deprivation . Finally but importantly, we found
Lauesen, Søren; Kuhail, Mohammad Amin
project: Acquire a new system to support a hotline. Among the 15 replies, eight used traditional use cases that specified a dialog between user and system. Seven used a related technique, task description, which specified the customer’s needs without specifying a dialog. It also allowed the analyst...
Daro, Phil; Burkhardt, Hugh
We propose the development of a "population" of high-quality assessment tasks that cover the performance goals set out in the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics." The population will be published. Tests are drawn from this population as a structured random sample guided by a "balancing algorithm."
Holmes, C. P.; Kinter, J. L.; Beebe, R. F.; Feigelson, E.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Mentzel, C.; Smith, G.; Tino, C.; Walker, R. J.
Two years ago NASA established the Ad Hoc Big Data Task Force (BDTF - https://science.nasa.gov/science-committee/subcommittees/big-data-task-force), an advisory working group with the NASA Advisory Council system. The scope of the Task Force included all NASA Big Data programs, projects, missions, and activities. The Task Force focused on such topics as exploring the existing and planned evolution of NASA's science data cyber-infrastructure that supports broad access to data repositories for NASA Science Mission Directorate missions; best practices within NASA, other Federal agencies, private industry and research institutions; and Federal initiatives related to big data and data access. The BDTF has completed its two-year term and produced several recommendations plus four white papers for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. This presentation will discuss the activities and results of the TF including summaries of key points from its focused study topics. The paper serves as an introduction to the papers following in this ESSI session.
Taylor, for example, referred to task analysis in his work on scientific management (65). In the same time frame, the Gilbreths developed the first...ciation, Washington, D. C., 1965. 21. Gilbreth , F. B. Bricklaying System, M. C. Clark, New York, 1909. -42- REFERENCES (Continued) 22. Gilbreth , F
van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Verleger, Rolf
A visual Simon task was used to study the influence of aging on visuospatial attention and inhibitory control processes. Responses were much slower for elderly than for young participants. The delay in trials in which stimulus and response side did not correspond as compared to when they did
Lauesen, Søren; Kuhail, Mohammad Amin
to specify require-ments for the same project: Acquire a new system to support a hotline. [Princi-pal ideas/results] Among the 15 replies, eight used traditional use cases that specified a dialog between users and system. Seven used a related technique, task description, which specified the customer's needs...
Cooperative multi-robot systems require planning and adaptive capabilities in order to perform cooperative manipulation tasks in dynamic or unstructured environments. Since these capabilities are inherent to humans, it is suitable to consider human-multi-robot teleoperation for cooperative...... manipulation where one human commands a multi-robot system. In this paper, a teleoperated multi-robot system is considered as a redundant system in the task space. A dynamic redundancy resolution control approach is performed in the task space to decouple two subtasks: object manipulation and grasp maintenance...
Full Text Available Robot learning from demonstration is a method which enables robots to learn in a similar way as humans. In this paper, a framework that enables robots to learn from multiple human demonstrations via kinesthetic teaching is presented. The subject of learning is a high-level sequence of actions, as well as the low-level trajectories necessary to be followed by the robot to perform the object manipulation task. The multiple human demonstrations are recorded and only the most similar demonstrations are selected for robot learning. The high-level learning module identifies the sequence of actions of the demonstrated task. Using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM, the model of demonstrated trajectories is learned. The learned trajectory is generated by Gaussian mixture regression (GMR from the learned Gaussian mixture model. In online working phase, the sequence of actions is identified and experimental results show that the robot performs the learned task successfully.
Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.
The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are ...
pronunciation and use of common phrases of the local dialect likely to be of utility during the KLE. Rehearse mission with KLE team. Coordinate...lesson. Evaluate the ability of HN students to perform tasks to standard. Identify deficiencies in HN student performance and correct errors during...to include work schedules, mail, and other required support for mission. Coordinate for the translation of all necessary documents from English to
Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.
The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants’ perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation – high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking – reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control - low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity - tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity. PMID:23372720
Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.
These task analyses are designed to be used in combination with the "Trade and Industrial Education Service Area Resource" in order to implement competency-based education in the cosmetology program in Virginia. The task analysis document contains the task inventory, suggested task sequence lists, and content outlines for the secondary…
Aßfalg, André; Currie, Devon; Bernstein, Daniel M
Tasks that precede a recognition probe induce a more liberal response criterion than do probes without tasks-the "revelation effect." For example, participants are more likely to claim that a stimulus is familiar directly after solving an anagram, relative to a condition without an anagram. Revelation effect hypotheses disagree whether hard preceding tasks should produce a larger revelation effect than easy preceding tasks. Although some studies have shown that hard tasks increase the revelation effect as compared to easy tasks, these studies suffered from a confound of task difficulty and task presence. Conversely, other studies have shown that the revelation effect is independent of task difficulty. In the present study, we used new task difficulty manipulations to test whether hard tasks produce larger revelation effects than easy tasks. Participants (N = 464) completed hard or easy preceding tasks, including anagrams (Exps. 1 and 2) and the typing of specific arrow key sequences (Exps. 3-6). With sample sizes typical of revelation effect experiments, the effect sizes of task difficulty on the revelation effect varied considerably across experiments. Despite this variability, a consistent data pattern emerged: Hard tasks produced larger revelation effects than easy tasks. Although the present study falsifies certain revelation effect hypotheses, the general vagueness of revelation effect hypotheses remains.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occasional tasks. 541.707 Section 541.707 Labor Regulations... Definitions and Miscellaneous Provisions § 541.707 Occasional tasks. Occasional, infrequently recurring tasks... to a nonexempt employee; whether the exempt employee performs the task frequently or occasionally...
Chen, Chen; Qin, Zheng; Xing, Jian-Kuan
In the battlefield, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) needs to assign tasks dynamically by using the radar tracking information, but when the poor weather comes, or UAV enters blind area, the radar cannot gather the accurate information which severely impair the assignment result. A new task assignment prediction method was proposed in this paper. We first predict the UAV information using UKF (Unscented Kalman Filter) algorithm, and then clear up the collision by auction algorithm. Finally, we assign the tasks. The results show that the algorithm performs better than greedy task assignment and consensus based auction algorithm.
Na, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, E. S.; Cho, S. B.; Kang, J. S.
This report describes task analysis methodology for advanced HSI designs. Task analyses was performed by using procedure-based hierarchical task analysis and task decomposition methods. The results from the task analysis were recorded in a database. Using the TA results, we developed static prototype of advanced HSI and human factors engineering verification and validation methods for an evaluation of the prototype. In addition to the procedure-based task analysis methods, workload estimation based on the analysis of task performance time and analyses for the design of information structure and interaction structures will be necessary
The principal research activities of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division relate to magnetic fusion plasma physics. In addition, there is a modest amount of work in closely related areas including space plasma physics, fluid dynamics, and dynamical systems. Members of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division maintain close contacts with fusion researchers in the US and abroad. Some of the work of the Division is clearly directed towards ITER and TPX, while other problems relate to the broader development of fusion plasma physics and to the support of other issues arising in the many experimental programs. Topics that are discussed in this report are as follows: application of sophisticated statistical techniques to tokamak data reduction, including time series analysis of TFTR fluctuation data and spline analysis of profile data; continuing development of edge plasma and divertor modelling, including initial ergodic divertor studies; analysis of energetic fusion products losses from TFTR plasmas; examination of anomalous transport in dynamical systems induced by chaotic-like Hamiltonian motion; numerical simulation of the development of singular MHD equilibria; exploration of the validity of moment expansions of kinetic equations for weakly collisional systems; studies of RF- and ripple-induced helium ash removal; ballooning mode studies in fluids and rotating stars; and studies in dynamical systems, including explosive instabilities, development of chaos, and motion of collisionless particles in a domain with overlapping islands.
Lourenço, Joana S.; Hill, Johnathan H.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.
Previous research suggests that when intentions are encoded, participants establish an attention allocation policy based on their metacognitive beliefs about how demanding it will be to fulfill the prospective memory (PM) task. We investigated whether tacit PM demands can influence judgments about the cognitive effort required for success, and, as a result, affect ongoing task interference and PM performance. Participants performed a lexical decision task in which a PM task of responding to animal words was embedded. PM demands were tacitly manipulated by presenting participants with either typical or atypical animal exemplars at both instructions and practice (low vs. high tacit demands, respectively). Crucially, objective PM task demands were the same for all participants as PM targets were always atypical animals. Tacit demands affected participants’ attention allocation policies such that task interference was greater for the high than low demands condition. Also, PM performance was reduced in the low relative to the high demands condition. Participants in the low demands condition who succeeded to the first target showed a subsequent increase in task interference, suggesting adjustment to the higher than expected demands. This study demonstrates that tacit information regarding the PM task can affect ongoing task processing as well as harm PM performance when actual demands are higher than expected. Furthermore, in line with the proposal that attention allocation is a dynamic and flexible process, we found evidence that PM task experience can trigger changes in ongoing task interference. PMID:25983687
Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Reyes-Rodriguez, Aaron
Mathematical tasks are crucial elements for teachers to orient, foster and assess students' processes to comprehend and develop mathematical knowledge. During the process of working and solving a task, searching for or discussing multiple solution paths becomes a powerful strategy for students to engage in mathematical thinking. A simple task that involves the construction of an equilateral triangle is used to present and discuss multiple solution approaches that rely on a variety of concepts and ways of reasoning. To this end, the use of a Dynamic Geometry System (GeoGebra) became instrumental in constructing and exploring dynamic models of the task. These model explorations provided a means to generate novel mathematical results.
Corrigan, Benjamin W; Gulli, Roberto A; Doucet, Guillaume; Martinez-Trujillo, Julio C
Virtual environments (VE) allow testing complex behaviors in naturalistic settings by combining highly controlled visual stimuli with spatial navigation and other cognitive tasks. They also allow for the recording of eye movements using high-precision eye tracking techniques, which is important in electrophysiological studies examining the response properties of neurons in visual areas of nonhuman primates. However, during virtual navigation, the pattern of retinal stimulation can be highly dynamic which may influence eye movements. Here we examine whether and how eye movement patterns change as a function of dynamic visual stimulation during virtual navigation tasks, relative to standard oculomotor tasks. We trained two rhesus macaques to use a joystick to navigate in a VE to complete two tasks. To contrast VE behavior with classic measurements, the monkeys also performed a simple Cued Saccade task. We used a robust algorithm for rapid classification of saccades, fixations, and smooth pursuits. We then analyzed the kinematics of saccades during all tasks, and specifically during different phases of the VE tasks. We found that fixation to smooth pursuit ratios were smaller in VE tasks (4:5) compared to the Cued Saccade task (7:1), reflecting a more intensive use of smooth pursuit to foveate targets in VE than in a standard visually guided saccade task or during spontaneous fixations. Saccades made to rewarded targets (exploitation) tended to have increased peak velocities compared to saccades made to unrewarded objects (exploration). VE exploitation saccades were 6% slower than saccades to discrete targets in the Cued Saccade task. Virtual environments represent a technological advance in experimental design for nonhuman primates. Here we provide a framework to study the ways that eye movements change between and within static and dynamic displays.
Kim, YouJin; Taguchi, Naoko
Previous task complexity studies have suggested that learners produce more negotiation of meaning opportunities during complex tasks than simple tasks (Robinson, 2011). The present study builds on the existing task complexity literature by examining the impact of task complexity and pragmatic situational demands on the number of learning…
Romain, Blandine; Letort, Véronique; Lucidarme, Olivier; Rouet, Laurence; Dalché-Buc, Florence
Today's follow-up of patients presenting abdominal tumors is generally performed through acquisition of dynamic sequences of contrast-enhanced CT. Estimating parameters of appropriate models of contrast intake diffusion through tissues should help characterizing the tumor physiology, but is impeded by the high level of noise inherent to the acquisition conditions. To improve the quality of estimation, we consider parameter estimation in voxels as a multi-task learning problem (one task per voxel) that takes advantage from the similarity between two tasks. We introduce a temporal similarity between tasks based on a robust distance between observed contrast-intake profiles of intensity. Using synthetic images, we compare multi-task learning using this temporal similarity, a spatial similarity and a single-task learning. The similarities based on temporal profiles are shown to bring significant improvements compared to the spatial one. Results on real CT sequences also confirm the relevance of the approach.
Larsen, Per; Karlsson, Sven; Madsen, Jan
Designers of embedded systems face tight constraints on resources, response time and cost. The ability to analyze embedded systems is essential to timely delivery of new designs. Many analysis techniques model parallel programs as task graphs. Task graphs capture the worst-case execution times...... of individual program tasks and the data dependencies among these. This paper introduces two compiler directives which let programmers annotate source code with data dependencies among tasks. Compiler analysis overapproximates the actual dependencies among tasks. The directives help eliminate potential data...... dependencies that do not occur at runtime. This lets tools compute more accurate task graphs from the annotated code. The correct use of the directives cannot be verified at compile time. Therefore, the check for correct use is done at runtime—not unlike dynamic array bounds checking in many languages...
Hart, S. G.; Shively, R. J.; Vidulich, M. A.; Miller, R. C.
The influence of stimulus modality and task difficulty on workload and performance was investigated. The goal was to quantify the cost (in terms of response time and experienced workload) incurred when essentially serial task components shared common elements (e.g., the response to one initiated the other) which could be accomplished in parallel. The experimental tasks were based on the Fittsberg paradigm; the solution to a SternBERG-type memory task determines which of two identical FITTS targets are acquired. Previous research suggested that such functionally integrated dual tasks are performed with substantially less workload and faster response times than would be predicted by suming single-task components when both are presented in the same stimulus modality (visual). The physical integration of task elements was varied (although their functional relationship remained the same) to determine whether dual-task facilitation would persist if task components were presented in different sensory modalities. Again, it was found that the cost of performing the two-stage task was considerably less than the sum of component single-task levels when both were presented visually. Less facilitation was found when task elements were presented in different sensory modalities. These results suggest the importance of distinguishing between concurrent tasks that complete for limited resources from those that beneficially share common resources when selecting the stimulus modalities for information displays.
Salo, Emma; Rinne, Teemu; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or “simple” (speaker-gender or font-shade) discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley's model “modality atypical,” that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks. PMID:25767443
Full Text Available We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or simple (speaker-gender or font-shade discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley’s model modality atypical, that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks.
Salo, Emma; Rinne, Teemu; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or "simple" (speaker-gender or font-shade) discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley's model "modality atypical," that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks.
Hess, Stephen M; MacMillan, Jean; Serfaty, Daniel; Elliott, Linda
... while maintaining others. This paper reports the results of a successful effort to create a synthetic task environment that captures key elements of a team task based on Cognitive Task Analysis of the important features...
Full Text Available This work deals with the development of a dynamic task assignment strategy for heterogeneous multi-robot teams in typical real world scenarios. The strategy must be efficiently scalable to support problems of increasing complexity with minimum designer intervention. To this end, we have selected a very simple auction-based strategy, which has been implemented and analysed in a multi-robot cleaning problem that requires strong coordination and dynamic complex subtask organization. We will show that the selection of a simple auction strategy provides a linear computational cost increase with the number of robots that make up the team and allows the solving of highly complex assignment problems in dynamic conditions by means of a hierarchical sub-auction policy. To coordinate and control the team, a layered behaviour-based architecture has been applied that allows the reusing of the auction-based strategy to achieve different coordination levels.
Mracek, Derek L; Arsenault, Matthew L; Day, Eric Anthony; Hardy, Jay H; Terry, Robert A
The aim of this laboratory experiment was to demonstrate how taking a longitudinal, multilevel approach can be used to examine the dynamic relationship between subjective workload and performance over a given period of activity involving shifts in task demand. Subjective workload and conditions of the performance environment are oftentimes examined via cross-sectional designs without distinguishing within-from between-person effects. Given the dynamic nature of performance phenomena, multilevel designs coupled with manipulations of task demand shifts are needed to better model the dynamic relationships between state and trait components of subjective workload and performance. With a sample of 75 college students and a computer game representing a complex decision-making environment, increases and decreases in task demand were counterbalanced and subjective workload and performance were measured concurrently in regular intervals within performance episodes. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Both between- and especially within-person effects were dynamic. Nevertheless, at both levels of analysis, higher subjective workload reflected performance problems, especially more downstream from increases in task demand. As a function of cognitive-energetic processes, shifts in task demand are associated with changes in how subjective workload is related to performance over a given period of activity. Multilevel, longitudinal approaches are useful for distinguishing and examining the dynamic relationships between state and trait components of subjective workload and performance. The findings of this research help to improve the understanding of how a sequence of demands can exceed a performer's capability to respond to further demands.
Smirmaul, B P; Dos Santos, R V; Da Silva Neto, L V
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-task music on swimming performance and other psychological variables. A randomized counterbalanced within-subjects (experimental and control condition) design was employed. Eighteen regional level male swimmers performed two 200-m freestyle swimming time trials. Participants were exposed to either 5 minutes of self-selected music (pre-task music condition) or 5 minutes of silence (control condition) and, after 1 minute, performed the swimming task. Swimming time was significantly shorter (-1.44%) in the pre-task music condition. Listening to pre-task music increased motivation to perform the swimming task, while arousal remained unchanged. While fatigue increased after the swimming task in both conditions, vigor, ratings of perceived exertion and affective valence were unaltered. It is concluded, for the first time, that pre-task music improves swimming performance.
Rousculp, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory
Task Order 10 formalizes a collaboration in high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) experiments between LANL and VNIIEF. The focus is the VNIIEF disk explosive magnetic generator (DEMG) technology. The task order outlines a sequence of tasks and deliverables culminating in an experiment which takes place in the US utilizing US explosives and a Russian DEMG. This talk summarizes task order 10. It gives a brief history and present status in terms of the proposed high pressure EOS experiment (ALT-3).
In this paper, we formulate object tracking in a particle filter framework as a structured multi-task sparse learning problem, which we denote as Structured Multi-Task Tracking (S-MTT). Since we model particles as linear combinations of dictionary templates that are updated dynamically, learning the representation of each particle is considered a single task in Multi-Task Tracking (MTT). By employing popular sparsity-inducing lp,q mixed norms (specifically p∈2,∞ and q=1), we regularize the representation problem to enforce joint sparsity and learn the particle representations together. As compared to previous methods that handle particles independently, our results demonstrate that mining the interdependencies between particles improves tracking performance and overall computational complexity. Interestingly, we show that the popular L1 tracker (Mei and Ling, IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intel 33(11):2259-2272, 2011) is a special case of our MTT formulation (denoted as the L11 tracker) when p=q=1. Under the MTT framework, some of the tasks (particle representations) are often more closely related and more likely to share common relevant covariates than other tasks. Therefore, we extend the MTT framework to take into account pairwise structural correlations between particles (e.g. spatial smoothness of representation) and denote the novel framework as S-MTT. The problem of learning the regularized sparse representation in MTT and S-MTT can be solved efficiently using an Accelerated Proximal Gradient (APG) method that yields a sequence of closed form updates. As such, S-MTT and MTT are computationally attractive. We test our proposed approach on challenging sequences involving heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Experimental results show that S-MTT is much better than MTT, and both methods consistently outperform state-of-the-art trackers. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Lambert, Craig; Kormos, Judit; Minn, Danny
This study examines the relationship between the repetition of oral monologue tasks and immediate gains in L2 fluency. It considers the effect of aural-oral task repetition on speech rate, frequency of clause-final and midclause filled pauses, and overt self-repairs across different task types and proficiency levels and relates these findings to…
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Task forces. 701.58... Headquarters Organization § 701.58 Task forces. The Director with Council concurrence or the Council may establish task forces from time to time to aid in the preparation of issues for presentation to the Council...
This study took a pragmatic approach to examining the effects of task difficulty on L2 oral output. Twenty native English speakers and 59 Japanese students of English at two different proficiency levels produced speech acts of requests and refusals in a role play task. The task had two situation types based on three social variables:…
The concept of task has become central not only to an understanding of language learning per se, but also to the design and research of Online Intercultural Exchanges (OIEs). While research on the design of tasks in OIEs has been very productive, we still lack insights into how teachers develop competences in task design on the micro-level.…
A nucleus of multi-tasking operating systems has been implemented on a Motorola 6800 microprocessor. This control structure, called a Task Manager, is appropriate for those real-time systems which are required to handle several different asynchronous events. The general concept of a Task Manager is described. A specific implementation for a Motorola 6800 microprocessor is given and its usage defined
Sadnicka, Anna; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Parees, Isabel; Meppelink, Anne; Butler, Katherine; Edwards, Mark
Task-specific dystonia is a form of isolated focal dystonia with the peculiarity of being displayed only during performance of a specific skilled motor task. This distinctive feature makes task-specific dystonia a particularly mysterious and fascinating neurological condition. In this review, we
Full Text Available Different methods of language teaching have tried to help EFL learners to develop good language skills based on their various perspectives. Research findings have underscored the effect of using task types in promoting language skills in terms of accuracy in written discourse. Therefore, this study set out to investigate whether there is an evidence of correct use of simple past tense (Accuracy based on Task Complexity (Task type :Here-and now & There-and-then,Task Conditions (Gender: Male & Female, and Task Difficulty (Proficiency: Lower-intermediate & Intermediate. Sixty Iranian English learners in a language institute participated in the study and were assigned to four groups of lower-intermediate male, lower-intermediate female, intermediate male and intermediate female. Initial homogeneity of the groups was verified using two general proficiency tests; KET for lower-intermediate and PET for intermediate. All groups in here-and-now task type were asked to write a story using simple past based on a picture strip while for there-and-then task type the participants were supposed to write about their last birthday. The results from paired samples t-test, independent samples t-test and two-way ANOVA analysis of the written data revealed significant differences in performing task types, at different proficiency levels and interaction between them. The findings have significant pedagogical implications for EFL learners to understand the relationship among Task Complexity,Task Conditions, Task Difficulty and L2 written production leading to various degrees of Accuracy.
Aggarwal, Rachel; Smidts, Carol
This paper studies the task allocation algorithm for a distributed test facility (DTF), which aims to assemble geo-distributed cyber (software) and physical (hardware in the loop components into a prototype cyber-physical system (CPS). This allows low cost testing on an early conceptual prototype (ECP) of the ultimate CPS (UCPS) to be developed. The DTF provides an instrumentation interface for carrying out reliability experiments remotely such as fault propagation analysis and in-situ testing of hardware and software components in a simulated environment. Unfortunately, the geo-distribution introduces an overhead that is not inherent to the UCPS, i.e. a significant time delay in communication that threatens the stability of the ECP and is not an appropriate representation of the behavior of the UCPS. This can be mitigated by implementing a task allocation algorithm to find a suitable configuration and assign the software components to appropriate computational locations, dynamically. This would allow the ECP to operate more efficiently with less probability of being unstable due to the delays introduced by geo-distribution. The task allocation algorithm proposed in this work uses a Monte Carlo approach along with Dynamic Programming to identify the optimal network configuration to keep the time delays to a minimum.
Schubert, Torsten; Liepelt, Roman; Kübler, Sebastian; Strobach, Tilo
Recent research has demonstrated that dual-task performance with two simultaneously presented tasks can be substantially improved as a result of practice. Among other mechanisms, theories of dual-task practice-relate this improvement to the acquisition of task coordination skills. These skills are assumed (1) to result from dual-task practice, but not from single-task practice, and (2) to be independent from the specific stimulus and response mappings during the practice situation and, therefore, transferable to new dual task situations. The present study is the first that provides an elaborated test of these assumptions in a context with well-controllable practice and transfer situations. To this end, we compared the effects of dual-task and single-task practice with a visual and an auditory sensory-motor component task on the dual-task performance in a subsequent transfer session. Importantly, stimulus and stimulus-response mapping conditions in the two component tasks changed repeatedly during practice sessions, which prevents that automatized stimulus-response associations may be transferred from practice to transfer. Dual-task performance was found to be improved after practice with the dual tasks in contrast to the single-task practice. These findings are consistent with the assumption that coordination skills had been acquired, which can be transferred to other dual-task situations independently on the specific stimulus and response mapping conditions of the practiced component tasks. PMID:28659844
Benikos, Nicholas; Johnstone, Stuart J; Roodenrys, Steven J
Similar to other executive functions, inhibitory control is thought to be a dynamic process that can be influenced by variations in task difficulty. However, little is known about how different task parameters alter inhibitory performance and processing as a task becomes more difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of varying task difficulty, via manipulation of reaction time deadline (RTD), on measures of inhibitory control, perceived effort, and task-related arousal (indexed by skin conductance level). Sixty adults completed a visual Go/Nogo task (70% Go) after being randomly assigned to one of three task difficulty conditions: High, Medium and Low, with RTDs of 300, 500 or 1000 ms, respectively. Results revealed incremental increases in Go/Nogo errors and greater perceived effort with increasing difficulty. No condition differences were found for arousal, but the amplitude of the Nogo N2 increased and peaked earlier with increasing task difficulty. In contrast, the Nogo P3 effect was reduced in the High condition compared to the Low and Medium conditions. Finally, the amplitude of N1 and P2 showed differential effects, with Nogo N1 increasing with task difficulty, while the Nogo P2 decreased. This study provides valuable baseline behavioural and ERP data for appropriately manipulating difficulty (via RTD) in Go/Nogo tasks - highlighting the potential key role of not only the N2 and P3, but also the N1 and P2 components for task performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Multiprocessor systems on chips (MPSoCs are envisioned as the future of embedded platforms such as game-engines, smart-phones and palmtop computers. One of the main challenge preventing the widespread diffusion of these systems is the efficient mapping of multitask multimedia applications on processing elements. Dynamic solutions based on task migration has been recently explored to perform run-time reallocation of task to maximize performance and optimize energy consumption. Even if task migration can provide high flexibility, its overhead must be carefully evaluated when applied to soft real-time applications. In fact, these applications impose deadlines that may be missed during the migration process. In this paper we first present a middleware infrastructure supporting dynamic task allocation for NUMA architectures. Then we perform an extensive characterization of its impact on multimedia soft real-time applications using a software FM Radio benchmark.
Full Text Available Multiprocessor systems on chips (MPSoCs are envisioned as the future of embedded platforms such as game-engines, smart-phones and palmtop computers. One of the main challenge preventing the widespread diffusion of these systems is the efficient mapping of multitask multimedia applications on processing elements. Dynamic solutions based on task migration has been recently explored to perform run-time reallocation of task to maximize performance and optimize energy consumption. Even if task migration can provide high flexibility, its overhead must be carefully evaluated when applied to soft real-time applications. In fact, these applications impose deadlines that may be missed during the migration process. In this paper we first present a middleware infrastructure supporting dynamic task allocation for NUMA architectures. Then we perform an extensive characterization of its impact on multimedia soft real-time applications using a software FM Radio benchmark.
Full Text Available Abstract The tasks would fail to be assigned to any robots in the task allocation phase as a consequence of the inherent communication constraints in multi-robot systems (MRS. This negative effect becomes even more serious in tasks with temporal constraints. We therefore propose the constraint-based approach (CoBA, a market-based task allocation approach to enable multi-robot coordination in domains with temporal constraints between subtasks of a complex task and network constraints between robots. We handle network constraints by having each robot maintain a dynamic acquaintance network of robots that it knows about, and allowing a robot to submit a bid on behalf of another robot during a task auction (“indirect bidding”. In order to model the complex task, we introduce the AND/OR task tree with temporal constraints. An auction-clearing routine, which supports the AND/OR task tree with temporal constraints and direct/indirect task auction, is proposed to enable effective multi-robot task allocation in spite of various constraints. The solution was validated in both simulation and physical environments by a series of experiments in disaster response domains. Specifically, we study the system performance by separately varying the number of robots, the expected rate of task issuance, the communication reliability factor, the compositions of MRS, as well as the acquaintance relationship parameter, in simulation experiments. The results suggest that our solution outperforms others, that is, robots were able to complete the tasks more promptly and effectively.
The National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently established a Task Group on Soil Contamination to describe and evaluate the migration pathways and modes of radiation exposure that can potentially arise due to radioactive contamination of soil. The purpose of this paper is to describe the scientific principles for evaluation of soil contamination which can be used as a basis for derivation of soil contamination limits for specific situations. This paper describes scenarios that can lead to soil contamination, important characteristics of soil contamination, the subsequent migration pathways and exposure modes, and the application of principles in the report in deriving soil contamination limits. The migration pathways and exposure modes discussed in this paper include: direct radiation exposure; and exhalation of gases
Teskey, Morgan L; Masson, Michael E J
Executing an action in response to a stimulus is thought to result in the creation of an event code that integrates stimulus and action features (Allport, 1987; Hommel in Visual Cognition 5: 183-216, 1998). When switching between tasks, competitor priming occurs if a distractor stimulus cues the retrieval of a previously established event code in which that distractor is bound to a competing task, creating a source of interference with the current task whereby the observer is encouraged to apply the competing task to the distractor. We propose a second aspect of competitor priming: the misapplication of the retrieved competing task to the target stimulus. We report two task-switching experiments in which tasks applied to picture-word compound stimuli were manipulated to create conditions in which this second aspect of competitor priming could be revealed and distinguished from other sources of task- and stimulus-based priming. A substantial increase in competitor priming was observed when subjects switched between tasks that required very different processing operations and the competing task was highly relevant to the target stimulus. These results are consistent with our claim that competitor priming can result from applying the competing task either to the distractor that cued it or to the target stimulus.
Daniel Fernando Tello Gamarra
Full Text Available We demonstrate an improved method for utilizing observed gaze behavior and show that it is useful in inferring hand movement intent during goal directed tasks. The task dynamics and the relationship between hand and gaze behavior are learned using an Abstract Hidden Markov Model (AHMM. We show that the predicted hand movement transitions occur consistently earlier in AHMM models with gaze than those models that do not include gaze observations.
With increased volume and sophistication of cyber attacks in recent years, maintaining situation awareness and effective task-prioritization strategy is critical to the task of cybersecurity analysts. However, high levels of mental-workload associated with the task of cybersecurity analyst's limits their ability to prioritize tasks.…
Forrest, Charlotte L. D.; Monsell, Stephen; McLaren, Ian P. L.
Task-cuing experiments are usually intended to explore control of task set. But when small stimulus sets are used, they plausibly afford learning of the response associated with a combination of cue and stimulus, without reference to tasks. In 3 experiments we presented the typical trials of a task-cuing experiment: a cue (colored shape) followed,…
In research on task-based learning and teaching, it has traditionally been assumed that differing degrees of cognitive task complexity can be inferred through task design and/or observations of differing qualities in linguistic production elicited by second language (L2) communication tasks. Without validating this assumption, however, it is…
Full Text Available Multi-robot task allocation (MRTA is an important area of research in autonomous multi-robot systems. The main problem in MRTA is to allocate a set of tasks to a set of robots so that the tasks can be completed by the robots while ensuring that a certain metric, such as the time required to complete all tasks, or the distance traveled, or the energy expended by the robots is reduced. We consider a scenario where tasks can appear dynamically and a task needs to be performed by multiple robots to be completed. We propose a new algorithm called SQ-MRTA (Spatial Queueing-MRTA that uses a spatial queue-based model to allocate tasks between robots in a distributed manner. We have implemented the SQ-MRTA algorithm on accurately simulated models of Corobot robots within the Webots simulator for different numbers of robots and tasks and compared its performance with other state-of-the-art MRTA algorithms. Our results show that the SQ-MRTA algorithm is able to scale up with the number of tasks and robots in the environment, and it either outperforms or performs comparably with respect to other distributed MRTA algorithms.
Xie, Zhiqiang; Shao, Xia; Xin, Yu
To solve the problem of task scheduling in the cloud computing system, this paper proposes a scheduling algorithm for cloud computing based on the driver of dynamic essential path (DDEP). This algorithm applies a predecessor-task layer priority strategy to solve the problem of constraint relations among task nodes. The strategy assigns different priority values to every task node based on the scheduling order of task node as affected by the constraint relations among task nodes, and the task node list is generated by the different priority value. To address the scheduling order problem in which task nodes have the same priority value, the dynamic essential long path strategy is proposed. This strategy computes the dynamic essential path of the pre-scheduling task nodes based on the actual computation cost and communication cost of task node in the scheduling process. The task node that has the longest dynamic essential path is scheduled first as the completion time of task graph is indirectly influenced by the finishing time of task nodes in the longest dynamic essential path. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed algorithm via simulation experiments using Matlab tools. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce the task Makespan in most cases and meet a high quality performance objective.
Baumeister, Antonia E.; Engelmann, Tanja; Hesse, Friedrich W.
This experimental study extends conflict elaboration theory (1) by revealing social influence dynamics for a knowledge-rich computer-supported socio-cognitive conflict task not investigated in the context of this theory before and (2) by showing the impact of individual differences in social comparison orientation. Students in two conditions…
Full Text Available Task graph scheduling for reconfigurable hardware devices can be defined as finding a schedule for a set of periodic tasks with precedence, dependence, and deadline constraints as well as their optimal allocations on the available heterogeneous hardware resources. This paper proposes a new methodology comprising three main stages. Using these three main stages, dynamic partial reconfiguration and mixed integer programming, pipelined scheduling and efficient placement are achieved and enable parallel computing of the task graph on the reconfigurable devices by optimizing placement/scheduling quality. Experiments on an application of heterogeneous hardware tasks demonstrate an improvement of resource utilization of 12.45% of the available reconfigurable resources corresponding to a resource gain of 17.3% compared to a static design. The configuration overhead is reduced to 2% of the total running time. Due to pipelined scheduling, the task graph spanning is minimized by 4% compared to sequential execution of the graph.
Khalid, S.; Alam, A.
Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVEs) falls under Virtual Reality (VR) where two or more users manipulate objects collaboratively. In this paper we have made some experiments to make assembly from constituents parts scattered in Virtual Environment (VE) based on task distribution model using assistance functions for checking and enhancing user performance. The CVEs subjects setting on distinct connected machines via local area network. In this perspective, we consider the effects of assistance function with oral communication on collaboration, co-presence and users performance. Twenty subjects performed collaboratively an assembly task on static and dynamic based task distribution. We examine the degree of influence of assistance function with oral communications on user's performance based on task distribution model. The results show that assistance functions with oral communication based on task distribution model not only increase user performance but also enhance the sense of copresence and awareness. (author)
Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.
Pitta-Pantazi, Demetra; Christou, Constantinos
This paper reports the outcomes of an empirical study undertaken to investigate the effect of students' cognitive styles on achievement in measurement tasks in a dynamic geometry learning environment, and to explore the ability of dynamic geometry learning in accommodating different cognitive styles and enhancing students' learning. A total of 49…
Menant, Jasmine C; Sturnieks, Daina L; Brodie, Matthew A D; Smith, Stuart T; Lord, Stephen R
Previous research has shown that visuospatial processing requiring working memory is particularly important for balance control during standing and stepping, and that limited spatial encoding contributes to increased interference in postural control dual tasks. However, visuospatial involvement during locomotion has not been directly determined. This study examined the effects of a visuospatial cognitive task versus a nonspatial cognitive task on gait speed, smoothness and variability in older people, while controlling for task difficulty. Thirty-six people aged ≥75 years performed three walking trials along a 20 m walkway under the following conditions: (i) an easy nonspatial task; (ii) a difficult nonspatial task; (iii) an easy visuospatial task; and (iv) a difficult visuospatial task. Gait parameters were computed from a tri-axial accelerometer attached to the sacrum. The cognitive task response times and percentage of correct answers during walking and seated trials were also computed. No significant differences in either cognitive task type error rates or response times were evident in the seated conditions, indicating equivalent task difficulty. In the walking trials, participants responded faster to the visuospatial tasks than the nonspatial tasks but at the cost of making significantly more cognitive task errors. Participants also walked slower, took shorter steps, had greater step time variability and less smooth pelvis accelerations when concurrently performing the visuospatial tasks compared with the nonspatial tasks and when performing the difficult compared with the easy cognitive tasks. Compared with nonspatial cognitive tasks, visuospatial cognitive tasks led to a slower, more variable and less smooth gait pattern. These findings suggest that visuospatial processing might share common networks with locomotor control, further supporting the hypothesis that gait changes during dual task paradigms are not simply due to limited attentional resources
Touryan, Jon; Lance, Brent J; Kerick, Scott E; Ries, Anthony J; McDowell, Kaleb
In this study we explored the potential for capturing the behavioral dynamics observed in real-world tasks from concurrent measures of EEG. In doing so, we sought to develop models of behavior that would enable the identification of common cross-participant and cross-task EEG features. To accomplish this we had participants perform both simulated driving and guard duty tasks while we recorded their EEG. For each participant we developed models to estimate their behavioral performance during both tasks. Sequential forward floating selection was used to identify the montage of independent components for each model. Linear regression was then used on the combined power spectra from these independent components to generate a continuous estimate of behavior. Our results show that oscillatory processes, evidenced in EEG, can be used to successfully capture slow fluctuations in behavior in complex, multi-faceted tasks. The average correlation coefficients between the actual and estimated behavior was 0.548 ± 0.117 and 0.701 ± 0.154 for the driving and guard duty tasks respectively. Interestingly, through a simple clustering approach we were able to identify a number of common components, both neural and eye-movement related, across participants and tasks. We used these component clusters to quantify the relative influence of common versus participant-specific features in the models of behavior. These findings illustrate the potential for estimating complex behavioral dynamics from concurrent measures from EEG using a finite library of universal features. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Laumann, Karin; Braarud, Per Oeivind; Svengren, Haakan
The purpose of this experiment was to explore how additional tasks added to base case scenarios affected the operators' performance of the main tasks. These additional tasks were in different scenario variants intended to cause high time pressure, high information load, and high masking. The experiment was run in Halden Man-Machine Laboratory's BWR simulator. Seven crews participated, each for one week. There were three operators in each crew. Five main types of scenarios and 20 scenario variants were run. The data from the experiment were analysed by completion time for important actions and by in-depth qualitative analyses of the crews' communications. The results showed that high time pressure decreased some of the crews' performance in the scenarios. When a crew had problems in solving a task for which the time pressure was high, they had even more problems in solving other important tasks. High information load did not affect the operators' performance much and in general the crews were very good at selecting the most important tasks in the scenarios. The scenarios that included both high time pressure and high information load resulted in more reduced performance for the crews compared to the scenarios that only included high time pressure. The total amount of tasks to do and information load to attend to seemed to affect the crews' performance. To solve the scenarios with high time pressure well, it was important to have good communication and good allocation of tasks within the crew. Furthermore, the results showed that scenarios with an added complex, masked task created problems for some crews when solving a relatively simple main task. Overall, the results confirmed that complicating, but secondary tasks, that are not normally taken into account when modelling the primary tasks in a PRA scenario can adversely affect the performance of the main tasks modelled in the PRA scenario. (Author)
Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)
Yamada, Naoyuki; Chandrasekaran, B.; Bhatnager, R.
A knowledge-based system for operation guidance of nuclear power plants is proposed. The Dynamic Procedure Management System (DPMS) is designed and developed to assist human operators interactively by selecting and modifying predefined operation procedures in a dynamic situation. Unlike most operation guidance systems, DPMS has been built based on Generic Task Methodology, which makes the overall framework of the system perspicuous and also lets domain knowledge be represented in a natural way. This paper describes the organization of the system, the definition of each task, and the form and organization of knowledge, followed by an application example. (author)
Mitchell, Christine M.
An overview of activities concerned with the development and applications of the Operator Function Model (OFM) is presented. The OFM is a mathematical tool to represent operator interaction with predominantly automated space ground control systems. The design and assessment of an intelligent operator aid (OFMspert and Ally) is particularly discussed. The application of OFM to represent the task knowledge in the design of intelligent tutoring systems, designated OFMTutor and ITSSO (Intelligent Tutoring System for Satellite Operators), is also described. Viewgraphs from symposia presentations are compiled along with papers addressing the intent inferencing capabilities of OFMspert, the OFMTutor system, and an overview of intelligent tutoring systems and the implications for complex dynamic systems.
Full Text Available Pedophilic disorder, a subtype of paraphilia, is defined as a recurrent sexual interest in prepubescent children, which is characterized by persistent thoughts, fantasies, urges, sexual arousal or behavior. Besides a deviant sexual preference, sexual preoccupation was found to be a dynamic risk factor for reoffending. Thus, it is conceivable that sex offenders and especially sex offenders against children have difficulties to control their responses to sexual stimuli. In the current study pedophiles, forensic and non-forensic control subjects had to solve a cognitive task while sexual distractors were presented simultaneously. This kind of task also requires control functions. Therefore, data was analyzed with respect to attentional control while comparing eye movements towards sexual distractors and towards the cognitive task. We were mainly interested in how early (fixation latency and late (relative fixation time attentional processes were allocated to both, the cognitive target stimuli and the sexual distractors. Pedophiles demonstrated significantly lower attentional control in the sexual distractor task than both control groups (non-pedophiles. They showed a shorter fixation latency and longer fixation time for sexual distractors than non-pedophiles. Furthermore, pedophiles demonstrated a longer fixation latency and shorter fixation time for cognitive target stimuli. For classification analyses, an attention control index (ACI was built, i.e. the difference between eye movements on cognitive target stimuli and sexual distractors. For the ACI of early attentional processes, i.e. fixation latency, a good classification between pedophiles and non-pedophiles was found. We assumed that the measured attentional control represents inhibitory executive functions, specifically interference control. Further studies should examine if low attentional control in pedophiles is due to low motivation to solve the task or rather to a lack of ability to
Jordan, Kirsten; Fromberger, Peter; von Herder, Jakob; Steinkrauss, Henrike; Nemetschek, Rebekka; Witzel, Joachim; Müller, Jürgen L.
Pedophilic disorder, a subtype of paraphilia, is defined as a recurrent sexual interest in prepubescent children, which is characterized by persistent thoughts, fantasies, urges, sexual arousal, or behavior. Besides a deviant sexual preference, sexual preoccupation was found to be a dynamic risk factor for reoffending. Thus, it is conceivable that sex offenders and especially sex offenders against children have difficulties to control their responses to sexual stimuli. In the current study pedophiles, forensic and non-forensic control subjects had to solve a cognitive task, while sexual distractors were presented simultaneously. This kind of task also requires control functions. Therefore, data were analyzed with respect to attentional control while comparing eye movements toward sexual distractors and toward the cognitive task. We were mainly interested in how early (fixation latency) and late (relative fixation time) attentional processes were allocated to both, the cognitive target stimuli and the sexual distractors. Pedophiles demonstrated significantly lower attentional control in the sexual distractor task than both control groups (non-pedophiles). They showed a shorter fixation latency and longer fixation time for sexual distractors than non-pedophiles. Furthermore, pedophiles demonstrated a longer fixation latency and shorter fixation time for cognitive target stimuli. For classification analyses, an attentional control index (ACI) was built, i.e., the difference between eye movements on cognitive target stimuli and sexual distractors. For the ACI of early attentional processes, i.e., fixation latency, a good classification between pedophiles and non-pedophiles was found. We assumed that the measured attentional control represents inhibitory executive functions, specifically interference control. Further studies should examine if low attentional control in pedophiles is due to low motivation to solve the task or rather to a lack of ability to control
During the past few years the nuclear industry has become concerned with predicting human performance in nuclear power plants. One of the best means available at the present time to make sure that training, procedures, job performance aids and plant hardware match the capabilities and limitations of personnel is by performing a detailed analysis of the tasks required in each job position. The approved method for this type of analysis is referred to as job or task analysis. Job analysis is a broader type of analysis and is usually thought of in terms of establishing overall performance objectives, and in establishing a basis for position descriptions. Task analysis focuses on the building blocks of task performance, task elements, and places them within the context of specific performance requirements including time to perform, feedback required, special tools used, and required systems knowledge. The use of task analysis in the nuclear industry has included training validation, preliminary risk screening, and procedures development
Wrightson, J G; Smeeton, N J
During dual-task gait, changes in the stride-to-stride variability of stride time (STV) are suggested to represent the allocation of cognitive control to walking . However, contrasting effects have been reported for overground and treadmill walking, which may be due to differences in the relative difficulty of the dual task. Here we compared the effect of overground and treadmill dual-task walking on STV in 18 healthy adults. Participants walked overground and on a treadmill for 120s during single-task (walking only) and dual-task (walking whilst performing serial subtractions in sevens) conditions. Dual-task effects on STV, cognitive task (serial subtraction) performance and perceived task difficulty were compared between walking modalities. STV was increased during overground dual-task walking, but was unchanged during treadmill dual-task walking. There were no differences in cognitive task performance or perceived task difficulty. These results show that gait is controlled differently during overground and treadmill dual-task walking. However, these differences are not solely due to differences in task difficulty, and may instead represent modality dependent control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Janczyk, Markus; Nolden, Sophie; Jolicoeur, Pierre
Humans appear to act in response to environmental demands or to pursue self-chosen goals. In the laboratory, these situations are often investigated with forced- and free-choice tasks: in forced-choice tasks, a stimulus determines the one correct response, while in free-choice tasks the participants choose between response alternatives. We compared these two tasks regarding their susceptibility to dual-task interference when the concurrent task was always forced-choice. If, as was suggested in the literature, both tasks require different "action control systems," larger dual-task costs for free-choice tasks than for forced-choice tasks should emerge in our experiments, due to a time-costly switch between the systems. In addition, forced-choice tasks have been conceived as "prepared reflexes" for which all intentional processing is said to take place already prior to stimulus onset giving rise to automatic response initiation upon stimulus onset. We report three experiments with different implementations of the forced- vs. free-choice manipulation. In all experiments we replicated slower responses in the free- than in the forced-choice task and the typical dual-task costs. These latter costs, however, were equivalent for forced- and free-choice tasks. These results are easier to reconcile with the assumption of one unitary "action control system."
Theodore, Colin R.
This presentation will touch topics, including but not limited to, the objectives and challenges of flight dynamics and controls that deal with the pilot and the cockpit's technology, the flight dynamics and controls discipline tasks, and the full envelope of flight dynamics modeling. In addition, the LCTR 7x10-ft wind tunnel test will also be included along with the optimal trajectories for noise abatement and its investigations on handling quality. Furthermore, previous experiments and their complying results will also be discussed.
Asame, Hajime; Endo, Isao; Kotosaka, Shin-ya; Takata, Shozo; Hiraoka, Hiroyuki; Kohda, Takehisa; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Yamagishi, Kiichiro.
The adaptability evaluation of maintenance robots to autonomous plants has been discussed. In this paper, a new concept of autonomous plant with maintenance robots are introduced, and a framework of autonomous maintenance system is proposed. Then, task-oriented evaluation of robot arms is discussed for evaluating their adaptability to maintenance tasks, and a new criterion called operability is proposed for adaptability evaluation. The task-oriented evaluation system is implemented and applied to structural design of robot arms. Using genetic algorithm, an optimal structure adaptable to a pump disassembly task is obtained. (author)
Chilton, Lydia B.; Miller, Robert C.; Horton, John J.; Azenkot, Shiri
In order to understand how a labor market for human computation functions, it is important to know how workers search for tasks. This paper uses two complementary methods to gain insight into how workers search for tasks on Mechanical Turk. First, we perform a high frequency scrape of 36 pages of search results and analyze it by looking at the rate of disappearance of tasks across key ways Mechanical Turk allows workers to sort tasks. Second, we present the results of a survey in which we pai...
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Di Stasi, Leandro L; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Rieiro, Héctor; Sánchez Carrión, José M; Martin Berrido, Mercedes; Olivares, Gonzalo; Catena, Andrés
Task (over-)load imposed on surgeons is a main contributing factor to surgical errors. Recent research has shown that gaze metrics represent a valid and objective index to asses operator task load in non-surgical scenarios. Thus, gaze metrics have the potential to improve workplace safety by providing accurate measurements of task load variations. However, the direct relationship between gaze metrics and surgical task load has not been investigated yet. We studied the effects of surgical task complexity on the gaze metrics of surgical trainees. We recorded the eye movements of 18 surgical residents, using a mobile eye tracker system, during the performance of three high-fidelity virtual simulations of laparoscopic exercises of increasing complexity level: Clip Applying exercise, Cutting Big exercise, and Translocation of Objects exercise. We also measured performance accuracy and subjective rating of complexity. Gaze entropy and velocity linearly increased with increased task complexity: Visual exploration pattern became less stereotyped (i.e., more random) and faster during the more complex exercises. Residents performed better the Clip Applying exercise and the Cutting Big exercise than the Translocation of Objects exercise and their perceived task complexity differed accordingly. Our data show that gaze metrics are a valid and reliable surgical task load index. These findings have potential impacts to improve patient safety by providing accurate measurements of surgeon task (over-)load and might provide future indices to assess residents' learning curves, independently of expensive virtual simulators or time-consuming expert evaluation.
Deprez, Sabine; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Peeters, Ron; Emsell, Louise; Amant, Frederic; Sunaert, Stefan
Insight into the neural architecture of multitasking is crucial when investigating the pathophysiology of multitasking deficits in clinical populations. Presently, little is known about how the brain combines dual-tasking with a concurrent short-term memory task, despite the relevance of this mental operation in daily life and the frequency of complaints related to this process, in disease. In this study we aimed to examine how the brain responds when a memory task is added to dual-tasking. Thirty-three right-handed healthy volunteers (20 females, mean age 39.9 ± 5.8) were examined with functional brain imaging (fMRI). The paradigm consisted of two cross-modal single tasks (a visual and auditory temporal same-different task with short delay), a dual-task combining both single tasks simultaneously and a multi-task condition, combining the dual-task with an additional short-term memory task (temporal same-different visual task with long delay). Dual-tasking compared to both individual visual and auditory single tasks activated a predominantly right-sided fronto-parietal network and the cerebellum. When adding the additional short-term memory task, a larger and more bilateral frontoparietal network was recruited. We found enhanced activity during multitasking in components of the network that were already involved in dual-tasking, suggesting increased working memory demands, as well as recruitment of multitask-specific components including areas that are likely to be involved in online holding of visual stimuli in short-term memory such as occipito-temporal cortex. These results confirm concurrent neural processing of a visual short-term memory task during dual-tasking and provide evidence for an effective fMRI multitasking paradigm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.
Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies √s (ge) 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R and D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R and D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R and D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R and D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel
Gordey, T. [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sunstrum, M. [Enform, Calgary, AB (Canada)
Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs.
Beard, D.S.; Klose, W.; Shimamoto, S.; Vecsey, G.
A multinational program of cooperative research, development, demonstrations, and exchanges of information on superconducting magnets for fusion was initiated in 1977 under an IEA agreement. The first major step in the development of TF magnets was called the Large Coil Task. Participants in LCT were the U.S. DOE, EURATOM, JAERI, and the Departement Federal de l'Interieur of Switzerland. The goals of LCT were to obtain experimental data, to demonstrate reliable operation of large superconducting coils, and to prove design principles and fabrication techniques being considered for the toroidal magnets of thermonuclear reactors. These goals were to be accomplished through coordinated but largely independent design, development, and construction of six test coils, followed by collaborative testing in a compact toroidal test array at fields of 8 T and higher. Under the terms of the IEA Agreement, the United States built and operated the test facility at Oak Ridge and provided three test coils. The other participants provided one coil each. Information on design and manufacturing and all test data were shared by all. The LCT team of each participant included a government laboratory and industrial partners or contractors. The last coil was completed in 1985, and the test assembly was completed in October of that year. Over the next 23 months, the six-coil array was cooled down and extensive testing was performed. Results were gratifying, as tests achieved design-point performance and well beyond. (Each coil reached a peak field of 9 T.) Experiments elucidated coil behavior, delineated limits of operability, and demonstrated coil safety. (orig./KP)
Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual
Gordey, T.; Sunstrum, M.
Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs
Di, Xin; Huang, Jia; Biswal, Bharat B
Understanding functional connectivity of the amygdala with other brain regions, especially task modulated connectivity, is a critical step toward understanding the role of the amygdala in emotional processes and the interactions between emotion and cognition. The present study performed coordinate-based meta-analysis on studies of task modulated connectivity of the amygdala which used psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. We first analyzed 49 PPI studies on different types of tasks using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis. Widespread cortical and subcortical regions showed consistent task modulated connectivity with the amygdala, including the medial frontal cortex, bilateral insula, anterior cingulate, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus, and basal ganglia. These regions were in general overlapped with those showed coactivations with the amygdala, suggesting that these regions and amygdala are not only activated together, but also show different levels of interactions during tasks. Further analyses with subsets of PPI studies revealed task specific functional connectivities with the amygdala that were modulated by fear processing, face processing, and emotion regulation. These results suggest a dynamic modulation of connectivity upon task demands, and provide new insights on the functions of the amygdala in different affective and cognitive processes. The meta-analytic approach on PPI studies may offer a framework toward systematical examinations of task modulated connectivity.
Suydam, Stephen M; Manal, Kurt; Buchanan, Thomas S
Isometric tasks have been a standard for electromyography (EMG) normalization stemming from anatomic and physiologic stability observed during contraction. Ballistic dynamic tasks have the benefit of eliciting maximum EMG signals for normalization, despite having the potential for greater signal variability. It is the purpose of this study to compare maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) to nonisometric tasks with increasing degrees of extrinsic variability, ie, joint range of motion, velocity, rate of contraction, etc., to determine if the ballistic tasks, which elicit larger peak EMG signals, are more reliable than the constrained MVIC. Fifteen subjects performed MVIC, isokinetic, maximum countermovement jump, and sprint tasks while EMG was collected from 9 muscles in the quadriceps, hamstrings, and lower leg. The results revealed the unconstrained ballistic tasks were more reliable compared to the constrained MVIC and isokinetic tasks for all triceps surae muscles. The EMG from sprinting was more reliable than the constrained cases for both the hamstrings and vasti. The most reliable EMG signals occurred when the body was permitted its natural, unconstrained motion. These results suggest that EMG is best normalized using ballistic tasks to provide the greatest within-subject reliability, which beneficially yield maximum EMG values.
Elsie Y Spingath
Full Text Available Adult learning-induced sensory cortex plasticity results in enhanced action potential rates in neurons that have the most relevant information for the task, or those that respond strongly to one sensory stimulus but weakly to its comparison stimulus. Current theories suggest this plasticity is caused when target stimulus evoked activity is enhanced by reward signals from neuromodulatory nuclei. Prior work has found evidence suggestive of nonselective enhancement of neural responses, and suppression of responses to task distractors, but the differences in these effects between detection and discrimination have not been directly tested. Using cortical implants, we defined physiological responses in macaque somatosensory cortex during serial, matched, detection and discrimination tasks. Nonselective increases in neural responsiveness were observed during detection learning. Suppression of responses to task distractors was observed during discrimination learning, and this suppression was specific to cortical locations that sampled responses to the task distractor before learning. Changes in receptive field size were measured as the area of skin that had a significant response to a constant magnitude stimulus, and these areal changes paralleled changes in responsiveness. From before detection learning until after discrimination learning, the enduring changes were selective suppression of cortical locations responsive to task distractors, and nonselective enhancement of responsiveness at cortical locations selective for target and control skin sites. A comparison of observations in prior studies with the observed plasticity effects suggests that the non-selective response enhancement and selective suppression suffice to explain known plasticity phenomena in simple spatial tasks. This work suggests that differential responsiveness to task targets and distractors in primary sensory cortex for a simple spatial detection and discrimination task arise from
Sarker, Abeed; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela
Social media has evolved into a crucial resource for obtaining large volumes of real-time information. The promise of social media has been realized by the public health domain, and recent research has addressed some important challenges in that domain by utilizing social media data. Tasks such as monitoring flu trends, viral disease outbreaks, medication abuse, and adverse drug reactions are some examples of studies where data from social media have been exploited. The focus of this workshop is to explore solutions to three important natural language processing challenges for domain-specific social media text: (i) text classification, (ii) information extraction, and (iii) concept normalization. To explore different approaches to solving these problems on social media data, we designed a shared task which was open to participants globally. We designed three tasks using our in-house annotated Twitter data on adverse drug reactions. Task 1 involved automatic classification of adverse drug reaction assertive user posts; Task 2 focused on extracting specific adverse drug reaction mentions from user posts; and Task 3, which was slightly ill-defined due to the complex nature of the problem, involved normalizing user mentions of adverse drug reactions to standardized concept IDs. A total of 11 teams participated, and a total of 24 (18 for Task 1, and 6 for Task 2) system runs were submitted. Following the evaluation of the systems, and an assessment of their innovation/novelty, we accepted 7 descriptive manuscripts for publication--5 for Task 1 and 2 for Task 2. We provide descriptions of the tasks, data, and participating systems in this paper.
Koch, Iring; Rumiati, Raffaella I
Three dual-task experiments examined the influence of processing a briefly presented visual object for deferred verbal report on performance in an unrelated auditory-manual reaction time (RT) task. RT was increased at short stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) relative to long SOAs, showing that memory consolidation processes can produce a functional processing bottleneck in dual-task performance. In addition, the experiments manipulated the spatial compatibility of the orientation of the visual object and the side of the speeded manual response. This cross-task compatibility produced relative RT benefits only when the instruction for the visual task emphasized overlap at the level of response codes across the task sets (Experiment 1). However, once the effective task set was in place, it continued to produce cross-task compatibility effects even in single-task situations ("ignore" trials in Experiment 2) and when instructions for the visual task did not explicitly require spatial coding of object orientation (Experiment 3). Taken together, the data suggest a considerable degree of task-set inertia in dual-task performance, which is also reinforced by finding costs of switching task sequences (e.g., AC --> BC vs. BC --> BC) in Experiment 3.
Full Text Available Implicit learning is usually studied through individual performance on a single task, with the most common tasks being Serial Reaction Time task (SRT; Nissen and Bullemer, 1987, Dynamic System Control task (DSC; (Berry and Broadbent, 1984 and artificial Grammar Learning task (AGL; (Reber, 1967. Few attempts have been made to compare performance across different implicit learning tasks within the same experiment. The current experiment was designed study the relationship between performance on the DSC Sugar factory task (Berry and Broadbent, 1984 and the Alternating Serial Reaction Time task (ASRT; (Howard and Howard, 1997. We also addressed another limitation to traditional implicit learning experiments, namely that implicit learning is usually studied in laboratory settings over a restricted time span lasting for less than an hour (Berry and Broadbent, 1984; Nissen and Bullemer, 1987; Reber, 1967. In everyday situations, implicit learning is assumed to involve a gradual accumulation of knowledge across several learning episodes over a larger time span (Norman and Price, 2012. One way to increase the ecological validity of implicit learning experiments could be to present the learning material repeatedly across shorter experimental sessions (Howard and Howard, 1997; Cleeremans and McClelland, 1991. This can most easily be done by using a web-based setup that participants can access from home. We therefore created an online web-based system for measuring implicit learning that could be administered in either single or multiple sessions. Participants (n = 66 were assigned to either a single-session or a multi-session condition. Learning and the degree of conscious awareness of the learned regularities was compared across condition (single vs. multiple sessions and tasks (DSC vs. ASRT. Results showed that learning on the two tasks was not related. However, participants in the multiple sessions condition did show greater improvements in reaction
Abello, Manuel Blanco
In resource-constrained project scheduling (RCPS) problems, ongoing tasks are restricted to utilizing a fixed number of resources. This paper investigates a dynamic version of the RCPS problem where the number of tasks varies in time. Our previous work investigated a technique called mapping of task IDs for centroid-based approach with random immigrants (McBAR) that was used to solve the dynamic problem. However, the solution-searching ability of McBAR was investigated over only a few instances of the dynamic problem. As a consequence, only a small number of characteristics of McBAR, under the dynamics of the RCPS problem, were found. Further, only a few techniques were compared to McBAR with respect to its solution-searching ability for solving the dynamic problem. In this paper, (a) the significance of the subalgorithms of McBAR is investigated by comparing McBAR to several other techniques; and (b) the scope of investigation in the previous work is extended. In particular, McBAR is compared to a technique called, Estimation Distribution Algorithm (EDA). As with McBAR, EDA is applied to solve the dynamic problem, an application that is unique in the literature. PMID:24883398
Radionuclides dissolved in groundwater that reach the sea bottom from below may bind to fine grained particles. When a nuclide binds to an immovable particle in the sea sediment, further transport may cease; however, if the nuclide binds to a moveable particle it may be repeatedly suspended, transported, and re-deposited. Whether the nuclide binds to a moveable or immovable particle determines the type of biota it encounters. Therefore, it is of great value to understand how bottom types are spread in the sea close to a proposed repository and how the distribution of these bottoms have changed over time, in order to predict what may happen if a nuclide leaks from a repository. In the coastal areas of Forsmark and Laxemar, the sediment dynamics have been modelled for the period between 9500 BC and 9500 AD. The model is based on a wave model (STWAVE) included in the program package from SMS (Surface Water Modelling System). A sediment resuspension module was developed and is presented in this report. The model inputs are weather data (wind direction and wind speed) and bathymetry. The bathymetry is in a regular grid structure. The wave model is separated into two steps. The first is an outer model with coarse resolution (1000 m) that represents the whole Baltic Sea. This outer model gives border conditions to an inner model with higher resolution (100 m) that represents the coastal areas close to Forsmark and Laxemar. The outputs from the wave model are wave height, wave period and water depth for each cell in the model domains. A new program module, written in VisualBasic, reads the results from the wave module and calculates the maximum wave generated water velocity close to the sea bottom, and the maximum resuspendable grain size at that water velocity based on a semi-empirical relationship. The model is run with a time step of 500 years. Since the bathymetry is changing over time due to the positive shore displacement, a sub-model for the Baltic Sea evolution has
Bos, J; Mulder, LJM; van Ouwerkerk, RJ; Maarse, FJ; Akkerman, AE; Brand, AN; Mulder, LJM
In current research on mental workload and task performance a large gap exists between laboratory based studies and research projects in real life working practice. Tasks conducted within a laboratory environment often lack a strong resemblance with real life working situations. This paper presents
In our modern society, complex technological systems typically require people to perform several tasks in a limited period of time. In order to be able to optimize such technological systems, the present thesis aims at explicating some difficulties with regard to the fundamentals of multiple-task
Belkin, Nicholas J.; Bogers, Toine; Kamps, Jaap; Kelly, Diane; Koolen, Marijn; Yilmaz, Emine
There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks, is
Acuff, Nancy Hamblen
The immediate effectiveness of paternal instruction in a selected cognitive task was investigated. The sub-problems were (1) to compare paternal and maternal instruction, and (2) to analyze paternal instructional effectiveness with the son or the daughter. The cognitive task selected was the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test. Subjects were 42…
Based on this result, it was recommended that head teachers should adopt appropriate managerial behaviour to boost teachers' morale towards high task performance. KEYWORDS: Managerial behavior, Leadership, communication, decision-making and teachers' task performance. INTRODUCTION. Education is a sure ...
Erkan, D.; Derksen, R.; Levy, R.; Machin, S.; Ortel, T.; Pierangeli, S.; Roubey, R.; Lockshin, M.
The Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) Clinical Research Task Force (CRTF) was one of six Task Forces developed by the 13(th) International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (aPL) organization committee with the purpose of: a) evaluating the limitations of APS clinical research and developing
Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.
This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…
Band, Guido P. H.; Jolicœur, Pierre; Akyürek, Elkan G.; Memelink, Jiska
In this paper, we introduce a special issue about unique and shared mechanisms underlying the performance limitations observed in dual tasks. In particular, the relationship between task-switching costs, the attentional-blink effect, and the psychological refractory period effect is reviewed. These
This paper summarizes a method for Cognitive Task Analysis that guides the early stages of software development, aiming at an optimal cognitive load for operators of process control systems. The method is based on a practical theory of cognitive task load and support, which can be used to establish
Breen, Sinead; O'Shea, Ann; Pfeiffer, Kirsten
We report here on students' views of example generation tasks assigned to them in two first year undergraduate Calculus courses. The design and use of such tasks was undertaken as part of a project which aimed to afford students opportunities to develop their thinking skills and their conceptual understanding. In interviews with 10 students, we…
Schnackel, J. A.
This document was prepared for Task 5: Architecture Sensitivity to Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) Performance. Information provided in this report documents the architecture sensitivities with respect to STME performance parameters. Suggested STME thrust level was driven by Task 5 sensitivities and Task 4 vehicle configurations. Recommendations on STME thrust level are presented in this report. Sensitivities to STME parameters and vehicle system parameters were evaluated. Design of Experiment (DOE) approaches were used to understand the relative importance of each parameter. Suggested sensitivity parameters and their respective ranges were provided to the Task 5 lead. Our recommendation on analysis approach for the sensitivities was a central composite faced design. Task 5 sensitivities should be updated following final Task 4 architecture recommendations. A suggested analysis approach is provided in the analysis section of this report (Part C, Appendix I, Analysis). This analysis approach was used on Advanced Launch System (ALS) Phase 2 to improve the evaluation of alternate engine designs and vehicle subsystem evaluations. It is suggested that the analysis approach outlined in Part C be utilized to update Task when final Task 4 architecture information is available. Contents of this submittal include: Part A, Narrative Summary; Part B, View Graphs with facing page text; Part C, Appendix I, Analysis Part C, Appendix II, Data.
The result of the study revealed that head teachers' decision-making strategy and head teachers' leadership style have significant influence on teachers' task performance in the sampled schools. And that head teachers' communication skills significantly relates to teachers' task performance in the area. Based on this result, ...
Schneider, Nathan; Hovy, Dirk; Johannsen, Anders Trærup
This task combines the labeling of multiword expressions and supersenses (coarse-grained classes) in an explicit, yet broad-coverage paradigm for lexical semantics. Nine systems participated; the best scored 57.7% F1 in a multi-domain evaluation setting, indicating that the task remains largely u...
Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.
The duties and tasks found in these task lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs for industrial occupations. The industrial occupations are divided into eight clusters. The clusters and occupations are: construction cluster (bricklayer, carpenter, building maintenance…
Lin, Binbin; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Chiyuan; Ye, Jieping; He, Xiaofei
Multi-task learning (MTL) aims to improve generalization performance by learning multiple related tasks simultaneously and identifying the shared information among tasks. Most of existing MTL methods focus on learning linear models under the supervised setting. We propose a novel semi-supervised and nonlinear approach for MTL using vector fields. A vector field is a smooth mapping from the manifold to the tangent spaces which can be viewed as a directional derivative of functions on the manifold. We argue that vector fields provide a natural way to exploit the geometric structure of data as well as the shared differential structure of tasks, both of which are crucial for semi-supervised multi-task learning. In this paper, we develop multi-task vector field learning (MTVFL) which learns the predictor functions and the vector fields simultaneously. MTVFL has the following key properties. (1) The vector fields MTVFL learns are close to the gradient fields of the predictor functions. (2) Within each task, the vector field is required to be as parallel as possible which is expected to span a low dimensional subspace. (3) The vector fields from all tasks share a low dimensional subspace. We formalize our idea in a regularization framework and also provide a convex relaxation method to solve the original non-convex problem. The experimental results on synthetic and real data demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.
In this paper, we formulate object tracking in a particle filter framework as a multi-task sparse learning problem, which we denote as Multi-Task Tracking (MTT). Since we model particles as linear combinations of dictionary templates that are updated dynamically, learning the representation of each particle is considered a single task in MTT. By employing popular sparsity-inducing p, q mixed norms (p D; 1), we regularize the representation problem to enforce joint sparsity and learn the particle representations together. As compared to previous methods that handle particles independently, our results demonstrate that mining the interdependencies between particles improves tracking performance and overall computational complexity. Interestingly, we show that the popular L 1 tracker  is a special case of our MTT formulation (denoted as the L 11 tracker) when p q 1. The learning problem can be efficiently solved using an Accelerated Proximal Gradient (APG) method that yields a sequence of closed form updates. As such, MTT is computationally attractive. We test our proposed approach on challenging sequences involving heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Experimental results show that MTT methods consistently outperform state-of-the-art trackers. © 2012 IEEE.
Chellappa, Sarah L; Morris, Christopher J; Scheer, Frank A J L
Shift work increases the risk for human errors, such that drowsiness due to shift work has contributed to major industrial disasters, including Space Shuttle Challenger, Chernobyl and Alaska Oil Spill disasters, with extraordinary socio-economical costs. Overnight operations pose a challenge because our circadian biology inhibits cognitive performance at night. Yet how the circadian system modulates cognition over multiple days under realistic shift work conditions remains to be established. Importantly, because task-specific cognitive brain regions show different 24-h circadian dynamics, we hypothesize that circadian misalignment impacts cognition task-dependently. Using a biologically-driven paradigm mimicking night shift work, with a randomized, cross-over design, we show that misalignment between the circadian pacemaker and behavioral/environmental cycles increases cognitive vulnerability on sustained attention, cognitive throughput, information processing and visual-motor performance over multiple days, compared to circadian alignment (day shifts). Circadian misalignment effects are task-dependent: while they acutely impair sustained attention with recovery after 3-days, they progressively hinder daily learning. Individuals felt sleepier during circadian misalignment, but they did not rate their performance as worse. Furthermore, circadian misalignment effects on sustained attention depended on prior sleep history. Collectively, daily circadian misalignment may provide an important biological framework for developing countermeasures against adverse cognitive effects in shift workers.
Full Text Available Second Language learners’ oral task performance has been one of interesting and research generating areas of investigations in the field of second language acquisition specially, task-based language teaching and learning. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of focus on form and task complexity on L2 learners’ oral task accuracy. To this end, sixty intermediate learners of English as a foreign language attending an English institute were chosen as the participant of the study and were divided into three groups control and two experimental groups with and without focus on form strategy. ANOVA and Independent Sample T-test were employed as the statistical means of analysis. The results a of analysis revealed significant differences among the performance of the groups. The study carries significant implications for syllabus and task designers, curriculum developers and language teachers. Keywords: Accuracy, Focus on form, Task, Task-based language teaching, Task complexity
Koslucher, Frank; Wade, Michael G; Nelson, Brent; Lim, Kelvin; Chen, Fu-Chen; Stoffregen, Thomas A
Research has shown that the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) can reliably detect the quantitative kinematics of the center of pressure in stance. Previous studies used relatively coarse manipulations (1- vs. 2-leg stance, and eyes open vs. closed). We sought to determine whether the WBB could reliably detect postural changes associated with subtle variations in visual tasks. Healthy elderly adults stood on a WBB while performing one of two visual tasks. In the Inspection task, they maintained their gaze within the boundaries of a featureless target. In the Search task, they counted the occurrence of designated target letters within a block of text. Consistent with previous studies using traditional force plates, the positional variability of the center of pressure was reduced during performance of the Search task, relative to movement during performance of the Inspection task. Using detrended fluctuation analysis, a measure of movement dynamics, we found that COP trajectories were more predictable during performance of the Search task than during performance of the Inspection task. The results indicate that the WBB is sensitive to subtle variations in both the magnitude and dynamics of body sway that are related to variations in visual tasks engaged in during stance. The WBB is an inexpensive, reliable technology that can be used to evaluate subtle characteristics of body sway in large or widely dispersed samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gao, Zhigang; Wu, Yifan; Dai, Guojun; Xia, Haixia
In control devices for the Internet of Things (IoT), energy is one of the critical restriction factors. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) has been proved to be an effective method for reducing the energy consumption of processors. This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheduling algorithm for IoT control devices with hard real-time control tasks (HRCTs) and soft real-time tasks (SRTs). The main contribution of this paper includes two parts. First, it builds the Hybrid tasks with multi-subtasks of different function Weight (HoW) task model for IoT control devices. HoW describes the structure of HRCTs and SRTs, and their properties, e.g., deadlines, execution time, preemption properties, and energy-saving goals, etc. Second, it presents the Hybrid Tasks' Dynamic Voltage Scaling (HTDVS) algorithm. HTDVS first sets the slowdown factors of subtasks while meeting the different real-time requirements of HRCTs and SRTs, and then dynamically reclaims, reserves, and reuses the slack time of the subtasks to meet their ideal energy-saving goals. Experimental results show HTDVS can reduce energy consumption about 10%–80% while meeting the real-time requirements of HRCTs, HRCTs help to reduce the deadline miss ratio (DMR) of systems, and HTDVS has comparable performance with the greedy algorithm and is more favorable to keep the subtasks' ideal speeds. PMID:23112659
Hart, Stephen W (Inventor); Yamokoski, John D. (Inventor); Wightman, Brian J (Inventor); Dinh, Duy Paul (Inventor); Gooding, Dustin R (Inventor)
A system for developing distributed robot application-level software includes a robot having an associated control module which controls motion of the robot in response to a commanded task, and a robot task commander (RTC) in networked communication with the control module over a network transport layer (NTL). The RTC includes a script engine(s) and a GUI, with a processor and a centralized library of library blocks constructed from an interpretive computer programming code and having input and output connections. The GUI provides access to a Visual Programming Language (VPL) environment and a text editor. In executing a method, the VPL is opened, a task for the robot is built from the code library blocks, and data is assigned to input and output connections identifying input and output data for each block. A task sequence(s) is sent to the control module(s) over the NTL to command execution of the task.
Borlund, Pia; Schneider, Jesper Wiborg
The present paper reports on the initial study and the preliminary findings of how the concept of simulated work task situation is reported used in the research literature. The overall objective of the study is in a systematic manner to learn how and for what types of evaluations the concept...... is applied. In particular we are interested to learn whether the recommendations for how to apply simulated work task situations are followed. The preliminary findings indicate a need for clarifications of the recommendations of how to use simulated work task situations. Particularly with respect to ‘realism......’ of the simulated work task situations, which is emphasised through the need for tailoring of the simulated work task situations towards the group of study participant to ensure the depicted situations are realistic and interesting from the participants’ point of view. Likewise it seems that the recommendation...
Full Text Available Visual information is mainly used to master complex motor tasks. Thus, additional information providing augmented feedback should be displayed in other modalities than vision, e.g. hearing. The present work evaluated the potential of error sonification to enhance learning of a rowing-type motor task. In contrast to a control group receiving self-controlled terminal feedback, the experimental group could not significantly reduce spatial errors. Thus, motor learning was not enhanced by error sonification, although during the training the participant could benefit from it. It seems that the motor task was too slow, resulting in immediate corrections of the movement rather than in an internal representation of the general characteristics of the motor task. Therefore, further studies should elaborate the impact of error sonification when general characteristics of the motor tasks are already known.
Emalee J. W. Quickel
Full Text Available Mindfulness meditation (MM training has been shown to have positive effects on working memory and focused attention tasks. Clarifying the construct of mindfulness is important so that mindfulness can be studied effectively in individual differences and cognition research. The current study tested whether trait mindfulness alone explains any of the variability on task performance. Five commonly used mindfulness scales, as well as six standardized and experimental attention and working memory tasks were administered to 164 participants with no meditation experience. Confirmatory factor analysis found that the common variance denoted by measures of trait mindfulness is unrelated to the common variance among tasks requiring focused attention. These results indicate that mindfulness scales may not be capturing the attentional aspects of mindfulness. Individuals who score high on mindfulness scales do not perform better on focused attention tasks than those who score lower on mindfulness scales. These results have implications for defining and operationalizing mindfulness.
Zou, Xiaochun; Zhao, Xinbo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yongjia
For many applications in graphics, design, and human computer interaction, it is essential to understand where humans look in a scene with a particular task. Models of saliency can be used to predict fixation locations, but a large body of previous saliency models focused on free-viewing task. They are based on bottom-up computation that does not consider task-oriented image semantics and often does not match actual eye movements. To address this problem, we collected eye tracking data of 11 subjects when they performed some particular search task in 1307 images and annotation data of 2,511 segmented objects with fine contours and 8 semantic attributes. Using this database as training and testing examples, we learn a model of saliency based on bottom-up image features and target position feature. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of the target information in the prediction of task-oriented visual attention.
Rohrbach-Schmidt, Daniela; Tiemann, Michael
"The task approach is attracting increasing attention and recognition among scholars in economics, sociology and related fields. However, measurement still presents an important challenge to the task approach. This paper studies the comparability of task measures in the commonly used German BIBB/IAB-BIBB/BAuA employment cross-sections on qualification and working conditions from 1979, 1985/86, 1991/92, 1998/99, and 2006. We hypothesize that findings on task-biased technological change are sen...
Smith, Rebekah E; Hunt, R Reed
Remembering to perform an action in the future, called prospective memory, often shows age-related differences in favor of young adults when tested in the laboratory. Recently Smith, Horn, and Bayen (2012; Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 19, 495) embedded a PM task in an ongoing color-matching task and manipulated the difficulty of the ongoing task by varying the number of colors on each trial of the task. Smith et al. found that age-related differences in PM performance (lower PM performance for older adults relative to young adults) persisted even when older adults could perform the ongoing task as well or better than the young adults. The current study investigates a possible explanation for the pattern of results reported by Smith et al. by including a manipulation of task emphasis: for half of the participants the prospective memory task was emphasize, while for the other half the ongoing color-matching task was emphasized. Older adults performed a 4-color version of the ongoing color-matching task, while young adults completed either the 4-color or a more difficult 6-color version of the ongoing task. Older adults failed to perform as well as the young adults on the prospective memory task regardless of task emphasis, even when older adults were performing as well or better than the young adults on the ongoing color-matching task. The current results indicate that the lack of an effect of ongoing task load on prospective memory task performance is not due to a perception that one or the other task is more important than the other.
Ortiz, Alexis; Olson, Sharon L; Etnyre, Bruce; Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine E; Bartlett, William; Venegas-Rios, Heidi L
Dynamic knee joint stability may be affected by the onset of metabolic fatigue during sports participation that could increase the risk for knee injury. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of metabolic fatigue on knee muscle activation, peak knee joint angles, and peak knee internal moments in young women during 2 jumping tasks. Fifteen women (mean age: 24.6 +/- 2.6 years) participated in one nonfatigued session and one fatigued session. During both sessions, peak knee landing flexion and valgus joint angles, peak knee extension and varus/valgus internal moments, electromyographic (EMG) muscle activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings, and quadriceps/hamstring EMG cocontraction ratio were measured. The tasks consisted of a single-legged drop jump from a 40-cm box and a 20-cm, up-down, repeated hop task. The fatigued session included a Wingate anaerobic protocol followed by performance of the 2 tasks. Although participants exhibited greater knee injury-predisposing factors during the fatigued session, such as lesser knee flexion joint angles, greater knee valgus joint angles, and greater varus/valgus internal joint moments for both tasks, only knee flexion during the up-down task was statistically significant (p = 0.028). Metabolic fatigue may perhaps predispose young women to knee injuries by impairing dynamic knee joint stability. Training strength-endurance components and the ability to maintain control of body movements in either rested or fatigued situations might help reduce injuries in young women athletes.
Van Biesen, Debbie; Jacobs, Lore; McCulloch, Katina; Janssens, Luc; Vanlandewijck, Yves C
Cognition is important in many sports, for example, making split-second-decisions under pressure, or memorising complex movement sequences. The dual-task (DT) paradigm is an ecologically valid approach for the assessment of cognitive function in conjunction with motor demands. This study aimed to determine the impact of impaired intelligence on DT performance. The motor task required balancing on one leg on a beam, and the cognitive task was a multiple-object-tracking (MOT) task assessing dynamic visual-search capacity. The sample included 206 well-trained athletes with and without intellectual impairment (II), matched for sport, age and training volume (140 males, 66 females, M age = 23.2 ± 4.1 years, M training experience = 12.3 ± 5.7 years). In the single-task condition, II-athletes showed reduced balance control (F = 55.9, P balance and the MOT task between both groups. The DT costs were significantly larger for the II-athletes (-8.28% versus -1.34% for MOT and -33.13% versus -12.89% for balance). The assessment of MOT in a DT paradigm provided insight in how impaired intelligence constrains the ability of II-athletes to successfully perform at the highest levels in the complex and dynamical sport-environment.
Full Text Available The aim of the presented article is to overcome the force overshoot issue in impedance based force tracking applications. Nowadays, light-weight manipulators are involved in high-accurate force control applications (such as polishing tasks, where the force overshoot issue is critical (i.e. damaging the component causing a production waste, exploiting the impedance control. Two main force tracking impedance control approaches are described in literature: (a set-point deformation and (b variable stiffness approaches. However, no contributions are directly related to the force overshoot issue. The presented article extends both such methodologies to analytically achieve the force overshoots avoidance in interaction tasks based on the on-line estimation of the interacting environment stiffness (available through an EKF. Both the proposed control algorithms allow to achieve a linear closed-loop dynamics for the coupled robot-environment system. Therefore, control gains can be analytically on-line calculated to achieve an over-damped closed-loop dynamics of the controlled coupled system. Control strategies have been validated in experiments, involving a KUKA LWR 4+. A probing task has been performed, representative of many industrial tasks (e.g. assembly tasks, in which a main force task direction is defined.
Full Text Available Task allocation is a fundamental problem in multi-robot systems where heterogeneous robots cooperate to perform a complex mission. A general requirement in a task allocation algorithm is to find an optimal set of robots to execute a certain task. This paper presents the work that harnesses an area decomposition algorithm, and a space-based middleware to facilitate task allocation process in unstructured and dynamic environments. To reduce spatial interference between robots, area decomposition algorithm divides a working area into cells which are then dynamically assigned to robots. In addition, coordination and collaboration among distributed robots are realized through a space-based middleware. For this purpose, the space-based middleware is extended with a semantic model of robot capabilities to improve task selection in terms of flexibility, scalability, and reduced communication overhead during task allocation. In this way a framework which exploits the synergy of area decomposition and semantically enriched space-based approach is created. We conducted performance tests in a specific precision agriculture use case focusing on the utilization of a robotic fleet for weed control introduced in the European Project RHEA – Robot Fleets for Highly Effective Agriculture and Forestry Management.
Sukkari, Dalal E.
This paper introduces the first asynchronous, task-based formulation of the polar decomposition and its corresponding implementation on manycore architectures. Based on a formulation of the iterative QR dynamically-weighted Halley algorithm (QDWH) for the calculation of the polar decomposition, the proposed implementation replaces the original LU factorization for the condition number estimator by the more adequate QR factorization to enable software portability across various architectures. Relying on fine-grained computations, the novel task-based implementation is capable of taking advantage of the identity structure of the matrix involved during the QDWH iterations, which decreases the overall algorithmic complexity. Furthermore, the artifactual synchronization points have been weakened compared to previous implementations, unveiling look-ahead opportunities for better hardware occupancy. The overall QDWH-based polar decomposition can then be represented as a directed acyclic graph (DAG), where nodes represent computational tasks and edges define the inter-task data dependencies. The StarPU dynamic runtime system is employed to traverse the DAG, to track the various data dependencies and to asynchronously schedule the computational tasks on the underlying hardware resources, resulting in an out-of-order task scheduling. Benchmarking experiments show significant improvements against existing state-of-the-art high performance implementations for the polar decomposition on latest shared-memory vendors\\' systems, while maintaining numerical accuracy.
Full Text Available Dynamic and unstructured multiple cooperative autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV missions are highly complex operations, and task allocation and path planning are made significantly more challenging under realistic underwater acoustic communication constraints. This paper presents a solution for the task allocation and path planning for multiple AUVs under marginal acoustic communication conditions: a location-aided task allocation framework (LAAF algorithm for multitarget task assignment and the grid-based multiobjective optimal programming (GMOOP mathematical model for finding an optimal vehicle command decision given a set of objectives and constraints. Both the LAAF and GMOOP algorithms are well suited in poor acoustic network condition and dynamic environment. Our research is based on an existing mobile ad hoc network underwater acoustic simulator and blind flooding routing protocol. Simulation results demonstrate that the location-aided auction strategy performs significantly better than the well-accepted auction algorithm developed by Bertsekas in terms of task-allocation time and network bandwidth consumption. We also demonstrate that the GMOOP path-planning technique provides an efficient method for executing multiobjective tasks by cooperative agents with limited communication capabilities. This is in contrast to existing multiobjective action selection methods that are limited to networks where constant, reliable communication is assumed to be available.
Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated task-related changes in brain activation and inter-regional connectivity but the temporal dynamics of functional properties of the brain during task execution is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated task-related changes in functional properties of the human brain network by applying graph-theoretical analysis to magnetoencephalography (MEG. Subjects performed a cue-target attention task in which a visual cue informed them of the direction of focus for incoming auditory or tactile target stimuli, but not the sensory modality. We analyzed the MEG signal in the cue-target interval to examine network properties during attentional control. Cluster-based non-parametric permutation tests with the Monte-Carlo method showed that in the cue-target interval, beta activity was desynchronized in the sensori-motor region including premotor and posterior parietal regions in the hemisphere contralateral to the attended side. Graph-theoretical analysis revealed that, in beta frequency, global hubs were found around the sensori-motor and prefrontal regions, and functional segregation over the entire network was decreased during attentional control compared to the baseline. Thus, network measures revealed task-related temporal changes in functional properties of the human brain network, leading to the understanding of how the brain dynamically responds to task execution as a network.
Harwood, B; Choi, I; Rice, C L
Fatigability is highly task dependent wherein motor unit (MU) discharge rates and recruitment thresholds are affected differently depending on whether contractions are performed at maximal or submaximal intensities. Although much is described for isometric tasks, the behavior of MU properties during the production of maximal velocity dynamic contractions following submaximal fatiguing contractions is unknown. In seven young men, we evaluated changes in MU recruitment thresholds and MU discharge rates of the anconeus muscle during both submaximal and maximal dynamic elbow extensions following a submaximal dynamic fatiguing protocol of moderate intensity to velocity task failure. Velocity and power of the maximal dynamic contractions declined ∼45 and ∼55%, respectively, but these variables were unchanged for the submaximal target velocity contractions. Discharge rates of the 12 MUs at task failure were unchanged for submaximal dynamic contractions, but were decreased ∼20% for maximal dynamic and ballistic isometric contractions at task failure. MU recruitment thresholds of submaximal dynamic contractions decreased 52% at task failure, but were similar throughout the fatiguing protocol for maximal contractions. These findings support the concept of a common neural mechanism responsible for the relative declines in MU discharge rate associated with submaximal fatigability in both isometric and dynamic contractions.
Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Bakar, Zainudin Abu
Conscious allocation of cognitive resources to task-relevant thoughts is necessary for learning. However, task-irrelevant thoughts often associated with fear of failure can enter the mind and interfere with learning. Effects like this prompt the question of whether or not learners consciously shift their cognitive resources from task-relevant to…
Azkarai, Agurtzane; García Mayo, María del Pilar
Research has shown that tasks provide second language (L2) learners with many opportunities to learn the L2. Task repetition has been claimed to benefit L2 learning since familiarity with procedure and/or content gives learners the chance to focus on more specific aspects of language. Most research on task repetition has focused on adult…
Jung, YeonJoo; Kim, YouJin; Murphy, John
This study focused on an instructional component often neglected when teaching the pronunciation of English as either a second, foreign, or international language--namely, the suprasegmental feature of lexical stress. Extending previous research on collaborative priming tasks and task repetition, the study investigated the impact of task and…
Russo, James; Hopkins, Sarah
This paper outlines a seven-step process for developing problem-solving tasks informed by cognitive load theory. Through an example of a task developed for Year 2 students, we show how this approach can be used to produce challenging mathematical tasks that aim to optimise cognitive load for each student.
Second Language learners' oral task performance has been one of interesting and research generating areas of investigations in the field of second language acquisition specially, task-based language teaching and learning. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of focus on form and task complexity on L2 learners' oral…
Ferris, Gerald R.; And Others
Investigated effects of observer presence and subject (N=96) sex on both performance quantity and quality, job satisfaction, and task perceptions. Results demonstrated significant effects on the performance measures. Results for task perceptions supported the hypothesis that the situational factors would make salient the significance of the task.…
Bosse, T.; Memon, Z.A.; Oorburg, R.; Umair, M.; Treur, J.; de Vos, M.
This paper presents a software environment providing human-aware ambient support for a human performing a task that demands substantial amounts of attention. The agent obtains human attention-awareness in an adaptive manner by use of a dynamical model of human attention, gaze sensoring by an
Nezhad, Gholam Reza Haji Pour; Shokrpour, Nasrin
Vocabulary knowledge influences the learners' performance so remarkably that success in all language skills is closely related to it. This vital role necessitates studies focusing on the most effective programs of teaching vocabulary. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of static versus dynamic task type and the possible interaction with…
It is pointed out that in semiclassical dynamics one is encouraged to study the evolution of those curves in phase space which classically represent ensembles corresponding to wave functions. It is shown that the fixed points generate new time scales so that for times longer than the critical times, quantum dynamics will profoundly differ from classical dynamics. (P.L.)
The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy
Frank, T. D.
The Lotka-Volterra-Haken equations have been frequently used in ecology and pattern formation. Recently, the equations have been proposed by several research groups as amplitude equations for task-related patterns of brain activity. In this theoretical study, the focus is on the circular causality aspect of pattern formation systems as formulated within the framework of synergetics. Accordingly, the stable modes of a pattern formation system inhibit the unstable modes, whereas the unstable modes excite the stable modes. Using this circular causality principle it is shown that under certain conditions the Lotka-Volterra-Haken amplitude equations can be derived from a general model of brain activity akin to the Wilson-Cowan model. The model captures the amplitude dynamics for brain activity patterns in experiments involving several consecutively performed multiple-choice tasks. This is explicitly demonstrated for two-choice tasks involving grasping and walking. A comment on the relevance of the theoretical framework for clinical psychology and schizophrenia is given as well.
Mikhail E. Abramyan
Full Text Available We discuss one of approaches to the development of educational parallel software and describe the Programming Taskbook for MPI-2 (http://ptaskbook.com/ru/ptformpi2/, a courseware that includes 250 training tasks on various topics of MPI. We describe the history of its development, as well as give an overview of its task groups. Usage of the Programming Taskbook for MPI-2 at laboratory classes is illustrated by example of solving one of the training tasks. We also describe task groups related to such new features of MPI 2.0 interface as parallel input-output, remote memory access (one-sided communications, and dynamic creation of processes, and give formulations of some tasks from these groups. In addition, we discuss some features of the final task group devoted to parallel matrix algorithms.
Stephanie A. Kazanas
Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the impact of survival processing with a novel task for this paradigm: the Stroop color-naming task. As the literature is mixed with regard to task generalizability, with survival processing promoting better memory for words, but not better memory for faces or paired associates, these types of task investigations are important to a growing field of research. Using the Stroop task provides a unique contribution, as identifying items by color is an important evolutionary adaptation and not specific to humans as is the case with word recall. Our results indicate that survival processing, with its accompanying survival-relevance rating task, remains the best mnemonic strategy for word memory. However, our results also indicate that presenting the survival passage does not motivate better color-naming performance than color-naming alone. In addition, survival processing led to a larger amount of Stroop interference, though not significantly larger than the other conditions. Together, these findings suggest that considering one’s survival when performing memory and attention-based tasks does not enhance cognitive performance generally, although greater allocation of attentional resources to color-incongruent concrete objects could be considered adaptive. These findings support the notion that engaging in deeper processing via survival-relevance ratings may preserve these words across a variety of experimental manipulations.
McPhee, Megan; Tucker, Kylie J; Wan, Alan; MacDonald, David A
Perceived task complexity can impact participation in an exercise programme and the level of skill acquisition resulting from participation. Although trunk stability exercises are commonly included in the management of people with low back pain, potential differences in perceived task complexity between those exercises have not been investigated previously. To investigate the perceived task complexity following first time instruction of two common stability exercises: the abdominal brace and abdominal hollow. Cross-sectional. Twenty-four naïve healthy participants received instruction in the performance of an abdominal brace and an abdominal hollow with feedback. Participants rated their perceived task complexity (mental, physical, and temporal demand, performance, effort, frustration) for each exercise on the NASA-Task Load Index. The abdominal hollow was associated with higher perceived mental demand than the abdominal brace (p = 0.01), and required more time to learn (p mental demand and frustration when performed after the abdominal hollow than before. This study has provided the first evidence for differences in perceived task complexity between two commonly used trunk stability exercises. Those differences in perceived task complexity may influence the selection of exercises intended to enhance the robustness of spinal stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The current material handling infrastructure associated with manufacturing and assembly operations still register a great presence of human work for highly repetitive tasks. A major contributing factor for the low automation is that current manufacturing robots have little or no understanding...... the use of autonomous mobile manipulators to manage the industrial kitting operation, the task of collecting parts from the warehouse into kits for the production line. We discuss in particular the architectural and implementation aspects of a skill-based control platform that enables the mobile...... manipulators to accomplish their task autonomously and with a dynamic adaptation to the context. We show how the platform supports skill programming and configuration, maintains a world model with all relevant information to make autonomous task planning, interfaces with the Manufacturing Execution System (MES...
Wang, Xinyuan; Guo, Huadong; Luo, Lei; Liu, Chuansheng
Archaeology takes the material remains of human activity as the research object, and uses those fragmentary remains to reconstruct the humanistic and natural environment in different historical periods. Space Archaeology is a new branch of the Archaeology. Its study object is the humanistic-natural complex including the remains of human activities and living environments on the earth surface. The research method, space information technologies applied to this complex, is an innovative process concerning archaeological information acquisition, interpretation and reconstruction, and to achieve the 3-D dynamic reconstruction of cultural heritages by constructing the digital cultural-heritage sphere. Space archaeology's attribute is highly interdisciplinary linking several areas of natural and social and humanities. Its task is to reveal the history, characteristics, and patterns of human activities in the past, as well as to understand the evolutionary processes guiding the relationship between human and their environment. This paper summarizes six important aspects of space archaeology and five crucial recommendations for the establishment and development of this new discipline. The six important aspects are: (1) technologies and methods for non-destructive detection of archaeological sites; (2) space technologies for the protection and monitoring of cultural heritages; (3) digital environmental reconstruction of archaeological sites; (4) spatial data storage and data mining of cultural heritages; (5) virtual archaeology, digital reproduction and public information and presentation system; and (6) the construction of scientific platform of digital cultural-heritage sphere. The five key recommendations for establishing the discipline of Space Archaeology are: (1) encouraging the full integration of the strengths of both archaeology and museology with space technology to promote the development of space technologies' application for cultural heritages; (2) a new
Remacle, J.; Quoidbach, G.
The concept of 'computerized management' of plant intervention tasks was developed by TRACTEBEL in 1983 for the Belgian power plants of ELECTRABEL. The main objective of the 'Computerized Management of Plant Intervention Tasks' is to help the staff of a nuclear or a conventional power plant in planning, organizing, and carrying out any (preventive or corrective) maintenance task. It consists of a group of interconnected functional modules acting on a unique and homogeneous data base. A short description of 3 modules is given, i.e., the 'User' Module, the 'Equipment' Module and the 'Periodic Procedure' Module. (Z.S.)
Bay, Niels; Henningsen, Poul; Eriksen, Morten
The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The objective of task 3 is to determine data...... on the tool/workpiece interface conditions. The task includes the following four sub-tasks: Subtask 3.1 Simulative testing of friction in cold forming Subtask 3.2 Simulative testing of friction in warm and hot forming Subtask 3.3 Validation of measured friction values by process tests Subtask 3.4 Heat...
Mansard, Nicolas; Chaumette, François
International audience; Classical sensor-based approaches tend to constrain all the degrees of freedom of a robot during the execution of a task. In this paper, a new solution is proposed. The key idea is to divide the global full-constraining task into several subtasks, which can be applied or inactivated to take into account potential constraints of the environment. Far from any constraint, the robot moves according to the full task. When it comes closer to a configuration to avoid, a highe...
Sochenkova, A.; Sochenkov, I.; Makovetskii, A.; Vokhmintsev, A.; Melnikov, A.
Computer vision tasks are remaining very important for the last couple of years. One of the most complicated problems in computer vision is face recognition that could be used in security systems to provide safety and to identify person among the others. There is a variety of different approaches to solve this task, but there is still no universal solution that would give adequate results in some cases. Current paper presents following approach. Firstly, we extract an area containing face, then we use Canny edge detector. On the next stage we use convolutional neural networks (CNN) to finally solve face recognition and person identification task.
LabVIEW Task Manager is a debugging tool for use during code development in the National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW® IDE. While providing a dynamic & big-picture view of running code, an expandable/collapsible tree diagram displays detailed information (both static and dynamic) on all VIs in memory, belonging to a selected project/target. It allows for interacting with single or multiple selected VIs at a time, providing significant benefits while troubleshooting, and has the following features: Look & Feel similar to Windows® Task Manager; Selection of project/target; Lists all VIs in memory, grouped by class/library; Searches for and enumerates clones in memory; DropIn VI for including dynamically referenced clones (Clone Beacon); 'Refresh Now' (F5) re-reads all VIs in memory and adds new ones to the tree; Displays VI name, owning class/library, state, path, data size & code size; Displays VI FP Behavior, Reentrant?, Reentrancy Type, Paused? & Highlight?; Sort by any column, including by library name; Filter by item types vi, ctl, and vit/ctt; Filter out vi.lib and global VIs; Tracking of, and ability to toggle, execution highlighting on multiple selected VIs; Tracking of paused VIs with ability to Pause/Resume/TogglePause multiple selected VIs; DropIn VI for pausing on a condition; If a clone initiates a pause, a different pause symbol is used for all clones of that same reentrant original VI; Select multiple VIs and open or close their FPs or BDs; Double Click a VI from the tree to bring the BD (first choice) or FP to front, if already open; and Select multiple top-level VIs and Abort them.
DeSalvo, Matthew N; Douw, Linda; Takaya, Shigetoshi; Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M
Functional MRI is widely used to study task-related changes in neuronal activity as well as resting-state functional connectivity. In this study, we explore task-related changes in functional connectivity networks using fMRI. Dynamic connectivity may represent a new measure of neural network robustness that would impact both clinical and research efforts. However, prior studies of task-related changes in functional connectivity have shown apparently conflicting results, leading to several competing hypotheses regarding the relationship between task-related and resting-state brain networks. We used a graph theory-based network approach to compare functional connectivity in healthy subjects between the resting state and when performing a clinically used semantic decision task. We analyzed fMRI data from 21 healthy, right-handed subjects. While three nonoverlapping, highly intraconnected functional modules were observed in the resting state, an additional language-related module emerged during the semantic decision task. Both overall and within-module connectivity were greater in default mode network (DMN) and classical language areas during semantic decision making compared to rest, while between-module connectivity was diffusely greater at rest, revealing a more widely distributed pattern of functional connectivity at rest. The results of this study suggest that there are differences in network topology between resting and task states. Specifically, semantic decision making is associated with a reduction in distributed connectivity through hub areas of the DMN as well as an increase in connectivity within both default and language networks.
Devi, D Chitra; Uthariaraj, V Rhymend
Cloud computing uses the concepts of scheduling and load balancing to migrate tasks to underutilized VMs for effectively sharing the resources. The scheduling of the nonpreemptive tasks in the cloud computing environment is an irrecoverable restraint and hence it has to be assigned to the most appropriate VMs at the initial placement itself. Practically, the arrived jobs consist of multiple interdependent tasks and they may execute the independent tasks in multiple VMs or in the same VM's multiple cores. Also, the jobs arrive during the run time of the server in varying random intervals under various load conditions. The participating heterogeneous resources are managed by allocating the tasks to appropriate resources by static or dynamic scheduling to make the cloud computing more efficient and thus it improves the user satisfaction. Objective of this work is to introduce and evaluate the proposed scheduling and load balancing algorithm by considering the capabilities of each virtual machine (VM), the task length of each requested job, and the interdependency of multiple tasks. Performance of the proposed algorithm is studied by comparing with the existing methods.
Tamborello, Franklin P; Trafton, J Gregory
A computational process model could explain how the dynamic interaction of human cognitive mechanisms produces each of multiple error types. With increasing capability and complexity of technological systems, the potential severity of consequences of human error is magnified. Interruption greatly increases people's error rates, as does the presence of other information to maintain in an active state. The model executed as a software-instantiated Monte Carlo simulation. It drew on theoretical constructs such as associative spreading activation for prospective memory, explicit rehearsal strategies as a deliberate cognitive operation to aid retrospective memory, and decay. The model replicated the 30% effect of interruptions on postcompletion error in Ratwani and Trafton's Stock Trader task, the 45% interaction effect on postcompletion error of working memory capacity and working memory load from Byrne and Bovair's Phaser Task, as well as the 5% perseveration and 3% omission effects of interruption from the UNRAVEL Task. Error classes including perseveration, omission, and postcompletion error fall naturally out of the theory. The model explains post-interruption error in terms of task state representation and priming for recall of subsequent steps. Its performance suggests that task environments providing more cues to current task state will mitigate error caused by interruption. For example, interfaces could provide labeled progress indicators or facilities for operators to quickly write notes about their task states when interrupted.
Yin, Xi; Liu, Xiaoming
This paper explores multi-task learning (MTL) for face recognition. We answer the questions of how and why MTL can improve the face recognition performance. First, we propose a multi-task Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for face recognition where identity classification is the main task and pose, illumination, and expression estimations are the side tasks. Second, we develop a dynamic-weighting scheme to automatically assign the loss weight to each side task, which is a crucial problem in MTL. Third, we propose a pose-directed multi-task CNN by grouping different poses to learn pose-specific identity features, simultaneously across all poses. Last but not least, we propose an energy-based weight analysis method to explore how CNN-based MTL works. We observe that the side tasks serve as regularizations to disentangle the variations from the learnt identity features. Extensive experiments on the entire Multi-PIE dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work using all data in Multi-PIE for face recognition. Our approach is also applicable to in-the-wild datasets for pose-invariant face recognition and achieves comparable or better performance than state of the art on LFW, CFP, and IJB-A datasets.
Devi, D. Chitra; Uthariaraj, V. Rhymend
Cloud computing uses the concepts of scheduling and load balancing to migrate tasks to underutilized VMs for effectively sharing the resources. The scheduling of the nonpreemptive tasks in the cloud computing environment is an irrecoverable restraint and hence it has to be assigned to the most appropriate VMs at the initial placement itself. Practically, the arrived jobs consist of multiple interdependent tasks and they may execute the independent tasks in multiple VMs or in the same VM's multiple cores. Also, the jobs arrive during the run time of the server in varying random intervals under various load conditions. The participating heterogeneous resources are managed by allocating the tasks to appropriate resources by static or dynamic scheduling to make the cloud computing more efficient and thus it improves the user satisfaction. Objective of this work is to introduce and evaluate the proposed scheduling and load balancing algorithm by considering the capabilities of each virtual machine (VM), the task length of each requested job, and the interdependency of multiple tasks. Performance of the proposed algorithm is studied by comparing with the existing methods. PMID:26955656
TASHMANOV E.B.; МАМАTOV М.S.
In this paper we consider the relationship of control tasks and image compression losses. The main idea of this approach is to allocate structural lines simplified image and further compress the selected data
Sixteen male subjects, well trained on a battery of cognitive performance assessment tasks, participated in a study to Investigate the effects on human operator performance of work shift (Day Shift vs. Mid shift...
Ergonomics is the study of physical interaction between humans and their working environment. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of spinal anaesthesia in an acute hospital setting, applying ergonomic task analysis.
Wolff, P H; Cohen, C
Right-handed men and women tapped two mechanical keys in time to an entraining metronome, using each hand alone and the two hands in alternation. Concurrently, they recited familiar nursery rhymes or read unfamiliar text out loud. The direction of interference from the language-based tasks on manual performance was measured relative to baseline performance. Magnitude and direction of interference from both language tasks were greater during bimanual alternation than unimanual performance. However, the direction of interference during bimanual alternation differed significantly between right-handed men and women, and the sex differences in direction of interference differed according to the characteristics of the language-based secondary task. Right-handed subjects with a family history of sinistrality showed less overall and less lateralized dual task interference than right-handed persons without a family history of sinistrality.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this research effort is to enable robots to autonomously perform the complex manipulation tasks that are necessary to maintain a spacecraft. Robots, like...
Full Text Available This paper presents our proposal and the implementation of an algorithm for automated refactoring of context-free grammars. Rather than operating under some domain-specific task, in our approach refactoring is perfomed on the basis of a refactoring task defined by its user. The algorithm and the corresponding refactoring system are called mARTINICA. mARTINICA is able to refactor grammars of arbitrary size and structural complexity. However, the computation time needed to perform a refactoring task with the desired outcome is highly dependent on the size of the grammar. Until now, we have successfully performed refactoring tasks on small and medium-size grammars of Pascal-like languages and parts of the Algol-60 programming language grammar. This paper also briefly introduces the reader to processes occurring in grammar refactoring, a method for describing desired properties that a refactored grammar should fulfill, and there is a discussion of the overall significance of grammar refactoring.
The work plan and objectives of this task are designed to support the acceleration of safe implementation of hydrogen infrastructure through coordinated international collaborations and hydrogen safety knowledge dissemination....
Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne
associated with a decreased level of mental health. This association was stronger for employees with poor baseline mental health and tended to be more pronounced among older employees. Among participants with poor baseline mental health, the association was explained by neither psychological demands nor...... decision latitude. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the prevention of unnecessary work tasks may benefit employee mental health, particularly among employees with pre-existing mental health problems.......OBJECTIVES: According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated...
Higginbotham, Matthew T
In this monograph, by analyzing the UN, NATO and the US Army's evolving Modular Logistics Doctrine, the author integrates the key areas from each doctrine into a multinational logistics joint task force (MLJTF) organization...
Mikhail I Rabinovich
Full Text Available Recent results of imaging technologies and nonlinear dynamics make possible to relate the structure and dynamics of functional brain networks to different mental tasks and to build theoretical models for the description and prediction of cognitive activity. Such models are nonlinear dynamical descriptions of the interaction of the core components –brain modes– participating in a specific mental function. The dynamical images of different mental processes depend on their temporal features. The dynamics of many cognitive functions are transient. They are often observed as a chain of sequentially changing metastable states. A stable heteroclinic channel consisting of chain of saddles -metastable states- connected by unstable separatrices is a mathematical image for robust transients. In this paper we focus on hierarchical chunking dynamics that can represent several forms of transient cognitive activity. Chunking is a dynamical phenomenon that nature uses to perform information processing of long sequences by dividing them in shorter information items. Chunking, for example, makes more efficient the use of short-term memory by breaking up long strings of information (like in language where one can see the separation of a novel on chapters, paragraphs, sentences and finally words. Chunking is important in many processes of perception, learning and cognition in humans and animals. Based on anatomical information about the hierarchical organization of functional brain networks, we proposed here a cognitive network architecture that hierarchically chunks and super-chunks switching sequences of metastable states produced by winnerless competitive heteroclinic dynamics.
Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Birbaumer, Niels
Noninvasive brain-computer-interfaces (BCI) coupled with prosthetic devices were recently introduced in the rehabilitation of chronic stroke and other disorders of the motor system. These BCI systems and motor rehabilitation in general involve several motor tasks for training. This study investigates the neurophysiological bases of an EEG-oscillation-driven BCI combined with a neuroprosthetic device to define the specific oscillatory signature of the BCI task. Controlling movements of a hand robotic orthosis with motor imagery of the same movement generates sensorimotor rhythm oscillation changes and involves three elements of tasks also used in stroke motor rehabilitation: passive and active movement, motor imagery, and motor intention. We recorded EEG while nine healthy participants performed five different motor tasks consisting of closing and opening of the hand as follows: 1) motor imagery without any external feedback and without overt hand movement, 2) motor imagery that moves the orthosis proportional to the produced brain oscillation change with online proprioceptive and visual feedback of the hand moving through a neuroprosthetic device (BCI condition), 3) passive and 4) active movement of the hand with feedback (seeing and feeling the hand moving), and 5) rest. During the BCI condition, participants received contingent online feedback of the decrease of power of the sensorimotor rhythm, which induced orthosis movement and therefore proprioceptive and visual information from the moving hand. We analyzed brain activity during the five conditions using time-frequency domain bootstrap-based statistical comparisons and Morlet transforms. Activity during rest was used as a reference. Significant contralateral and ipsilateral event-related desynchronization of sensorimotor rhythm was present during all motor tasks, largest in contralateral-postcentral, medio-central, and ipsilateral-precentral areas identifying the ipsilateral precentral cortex as an integral
Noninvasive brain-computer-interfaces (BCI) coupled with prosthetic devices were recently introduced in the rehabilitation of chronic stroke and other disorders of the motor system. These BCI systems and motor rehabilitation in general involve several motor tasks for training. This study investigates the neurophysiological bases of an EEG-oscillation-driven BCI combined with a neuroprosthetic device to define the specific oscillatory signature of the BCI task. Controlling movements of a hand robotic orthosis with motor imagery of the same movement generates sensorimotor rhythm oscillation changes and involves three elements of tasks also used in stroke motor rehabilitation: passive and active movement, motor imagery, and motor intention. We recorded EEG while nine healthy participants performed five different motor tasks consisting of closing and opening of the hand as follows: 1) motor imagery without any external feedback and without overt hand movement, 2) motor imagery that moves the orthosis proportional to the produced brain oscillation change with online proprioceptive and visual feedback of the hand moving through a neuroprosthetic device (BCI condition), 3) passive and 4) active movement of the hand with feedback (seeing and feeling the hand moving), and 5) rest. During the BCI condition, participants received contingent online feedback of the decrease of power of the sensorimotor rhythm, which induced orthosis movement and therefore proprioceptive and visual information from the moving hand. We analyzed brain activity during the five conditions using time-frequency domain bootstrap-based statistical comparisons and Morlet transforms. Activity during rest was used as a reference. Significant contralateral and ipsilateral event-related desynchronization of sensorimotor rhythm was present during all motor tasks, largest in contralateral-postcentral, medio-central, and ipsilateral-precentral areas identifying the ipsilateral precentral cortex as an integral
This paper discusses an integrated robot assembly task planning system architecture. In such an integrated system, the robot motion commands produced from the planning system can be validated before done-loading for actual execution.......This paper discusses an integrated robot assembly task planning system architecture. In such an integrated system, the robot motion commands produced from the planning system can be validated before done-loading for actual execution....
Hart, Sarah J.; Green, Steven R.; Casp, Michael; Belger, Aysenil
The ability to make decisions within an emotional context requires a balance between two functionally integrated neural systems that primarily support executive control and affective processing. Several studies have demonstrated effects of emotional interference presented during an ongoing cognitive task, but it is unclear how activating the emotional circuitry prior to a cognitive task may enhance or disrupt the executive system. In this study we used fMRI to examine the effects of emotional...
Gorbenko, Anna; Popov, Vladimir
Various planning problems for robotic systems are of considerable interest. One of such problems is the problem of task sequencing. In this paper, we consider the problem of task sequencing for autonomous vacuum floor cleaning robots. We consider a graph model for the problem. We propose an efficient approach to solve the problem. In particular, we use an explicit reduction from the decision version of the problem to the satisfiability problem. We present the results of computational experiments for different satisfiability algorithms.
This paper provides a simple theoretical framework based on a new type of human capital introduced by Gibbons and Waldman (2004), called task-specific training, to understand job design. Mainly, in the presence of task-specific training, promotions might result ex-post in the underutilization of human capital and thus firms at the time of designing jobs should attempt to diversify this risk.
easily be traced back to Baldwin (1894), one of Piaget’s early influences . Baldwin and others argued that memory span tasks reflect ability to maintain...very little impact on the number of words remembered . Craik et al. concluded from these studies that controlled attention is critical to memory ...REPORT TITLE: Final Technical Report for Grant Working memory , controlled attention and task switching is forwarded for your information
Janiszewski, Thomas; Mainland, Nora; Roden, Joseph C.; Rothenheber, Edward H.; Ryan, Arthur M.; Stokes, James M.
Eye/brain/task (EBT) testbed records electroencephalograms, movements of eyes, and structures of tasks to provide comprehensive data on neurophysiological experiments. Intended to serve continuing effort to develop means for interactions between human brain waves and computers. Software library associated with testbed provides capabilities to recall collected data, to process data on movements of eyes, to correlate eye-movement data with electroencephalographic data, and to present data graphically. Cognitive processes investigated in ways not previously possible.
Brzezicka, Aneta; Kamiński, Maciej; Kamiński, Jan; Blinowska, Katarzyna
For about two decades now, the localization of the brain regions involved in reasoning processes is being investigated through fMRI studies, and it is known that for a transitive form of reasoning the frontal and parietal regions are most active. In contrast, less is known about the information exchange during the performance of such complex tasks. In this study, the propagation of brain activity during a transitive reasoning task was investigated and compared to the propagation during a simp...
When designing real-time systems, it is often desirable to schedule execution of software tasks based on the occurrence of events. The events may be clock ticks, interrupts from a hardware device, or software signals from other software tasks. If the nature of the events, is well understood, this scheduling is normally a static part of the system design. If the nature of the events is not completely understood, or is expected to change over time, it may be necessary to provide a mechanism for adjusting the scheduling of the software tasks. RHIC front-end computers (FECs) provide such a mechanism. The goals in designing this mechanism were to be as independent as possible of the underlying operating system, to allow for future expansion of the mechanism to handle new types of events, and to allow easy configuration. Some considerations which steered the design were programming paradigm (object oriented vs. procedural), programming language, and whether events are merely interesting moments in time, or whether they intrinsically have data associated with them. The design also needed to address performance and robustness tradeoffs involving shared task contexts, task priorities, and use of interrupt service routine (ISR) contexts vs. task contexts. This paper will explore these considerations and tradeoffs
Hak, Sovannara; Mansard, Nicolas; Stasse, Olivier; Laumond, Jean Paul
Efficient methods to perform motion recognition have been developed using statistical tools. Those methods rely on primitive learning in a suitable space, for example, the latent space of the joint angle and/or adequate task spaces. Learned primitives are often sequential: A motion is segmented according to the time axis. When working with a humanoid robot, a motion can be decomposed into parallel subtasks. For example, in a waiter scenario, the robot has to keep some plates horizontal with one of its arms while placing a plate on the table with its free hand. Recognition can thus not be limited to one task per consecutive segment of time. The method presented in this paper takes advantage of the knowledge of what tasks the robot is able to do and how the motion is generated from this set of known controllers, to perform a reverse engineering of an observed motion. This analysis is intended to recognize parallel tasks that have been used to generate a motion. The method relies on the task-function formalism and the projection operation into the null space of a task to decouple the controllers. The approach is successfully applied on a real robot to disambiguate motion in different scenarios where two motions look similar but have different purposes.
Liebel, Spencer W; Clark, Uraina S; Xu, Xiaomeng; Riskin-Jones, Hannah H; Hawkshead, Brittany E; Schwarz, Nicolette F; Labbe, Donald; Jerskey, Beth A; Sweet, Lawrence H
Our objective was to determine whether a Symbol Search paradigm developed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is a reliable and valid measure of cognitive processing speed (CPS) in healthy older adults. As all older adults are expected to experience cognitive declines due to aging, and CPS is one of the domains most affected by age, establishing a reliable and valid measure of CPS that can be administered inside an MR scanner may prove invaluable in future clinical and research settings. We evaluated the reliability and construct validity of a newly developed FMRI Symbol Search task by comparing participants' performance in and outside of the scanner and to the widely used and standardized Symbol Search subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). A brief battery of neuropsychological measures was also administered to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the FMRI Symbol Search task. The FMRI Symbol Search task demonstrated high test-retest reliability when compared to performance on the same task administered out of the scanner (r=.791; pSymbol Search (r=.717; pSymbol Search task were also observed. The FMRI Symbol Search task is a reliable and valid measure of CPS in healthy older adults and exhibits expected sensitivity to the effects of age on CPS performance.
Elchlepp, Heike; Lavric, Aureliu; Monsell, Stephen
Switching tasks costs time. Allowing time to prepare reduces the cost, but usually leaves an irreducible "residual cost." Most accounts of this residual cost locate it within the response-selection stage of processing. To determine which processing stage is affected, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) as participants performed a reading task or a perceptual judgment task, and examined the effect of a task switch on early markers of lexical processing. A task cue preceding a string of blue and red letters instructed the participant either to read the letter string (for a semantic classification in Experiment 1, and a lexical decision in Experiment 2) or to judge the symmetry of its color pattern. In Experiment 1, having to switch to the reading task delayed the evolution of the effect of word frequency on the reading task ERP by a substantial fraction of the effect on reaction time (RT). In Experiment 2, a task switch delayed the onset of the effect of lexical status on the ERP by about the same extent that it prolonged the RT. These effects indicate an early locus of (most of) the residual switch cost: We propose that this reflects a form of task-related attentional inertia. Other findings have implications for the automaticity of lexical access: Effects of frequency, lexicality, and orthographic familiarity on ERPs in the symmetry task indicated involuntary, but attenuated, orthographic and lexical processing even when attention was focused on a nonlexical property. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Call, Benjamin J; Goodridge, Wade; Villanueva, Idalis; Wan, Nicholas; Jordan, Kerry
Spatial intelligence is often linked to success in engineering education and engineering professions. The use of electroencephalography enables comparative calculation of individuals' neural efficiency as they perform successive tasks requiring spatial ability to derive solutions. Neural efficiency here is defined as having less beta activation, and therefore expending fewer neural resources, to perform a task in comparison to other groups or other tasks. For inter-task comparisons of tasks with similar durations, these measurements may enable a comparison of task type difficulty. For intra-participant and inter-participant comparisons, these measurements provide potential insight into the participant's level of spatial ability and different engineering problem solving tasks. Performance on the selected tasks can be analyzed and correlated with beta activities. This work presents a detailed research protocol studying the neural efficiency of students engaged in the solving of typical spatial ability and Statics problems. Students completed problems specific to the Mental Cutting Test (MCT), Purdue Spatial Visualization test of Rotations (PSVT:R), and Statics. While engaged in solving these problems, participants' brain waves were measured with EEG allowing data to be collected regarding alpha and beta brain wave activation and use. The work looks to correlate functional performance on pure spatial tasks with spatially intensive engineering tasks to identify the pathways to successful performance in engineering and the resulting improvements in engineering education that may follow.
Full Text Available In this paper, we aimed to investigate the role of self-generated predictions in the flexible control of behaviour. Therefore, we ran a task switching experiment in which participants were asked to try to predict the upcoming task in three conditions varying in switch rate (30%, 50% and 70%. Irrespective of their predictions, the colour of the target indicated which task participants had to perform. In line with previous studies (Mayr, 2006; Monsell & Mizon, 2006, the switch cost was attenuated as the switch rate increased. Importantly, a clear task repetition bias was found in all conditions, yet the task repetition prediction rate dropped from 78% over 66% to 49% with increasing switch probability in the three conditions. Irrespective of condition, the switch cost was strongly reduced in expectation of a task alternation compared to the cost of an unexpected task alternation following repetition predictions. Hence, our data suggest that the reduction in the switch cost with increasing switch probability is caused by a diminished expectancy for the task to repeat. Taken together, this paper highlights the importance of predictions in the flexible control of behaviour, and suggests a crucial role for task repetition expectancy in the context-sensitive adjusting of task switching performance.
Full Text Available Performing two cognitively demanding tasks at the same time is known to decrease performance. The current study investigates the underlying executive functions of a dual-tasking situation involving the simultaneous performance of decision making under explicit risk and a working memory task. It is suggested that making a decision and performing a working memory task at the same time should particularly require monitoring - an executive control process supervising behavior and the state of processing on two tasks. To test the role of a supervisory/monitoring function in such a dual-tasking situation we investigated 122 participants with the Game of Dice Task plus 2-back task (GDT plus 2-back task. This dual task requires participants to make decisions under risk and to perform a 2-back working memory task at the same time. Furthermore, a task measuring a set of several executive functions gathered in the term concept formation (Modified Card Sorting Test, MCST and the newly developed Balanced Switching Task (BST, measuring monitoring in particular, were used. The results demonstrate that concept formation and monitoring are involved in the simultaneous performance of decision making under risk and a working memory task. In particular, the mediation analysis revealed that BST performance partially mediates the influence of MCST performance on the GDT plus 2-back task. These findings suggest that monitoring is one important subfunction for superior performance in a dual-tasking situation including decision making under risk and a working memory task.
In this paper we present DYNAMIC, an open-source C++ library implementing dynamic compressed data structures for string manipulation. Our framework includes useful tools such as searchable partial sums, succinct/gap-encoded bitvectors, and entropy/run-length compressed strings and FM indexes. We...... implemented using DYNAMIC with those of stateof-the-art tools performing the same task. Our experiments show that algorithms making use of dynamic compressed data structures can be up to three orders of magnitude more space-efficient (albeit slower) than classical ones performing the same tasks....
We propose an alternative paradigm to the conjectured Miransky scaling potentially underlying the physics describing the transition from the conformally broken to the conformally restored phase when tuning certain parameters such as the number of flavors in gauge theories. According to the new pa...... without particle interpretation. The jumping scenario, therefore, does not support a near-conformal dynamics of walking type. We will also discuss the impact of jumping dynamics on the construction of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking....
TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA I WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square . Cambridge, MA 02139 C\\ II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO0 ADDRESS...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A.I.Memo No. 1037 April, 1988 Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision Joachim Heel Abstract: In this... Artificial Intelligence L3 Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the Laboratory’s [1 Artificial Intelligence Research is
Celebrated mathematician Shlomo Sternberg, a pioneer in the field of dynamical systems, created this modern one-semester introduction to the subject for his classes at Harvard University. Its wide-ranging treatment covers one-dimensional dynamics, differential equations, random walks, iterated function systems, symbolic dynamics, and Markov chains. Supplementary materials offer a variety of online components, including PowerPoint lecture slides for professors and MATLAB exercises.""Even though there are many dynamical systems books on the market, this book is bound to become a classic. The the