WorldWideScience

Sample records for dynamic species exchange

  1. Exchange Rate and Inflation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Eatzaz Ahmad; Saima Ahmed Ali

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies simultaneous determination of nominal exchange rate and domestic price level in Pakistan. The estimated model contains sufficient built-in dynamics to trace the pattern and speed of adjustment in the two variables in response to temporary or permanent shocks. The two domestic shocks considered in the paper are monetary and real shocks, while the three external shocks considered are import price, export price and foreign exchange reserves shocks. The study finds that the imp...

  2. The structure of phosphate and borosilicate glasses and their structural evolution at high temperatures as studied with solid state NMR spectroscopy: Phase separation, crystallisation and dynamic species exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, S.; Van Wullen, L.; Tricot, G.; Tricot, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we present an in-depth study of the network structure of different phosphate based and borosilicate glasses and its evolution at high temperatures. Employing a range of advanced solid state NMR methodologies, complemented by the results of XPS, the structural motifs on short and intermediate length scales are identified. For the phosphate based glasses, at temperatures above the glass transition temperature Tg, structural relaxation processes and the devitrification of the glasses were monitored in situ employing MAS NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Dynamic species exchange involving rapid P-O-P and P-O-Al bond breaking and reforming was observed employing in situ 27 Al and 31 P MAS NMR spectroscopy and could be linked to viscous flow. For the borosilicate glasses, an atomic scale investigation of the phase separation processes was possible in a combined effort of ex situ NMR studies on glass samples with different thermal histories and in situ NMR studies using high temperature MAS NMR spectroscopy including 11 B MAS, 29 Si MAS and in situ 29 Si{ 11 B} REAPDOR NMR spectroscopy. (authors)

  3. Quark exchange and nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moniz, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives a qualitative understanding of hadronic phenomena in terms of quark degrees of freedom. The basic model which incorporates saturating confining interactions and the study of hadron-hadron scattering has been carried through in collaboration with F. Lenz, J.T. Londergan, R. Rosenfelder, M. Stingl and K. Yazaki. It is shown that minimal confining dynamics together with exchange symmetry indeed leads to a remarkable range of phenomena at both the nuclear and particle energy scales. Most observables are well described by an effective hadron theory, the quark momentum distribution being the major exception. These features emerge even in the simplest model, namely, U(1) color and hadrons composed of two quarks (anti qq or qq). The author concentrates here on this model. In the concluding section, he remarks on the SU(N) results, particularly on the extent to which the color-hidden dynamics are constrained by examining the systematics of nuclear and hadronic phenomena. (Auth.)

  4. Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Marriage exchanges, seed exchanges, and the dynamics of manioc diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delêtre, Marc; McKey, Doyle B; Hodkinson, Trevor R

    2011-11-08

    The conservation of crop genetic resources requires understanding the different variables-cultural, social, and economic-that impinge on crop diversity. In small-scale farming systems, seed exchanges represent a key mechanism in the dynamics of crop genetic diversity, and analyzing the rules that structure social networks of seed exchange between farmer communities can help decipher patterns of crop genetic diversity. Using a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches, we investigated the relationships between regional patterns of manioc genetic diversity in Gabon and local networks of seed exchange. Spatially explicit Bayesian clustering methods showed that geographical discontinuities of manioc genetic diversity mirror major ethnolinguistic boundaries, with a southern matrilineal domain characterized by high levels of varietal diversity and a northern patrilineal domain characterized by low varietal diversity. Borrowing concepts from anthropology--kinship, bridewealth, and filiation--we analyzed the relationships between marriage exchanges and seed exchange networks in patrilineal and matrilineal societies. We demonstrate that, by defining marriage prohibitions, kinship systems structure social networks of exchange between farmer communities and influence the movement of seeds in metapopulations, shaping crop diversity at local and regional levels.

  6. Pion double charge exchange and hadron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will review theoretical results to show how pion double charge exchange is contributing to our understanding of hadron dynamics in nuclei. The exploitation of the nucleus as a filter is shown to be essential in facilitating the comparison between theory and experiment. 23 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. BOREAS TE-04 Gas Exchange Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains TE-04 data on gas exchange studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the MPH-1000 system.

  8. Kinetics from Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzl, Lukas S; Hummer, Gerhard

    2017-08-08

    Transitions between metastable states govern many fundamental processes in physics, chemistry and biology, from nucleation events in phase transitions to the folding of proteins. The free energy surfaces underlying these processes can be obtained from simulations using enhanced sampling methods. However, their altered dynamics makes kinetic and mechanistic information difficult or impossible to extract. Here, we show that, with replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD), one can not only sample equilibrium properties but also extract kinetic information. For systems that strictly obey first-order kinetics, the procedure to extract rates is rigorous. For actual molecular systems whose long-time dynamics are captured by kinetic rate models, accurate rate coefficients can be determined from the statistics of the transitions between the metastable states at each replica temperature. We demonstrate the practical applicability of the procedure by constructing master equation (Markov state) models of peptide and RNA folding from REMD simulations.

  9. Gas exchanges in annonaceae species under different crop protections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Baron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the gas exchanges of different species of Annonaceae due to environmental variations provided by different types of crop protection. 'Araticum-de-terra-fria', 'araticum-mirim', 'biribá' and atemoya seedlings were cultived in three different crop protections: nursery, greenhouse and warm house. Gas exchanges were obtained in six plants, from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, with IRGA, LI-6400, at 180 Days After Transplanting. The different types of crop protection had a direct influence on gas exchanges of these species. Thus, nursery provided suitable conditions for 'araticum-de-terra-fria', 'araticum-mirim' and 'biribá', increasing their gas exchanges. To atemoya the best crop protection was the greenhouse.

  10. Reactive oxygen species production and discontinuous gas exchange in insects

    OpenAIRE

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S.; Hetz, Stefan K.; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    While biochemical mechanisms are typically used by animals to reduce oxidative damage, insects are suspected to employ a higher organizational level, discontinuous gas exchange mechanism to do so. Using a combination of real-time, flow-through respirometry and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that spiracular control associated with the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) in Samia cynthia pupae is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperoxia fails to increase mean ROS produ...

  11. Wealth distribution of simple exchange models coupled with extremal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatella-Flores, N.; Rodríguez-Achach, M.; Coronel-Brizio, H. F.; Hernández-Montoya, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Punctuated Equilibrium (PE) states that after long periods of evolutionary quiescence, species evolution can take place in short time intervals, where sudden differentiation makes new species emerge and some species extinct. In this paper, we introduce and study the effect of punctuated equilibrium on two different asset exchange models: the yard sale model (YS, winner gets a random fraction of a poorer player's wealth) and the theft and fraud model (TF, winner gets a random fraction of the loser's wealth). The resulting wealth distribution is characterized using the Gini index. In order to do this, we consider PE as a perturbation with probability ρ of being applied. We compare the resulting values of the Gini index at different increasing values of ρ in both models. We found that in the case of the TF model, the Gini index reduces as the perturbation ρ increases, not showing dependence with the agents number. While for YS we observe a phase transition which happens around ρc = 0.79. For perturbations ρ <ρc the Gini index reaches the value of one as time increases (an extreme wealth condensation state), whereas for perturbations greater than or equal to ρc the Gini index becomes different to one, avoiding the system reaches this extreme state. We show that both simple exchange models coupled with PE dynamics give more realistic results. In particular for YS, we observe a power low decay of wealth distribution.

  12. Longitudinal exchange: an alternative strategy towards quantification of dynamics parameters in ZZ exchange spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloiber, Karin; Spitzer, Romana; Grutsch, Sarina; Kreutz, Christoph; Tollinger, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal exchange experiments facilitate the quantification of the rates of interconversion between the exchanging species, along with their longitudinal relaxation rates, by analyzing the time-dependence of direct correlation and exchange cross peaks. Here we present a simple and robust alternative to this strategy, which is based on the combination of two complementary experiments, one with and one without resolving exchange cross peaks. We show that by combining the two data sets systematic errors that are caused by differential line-broadening of the exchanging species are avoided and reliable quantification of kinetic and relaxation parameters in the presence of additional conformational exchange on the ms–μs time scale is possible. The strategy is applied to a bistable DNA oligomer that displays different line-broadening in the two exchanging species.

  13. Extensions to the Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Geoffrey J.; Jackson, E. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language (DAVE-ML) is a syntactical language for exchanging flight vehicle dynamic model data. It provides a framework for encoding entire flight vehicle dynamic model data packages for exchange and/or long-term archiving. Version 2.0.1 of DAVE-ML provides much of the functionality envisioned for exchanging aerospace vehicle data; however, it is limited in only supporting scalar time-independent data. Additional functionality is required to support vector and matrix data, abstracting sub-system models, detailing dynamics system models (both discrete and continuous), and defining a dynamic data format (such as time sequenced data) for validation of dynamics system models and vehicle simulation packages. Extensions to DAVE-ML have been proposed to manage data as vectors and n-dimensional matrices, and record dynamic data in a compatible form. These capabilities will improve the clarity of data being exchanged, simplify the naming of parameters, and permit static and dynamic data to be stored using a common syntax within a single file; thereby enhancing the framework provided by DAVE-ML for exchanging entire flight vehicle dynamic simulation models.

  14. Are international fund flows related to exchange rate dynamics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Employing monthly data for 53 countries between 1996 and 2015, we investigate the relationship between international fund flows and exchange rate dynamics. We find strong co-movement between funds flows (as measured with the EPFR Global data base) and bilateral real exchange rates vis-à-vis the USD.

  15. Cardioplegia heat exchanger design modelling using computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, M R

    2000-11-01

    A new cardioplegia heat exchanger has been developed by Sorin Biomedica. A three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) model was optimized using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. CFD optimization techniques have commonly been applied to velocity flow field analysis, but CFD analysis was also used in this study to predict the heat exchange performance of the design before prototype fabrication. The iterative results of the optimization and the actual heat exchange performance of the final configuration are presented in this paper. Based on the behaviour of this model, both the water and blood fluid flow paths of the heat exchanger were optimized. The simulation predicted superior heat exchange performance using an optimal amount of energy exchange surface area, reducing the total contact surface area, the device priming volume and the material costs. Experimental results confirm the empirical results predicted by the CFD analysis.

  16. Modeling of the Bosphorus exchange flow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözer, Adil; Özsoy, Emin

    2017-04-01

    The fundamental hydrodynamic behavior of the Bosphorus Strait is investigated through a numerical modeling study using alternative configurations of idealized or realistic geometry. Strait geometry and basin stratification conditions allow for hydraulic controls and are ideally suited to support the maximal-exchange regime, which determines the rate of exchange of waters originating from the adjacent Black and Mediterranean Seas for a given net transport. Steady-state hydraulic controls are demonstrated by densimetric Froude number calculations under layered flow approximations when corrections are applied to account for high velocity shears typically observed in the Bosphorus. Analyses of the model results reveal many observed features of the strait, including critical transitions at hydraulic controls and dissipation by turbulence and hydraulic jumps. It is found that the solution depends on initialization, especially with respect to the basin initial conditions. Significant differences between the controlled maximal-exchange and drowned solutions suggest that a detailed modeling implementation involving coupling with adjacent basins needs to take full account of the Bosphorus Strait in terms of the physical processes to be resolved.

  17. Information Exchange, Market Transparency and Dynamic Oligopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Per Baltzer; Møllgaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In the economics literature, various views on the likely (efficiency) effects of information exchange,communication between firms and market transparency present themselves. Often these views oninformation flows are highly conflicting. On the one hand, it is argued that increased...... informationdissemination improves firm planning to the benefit of society (including customers) and/or allowspotential customers to make the right decisions given their preferences. On the other hand, theliterature also suggests that increased information dissemination can have significant coordinating orcollusive......, where informational issues have played a significant role....

  18. Current Account and Real Exchange Rate Dynamics in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firman Mochtar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the role of both permanent and temporary factors in affecting the Indonesian current account and real exchange dynamics before and after 2000. Adopting Lee and Chinn (1998; 2006 approach as well as Chinn et al. (2007, two results stand out. First, we confirm that the behavior of the real exchange rate has altered since 2000. Identifications show that permanent shocks are the primary causes for the movement of the real exchange rate after 2000, while in the period before 2000, the Indonesian real exchange rate changes are characterized by greater dominance of temporary shocks. The apparent change in the real exchange rate behavior may be strongly justified by the implementation of free-floating exchange rate system since August 1997. Second, the shift of the real exchange rate behavior after 2000 does not necessarily affect the current account dynamics. Empirical evidence confirms that the variance of current account post 2000 remains largely due to temporary shocks. Albeit having increasing influence, permanent shocks have insignificant effect in explaining fluctuations of the current account. In this sense, the current account surplus after 2000 is attributed largely to nominal variables such as price increase, while the impact of productivity improvement is still limited.

  19. Long-memory exchange rate dynamics in the euro era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkoulas, John T.; Barilla, Anthony G.; Wells, William

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the long-run dynamics of a system of eight major exchange rates in the euro era using both integer and fractional cointegration methodologies. Contrary to the fragile evidence in the pre-euro era, robust evidence of linear cointegratedness is obtained in the foreign exchange market during the euro era. Upon closer examination, deviations from the cointegrating relationship exhibit nonstationary, long-memory dynamic behavior (Joseph effect). We find the long-memory evidence to be temporally stable in the most recent era. Finally, the foreign exchange system dynamics appears to be characterized by less persistence (smaller fractional exponent) in the euro era (as compared to pre-euro time periods), potentially indicating increased policy coordination by central banks in the recent period.

  20. A Multicontrolled Enamine Configurational Switch Undergoing Dynamic Constitutional Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yansong; Svensson, Per H; Ramström, Olof

    2018-05-22

    A multiresponsive enamine-based molecular switch is presented, in which forward/backward configurational rotation around the C=C bond could be precisely controlled by the addition of an acid/base or metal ions. Fluorescence turn-on/off effects and large Stokes shifts were observed while regulating the switching process with Cu II . The enamine functionality furthermore enabled double dynamic regimes, in which configurational switching could operate in conjunction with constitutional enamine exchange of the rotor part. This behavior was used to construct a prototypical dynamic covalent switch system through enamine exchange with primary amines. The dynamic exchange process could be readily turned on/off by regulating the switch status with pH. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Pseudorotational dynamics of small molecular species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelberg, F.

    2002-01-01

    The electron nuclear dynamics (END) theory was designed to provide a full description of the dynamic development of the electronic system. It is independent of any potential energy surface constructions. The dynamic behavior of molecules close to the threshold of dissociation was the objective of this study. Thus, simulations based on END theory were performed with the aim to extend the current understanding of the dynamic features of pseudorotational into a non-adiabatic regime. Electron dynamics of triatomic species (H 3 + and Li 3 + ) in terms of electronic angular momentum expectation values were characterized. Finally, it is shown that the expansion coefficients which carry the information about the excitation content of the electronic system at any stage of the motional process can be calculated. (nevyjel)

  2. Population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Pseudo-nitzschia is a chain-forming diatom comprising about 30 species some of which are known to produce domoic acid (DA) that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). The current study aimed at assessing the population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia in the near shore waters of Dar es Salaam. Samples ...

  3. Laser spectroscopy and dynamics of transient species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clouthier, D.J. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to study the vibrational and electronic spectra and excited state dynamics of a number of transient sulfur and oxygen species. A variety of supersonic jet techniques, as well as high resolution FT-IR and intracavity dye laser spectroscopy, have been applied to these studies.

  4. Dynamic phonon exchange requires consistent dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahne, F.J.W.; Engelbrecht, C.A.; Heiss, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that states with undersirable properties (such as ghosts, states with complex eigenenergies and states with unrestricted normalization) emerge from two-body calculations using dynamic effective interactions if one is not careful in introducing single-particle self-energy insertions in a consistent manner

  5. Information Exchange, Market Transparency and Dynamic Oligopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, H. Peter; Overgaard, Per Baltzer

    Economic literature often offers conflicting views on the likely efficiency effects of information exchanges, communication between firms, and market transparency. On the one hand, it is argued that increased information dissemination improves firm planning to the benefit of society (including...... buyers) and allows potential buyers to make correct decisions given their preferences. On the other hand, economic literature also shows that increased information dissemination can raise prices through tacit or explicit collusion to the benefit of firms but at the expense of society at large....... This chapter provides a general analytical framework to reconcile these views and presents some basic conclusions for antitrust practice. In addition, the chapter reviews cases from both sides of the Atlantic where informational issues have played a significant role....

  6. Ultrafast dynamics of hydrogen bond exchange in aqueous ionic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungnam; Odelius, Michael; Gaffney, Kelly J

    2009-06-04

    The structural and dynamical properties of aqueous ionic solutions influence a wide range of natural and biological processes. In these solutions, water has the opportunity to form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules and anions. Knowing the time scale with which these configurations interconvert represents a key factor to understanding the influence of molecular scale heterogeneity on chemical events in aqueous ionic solutions. We have used ultrafast IR spectroscopy and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations to investigate the hydrogen bond (H-bond) structural dynamics in aqueous 6 M sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) solution. We have measured the H-bond exchange dynamics between spectrally distinct water-water and water-anion H-bond configurations with 2DIR spectroscopy and the orientational relaxation dynamics of water molecules in different H-bond configurations with polarization-selective IR pump-probe experiments. The experimental H-bond exchange time correlates strongly with the experimental orientational relaxation time of water molecules. This agrees with prior observations in water and aqueous halide solutions, and has been interpreted within the context of an orientational jump model for the H-bond exchange. The CPMD simulations performed on aqueous 6 M NaClO4 solution clearly demonstrate that water molecules organize into two radially and angularly distinct structural subshells within the first solvation shell of the perchlorate anion, with one subshell possessing the majority of the water molecules that donate H-bonds to perchlorate anions and the other subshell possessing predominantly water molecules that donate two H-bonds to other water molecules. Due to the high ionic concentration used in the simulations, essentially all water molecules reside in the first ionic solvation shells. The CPMD simulations also demonstrate that the molecular exchange between these two structurally distinct subshells proceeds more slowly than the H

  7. Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…

  8. Flight Dynamic Model Exchange using XML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Hildreth, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    The AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technical Committee has worked for several years to develop a standard by which the information needed to develop physics-based models of aircraft can be specified. The purpose of this standard is to provide a well-defined set of information, definitions, data tables and axis systems so that cooperating organizations can transfer a model from one simulation facility to another with maximum efficiency. This paper proposes using an application of the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) to implement the AIAA simulation standard. The motivation and justification for using a standard such as XML is discussed. Necessary data elements to be supported are outlined. An example of an aerodynamic model as an XML file is given. This example includes definition of independent and dependent variables for function tables, definition of key variables used to define the model, and axis systems used. The final steps necessary for implementation of the standard are presented. Software to take an XML-defined model and import/export it to/from a given simulation facility is discussed, but not demonstrated. That would be the next step in final implementation of standards for physics-based aircraft dynamic models.

  9. Ligand and proton exchange dynamics in recombinant human myoglobin mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambright, D G; Balasubramanian, S; Boxer, S G

    1989-05-05

    Site-specific mutants of human myoglobin have been prepared in which lysine 45 is replaced by arginine (K45R) and aspartate 60 by glutamate (D60E), in order to examine the influence of these residues and their interaction on the dynamics of the protein. These proteins were studied by a variety of methods, including one and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, exchange kinetics for the distal and proximal histidine NH protons as a function of pH in the met cyano forms, flash photolysis of the CO forms, and ligand replacement kinetics. The electronic absorption and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the CO forms of these proteins are virtually identical, indicating that the structure of the heme pocket is unaltered by these mutations. There are, however, substantial changes in the dynamics of both CO binding and proton exchange for the mutant K45R, whereas the mutant D60E exhibits behavior indistinguishable from the reference human myoglobin. K45R has a faster CO bimolecular recombination rate and slower CO off-rate relative to the reference. The kinetics for CO binding are independent of pH (6.5 to 10) as well as ionic strength (0 to 1 M-NaCl). The exchange rate for the distal histidine NH is substantially lower for K45R than the reference, whereas the proximal histidine NH exchange rate is unaltered. The exchange behavior of the human proteins is similar to that reported for a comparison of the exchange rates for myoglobins having lysine at position 45 with sperm whale myoglobin, which has arginine at this position. This indicates that the differences in exchange rates reflects largely the Lys----Arg substitution. The lack of a simple correlation for the CO kinetics with this substitution means that these are sensitive to other factors as well. Specific kinetic models, whereby substitution of arginine for lysine at position 45 can affect ligand binding dynamics, are outlined. These experiments demonstrate that a relatively

  10. Why the long hours? Job demands and social exchange dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genin, Emilie; Haines, Victor Y; Pelletier, David; Rousseau, Vincent; Marchand, Alain

    2016-11-22

    This study investigates the determinants of long working hours from the perspectives of the demand-control model [Karasek, 1979] and social exchange theory [Blau, 1964; Goulder, 1960]. These two theoretical perspectives are tested to understand why individuals work longer (or shorter) hours. The hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 1,604 employed Canadians. In line with Karasek's model, the results support that high job demands are positively associated with longer work hours. The social exchange perspective would predict a positive association between skill discretion and work hours. This hypothesis was supported for individuals with a higher education degree. Finally, the results support a positive association between active jobs and longer work hours. Our research suggests that job demands and social exchange dynamics need to be considered together in the explanation of longer (or shorter) work hours.

  11. Preliminary results of statistical dynamic experiments on a heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corran, E.R.; Cummins, J.D.

    1962-10-01

    The inherent noise signals present in a heat exchanger have been recorded and analysed in order to determine some of the statistical dynamic characteristics of the heat exchanger. These preliminary results show that the primary side temperature frequency response may be determined by analysing the inherent noise. The secondary side temperature frequency response and cross coupled temperature frequency responses between primary and secondary are poorly determined because of the presence of a non-stationary noise source in the secondary circuit of this heat exchanger. This may be overcome by correlating the dependent variables with an externally applied noise signal. Some preliminary experiments with an externally applied random telegraph type of signal are reported. (author)

  12. Dynamics of the cross flow heat exchanger for heating purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K [Karlsruhe Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Mess- und Regelungstechnik mit Maschinenlaboratorium

    1980-09-01

    A series of publications is available on the dynamic behaviour of heat exchangers (or heat transmitters, respectively), the subject of which is to deal with direct methods or with refined starting models for this general theme. The bridging between both these manners of advance remained as a problem. The author tried in his own investigation to solve the problem, and indeed by the selection of the correct starting model. He succeeded in this way, in that he removed conceptually a finned pipe from an arbitrary place of a heat exchanger and, furthermore, cut out from this particular pipe an arbitrary section. This section now does not stand alone for itself because the processes, which occur upstream of this section at the air-side and the water-side, are the input quantities of the section, which changes them due to its static and dynamic behaviour and emits them again as output quantities. The author, therefore, treats at first the dynamic behaviour of the section, which is represented in a signal flow diagram and which is used to derive approximate solutions from it. Furthermore, the author discusses the evident derivation of the total behaviour of heat exchangers.

  13. Spin and orbital exchange interactions from Dynamical Mean Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, A., E-mail: a.secchi@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lichtenstein, A.I., E-mail: alichten@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Universitat Hamburg, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Jungiusstraße 9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Katsnelson, M.I., E-mail: m.katsnelson@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    We derive a set of equations expressing the parameters of the magnetic interactions characterizing a strongly correlated electronic system in terms of single-electron Green's functions and self-energies. This allows to establish a mapping between the initial electronic system and a spin model including up to quadratic interactions between the effective spins, with a general interaction (exchange) tensor that accounts for anisotropic exchange, Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction and other symmetric terms such as dipole–dipole interaction. We present the formulas in a format that can be used for computations via Dynamical Mean Field Theory algorithms. - Highlights: • We give formulas for the exchange interaction tensor in strongly correlated systems. • Interactions are written in terms of electronic Green's functions and self-energies. • The method is suitable for a Dynamical Mean Field Theory implementation. • No quenching of the orbital magnetic moments is assumed. • Spin and orbital contributions to magnetism can be computed separately.

  14. Solvable Catalyzed Birth-Death-Exchange Competition Model of Three Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haifeng; Gao Yan; Zhang Heng; Lin Zhenquan

    2009-01-01

    A competition model of three species in exchange-driven aggregation growth is proposed. In the model, three distinct aggregates grow by exchange of monomers and in parallel, birth of species A is catalyzed by species B and death of species A is catalyzed by species C. The rates for both catalysis processes are proportional to kj ν and kj ω respectively, where ν(Ω) is a parameter reflecting the dependence of the catalysis reaction rate of birth (death) on the catalyst aggregate's size. The kinetic evolution behaviors of the three species are investigated by the rate equation approach based on the mean-field theory. The form of the aggregate size distribution of A-species a k (t) is found to be dependent crucially on the two catalysis rate kernel parameters. The results show that (i) in case of μ ≤ 0, the form of a k (t) mainly depends on the competition between self-exchange of species A and species-C-catalyzed death of species A; (ii) in case of ν > 0, the form of a k (t) mainly depends on the competition between species-B-catalyzed birth of species A and species-C-catalyzed death of species A. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. Challenges in quantifying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of nitrogen species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, M.A.; Nemitz, E.; Erisman, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research in nitrogen exchange with the atmosphere has separated research communities according to N form. The integrated perspective needed to quantify the net effect of N on greenhouse-gas balance is being addressed by the NitroEurope Integrated Project (NEU). Recent advances have depende...

  16. Investigations into the dynamic behaviour of finned tube heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandbrink, J.; Stegemann, D.

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric disturbances due to thunder storms, side wind effects on the shell or ground inversion can impair the heat dissipation of a cooling tower. These effects react on the overall power plant, which is reflected in the varied electrical output. This uncontrolled behaviour has been investigated in detail for the case of a boiling water reactor nuclear power station with indirect natural draught dry cooling and compared with controlled performance. A computer model, which has been checked out by means of experimental investigations on three different types of tube, is presented to describe the dynamic behaviour of finned tube heat exchangers. (orig.) [de

  17. Dynamic analysis of complex tube systems in heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouba, J.; Dvorak, P.

    1985-01-01

    Using a computation model, a dynamic analysis was made of tube assemblies of heat exchanger bundles by the finite element method. The algorithm is presented for determining the frequency mode properties, based on the Sturm sequences combined with inverse vector iteration. The results obtained using the method are compared with those obtained by analytical solution and by the transfer matrix method, this for the cases of both eigenvibrations and resonance vibrations. The results are in very good agreement. For the first four eigenfrequencies, the calculation error is less than 1.5% as against the analytical solution. (J.B.). 4 tabs., 8 figs., 5 refs

  18. Vortex dynamics mediated by exchange coupling in permalloy double disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Hu Yong; Du An

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of magnetic vortices in double disks coupled with a bridge are studied by micromagnetic simulations. There are three types of magnetic configurations being found, which depend on the size of the bridge and the chiralities of the vortices. The exchange coupling between the vortices, which is mediated by the magnetizations in the bridge, influences the trajectories and oscillation frequencies of the vortices. Moreover, the frequency depends on the configurations of the double disks and the bridge size. - Highlights: ► Dynamics of vortices in double Permalloy disks coupled with a bridge are studied. ► Three types of equilibrium configurations are observed for the model. ► Oscillation of the cores depends on the magnetic configuration of the double disks. ► Variation of oscillating frequency with bridge length depends on polarity combination. ► Oscillating frequency decreases with the increasing of the bridge width.

  19. A dynamic model for helium core heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiesser, W.E.; Shih, H.J.; Hartozog, D.G.; Herron, D.M.; Nahmias, D.; Stuber, W.G.; Hindmarsh, A.C.

    1990-04-01

    To meet the helium (He) requirements of the superconducting supercollider (SSC), the cryogenic plants must be able to respond to time-varying loads. Thus the design and simulation of the cryogenic plants requires dynamic models of their principal components, and in particular, the core heat exchangers. In this paper, we detail the derivation and computer implementation of a model for core heat exchangers consisting of three partial differential equations (PDES) for each fluid stream (the continuity, energy and momentum balances for the He), and one PDE for each parting sheet (the energy balance for the parting sheet metal); the PDEs have time and axial position along the exchanger as independent variables. The computer code can accommodate any number of fluid streams and parting sheets in an adiabatic group. Features of the code include: rigorous or approximate thermodynamic properties for He, upwind and downwind approximation of the PDE spatial derivatives, and sparse matrix time integration. The outputs from the code include the time-dependent axial profiles of the fluid He mass flux, density, pressure, temperature, internal energy and enthalpy. The code is written in transportable Fortran 77, and can therefore be executed on essentially any computer

  20. A dynamic model for helium core heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiesser, W.E.; Shih, H.J.; Hartzog, D.G.; Herron, D.M.; Nahmias, D.; Stuber, W.G.; Hindmarsh, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    To meet the helium (He) requirements of the superconducting supercollider (SSC), the cryogenic plants must be able to respond to time-varying loads. Thus the design and simulation of the cryogenic plants requires dynamic models of their principal components, and in particular, the core heat exchangers. In this paper, we detail the derivation and computer implementation of a model for core heat exchangers consisting of three partial differential equations (PDEs) for each fluid stream (the continuity, energy and momentum balances for the He), and one PDE for each parting sheet (the energy balance for the parting sheet metal); the PDEs have time and axial position along the exchanger as independent variables. The computer code can accommodate any number of fluid streams and parting sheets in an adiabatic group. Features of the code include: rigorous or approximate thermodynamic properties for He, upwind and downwind approximation of the PDE spatial derivatives, and sparse matrix time integration. The outputs from the code include the time-dependent axial profiles of the fluid He mass flux, density, pressure, temperature, internal energy and enthalpy. The code is written in transportable Fortran 77, and can therefore be executed on essentially any computer. 10 refs., 10 figs

  1. Sensitivity of molecular vibrational dynamics to energy exchange rate constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billing, G D; Coletti, C; Kurnosov, A K; Napartovich, A P

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of molecular vibrational population dynamics, governing the CO laser operated in fundamental and overtone transitions, to vibration-to-vibration rate constants is investigated. With this aim, three rate constant sets have been used, differing in their completeness (i.e. accounting for single-quantum exchange only, or for multi-quantum exchange with a limited number of rate constants obtained by semiclassical calculations, and, finally, with an exhaustive set of rate constants including asymmetric exchange processes, as well) and in the employed interaction potential. The most complete set among these three is introduced in this paper. An existing earlier kinetic model was updated to include the latter new data. Comparison of data produced by kinetic modelling with the above mentioned sets of rate constants shows that the vibrational distribution function, and, in particular, the CO overtone laser characteristics, are very sensitive to the choice of the model. The most complete model predicts slower evolution of the vibrational distribution, in qualitative agreement with experiments

  2. Preserving the Boltzmann ensemble in replica-exchange molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Ben; Schmidler, Scott C

    2008-10-28

    We consider the convergence behavior of replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) [Sugita and Okamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 314, 141 (1999)] based on properties of the numerical integrators in the underlying isothermal molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We show that a variety of deterministic algorithms favored by molecular dynamics practitioners for constant-temperature simulation of biomolecules fail either to be measure invariant or irreducible, and are therefore not ergodic. We then show that REMD using these algorithms also fails to be ergodic. As a result, the entire configuration space may not be explored even in an infinitely long simulation, and the simulation may not converge to the desired equilibrium Boltzmann ensemble. Moreover, our analysis shows that for initial configurations with unfavorable energy, it may be impossible for the system to reach a region surrounding the minimum energy configuration. We demonstrate these failures of REMD algorithms for three small systems: a Gaussian distribution (simple harmonic oscillator dynamics), a bimodal mixture of Gaussians distribution, and the alanine dipeptide. Examination of the resulting phase plots and equilibrium configuration densities indicates significant errors in the ensemble generated by REMD simulation. We describe a simple modification to address these failures based on a stochastic hybrid Monte Carlo correction, and prove that this is ergodic.

  3. Challenges in quantifying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of nitrogen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), Edinburgh Research Station, Bush Estate, Penicuik, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ms@ceh.ac.uk; Nemitz, E. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), Edinburgh Research Station, Bush Estate, Penicuik, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Erisman, J.W. [ECN, Clean Fossil Fuels, PO Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Beier, C. [Riso National Laboratory, PO Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bahl, K. Butterbach [Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Atmos. Environ. Research (IMK-IFU), Research Centre Karlsruhe GmbH, Kreuzeckbahnstr. 19, 82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Cellier, P. [INRA Unite Mixte de Recherche, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Vries, W. de [Alterra, Green World Research, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Cotrufo, F. [Dip. Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Skiba, U.; Di Marco, C.; Jones, S. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), Edinburgh Research Station, Bush Estate, Penicuik, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Laville, P.; Soussana, J.F.; Loubet, B. [INRA Unite Mixte de Recherche, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Twigg, M.; Famulari, D. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), Edinburgh Research Station, Bush Estate, Penicuik, EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Whitehead, J.; Gallagher, M.W. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Williamson Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Neftel, A.; Flechard, C.R. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, PO Box, CH 8046 Zurich (Switzerland)] (and others)

    2007-11-15

    Recent research in nitrogen exchange with the atmosphere has separated research communities according to N form. The integrated perspective needed to quantify the net effect of N on greenhouse-gas balance is being addressed by the NitroEurope Integrated Project (NEU). Recent advances have depended on improved methodologies, while ongoing challenges include gas-aerosol interactions, organic nitrogen and N{sub 2} fluxes. The NEU strategy applies a 3-tier Flux Network together with a Manipulation Network of global-change experiments, linked by common protocols to facilitate model application. Substantial progress has been made in modelling N fluxes, especially for N{sub 2}O, NO and bi-directional NH{sub 3} exchange. Landscape analysis represents an emerging challenge to address the spatial interactions between farms, fields, ecosystems, catchments and air dispersion/deposition. European up-scaling of N fluxes is highly uncertain and a key priority is for better data on agricultural practices. Finally, attention is needed to develop N flux verification procedures to assess compliance with international protocols. - Current N research is separated by form; the challenge is to link N components, scales and issues.

  4. A multi-species exchange model for fully fluctuating polymer field theory simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düchs, Dominik; Delaney, Kris T; Fredrickson, Glenn H

    2014-11-07

    Field-theoretic models have been used extensively to study the phase behavior of inhomogeneous polymer melts and solutions, both in self-consistent mean-field calculations and in numerical simulations of the full theory capturing composition fluctuations. The models commonly used can be grouped into two categories, namely, species models and exchange models. Species models involve integrations of functionals that explicitly depend on fields originating both from species density operators and their conjugate chemical potential fields. In contrast, exchange models retain only linear combinations of the chemical potential fields. In the two-component case, development of exchange models has been instrumental in enabling stable complex Langevin (CL) simulations of the full complex-valued theory. No comparable stable CL approach has yet been established for field theories of the species type. Here, we introduce an extension of the exchange model to an arbitrary number of components, namely, the multi-species exchange (MSE) model, which greatly expands the classes of soft material systems that can be accessed by the complex Langevin simulation technique. We demonstrate the stability and accuracy of the MSE-CL sampling approach using numerical simulations of triblock and tetrablock terpolymer melts, and tetrablock quaterpolymer melts. This method should enable studies of a wide range of fluctuation phenomena in multiblock/multi-species polymer blends and composites.

  5. Contrasting dynamics of leaf potential and gas exchange during progressive drought cycles and recovery in Amorpha fruticosa and Robinia pseudoacacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Weiming; Zheng, Shuxia; Zhong, Yangquanwei; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2017-06-30

    Leaf gas exchange is closely associated with water relations; however, less attention has been given to this relationship over successive drought events. Dynamic changes in gas exchange and water potential in the seedlings of two woody species, Amorpha fruticosa and Robinia pseudoacacia, were monitored during recurrent drought. The pre-dawn leaf water potential declined in parallel with gas exchange in both species, and sharp declines in gas exchange occurred with decreasing water potential. A significant correlation between pre-dawn water potential and gas exchange was observed in both species and showed a right shift in R. pseudoacacia in the second drought. The results suggested that stomatal closure in early drought was mediated mainly by elevated foliar abscisic acid (ABA) in R. pseudoacacia, while a shift from ABA-regulated to leaf-water-potential-driven stomatal closure was observed in A. fruticosa. After re-watering, the pre-dawn water potential recovered quickly, whereas stomatal conductance did not fully recover from drought in R. pseudoacacia, which affected the ability to tightly control transpiration post-drought. The dynamics of recovery from drought suggest that stomatal behavior post-drought may be restricted mainly by hydraulic factors, but non-hydraulic factors may also be involved in R. pseudoacacia.

  6. Leveraged exchange-traded funds price dynamics and options valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an analysis, under both discrete-time and continuous-time frameworks, on the price dynamics of leveraged exchange-traded funds (LETFs), with emphasis on the roles of leverage ratio, realized volatility, investment horizon, and tracking errors. This study provides new insights on the risks associated with LETFs. It also leads to the discussion of new risk management concepts, such as admissible leverage ratios and admissible risk horizon, as well as the mathematical and empirical analyses of several trading strategies, including static portfolios, pairs trading, and stop-loss strategies involving ETFs and LETFs. The final part of the book addresses the pricing of options written on LETFs. Since different LETFs are designed to track the same reference index, these funds and their associated options share very similar sources of randomness. The authors provide a no-arbitrage pricing approach that consistently value options on LETFs with different leverage ratios with stochastic volatility and ...

  7. Dynamic Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange under standard assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2002-01-01

    Authenticated Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals communicating over a public network, and each holding public-private keys, to agree on a shared secret value. In this paper we study the natural extension of this cryptographic problem to a group of principals. We begin from existing formal security models and refine them to incorporate major missing details (e.g., strong-corruption and concurrent sessions). Within this model we define the execution of a protocol for authenticated dynamic group Diffie-Hellman and show that it is provably secure under the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. Our security result holds in the standard model and thus provides better security guarantees than previously published results in the random oracle model

  8. Energy exchange dynamics across L-H transitions in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, A.; Banerjee, S.; Zweben, S. J.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.

    2017-06-01

    We studied the energy exchange dynamics across the low-to-high-confinement (L-H) transition in NSTX discharges using the gas-puff imaging (GPI) diagnostic. The investigation focused on the energy exchange between flows and turbulence to help clarify the mechanism of the L-H transition. We applied this study to three types of heating schemes, including a total of 17 shots from the NSTX 2010 campaign run. Results show that the edge fluctuation characteristics (fluctuation levels, radial and poloidal correlation lengths) measured using GPI do not vary just prior to the H-mode transition, but change after the transition. Using a velocimetry approach (orthogonal-dynamics programming), velocity fields of a 24× 30 cm GPI view during the L-H transition were obtained with good spatial (˜1 cm) and temporal (˜2.5 μs) resolutions. Analysis using these velocity fields shows that the production term is systematically negative just prior to the L-H transition, indicating a transfer from mean flows to turbulence, which is inconsistent with the predator-prey paradigm. Moreover, the inferred absolute value of the production term is two orders of magnitude too small to explain the observed rapid L-H transition. These discrepancies are further reinforced by consideration of the ratio between the kinetic energy in the mean flow to the thermal free energy, which is estimated to be much less than 1, suggesting again that the turbulence depletion mechanism may not play an important role in the transition to the H-mode. Although the Reynolds work therefore appears to be too small to directly deplete the turbulent free energy reservoir, order-of-magnitude analysis shows that the Reynolds stress may still make a non-negligible contribution to the observed poloidal flows.

  9. Flow vibrations and dynamic instability of heat exchanger tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, S.; Langre, E. de

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a review of external-flow-induced vibration of heat exchanger tube bundles. Attention is focused on a dynamic instability, known as ''fluidelastic instability'', which can develop when flow is transverse to the tube axis. The main physical models proposed in the literature are successively reviewed in a critical way. As a consequence, some concepts are clarified, some a priori plausible misinterpretations are rejected and finally, certain basic mechanisms, induced by the flow-structure interaction and responsible for the ultimate onset of fluidelastic instability, are elucidated. Design tools and methods for predictive analysis of industrial cases are then presented. The usual design tool is the ''stability map'', i.e. an empirical correlation which must be interpreted in a conservative way. Of course, when using this approach, the designer must also consider reasonable safety margins. In the area of predictive analysis, the ''unsteady semi-analytical models'' seem to be a promising and efficient methodology. A modern implementation of these ideas mix an original experimental approach for taking fluid dynamic forces into account, together with non-classical numerical methods of mechanical vibration. (authors). 20 refs., 9 figs

  10. Dynamics of ligand exchange mechanism at Cu(II) in water: An ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics study with extended quantum mechanical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moin, Syed Tarique; Hofer, Thomas S.; Weiss, Alexander K. H.; Rode, Bernd M.

    2013-01-01

    Ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics (QMCF-MD) were successfully applied to Cu(II) embedded in water to elucidate structure and to understand dynamics of ligand exchange mechanism. From the simulation studies, it was found that using an extended large quantum mechanical region including two shells of hydration is required for a better description of the dynamics of exchanging water molecules. The structural features characterized by radial distribution function, angular distribution function and other analytical parameters were consistent with experimental data. The major outcome of this study was the dynamics of exchange mechanism and reactions in the first hydration shell that could not be studied so far. The dynamical data such as mean residence time of the first shell water molecules and other relevant data from the simulations are close to the results determined experimentally. Another major characteristic of hydrated Cu(II) is the Jahn-Teller distortion which was also successfully reproduced, leading to the final conclusion that the dominating aqua complex is a 6-coordinated species. The ab initio QMCF-MD formalism proved again its capabilities of unraveling even ambiguous properties of hydrated species that are far difficult to explore by any conventional quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach or experiment

  11. Dynamics of ligand exchange mechanism at Cu(II) in water: an ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics study with extended quantum mechanical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Syed Tarique; Hofer, Thomas S; Weiss, Alexander K H; Rode, Bernd M

    2013-07-07

    Ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics (QMCF-MD) were successfully applied to Cu(II) embedded in water to elucidate structure and to understand dynamics of ligand exchange mechanism. From the simulation studies, it was found that using an extended large quantum mechanical region including two shells of hydration is required for a better description of the dynamics of exchanging water molecules. The structural features characterized by radial distribution function, angular distribution function and other analytical parameters were consistent with experimental data. The major outcome of this study was the dynamics of exchange mechanism and reactions in the first hydration shell that could not be studied so far. The dynamical data such as mean residence time of the first shell water molecules and other relevant data from the simulations are close to the results determined experimentally. Another major characteristic of hydrated Cu(II) is the Jahn-Teller distortion which was also successfully reproduced, leading to the final conclusion that the dominating aqua complex is a 6-coordinated species. The ab initio QMCF-MD formalism proved again its capabilities of unraveling even ambiguous properties of hydrated species that are far difficult to explore by any conventional quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach or experiment.

  12. Modeling dynamic exchange of gaseous elemental mercury at polar sunrise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastoor, Ashu P; Davignon, Didier; Theys, Nicolas; Van Roozendael, Michel; Steffen, Alexandra; Ariya, Parisa A

    2008-07-15

    At polar sunrise, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) undergoes an exceptional dynamic exchange in the air and at the snow surface during which GEM can be rapidly removed from the atmosphere (the so-called atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs)) as well as re-emitted from the snow within a few hours to days in the Polar Regions. Although high concentrations of total mercury in snow following AMDEs is well documented, there is very little data available on the redox transformation processes of mercury in the snow and the fluxes of mercury at the air/snow interface. Therefore, the net gain of mercury in the Polar Regions as a result of AMDEs is still an open question. We developed a new version of the global mercury model, GRAHM, which includes for the first time bidirectional surface exchange of GEM in Polar Regions in spring and summer by developing schemes for mercury halogen oxidation, deposition, and re-emission. Also for the first time, GOME satellite data-derived boundary layer concentrations of BrO have been used in a global mercury model for representation of halogen mercury chemistry. Comparison of model simulated and measured atmospheric concentrations of GEM at Alert, Canada, for 3 years (2002-2004) shows the model's capability in simulating the rapid cycling of mercury during and after AMDEs. Brooks et al. (1) measured mercury deposition, reemission, and net surface gain fluxes of mercury at Barrow, AK, during an intensive measurement campaign for a 2 week period in spring (March 25 to April 7, 2003). They reported 1.7, 1.0 +/- 0.2, and 0.7 +/- 0.2 microg m(-2) deposition, re-emission, and net surface gain, respectively. Using the optimal configuration of the model, we estimated 1.8 microg m(-2) deposition, 1.0 microg m(-2) re-emission, and 0.8 microg m(-2) net surface gain of mercury for the same time period at Barrow. The estimated net annual accumulation of mercury within the Arctic Circle north of 66.5 degrees is approximately 174 t with +/-7 t of

  13. Real Exchange Rate Dynamics in a Small, Primary-Exporting Country

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsin S. Khan; Peter J. Montiel

    1987-01-01

    Although the nominal exchange rate is often used as a policy instrument in small, primary-commodity-exporting countries, the real exchange rate is an endogenous variable that responds to both exogenous and policyinduced shocks. This paper examines the dynamic effects on the real exchange rate of various shocks, such as devaluation, fiscal and trade policies, and changes in the terms of trade and foreign real interest rates. Because the path of the real exchange rate differs for different type...

  14. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA SPECIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    current study aimed at assessing the population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia ... and to the developing aquaculture industry ... B. Hotel. Pangani Island. Bongoyo Island. Mbudya Island. Msasani Bay ... Salinity values did not show clear trends.

  15. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  16. Fluctuation Dynamics of Exchange Rates on Indian Financial Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.; Barat, P.

    Here we investigate the scaling behavior and the complexity of the average daily exchange rate returns of the Indian Rupee against four foreign currencies namely US Dollar, Euro, Great Britain Pound and Japanese Yen. Our analysis revealed that the average daily exchange rate return of the Indian Rupee against the US Dollar exhibits a persistent scaling behavior and follow Levy stable distribution. On the contrary the average daily exchange rate returns of the other three foreign currencies show randomness and follow Gaussian distribution. Moreover, it is seen that the complexity of the average daily exchange rate return of the Indian Rupee against US Dollar is less than the other three exchange rate returns.

  17. Multiscale implementation of infinite-swap replica exchange molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tang-Qing; Lu, Jianfeng; Abrams, Cameron F; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2016-10-18

    Replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) is a popular method to accelerate conformational sampling of complex molecular systems. The idea is to run several replicas of the system in parallel at different temperatures that are swapped periodically. These swaps are typically attempted every few MD steps and accepted or rejected according to a Metropolis-Hastings criterion. This guarantees that the joint distribution of the composite system of replicas is the normalized sum of the symmetrized product of the canonical distributions of these replicas at the different temperatures. Here we propose a different implementation of REMD in which (i) the swaps obey a continuous-time Markov jump process implemented via Gillespie's stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA), which also samples exactly the aforementioned joint distribution and has the advantage of being rejection free, and (ii) this REMD-SSA is combined with the heterogeneous multiscale method to accelerate the rate of the swaps and reach the so-called infinite-swap limit that is known to optimize sampling efficiency. The method is easy to implement and can be trivially parallelized. Here we illustrate its accuracy and efficiency on the examples of alanine dipeptide in vacuum and C-terminal β-hairpin of protein G in explicit solvent. In this latter example, our results indicate that the landscape of the protein is a triple funnel with two folded structures and one misfolded structure that are stabilized by H-bonds.

  18. Two competing species in super-diffusive dynamical regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cognata, A.; Valenti, D.; Spagnolo, B.; Dubkov, A. A.

    2010-09-01

    The dynamics of two competing species within the framework of the generalized Lotka-Volterra equations, in the presence of multiplicative α-stable Lévy noise sources and a random time dependent interaction parameter, is studied. The species dynamics is characterized by two different dynamical regimes, exclusion of one species and coexistence of both, depending on the values of the interaction parameter, which obeys a Langevin equation with a periodically fluctuating bistable potential and an additive α-stable Lévy noise. The stochastic resonance phenomenon is analyzed for noise sources asymmetrically distributed. Finally, the effects of statistical dependence between multiplicative noise and additive noise on the dynamics of the two species are studied.

  19. Gas exchange of four woody species under salinity and soil waterlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D. Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate gas exchanges in seedlings of forest species grown in saline soils and subjected to soil waterlogging cycles. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement, with four forest species: Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr Allemão, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth, Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex. DC. Standl and Azadirachta indica A. Juss, two soil salinity levels (1.2 and 8.6 dS m-1 and two water regimes (with and without waterlogging. Measurements of stomatal conductance, transpiration and CO2 assimilation rate were performed before and after each waterlogging period. The interaction of the highest saline level (8.6 dS m-1 and waterlogging caused greater reductions in leaf gas exchange, except for Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex. DC. Standl was the species with highest sensitivity to both studied factors of stress.

  20. Dynamics of Mixed- Candida Species Biofilms in Response to Antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipulanandan, G; Herrera, M; Wiederhold, N P; Li, X; Mintz, J; Wickes, B L; Kadosh, D

    2018-01-01

    Oral infections caused by Candida species, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, are frequently associated with biofilms. Although Candida albicans is the predominant organism found in patients with oral thrush, a biofilm infection, there is an increasing incidence of oral colonization and infections caused by non- albicans Candida species, including C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis, which are frequently more resistant to antifungal treatment. While single-species Candida biofilms have been well studied, considerably less is known about the dynamics of mixed- Candida species biofilms and how these dynamics are altered by antifungal treatment. To address these questions, we developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based approach to determine the precise species composition of mixed- Candida species biofilms formed by clinical isolates and laboratory strains in the presence and absence of clinically relevant concentrations of 3 commonly used antifungals: fluconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B. In monospecies biofilms, fluconazole exposure favored growth of C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, while caspofungin generally favored significant growth of all species to a varying degree. Fluconazole was not effective against preformed mixed- Candida species biofilms while amphotericin B was potent. As a general trend, in mixed- Candida species biofilms, C. albicans lost dominance in the presence of antifungals. Interestingly, presence in mixed versus monospecies biofilms reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Overall, our data suggest that antifungal treatment favors the growth of specific non- albicans Candida species in mixed- Candida species biofilms.

  1. Temporal Dynamics of Social Exchange and the Development of Solidarity: "Testing the Waters" versus "Taking a Leap of Faith"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Ko; Sheldon, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    In their concerted efforts to unpack the microprocesses that transform repeated exchanges into an exchange relation, exchange theorists have paid little attention to how actors perceive changes and dynamics in exchanges over time. We help fill this gap by studying how temporal patterns of exchange affect the development of cohesion. Some exchange…

  2. Global attractors and extinction dynamics of cyclically competing species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulands, Steffen; Zielinski, Alejandro; Frey, Erwin

    2013-05-01

    Transitions to absorbing states are of fundamental importance in nonequilibrium physics as well as ecology. In ecology, absorbing states correspond to the extinction of species. We here study the spatial population dynamics of three cyclically interacting species. The interaction scheme comprises both direct competition between species as in the cyclic Lotka-Volterra model, and separated selection and reproduction processes as in the May-Leonard model. We show that the dynamic processes leading to the transient maintenance of biodiversity are closely linked to attractors of the nonlinear dynamics for the overall species' concentrations. The characteristics of these global attractors change qualitatively at certain threshold values of the mobility and depend on the relative strength of the different types of competition between species. They give information about the scaling of extinction times with the system size and thereby the stability of biodiversity. We define an effective free energy as the negative logarithm of the probability to find the system in a specific global state before reaching one of the absorbing states. The global attractors then correspond to minima of this effective energy landscape and determine the most probable values for the species' global concentrations. As in equilibrium thermodynamics, qualitative changes in the effective free energy landscape indicate and characterize the underlying nonequilibrium phase transitions. We provide the complete phase diagrams for the population dynamics and give a comprehensive analysis of the spatio-temporal dynamics and routes to extinction in the respective phases.

  3. A Unified Approach to Dynamic Matching and Barter Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    similar participants (e.g., the National Odd Shoe Exchange [164]); • Shift exchange, where nurses or other shift workers swap shifts (typically an ad...surgery. For example, if the candidate comes down with a cold or flu days before surgery, the surgery may need to be rescheduled or permanently

  4. Central-marginal population dynamics in species invasions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinfeng eGuo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The species’ range limits and associated central-marginal (C-M; i.e., from species range center to margin population dynamics continue to draw increasing attention because of their importance for current emerging issues such as biotic invasions and epidemic diseases under global change. Previous studies have mainly focused on species borders and C-M process in natural settings for native species. More recently, growing efforts are devoted to examine the C-M patterns and process for invasive species partly due to their relatively short history, highly dynamic populations, and management implications. Here I examine recent findings and information gaps related to (1 the C-M population dynamics linked to species invasions, and (2 the possible effects of climate change and land use on the C-M patterns and processes. Unlike most native species that are relatively stable (some even having contracting populations or ranges, many invasive species are still spreading fast and form new distribution or abundance centers. Because of the strong nonlinearity of population demographic or vital rates (i.e. birth, death, immigration and emigration across the C-M gradients and the increased complexity of species ranges due to habitat fragmentation, multiple introductions, range-wide C-M comparisons and simulation involving multiple vital rates are needed in the future.

  5. Macroeconomic Effects of Nominal Exchange Rate Regimes: New Insights into the Role of Price Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kollmann, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This Paper analyses the effects of pegged and floating exchange rates using a two-country dynamic general equilibrium model that is calibrated to the US and a European aggregate. The model assumes shocks to money, productivity and the interest parity condition. It captures the fact that the sharp increase in nominal exchange rate volatility after the abandonment of the Bretton Woods (BW) system was accompanied by a commensurate rise in real exchange rate volatility, but had no pronounced effe...

  6. Foliar trichomes, boundary layers, and gas exchange in 12 species of epiphytic Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Brett W; Martin, Craig E

    2006-04-01

    We examined the relationships between H2O and CO2 gas exchange parameters and leaf trichome cover in 12 species of Tillandsia that exhibit a wide range in trichome size and trichome cover. Previous investigations have hypothesized that trichomes function to enhance boundary layers around Tillandsioid leaves thereby buffering the evaporative demand of the atmosphere and retarding transpirational water loss. Data presented herein suggest that trichome-enhanced boundary layers have negligible effects on Tillandsia gas exchange, as indicated by the lack of statistically significant relationships in regression analyses of gas exchange parameters and trichome cover. We calculated trichome and leaf boundary layer components, and their associated effects on H2O and CO2 gas exchange. The results further indicate trichome-enhanced boundary layers do not significantly reduce transpirational water loss. We conclude that although the trichomes undoubtedly increase the thickness of the boundary layer, the increase due to Tillandsioid trichomes is inconsequential in terms of whole leaf boundary layers, and any associated reduction in transpirational water loss is also negligible within the whole plant gas exchange pathway.

  7. Nesting behaviour influences species-specific gas exchange across avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Steven J; Maurer, Golo; Thomas, Gavin H; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Cassey, Phillip

    2014-09-15

    Carefully controlled gas exchange across the eggshell is essential for the development of the avian embryo. Water vapour conductance (G(H2O)) across the shell, typically measured as mass loss during incubation, has been demonstrated to optimally ensure the healthy development of the embryo while avoiding desiccation. Accordingly, eggs exposed to sub-optimal gas exchange have reduced hatching success. We tested the association between eggshell G(H2O) and putative life-history correlates of adult birds, ecological nest parameters and physical characteristics of the egg itself to investigate how variation in G(H2O) has evolved to maintain optimal water loss across a diverse set of nest environments. We measured gas exchange through eggshell fragments in 151 British breeding bird species and fitted phylogenetically controlled, general linear models to test the relationship between G(H2O) and potential predictor parameters of each species. Of our 17 life-history traits, only two were retained in the final model: wet-incubating parent and nest type. Eggs of species where the parent habitually returned to the nest with wet plumage had significantly higher G(H2O) than those of parents that returned to the nest with dry plumage. Eggs of species nesting in ground burrows, cliffs and arboreal cups had significantly higher G(H2O) than those of species nesting on the ground in open nests or cups, in tree cavities and in shallow arboreal nests. Phylogenetic signal (measured as Pagel's λ) was intermediate in magnitude, suggesting that differences observed in the G(H2O) are dependent upon a combination of shared ancestry and species-specific life history and ecological traits. Although these data are correlational by nature, they are consistent with the hypothesis that parents constrained to return to the nest with wet plumage will increase the humidity of the nest environment, and the eggs of these species have evolved a higher G(H2O) to overcome this constraint and still

  8. Species Turnover through Time: Colonization and Extinction Dynamics across Metacommunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuvoloni, Felipe Micali; Feres, Reinaldo José Fazzio; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Island biogeography and metacommunity theory often use equilibrium assumptions to predict local diversity, yet nonequilibrium dynamics are common in nature. In nonequilibrium communities, local diversity fluctuates through time as the relative importance of colonization and extinction change. Here, we test the prevalence and causes of nonequilibrium dynamics in metacommunities of mites associated with rubber trees distributed over large spatial (>1,000 km) and temporal (>30-60 generations) scales in Brazil. We measured colonization and extinction rates to test species turnover and nonequilibrium dynamics over a growing season. Mite metacommunities exhibited nonequilibrium dynamics for most months of the year, and these dynamics tracked climatic conditions. Monthly shifts in temperature of more than 1°C resulted in nonequilibrium dynamics, as did mean temperatures outside of two critical ranges. Nonequilibrium dynamics were caused by a change in colonization with temperature change and changes in both colonization and extinction with absolute temperature. Species turnover showed different trends; high relative humidity increased both colonization and extinction rates, increasing turnover but not nonequilibrium dynamics. Our study illustrates that testing nonequilibrium dynamics can provide new insights into the drivers of colonization, extinction, and diversity fluctuations in metacommunities.

  9. Covered Interest Parity, Uncovered Interest Parity, and Exchange Rate Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, Jonathan; Turnovsky, Stephen J.

    1981-01-01

    A number of macroeconomic models of open economies under flexible exchange rate assume a strong version of perfect capital mobility which implies that currency speculation commands no risk premium. If this assumption is dropped a number of important results no longer obtain. First, the exchange rate and interest rate cannot be in steady state unless both the government deficit and current account equal zero, not simply their sum, as would otherwise be the case. Second, even in steady state th...

  10. Real Effective Exchange Rate Dynamics in Malawi and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kisu Simwaka

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the main determinants of real effective exchange rate in Malawi and South Africa. In our empirical analysis, we conducted unit root and cointegration test in order to determine the time series properties of the data and establish whether there is a long run relationship between real effective exchange rate and explanatory variables. Having ascertained that almost all variiables are integrated of order one and cointegrated, an error correction model is formulated and es...

  11. Calculation of vessels and heat exchangers submitted to dynamic efforts caused by postulated ruptures in pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, L.D.B.; Amaral, J.A.R. do; Alves, M.C.T.

    1984-01-01

    An example of dynamic analysis of a heat exchanger subjected to pipe break transient loadings is shown. The contribution of the type of loading and component's model is discussed. Simplified verification methods are also presented. (Author) [pt

  12. Effects of Drought and Rewetting on Growth and Gas Exchange of Minor European Broadleaved Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Kunz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread and economically important European tree species such as Norway spruce, Scots pine, and European beech are projected to be negatively affected by the increasing intensity and frequency of dry and hot conditions in a future climate. Hence, there is an increasing need to investigate the suitability of presumably more drought tolerant species to ensure future ecological stability, biodiversity, and productivity of forests. Based on their distribution patterns and climatic envelopes, the rare, minor broadleaved tree species Sorbus torminalis ((L. CRANTZ, S. domestica (L., Acer campestre (L., and A. platanoides (L. are assumed to be drought tolerant, however, there is only limited experimental basis to support that notion. This study aimed at quantifying growth and gas exchange of seedlings of these species during drought conditions, and their capacity to recover following drought. For that purpose, they were compared to the common companion species Quercus petraea ((MATTUSCHKA LIEBL. and Fagus sylvatica (L.. Here, potted seedlings of these species were exposed to water limitation followed by rewetting cycles in a greenhouse experiment. Photosynthesis and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance as well as root and shoot growth rates indicated a high drought resistance of A. campestre and A. platanoides. Sorbus domestica showed a marked ability to recover after drought stress. Therefore, we conclude that these minor tree species have the potential to enrich forests on drought-prone sites. Results from this pot experiment need to be complemented by field studies, in which the drought response of the species is not influenced by restrictions to root development.

  13. Multiple Reserve Requirements, Exchange Rates, Sudden Stops and Equilibrium Dynamics in a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Hernandez-Verme; Wen-Yao Wang

    2009-01-01

    We model a typical Asian-crisis-economy using dynamic general equilibrium tech-niques. Exchange rates obtain from nontrivial fiat-currencies demands. Sudden stops/bank-panics are possible, and key for evaluating the merits of alternative ex-change rate regimes. Strategic complementarities contribute to the severe indetermi-nacy of the continuum of equilibria. The scope for existence and indeterminacy of equilibria and dynamic properties are associated with the underlying policy regime. Bindin...

  14. Richards-like two species population dynamics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Fabiano; Cabella, Brenno Caetano Troca; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2014-12-01

    The two-species population dynamics model is the simplest paradigm of inter- and intra-species interaction. Here, we present a generalized Lotka-Volterra model with intraspecific competition, which retrieves as particular cases, some well-known models. The generalization parameter is related to the species habitat dimensionality and their interaction range. Contrary to standard models, the species coupling parameters are general, not restricted to non-negative values. Therefore, they may represent different ecological regimes, which are derived from the asymptotic solution stability analysis and are represented in a phase diagram. In this diagram, we have identified a forbidden region in the mutualism regime, and a survival/extinction transition with dependence on initial conditions for the competition regime. Also, we shed light on two types of predation and competition: weak, if there are species coexistence, or strong, if at least one species is extinguished.

  15. Benchmarking novel approaches for modelling species range dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurell, Damaris; Thuiller, Wilfried; Pagel, Jörn; Cabral, Juliano S; Münkemüller, Tamara; Gravel, Dominique; Dullinger, Stefan; Normand, Signe; Schiffers, Katja H; Moore, Kara A; Zimmermann, Niklaus E

    2016-08-01

    Increasing biodiversity loss due to climate change is one of the most vital challenges of the 21st century. To anticipate and mitigate biodiversity loss, models are needed that reliably project species' range dynamics and extinction risks. Recently, several new approaches to model range dynamics have been developed to supplement correlative species distribution models (SDMs), but applications clearly lag behind model development. Indeed, no comparative analysis has been performed to evaluate their performance. Here, we build on process-based, simulated data for benchmarking five range (dynamic) models of varying complexity including classical SDMs, SDMs coupled with simple dispersal or more complex population dynamic models (SDM hybrids), and a hierarchical Bayesian process-based dynamic range model (DRM). We specifically test the effects of demographic and community processes on model predictive performance. Under current climate, DRMs performed best, although only marginally. Under climate change, predictive performance varied considerably, with no clear winners. Yet, all range dynamic models improved predictions under climate change substantially compared to purely correlative SDMs, and the population dynamic models also predicted reasonable extinction risks for most scenarios. When benchmarking data were simulated with more complex demographic and community processes, simple SDM hybrids including only dispersal often proved most reliable. Finally, we found that structural decisions during model building can have great impact on model accuracy, but prior system knowledge on important processes can reduce these uncertainties considerably. Our results reassure the clear merit in using dynamic approaches for modelling species' response to climate change but also emphasize several needs for further model and data improvement. We propose and discuss perspectives for improving range projections through combination of multiple models and for making these approaches

  16. Leaf gas exchange characteristics of three neotropical mangrove species in response to varying hydroperiod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Twilley, Robert R.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Gardiner, Emile S.

    2006-01-01

    We determined how different hydroperiods affected leaf gas exchange characteristics of greenhouse-grown seedlings (2002) and saplings (2003) of the mangrove species Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f., and Rhizophora mangle L. Hydroperiod treatments included no flooding (unflooded), intermittent flooding (intermittent), and permanent flooding (flooded). Plants in the intermittent treatment were measured under both flooded and drained states and compared separately. In the greenhouse study, plants of all species maintained different leaf areas in the contrasting hydroperiods during both years. Assimilation–light response curves indicated that the different hydroperiods had little effect on leaf gas exchange characteristics in either seedlings or saplings. However, short-term intermittent flooding for between 6 and 22 days caused a 20% reduction in maximum leaf-level carbon assimilation rate, a 51% lower light requirement to attain 50% of maximum assimilation, and a 38% higher demand from dark respiration. Although interspecific differences were evident for nearly all measured parameters in both years, there was little consistency in ranking of the interspecific responses. Species by hydroperiod interactions were significant only for sapling leaf area. In a field study, R. mangle saplings along the Shark River in the Everglades National Park either demonstrated no significant effect or slight enhancement of carbon assimilation and water-use efficiency while flooded. We obtained little evidence that contrasting hydroperiods affect leaf gas exchange characteristics of mangrove seedlings or saplings over long time intervals; however, intermittent flooding may cause short-term depressions in leaf gas exchange. The resilience of mangrove systems to flooding, as demonstrated in the permanently flooded treatments, will likely promote photosynthetic and morphological adjustment to slight hydroperiod shifts in many settings..

  17. Dynamics of oil price, precious metal prices, and exchange rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Ramazan; Soytas, Ugur; Hammoudeh, Shawkat

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the co-movements and information transmission among the spot prices of four precious metals (gold, silver, platinum, and palladium), oil price, and the US dollar/euro exchange rate. We find evidence of a weak long-run equilibrium relationship but strong feedbacks in the short run. The spot precious metal markets respond significantly (but temporarily) to a shock in any of the prices of the other metal prices and the exchange rate. Furthermore, we discover some evidence of market overreactions in the palladium and platinum cases as well as in the exchange rate market. In conclusion, whether there are overreactions and re-adjustments or not, investors may diversify at least a portion of the risk away by investing in precious metals, oil, and the euro. Policy implications are provided. (author)

  18. Monetary policy and exchange rate dynamics: the exchange rate as a shock absorber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Audzei, Volha; Brázdik, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 5 (2015), s. 391-410 ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : Czech Republic * exchange rates * sign restrictions Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2015 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1340_audzei.pdf

  19. Absorbing a windfall of foreign exchange: Dutch disease dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.; Venables, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The permanent income rule is seldom the optimal response to a windfall of foreign exchange, such as that from a resource discovery. Absorptive capacity constraints require domestic investment, and investment in structures requires non-traded inputs the supply of which is constrained by the initial

  20. The dynamic complexity of a three species food chain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Songjuan; Zhao Min

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a three-species food chain model is analytically investigated on theories of ecology and using numerical simulation. Bifurcation diagrams are obtained for biologically feasible parameters. The results show that the system exhibits rich complexity features such as stable, periodic and chaotic dynamics

  1. Random walk theory and exchange rate dynamics in transition economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradojević Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the validity of the random walk theory in the Euro-Serbian dinar exchange rate market. We apply Andrew Lo and Archie MacKinlay's (1988 conventional variance ratio test and Jonathan Wright's (2000 non-parametric ranks and signs based variance ratio tests to the daily Euro/Serbian dinar exchange rate returns using the data from January 2005 - December 2008. Both types of variance ratio tests overwhelmingly reject the random walk hypothesis over the data span. To assess the robustness of our findings, we examine the forecasting performance of a non-linear, nonparametric model in the spirit of Francis Diebold and James Nason (1990 and find that it is able to significantly improve upon the random walk model, thus confirming the existence of foreign exchange market imperfections in a small transition economy such as Serbia. In the last part of the paper, we conduct a comparative study on how our results relate to those of other transition economies in the region.

  2. Protein structural dynamics at the gas/water interface examined by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yiming; Konermann, Lars

    2015-08-01

    Gas/water interfaces (such as air bubbles or foam) are detrimental to the stability of proteins, often causing aggregation. This represents a potential problem for industrial processes, for example, the production and handling of protein drugs. Proteins possess surfactant-like properties, resulting in a high affinity for gas/water interfaces. The tendency of previously buried nonpolar residues to maximize contact with the gas phase can cause significant structural distortion. Most earlier studies in this area employed spectroscopic tools that could only provide limited information. Here we use hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) for probing the conformational dynamics of the model protein myoglobin (Mb) in the presence of N(2) bubbles. HDX/MS relies on the principle that unfolded and/or highly dynamic regions undergo faster deuteration than tightly folded segments. In bubble-free solution Mb displays EX2 behavior, reflecting the occurrence of short-lived excursions to partially unfolded conformers. A dramatically different behavior is seen in the presence of N(2) bubbles; EX2 dynamics still take place, but in addition the protein shows EX1 behavior. The latter results from interconversion of the native state with conformers that are globally unfolded and long-lived. These unfolded species likely correspond to Mb that is adsorbed to the surface of gas bubbles. N(2) sparging also induces aggregation. To explain the observed behavior we propose a simple model, that is, "semi-unfolded" ↔ "native" ↔ "globally unfolded" → "aggregated". This model quantitatively reproduces the experimentally observed kinetics. To the best of our knowledge, the current study marks the first exploration of surface denaturation phenomena by HDX/MS. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  3. Short-run Exchange-Rate Dynamics: Theory and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, John A.; Dahl, Christian Møller; Osler, Carol L.

    Recent research has revealed a wealth of information about the microeconomics of currency markets and thus the determination of exchange rates at short horizons. This information is valuable to us as scientists since, like evidence of macroeconomic regularities, it can provide critical guidance...... of currency markets, it accurately reflects the constraints and objectives faced by the major participants, and it fits key stylized facts concerning returns and order flow. With respect to macroeconomics, the model is consistent with most of the major puzzles that have emerged under floating rates....

  4. Comparison and validation of dynamic characteristic analytical method for tubular heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qing; Xu Dinggeng; Chen Meng; Shen Rui

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the natural frequencies of Normal Residual Heat Removal Heat Exchangers are evaluated based on the beam and shell-beam finite element models. The corresponding results are compared and some discrepancies are observed. These discrepancies are analyzed in terms of the analysis of a cylindrical shell and the unreasonable treatment of boundary conditions is accordingly pointed out. The experimental data of the natural frequencies of heat exchangers used for Qinshan Phase Ⅰ Nuclear Power Plant are compared with the computational results from the shell-beam models for corresponding heat exchangers of C-2 program. The experimental and numerical results agree quite well, which implies that the shell-beam finite element simplification is applicable to the heat exchangers. The results indicate that the procedures introduced in this article apply to the dynamic analysis of other similar heat exchangers. (authors)

  5. Separation and determination of arsenic species in water by selective exchange and hybrid resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, Nureddin Ben [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia); Rajakovic-Ognjanovic, Vladana N. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, Belgrade (Serbia); Marinkovic, Aleksandar D. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia); Rajakovic, Ljubinka V., E-mail: ljubinka@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2011-11-07

    Highlights: {yields} A simple and efficient method for separation and determination of arsenic species. {yields} A new hybrid resin HY-AgCl is effective for iAs and oAs analytical separation. {yields} SBAE resin was convenient for the separation of As(III) from As(V) and oAs species. {yields} HY-Fe resin was convenient for the separation of DMAs(V). - Abstract: A simple and efficient method for separation and determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and organic arsenic (oAs) in drinking, natural and wastewater was developed. If arsenic is present in water prevailing forms are inorganic acids of As(III) and As(V). oAs can be found in traces as monomethylarsenic acid, MMA(V), and dimethylarsenic acid, DMAs(V). Three types of resins: a strong base anion exchange (SBAE) and two hybrid (HY) resins: HY-Fe and HY-AgCl, based on the activity of hydrated iron oxides and a silver chloride were investigated. It was found that the sorption processes (ion exchange, adsorption and chemisorptions) of arsenic species on SBAE (ion exchange) and HY resins depend on pH values of water. The quantitative separation of molecular and ionic forms of iAs and oAs was achieved by SBAE and pH adjustment, the molecular form of As(III) that exists in the water at pH <8.0 was not bonded with SBAE, which was convenient for direct determination of As(III) concentration in the effluent. HY-Fe resin retained all arsenic species except DMAs(V), which makes possible direct measurements of this specie in the effluent. HY-AgCl resin retained all iAs which was convenient for direct determination of oAs species concentration in the effluent. The selective bonding of arsenic species on three types of resins makes possible the development of the procedure for measuring and calculation of all arsenic species in water. In order to determine capacity of resins the preliminary investigations were performed in batch system and fixed bed flow system. Resin capacities were calculated according to breakthrough

  6. A nuclear magnetic relaxation study of hydrogen exchange and water dynamics in aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankhorst, D.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis exchange of water protons in solutions of some weak electrolytes and polyelectrolytes is studied. Also the dynamical behaviour of water molecules in pure water is investigated. For these purposes nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation measurements, in solutions of oxygen-17 enriched water, are interpreted. The exchange rate of the water protons is derived from the contribution of 1 H- 17 O scalar coupling to the proton transverse relaxation rate. This rate is measured by the Carr-Purcell technique. (Auth.)

  7. Cluster fusion-fission dynamics in the Singapore stock exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Boon Kin; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the cross-correlations between stocks in the Singapore stock exchange (SGX) evolve over 2008 and 2009 within overlapping one-month time windows. In particular, we examine how these cross-correlations change before, during, and after the Sep-Oct 2008 Lehman Brothers Crisis. To do this, we extend the complete-linkage hierarchical clustering algorithm, to obtain robust clusters of stocks with stronger intracluster correlations, and weaker intercluster correlations. After we identify the robust clusters in all time windows, we visualize how these change in the form of a fusion-fission diagram. Such a diagram depicts graphically how the cluster sizes evolve, the exchange of stocks between clusters, as well as how strongly the clusters mix. From the fusion-fission diagram, we see a giant cluster growing and disintegrating in the SGX, up till the Lehman Brothers Crisis in September 2008 and the market crashes of October 2008. After the Lehman Brothers Crisis, clusters in the SGX remain small for few months before giant clusters emerge once again. In the aftermath of the crisis, we also find strong mixing of component stocks between clusters. As a result, the correlation between initially strongly-correlated pairs of stocks decay exponentially with average life time of about a month. These observations impact strongly how portfolios and trading strategies should be formulated.

  8. Simultaneous Disulfide and Boronic Acid Ester Exchange in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna L. Diemer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic combinatorial chemistry has emerged as a promising tool for the discovery of complex receptors in supramolecular chemistry. At the heart of dynamic combinatorial chemistry are the reversible reactions that enable the exchange of building blocks between library members in dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs ensuring thermodynamic control over the system. If more than one reversible reaction operates in a single dynamic combinatorial library, the complexity of the system increases dramatically, and so does its possible applications. One can imagine two reversible reactions that operate simultaneously or two reversible reactions that operate independently. Both these scenarios have advantages and disadvantages. In this contribution, we show how disulfide exchange and boronic ester transesterification can function simultaneous in dynamic combinatorial libraries under appropriate conditions. We describe the detailed studies necessary to establish suitable reaction conditions and highlight the analytical techniques appropriate to study this type of system.

  9. Coupled acoustic-gravity field for dynamic evaluation of ion exchange with a single resin bead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazaki, Takahiro; Hirawa, Shungo; Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo

    2010-06-01

    A coupled acoustic-gravity field is efficient for entrapping a particle at the position determined by its acoustic properties rather than its size. This field has been applied to the dynamic observation of ion-exchange reactions occurring in a single resin bead. The replacement of counterions in an ion-exchange resin induces changes in its acoustic properties, such as density and compressibility. Therefore, we can visually trace the advancement of an ion-exchange reaction as a time change in the levitation position of a resin bead entrapped in the field. Cation-exchange reactions occurring in resin beads with diameters of 40-120 microm are typically completed within 100-200 s. Ion-exchange equilibrium or kinetics is often evaluated with off-line chemical analyses, which require a batch amount of ion exchangers. Measurements with a single resin particle allow us to evaluate ion-exchange dynamics and kinetics of ions including those that are difficult to measure by usual off-line analyses. The diffusion properties of ions in resins have been successfully evaluated from the time change in the levitation positions of resin beads.

  10. Theoretical investigation on the mechanism and dynamics of oxo exchange of neptunyl(VI) hydroxide in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xia; Chai, Zhifang; Wang, Dongqi

    2015-03-21

    Four types of reaction mechanisms for the oxo ligand exchange of monomeric and dimeric neptunyl(VI) hydroxide in aqueous solution were explored computationally using density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio classical molecular dynamics. The obtained results were compared with previous studies on the oxo exchange of uranyl hydroxide, as well as with experiments. It is found that the stable T-shaped [NpO3(OH)3](3-) intermediate is a key species for oxo exchange in the proton transfer in mononuclear Path I and binuclear Path IV, similar to the case of uranyl(VI) hydroxide. Path I is thought to be the preferred oxo exchange mechanism for neptunyl(VI) hydroxide in our calculations, due to the lower activation energy (22.7 and 13.1 kcal mol(-1) for ΔG(‡) and ΔH(‡), respectively) of the overall reaction. Path II via a cis-neptunyl structure assisted by a water molecule might be a competitive channel against Path I with a mononuclear mechanism, owing to a rapid dynamical process occurring in Path II. In Path IV with the binuclear mechanism, oxo exchange is accomplished via the interaction between [NpO2(OH)4](2-) and T-shaped [NpO3(OH)3](3-) with a low activation energy for the rate-determining step, however, the overall energy required to fulfill the reaction is slightly higher than that in mononuclear Path I, suggesting a possible binuclear process in the higher energy region. The chemical bonding evolution along the reaction pathways was discussed by using topological methodologies of the electron localization function (ELF).

  11. Dynamic Seascapes Predict the Marine Occurrence of an Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breece, M.; Fox, D. A.; Dunton, K. J.; Frisk, M. G.; Jordaan, A.; Oliver, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Landscapes are powerful environmental partitions that index complex biogeochemical processes that drive terrestrial species distributions. However, translating landscapes into seascapes requires that the dynamic nature of the fluid environment be reflected in spatial and temporal boundaries such that seascapes can be used in marine species distribution models and conservation decisions. A seascape product derived from satellite ocean color and sea surface temperature partitioned mid-Atlantic coastal waters on scales commensurate with the Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus coastal migration. The seascapes were then matched with acoustic telemetry records of Atlantic Sturgeon to determine seascape selectivity. To test our model, we used real-time satellite seascape maps to normalize the sampling of an autonomous underwater vehicle that resampled similar geographic regions with time varying seascape classifications. We found that Atlantic Sturgeon exhibited preference for one seascape class over those available in the coastal ocean, indicating selection for environmental properties that co-varied with the dynamic seascape class rather than geographical location. The recent listing of Atlantic Sturgeon as Endangered throughout much of their United States range has highlighted the need for improved understanding of their occurrence in marine waters to reduce interactions with various anthropogenic stressors. Narrow dynamic migration corridors may enable seascapes to be used as a daily decision tool by industry and managers to reduce interactions with this Endangered Species during coastal migrations.

  12. Jealousy and Trust: Unexplored Dimensions of Social Exchange Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gerald W.; Osmond, Marie Withers

    Little effort has been made to systematically assess the determinants and consequences of marital jealousy which affect marital, familial and extra-familial expectations, interactions and behavior. A preliminary attempt to rectify this omission provides a conceptual/theoretical perspective on jealousy dynamics in marriage. Marital jealousy, a…

  13. Patch dynamics and metapopulation theory: the case of successional species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, P; Possingham, H

    2001-04-07

    We present a mathematical framework that combines extinction-colonization dynamics with the dynamics of patch succession. We draw an analogy between the epidemiological categorization of individuals (infected, susceptible, latent and resistant) and the patch structure of a spatially heterogeneous landscape (occupied-suitable, empty-suitable, occupied-unsuitable and empty-unsuitable). This approach allows one to consider life-history attributes that influence persistence in patchy environments (e.g., longevity, colonization ability) in concert with extrinsic processes (e.g., disturbances, succession) that lead to spatial heterogeneity in patch suitability. It also allows the incorporation of seed banks and other dormant life forms, thus broadening patch occupancy dynamics to include sink habitats. We use the model to investigate how equilibrium patch occupancy is influenced by four critical parameters: colonization rate, extinction rate, disturbance frequency and the rate of habitat succession. This analysis leads to general predictions about how the temporal scaling of patch succession and extinction-colonization dynamics influences long-term persistence. We apply the model to herbaceous, early-successional species that inhabit open patches created by periodic disturbances. We predict the minimum disturbance frequency required for viable management of such species in the Florida scrub ecosystem. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  14. Modeling and simulation of the dynamic behavior of portable proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, C.

    2005-07-01

    In order to analyze the operational behavior, a mathematical model of planar self-breathing fuel cells is developed and validated in Chapter 3 of this thesis. The multicomponent transport of the species is considered as well as the couplings between the transport processes of heat, charge, and mass and the electrochemical reactions. Furthermore, to explain the oxygen mass transport limitation in the porous electrode of the cathode side an agglomerate model for the oxygen reduction reaction is developed. In Chapter 4 the important issue of liquid water generation and transport in PEMFCs is addressed. One of the major tasks when operating this type of fuel cell is avoiding the complete flooding of the PEMFC during operation. A one-dimensional and isothermal model is developed that is based on a coupled system of partial differential equations. The model contains a dynamic and two-phase description of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell. The mass transport in the gas phase and in the liquid phase is considered as well as the phase transition between liquid water and water vapor. The transport of charges and the electrochemical reactions are part of the model. Flooding effects that are caused by liquid water accumulation are described by this model. Moreover, the model contains a time-dependent description of the membrane that accounts for Schroeder's paradox. The model is applied to simulate cyclic voltammograms. Chapter 5 is focused on the dynamic investigation of PEMFC stacks. Understanding the dynamic behavior of fuel cell stacks is important for the operation and control of fuel cell stacks. Using the single cell model of Chapter 3 and the dynamic model of Chapter 4 as basis, a mathematical model of a PEMFC stack is developed. However, due to the complexity of a fuel cell stack, the spatial resolution and dynamic description of the liquid water transport are not accounted for. These restrictions allow for direct comparison between the solution variables of

  15. Methanol exchange dynamics between a temperate cropland soil and the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, A.; Aubinet, M.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Bodson, B.; Moureaux, C.; Delaplace, P.; De Ligne, A.; Heinesch, B.

    2018-03-01

    Soil methanol (CH3OH) exchange is often considered as several orders of magnitude smaller than plant methanol exchange. However, for some ecosystems, it is significant in regard with plant exchange and worth thus better consideration. Our study sought to gain a better understanding of soil exchange. Methanol flux was measured at the ecosystem scale on a bare agricultural soil over two contrasted periods using the disjunct eddy covariance by mass scanning technique. A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer was used for the methanol ambient mixing ratio measurements. Bi-directional exchange dynamics were observed. Methanol emission occurred under dry and warm conditions and correlated best with soil surface temperature, whereas methanol uptake occurred under wet and mild conditions and correlated well with the methanol ambient concentration. After having tested a physical adsorption-desorption model and by confronting our data with the literature, we propose that the exchange was ruled by both a physical adsorption/desorption mechanism and by a methanol source, which still needs to be identified. The soil emission decreased when the vegetation developed. The reasons for the decrease still need to be determined. Overall, the dynamics observed at our site were similar to those reported by other studies for both cropland and forest ecosystems. The mechanism proposed in our work can thus be possibly applied to other sites or ecosystems. In addition, the methanol exchange rate was in the upper range of the exchange rates reported by other soil studies, suggesting that cropland soils are more important methanol exchangers than those in other ecosystems and should therefore be further investigated.

  16. Analyzing energy-water exchange dynamics in the Thar desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, P.; Singh, Nilendu; Srinivas, C. V.; Singhal, Mohit; Chauhan, Pankaj; Singh, Maharaj; Sinha, N. K.

    2017-07-01

    Regions of strong land-atmosphere coupling will be more susceptible to the hydrological impacts in the intensifying hydrological cycle. In this study, micrometeorological experiments were performed to examine the land-atmosphere coupling strength over a heat low region (Thar desert, NW India), known to influence the Indian summer monsoon (ISM). Within the vortex of Thar desert heat low, energy-water exchange and coupling behavior were studied for 4 consecutive years (2011-2014) based on sub-hourly measurements of radiative-convective flux, state parameters and sub-surface thermal profiles using lead-lag analysis between various E-W balance components. Results indicated a strong (0.11-0.35) but variable monsoon season (July-September) land-atmosphere coupling events. Coupling strength declined with time, becomes negative beyond 10-day lag. Evapotranspiration (LE) influences rainfall at the monthly time-scale (20-40 days). Highly correlated monthly rainfall and LE anomalies (r = 0.55, P < 0.001) suggested a large precipitation memory linked to the local land surface state. Sensible heating (SH) during March and April are more strongly (r = 0.6-0.7) correlated to ISM rainfall than heating during May or June (r = 0.16-0.36). Analyses show strong and weak couplings among net radiation (Rn)-vapour pressure deficit (VPD), LE-VPD and Rn-LE switching between energy-limited to water-limited conditions. Consistently, +ve and -ve residual energy [(dE) = (Rn - G) - (SH + LE)] were associated with regional wet and dry spells respectively with a lead of 10-40 days. Dew deposition (18.8-37.9 mm) was found an important component in the annual surface water balance. Strong association of variation of LE and rainfall was found during monsoon at local-scale and with regional-scale LE (MERRA 2D) but with a lag which was more prominent at local-scale than at regional-scale. Higher pre-monsoon LE at local-scale as compared to low and monotonous variation in regional-scale LE led to

  17. Quantum-Dynamical Theory of Electron Exchange Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke Ritchie

    2013-01-01

    aggregate, is elucidated. The relationship depends on the use of spin-dependent quantum trajectories (SDQT to evaluate Coulomb’s law between any two electrons as an instantaneous interaction in space and time rather than as a quantum-mean interaction in the form of screening and exchange potentials. Hence FDS depends in an ab initio sense on the inference of SDQT from Dirac’s equation, which provides for relativistic Lorentz invariance and a permanent magnetic moment (or spin in the electron’s equation of motion. Schroedinger’s time-dependent equation can be used to evaluate the SDQT in the nonrelativistic regime of electron velocity. Remarkably FDS is a relativistic property of an ensemble of electron, even though it is of order c0 in the nonrelativistic limit, in agreement with experimental observation. Finally it is shown that covalent versus separated-atoms limits can be characterized by the SDQT. As an example of the use of SDQT in a canonical structure problem, the energies of the 1Σg and 3Σu states of H2 are calculated and compared with the accurate variational energies of Kolos and Wolniewitz.

  18. Energy Exchange Dynamics across L-H transitions in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    H-mode is planned for future devices such as ITER, and is preceded by a low (L) to high (H) transition. A key question remains. What is the mechanism behind the L-H transition? Most theoretical descriptions of the L-H transition are based on the shear of the radial electric field and coincident ExB poloidal flow shear, which is thought to be responsible for the onset of the anomalous transport suppression that leads to the L-H transition. This talk will focus on the analysis of the flow dynamics across the L-H transition in NSTX. We analyze the L-H transition dynamics using the velocimetry of 2D edge turbulence data from gas-puff imaging (GPI). We determine the velocity components at the edge across the L-H transition for 17 discharges with three types of heating power (NBI, ohmic, and RF). Using a reduced model equation of edge flows and turbulence, the energy transfer dynamics is compared with the turbulence depletion hypothesis of the predator-prey model. In order for Reynolds work to suppress the turbulence, it must deplete the total turbulent free energy, including the thermal free-energy term. For this to occur, the increase in kinetic energy in the mean flow over the L-H transition must be comparable to the pre-transition thermal free energy. However, this ratio was found to be of order 10-2. Although there are significant simplifications in the theoretical model, they are unlikely to cause inaccuracy by two orders of magnitude, suggesting that direct turbulence depletion by the Reynolds work may not be large enough to explain the L-H transition on NSTX, contrary to the predator-prey model. This work is supported by the US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  19. NMR magnetization exchange dynamics for three spin-1/2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demco, D.E.; Filip, X.; Filip, C.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetization exchange dynamics in one-dimensional NMR exchange experiments performed with static samples is analyzed for the relevant case of three spin systems. The magnetization decays recorded in the experiments performed with different chemical shift filters for the short mixing times are derived analytically. In this regime the decay rates depend on the dipolar coupling between the spins belonging to different functional groups. The predictions of the theoretical model are compared with the magnetization exchange data obtained for cross-linked poly(styrene-co-butadiene) samples. The residual dipolar coupling between the functional CH- and CH2-groups of butadiene are measured from the magnetization exchange experiments in the short mixing time regime. (authors)

  20. Dynamic control for a quadruped locomotion robot in consideration of the leg-support-exchange phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Akihito; Furusho, Junji; Okajima, Yosuke

    1988-01-01

    This paper proposes a new control method for quardruped walking robots in which the leg-support-exchange is lithely implemented. First, the authors formulate the leg-support-exchange phenomenon in 'Trot' using Lagrange's collision equation. Then the continuous walking can be numerically analyzed. Secondly, we propose a new control algorithm for leg-support-exchange. The conventional high gain local feedback causes many problems such as slip and excessive high torque in the leg-support-exchange phase of dynamic walking since it is impossible in this phase to prepare the proper reference values beforehand. In this algorithm, the control law is changed to 'free mode' or 'constant current mode' in order to adjust to the environment. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is confirmed by computer simulation and experiments using the walking robot 'COLT-1.' (author)

  1. Dynamics and energetics of the mammalian phosphatidylinositol transfer protein phospholipid exchange cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabon, Aby; Orłowski, Adam; Tripathi, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    . However, the details of the PITP-mediated lipid exchange cycle remain entirely obscure. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the mammalian StART-like PtdIns/phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) transfer protein PITPα, both on membrane bilayers and in solvated systems, informed downstream biochemical...... analyses that tested key aspects of the hypotheses generated by the molecular dynamics simulations. These studies provided five key insights into the PITPα lipid exchange cycle: (i) interaction of PITPα with the membrane is spontaneous and mediated by four specific protein substructures; (ii) the ability......Phosphatidylinositol-transfer proteins (PITPs) regulate phosphoinositide signaling in eukaryotic cells. The defining feature of PITPs is their ability to exchange phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) molecules between membranes, and this property is central to PITP-mediated regulation of lipid signaling...

  2. Exchange rate dynamics and its effect on macroeconomic volatility in selected CEE countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Audzei, Volha; Brázdik, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2017), s. 15-19 ISSN 1803-7089 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : exchange rate dynamics * macroeconomic volatility Subject RIV: AH - Economic s http://www.cnb.cz/miranda2/export/sites/www.cnb.cz/en/research/research_publications/erb/download/ERB_No1_2017.pdf

  3. A computational fluid dynamics model for designing heat exchangers based on natural convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkse, M.H.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Walle, van der T.; Speetjens, S.L.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2006-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics model was created for the design of a natural convection shell-and-tube heat exchanger with baffles. The flow regime proved to be turbulent and this was modelled using the k¿¿ turbulence model. The features of the complex geometry were simplified considerably resulting

  4. Dynamical implications of bi-directional resource exchange within a meta-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marisabel Rodriguez; Kopp, Darin; Allen, Daniel; Kang, Yun

    2018-05-05

    The exchange of resources across ecosystem boundaries can have large impacts on ecosystem structures and functions at local and regional scales. In this article, we develop a simple model to investigate dynamical implications of bi-directional resource exchanges between two local ecosystems in a meta-ecosystem framework. In our model, we assume that (1) Each local ecosystem acts as both a resource donor and recipient, such that one ecosystem donating resources to another results in a cost to the donating system and a benefit to the recipient; and (2) The costs and benefits of the bi-directional resource exchange between two ecosystems are correlated in a nonlinear fashion. Our model could apply to the resource interactions between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that are supported by the literature. Our theoretical results show that bi-directional resource exchange between two ecosystems can indeed generate complicated dynamical outcomes, including the coupled ecosystems having amensalistic, antagonistic, competitive, or mutualistic interactions, with multiple alternative stable states depending on the relative costs and benefits. In addition, if the relative cost for resource exchange for an ecosystem is decreased or the relative benefit for resource exchange for an ecosystem is increased, the production of that ecosystem would increase; however, depending on the local environment, the production of the other ecosystem may increase or decrease. We expect that our work, by evaluating the potential outcomes of resource exchange theoretically, can facilitate empirical evaluations and advance the understanding of spatial ecosystem ecology where resource exchanges occur in varied ecosystems through a complicated network. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Species and Scale Dependence of Bacterial Motion Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, N. L.; Yang, X.; Parashar, R.; Plymale, A.; Hu, D.; Kelly, R.; Scheibe, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    Many metal reducing bacteria are motile with their motion characteristics described by run-and-tumble behavior exhibiting series of flights (jumps) and waiting (residence) time spanning a wide range of values. Accurate models of motility allow for improved design and evaluation of in-situ bioremediation in the subsurface. While many bioremediation models neglect the motion of the bacteria, others treat motility using an advection dispersion equation, which assumes that the motion of the bacteria is Brownian.The assumption of Brownian motion to describe motility has enormous implications on predictive capabilities of bioremediation models, yet experimental evidence of this assumption is mixed [1][2][3]. We hypothesize that this is due to the species and scale dependence of the motion dynamics. We test our hypothesis by analyzing videos of motile bacteria of five different species in open domains. Trajectories of individual cells ranging from several seconds to few minutes in duration are extracted in neutral conditions (in the absence of any chemical gradient). The density of the bacteria is kept low so that the interaction between the bacteria is minimal. Preliminary results show a transition from Fickian (Brownian) to non-Fickian behavior for one species of bacteria (Pelosinus) and persistent Fickian behavior of another species (Geobacter).Figure: Video frames of motile bacteria with the last 10 seconds of their trajectories drawn in red. (left) Pelosinus and (right) Geobacter.[1] Ariel, Gil, et al. "Swarming bacteria migrate by Lévy Walk." Nature Communications 6 (2015).[2] Saragosti, Jonathan, Pascal Silberzan, and Axel Buguin. "Modeling E. coli tumbles by rotational diffusion. Implications for chemotaxis." PloS one 7.4 (2012): e35412.[3] Wu, Mingming, et al. "Collective bacterial dynamics revealed using a three-dimensional population-scale defocused particle tracking technique." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72.7 (2006): 4987-4994.

  6. Dynamic metabolic exchange governs a marine algal-bacterial interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Einat; Wyche, Thomas P; Kim, Ki Hyun; Petersen, Jörn; Ellebrandt, Claire; Vlamakis, Hera; Barteneva, Natasha; Paulson, Joseph N; Chai, Liraz; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto

    2016-11-18

    Emiliania huxleyi is a model coccolithophore micro-alga that generates vast blooms in the ocean. Bacteria are not considered among the major factors influencing coccolithophore physiology. Here we show through a laboratory model system that the bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens , a well-studied member of the Roseobacter group, intimately interacts with E. huxleyi. While attached to the algal cell, bacteria initially promote algal growth but ultimately kill their algal host. Both algal growth enhancement and algal death are driven by the bacterially-produced phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. Bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid and attachment to algae are significantly increased by tryptophan, which is exuded from the algal cell. Algal death triggered by bacteria involves activation of pathways unique to oxidative stress response and programmed cell death. Our observations suggest that bacteria greatly influence the physiology and metabolism of E. huxleyi. Coccolithophore-bacteria interactions should be further studied in the environment to determine whether they impact micro-algal population dynamics on a global scale.

  7. Environmental variation, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics and water/energy exchange at high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A.D.; Wirth, C.; Apps, M.; Beringer, J.; Clein, J.; Epstein, H.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Bhatti, J.; Chapin, F. S.; De Groot, B.; Efremov, D.; Eugster, W.; Fukuda, M.; Gower, T.; Hinzman, L.; Huntley, B.; Jia, G.J.; Kasischke, E.; Melillo, J.; Romanovsky, V.; Shvidenko, A.; Vaganov, E.; Walker, D.

    2002-01-01

    The responses of high latitude ecosystems to global change involve complex interactions among environmental variables, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics, and water and energy exchange. These responses may have important consequences for the earth system. In this study, we evaluated how vegetation distribution, carbon stocks and turnover, and water and energy exchange are related to environmental variation spanned by the network of the IGBP high latitude transects. While the most notable feature of the high latitude transects is that they generally span temperature gradients from southern to northern latitudes, there are substantial differences in temperature among the transects. Also, along each transect temperature co-varies with precipitation and photosynthetically active radiation, which are also variable among the transects. Both climate and disturbance interact to influence latitudinal patterns of vegetation and soil carbon storage among the transects, and vegetation distribution appears to interact with climate to determine exchanges of heat and moisture in high latitudes. Despite limitations imposed by the data we assembled, the analyses in this study have taken an important step toward clarifying the complexity of interactions among environmental variables, vegetation distribution, carbon stocks and turnover, and water and energy exchange in high latitude regions. This study reveals the need to conduct coordinated global change studies in high latitudes to further elucidate how interactions among climate, disturbance, and vegetation distribution influence carbon dynamics and water and energy exchange in high latitudes.

  8. Leaf gas exchange performance and the lethal water potential of five European species during drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Feifel, Marion; Karimi, Zohreh; Schuldt, Bernhard; Choat, Brendan; Jansen, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Establishing physiological thresholds to drought-induced mortality in a range of plant species is crucial in understanding how plants respond to severe drought. Here, five common European tree species were selected (Acer campestre L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Carpinus betulus L., Corylus avellana L. and Fraxinus excelsior L.) to study their hydraulic thresholds to mortality. Photosynthetic parameters during desiccation and the recovery of leaf gas exchange after rewatering were measured. Stem vulnerability curves and leaf pressure-volume curves were investigated to understand the hydraulic coordination of stem and leaf tissue traits. Stem and root samples from well-watered and severely drought-stressed plants of two species were observed using transmission electron microscopy to visualize mortality of cambial cells. The lethal water potential (ψlethal) correlated with stem P99 (i.e., the xylem water potential at 99% loss of hydraulic conductivity, PLC). However, several plants that were stressed beyond the water potential at 100% PLC showed complete recovery during the next spring, which suggests that the ψlethal values were underestimated. Moreover, we observed a 1 : 1 relationship between the xylem water potential at the onset of embolism and stomatal closure, confirming hydraulic coordination between leaf and stem tissues. Finally, ultrastructural changes in the cytoplasm of cambium tissue and mortality of cambial cells are proposed to provide an alternative approach to investigate the point of no return associated with plant death. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. On the dynamic spatial response of a heat exchanger tube with intermittent baffle contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, R.J.; Pick, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Flow-induced vibration in heat exchanger tubes can result in fretting wear at the baffle supports and subsequent tube failure. As one step in correlating the random flow excitation to the rate of fretting wear, this paper presents a dynamic finite element technique for predicting the motions and baffle contact forces of a single heat exchanger tube. Using a modal superposition approach, the modal equations of motion are generated and numerically integrated. The predicted results are compared with experimental data for both planar and spatial vibration of harmonically excited cantilevered beams with a clearance support at the free end. (Auth.)

  10. Exact time-dependent exchange-correlation potentials for strong-field electron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lein, Manfred; Kuemmel, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    By solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation and inverting the time-dependent Kohn-Sham scheme we obtain the exact time-dependent exchange-correlation potential of density-functional theory for the strong-field dynamics of a correlated system. We demonstrate that essential features of the exact exchange-correlation potential can be related to derivative discontinuities in stationary density-functional theory. Incorporating the discontinuity in a time-dependent density-functional calculation greatly improves the description of the ionization process

  11. Competition between abstraction and exchange channels in H + HCN reaction: Full-dimensional quantum dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua, E-mail: hguo@unm.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2013-12-14

    Dynamics of the title reaction is investigated on an ab initio based potential energy surface using a full-dimensional quantum wave packet method within the centrifugal sudden approximation. It is shown that the reaction between H and HCN leads to both the hydrogen exchange and hydrogen abstraction channels. The exchange channel has a lower threshold and larger cross section than the abstraction channel. It also has more oscillations due apparently to quantum resonances. Both channels are affected by long-lived resonances supported by potential wells. Comparison with experimental cross sections indicates underestimation of the abstraction barrier height.

  12. Dynamics of anion exchange of lanthanides in aqueous-organic complexing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheveleva, I.V.; Bogatyrev, I.O.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of organic solvents (ethanol, acetone, acetonitrile) on change in kinetic parameters of the anion exchange process (anion-exchange column chromatography) of r.e.e. (europium and gadolinium) in complexing nitric acid media has been studied. It is established that complex LnA 4 anion is the only sorbing form of europium and gadolinium on anionite. When the organic component content of the solution being the same, the dynamic parameters of lanthanide exchange have higher values in aqueous-acetonitrile and aqueous-acetone media in comparison with aqueous-enthanol solutions of nitric acid. Lesser mobility of complex lanthanide anions in aqueous-alcoholic solutions can be explained by stronger solvation in the presence of solvents with higher acceptor properties

  13. Biomass and leaf-level gas exchange characteristics of three African savanna C4 grass species under optimum growth conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantlana, K.B.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Arneth, A.; Grispen, V.; Bonyongo, C.M.; Heitkönig, I.M.A.; Lloyd, J.

    2009-01-01

    C4 savanna grass species, Digitaria eriantha, Eragrostis lehmanniana and Panicum repens, were grown under optimum growth conditions with the aim of characterizing their above- and below-ground biomass allocation and the response of their gas exchange to changes in light intensity, CO2 concentration

  14. The consideration of dynamics and control in the design of heat exchanger networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, K.A.

    1986-03-01

    The heat exchanger network method is a way of abstracting the enthalpy and heat flows from the blueprints of a planned or existing processing plant. It enables a systematic design of a plant-wide heat recovery system which is optimal with regard to energy costs, capital costs and operational requirements. A heat exchanger network is a representation of all heat transfer relations between hot process streams and cold process streams within a plant. During the past ten years, the optimal design of heat exchanger networks (i.e. the optimal arrangement of heat transfer relations within a plant) has developed into a field of research of its own. Both, static methods ('interaction analysis') and dynamic methods ('process reaction curve analysis') from control theory have been used to explore the new field of heat exchanger network dynamics. As a major tool, an interactive, portable computer program for network simulation and controllability assessment has been developed (it is available as a design tool within the frame of the International Energy Agency). Based on the well-understood global parameters: effectiveness and NTU, which follow from the network design, some straightforward methods covering the following topics are presented: - 'paths' for control and disturbance signal transfer across the network, - locations of control bypasses around heat exchangers, and their capacity of emitting control signals or absorbing disturbances, - influence of the equipment besides the heat exchangers (which can be regarded as 'surrounding' the network, thus forming an 'associated' network). It has been found that networks which are designed according to the 'pinch-based' method have a potential for good controllability. It is shown how, using the freedoms given in the 'pinch-based' design and the above-mentioned methods, that potential is put into effect. (author)

  15. Energy exchange analysis in droplet dynamics via the Navier–Stokes–Cahn–Hilliard model

    KAUST Repository

    Espath, L. F. R.

    2016-05-23

    We develop the energy budget equation of the coupled Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard (NSCH) system. We use the NSCH equations to model the dynamics of liquid droplets in a liquid continuum. Buoyancy effects are accounted for through the Boussinesq assumption. We physically interpret each quantity involved in the energy exchange to gain further insight into the model. Highly resolved simulations involving density-driven flows and the merging of droplets allow us to analyse these energy budgets. In particular, we focus on the energy exchanges when droplets merge, and describe flow features relevant to this phenomenon. By comparing our numerical simulations to analytical predictions and experimental results available in the literature, we conclude that modelling droplet dynamics within the framework of NSCH equations is a sensible approach worthy of further research. © 2016 Cambridge University Press.

  16. Energy exchange analysis in droplet dynamics via the Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espath, L. F. R.; Sarmiento, A. F.; Vignal, P.; Varga, B. O. N.; Cortes, A. M. A.; Dalcin, L.; Calo, V. M.

    2016-06-01

    We develop the energy budget equation of the coupled Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard (NSCH) system. We use the NSCH equations to model the dynamics of liquid droplets in a liquid continuum. Buoyancy effects are accounted for through the Boussinesq assumption. We physically interpret each quantity involved in the energy exchange to further insight into the model. Highly resolved simulations involving density-driven flows and merging of droplets allow us to analyze these energy budgets. In particular, we focus on the energy exchanges when droplets merge, and describe flow features relevant to this phenomenon. By comparing our numerical simulations to analytical predictions and experimental results available in the literature, we conclude that modeling droplet dynamics within the framework of NSCH equations is a sensible approach worth further research.

  17. Exact-exchange time-dependent density-functional theory for static and dynamic polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, So; Ivanov, Stanislav; Bartlett, Rodney J.; Grabowski, Ireneusz

    2005-01-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) employing the exact-exchange functional has been formulated on the basis of the optimized-effective-potential (OEP) method of Talman and Shadwick for second-order molecular properties and implemented into a Gaussian-basis-set, trial-vector algorithm. The only approximation involved, apart from the lack of correlation effects and the use of Gaussian-type basis functions, was the consistent use of the adiabatic approximation in the exchange kernel and in the linear response function. The static and dynamic polarizabilities and their anisotropy predicted by the TDDFT with exact exchange (TDOEP) agree accurately with the corresponding values from time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory, the exact-exchange counterpart in the wave function theory. The TDOEP is free from the nonphysical asymptotic decay of the exchange potential of most conventional density functionals or from any other manifestations of the incomplete cancellation of the self-interaction energy. The systematic overestimation of the absolute values and dispersion of polarizabilities that plagues most conventional TDDFT cannot be seen in the TDOEP

  18. Meson exchange current corrections to magnetic moments in quantum hadro-dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, T M; Price, C E; Shepard, J R [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1990-11-15

    We have calculated pion exchange current corrections to the magnetic moments of closed shell {plus minus}1 particle nuclei near A=16 and 40 within the framework of quantum hadro-dynamics (QHD). We find that the correction is significant and that, in general, the agreement of the QHD isovector moments with experiment is worsened. Comparisons to previous non-relativistic calculations are also made. (orig.).

  19. Dynamic Model of the High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system co...... elements for start-up, heat conduction through stack insulation, cathode air convection, and heating of the inlet gases in the manifold. Various measurements are presented to validate the model predictions of the stack temperatures....

  20. Oscillatory Energy Exchange Between Waves Coupled by a Dynamic Artificial Crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Karenowska, Alexy D.; Tiberkevich, Vasil S.; Chumak, Andrii V.; Serga, Alexander A.; Gregg, John F.; Slavin, Andrei N.; Hillebrands, Burkard

    2011-01-01

    We describe a general mechanism of controllable energy exchange between waves propagating in a dynamic artificial crystal. We show that if a spatial periodicity is temporarily imposed on the transmission properties of a wave-carrying medium whilst a wave is inside, this wave is coupled to a secondary counter-propagating wave and energy oscillates between the two. The oscillation frequency is determined by the width of the spectral band gap created by the periodicity and the frequency differen...

  1. Structural Dynamics Control Allosteric Activation of Cytohesin Family Arf GTPase Exchange Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaby, Andrew W.; Das, Sanchaita; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Irving, Thomas C.; Bilsel, Osman; Lambright, David G.

    2018-01-01

    Membrane dynamic processes including vesicle biogenesis depend on Arf guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) containing a catalytic Sec7 domain and a membrane-targeting module such as a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The catalytic output of cytohesin family Arf GEFs is controlled by autoinhibitory interactions that impede accessibility of the exchange site in the Sec7 domain. These restraints can be relieved through activator Arf-GTP binding to an allosteric site comprising the PH domain and proximal autoinhibitory elements (Sec7-PH linker and C-terminal helix). Small-angle X-ray scattering and negative-stain electron microscopy were used to investigate the structural organization and conformational dynamics of cytohesin-3 (Grp1) in autoinhibited and active states. The results support a model in which hinge dynamics in the autoinhibited state expose the activator site for Arf-GTP binding, while subsequent C-terminal helix unlatching and repositioning unleash conformational entropy in the Sec7-PH linker to drive exposure of the exchange site.

  2. Functional Dynamics of Hexameric Helicase Probed by Hydrogen Exchange and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radou, Gaël; Dreyer, Frauke N.; Tuma, Roman; Paci, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The biological function of large macromolecular assemblies depends on their structure and their dynamics over a broad range of timescales; for this reason, it is a significant challenge to investigate these assemblies using conventional experimental techniques. One of the most promising experimental techniques is hydrogen-deuterium exchange detected by mass spectrometry. Here, we describe to our knowledge a new computational method for quantitative interpretation of deuterium exchange kinetics and apply it to a hexameric viral helicase P4 that unwinds and translocates RNA into a virus capsid at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Room-temperature dynamics probed by a hundred nanoseconds of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations is sufficient to predict the exchange kinetics of most sequence fragments and provide a residue-level interpretation of the low-resolution experimental results. The strategy presented here is also a valuable tool to validate experimental data, e.g., assignments, and to probe mechanisms that cannot be observed by x-ray crystallography, or that occur over timescales longer than those that can be realistically simulated, such as the opening of the hexameric ring. PMID:25140434

  3. Seasonal trends in reduced leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury in three ozone sensitive woody plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, K. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: kristopher.novak@wsl.ch; Schaub, M. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture FAL, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Skelly, J.M. [Department of Plant Pathology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hug, C. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Landolt, W. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Bleuler, P. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kraeuchi, N. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2005-07-15

    Seasonal trends in leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury were investigated for three ozone sensitive woody plant species. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L., and Fraxinus excelsior L. were grown in charcoal-filtered chambers, non-filtered chambers and open plots. Injury assessments and leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted from June to October during 2002. All species developed typical ozone-induced foliar injury. For plants exposed to non-filtered air as compared to the charcoal-filtered air, mean net photosynthesis was reduced by 25%, 21%, and 18% and mean stomatal conductance was reduced by 25%, 16%, and 8% for P. nigra, V. lantana, and F. excelsior, respectively. The timing and severity of the reductions in leaf gas exchange were species specific and corresponded to the onset of visible foliar injury. - Reductions in leaf gas exchange corresponded to the onset of ozone-induced visible foliar injury for seedlings exposed to ambient ozone exposures.

  4. Seasonal trends in reduced leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury in three ozone sensitive woody plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, K.; Schaub, M.; Fuhrer, J.; Skelly, J.M.; Hug, C.; Landolt, W.; Bleuler, P.; Kraeuchi, N.

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal trends in leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury were investigated for three ozone sensitive woody plant species. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L., and Fraxinus excelsior L. were grown in charcoal-filtered chambers, non-filtered chambers and open plots. Injury assessments and leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted from June to October during 2002. All species developed typical ozone-induced foliar injury. For plants exposed to non-filtered air as compared to the charcoal-filtered air, mean net photosynthesis was reduced by 25%, 21%, and 18% and mean stomatal conductance was reduced by 25%, 16%, and 8% for P. nigra, V. lantana, and F. excelsior, respectively. The timing and severity of the reductions in leaf gas exchange were species specific and corresponded to the onset of visible foliar injury. - Reductions in leaf gas exchange corresponded to the onset of ozone-induced visible foliar injury for seedlings exposed to ambient ozone exposures

  5. Merging constitutional and motional covalent dynamics in reversible imine formation and exchange processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaříček, Petr; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-06-06

    The formation and exchange processes of imines of salicylaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, and benzaldehyde have been studied, showing that the former has features of particular interest for dynamic covalent chemistry, displaying high efficiency and fast rates. The monoimines formed with aliphatic α,ω-diamines display an internal exchange process of self-transimination type, inducing a local motion of either "stepping-in-place" or "single-step" type by bond interchange, whose rate decreases rapidly with the distance of the terminal amino groups. Control of the speed of the process over a wide range may be achieved by substituents, solvent composition, and temperature. These monoimines also undergo intermolecular exchange, thus merging motional and constitutional covalent behavior within the same molecule. With polyamines, the monoimines formed execute internal motions that have been characterized by extensive one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and EXSY proton NMR studies. In particular, with linear polyamines, nondirectional displacement occurs by shifting of the aldehyde residue along the polyamine chain serving as molecular track. Imines thus behave as simple prototypes of systems displaying relative motions of molecular moieties, a subject of high current interest in the investigation of synthetic and biological molecular motors. The motional processes described are of dynamic covalent nature and take place without change in molecular constitution. They thus represent a category of dynamic covalent motions, resulting from reversible covalent bond formation and dissociation. They extend dynamic covalent chemistry into the area of molecular motions. A major further step will be to achieve control of directionality. The results reported here for imines open wide perspectives, together with other chemical groups, for the implementation of such features in multifunctional molecules toward the design of molecular devices presenting a complex combination of

  6. The influence of macroeconomic factors to the dynamics of stock exchange in the republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakizada Uteulievna Niyazbekova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the influence of macroeconomic factors on Kazakhstan Stock Exchange Market by using data from 2005 to 2014. Engle-Granger cointegration test has shown that stock index is cointegrated with the exchange rate, interest rate, CPI and oil price. Vector error correction model has confirmed that macroeconomic variables and the stock index has a long-term equilibrium relationship. Moreover, empirical results have shown that stock index can be used as a leading indicator of the economic situation in Kazakhstan. Therefore, the authors decided to consider the impact of major macroeconomic indicators to the dynamics of the stock market of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Engle-Granger cointegration test results show that the following variables such as exchange rate, 10-years long-term bond rate, the consumer price index and the Brent oil price are cointegrated with stock index, which means that there is a long-term relationship between this stock market index and these variables. With the help of econometric models, the authors have found the factors such as the exchange rate, the 10-year long-term bonds rate, the consumer price index and the Brent oil price (these factors have the long-term relationship with stock market index. Changes in the dynamics of the stock market index in Kazakhstan are caused by changes in the dynamics of Central bank's reserves and export. The analysis has shown that the economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (the index reflects the situation in the real sector of the economy remains dependent on world oil prices, the volume of exports and the rate of the national currency

  7. Quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer with hyperpolarized nuclei (qHyper-CEST): sensing xenon-host exchange dynamics and binding affinities by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunth, M; Witte, C; Schröder, L

    2014-11-21

    The reversible binding of xenon to host molecules has found numerous applications in nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Quantitative characterization of the Xe exchange dynamics is important to understand and optimize the physico-chemical behavior of such Xe hosts, but is often challenging to achieve at low host concentrations. We have investigated a sensitive quantification technique based on chemical exchange saturation transfer with hyperpolarized nuclei, qHyper-CEST. Using simulated signals we demonstrated that qHyper-CEST yielded accurate and precise results and was robust in the presence of large amounts of noise (10%). This is of particular importance for samples with completely unknown exchange rates. Using these findings we experimentally determined the following exchange parameters for the Xe host cryptophane-A monoacid in dimethyl sulfoxide in one type of experiment: the ratio of bound and free Xe, the Xe exchange rate, the resonance frequencies of free and bound Xe, the Xe host occupancy, and the Xe binding constant. Taken together, qHyper-CEST facilitates sensitive quantification of the Xe exchange dynamics and binding to hydrophobic cavities and has the potential to analyze many different host systems or binding sites. This makes qHyper-CEST an indispensable tool for the efficient design of highly specific biosensors.

  8. Replica Exchange Gaussian Accelerated Molecular Dynamics: Improved Enhanced Sampling and Free Energy Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ming M; McCammon, J Andrew; Miao, Yinglong

    2018-04-10

    Through adding a harmonic boost potential to smooth the system potential energy surface, Gaussian accelerated molecular dynamics (GaMD) provides enhanced sampling and free energy calculation of biomolecules without the need of predefined reaction coordinates. This work continues to improve the acceleration power and energy reweighting of the GaMD by combining the GaMD with replica exchange algorithms. Two versions of replica exchange GaMD (rex-GaMD) are presented: force constant rex-GaMD and threshold energy rex-GaMD. During simulations of force constant rex-GaMD, the boost potential can be exchanged between replicas of different harmonic force constants with fixed threshold energy. However, the algorithm of threshold energy rex-GaMD tends to switch the threshold energy between lower and upper bounds for generating different levels of boost potential. Testing simulations on three model systems, including the alanine dipeptide, chignolin, and HIV protease, demonstrate that through continuous exchanges of the boost potential, the rex-GaMD simulations not only enhance the conformational transitions of the systems but also narrow down the distribution width of the applied boost potential for accurate energetic reweighting to recover biomolecular free energy profiles.

  9. Isovector meson-exchange currents in the light-front dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplanques, B.; Karmanov, V.A.; Mathiot, J.F.

    1994-09-01

    In the light-front dynamics, there is no pair term that plays the role of the dominant isovector pion exchange current. This current gives rise to the large and experimentally observed contribution to the deuteron electrodisintegration cross-section near threshold for pseudo-scalar πNN coupling. It is analytically shown that in leading 1/m order the amplitude in the light-front dynamics coincides, however, with the one given by the pair term. At high Q 2 , it consists of two equal parts. One comes from extra components of the deuteron and final state relativistic wave functions. The other results from the contact NNπγ interaction which appears in the light-front dynamics. This provides a transparent link between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches. (author). 16 refs., 4 figs

  10. Dynamical effects of exchange symmetry breaking in mixtures of interacting bosons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichy, Malte C.; Sherson, Jacob; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    of two distinguishable species with identical physical properties, that is, which are governed by an isospecific interaction and external potential. In the mean-field limit, the spatial population imbalance of the mixture can be described by the dynamics of a single species in an effective potential...... approximates the full counting statistics well also outside the realm of spin-coherent states. The method is extended to general Bose-Hubbard systems and to their classical mean-field limits, which suggests an effective single-species description of multicomponent Bose gases with weakly an...... with modified properties or, equivalently, with an effective total particle number. The oscillation behavior can be tuned by populating the second species while maintaining the spatial population imbalance and all other parameters constant. In the corresponding many-body approach, the single-species description...

  11. Effect of tube-support interaction on the dynamic responses of heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Operating heat exchangers have experienced tube damages due to excessive flow-induced vibration. The relatively small inherent tube-to-baffle hole clearances associated with manufacturing tolerances in heat exchangers affect the tube vibrational characteristics. In attempting a theoretical analysis, questions arise as to the effects of tube-baffle impacting on dynamic responses. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of tube-baffle impacting in vertical/horizontal tube orientation, and in air/water medium on the vibrational characteristics (resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) and displacement response amplitudes of a seven-span tube model. The tube and support conditions were prototypic, and overall length approximately one-third that of a straight tube segment of the steam generator designed for the CRBR. The test results were compared with the analytical results based on the multispan beam with ''knife-edge'' supports

  12. Dynamical contribution to the heat conductivity in stochastic energy exchanges of locally confined gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Pierre; Gilbert, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    We present a systematic computation of the heat conductivity of the Markov jump process modeling the energy exchanges in an array of locally confined hard spheres at the conduction threshold. Based on a variational formula (Sasada 2016 (arXiv:1611.08866)), explicit upper bounds on the conductivity are derived, which exhibit a rapid power-law convergence towards an asymptotic value. We thereby conclude that the ratio of the heat conductivity to the energy exchange frequency deviates from its static contribution by a small negative correction, its dynamic contribution, evaluated to be -0.000 373 in dimensionless units. This prediction is corroborated by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations which were substantially improved compared to earlier results.

  13. Gas exchange and growth responses to nutrient enrichment in invasive Glyceria maxima and native New Zealand Carex species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans; Fitridge, Isla

    2012-01-01

    We compared photosynthetic gas exchange, the photosynthesis-leaf nitrogen (N) relationship, and growth response to nutrient enrichment in the invasive wetland grass Glyceria maxima (Hartman) Holmburg with two native New Zealand Carex sedges (C. virgata Boott and C. secta Boott), to explore...... the ecophysiological traits contributing to invasive behaviour. The photosynthesis-nitrogen relationship was uniform across all three species, and the maximum light-saturated rate of photosynthesis expressed on a leaf area basis (Amaxa) did not differ significantly between species. However, specific leaf area (SLA...... the sedges, but correlations between leaf N, gas exchange parameters (Amaxa, Amaxm, Rd and gs) and RGR were all highly significant in G. maxima, whereas they were weak or absent in the sedges. Allocation of biomass (root:shoot ratio, leaf mass ratio, root mass ratio), plant N and P content, and allocation...

  14. Deciphering the Dynamic Interaction Profile of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein by NMR Exchange Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaforge, Elise; Kragelj, Jaka; Tengo, Laura; Palencia, Andrés; Milles, Sigrid; Bouvignies, Guillaume; Salvi, Nicola; Blackledge, Martin; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing

    2018-01-24

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) display a large number of interaction modes including folding-upon-binding, binding without major structural transitions, or binding through highly dynamic, so-called fuzzy, complexes. The vast majority of experimental information about IDP binding modes have been inferred from crystal structures of proteins in complex with short peptides of IDPs. However, crystal structures provide a mainly static view of the complexes and do not give information about the conformational dynamics experienced by the IDP in the bound state. Knowledge of the dynamics of IDP complexes is of fundamental importance to understand how IDPs engage in highly specific interactions without concomitantly high binding affinity. Here, we combine rotating-frame R 1ρ , Carr-Purcell-Meiboom Gill relaxation dispersion as well as chemical exchange saturation transfer to decipher the dynamic interaction profile of an IDP in complex with its partner. We apply the approach to the dynamic signaling complex formed between the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38α and the intrinsically disordered regulatory domain of the MAPK kinase MKK4. Our study demonstrates that MKK4 employs a subtle combination of interaction modes in order to bind to p38α, leading to a complex displaying significantly different dynamics across the bound regions.

  15. Dynamics and energetics of the mammalian phosphatidylinositol transfer protein phospholipid exchange cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabon, Aby; Orłowski, Adam; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Vuorio, Joni; Javanainen, Matti; Róg, Tomasz; Lönnfors, Max; McDermott, Mark I; Siebert, Garland; Somerharju, Pentti; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Bankaitis, Vytas A

    2017-09-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-transfer proteins (PITPs) regulate phosphoinositide signaling in eukaryotic cells. The defining feature of PITPs is their ability to exchange phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) molecules between membranes, and this property is central to PITP-mediated regulation of lipid signaling. However, the details of the PITP-mediated lipid exchange cycle remain entirely obscure. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the mammalian StART-like PtdIns/phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) transfer protein PITPα, both on membrane bilayers and in solvated systems, informed downstream biochemical analyses that tested key aspects of the hypotheses generated by the molecular dynamics simulations. These studies provided five key insights into the PITPα lipid exchange cycle: (i) interaction of PITPα with the membrane is spontaneous and mediated by four specific protein substructures; (ii) the ability of PITPα to initiate closure around the PtdCho ligand is accompanied by loss of flexibility of two helix/loop regions, as well as of the C-terminal helix; (iii) the energy barrier of phospholipid extraction from the membrane is lowered by a network of hydrogen bonds between the lipid molecule and PITPα; (iv) the trajectory of PtdIns or PtdCho into and through the lipid-binding pocket is chaperoned by sets of PITPα residues conserved throughout the StART-like PITP family; and (v) conformational transitions in the C-terminal helix have specific functional involvements in PtdIns transfer activity. Taken together, these findings provide the first mechanistic description of key aspects of the PITPα PtdIns/PtdCho exchange cycle and offer a rationale for the high conservation of particular sets of residues across evolutionarily distant members of the metazoan StART-like PITP family. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Design and thermal dynamic analyses on the intermediate heat exchanger for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, M.; Mizuno, M.; Ito, M.; Urabe, S.

    1986-01-01

    The intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), one of the most important components in the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR), is a high performance helium/helium (He/He) heat exchanger operated at a very high temperature above 900 0 C to transmit the nuclear heat from the reactor core to the nuclear heat utilization systems such as the chemical plant. Having to meet, in addition, the requirement of the pressure boundary as the Class-1 it demands the accurate estimation of thermal performance and analytical prediction of thermal behaviors to secure its integrity throughout the service life. In the present works, the newly-developed analytical codes carry out designing thermal performance and analyzing dynamic thermal behaviors of the IHX. These codes have been developed on a great deal of data and studies related to the research and development on the 1.5 MWt- and the 25 MWt-IHXs. This paper shows the design on the IHX, the results of the dynamic analyses on the 1.5 MWt-IHX with the comparison to the experimental data and the analytical predictions of the dynamic thermal behaviors on the 25 MWt-IHX. The results calculated are in fairly good agreement with the experimental data on the 1.5 MWt-IHX, the fact that has verified the analytical codes to be reasonable and much useful for the thermal design of the IHX. These presented results and data are available for the design of the IHX of HTGR

  17. Cross-species genetic exchange between visceral and cutaneous strains of Leishmania in the sand fly vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Audrey; Inbar, Ehud; Debrabant, Alain; Charmoy, Melanie; Lawyer, Phillip; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flavia; Barhoumi, Mourad; Grigg, Michael; Shaik, Jahangheer; Dobson, Deborah; Beverley, Stephen M; Sacks, David L

    2014-11-25

    Genetic exchange between Leishmania major strains during their development in the sand fly vector has been experimentally shown. To investigate the possibility of genetic exchange between different Leishmania species, a cutaneous strain of L. major and a visceral strain of Leishmania infantum, each bearing a different drug-resistant marker, were used to coinfect Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Eleven double-drug-resistant progeny clones, each the product of an independent mating event, were generated and submitted to genotype and phenotype analyses. The analysis of multiple allelic markers across the genome suggested that each progeny clone inherited at least one full set of chromosomes from each parent, with loss of heterozygosity at some loci, and uniparental retention of maxicircle kinetoplast DNA. Hybrids with DNA contents of approximately 2n, 3n, and 4n were observed. In vivo studies revealed clear differences in the ability of the hybrids to produce pathology in the skin or to disseminate to and grow in the viscera, suggesting polymorphisms and differential inheritance of the gene(s) controlling these traits. The studies, to our knowledge, represent the first experimental confirmation of cross-species mating in Leishmania, opening the way toward genetic linkage analysis of important traits and providing strong evidence that genetic exchange is responsible for the generation of the mixed-species genotypes observed in natural populations.

  18. Enhanced Sampling in Molecular Dynamics Using Metadynamics, Replica-Exchange, and Temperature-Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Abrams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We review a selection of methods for performing enhanced sampling in molecular dynamics simulations. We consider methods based on collective variable biasing and on tempering, and offer both historical and contemporary perspectives. In collective-variable biasing, we first discuss methods stemming from thermodynamic integration that use mean force biasing, including the adaptive biasing force algorithm and temperature acceleration. We then turn to methods that use bias potentials, including umbrella sampling and metadynamics. We next consider parallel tempering and replica-exchange methods. We conclude with a brief presentation of some combination methods.

  19. A system dynamics evaluation model: implementation of health information exchange for public health reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Jacqueline A; Deegan, Michael; Wilson, Rosalind V; Kaushal, Rainu; Fredericks, Kimberly

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the complex dynamics involved in implementing electronic health information exchange (HIE) for public health reporting at a state health department, and to identify policy implications to inform similar implementations. Qualitative data were collected over 8 months from seven experts at New York State Department of Health who implemented web services and protocols for querying, receipt, and validation of electronic data supplied by regional health information organizations. Extensive project documentation was also collected. During group meetings experts described the implementation process and created reference modes and causal diagrams that the evaluation team used to build a preliminary model. System dynamics modeling techniques were applied iteratively to build causal loop diagrams representing the implementation. The diagrams were validated iteratively by individual experts followed by group review online, and through confirmatory review of documents and artifacts. Three casual loop diagrams captured well-recognized system dynamics: Sliding Goals, Project Rework, and Maturity of Resources. The findings were associated with specific policies that address funding, leadership, ensuring expertise, planning for rework, communication, and timeline management. This evaluation illustrates the value of a qualitative approach to system dynamics modeling. As a tool for strategic thinking on complicated and intense processes, qualitative models can be produced with fewer resources than a full simulation, yet still provide insights that are timely and relevant. System dynamics techniques clarified endogenous and exogenous factors at play in a highly complex technology implementation, which may inform other states engaged in implementing HIE supported by federal Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) legislation.

  20. The effect of tube-support interaction on the dynamic response of heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    To avoid detrimental tube vibration in heat exchangers, resonant conditions and instabilitites must be avoided, and/or peak dynamic amplitudes must not exceed allowable limits. In attempting a theoretical analysis, questions arise as to the effects of tube/support interaction on tube vibrational characteristics (i.e. resonant frequencies, modes, damping) and response amplitude. As a part of ANL's Flow-Induced Vibration Program in support of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) steam generator design activity, tube/support interaction experiments are being performed not only to gain the insight into the dynamic behavior of CRBRP steam generator tubes, but also to provide the basis for developing design guidance. Test results were compared with anaytical results based on multispan tube with 'knife-edge' supports at the support locations. (Auth.)

  1. Analyzing Space-Time Dynamics of Theft Rates Using Exchange Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Tang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical issue in the geography of crime is the quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of crimes which usually changes over time. In this paper, we use the concept of exchange mobility across different time periods to determine the spatial distribution of the theft rate in the city of Wuhan, China, in 2016. To this end, we use a newly-developed spatial dynamic indicator, the Local Indicator of Mobility Association (LIMA, which can detect differences in the spatial distribution of theft rate rankings over time from a distributional dynamics perspective. Our results provide a scientific reference for the evaluation of the effects of crime prevention efforts and offer a decision-making tool to enhance the application of temporal and spatial analytical methods.

  2. Flow and Residence Times of Dynamic River Bank Storage and Sinuosity-Driven Hyporheic Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Wilson, J. L.; Cardenas, M. B.; Harvey, J. W.

    2017-10-01

    Hydrologic exchange fluxes (HEFs) vary significantly along river corridors due to spatiotemporal changes in discharge and geomorphology. This variability results in the emergence of biogeochemical hot-spots and hot-moments that ultimately control solute and energy transport and ecosystem services from the local to the watershed scales. In this work, we use a reduced-order model to gain mechanistic understanding of river bank storage and sinuosity-driven hyporheic exchange induced by transient river discharge. This is the first time that a systematic analysis of both processes is presented and serves as an initial step to propose parsimonious, physics-based models for better predictions of water quality at the large watershed scale. The effects of channel sinuosity, alluvial valley slope, hydraulic conductivity, and river stage forcing intensity and duration are encapsulated in dimensionless variables that can be easily estimated or constrained. We find that the importance of perturbations in the hyporheic zone's flux, residence times, and geometry is mainly explained by two-dimensionless variables representing the ratio of the hydraulic time constant of the aquifer and the duration of the event (Γd) and the importance of the ambient groundwater flow (Δh∗). Our model additionally shows that even systems with small sensitivity, resulting in small changes in the hyporheic zone extent, are characterized by highly variable exchange fluxes and residence times. These findings highlight the importance of including dynamic changes in hyporheic zones for typical HEF models such as the transient storage model.

  3. Water exchange and permeability properties of the skin in three species of amphibious sea snakes (Laticauda spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, H B; Menon, J G; Menon, G K; Sheehy, C M; Tu, M C

    2009-06-01

    Evolutionary transitions between different environmental media such as air and water pose special problems with respect to skin permeability because of the dramatic changes in the driving gradients and nature of water exchange processes. Also, during the transitional periods prior to complete adaptation to a new medium, the skin is exposed to two very different sets of environmental conditions. Here, we report new data for transepidermal evaporative water loss (TEWL) and cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss (R(s)) of sea snakes that are transitional in the sense of being amphibious and semi-terrestrial. We investigated three species of sea kraits (Elapidae: Laticaudinae) that are common to Orchid Island (Lanyu), Taiwan. Generally, R(s) of all three species is lower than that characteristic of terrestrial/xeric species of snakes measured in other taxa. Within Laticauda, R(s) is significantly greater (TEWL lower) in the more terrestrial species and lowest (TEWL highest) in the more aquatic species. Previously reported losses of water from snakes kept in seawater exhibit a reversed trend, with lower rates of loss in the more aquatic species. These data suggest selection for adaptive traits with respect to increasing exposure to the marine environment. Thus, a countergradient of traits is reflected in decreased TEWL in aerial environments and decreased net water efflux in marine environments, acting simultaneously in the three species. The pattern for TEWL correlates with ultrastructural evidence for increased lipogenesis in the stratum corneum of the more terrestrial species. The skin surfaces of all three species are hydrophobic. Species differences in this property possibly explain the pattern for water efflux when these snakes are in seawater, which remains to be investigated.

  4. Modeling the dynamic operation of a small fin plate heat exchanger – parametric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motyliński Konrad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Given its high efficiency, low emissions and multiple fuelling options, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC offer a promising alternative for stationary power generators, especially while engaged in micro-combined heat and power (μ-CHP units. Despite the fact that the fuel cells are a key component in such power systems, other auxiliaries of the system can play a critical role and therefore require a significant attention. Since SOFC uses a ceramic material as an electrolyte, the high operating temperature (typically of the order of 700–900 °C is required to achieve sufficient performance. For that reason both the fuel and the oxidant have to be preheated before entering the SOFC stack. Hot gases exiting the fuel cell stack transport substantial amount of energy which has to be partly recovered for preheating streams entering the stack and for heating purposes. Effective thermal integration of the μ-CHP can be achieved only when proper technical measures are used. The ability of efficiently preheating the streams of oxidant and fuel relies on heat exchangers which are present in all possible configurations of power system with solid oxide fuel cells. In this work a compact, fin plate heat exchanger operating in the high temperature regime was under consideration. Dynamic model was proposed for investigation of its performance under the transitional states of the fuel cell system. Heat exchanger was simulated using commercial modeling software. The model includes key geometrical and functional parameters. The working conditions of the power unit with SOFC vary due to the several factors, such as load changes, heating and cooling procedures of the stack and others. These issues affect parameters of the incoming streams to the heat exchanger. The mathematical model of the heat exchanger is based on a set of equations which are simultaneously solved in the iterative process. It enables to define conditions in the outlets of both the hot and the

  5. Modeling the airside dynamic behavior of a heat exchanger under frosting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Tieyu; Gong, Jianying

    2011-01-01

    A general distributed model with a non-steady-state heat exchanger model coupled with a frost model was developed to study the dynamic behavior of an airside heat exchanger in an air-to-water heat pump heater/chiller unit. The effects of water vapor diffusion and uneven fin temperature distribution were considered. The model was found to agree well with reported experimental results. Compared with the routine model, the present model has higher precision of frost layer thickness especially on the fin surface. Results include the propagation of frost formation along the tube and its effect on the dynamic characteristics of refrigerant, air, and tube sides. According to the results, the temperature difference between air and tube surface temperature was proposed to be the main driving force of frosting. Tube surface temperature is the most important factor affecting frosting when there is little variation in air humidity. Frost at the fin base was found to be thicker than that at the fin tip due to the fact that the frost layer grows faster with lower tube surface temperature

  6. Modelling, simulation and dynamic analysis of the time delay model of the recuperative heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debeljković Dragutin Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat exchangers are frequently used as constructive elements in various plants and their dynamics is very important. Their operation is usually controlled by manipulating inlet fluid temperatures or mass flow rates. On the basis of the accepted and critically clarified assumptions, a linearized mathematical model of the cross-flow heat exchanger has been derived, taking into account the wall dynamics. The model is based on the fundamental law of energy conservation, covers all heat accumulation storages in the process, and leads to the set of partial differential equations (PDE, which solution is not possible in closed form. In order to overcome this problem the approach based on physical discretization was applied with associated time delay on the positions where it was necessary and unavoidable. This is quite new approach, which represent the further extension of previous results which did not include significant time delay existing in the working media. Simulation results, were derived, showing progress in building such a model suitable for further treatment from the position of analysis as well as the needs for control synthesis problem.

  7. Seasonal Dynamics of River Corridor Exchange Across the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Harvey, J. W.; Scott, D.; Boyer, E. W.; Schmadel, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    River corridors store and convey mass and energy from landscapes to the ocean, altering water quality and ecosystem functioning at the local, reach, and watershed scales. As water moves through river corridors from headwaters streams to coastal estuaries, dynamic exchange between the river channel and its adjacent riparian, floodplain, and hyporheic zones, combined with ponded waters such as lakes and reservoirs, results in the emergence of hot spots and moments for biogeochemical transformations. In this work, we used the model Networks with EXchange and Subsurface Storage (NEXSS) to estimate seasonal variations in river corridor exchange fluxes and residence times along the continental United States. Using a simple routing scheme, we translate these estimates into a cumulative measure of river corridor connectivity at the watershed scale, differentiating the contributions of hyporheic zones, floodplains, and ponded waters. We find that the relative role of these exchange subsystems changes seasonally, driven by the intra-seasonal variability of discharge. In addition, we find that seasonal variations in discharge and the biogeochemical potential of hyporheic zones are out of phase. This behavior results in a significant reduction in hyporheic water quality functions during high flows and emphasizes the potential importance of reconnecting floodplains for managing water quality during seasonal high flows. Physical parameterizations of river corridor processes are critical to model and predict water quality and to sustainably manage water resources under present and future socio-economic and climatic conditions. Parsimonious models like NEXSS can play a key role in the design, implementation, and evaluation of sustainable management practices that target both water quantity and quality at the scale of the nation. This research is a product of the John Wesley Powell Center River Corridor Working Group.

  8. Dynamics of two competing species in the presence of Lévy noise sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cognata, A.; Valenti, D.; Dubkov, A. A.; Spagnolo, B.

    2010-07-01

    We consider a Lotka-Volterra system of two competing species subject to multiplicative α -stable Lévy noise. The interaction parameter between the species is a random process which obeys a stochastic differential equation with a generalized bistable potential in the presence both of a periodic driving term and an additive α -stable Lévy noise. We study the species dynamics, which is characterized by two different regimes, exclusion of one species and coexistence of both. We find quasiperiodic oscillations and stochastic resonance phenomenon in the dynamics of the competing species, analyzing the role of the Lévy noise sources.

  9. Carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange from understory species in boreal forest.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Arp, W.J.; Chapin, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    Although recent eddy covariance measurements in boreal forests provide CO2 and energy exchange data for the whole ecosystem, very little is known about the role of the understory vegetation. We conducted chamber flux measurements in an Alaskan black spruce forest in order to compare CO2 and water

  10. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in amazonian homegardens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; González-Segura, Lara; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Howard, Patricia L.; Molina, José Luis; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors

  11. The long-run dynamic relationship between exchange rate and its attention index: Based on DCCA and TOP method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Guo, Kun; Lu, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The behavior information of financial market plays a more and more important role in modern economic system. The behavior information reflected in INTERNET search data has already been used in short-term prediction for exchange rate, stock market return, house price and so on. However, the long-run relationship between behavior information and financial market fluctuation has not been studied systematically. Further, most traditional statistic methods and econometric models could not catch the dynamic and non-linear relationship. An attention index of CNY/USD exchange rate is constructed based on search data from 360 search engine of China in this paper. Then the DCCA and Thermal Optimal Path methods are used to explore the long-run dynamic relationship between CNY/USD exchange rate and the corresponding attention index. The results show that the significant interdependency exists and the change of exchange rate is 1-2 days lag behind the attention index.

  12. Dynamics of anopheline vector species composition and reported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indoor resting mosquitoes were collected between November 2013 and May 2014 using Pyrethrum spray collection (PSC). The mosquitoes were identified using morphological keys and species specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The species composition of members of the An. gambiae complex and ...

  13. Predicting the dynamics of local adaptation in invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    An invasive plant species may restrict its spread to only one habitat, or, after some time, may continue to spread into a different, secondary, habitat. The question of whether evolution is required for an invasive species to spread from one habitat to another is currently hotly debated. In order fo...

  14. Transience after disturbance: Obligate species recovery dynamics depend on disturbance duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alexander; Johst, Karin

    2017-06-01

    After a disturbance event, population recovery becomes an important species response that drives ecosystem dynamics. Yet, it is unclear how interspecific interactions impact species recovery from a disturbance and which role the disturbance duration (pulse or press) plays. Here, we analytically derive conditions that govern the transient recovery dynamics from disturbance of a host and its obligately dependent partner in a two-species metapopulation model. We find that, after disturbance, species recovery dynamics depend on the species' role (i.e. host or obligately dependent species) as well as the duration of disturbance. Host recovery starts immediately after the disturbance. In contrast, for obligate species, recovery depends on disturbance duration. After press disturbance, which allows dynamics to equilibrate during disturbance, obligate species immediately start to recover. Yet, after pulse disturbance, obligate species continue declining although their hosts have already begun to increase. Effectively, obligate species recovery is delayed until a necessary host threshold occupancy is reached. Obligates' delayed recovery arises solely from interspecific interactions independent of dispersal limitations, which contests previous explanations. Delayed recovery exerts a two-fold negative effect, because populations continue declining to even smaller population sizes and the phase of increased risk from demographic stochastic extinction in small populations is prolonged. We argue that delayed recovery and its determinants -species interactions and disturbance duration - have to be considered in biodiversity management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Widespread horizontal genomic exchange does not erode species barriers among sympatric ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraus, R.H.S.; Kerstens, H.H.D.; Hooft, van W.F.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Elmberg, J.; Tsvey, A.; Sartakov, D.; Soloviev, S.A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2012-01-01

    The study of speciation and maintenance of species barriers is at the core of evolutionary biology. During speciation the genome of one population becomes separated from other populations of the same species, which may lead to genomic incompatibility with time. This separation is complete when no

  16. Dynamic model of counter flow air to air heat exchanger for comfort ventilation with condensation and frost formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Rose, Jørgen; Kragh, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    must be calculated under conditions with condensation and freezing. This article presents a dynamic model of a counter flow air to air heat exchanger taking into account condensation and freezing and melting of ice. The model is implemented in Simulink and results are compared to measurements......In cold climates heat recovery in the ventilation system is essential to reduce heating energy demand. Condensation and freezing occur often in efficient heat exchangers used in cold climates. To develop efficient heat exchangers and defrosting strategies for cold climates, heat and mass transfer...

  17. Direct and quantitative characterization of dynamic ligand exchange between coordination-driven self-assembled supramolecular polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao-Rong; Stang, Peter J

    2009-03-18

    The direct observation of dynamic ligand exchange between Pt-N coordination-driven self-assembled supramolecular polygons (triangles and rectangles) has been achieved using stable (1)H/(2)D isotope labeling of the pyridyl donors and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry combined with NMR spectroscopy. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of such exchange processes have been established on the basis of quantitative mass spectral results. Further investigation has shown that the exchange is highly dependent on experimental conditions such as temperature, solvent, and the counteranions.

  18. Plasticity of 150-loop in influenza neuraminidase explored by Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanyu Han

    Full Text Available Neuraminidase (NA of influenza is a key target for antiviral inhibitors, and the 150-cavity in group-1 NA provides new insight in treating this disease. However, NA of 2009 pandemic influenza (09N1 was found lacking this cavity in a crystal structure. To address the issue of flexibility of the 150-loop, Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations were performed on different groups of NAs. Free energy landscape calculated based on the volume of 150-cavity indicates that 09N1 prefers open forms of 150-loop. The turn A (residues 147-150 of the 150-loop is discovered as the most dynamical motif which induces the inter-conversion of this loop among different conformations. In the turn A, the backbone dynamic of residue 149 is highly related with the shape of 150-loop, thus can function as a marker for the conformation of 150-loop. As a contrast, the closed conformation of 150-loop is more energetically favorable in N2, one of group-2 NAs. The D147-H150 salt bridge is found having no correlation with the conformation of 150-loop. Instead the intimate salt bridge interaction between the 150 and 430 loops in N2 variant contributes the stabilizing factor for the closed form of 150-loop. The clustering analysis elaborates the structural plasticity of the loop. This enhanced sampling simulation provides more information in further structural-based drug discovery on influenza virus.

  19. Investment Strategy on the Zagreb Stock Exchange Based on Dynamic DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihana Škrinjarić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a growing interest in the application of quantitative methods in portfolio management, as the results of their application can be used as guidelines for managing a successful investment portfolio, i.e., a portfolio that outperforms the market. This paper deals with the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach and a Dynamic Slacks-Based Measure as a method of forming a portfolio which would predominantly outperform the market. In order to test the strategy, data on stocks listed on the Zagreb Stock Exchange were gathered for the period April 2009 – June 2012. Using the quarterly returns, standard deviations and coefficients of skewness as links, a dynamic slacks-based measure approach was applied to evaluate the relative efficiency of stocks in each quarter. The findings indicate that a portfolio based on the results of the optimization beats the market in terms of both returns and risk. This is the first implementation of the dynamic DEA model in stock trading. The results suggest that it is superior to basic DEA models.

  20. The dynamic behaviour of heat exchangers; Etude du comportement dynamique des echangeurs de chaleur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonteray, J; Rozenholc, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    In order to study the dynamics of nuclear power plants, one needs mathematical models made up of ordinary differential equations. This report deals with models for heat exchangers. These models allow exact evaluations of the temperatures for any steady state. The deformation of the temperature maps during transients is taken into account. To do this, average temperatures are evaluated keeping In mind, on one hand the partial differential equations, on the other hand, the physical phenomenons which are involved. Seven ordinary differential equations at most, are necessary for one heat exchanger. Theses models were compared with mathematically exact ones and also with experimental results, that EDF was able to measure on EDF-1 heat exchangers. The results appear to be correct. (authors) [French] Les etudes de dynamique sur les centrales nucleaires exigent l'elaboration de modeles apparaissant sous forme d'equations differentlelles ordinaires. Ce rapport est consacre a la recherche de modeles d'echangeurs. Dans ces modeles les temperatures sont calculees exactement pour n'importe quel regime permanent. Pour tenir compte de la deformation des distributions de temperature en regime transitoire, on evalue les temperatures moyennes dans l'echangeur en s'appuyant, d'une part, sur les equations aux derivees partielles et, d'autre part, sur une analyse des phenomenes physiques. Les modeles contiennent au plus sept equations differentielles ordinaires. Ces modeles ont ete compares aux modeles mathematiques exacts et aussi a des resultats experimentaux, obtenus par l'EDF, sur les echangeurs d'EDF-1. Les resultats paraissent satisfaisants. (auteurs)

  1. Plasmon dispersion and dynamic exchange-correlation potential from two-pair excitations in degenerate plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.M.; Conti, S.; Tosi, M.P.

    1995-11-01

    Electron energy loss experiments have shown a rapid softening of the bulk plasmon dispersion across the series of the alkali metals. Motivated by these observations, we reconsider the evaluation of the dynamic, long-wavelength exchange-correlation potential f xc (ω) in the electron fluid, which is of interest for applications in time-dependent density functional theory. The value of Re[f xc (ω pl )] at the plasma frequency ω pl determines the exchange-correlation contribution to the leading plasmon dispersion coefficient in the homogeneous electron fluid. Whereas an interpolation scheme originally proposed by Gross and Kohn assumes a monotonic increase of Re[f xc (ω) - f xc (0)] across the plasma frequency, we examine the possibility of strongly non-monotonic behaviour arising from a resonance process between plasmons and two-pair excitations. This process is evaluated with the help of sum rules and selfconsistency requirements with a single-pole approximation of the dielectric function. The cases of a fermion plasma and of a boson plasma are treated in parallel and the reliability of the results for the fermion plasma at low coupling is tested by calculations within a random phase approximation for the dielectric function. In all cases it is found that the resonance process accumulates oscillator strength in the neighbourhood of 2ω pl , thus decreasing the value of Re[f xc (ω pl )] below the static value f xc (0) fixed by the compressibility sum rule. Although this lowering does not suffice to account by itself for the measured plasmon dispersion coefficient in the low-density alkali metals, our results provide useful input for combined band-structure and exchange-correlation calculations. (author). 40 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Potential Energy Surfaces and Dynamics of High Energy Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-13

    explored include ionic liquids and a range of high-nitrogen content and nitrogen-oxygen content species. Polyhedral oligomeric silisesquioxanes are...Approved for Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Several papers on ionic liquids have been published or submitted as a result of this...in energetic ionic liquids . These are variously substituted triazolium, tertazolium, and pentazolium cations. The heats of formation of all species

  3. Dynamics in carbon exchange fluxes for a grazed semi-arid savanna ecosystem in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, Torbern; Fensholt, Rasmus; Cropley, Ford

    2015-01-01

    variable in scaling carbon fluxes from ground observations using earth observation data. The net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) 2010-2013 was measured using the eddy covariance technique at a grazed semi-arid savanna site in Senegal, West Africa. Night-time NEE was not related to temperature......-arid savanna sites; half-hourly GPP and Reco peaked at -43μmol CO2m-2s-1 and 20μmol CO2m-2s-1, and daily GPP and Reco peaked at -15gCm-2 and 12gCm-2, respectively. Possible explanations for the high CO2 fluxes are a high fraction of C4 species, alleviated water stress conditions, and a strong grazing pressure...

  4. NMR characterization of segmental dynamics in poly(alkyl methacrylate) using CODEX and PUREX exchange techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker-Guedes, Fabio; Azevedo, Eduardo R. de; Bonagamba, Tito J.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Slow side group dynamics in a series of five poly(alkyl methacrylate)s with varying side group sizes (PMAA, PMMA, PEMA, PiBMA, and PcHMA, with -H, -CH 3 , -CH 2 CH 3 , -CH 2 CH(CH 3 ) 2 , and -cyclohexyl alkyl substituents, respectively) have been studied quantitatively by center band-only detection of exchange (CODEX) and pure exchange (PUREX) 13 C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Flips and small-angle motions of the ester groups associated with the β-relaxation are observed distinctly, and the fraction of slowly flipping groups has been measured with 3% precision. In PMMA, 34% of side groups flip, while the fraction is 31% in PEMA at 25 C. Even the large isobutyl ether and cyclohexylester side groups can flip in the glassy state, although the flipping fraction is reduced to 22% and ∼10%, respectively. In poly methacrylic acid, no slow side group flips are detected. In PMMA, the flipping fraction is temperature-independent between 25 C and 80 C, while in Pemal it increases continuously from 31 to 60% between 25 C and 60 C. A similar doubling is also observed in Pi BMA. (author)

  5. Fluid Analysis and Improved Structure of an ATEG Heat Exchanger Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Z. B.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a numerical model has been employed to analyze the internal flow field distribution in a heat exchanger applied for an automotive thermoelectric generator based on computational fluid dynamics. The model simulates the influence of factors relevant to the heat exchanger, including the automotive waste heat mass flow velocity, temperature, internal fins, and back pressure. The result is in good agreement with experimental test data. Sensitivity analysis of the inlet parameters shows that increase of the exhaust velocity, compared with the inlet temperature, makes little contribution (0.1 versus 0.19) to the heat transfer but results in a detrimental back pressure increase (0.69 versus 0.21). A configuration equipped with internal fins is proved to offer better thermal performance compared with that without fins. Finally, based on an attempt to improve the internal flow field, a more rational structure is obtained, offering a more homogeneous temperature distribution, higher average heat transfer coefficient, and lower back pressure.

  6. Conformational sampling enhancement of replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations using swarm particle intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamberaj, Hiqmet

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method based on swarm particle social intelligence for use in replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations. In this method, the replicas (representing the different system configurations) are allowed communicating with each other through the individual and social knowledge, in additional to considering them as a collection of real particles interacting through the Newtonian forces. The new method is based on the modification of the equations of motion in such way that the replicas are driven towards the global energy minimum. The method was tested for the Lennard-Jones clusters of N = 4,  5, and 6 atoms. Our results showed that the new method is more efficient than the conventional replica exchange method under the same practical conditions. In particular, the new method performed better on optimizing the distribution of the replicas among the thermostats with time and, in addition, ergodic convergence is observed to be faster. We also introduce a weighted histogram analysis method allowing analyzing the data from simulations by combining data from all of the replicas and rigorously removing the inserted bias

  7. Dynamic thermal baffle on lower head of FBR sodium-sodium intermediate heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonnel, A.; Foussat, C.

    1981-01-01

    The cover head of the heat exchanger is bathed on the one side by the primary sodium of the 'cold' header of the vessel and on the other side by the secondary sodium which feeds the heat exchange tube bank through the lower tubesheet. In the case of transient or permanent operating conditions at partial ratings, there are large temperature differences between the inner sodium (inlet temperature conditions of secondary sodium) and the outer sodium (mean temperature conditions in the primary sodium outlet port), hence the necessity of designing a thermal baffle which protects the head and its connection to the tubesheet. A 'static' thermal baffle consisting of a thick steel plate enclosing static sodium around the head proves inadequate during transient operating conditions. This is why a 'dynamic' thermal baffle is used whose design is based on the fact that the primary sodium in the lower part of the outlet port is always at a temperature close to that of the secondary sodium in the inlet header and the head. The primary sodium is taken from the bottom of the outlet port by a ring deflector and circulates in an annulus created by a double housing and the head. It flows out through openings in the lower part of the housing. (orig./GL)

  8. Horizontal Air-Ground Heat Exchanger Performance and Humidity Simulation by Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Maria Congedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency in buildings and promoting renewables are key objectives of European energy policies. Several technological measures are being developed to enhance the energy performance of buildings. Among these, geothermal systems present a huge potential to reduce energy consumption for mechanical ventilation and cooling, but their behavior depending on varying parameters, boundary and climatic conditions is not fully established. In this paper a horizontal air-ground heat exchanger (HAGHE system is studied by the development of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD model. Summer and winter conditions representative of the Mediterranean climate are analyzed to evaluate operation and thermal performance differences. A particular focus is given to humidity variations as this parameter has a major impact on indoor air quality and comfort. Results show the benefits that HAGHE systems can provide in reducing energy consumption in all seasons, in summer when free-cooling can be implemented avoiding post air treatment using heat pumps.

  9. Modelling and dynamics analysis of heat exchanger as a distributed parameter process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, B.; Debeljkovic, D.Lj.

    2004-01-01

    A non-linear and afterwards linearized mathematical model of fuel oil cooling chamber has been developed. This chamber is a part of a recuperative heat exchanger of a tube-in-tube type and of opposite-direction acting, set in a heavy oil fraction discharge tubing. The model is defined as a range of assumptions and simplifications from which energy balance equations under non-stationary operating conditions are derived. The model is in the form of a set of partial differential equations with constant coefficients. Using appropriate numerical simulation of the transfer function, the dynamic of this process has been shown in the form of appropriate transient process responses which quite well correspond to the real process behavior

  10. Considerably Unfolded Transthyretin Monomers Preceed and Exchange with Dynamically Structured Amyloid Protofibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenning, Minna; Campos, Raul I; Hirschberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    describe an unexpectedly dynamic TTR protofibril structure which exchanges protomers with highly unfolded monomers in solution. The protofibrils only grow to an approximate final size of 2,900 kDa and a length of 70 nm and a comparative HXMS analysis of native and aggregated samples revealed a much higher...... average solvent exposure of TTR upon fibrillation. With SAXS, we reveal the continuous presence of a considerably unfolded TTR monomer throughout the fibrillation process, and show that a considerable fraction of the fibrillating protein remains in solution even at a late maturation state. Together......, these data reveal that the fibrillar state interchanges with the solution state. Accordingly, we suggest that TTR fibrillation proceeds via addition of considerably unfolded monomers, and the continuous presence of amyloidogenic structures near the protofibril surface offers a plausible explanation...

  11. Modelling and dynamics analysis of heat exchanger as a distributed parameter process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, B.; Debeljkovic, D.Lj. [University of Belgrade, Department of Control Engineering, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2004-07-01

    A non-linear and afterwards linearized mathematical model of fuel oil cooling chamber has been developed. This chamber is a part of a recuperative heat exchanger of a tube-in-tube type and of opposite-direction acting, set in a heavy oil fraction discharge tubing. The model is defined as a range of assumptions and simplifications from which energy balance equations under non-stationary operating conditions are derived. The model is in the form of a set of partial differential equations with constant coefficients. Using appropriate numerical simulation of the transfer function, the dynamic of this process has been shown in the form of appropriate transient process responses which quite well correspond to the real process behavior.

  12. Dynamic adsorption of CO2/N2 on cation-exchanged chabazite SSZ-13: A breakthrough analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Jamey K.; Barpaga, Dushyant; Prodinger, Sebastian; Krishna, Rajamani; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, Bernard P.; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Motkuri, Radha K.

    2018-04-17

    Alkali exchanged SSZ-13 adsorbents were investigated for their applicability in separating N2 from CO2 in flue gas streams using a dynamic breakthrough method. In contrast to IAST calculations based on equilibrium isotherms, K+ exchanged SSZ-13 was found to yield the best N2 productivity under dynamic conditions where diffusion properties play a significant role. This was attributed to the selective, partial blockage of access to the CHA cavities enhancing the separation potential in a 15/85 CO2/N2 binary gas mixture.

  13. Recruitment dynamics mediated by ungulate herbivory can affect species coexistence for tree seedling assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yu Weng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The best-known mechanism that herbivory affects species coexistence of tree seedlings is negative density-dependency driven by specialist natural enemies. However, in a forest with intense herbivory by non-specialists, what causes a diversifying seedling bank if rare species do not benefit from negative density-dependency in dominant species? We hypothesize that generalist herbivores can cause unevenly distributed species-specific mortality, which mediates recruitment dynamics and therefore affects species coexistence. To answer this question, we conducted a fence-control experiment in a montane cloud forest, Taiwan, and found that herbivorous damages were mainly caused by ungulates, which are generalists. We explored ungulate herbivory effects on recruitment dynamics by censusing tree seedling dynamics for three years. We found that herbivorous damages by ungulates significantly cause seedling death, mostly at their early stage of establishment. The percentage of death caused by herbivory varied among species. In particular, nurse plants and seedling initial height help shade-tolerant species to persist under such intense herbivory. Whereas, deaths caused by other factors occurred more often in older seedlings, with a consistent low percentage among species. We then tested species coexistence maintenance by dynamic modelling under different scenarios of ungulate herbivory. Raising percentages of death by herbivory changes relative species abundances by suppressing light-demanding species and increasing shade-tolerant species. Density-dependent mortality immediately after bursts of recruitments can suppress dominance of abundant species. With ungulate herbivory, fluctuating recruitment further prevent rare species from apparent competition induced by abundant species. Such bio-processes can interact with ungulate herbivory so that long-term coexistence can be facilitated.

  14. Behavior of cationic, anionic and colloidal species of titanium, zirconium and thorium in presence of ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Filho, G. de; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of titanium, zirconium and thorium is aqueous and resin phases has been studied using strong cationic resin in the R-NH 4 form. Solutions of the above elements in perchloric, nitric, hydrochloric and suphuric media were used. Each set of experiments was made by separately varying one of the five parameters - type of anion present, acidity of solution, temperature of percolation, age of solution and concentration of the element. It was found that, depending on the particular balance of these parameters, the elements investigated may be found in acidic solutions either as cationic, anionic or colloidal species. It is emphasized that the colloidal species of titanium, zirconium or thorium are not retained by the ion exchangers, and from this property a method for the separation and purification of the above elements has been outlined [pt

  15. Dynamic Characteristics of Ventilatory and Gas Exchange during Sinusoidal Walking in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Fukuoka

    Full Text Available Our present study investigated whether the ventilatory and gas exchange responses show different dynamics in response to sinusoidal change in cycle work rate or walking speed even if the metabolic demand was equivalent in both types of exercise. Locomotive parameters (stride length and step frequency, breath-by-breath ventilation (V̇E and gas exchange (CO2 output (V̇CO2 and O2 uptake (V̇O2 responses were measured in 10 healthy young participants. The speed of the treadmill was sinusoidally changed between 3 km·h-1 and 6 km·h-1 with various periods (from 10 to 1 min. The amplitude of locomotive parameters against sinusoidal variation showed a constant gain with a small phase shift, being independent of the oscillation periods. In marked contrast, when the periods of the speed oscillations were shortened, the amplitude of V̇E decreased sharply whereas the phase shift of V̇E increased. In comparing walking and cycling at the equivalent metabolic demand, the amplitude of V̇E during sinusoidal walking (SW was significantly greater than that during sinusoidal cycling (SC, and the phase shift became smaller. The steeper slope of linear regression for the V̇E amplitude ratio to V̇CO2 amplitude ratio was observed during SW than SC. These findings suggested that the greater amplitude and smaller phase shift of ventilatory dynamics were not equivalent between SW and SC even if the metabolic demand was equivalent between both exercises. Such phenomenon would be derived from central command in proportion to locomotor muscle recruitment (feedforward and muscle afferent feedback.

  16. Lanthanide paramagnetic probes for NMR spectroscopic studies of fast molecular conformational dynamics and temperature control. Effective six-site proton exchange in 18-crown-6 by exchange spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babailov, Sergey P

    2012-02-06

    (1)H and (13)C NMR measurements are reported for the CDCl(3) and CD(2)Cl(2) solutions of [La(18-crown-6)(NO(3))(3)] (I), [Pr(18-crown-6) (NO(3))(3)] (II), [Ce(18-crown-6)(NO(3))(3)] (III), and [Nd(18-crown-6)(NO(3))(3)] (IV) complexes. Temperature dependencies of the (1)H NMR spectra of paramagnetic II-IV have been analyzed using the dynamic NMR (DNMR) methods for six-site exchange. Two types of conformational dynamic processes were identified (the first one is conditioned by interconversion of complex enantiomeric forms and pseudorotation of a macrocycle molecule upon the C(2) symmetry axis; the second one is conditioned by macrocycle molecule inversion). Application of exchange spectroscopy (2D-EXSY) of DNMR for investigation of this dynamic system (II-IV) simplifies the assignment of the NMR signals and represents the first experimental study of multisite exchange. In the present work, the methodology of paramagnetic 4f (Ce, Pr, and Nd) probe applications for the study of free-energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes in chemical exchange processes, as well as the advantages of this method in a comparison with DNMR studies of diamagnetic substances, is discussed. In particular, as a result of paramagnetic chemical shifts in 4f complexes, the range of measurable rate constants expands considerably compared to the analogous range in diamagnetic compounds. Coordination compounds investigated in the paper represent new types of thermometric NMR sensors and lanthanide paramagnetic probes for in situ temperature control in solution.

  17. Environmental variability uncovers disruptive effects of species' interactions on population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundson, Sara; Eklöf, Anna; Wennergren, Uno

    2015-08-07

    How species respond to changes in environmental variability has been shown for single species, but the question remains whether these results are transferable to species when incorporated in ecological communities. Here, we address this issue by analysing the same species exposed to a range of environmental variabilities when (i) isolated or (ii) embedded in a food web. We find that all species in food webs exposed to temporally uncorrelated environments (white noise) show the same type of dynamics as isolated species, whereas species in food webs exposed to positively autocorrelated environments (red noise) can respond completely differently compared with isolated species. This is owing to species following their equilibrium densities in a positively autocorrelated environment that in turn enables species-species interactions to come into play. Our results give new insights into species' response to environmental variation. They especially highlight the importance of considering both species' interactions and environmental autocorrelation when studying population dynamics in a fluctuating environment. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Neutral Community Dynamics and the Evolution of Species Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marco Túlio P; Rangel, Thiago F

    2018-04-01

    A contemporary goal in ecology is to determine the ecological and evolutionary processes that generate recurring structural patterns in mutualistic networks. One of the great challenges is testing the capacity of neutral processes to replicate observed patterns in ecological networks, since the original formulation of the neutral theory lacks trophic interactions. Here, we develop a stochastic-simulation neutral model adding trophic interactions to the neutral theory of biodiversity. Without invoking ecological differences among individuals of different species, and assuming that ecological interactions emerge randomly, we demonstrate that a spatially explicit multitrophic neutral model is able to capture the recurrent structural patterns of mutualistic networks (i.e., degree distribution, connectance, nestedness, and phylogenetic signal of species interactions). Nonrandom species distribution, caused by probabilistic events of migration and speciation, create nonrandom network patterns. These findings have broad implications for the interpretation of niche-based processes as drivers of ecological networks, as well as for the integration of network structures with demographic stochasticity.

  19. Stochastic dynamics for two biological species and ecological niches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruziska, Flávia M.; Arashiro, Everaldo; Tomé, Tânia

    2018-01-01

    We consider an ecological system in which two species interact with two niches. To this end we introduce a stochastic model with four states. Our analysis is founded in three approaches: Monte Carlo simulations of the model on a square lattice, mean-field approximation, and birth and death master equation. From this last approach we obtain a description in terms of Langevin equations which show in an explicit way the role of noise in population biology. We focus mainly on the description of time oscillations of the species population and the alternating dominance between them. The model treated here may provide insights on these properties.

  20. 1H and 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO2 selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arévalo-Hidalgo, Ana G.; Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J.

    2012-01-01

    The location of extraframework cations in Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of 1 H and 23 Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO 2 adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium. - Graphical abstract: MAS NMR was used to elucidate the position the cationic species in alkaline earth metal exchanged silicoaluminophosphates. These species played a significant role during the ion exchange process and, therefore, the materials ultimate CO 2 adsorption performance. Highlights: ► Location of extraframework Sr 2+ or Ba 2+ cations was estimated by means of 1 H and 23 Na MAS NMR. ► Level of Sr 2+ or Ba 2+ ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations. ► Presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange. ► Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ ion exchanged SAPOs are outstanding CO 2 adsorbents.

  1. Photoinduced Dynamics of Neutral, Cationic, and Anionic Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Anne Boutrup

    . The investigations have primarily employed femtosecond time-resolved photoionization or photodetachment techniques. Intersystem crossing (ISC) in neutral organic species is conventionally assumed to be slow due to the spin-forbidden nature of the process; this assumption has been challenged during the past decade...

  2. Dynamic variation in sapwood specific conductivity in six woody species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; Frederick C. Meinzer; Barbara Lachenbruch; Johann Housset

    2008-01-01

    Our goals were to quantify how non-embolism inducing pressure gradients influence trunk sapwood specific conductivity (ks) and to compare the impacts of constant and varying pressure gradients on ks with KCl and H20 as the perfusion solutions. We studied six woody species (three conifers and three...

  3. Perovskite Quantum Dots Modeled Using ab Initio and Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Buin, Andrei; Comin, Riccardo; Ip, Alexander H.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Organometal halide perovskites have recently attracted tremendous attention at both the experimental and theoretical levels. Much of this work has been dedicated to bulk material studies, yet recent experimental work has shown the formation of highly efficient quantum-confined nanocrystals with tunable band edges. Here we investigate perovskite quantum dots from theory, predicting an upper bound of the Bohr radius of 45 Å that agrees well with literature values. When the quantum dots are stoichiometric, they are trap-free and have nearly symmetric contributions to confinement from the valence and conduction bands. We further show that surface-associated conduction bandedge states in perovskite nanocrystals lie below the bulk states, which could explain the difference in Urbach tails between mesoporous and planar perovskite films. In addition to conventional molecular dynamics (MD), we implement an enhanced phase-space sampling algorithm, replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD). We find that in simulation of methylammonium orientation and global minima, REMD outperforms conventional MD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first REMD implementation for realistic-sized systems in the realm of DFT calculations.

  4. Perovskite Quantum Dots Modeled Using ab Initio and Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Buin, Andrei

    2015-06-18

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Organometal halide perovskites have recently attracted tremendous attention at both the experimental and theoretical levels. Much of this work has been dedicated to bulk material studies, yet recent experimental work has shown the formation of highly efficient quantum-confined nanocrystals with tunable band edges. Here we investigate perovskite quantum dots from theory, predicting an upper bound of the Bohr radius of 45 Å that agrees well with literature values. When the quantum dots are stoichiometric, they are trap-free and have nearly symmetric contributions to confinement from the valence and conduction bands. We further show that surface-associated conduction bandedge states in perovskite nanocrystals lie below the bulk states, which could explain the difference in Urbach tails between mesoporous and planar perovskite films. In addition to conventional molecular dynamics (MD), we implement an enhanced phase-space sampling algorithm, replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD). We find that in simulation of methylammonium orientation and global minima, REMD outperforms conventional MD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first REMD implementation for realistic-sized systems in the realm of DFT calculations.

  5. Exchange-dynamics of a neutral hydrophobic dye in micellar solutions studied by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordello, Jorge; Novo, Mercedes; Al-Soufi, Wajih

    2010-05-15

    The dynamics of the exchange of the moderately hydrophobic neutral dye Coumarine 152 between the aqueous phase and the phase formed by neutral Triton X-100 micelles is studied by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy. The changes in the photophysical properties of the dye in presence of the micelles are discussed. The low quantum yield, the low saturation threshold and the necessary high energetic excitation of this dye requires a careful selection of the experimental conditions in order to obtain dynamic and diffusional properties with reasonable precision. It is shown that the contrast between the brightness of free and bound dye has a strong influence on the sensitivity of the FCS experiment. The entry rate constant of the dye to the micelles, k(+)=(0.8±0.3)×10(10) M(-1) s(-1), is very near to the diffusion controlled limit. The high association equilibrium constant of K=(129±3)×10(3) M(-1) is mainly determined by the low exit rate constant, k(-)=(0.6±0.2)×10(5) s(-1). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Two-photon Photoactivation to Measure Histone Exchange Dynamics in Plant Root Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Stefanie; Shaw, Peter

    2015-10-20

    Chromatin-binding proteins play a crucial role in chromatin structure and gene expression. Direct binding of chromatin proteins both maintains and regulates transcriptional states. It is therefore important to study the binding properties of these proteins in vivo within the natural environment of the nucleus. Photobleaching, photoactivation and photoconversion (photoswitching) can provide a non-invasive experimental approach to study dynamic properties of living cells and organisms. We used photoactivation to determine exchange dynamics of histone H2B in plant stem cells of the root (Rosa et al. , 2014). The stem cells of the root are located in the middle of the tissue, which made it impossible to carry out photoactivation of sufficiently small and well-defined sub-cellular regions with conventional laser illumination in the confocal microscope, mainly because scattering and refraction effects within the root tissue dispersed the focal spot and caused photoactivation of too large a region. We therefore used 2-photon activation, which has much better inherent resolution of the illuminated region. This is because the activation depends on simultaneous absorption of two or more photons, which in turns depends on the square (or higher power) of the intensity-a much sharper peak. In this protocol we will describe the experimental procedure to perform two-photon photoactivation experiments and the corresponding image analysis. This protocol can be used for nuclear proteins tagged with photoactivable GFP (PA-GFP) expressed in root tissues.

  7. General two-species interacting Lotka-Volterra system: Population dynamics and wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haoqi; Wang, Mao-Xiang; Lai, Pik-Yin

    2018-05-01

    The population dynamics of two interacting species modeled by the Lotka-Volterra (LV) model with general parameters that can promote or suppress the other species is studied. It is found that the properties of the two species' isoclines determine the interaction of species, leading to six regimes in the phase diagram of interspecies interaction; i.e., there are six different interspecific relationships described by the LV model. Four regimes allow for nontrivial species coexistence, among which it is found that three of them are stable, namely, weak competition, mutualism, and predator-prey scenarios can lead to win-win coexistence situations. The Lyapunov function for general nontrivial two-species coexistence is also constructed. Furthermore, in the presence of spatial diffusion of the species, the dynamics can lead to steady wavefront propagation and can alter the population map. Propagating wavefront solutions in one dimension are investigated analytically and by numerical solutions. The steady wavefront speeds are obtained analytically via nonlinear dynamics analysis and verified by numerical solutions. In addition to the inter- and intraspecific interaction parameters, the intrinsic speed parameters of each species play a decisive role in species populations and wave properties. In some regimes, both species can copropagate with the same wave speeds in a finite range of parameters. Our results are further discussed in the light of possible biological relevance and ecological implications.

  8. Dynamic communities in multichannel data: an application to the foreign exchange market during the 2007-2008 credit crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Daniel J; Porter, Mason A; McDonald, Mark; Williams, Stacy; Johnson, Neil F; Jones, Nick S

    2009-09-01

    We study the cluster dynamics of multichannel (multivariate) time series by representing their correlations as time-dependent networks and investigating the evolution of network communities. We employ a node-centric approach that allows us to track the effects of the community evolution on the functional roles of individual nodes without having to track entire communities. As an example, we consider a foreign exchange market network in which each node represents an exchange rate and each edge represents a time-dependent correlation between the rates. We study the period 2005-2008, which includes the recent credit and liquidity crisis. Using community detection, we find that exchange rates that are strongly attached to their community are persistently grouped with the same set of rates, whereas exchange rates that are important for the transfer of information tend to be positioned on the edges of communities. Our analysis successfully uncovers major trading changes that occurred in the market during the credit crisis.

  9. Temperature dependence of exchange bias in (NiFe/IrMn)n multilayer films studied through static and dynamic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Daniel J.; Khanal, Shankar; Khan, Mohammad Asif; Maksymov, Artur; Spinu, Leonard

    2018-05-01

    The in-plane temperature dependence of exchange bias was studied through both dc magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy in a series of [NiFe/IrMn]n multilayer films, where n is the number of layer repetitions. Major hysteresis loops were recorded in the temperature range of 300 K to 2 K to reveal the effect of temperature on the exchange bias in the static regime while temperature-dependent continuous-wave ferromagnetic resonance for frequencies from 3 to 16 GHz was used to determine the exchange bias dynamically. Strong divergence between the values of exchange bias determined using the two different types of measurements as well as a peak in temperature dependence of the resonance linewidth were observed. These results are explained in terms of the slow-relaxer mechanism.

  10. Dynamic communities in multichannel data: An application to the foreign exchange market during the 2007-2008 credit crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Daniel J.; Porter, Mason A.; McDonald, Mark; Williams, Stacy; Johnson, Neil F.; Jones, Nick S.

    2009-09-01

    We study the cluster dynamics of multichannel (multivariate) time series by representing their correlations as time-dependent networks and investigating the evolution of network communities. We employ a node-centric approach that allows us to track the effects of the community evolution on the functional roles of individual nodes without having to track entire communities. As an example, we consider a foreign exchange market network in which each node represents an exchange rate and each edge represents a time-dependent correlation between the rates. We study the period 2005-2008, which includes the recent credit and liquidity crisis. Using community detection, we find that exchange rates that are strongly attached to their community are persistently grouped with the same set of rates, whereas exchange rates that are important for the transfer of information tend to be positioned on the edges of communities. Our analysis successfully uncovers major trading changes that occurred in the market during the credit crisis.

  11. Labile/inert metal species in aquatic humic substances: an ion-exchange study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burba, P.

    1994-01-01

    An ion-exchange procedure has been developed for the analytical fractionation of metals (e.g. Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) forming labile/inert complexes with aquatic humic substances (HS) isolated (XAD 2, XAD 8, ultrafiltration) from bog, forest, ground and lake water. Using 1-(2-hydroxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol groups immobilized on cellulose (Cellulose HYPHAN TM ) as chelating collector (batch and column procedure, resp.) for reactive metal fractions in dissolved HS, the kinetics and the degree of separation (referred to the total metal content) serve for the operational characterization of the metal lability. According to the separation kinetics (96 h), mostly the reactivity order Mn > Zn > Co > Pb > Ni > Cu >> Al > Fe is observed for the above metals in HS, resulting in recoveries of > 98% for Mn and Zn, but strongly varying for the other metals (e.g., 44-95% Cu, 18-84% Fe). (orig.)

  12. Dynamic behavior of liquid water transport in a tapered channel of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell cathode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhtar, N.; Kerkhof, P.J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A numerical model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathode with a tapered channel design has been developed in order to examine the dynamic behavior of liquid water transport. Three-dimensional, transient simulations employing the level-set method (available in COMSOL 3.5a, a

  13. Advanced numerical methods for uncertainty reduction when predicting heat exchanger dynamic stability limits: Review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longatte, E.; Baj, F.; Hoarau, Y.; Braza, M.; Ruiz, D.; Canteneur, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Proposal of hybrid computational methods for investigating dynamical system stability. ► Modeling turbulence disequilibrium due to interaction with moving solid boundaries. ► Providing computational procedure for large size system solution approximation through model reduction. -- Abstract: This article proposes a review of recent and current developments in the modeling and advanced numerical methods used to simulate large-size systems involving multi-physics in the field of mechanics. It addresses the complex issue of stability analysis of dynamical systems submitted to external turbulent flows and aims to establish accurate stability maps applicable to heat exchanger design. The purpose is to provide dimensionless stability limit modeling that is suitable for a variety of configurations and is as accurate as possible in spite of the large scale of the systems to be considered. The challenge lies in predicting local effects that may impact global systems. A combination of several strategies that are suited concurrently to multi-physics, multi-scale and large-size system computation is therefore required. Based on empirical concepts, the heuristic models currently used in the framework of standard stability analysis suffer from a lack of predictive capabilities. On the other hand, numerical approaches based on fully-coupled fluid–solid dynamics system computation remain expensive due to the multi-physics patterns of physics and the large number of degrees of freedom involved. In this context, since experimentation cannot be achieved and numerical simulation is unavoidable but prohibitive, a hybrid strategy is proposed in order to take advantage of both numerical local solutions and empirical global solutions

  14. Water and nitrogen dynamics in rotational woodlots of five tree species in western Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyadzi, G.I.; Janssen, B.H.; Otsyina, R.M.; Booltink, H.W.G.; Ong, C.K.; Oenema, O.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of woodlots of five tree species, continuous maize (Zea mays L.) and natural fallow on soil water and nitrogen dynamics in western Tanzania. The tree species evaluated were Acacia crassicarpa (A. Cunn. ex Benth.), Acacia julifera ( Berth.),

  15. Mimicking the action of folding chaperones by Hamiltonian replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations : Application in the refinement of de novo models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Hao; Periole, Xavier; Mark, Alan E.

    The efficiency of using a variant of Hamiltonian replica-exchange molecular dynamics (Chaperone H-replica-exchange molecular dynamics [CH-REMD]) for the refinement of protein structural models generated de novo is investigated. In CH-REMD, the interaction between the protein and its environment,

  16. The Dynamics of Foreign Exchange Rate Risk Management in Different Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Khaldoun M. Al-Qaisi

    2012-01-01

    Foreign currency exchange management is very crucial in firms with foreign deals. The objective of this research was to study the management practices in Jordanian firms of foreign exchange management and its risk on these firms. A questionnaire was used to collect data using a stratified random sample. The results show that the firms interested with foreign currency exchange management as it forms more that 50% of its deals. Most of firms indicated that they have a policy for foreign exchang...

  17. LCE: leaf carbon exchange data set for tropical, temperate, and boreal species of North and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas G; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2017-11-01

    Leaf canopy carbon exchange processes, such as photosynthesis and respiration, are substantial components of the global carbon cycle. Climate models base their simulations of photosynthesis and respiration on an empirical understanding of the underlying biochemical processes, and the responses of those processes to environmental drivers. As such, data spanning large spatial scales are needed to evaluate and parameterize these models. Here, we present data on four important biochemical parameters defining leaf carbon exchange processes from 626 individuals of 98 species at 12 North and Central American sites spanning ~53° of latitude. The four parameters are the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (V cmax ), the maximum rate of electron transport for the regeneration of Ribulose-1,5,-bisphosphate (J max ), the maximum rate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase carboxylation (V pmax ), and leaf dark respiration (R d ). The raw net photosynthesis by intercellular CO 2 (A/C i ) data used to calculate V cmax , J max , and V pmax rates are also presented. Data were gathered on the same leaf of each individual (one leaf per individual), allowing for the examination of each parameter relative to others. Additionally, the data set contains a number of covariates for the plants measured. Covariate data include (1) leaf-level traits (leaf mass, leaf area, leaf nitrogen and carbon content, predawn leaf water potential), (2) plant-level traits (plant height for herbaceous individuals and diameter at breast height for trees), (3) soil moisture at the time of measurement, (4) air temperature from nearby weather stations for the day of measurement and each of the 90 d prior to measurement, and (5) climate data (growing season mean temperature, precipitation, photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and aridity index). We hope that the data will be useful for obtaining greater understanding of the abiotic and biotic determinants of these important biochemical

  18. Evaluating complementary networks of restoration plantings for landscape-scale occurrence of temporally dynamic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikin, Karen; Tulloch, Ayesha; Gibbons, Philip; Ansell, Dean; Seddon, Julian; Lindenmayer, David

    2016-10-01

    Multibillion dollar investments in land restoration make it critical that conservation goals are achieved cost-effectively. Approaches developed for systematic conservation planning offer opportunities to evaluate landscape-scale, temporally dynamic biodiversity outcomes from restoration and improve on traditional approaches that focus on the most species-rich plantings. We investigated whether it is possible to apply a complementarity-based approach to evaluate the extent to which an existing network of restoration plantings meets representation targets. Using a case study of woodland birds of conservation concern in southeastern Australia, we compared complementarity-based selections of plantings based on temporally dynamic species occurrences with selections based on static species occurrences and selections based on ranking plantings by species richness. The dynamic complementarity approach, which incorporated species occurrences over 5 years, resulted in higher species occurrences and proportion of targets met compared with the static complementarity approach, in which species occurrences were taken at a single point in time. For equivalent cost, the dynamic complementarity approach also always resulted in higher average minimum percent occurrence of species maintained through time and a higher proportion of the bird community meeting representation targets compared with the species-richness approach. Plantings selected under the complementarity approaches represented the full range of planting attributes, whereas those selected under the species-richness approach were larger in size. Our results suggest that future restoration policy should not attempt to achieve all conservation goals within individual plantings, but should instead capitalize on restoration opportunities as they arise to achieve collective value of multiple plantings across the landscape. Networks of restoration plantings with complementary attributes of age, size, vegetation structure, and

  19. Simulating carbon dioxide exchange rates of deciduous tree species: evidence for a general pattern in biochemical changes and water stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Robert F; Bauerle, William L; Wang, Ying

    2009-09-01

    Deciduous trees have a seasonal carbon dioxide exchange pattern that is attributed to changes in leaf biochemical properties. However, it is not known if the pattern in leaf biochemical properties - maximum Rubisco carboxylation (V(cmax)) and electron transport (J(max)) - differ between species. This study explored whether a general pattern of changes in V(cmax), J(max), and a standardized soil moisture response accounted for carbon dioxide exchange of deciduous trees throughout the growing season. The model MAESTRA was used to examine V(cmax) and J(max) of leaves of five deciduous trees, Acer rubrum 'Summer Red', Betula nigra, Quercus nuttallii, Quercus phellos and Paulownia elongata, and their response to soil moisture. MAESTRA was parameterized using data from in situ measurements on organs. Linking the changes in biochemical properties of leaves to the whole tree, MAESTRA integrated the general pattern in V(cmax) and J(max) from gas exchange parameters of leaves with a standardized soil moisture response to describe carbon dioxide exchange throughout the growing season. The model estimates were tested against measurements made on the five species under both irrigated and water-stressed conditions. Measurements and modelling demonstrate that the seasonal pattern of biochemical activity in leaves and soil moisture response can be parameterized with straightforward general relationships. Over the course of the season, differences in carbon exchange between measured and modelled values were within 6-12 % under well-watered conditions and 2-25 % under water stress conditions. Hence, a generalized seasonal pattern in the leaf-level physiological change of V(cmax) and J(max), and a standardized response to soil moisture was sufficient to parameterize carbon dioxide exchange for large-scale evaluations. Simplification in parameterization of the seasonal pattern of leaf biochemical activity and soil moisture response of deciduous forest species is demonstrated. This

  20. Role of the noise on the transient dynamics of an ecosystem of interacting species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, B.; La Barbera, A.

    2002-11-01

    We analyze the transient dynamics of an ecosystem described by generalized Lotka-Volterra equations in the presence of a multiplicative noise and a random interaction parameter between the species. We consider specifically three cases: (i) two competing species, (ii) three interacting species (one predator-two preys), (iii) n-interacting species. The interaction parameter in case (i) is a stochastic process which obeys a stochastic differential equation. We find noise delayed extinction of one of two species, which is akin to the noise-enhanced stability phenomenon. Other two noise-induced effects found are temporal oscillations and spatial patterns of the two competing species. In case (ii) the noise induces correlated spatial patterns of the predator and of the two preys concentrations. Finally, in case (iii) we find the asymptotic behavior of the time average of the ith population when the ecosystem is composed of a great number of interacting species.

  1. Dynamic relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and market anxiety: A new perspective based on MF-DCCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinsheng; Sun, Xinxin; Ge, Jintian

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and market anxiety during the period from January 5, 1998 to April 18, 2016. A quantitative technique of multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) is used to explore the multifractal features of the cross-correlations between USD/JPY, AUD/JPY exchange rates and the market anxiety gauge VIX. The investigation shows that the causal relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and VIX are bidirectional in general, and the cross-correlations between the two sets of time series are multifractal. Strong evidence suggests that the cross-correlation exponents tend to exhibit different volatility patterns in response to diverse external shocks such as financial distress and widening in interest rate spread, suggesting that the cross-correlated behavior between Japanese Yen exchange rates and VIX are susceptible to economic uncertainties and risks. In addition, the performances of two market anxiety gauges, the VIX and the TED spread, are compared and the sources of multifractality are also traced. Thus, this paper contributes to the literature by shedding light on the unique driving forces of the Yen exchange rate fluctuations in the international foreign exchange market.

  2. A methodology for determining the dynamic exchange of resources in nuclear fuel cycle simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidden, Matthew J., E-mail: gidden@iiasa.ac.at [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); University of Wisconsin – Madison, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wilson, Paul P.H. [University of Wisconsin – Madison, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A novel fuel cycle simulation entity interaction mechanism is proposed. • A framework and implementation of the mechanism is described. • New facility outage and regional interaction scenario studies are described and analyzed. - Abstract: Simulation of the nuclear fuel cycle can be performed using a wide range of techniques and methodologies. Past efforts have focused on specific fuel cycles or reactor technologies. The CYCLUS fuel cycle simulator seeks to separate the design of the simulation from the fuel cycle or technologies of interest. In order to support this separation, a robust supply–demand communication and solution framework is required. Accordingly an agent-based supply-chain framework, the Dynamic Resource Exchange (DRE), has been designed implemented in CYCLUS. It supports the communication of complex resources, namely isotopic compositions of nuclear fuel, between fuel cycle facilities and their managers (e.g., institutions and regions). Instances of supply and demand are defined as an optimization problem and solved for each timestep. Importantly, the DRE allows each agent in the simulation to independently indicate preference for specific trading options in order to meet both physics requirements and satisfy constraints imposed by potential socio-political models. To display the variety of possible simulations that the DRE enables, example scenarios are formulated and described. Important features include key fuel-cycle facility outages, introduction of external recycled fuel sources (similar to the current mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility in the United States), and nontrivial interactions between fuel cycles existing in different regions.

  3. A methodology for determining the dynamic exchange of resources in nuclear fuel cycle simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidden, Matthew J.; Wilson, Paul P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel fuel cycle simulation entity interaction mechanism is proposed. • A framework and implementation of the mechanism is described. • New facility outage and regional interaction scenario studies are described and analyzed. - Abstract: Simulation of the nuclear fuel cycle can be performed using a wide range of techniques and methodologies. Past efforts have focused on specific fuel cycles or reactor technologies. The CYCLUS fuel cycle simulator seeks to separate the design of the simulation from the fuel cycle or technologies of interest. In order to support this separation, a robust supply–demand communication and solution framework is required. Accordingly an agent-based supply-chain framework, the Dynamic Resource Exchange (DRE), has been designed implemented in CYCLUS. It supports the communication of complex resources, namely isotopic compositions of nuclear fuel, between fuel cycle facilities and their managers (e.g., institutions and regions). Instances of supply and demand are defined as an optimization problem and solved for each timestep. Importantly, the DRE allows each agent in the simulation to independently indicate preference for specific trading options in order to meet both physics requirements and satisfy constraints imposed by potential socio-political models. To display the variety of possible simulations that the DRE enables, example scenarios are formulated and described. Important features include key fuel-cycle facility outages, introduction of external recycled fuel sources (similar to the current mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility in the United States), and nontrivial interactions between fuel cycles existing in different regions.

  4. Tungsten polyoxometalate molecules as active nodes for dynamic carrier exchange in hybrid molecular/semiconductor capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balliou, A.; Douvas, A. M.; Normand, P.; Argitis, P.; Glezos, N.; Tsikritzis, D.; Kennou, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study the utilization of molecular transition metal oxides known as polyoxometalates (POMs), in particular the Keggin structure anions of the formula PW 12 O 40 3− , as active nodes for potential switching and/or fast writing memory applications. The active molecules are being integrated in hybrid Metal-Insulator/POM molecules-Semiconductor capacitors, which serve as prototypes allowing investigation of critical performance characteristics towards the design of more sophisticated devices. The charging ability as well as the electronic structure of the molecular layer is probed by means of electrical characterization, namely, capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements, as well as transient capacitance measurements, C (t), under step voltage polarization. It is argued that the transient current peaks observed are manifestations of dynamic carrier exchange between the gate electrode and specific molecular levels, while the transient C (t) curves under conditions of molecular charging can supply information for the rate of change of the charge that is being trapped and de-trapped within the molecular layer. Structural characterization via surface and cross sectional scanning electron microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV and Fourier-transform IR spectroscopies, UPS, and XPS contribute to the extraction of accurate electronic structure characteristics and open the path for the design of new devices with on-demand tuning of their interfacial properties via the controlled preparation of the POM layer.

  5. Action dependent heuristic dynamic programming based residential energy scheduling with home energy inter-exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yancai; Liu, Derong; Wei, Qinglai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The algorithm is developed in the two-household energy management environment. • We develop the absent energy penalty cost for the first time. • The algorithm has ability to keep adapting in real-time operations. • Its application can lower total costs and achieve better load balancing. - Abstract: Residential energy scheduling is a hot topic nowadays in the background of energy saving and environmental protection worldwide. To achieve this objective, a new residential energy scheduling algorithm is developed for energy management, based on action dependent heuristic dynamic programming. The algorithm works under the circumstance of residential real-time pricing and two adjacent housing units with energy inter-exchange, which can reduce the overall cost and enhance renewable energy efficiency after long-term operation. It is designed to obtain the optimal control policy to manage the directions and amounts of electricity energy flux. The algorithm’s architecture is mainly constructed based on neural networks, denoting the learned characteristics in the linkage of layers. To get close to real situations, many constraints such as maximum charging/discharging power of batteries are taken into account. The absent energy penalty cost is developed for the first time as a part of the performance index function. When the environment changes, the residential energy scheduling algorithm gains new features and keeps adapting in real-time operations. Simulation results show that the developed algorithm is beneficial to energy conversation

  6. Dynamic swelling of tunable full-color block copolymer photonic gels via counterion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ho Sun; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Walish, Joseph J; Thomas, Edwin L

    2012-10-23

    One-dimensionally periodic block copolymer photonic lamellar gels with full-color tunability as a result of a direct exchange of counteranions were fabricated via a two-step procedure comprising the self-assembly of a hydrophobic block-hydrophilic polyelectrolyte block copolymer, polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP), followed by sequential quaternization of the P2VP layers in 1-bromoethane solution. Depending on the hydration characteristics of each counteranion, the selective swelling of the block copolymer lamellar structures leads to large tunability of the photonic stop band from blue to red wavelengths. More extensive quaternization of the P2VP block allows the photonic lamellar gels to swell more and red shift to longer wavelength. Here, we investigate the dynamic swelling behavior in the photonic gel films through time-resolved in situ measurement of UV-vis transmission. We model the swelling behavior using the transfer matrix method based on the experimentally observed reflectivity data with substitution of appropriate counterions. These tunable structural color materials may be attractive for numerous applications such as high-contrast displays without using a backlight, color filters, and optical mirrors for flexible lasing.

  7. Probing Conformational Dynamics of Tau Protein by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Richard Y.-C.; Iacob, Roxana E.; Sankaranarayanan, Sethu; Yang, Ling; Ahlijanian, Michael; Tao, Li; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Chen, Guodong

    2018-01-01

    Fibrillization of the microtubule-associated protein tau has been recognized as one of the signature pathologies of the nervous system in Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and other tauopathies. The conformational transition of tau in the fibrillization process, tau monomer to soluble aggregates to fibrils in particular, remains unclear. Here we report on the use of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) in combination with other biochemical approaches, including Thioflavin S fluorescence measurements, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blotting to understand the heparin-induced tau's fibrillization. HDX-MS studies including anti-tau antibody epitope mapping experiments provided molecular level details of the full-length tau's conformational dynamics and its regional solvent accessibility upon soluble aggregates formation. The results demonstrate that R3 region in the full-length tau's microtubule binding repeat region (MTBR) is stabilized in the aggregation process, leaving both N and C terminal regions to be solvent exposed in the soluble aggregates and fibrils. The findings also illustrate the practical utility of orthogonal analytical methodologies for the characterization of protein higher order structure. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Spin dynamics and exchange interactions in CuO measured by neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, H.; Gaw, S. M.; Princep, A. J.; Hamilton, E.; Tóth, S.; Ewings, R. A.; Enderle, M.; Wheeler, E. M. Hétroy; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.

    2018-04-01

    The magnetic properties of CuO encompass several contemporary themes in condensed-matter physics, including quantum magnetism, magnetic frustration, magnetically-induced ferroelectricity, and orbital currents. Here we report polarized and unpolarized neutron inelastic scattering measurements which provide a comprehensive map of the cooperative spin dynamics in the low-temperature antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase of CuO throughout much of the Brillouin zone. At high energies (E ≳100 meV ), the spectrum displays continuum features consistent with the des Cloizeax-Pearson dispersion for an ideal S =1/2 Heisenberg AFM chain. At lower energies, the spectrum becomes more three dimensional, and we find that a linear spin-wave model for a Heisenberg AFM provides a very good description of the data, allowing for an accurate determination of the relevant exchange constants in an effective spin Hamiltonian for CuO. In the high-temperature helicoidal phase, there are features in the measured low-energy spectrum that we could not reproduce with a spin-only model. We discuss how these might be associated with the magnetically-induced multiferroic behavior observed in this phase.

  9. Seismic dynamic analysis of Heat Exchangers inside of the Auxiliary Buildings in AP1000TM NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Fonzo, M.; Aragon, J.; Moraleda, F.; Palazuelos, M.; San Vicente, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic dynamic analysis was carried out for the Heat Exchangers (RNS-HR) located inside of the Auxiliary Building in AP 1000 T M NPP. The main function of the RNS-HX is to provide shutdown reactor cooling. These equipment's are safety-related. So the seismic analysis was done using the methodology for Seismic Category I (SCI) structures. The most important topic is that the RNS-HX shall withstand the effects of the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) and maintain the specified design functions. for the analysis, two finite element models (FEM) were built in order to investigate the structural response of the couple system of building and equipment. The response spectra method was used. The floor response spectra (FRS) at the slab-wall connection were used as input Lateral seismic restrain was necessary to added in order to achieve the natural frequency of 33 Hz. The global structural response was obtained by means of the modal combination method indicated in the Regulatory Guide 1.92.

  10. Dynamic nuclear-polarization studies of paramagnetic species in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glad, W.E.

    1982-07-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) was used to measure the electron spin lattice relaxation times, T 1 , of transition metal ions in aqueous solution. Saturation which is induced in the electron spin system is transferred to the solvent proton spins by dipole-dipole interactions. The change in the polarization of the proton spins is much larger than it is in the electron spins. The change in proton polarization is easily measured by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). In one experimental arrangement the sample solution was continuously flowed through a microwave cavity to the NMR coil. The NMR was observed with a continuous wave NMR spectrometer. In a second arrangement the whole sample tube was moved from within the microwave cavity to the NMR coil in less than 40 ms by a blast of compressed air. The NMR was then observed with a pulse-Fourier-transform spectrometer. With the second arrangement a mean-square microwave magnetic field at the sample of more than 10 G 2 is obtainable with 14 W of microwave power. Measurements of DNP at 9 GHz were made on aqueous solutions of VO 2+ , Mn 2+ , Cr(CN) 6 3- , Cu 2+ and Cu(ethylenediamine) 2 (H 2 0) 2 2+ ions from 3 to 60 0 C. It was also possible to observe DNP on resolved proton resonances from mixed water-acetonitrile solutions of VO 2+ and Cr(CN) 6 3- ions

  11. Analysis of postfire vegetation dynamics of Mediterranean shrub species based on terrestrial and NDVI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Clemente, Rocío; Cerrillo, R M Navarro; Hernández-Bermejo, J E; Royo, S Escuin; Kasimis, N A

    2009-05-01

    The present study offers an analysis of regeneration patterns and diversity dynamics after a wildfire, which occurred in 1993 and affected about 7000 ha in southern Spain. The aim of the work was to analyze the rule in the succession of shrub species after fire, relating it to the changes registered in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Fractional vegetation cover was recorded from permanent plots in 2000 and 2005. NDVI data related to each time were obtained from Landsat images. Both data sets, from fieldwork and remote sensing, were analyzed through statistical and quantitative analyses and then correlated. Results have permitted the description of the change in plant cover and species composition on a global and plot scale. It can be affirmed that, from the seventh to the twelfth year after the fire, the floristic composition within the burned area remained unchanged at a global level. However, on a smaller scale (plot level), the major shrub species, Ulex parviflorus, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Cistus clusii, underwent significant changes. The regeneration dynamics established by these species conditioned plant species composition and, consequently, diversity indexes such as Shannon (H) and Simpson (D). The changes recorded in the NDVI values corresponding to the surveyed plots were highly correlated with those found in the regrowth of the main species. Areas dominated by U. parviflorus in a senile phase were related to a decrease in NDVI values and an increase in the number of species. This result describes the successional dynamics; the dryness of the main colonizer shrub species is allowing the regrowth and re-establishment of other species. Within the study area, NDVI shows sensitivity to postfire plant cover changes and indirectly expresses the diversity dynamics.

  12. Low dynamics, high longevity and persistence of sessile structural species dwelling on Mediterranean coralligenous outcrops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Teixidó

    Full Text Available There is still limited understanding of the processes underlying benthic species dynamics in marine coastal habitats, which are of disproportionate importance in terms of productivity and biodiversity. The life-history traits of long-lived benthic species in these habitats are particularly poorly documented. In this study, we assessed decadal patterns of population dynamics for ten sponge and anthozoan species that play key structural roles in coralligenous outcrops (∼25 m depth in two areas of the NW Mediterranean Sea. This study was based on examination of a unique long-term photographic series, which allowed analysis of population dynamics over extensive spatial and time spans for the very first time. Specifically, 671 individuals were censused annually over periods of 25-, 15-, and 5-years. This long-term study quantitatively revealed a common life-history pattern among the ten studied species, despite the fact they present different growth forms. Low mortality rates (3.4% yr(-1 for all species combined and infrequent recruitment events (mean value of 3.1±0.5 SE recruits yr(-1 provided only a very small fraction of the new colonies required to maintain population sizes. Overall, annual mortality and recruitment rates did not differ significantly among years; however, some species displayed important mortality events and recruitment pulses, indicating variability among species. Based on the growth rates of these 10 species, we projected their longevity and, obtained a mean estimated age of 25-200 years. Finally, the low to moderate turnover rates (mean value 0.80% yr(-1 observed among the coralligenous species were in agreement with their low dynamics and persistence. These results offer solid baseline data and reveal that these habitats are among the most vulnerable to the current increases of anthropogenic disturbances.

  13. Analysis of Postfire Vegetation Dynamics of Mediterranean Shrub Species Based on Terrestrial and NDVI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Clemente, Rocío; Navarro Cerrillo, R. M.; Hernández-Bermejo, J. E.; Escuin Royo, S.; Kasimis, N. A.

    2009-05-01

    The present study offers an analysis of regeneration patterns and diversity dynamics after a wildfire, which occurred in 1993 and affected about 7000 ha in southern Spain. The aim of the work was to analyze the rule in the succession of shrub species after fire, relating it to the changes registered in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Fractional vegetation cover was recorded from permanent plots in 2000 and 2005. NDVI data related to each time were obtained from Landsat images. Both data sets, from fieldwork and remote sensing, were analyzed through statistical and quantitative analyses and then correlated. Results have permitted the description of the change in plant cover and species composition on a global and plot scale. It can be affirmed that, from the seventh to the twelfth year after the fire, the floristic composition within the burned area remained unchanged at a global level. However, on a smaller scale (plot level), the major shrub species, Ulex parviflorus, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Cistus clusii, underwent significant changes. The regeneration dynamics established by these species conditioned plant species composition and, consequently, diversity indexes such as Shannon (H) and Simpson (D). The changes recorded in the NDVI values corresponding to the surveyed plots were highly correlated with those found in the regrowth of the main species. Areas dominated by U. parviflorus in a senile phase were related to a decrease in NDVI values and an increase in the number of species. This result describes the successional dynamics; the dryness of the main colonizer shrub species is allowing the regrowth and re-establishment of other species. Within the study area, NDVI shows sensitivity to postfire plant cover changes and indirectly expresses the diversity dynamics.

  14. Can gas exchange dynamics predict non-structural carbohydrate use under drought stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannenberg, S.; Phillips, R.

    2016-12-01

    A recent conceptual framework for understanding tree drought responses characterizes species along a continuum from isohydry to anisohydry, with theory predicting that isohydric and anisohydric trees should display different carbon (C) allocation patterns under drought conditions. We tested the hypothesis that the trade-offs inherent in the isohydry-anisohydry framework (i.e., C starvation vs. hydraulic failure) necessitate different allocation patterns to non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs), growth, and respiration. Specifically, we hypothesized that isohydric trees would decrease NSC stores and growth in the face of reduced incoming photoassimilate, whereas anisohydric trees would maintain assimilation, growth, and NSC pools due to decreased demand for stored metabolic C and enhanced osmoregulatory needs. To test this, we subjected saplings of Liriodendron tulipifera (an isohydric tree) and Quercus alba (an anisohydric tree) to a six week drought in the greenhouse, and measured assimilation, leaf water potential (midday and predawn), growth, leaf dark respiration and NSCs (both sugars and starch in aboveground and belowground tissues) in control and droughted plants. Overall, we confirmed that the isohydric and anisohydric species used NSCs differently during drought. In most tissues, both species had similar responses of NSCs to drought: starch NSCs were maintained or decreased while sugar NSCs tended to increase. Stem NSCs were a notable exception, as L. tulipifera decreased total NSC to almost zero while NSCs in Q. alba remained constant. This depletion of stem NSC in L. tulipifera was offset by increases in other tissues, however, resulting in no net change to total NSC during the drought. In contrast, Q. alba increased total NSC. Interestingly, Q. alba also decreased assimilation and growth, indicating a potential trade-off between NSC and biomass allocation. Our results show that NSCs in different tissues may have contrasting uses as storage or

  15. Experimental and parametric studies of a louvered fin and flat tube compact heat exchanger using computational fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Karthik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to perform the parametric analysis on thermo-hydraulic performance of a compact heat exchanger using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The analysis has been carried out at different frontal air velocities by varying the geometrical parameters such as fin pitch, transverse tube pitch, longitudinal tube pitch, louver pitch and louver angle. The air side performance of the heat exchanger has been evaluated by calculating Colburn factor (j and Fanning friction factor (f. The comparison of CFD results with the experimental data exhibited a good agreement and the influence of various geometrical parameters for the selected range of values on the pressure drop, heat transfer coefficient and goodness factor was analyzed. The results obtained from the analysis will be very useful to optimize the louvered fin and flat tube compact heat exchanger for better thermo-hydraulic performance analysis without the need of time consuming and expensive experimentation.

  16. Dynamical analyses of the time series for three foreign exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sehyun; Kim, Soo Yong; Jung, Jae-Won; Kim, Kyungsik

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the multifractal properties of three foreign exchange rates (USD-KRW, USD-JPY, and EUR-USD) that are quoted with different economic scales. We estimate and analyze both the generalized Hurst exponent and the autocorrelation function in three foreign exchange rates. The USD-KRW is shown to have the strongest of the Hurst exponents when compared with the other two foreign exchange rates. In particular, the autocorrelation function of the USD-KRW has the largest memory behavior among three foreign exchange rates. It also exhibits a long-memory property in the first quarter, more than those in the other quarters.

  17. Quantifying Hyporheic Exchanges in a Large Scale River Reach Using Coupled 3-D Surface and Subsurface Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn Edward; Bao, J; Huang, M; Hou, Z; Perkins, W; Harding, S; Titzler, S; Ren, H; Thorne, P; Suffield, S; Murray, C; Zachara, J

    2017-03-01

    Hyporheic exchange is a critical mechanism shaping hydrological and biogeochemical processes along a river corridor. Recent studies on quantifying the hyporheic exchange were mostly limited to local scales due to field inaccessibility, computational demand, and complexity of geomorphology and subsurface geology. Surface flow conditions and subsurface physical properties are well known factors on modulating the hyporheic exchange, but quantitative understanding of their impacts on the strength and direction of hyporheic exchanges at reach scales is absent. In this study, a high resolution computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that couples surface and subsurface flow and transport is employed to simulate hyporheic exchanges in a 7-km long reach along the main-stem of the Columbia River. Assuming that the hyporheic exchange does not affect surface water flow conditions due to its negligible magnitude compared to the volume and velocity of river water, we developed a one-way coupled surface and subsurface water flow model using the commercial CFD software STAR-CCM+. The model integrates the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation solver with a realizable κ-ε two-layer turbulence model, a two-layer all y+ wall treatment, and the volume of fluid (VOF) method, and is used to simulate hyporheic exchanges by tracking the free water-air interface as well as flow in the river and the subsurface porous media. The model is validated against measurements from acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) in the stream water and hyporheic fluxes derived from a set of temperature profilers installed across the riverbed. The validated model is then employed to systematically investigate how hyporheic exchanges are influenced by surface water fluid dynamics strongly regulated by upstream dam operations, as well as subsurface structures (e.g. thickness of riverbed and subsurface formation layers) and hydrogeological properties (e.g. permeability). The results

  18. Design of performance and analysis of dynamic and transient thermal behaviors on the intermediate heat exchanger for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Michitsugu; Mizuno, Minoru; Itoh, Mitsuyoshi; Urabe, Shigemi

    1985-01-01

    The intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is designed as the high temperature heat exchanger for HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor), which transmits the primary coolant helium's heat raised up to about 950 0 C in the reactor core to the secondary helium or the nuclear heat utilization. Having to meet, in addition, the requirement of the primary coolant pressure boundary as the Class-1 component, it must be secured integrity throughout the service life. This paper will show (1) the design of the thermal performance; (2) the results of the dynamic analyses of the 1.5 MWt-IHX with its comparison to the experimental data; (3) the analytical predictions of the dynamic thermal behaviors under start-up and of the transient thermal behaviors during the accident on the 25 MWt-IHX. (author)

  19. Identification of some cross flow heat exchanger dynamic responses by measurement with low level binary pseudo-random input signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corran, E.R.; Cummins, J.D.; Hopkinson, A.

    1964-02-01

    An experiment was performed to assess the usefulness of the binary cross-correlation method in the context of the identification problem. An auxiliary burner was excited with a discrete interval binary code and the response to the perturbation of the input heat was observed by recording the variations of the primary inlet, primary outlet and secondary outlet temperatures. The observations were analysed to yield cross-correlation functions and frequency responses were subsequently determined between primary inlet and primary outlet temperatures and also between primary inlet and secondary outlet temperatures. The analysis verified (1) that these dynamic responses of this cross flow heat exchanger may be predicted theoretically, (2) in so far as this heat exchanger is representative of the generality of plant, that the binary cross-correlation method provides adequate identification of plant dynamics for control purposes in environments where small input variations and low signal to noise ratio are obligatory. (author)

  20. Dynamic optimization of combined harvesting of a two-species fishery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, K.

    1986-06-01

    In the present paper, the author considers the problem of dynamic optimization of the exploitation policy connected with the combined harvesting of two competing fish species, each of which obeys the logistic growth law. The singular extremal trajectory in the phase plane is derived by taking the harvesting effort as a dynamic variable. Biological or bioeconomic interpretations of the constraints required for this singular extremal are also given. (author)

  1. Determination of inorganic arsenic species in natural waters--benefits of separation and preconcentration on ion exchange and hybrid resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Issa, Nureddin; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N; Jovanović, Branislava M; Rajaković, Ljubinka V

    2010-07-19

    A simple method for the separation and determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) species in natural and drinking water was developed. Procedures for sample preparation, separation of As(III) and As(V) species and preconcentration of the total iAs on fixed bed columns were defined. Two resins, a strong base anion exchange (SBAE) resin and a hybrid (HY) resin were utilized. The inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method was applied as the analytical method for the determination of the arsenic concentration in water. The governing factors for the ion exchange/sorption of arsenic on resins in a batch and a fixed bed flow system were analyzed and compared. Acidity of the water, which plays an important role in the control of the ionic or molecular forms of arsenic species, was beneficial for the separation; by adjusting the pH values to less than 8.00, the SBAE resin separated As(V) from As(III) in water by retaining As(V) and allowing As(III) to pass through. The sorption activity of the hydrated iron oxide particles integrated into the HY resin was beneficial for bonding of all iAs species over a wide range of pH values from 5.00 to 11.00. The resin capacities were calculated according to the breakthrough points in a fixed bed flow system. At pH 7.50, the SBAE resin bound more than 370 microg g(-1) of As(V) while the HY resin bound more than 4150 microg g(-1) of As(III) and more than 3500 microg g(-1) of As(V). The high capacities and selectivity of the resins were considered as advantageous for the development and application of two procedures, one for the separation and determination of As(III) (with SBAE) and the other for the preconcentration and determination of the total arsenic (with HY resin). Methods were established through basic analytical procedures (with external standards, certified reference materials and the standard addition method) and by the parallel analysis of some samples using the atomic absorption spectrometry-hydride generation

  2. Dynamics of inorganic nutrients in intertidal sediments: porewater, exchangeable and intracellular pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio eGarcia-Robledo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of inorganic nutrients dynamics in shallow sediments usually focuses on two main pools: the porewater (PW nutrients and the exchangeable (EX ammonium and phosphate. Recently, it has been found that microphytobenthos (MPB and other microorganisms can accumulate large amounts of nutrients intracellularly (IC, highlighting the biogeochemical importance of this nutrient pool. Storing nutrients could support the growth of autotrophs when nutrients are not available, and could also provide alternative electron acceptors for dissimilatory processes such as nitrate reduction. Here, we studied the magnitude and relative importance of these three nutrient pools (PW, IC and EX and their relation to chlorophylls (used as a proxy for MPB abundance and organic matter (OM contents in an intertidal mudflat of Cadiz Bay (Spain. MPB was localized in the first 4 mm of the sediment and showed a clear seasonal pattern; highest chlorophylls content was found during autumn and lowest during spring-summer. The temporal and spatial distribution of nutrients pools and MPB were largely correlated. Ammonium was higher in the IC and EX fractions, representing on average 59 and 37% of the total ammonium pool, respectively. Similarly, phosphate in the IC and EX fractions accounted on average for 40 and 31% of the total phosphate pool, respectively. Nitrate in the PW was low, suggesting low nitrification activity and rapid consumption. Nitrate accumulated in the IC pool during periods of moderate MPB abundance, being up to 66% of the total nitrate pool, whereas it decreased when chlorophyll concentration peaked likely due to a high nitrogen demand. EX-Nitrate accounted for the largest fraction of total sediment nitrate, 66% on average. The distribution of EX-Nitrate was significantly correlated with chlorophyll and OM, which probably indicates a relation of this pool to an increased availability of sites for ionic adsorption. This EX-Nitrate pool could represent an

  3. Dynamic separation of Szilard-Chalmers reaction products applied to the trioxalatochromium ion adsorbed on anionic exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.B.S.

    1979-01-01

    A method of dynamic elution of recoiled 51 Cr +3 , formed by the Szilard-Chalmers reaction during the irradiation of trioxalatochromium ion adsorbed on anionic exchange resin is presented. The influence of some factors on the separation yield of chromium-51, such as: composition, concentration and flow rate of eluent, mesh size of the resin and irradiation time are studied. The results are compardd with those obtained by the static method, in which the recoiled atom is separated from the target after irradiation. Because of the high separation yield of chromium-51, the method of dynamic separation is proposed for routine production of this elemnt, with high specific activities. (author) [pt

  4. Temperature- and body mass-related variation in cyclic gas exchange characteristics and metabolic rate of seven weevil species: Broader implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, C J; Chown, S L

    2005-07-01

    The influence of temperature on metabolic rate and characteristics of the gas exchange patterns of flightless, sub-Antarctic Ectemnorhinus-group species from Heard and Marion islands was investigated. All of the species showed cyclic gas exchange with no Flutter period, indicating that these species are not characterized by discontinuous gas exchange cycles. Metabolic rate estimates were substantially lower in this study than in a previous one of a subset of the species, demonstrating that open-system respirometry methods provide more representative estimates of standard metabolic rate than do many closed-system methods. We recommend that the latter, and especially constant-pressure methods, either be abandoned for estimates of standard metabolic rate in insects, or have their outputs subject to careful scrutiny, given the wide availability of the former. V(.)CO(2) increase with an increase in temperature (range: 0-15 degrees C) was modulated by an increase in cycle frequency, but typically not by an increase in burst volume. Previous investigations of temperature-related changes in cyclic gas exchange (both cyclic and discontinuous) in several other insect species were therefore substantiated. Interspecific mass-scaling of metabolic rate (ca. 0.466-0.573, excluding and including phylogenetic non-independence, respectively) produced an exponent lower than 0.75 (but not distinguishable from it or from 0.67). The increase of metabolic rate with mass was modulated by an increase in burst volume and not by a change in cycle frequency, in keeping with investigations of species showing discontinuous gas exchange. These findings are discussed in the context of the emerging macrophysiological metabolic theory of ecology.

  5. A dynamic analysis of S&P 500, FTSE 100 and EURO STOXX 50 indices under different exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhua; Mantegna, Rosario N.; Zuev, Konstantin M.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we assess the dynamic evolution of short-term correlation, long-term cointegration and Error Correction Model (hereafter referred to as ECM)-based long-term Granger causality between each pair of US, UK, and Eurozone stock markets from 1980 to 2015 using the rolling-window technique. A comparative analysis of pairwise dynamic integration and causality of stock markets, measured in common and domestic currency terms, is conducted to evaluate comprehensively how exchange rate fluctuations affect the time-varying integration among the S&P 500, FTSE 100 and EURO STOXX 50 indices. The results obtained show that the dynamic correlation, cointegration and ECM-based long-run Granger causality vary significantly over the whole sample period. The degree of dynamic correlation and cointegration between pairs of stock markets rises in periods of high volatility and uncertainty, especially under the influence of economic, financial and political shocks. Meanwhile, we observe the weaker and decreasing correlation and cointegration among the three developed stock markets during the recovery periods. Interestingly, the most persistent and significant cointegration among the three developed stock markets exists during the 2007–09 global financial crisis. Finally, the exchange rate fluctuations, also influence the dynamic integration and causality between all pairs of stock indices, with that influence increasing under the local currency terms. Our results suggest that the potential for diversifying risk by investing in the US, UK and Eurozone stock markets is limited during the periods of economic, financial and political shocks. PMID:29529092

  6. A dynamic analysis of S&P 500, FTSE 100 and EURO STOXX 50 indices under different exchange rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhua; Mantegna, Rosario N; Pantelous, Athanasios A; Zuev, Konstantin M

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we assess the dynamic evolution of short-term correlation, long-term cointegration and Error Correction Model (hereafter referred to as ECM)-based long-term Granger causality between each pair of US, UK, and Eurozone stock markets from 1980 to 2015 using the rolling-window technique. A comparative analysis of pairwise dynamic integration and causality of stock markets, measured in common and domestic currency terms, is conducted to evaluate comprehensively how exchange rate fluctuations affect the time-varying integration among the S&P 500, FTSE 100 and EURO STOXX 50 indices. The results obtained show that the dynamic correlation, cointegration and ECM-based long-run Granger causality vary significantly over the whole sample period. The degree of dynamic correlation and cointegration between pairs of stock markets rises in periods of high volatility and uncertainty, especially under the influence of economic, financial and political shocks. Meanwhile, we observe the weaker and decreasing correlation and cointegration among the three developed stock markets during the recovery periods. Interestingly, the most persistent and significant cointegration among the three developed stock markets exists during the 2007-09 global financial crisis. Finally, the exchange rate fluctuations, also influence the dynamic integration and causality between all pairs of stock indices, with that influence increasing under the local currency terms. Our results suggest that the potential for diversifying risk by investing in the US, UK and Eurozone stock markets is limited during the periods of economic, financial and political shocks.

  7. Kinetic Behaviors of Catalysis-Driven Growth of Three-Species Aggregates on Base of Exchange-Driven Aggregations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yunfei; Chen Dan; Lin Zhenquan; Ke Jianhong

    2009-01-01

    We propose a solvable aggregation model to mimic the evolution of population A, asset B, and the quantifiable resource C in a society. In this system, the population and asset aggregates themselves grow through self-exchanges with the rate kernels K 1 (k, j) = K 1 kj and K 2 (k, j) = K 2 kj, respectively. The actions of the population and asset aggregations on the aggregation evolution of resource aggregates are described by the population-catalyzed monomer death of resource aggregates and asset-catalyzed monomer birth of resource aggregates with the rate kernels J 1 (k, j) = J 1 k and J 2 (k, j) = J 2 k, respectively. Meanwhile, the asset and resource aggregates conjunctly catalyze the monomer birth of population aggregates with the rate kernel I 1 (k, i, j) = I 1 ki μ j η , and population and resource aggregates conjunctly catalyze the monomer birth of asset aggregates with the rate kernel I 2 (k, i, j) = I 2 ki v j η . The kinetic behaviors of species A, B, and C are investigated by means of the mean-field rate equation approach. The effects of the population-catalyzed death and asset-catalyzed birth on the evolution of resource aggregates based on the self-exchanges of population and asset appear in effective forms. The coefficients of the effective population-catalyzed death and the asset-catalyzed birth are expressed as J 1e = J 1 /K 1 and J 2e = J 2 /K 2 , respectively. The aggregate size distribution of C species is found to be crucially dominated by the competition between the effective death and the effective birth. It satisfies the conventional scaling form, generalized scaling form, and modified scaling form in the cases of J 1e 2e , J 1e = J 2e , and J 1e > J 2e , respectively. Meanwhile, we also find the aggregate size distributions of populations and assets both fall into two distinct categories for different parameters μ, ν, and η: (i) When μ = ν = η = 0 and μ = ν = 0, η = 1, the population and asset aggregates obey the generalized

  8. GENERAL: Kinetic Behaviors of Catalysis-Driven Growth of Three-Species Aggregates on Base of Exchange-Driven Aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yun-Fei; Chen, Dan; Lin, Zhen-Quan; Ke, Jian-Hong

    2009-06-01

    We propose a solvable aggregation model to mimic the evolution of population A, asset B, and the quantifiable resource C in a society. In this system, the population and asset aggregates themselves grow through self-exchanges with the rate kernels K1(k, j) = K1kj and K2(k, j) = K2kj, respectively. The actions of the population and asset aggregations on the aggregation evolution of resource aggregates are described by the population-catalyzed monomer death of resource aggregates and asset-catalyzed monomer birth of resource aggregates with the rate kernels J1(k, j) = J1k and J2(k, j) = J2k, respectively. Meanwhile, the asset and resource aggregates conjunctly catalyze the monomer birth of population aggregates with the rate kernel I1(k, i, j) = I1kiμjη, and population and resource aggregates conjunctly catalyze the monomer birth of asset aggregates with the rate kernel I2(k, i, j) = I2kivjη. The kinetic behaviors of species A, B, and C are investigated by means of the mean-field rate equation approach. The effects of the population-catalyzed death and asset-catalyzed birth on the evolution of resource aggregates based on the self-exchanges of population and asset appear in effective forms. The coefficients of the effective population-catalyzed death and the asset-catalyzed birth are expressed as J1e = J1/K1 and J2e = J2/K2, respectively. The aggregate size distribution of C species is found to be crucially dominated by the competition between the effective death and the effective birth. It satisfies the conventional scaling form, generalized scaling form, and modified scaling form in the cases of J1e J2e, respectively. Meanwhile, we also find the aggregate size distributions of populations and assets both fall into two distinct categories for different parameters μ, ν, and η: (i) When μ = ν = η = 0 and μ = ν = 0, η = 1, the population and asset aggregates obey the generalized scaling forms; and (ii) When μ = ν = 1, η = 0, and μ = ν = η = 1, the

  9. Dynamical behavior of a three species food chain model with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Raid Kamel; Balasim, Alla Tariq

    2007-01-01

    A three species food chain model with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response is investigated. The local stability analysis is carried out and global behavior is simulated numerically for a biologically feasible choice of parameters. The persistence conditions of a food chain model are established. The bifurcation diagrams are obtained for different parameters of the model after intensive numerical simulations. The results of simulations show that the model could exhibit chaotic dynamics for realistic and biologically feasible parametric values. Finally, the effect of immigration within prey species is investigated. It is observed that adding small amount of constant immigration to prey species stabilize the system

  10. Relaxation dynamics and coherent energy exchange in coupled vibration-cavity polaritons (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Blake S.; Fears, Kenan P.; Dressick, Walter J.; Dunkelberger, Adam D.; Spann, Bryan T.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.

    2016-09-01

    Coherent coupling between an optical transition and confined optical mode have been investigated for electronic-state transitions, however, only very recently have vibrational transitions been considered. Here, we demonstrate both static and dynamic results for vibrational bands strongly coupled to optical cavities. We experimentally and numerically describe strong coupling between a Fabry-Pérot cavity and carbonyl stretch ( 1730 cm 1) in poly-methylmethacrylate and provide evidence that the mixed-states are immune to inhomogeneous broadening. We investigate strong and weak coupling regimes through examination of cavities loaded with varying concentrations of a urethane monomer. Rabi splittings are in excellent agreement with an analytical description using no fitting parameters. Ultrafast pump-probe measurements reveal transient absorption signals over a frequency range well-separated from the vibrational band, as well as drastically modified relaxation rates. We speculate these modified kinetics are a consequence of the energy proximity between the vibration-cavity polariton modes and excited state transitions and that polaritons offer an alternative relaxation path for vibrational excitations. Varying the polariton energies by angle-tuning yields transient results consistent with this hypothesis. Furthermore, Rabi oscillations, or quantum beats, are observed at early times and we see evidence that these coherent vibration-cavity polariton excitations impact excited state population through cavity losses. Together, these results indicate that cavity coupling may be used to influence both excitation and relaxation rates of vibrations. Opening the field of polaritonic coupling to vibrational species promises to be a rich arena amenable to a wide variety of infrared-active bonds that can be studied in steady state and dynamically.

  11. Climate Variability and Mangrove Cover Dynamics at Species Level in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumer Ghosh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystems are complex in nature. For monitoring the impact of climate variability in this ecosystem, a multidisciplinary approach is a prerequisite. Changes in temperature and rainfall pattern have been suggested as an influential factor responsible for the change in mangrove species composition and spatial distribution. The main aim of this study was to assess the relationship between temperature, rainfall pattern and dynamics of mangrove species in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh, over a 38 year time period from 1977 to 2015. To assess the relationship, a three stage analytical process was employed. Primarily, the trend of temperature and rainfall over the study period were identified using a linear trend model; then, the supervised maximum likelihood classifier technique was employed to classify images recorded by Landsat series and post-classification comparison techniques were used to detect changes at species level. The rate of change of different mangrove species was also estimated in the second stage. Finally, the relationship between temperature, rainfall and the dynamics of mangroves at species level was determined using a simple linear regression model. The results show a significant statistical relationship between temperature, rainfall and the dynamics of mangrove species. The trends of change for Heritiera fomes and Sonneratia apelatala show a strong relationship with temperature and rainfall, while Ceriops decandra shows a weak relationship. In contrast, Excoecaria agallocha and Xylocarpus mekongensis do not show any significant relationship with temperature and rainfall. On the basis of our results, it can be concluded that temperature and rainfall are important climatic factors influencing the dynamics of three major mangrove species viz. H. fomes, S. apelatala and C. decandra in the Sundarbans.

  12. Long-term competitive dynamics of two cryptic rotifer species: diapause and fluctuating conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gabaldón

    Full Text Available Life-history traits may have an important role in promoting species coexistence. However, the complexity of certain life cycles makes it difficult to draw conclusions about the conditions for coexistence or exclusion based on the study of short-term competitive dynamics. Brachionus plicatilis and B. manjavacasare two cryptic rotifer species co-occurring in many lakes on the Iberian Peninsula. They have a complex life cycle in which cyclical parthenogenesis occurs with diapausing stages being the result of sexual reproduction. B. plicatilis and B. manjavacasare identical in morphology and size, their biotic niches are broadly overlapping, and they have similar competitive abilities. However, the species differ in life-history traits involving sexual reproduction and diapause, and respond differently to salinity and temperature. As in the case of certain other species that are extremely similar in morphology, a fluctuating environment are considered to be important for their coexistence. We studied the long-term competitive dynamics of B. plicatilis and B. manjavacas under different salinity regimes (constant and fluctuating. Moreover, we focused on the dynamics of the diapausing egg bank to explore how the outcome of the entire life cycle of these rotifers can work to mediate stable coexistence. We demonstrated that these species do not coexist under constant-salinity environment, as the outcome of competition is affected by the level of salinity-at low salinity, B. plicatilis excluded B. manjavacas, and the opposite outcome occurred at high salinity. Competitive dynamics under fluctuating salinity showed that the dominance of one species over the other also tended to fluctuate. The duration of co-occurrence of these species was favoured by salinity fluctuation and perhaps by the existence of a diapausing egg bank. Stable coexistence was not found in our system, which suggests that other factors or other salinity fluctuation patterns might act as

  13. Long-term competitive dynamics of two cryptic rotifer species: diapause and fluctuating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaldón, Carmen; Carmona, María José; Montero-Pau, Javier; Serra, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Life-history traits may have an important role in promoting species coexistence. However, the complexity of certain life cycles makes it difficult to draw conclusions about the conditions for coexistence or exclusion based on the study of short-term competitive dynamics. Brachionus plicatilis and B. manjavacasare two cryptic rotifer species co-occurring in many lakes on the Iberian Peninsula. They have a complex life cycle in which cyclical parthenogenesis occurs with diapausing stages being the result of sexual reproduction. B. plicatilis and B. manjavacasare identical in morphology and size, their biotic niches are broadly overlapping, and they have similar competitive abilities. However, the species differ in life-history traits involving sexual reproduction and diapause, and respond differently to salinity and temperature. As in the case of certain other species that are extremely similar in morphology, a fluctuating environment are considered to be important for their coexistence. We studied the long-term competitive dynamics of B. plicatilis and B. manjavacas under different salinity regimes (constant and fluctuating). Moreover, we focused on the dynamics of the diapausing egg bank to explore how the outcome of the entire life cycle of these rotifers can work to mediate stable coexistence. We demonstrated that these species do not coexist under constant-salinity environment, as the outcome of competition is affected by the level of salinity-at low salinity, B. plicatilis excluded B. manjavacas, and the opposite outcome occurred at high salinity. Competitive dynamics under fluctuating salinity showed that the dominance of one species over the other also tended to fluctuate. The duration of co-occurrence of these species was favoured by salinity fluctuation and perhaps by the existence of a diapausing egg bank. Stable coexistence was not found in our system, which suggests that other factors or other salinity fluctuation patterns might act as stabilizing

  14. Development of gas exchange and ion regulation in two species of air-breathing fish, Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic air-breathing anabantoids, a group of fish species characterized by the presence of a labyrinth organ and some gills, exhibit morphological variations. This study aimed to examine whether unequal gill growth begins during the early stages and described the sequence of the early gill developmental events in Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis. To determine when the ion regulatory and gas exchange abilities first appear in the gills, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were examined in young B. splendens. To evaluate the relative importance of the gills and the labyrinth organ under different levels of oxygen uptake stress, the levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) protein expressions in 2 gills and the labyrinth organ were examined in M. opercularis. We found that the first 3 gills developed earlier than the 4th gill in both species, an indication that the morphological variation begins early in life. In B. splendens, the MRCs and NECs clearly appeared in the first 3 gills at 4 dph and were first found in the 4th gill until 11 dph. The oxygen-sensing ability of the gills was concordant with the ionoregulatory function. In M. opercularis, the hypoxic group had a significantly higher air-breathing frequency. CAII protein expression was higher in the labyrinth organ in the hypoxic group. The gills exhibited increased NKA protein expression in the hypoxic and restricted groups, respectively. Functional plasticity in CAII and NKA protein expressions was found between the gills and the labyrinth organ in adult M. opercularis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effects of Workers’ Remittances on Exchange Rate Volatility and Exports Dynamics -New Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Khurshid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of remittances on the exchange rate and exports in Pakistan, using the system GMM aproach on annual data series. We carry out a full sample Granger causality test along with the sub-sample rolling window approach using monthly data series to find the causal relationship between remittances (REM and the exchange rate (EXR. The System GMM results reveal that remittances depreciate the exchange rate and have a positive influence on export competitiveness. In addition to this, the remittance inflow appreciates the exchange rate only if it is used for savings and negatively affects competitiveness if it is channeled towards consumption. The change in exchange rate regime from multiple to flexible depreciated the exchange rate while, the global financial crises uplifted the currency rate and negatively affect the exports. The results show the bidirectional causal relationship between remittances and the exchange rate. The outcomes further reveal that the parameters in the VAR model are unstable, which is a clear indication of the presence of structural changes. The rolling window estimation approach with time-varying characteristics finds bi-directional causality between REM and the EXR in the different sub-samples. The results of this study fall in line with the portfolio model proposed by Mussa (1984 which states that the flow of remittances causes appreciation. The sub-sample causality is related to significant economic events, which means the results are not a statistical artifact.

  16. Fish and phytoplankton exhibit contrasting temporal species abundance patterns in a dynamic north temperate lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen J A Hansen

    Full Text Available Temporal patterns of species abundance, although less well-studied than spatial patterns, provide valuable insight to the processes governing community assembly. We compared temporal abundance distributions of two communities, phytoplankton and fish, in a north temperate lake. We used both 17 years of observed relative abundance data as well as resampled data from Monte Carlo simulations to account for the possible effects of non-detection of rare species. Similar to what has been found in other communities, phytoplankton and fish species that appeared more frequently were generally more abundant than rare species. However, neither community exhibited two distinct groups of "core" (common occurrence and high abundance and "occasional" (rare occurrence and low abundance species. Both observed and resampled data show that the phytoplankton community was dominated by occasional species appearing in only one year that exhibited large variation in their abundances, while the fish community was dominated by core species occurring in all 17 years at high abundances. We hypothesize that the life-history traits that enable phytoplankton to persist in highly dynamic environments may result in communities dominated by occasional species capable of reaching high abundances when conditions allow. Conversely, longer turnover times and broad environmental tolerances of fish may result in communities dominated by core species structured primarily by competitive interactions.

  17. Fish and Phytoplankton Exhibit Contrasting Temporal Species Abundance Patterns in a Dynamic North Temperate Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Carey, Cayelan C.

    2015-01-01

    Temporal patterns of species abundance, although less well-studied than spatial patterns, provide valuable insight to the processes governing community assembly. We compared temporal abundance distributions of two communities, phytoplankton and fish, in a north temperate lake. We used both 17 years of observed relative abundance data as well as resampled data from Monte Carlo simulations to account for the possible effects of non-detection of rare species. Similar to what has been found in other communities, phytoplankton and fish species that appeared more frequently were generally more abundant than rare species. However, neither community exhibited two distinct groups of “core” (common occurrence and high abundance) and “occasional” (rare occurrence and low abundance) species. Both observed and resampled data show that the phytoplankton community was dominated by occasional species appearing in only one year that exhibited large variation in their abundances, while the fish community was dominated by core species occurring in all 17 years at high abundances. We hypothesize that the life-history traits that enable phytoplankton to persist in highly dynamic environments may result in communities dominated by occasional species capable of reaching high abundances when conditions allow. Conversely, longer turnover times and broad environmental tolerances of fish may result in communities dominated by core species structured primarily by competitive interactions. PMID:25651399

  18. Inter-species competition-facilitation in stochastic riparian vegetation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tealdi, Stefano; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2013-02-07

    Riparian vegetation is a highly dynamic community that lives on river banks and which depends to a great extent on the fluvial hydrology. The stochasticity of the discharge and erosion/deposition processes in fact play a key role in determining the distribution of vegetation along a riparian transect. These abiotic processes interact with biotic competition/facilitation mechanisms, such as plant competition for light, water, and nutrients. In this work, we focus on the dynamics of plants characterized by three components: (1) stochastic forcing due to river discharges, (2) competition for resources, and (3) inter-species facilitation due to the interplay between vegetation and fluid dynamics processes. A minimalist stochastic bio-hydrological model is proposed for the dynamics of the biomass of two vegetation species: one species is assumed dominant and slow-growing, the other is subdominant, but fast-growing. The stochastic model is solved analytically and the probability density function of the plant biomasses is obtained as a function of both the hydrologic and biologic parameters. The impact of the competition/facilitation processes on the distribution of vegetation species along the riparian transect is investigated and remarkable effects are observed. Finally, a good qualitative agreement is found between the model results and field data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The dynamic pipeline: hydraulic capacitance and xylem hydraulic safety in four tall conifer species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. McCulloh; Daniel M. Johnson; Frederick C. Meinzer; David R. Woodruff

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that plants differ in their relative reliance on structural avoidance of embolism versus maintenance of the xylem water column through dynamic traits such as capacitance, but we still know little about how and why species differ along this continuum. It is even less clear how or if different parts of a plant vary along this spectrum. Here we...

  20. Dynamics of metal-humate complexation equilibria as revealed by isotope exchange studies - a matter of concentration and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Holger; Eidner, Sascha; Kumke, Michael U.; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Complexation with dissolved humic matter can be crucial in controlling the mobility of toxic or radioactive contaminant metals. For speciation and transport modelling, a dynamic equilibrium process is commonly assumed, where association and dissociation run permanently. This is, however, questionable in view of reported observations of a growing resistance to dissociation over time. In this study, the isotope exchange principle was employed to gain direct insight into the dynamics of the complexation equilibrium, including kinetic inertisation phenomena. Terbium(III), an analogue of trivalent actinides, was used as a representative of higher-valent metals. Isotherms of binding to (flocculated) humic acid, determined by means of 160Tb as a radiotracer, were found to be identical regardless of whether the radioisotope was introduced together with the bulk of stable 159Tb or subsequently after pre-equilibration for up to 3 months. Consequently, there is a permanent exchange of free and humic-bound Tb since all available binding sites are occupied in the plateau region of the isotherm. The existence of a dynamic equilibrium was thus evidenced. There was no indication of an inertisation under these experimental conditions. If the small amount of 160Tb was introduced prior to saturation with 159Tb, the expected partial desorption of 160Tb occurred at much lower rates than observed for the equilibration process in the reverse procedure. In addition, the rates decreased with time of pre-equilibration. Inertisation phenomena are thus confined to the stronger sites of humic molecules (occupied at low metal concentrations). Analysing the time-dependent course of isotope exchange according to first-order kinetics indicated that up to 3 years are needed to attain equilibrium. Since, however, metal-humic interaction remains reversible, exchange of metals between humic carriers and mineral surfaces cannot be neglected on the long time scale to be considered in predictive

  1. Quasi-three dimensional dynamic modeling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with consideration of two-phase water transport through a gas diffusion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sanggyu

    2015-01-01

    Water management is one of the challenging issues for low-temperature PEMFCs (proton exchange membrane fuel cells). When liquid water is formed at the GDL (gas diffusion layer), the pathway of reactant gas can be blocked, which inhibits the electrochemical reaction of PEMFC. Thus, liquid water transport through GDL is a critical factor determining the performance of a PEMFC. In present study, quasi-three dimensional dynamic modeling of PEMFC with consideration of two-phase water transport through GDL is developed. To investigate the distributions of PEMFC characteristics, including current density, species mole fraction, and membrane hydration, the PEMFC was discretized into twenty control volumes along the anode channel. To resolve the mass and energy conservation, the PEMFC is discretized into eleven and fifteen control volumes in the perpendicular direction, respectively. The dynamic variation of PEMFC characteristics of cell voltage, overvoltage of activation and ohmic, liquid water saturation through a GDL, and oxygen concentration were captured during transient behavior. - Highlights: • A quasi-three dimensional two-phase dynamic model of PEMFC is developed. • Presented model is validated by comparison with experimental data. • Two-phase model is compared with one-phase model at steady-states and transients.

  2. Dynamics of real effective exchange rate in Malawi and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kisukyabo Simwaka

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the main determinants of real effective exchange rate in Malawi and South Africa. In our empirical analysis, we conducted unit root and cointegration test in order to determine the time series properties of the data and establish whether there is a long run relationship between real effective exchange rate and explanatory variables. Having ascertained that almost all variables are integrated of order one and cointegrated, an error correction model is formulated and est...

  3. The dynamic interaction of order flows and the CAD/USD exchange rate

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Gradojevic; Christopher J. Neely

    2008-01-01

    We explore the relationship between disaggregated order flow, the Canada/U.S. dollar (CAD/USD) market and U.S. macroeconomic announcements. Three types of CAD order flow and the CAD/USD are cointegrated. Financial order flow appears to contemporaneously drive the CAD/USD while commercial order flow seems to contemporaneously respond to exchange rate movements. Past order flow and lagged exchange rates strongly explain most types of order flow. Despite this predictability and the contemporaneo...

  4. Common species link global ecosystems to climate change: dynamical evidence in the planktonic fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannisdal, Bjarte; Haaga, Kristian Agasøster; Reitan, Trond; Diego, David; Liow, Lee Hsiang

    2017-07-12

    Common species shape the world around us, and changes in their commonness signify large-scale shifts in ecosystem structure and function. However, our understanding of long-term ecosystem response to environmental forcing in the deep past is centred on species richness, neglecting the disproportional impact of common species. Here, we use common and widespread species of planktonic foraminifera in deep-sea sediments to track changes in observed global occupancy (proportion of sampled sites at which a species is present and observed) through the turbulent climatic history of the last 65 Myr. Our approach is sensitive to relative changes in global abundance of the species set and robust to factors that bias richness estimators. Using three independent methods for detecting causality, we show that the observed global occupancy of planktonic foraminifera has been dynamically coupled to past oceanographic changes captured in deep-ocean temperature reconstructions. The causal inference does not imply a direct mechanism, but is consistent with an indirect, time-delayed causal linkage. Given the strong quantitative evidence that a dynamical coupling exists, we hypothesize that mixotrophy (symbiont hosting) may be an ecological factor linking the global abundance of planktonic foraminifera to long-term climate changes via the relative extent of oligotrophic oceans. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. The roles of competition and habitat in the dynamics of populations and species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackulic, Charles B; Reid, Janice; Nichols, James D; Hines, James E; Davis, Raymond; Forsman, Eric

    2014-02-01

    The role of competition in structuring biotic communities at fine spatial scales is well known from detailed process-based studies. Our understanding of competition's importance at broader scales is less resolved and mainly based on static species distribution maps. Here, we bridge this gap by examining the joint occupancy dynamics of an invading species (Barred Owl, Strix varia) and a resident species (Northern Spotted Owl, Strix occidentalis caurina) in a 1000-km study area over a 22-year period. Past studies of these competitors have focused on the dynamics of one species at a time, hindering efforts to parse out the roles of habitat and competition and to forecast the future of the resident species. In addition, while these studies accounted for the imperfect detection of the focal species, no multi-season analysis of these species has accounted for the imperfect detection of the secondary species, potentially biasing inference. We analyzed survey data using models that combine the general multistate-multi-season occupancy modeling framework with autologistic modeling, allowing us to account for important aspects of our study system. We found that local extinction probability increases for each species when the other is present; however, the effect of the invader on the resident is greater. Although the species prefer different habitats, these habitats are highly correlated at the patch scale, and the impacts of invader on the resident are greatest in patches that would otherwise be optimal. As a consequence, competition leads to a weaker relationship between habitat and Northern Spotted Owl occupancy. Colonization and extinction rates of the invader are closely related to neighborhood occupancy, and over the first half of the study the availability of colonists limited the rate of population growth. Competition is likely to exclude the resident species, both through its immediate effects on local extinction and by indirectly lowering colonization rates as

  6. Slow molecular dynamics in the β relaxation of semicrystalline polymers studied by pure exchange 13C solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Eduardo R. de; Becker-Guedes, Fabio; Bonagamba, Tito J.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Iowa State University, Ames, IA

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics in the amorphous regions of semicrystalline polymers exert important influences on mechanical properties, but have been notoriously difficult to characterize. Two new solid-state NMR techniques, PUREX (pure exchange) and CODEX (center band-only detection of exchange) NMR, make it possible to analyze the molecular motions near the glass transition in the amorphous regions of semicrystalline polymers. This is achieved by selectively suppressing the otherwise dominant signals of the static segments in the crystallites. We have applied both NMR techniques to study the slow motions near the glass transition in semicrystalline polymers (β relaxation) and in fully amorphous samples for reference. The studied polymers were isotactic poly(1-butene) (iPB1) (form I), syndiotactic and atactic polypropylenes (sPP, and aPP, respectively), as well as polyisobutylene (PIB). We have analyzed the geometry and time scale of the slow molecular motion for all samples and determined the apparent activation energies. (author)

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation of radiation grafted FEP films as proton exchange membranes: Effects of the side chain length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xue; Zhao, Yang; Li, Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the microstructure of the prepared potential proton exchange membrane (PEM), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to lucubrate the transport behavior of water molecules and hydronium ions inside the hydrated sulfonated styrene grafted fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP...... whereas larger water clusters formed. The results of the mean square displacements (MSDs) show that the proton conductivities of the membranes with the proposed side chain lengths were about three fifths of the experimental data, of which the membrane with side chain length of 7 sulfonic styrene units...... was supposed to exhibit the highest proton conductivity, that is 115.69 mS cm-1. All of the supposed membrane models presented good proton conductivity that could definitely meet the application requirements of the proton exchange membranes. The MD simulations can provide an insight to the chain structure...

  8. The dynamic effect of exchange-rate volatility on Turkish exports: Parsimonious error-correction model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirhan Erdal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the effect of exchange-rate stability on real export volume in Turkey, using monthly data for the period February 2001 to January 2010. The Johansen multivariate cointegration method and the parsimonious error-correction model are applied to determine long-run and short-run relationships between real export volume and its determinants. In this study, the conditional variance of the GARCH (1, 1 model is taken as a proxy for exchange-rate stability, and generalized impulse-response functions and variance-decomposition analyses are applied to analyze the dynamic effects of variables on real export volume. The empirical findings suggest that exchangerate stability has a significant positive effect on real export volume, both in the short and the long run.

  9. Impacts of land cover data selection and trait parameterisation on dynamic modelling of species' range expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto K Heikkinen

    Full Text Available Dynamic models for range expansion provide a promising tool for assessing species' capacity to respond to climate change by shifting their ranges to new areas. However, these models include a number of uncertainties which may affect how successfully they can be applied to climate change oriented conservation planning. We used RangeShifter, a novel dynamic and individual-based modelling platform, to study two potential sources of such uncertainties: the selection of land cover data and the parameterization of key life-history traits. As an example, we modelled the range expansion dynamics of two butterfly species, one habitat specialist (Maniola jurtina and one generalist (Issoria lathonia. Our results show that projections of total population size, number of occupied grid cells and the mean maximal latitudinal range shift were all clearly dependent on the choice made between using CORINE land cover data vs. using more detailed grassland data from three alternative national databases. Range expansion was also sensitive to the parameterization of the four considered life-history traits (magnitude and probability of long-distance dispersal events, population growth rate and carrying capacity, with carrying capacity and magnitude of long-distance dispersal showing the strongest effect. Our results highlight the sensitivity of dynamic species population models to the selection of existing land cover data and to uncertainty in the model parameters and indicate that these need to be carefully evaluated before the models are applied to conservation planning.

  10. Dynamics of hadronic molecule in one-boson exchange approach and possible heavy flavor molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Guijun; Liu Jiafeng; Yan Mulin

    2009-01-01

    We extend the one pion exchange model at quark level to include the short distance contributions coming from η, σ, ρ and ω exchange. This formalism is applied to discuss the possible molecular states of DD*/DD*, BB*/BB*, DD*, BB*, the pseudoscalar-vector systems with C=B=1 and C=-B=1 respectively. The ''δ function'' term contribution and the S-D mixing effects have been taken into account. We find the conclusions reached after including the heavier mesons exchange are qualitatively the same as those in the one pion exchange model. The previous suggestion that 1 ++ BB*/BB* molecule should exist, is confirmed in the one-boson exchange model, whereas DD* bound state should not exist. The DD*/DD* system can accommodate a 1 ++ molecule close to the threshold, the mixing between the molecule and the conventional charmonium has to be considered to identify this state with X(3872). For the BB* system, the pseudoscalar-vector systems with C=B=1 and C=-B=1, near threshold molecular states may exist. These bound states should be rather narrow, isospin is violated and the I=0 component is dominant. Experimental search channels for these states are suggested.

  11. The roles of competition and habitat in the dynamics of populations and species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackulic, Charles Brandon; Reid, Janice; Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.; Davis, Raymond; Forsman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The role of competition in structuring biotic communities at fine spatial scales is well known from detailed process-based studies. Our understanding of competition's importance at broader scales is less resolved and mainly based on static species distribution maps. Here, we bridge this gap by examining the joint occupancy dynamics of an invading (barred owl: Strix varia) and a resident species (Northern spotted owl: Strix occidentalis caurina) in a 1000 km2 study area over a 22 - year period. Past studies of these competitors have focused on the dynamics of one species at a time, hindering efforts to parse out the roles of habitat and competition and to forecast the future of the resident species. In addition, while these studies accounted for the imperfect detection of the focal species, no multiseason analysis of these species has accounted for the imperfect detection of the secondary species, potentially biasing inference. We analyze survey data using models that combine the general multistate-multiseason occupancy modeling framework with autologistic modeling - allowing us to account for important aspects of our study system. We find that local extinction probability increases for each species when the other is present; however, the effect of the invader on the resident is greater. Although the species prefer different habitats, these habitats are highly correlated at the patch scale and the impacts of invader on the resident are greatest in patches that would otherwise be optimal. As a consequence, competition leads to a weaker relationship between habitat and Northern spotted owl occupancy. Colonization and extinction rates of the invader are closely related to neighborhood occupancy, and over the first half of the study the availability of colonists limited the rate of population growth. Competition is likely to exclude the resident species both through its immediate effects on local extinction, and by indirectly lowering colonization rates as Northern

  12. Investigation of the Dynamic Melting Process in a Thermal Energy Storage Unit Using a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dynamic melting process of the phase change material (PCM in a vertical cylindrical tube-in-tank thermal energy storage (TES unit was investigated through numerical simulations and experimental measurements. To ensure good heat exchange performance, a concentric helical coil was inserted into the TES unit to pipe the heat transfer fluid (HTF. A numerical model using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach was developed based on the enthalpy-porosity method to simulate the unsteady melting process including temperature and liquid fraction variations. Temperature measurements using evenly spaced thermocouples were conducted, and the temperature variation at three locations inside the TES unit was recorded. The effects of the HTF inlet parameters were investigated by parametric studies with different temperatures and flow rate values. Reasonably good agreement was achieved between the numerical prediction and the temperature measurement, which confirmed the numerical simulation accuracy. The numerical results showed the significance of buoyancy effect for the dynamic melting process. The system TES performance was very sensitive to the HTF inlet temperature. By contrast, no apparent influences can be found when changing the HTF flow rates. This study provides a comprehensive solution to investigate the heat exchange process of the TES system using PCM.

  13. N management of European grasslands: can the exchange of gaseous N species be influenced at the operational level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanca, P; Neftel, A; Fuhrer, J

    2001-11-30

    Grassland ecosystems can be regarded as biochemical reactors in which large amounts of organic nitrogen (N) are converted into inorganic N, and vice versa. If managed in a sustainable manner, grasslands should operate in a quasi steady state, characterized by an almost perfect balance between total N input and output. As a consequence, the exchange of gaseous N species (NH3, NO, NO2, N2O, and N2) between grasslands and the atmosphere is very small compared to the total N turnover. In this study, the effects of two management options (mowing and fertilization) on production and emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from a grass/clover crop were examined on the basis of observations and model results referring to an experiment carried out on the Swiss Plateau in late summer of 2000. It was found that production and emission of N2O induced by mowing were of the same order of magnitude as those brought about by fertilization, suggesting a possible transfer of N from clover to the soil after defoliation. Emissions were strongly modulated by precipitation on time scales ranging from 1 day to 1 week. This indicates that effective control of N2O emissions through management on a day-to-day basis requires reliable medium-range weather forecasts. Model calculations were not able to reproduce essential characteristics of the emissions. The model slightly overestimated the background emissions, but severely underestimated the emission peaks following fertilizer application, and largely failed to reproduce emission induced by mowing. Shortfalls in the model used for this study were found in relation to the description of soil-water fluxes, soil organic matter, and the physiology of clover.

  14. N Management of European Grasslands: Can the Exchange of Gaseous N Species Be Influenced at the Operational Level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Calanca

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Grassland ecosystems can be regarded as biochemical reactors in which large amounts of organic nitrogen (N are converted into inorganic N, and vice versa. If managed in a sustainable manner, grasslands should operate in a quasi steady state, characterized by an almost perfect balance between total N input and output. As a consequence, the exchange of gaseous N species (NH3, NO, NO2, N2O, and N2 between grasslands and the atmosphere is very small compared to the total N turnover. In this study, the effects of two management options (mowing and fertilization on production and emission of nitrous oxide (N2O from a grass/clover crop were examined on the basis of observations and model results referring to an experiment carried out on the Swiss Plateau in late summer of 2000. It was found that production and emission of N2O induced by mowing were of the same order of magnitude as those brought about by fertilization, suggesting a possible transfer of N from clover to the soil after defoliation. Emissions were strongly modulated by precipitation on time scales ranging from 1 day to 1 week. This indicates that effective control of N2O emissions through management on a day-to-day basis requires reliable medium-range weather forecasts. Model calculations were not able to reproduce essential characteristics of the emissions. The model slightly overestimated the background emissions, but severely underestimated the emission peaks following fertilizer application, and largely failed to reproduce emission induced by mowing. Shortfalls in the model used for this study were found in relation to the description of soil-water fluxes, soil organic matter, and the physiology of clover.

  15. Dynamic species classification of microorganisms across time, abiotic and biotic environments-A sliding window approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Pennekamp

    Full Text Available The development of video-based monitoring methods allows for rapid, dynamic and accurate monitoring of individuals or communities, compared to slower traditional methods, with far reaching ecological and evolutionary applications. Large amounts of data are generated using video-based methods, which can be effectively processed using machine learning (ML algorithms into meaningful ecological information. ML uses user defined classes (e.g. species, derived from a subset (i.e. training data of video-observed quantitative features (e.g. phenotypic variation, to infer classes in subsequent observations. However, phenotypic variation often changes due to environmental conditions, which may lead to poor classification, if environmentally induced variation in phenotypes is not accounted for. Here we describe a framework for classifying species under changing environmental conditions based on the random forest classification. A sliding window approach was developed that restricts temporal and environmentally conditions to improve the classification. We tested our approach by applying the classification framework to experimental data. The experiment used a set of six ciliate species to monitor changes in community structure and behavior over hundreds of generations, in dozens of species combinations and across a temperature gradient. Differences in biotic and abiotic conditions caused simplistic classification approaches to be unsuccessful. In contrast, the sliding window approach allowed classification to be highly successful, as phenotypic differences driven by environmental change, could be captured by the classifier. Importantly, classification using the random forest algorithm showed comparable success when validated against traditional, slower, manual identification. Our framework allows for reliable classification in dynamic environments, and may help to improve strategies for long-term monitoring of species in changing environments. Our

  16. Gas exchange at whole plant level shows that a less conservative water use is linked to a higher performance in three ecologically distinct pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Tortosa, D.; Castro, J.; Rubio de Casas, R.; Viñegla, B.; Sánchez-Cañete, E. P.; Villar-Salvador, P.

    2018-04-01

    Increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation in large areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming will affect plant growth and survival. However, the impact of climatic conditions will differ across species depending on their stomatal response to increasing aridity, as this will ultimately affect the balance between carbon assimilation and water loss. In this study, we monitored gas exchange, growth and survival in saplings of three widely distributed European pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. nigra and P. sylvestris) with contrasting distribution and ecological requirements in order to ascertain the relationship between stomatal control and plant performance. The experiment was conducted in a common garden environment resembling rainfall and temperature conditions that two of the three species are expected to encounter in the near future. In addition, gas exchange was monitored both at the leaf and at the whole-plant level using a transient-state closed chamber, which allowed us to model the response of the whole plant to increased air evaporative demand (AED). P. sylvestris was the species with lowest survival and performance. By contrast, P. halepensis showed no mortality, much higher growth (two orders of magnitude), carbon assimilation (ca. 14 fold higher) and stomatal conductance and water transpiration (ca. 4 fold higher) than the other two species. As a consequence, P. halepensis exhibited higher values of water-use efficiency than the rest of the species even at the highest values of AED. Overall, the results strongly support that the weaker stomatal control of P. halepensis, which is linked to lower stem water potential, enabled this species to maximize carbon uptake under drought stress and ultimately outperform the more water conservative P. nigra and P. sylvestris. These results suggest that under a hotter drought scenario P. nigra and P. sylvestris would very likely suffer increased mortality, whereas P. halepensis could maintain

  17. Basic thermo-fluid dynamic problems in high temperature heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEligot, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors consider high temperature heat exchangers to be ones where the heat transfer coefficients cannot be predicted confidently by classical analyses for pure forced convection with constant fluid properties. Alternatively, one could consider heat exchangers operating above some arbitrary temperature, say 1000F or 600C perhaps, to be at high temperature conditions. In that case, most common working fluids will be superheated vapors or gases. While some liquid metal heat exchangers are designed to operate in this range, the heat transfer coefficients of liquid metals are usually sufficiently high that the dominant thermal resistance would be due to the second fluid. This paper concentrates on convective heat transfer with gases. Typical applications include modular gas cooled nuclear reactors, proposed nuclear propulsion systems and space power plants, and superheaters in Rankine steam cycles

  18. Quantifying hyporheic exchange dynamics in a highly regulated large river reach.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn Edward; Zhou, T; Huang, M; Hou, Z; Bao, J; Arntzen, E; Mackley, R; Harding, S; Titzler, S; Murray, C; Perkins, W; Chen, X; Stegen, J; Thorne, P; Zachara, J

    2017-03-01

    Hyporheic exchange is an important mechanism taking place in riverbanks and riverbed sediments, where river water and shallow groundwater mix and interact with each other. The direction, magnitude, and residence time of the hyporheic flux that penetrates the river bed are critical for biogeochemical processes such as carbon and nitrogen cycling, and biodegradation of organic contaminants. Many approaches including field measurements and numerical methods have been developed to quantify the hyporheic exchanges in relatively small rivers. However, the spatial and temporal distributions of hyporheic exchanges in a large, regulated river reach remain less explored due to the large spatial domains, complexity of geomorphologic features and subsurface properties, and the great pressure gradient variations at the riverbed created by dam operations.

  19. Nectar production dynamics and sugar composition in two Mucuna species (Leguminosae, Faboideae) with different specialized pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Kayna; Sazima, Marlies; Galetto, Leonardo

    2011-11-01

    Nectar is secreted in particular rhythms throughout the lifespan of a flower, which allows determining the nectar production dynamics. This paper compares nectar features in Mucuna japira and Mucuna urens describing: dynamics of nectar production, floral response to nectar removal, resorption, nectar sugar composition, and variation in nectar sugar composition. M. japira inflorescence bears 12-21 yellow flowers, which are in anthesis for 7 days, whereas M. urens inflorescence bears 36-54 greenish flowers, but only 1-3 flowers are in anthesis simultaneously that last one night. Nectar volume and sugar concentration were measured, and the amount of sugar was estimated. Qualitative and quantitative nectar sugar composition was determined. Both species had a constant nectar sugar concentration (ca. 10% for M. japira and ca. 16% for M. urens) and secreted high volumes of nectar (ca. 340 μl per flower for M. japira and 310 μl per flower for M. urens), during 5 days for M. japira and 6 h for M. urens, but after the first removal, i.e., when flower opening mechanism is triggered, nectar production stops immediately. Nectar resorption occurred in both species. Nectar sugar composition showed some similarities between the species. Variation in nectar sugar composition occurred in both species. The Mucuna species are dependent on their pollinators to produce fruits and seeds, and they have different strategies to promote the necessary interaction with birds or bats, especially related to nectar and flower characteristics.

  20. Effects of constant and stepwise changes in temperature on the species abundance dynamics of four cladocera species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbitsky V. B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments with natural zooplankton communities were carried out to study the effects of two contrasting temperature regimes: constant temperature (15, 20, and 25 °C and graded changes in temperature. The graded regime consisted of repeated sustained (three weeks controlled stepwise temperature changes of 5 or 10 °C within 15–25 °C on the population dynamics of four dominant species of lake littoral zooplankton, Daphnia longispina (Müller, 1785, Diaphanosoma brachyurum (Lievin, 1848, Simocephalus vetulus (Müller, 1776 and Chydorus sphaericus (Müller, 1785. The results show that controlled stepwise changes (positive or negative in temperature within the ranges of 15–20, 20–25, and 15–25 °C can exert either stimulating or inhibitory effect (direct or delayed on the development of D. longispina and S. vetulus populations. The development of D. brachyurum and Ch. sphaericus, both more steno-thermophile, was only stimulated by a stable elevated temperature (25 °C. These results support the previously formulated hypothesis that, in determining the ecological temperature optimum of a species within a natural community, it is not enough to define its optimum from constant, cyclic or random temperature fluctuations, but also from unidirectional stepwise changes in temperature. These stepwise changes may also induce prolonged or delayed effects.

  1. Dynamics of ligand exchange and association processes in solutions of transition 3d-metal fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazmutdinova, G.A.; Shtyrlin, V.G.; Zakharov, A.V.; Sal'nikov, Yu.I.

    1993-01-01

    By 19 NMR in combination with ESR spectroscopy rate constants and activation parameters of fluoride-ion exchange reactions in solutions of VOF 5 3- and FeF 6 3- complexes were determined. Associative character of the studied reactions of ligand exchange is shown. Dependence of fluoride complex reactivity on the charge, electron structure of the central ion and formation of hydrogen bonds of coordinated F - ions with solvent molecules was demonstrated. Stability constants, rates of formation and dissociation of intercomplex associates in fluoride solutions were ascertained

  2. Is It Possible to Replicate the Exchange Rate Volatility Behavior Using Dynamic Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Henrique Barbedo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The implied volatility is certainly an interesting indicator to help get a sense of the market, because it represents the amount of expected volatility the market is pricing. In over-the-counter exchange rate option, whose trading is volatility oriented, it is the most important variable. This work investigates whether information embedded in this implied volatility market are explained by other traded variables in the Brazilian market. The results show that there are sources of non-negotiable risk that influence this implied volatility. Therefore, exchange rate implied volatility can assist to understand the behavior of the derivatives indexed to dollar.

  3. Dynamic of population-dynamics in a medically important snail species Lymnaea (Radix Luteola (Lamarck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Misra

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available The life-cycle parameters of the snail Lymnaea (Radix luteola and the factors influencing the same have been studied under laboratory conditions. Ins each month, from July 1990 to June 1991, a batch of 100 zero-day old individual were considered for studies. The snails of April batch survived for 19.42 days while those in December batch survived for 87.45 days. The May batch individual though survived for 65.67 days gained maximum shell size (15.84 mm in length and body weight (419.87 mg. All individuals of April batch died prior to attainment of sexual maturity. In the remaining 11 batches the snails became sexually mature between 32 and 53 days. At this stage, they were with varying shell lengths, 9.3 mm to 13,11 mm in respect to batches. The reproduction period varied from 1-67 days. An individual laid, on an average, 0,25 (March batch to 443.67 (May batch eggs in its life-span. A batch of such snails would leave 24312, 22520, 720268, 80408, 76067, 418165, 214, 9202, 0, 0, 2459386 and 127894 individuals at the end of 352nd day. Since the environmental conditions were almost similar the 'dynamic' of population dynamics seems to be involved with the 'strain' of the snail individuals of the batches concerned.

  4. Design of a concentric heat exchanger using computational fluid dynamics as design tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, Joris; Bühler, Simon; wilcox, D; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2013-01-01

    A concentric gas-to-gas heat exchanger is designed for application as a recuperator in the domestic boiler industry. The recuperator recovers heat from the exhaust gases of a combustion process to preheat the ingoing gaseous fuel mixture resulting in increased fuel efficiency. This applied study

  5. The Nonlinear Dynamic Relationship of Exchange Rates: Parametric and Nonparametric Causality testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekiros, S.D.; Diks, C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the long-term linear and nonlinear causal linkages among six currencies, namely EUR/USD, GBP/USD, USD/JPY, USD/CHF, AUD/USD and USD/CAD. The prime motivation for choosing these exchange rates comes from the fact that they are the most liquid and widely traded, covering

  6. Determination of enzyme-substrate dissociation rates by dynamic isotope exchange enhancement experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.C.; Raushel, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    A new method for the determination of dissociation rates of enzyme-substrate complexes has been developed. The rate of exchange of a labeled product back into the substrate is measured during catalysis of the forward reaction when the forward reaction is kept far from equilibrium by the enzymatic removal of the nonexchanging product. The ratio of the exchange rate and the net rate for product formation is then determined at various concentrations of the exchanging product. A plot of this ratio is a diagnostic indication of the kinetic mechanism and the relative rates of product dissociation from the binary and ternary enzyme complexes. This technique has been applied to the reaction catalyzed by bovine liver argininosuccinate lyase. The ratio for the rate of exchange of fumarate into argininosuccinate and the net rate for product formation was found to increase with the concentration of fumarate but to reach a limit of 3.3. The ratio of rates was half-maximal at 36 mM fumarate. The data have been interpreted to indicate the argininosuccinate lyase has a random kinetic mechanism. The calculated lower limit for the rate of release of arginine from the enzyme-fumarate-arginine complex is 0.35 times as fast as the Vmax in the reverse direction. The rate of release of arginine from the enzyme-arginine binary complex is 210 times faster than Vmax in the reverse direction

  7. Two models for the dynamics of a cross flow heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkinson, A [Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-12-15

    Two models of a cross flow heat exchanger, a concentric tube counter flow model and a cross flow model, are studied theoretically. Differential equations describing the behaviour of the models are derived and from them equations for the steady state temperatures and the temperature transfer functions are obtained. (author)

  8. Dynamic Models of Learning That Characterize Parent-Child Exchanges Predict Vocabulary Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, David R.; Beekman, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Cumulative vocabulary models for infants and toddlers were developed from models of learning that predict trajectories associated with low, average, and high vocabulary growth rates (14 to 46 months). It was hypothesized that models derived from rates of learning mirror the type of exchanges provided to infants and toddlers by parents and…

  9. Chemical exchange in novel spirobicyclic zwitterionic Janovsky complexes using dynamic 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culf, A S; Cuperlović-Culf, M; Ouellette, R J

    2009-02-01

    Highly coloured Janovsky complexes have been known for over 120 years, being used in many colourimetric analytical procedures. In this present study, two novel and stable nitrocyclohexadienyl spirobicyclic, zwitterionic Janovsky anionic hydantoin sigma-complexes, rac-1,3-diisopropyl-6-nitro-2,4-dioxo-1,3-diazaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-ylideneazinate, ammonium internal salt (1) and 1,3-diisopropyl-2,4-dioxo-1,3-diazaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-ylideneazinate, ammonium internal salt (2) have been prepared and characterised by NMR, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and UV/visible methods. For the p-mononitro-substituted complex (2), we discovered chemical exchange behaviour using 1D saturation transfer and 2D exchange spectroscopy (EXSY) (1)H NMR techniques. The coalescence temperature was determined to be 62 degrees C in d(3)-acetonitrile. Analysis of these data provided a Gibbs free energy of activation, DeltaG double dagger, of + 67 kJ mole(-1), a rate constant, k, coalescence of 220 Hz and an equilibrium constant, K(eqm), of 0.98 as estimates of the exchange process in this solvent. Of the two mechanisms proposed for this fluxional behaviour, ring opening to a substituted benzene or proton exchange, a further theoretical modelling study of 1D (1)H NMR spectra was able to confirm that simple proton exchange between the two nitrogen sites of the hydantoin ring provided an accurate simulation of the observed experimental evidence. Interestingly, the o,p-dinitro-substituted complex (1) did not show any chemical exchange behaviour up to 150 degrees C in d(3)-acetonitrile (to 75 degrees C) and d(6)-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Molecular modelling at the MM2 level suggests that steric collisions of an N-acyl isopropyl substituent of the hydantoin ring with the ortho-nitro group of the spirofused cyclohexadienyl ring prevents the proposed proton exchange mechanism occurring in this case. 2008 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Dynamics of a three species food chain model with Crowley-Martin type functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Naji, Raid Kamel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a three species food chain model, consisting of a hybrid type of prey-dependent and predator-dependent functional responses, is investigated analytically as well as numerically. The local and global stability analysis is carried out. The persistence conditions are established. Bifurcation diagrams are obtained for biologically feasible parameters. The results show that the system exhibits rich complexity features such as stable, periodic and chaotic dynamics.

  11. Dynamics of gas-phase transient species studied by dissociative photodetachment of molecular anions

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Gas-phase transient species, such as the CH₃CO₂ and HOCO free radicals, play important roles in combustion and environment chemistry. In this thesis work, the dynamics of these two radicals were studied by dissociative photodetachment (DPD) of the negative ions, CH₃CO₂-С and HOCO⁻, respectively. The experiments were carried out with a fast-ion-beam photoelectron-photofragment coincidence (PPC) spectrometer. Mass-selected molecular anions in a fast ion beam were intercepted by a linearly polar...

  12. Neutral dynamics with environmental noise: age-size statistics and species lifetimes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kessler, D.; Suweis, S.; Formentin, Marco; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 2 (2015), 022722-1-022722-10 ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/12/2613 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Neutral dynamics * environmental noise * age-size relationships * species extinction time Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/SI/formentin-0452979.pdf

  13. The specification of cross exchange rate equations used to test Purchasing Power Parity

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, J; Simpson, M

    2004-01-01

    The Article considers the speciÞcation of models used to test Pur- chasing Power Parity when applied to cross exchange rates. SpeciÞcally, conventional dynamic models used to test stationarity of the real exchange rate are likely to be misspeciÞed, except when the parameters of each ex- change rate equation are the same

  14. Long-term Seedling Dynamics of Tree Species in a Subtropical Rain Forest, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hao Chang-Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of demographical rates at seedling stage is critical for understanding forest composition and dynamics. We monitored the seedling dynamics of tree species in a subtropical rain forest in Fushan, northern Taiwan (24°45’ N, 121°35’ E during an 8-yr period (2003–2010. There were great temporal fluctuations in the seedling density, which might be largely driven by the pulses of seedling recruitment. Interspecific variation in the seedling abundance, however, was not related to the reproductive adult abundance. Previous studies showed that frequent typhoon disturbances contributed to the high canopy openness and high understory light availability at Fushan, which might benefit tree regeneration. But our results do not support this idea. Most of the newly recruited seedlings died within six months and only grew 1.55 ± 0.20 cm per year, which might be suppressed by the dense understory vegetation. Our results suggested that the majority of tree species in Fushan were recruitment limited, which might have important consequences for species coexistence. High temporal variability in recruitment density and low growth rates of seedlings emphasize the importance of long-term studies to our understandings of forest dynamics.

  15. Genetic variation in foundation species governs the dynamics of trophic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Cuevas, Leticia; Mussali-Galante, Patricia; Cano-Santana, Zenón; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Equihua-Martínez, Armando

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Various studies have demonstrated that the foundation species genetic diversity can have direct effects that extend beyond the individual or population level, affecting the dependent communities. Additionally, these effects may be indirectly extended to higher trophic levels throughout the entire community. Quercus castanea is an oak species with characteristics of foundation species beyond presenting a wide geographical distribution and being a dominant element of Mexican temperate forests. In this study, we analyzed the influence of population (He) and individual (HL) genetic diversity of Q. castanea on its canopy endophagous insect community and associated parasitoids. Specifically, we studied the composition, richness (S) and density of leaf-mining moths (Lepidoptera: Tischeridae, Citheraniidae), gall-forming wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), and canopy parasitoids of Q. castanea. We sampled 120 trees belonging to six populations (20/site) through the previously recognized gradient of genetic diversity. In total, 22 endophagous insect species belonging to three orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera) and 20 parasitoid species belonging to 13 families were identified. In general, we observed that the individual genetic diversity of the host plant (HL) has a significant positive effect on the S and density of the canopy endophagous insect communities. In contrast, He has a significant negative effect on the S of endophagous insects. Additionally, indirect effects of HL were observed, affecting the S and density of parasitoid insects. Our results suggest that genetic variation in foundation species can be one of the most important factors governing the dynamics of tritrophic interactions that involve oaks, herbivores, and parasitoids. PMID:29492034

  16. A single disulfide bond disruption in the β3 integrin subunit promotes thiol/disulfide exchange, a molecular dynamics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihie Levin

    Full Text Available The integrins are a family of membrane receptors that attach a cell to its surrounding and play a crucial function in cell signaling. The combination of internal and external stimuli alters a folded non-active state of these proteins to an extended active configuration. The β3 subunit of the platelet αIIbβ3 integrin is made of well-structured domains rich in disulfide bonds. During the activation process some of the disulfides are re-shuffled by a mechanism requiring partial reduction of some of these bonds; any disruption in this mechanism can lead to inherent blood clotting diseases. In the present study we employed Molecular Dynamics simulations for tracing the sequence of structural fluctuations initiated by a single cysteine mutation in the β3 subunit of the receptor. These simulations showed that in-silico protein mutants exhibit major conformational deformations leading to possible disulfide exchange reactions. We suggest that any mutation that prevents Cys560 from reacting with one of the Cys(567-Cys(581 bonded pair, thus disrupting its ability to participate in a disulfide exchange reaction, will damage the activation mechanism of the integrin. This suggestion is in full agreement with previously published experiments. Furthermore, we suggest that rearrangement of disulfide bonds could be a part of a natural cascade of thiol/disulfide exchange reactions in the αIIbβ3 integrin, which are essential for the native activation process.

  17. Grapevine species from varied native habitats exhibit differences in embolism formation/repair associated with leaf gas exchange and root pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipfer, Thorsten; Eustis, Ashley; Brodersen, Craig; Walker, Andrew M; McElrone, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Drought induces xylem embolism formation, but grapevines can refill non-functional vessels to restore transport capacity. It is unknown whether vulnerability to embolism formation and ability to repair differ among grapevine species. We analysed in vivo embolism formation and repair using x-ray computed microtomography in three wild grapevine species from varied native habitats (Vitis riparia, V. arizonica, V. champinii) and related responses to measurements of leaf gas exchange and root pressure. Vulnerability to embolism formation was greatest in V. riparia, intermediate in V. arizonica and lowest in V. champinii. After re-watering, embolism repair was rapid and pronounced in V. riparia and V. arizonica, but limited or negligible in V. champinii even after numerous days. Similarly, root pressure measured after re-watering was positively correlated with drought stress severity for V. riparia and V. arizonica (species exhibiting embolism repair) but not for V. champinii. Drought-induced reductions in transpiration were greatest for V. riparia and least in V. champinii. Recovery of transpiration after re-watering was delayed for all species, but was greatest for V. champinii and most rapid in V. arizonica. These species exhibit varied responses to drought stress that involve maintenance/recovery of xylem transport capacity coordinated with root pressure and gas exchange responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Population cycles and species diversity in dynamic Kill-the-Winner model of microbial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, Sergei; Sneppen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Determinants of species diversity in microbial ecosystems remain poorly understood. Bacteriophages are believed to increase the diversity by the virtue of Kill-the-Winner infection bias preventing the fastest growing organism from taking over the community. Phage-bacterial ecosystems are traditionally described in terms of the static equilibrium state of Lotka-Volterra equations in which bacterial growth is exactly balanced by losses due to phage predation. Here we consider a more dynamic scenario in which phage infections give rise to abrupt and severe collapses of bacterial populations whenever they become sufficiently large. As a consequence, each bacterial population in our model follows cyclic dynamics of exponential growth interrupted by sudden declines. The total population of all species fluctuates around the carrying capacity of the environment, making these cycles cryptic. While a subset of the slowest growing species in our model is always driven towards extinction, in general the overall ecosystem diversity remains high. The number of surviving species is inversely proportional to the variation in their growth rates but increases with the frequency and severity of phage-induced collapses. Thus counter-intuitively we predict that microbial communities exposed to more violent perturbations should have higher diversity. PMID:28051127

  19. Chaos and order in stateless societies: Intercommunity exchange as a factor impacting the population dynamical patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvinsky, Alexander B., E-mail: medvinsky@iteb.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Rusakov, Alexey V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > We model community dynamics in stateless societies. > Intercommunity barter is shown to be a factor impacting the societies dynamics. > Increase in the human population growth rate can lead to appearance of chaos. > Secular and millennial cycles are found to arise as a result of the barter. - Abstract: The once abstract notions of dynamical chaos now appear naturally in various systems [Kaplan D, Glass L. Understanding nonlinear dynamics. New York: Springer; 1995]. As a result, future trajectories of the systems may be difficult to predict. In this paper, we demonstrate the appearance of chaotic dynamics in model human communities, which consist of producers of agricultural product and producers of agricultural equipment. In the case of a solitary community, the horizon of predictability of the human population dynamics is shown to be dependent on both intrinsic instability of the dynamics and the chaotic attractor sizes. Since a separate community is usually a part of a larger commonality, we study the dynamics of social systems consisting of two interacting communities. We show that intercommunity barter can lead to stabilization of the dynamics in one of the communities, which implies persistence of stable equilibrium under changes of the maximum value of the human population growth rate. However, in the neighboring community, the equilibrium turns into a stable limit cycle as the maximum value of the human population growth rate increases. Following an increase in the maximum value of the human population growth rate leads to period-doubling bifurcations resulting in chaotic dynamics. The horizon of predictability of the chaotic oscillations is found to be limited by 5 years. We demonstrate that the intercommunity interaction can lead to the appearance of long-period harmonics in the chaotic time series. The period of the harmonics is of order 100 and 1000 years. Hence the long-period changes in the population size may be considered as an

  20. Chaos and order in stateless societies: Intercommunity exchange as a factor impacting the population dynamical patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvinsky, Alexander B.; Rusakov, Alexey V.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We model community dynamics in stateless societies. → Intercommunity barter is shown to be a factor impacting the societies dynamics. → Increase in the human population growth rate can lead to appearance of chaos. → Secular and millennial cycles are found to arise as a result of the barter. - Abstract: The once abstract notions of dynamical chaos now appear naturally in various systems [Kaplan D, Glass L. Understanding nonlinear dynamics. New York: Springer; 1995]. As a result, future trajectories of the systems may be difficult to predict. In this paper, we demonstrate the appearance of chaotic dynamics in model human communities, which consist of producers of agricultural product and producers of agricultural equipment. In the case of a solitary community, the horizon of predictability of the human population dynamics is shown to be dependent on both intrinsic instability of the dynamics and the chaotic attractor sizes. Since a separate community is usually a part of a larger commonality, we study the dynamics of social systems consisting of two interacting communities. We show that intercommunity barter can lead to stabilization of the dynamics in one of the communities, which implies persistence of stable equilibrium under changes of the maximum value of the human population growth rate. However, in the neighboring community, the equilibrium turns into a stable limit cycle as the maximum value of the human population growth rate increases. Following an increase in the maximum value of the human population growth rate leads to period-doubling bifurcations resulting in chaotic dynamics. The horizon of predictability of the chaotic oscillations is found to be limited by 5 years. We demonstrate that the intercommunity interaction can lead to the appearance of long-period harmonics in the chaotic time series. The period of the harmonics is of order 100 and 1000 years. Hence the long-period changes in the population size may be considered as an

  1. Neutral dynamics with environmental noise: Age-size statistics and species lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David; Suweis, Samir; Formentin, Marco; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-08-01

    Neutral dynamics, where taxa are assumed to be demographically equivalent and their abundance is governed solely by the stochasticity of the underlying birth-death process, has proved itself as an important minimal model that accounts for many empirical datasets in genetics and ecology. However, the restriction of the model to demographic [O (√{N }) ] noise yields relatively slow dynamics that appears to be in conflict with both short-term and long-term characteristics of the observed systems. Here we analyze two of these problems—age-size relationships and species extinction time—in the framework of a neutral theory with both demographic and environmental stochasticity. It turns out that environmentally induced variations of the demographic rates control the long-term dynamics and modify dramatically the predictions of the neutral theory with demographic noise only, yielding much better agreement with empirical data. We consider two prototypes of "zero mean" environmental noise, one which is balanced with regard to the arithmetic abundance, another balanced in the logarithmic (fitness) space, study their species lifetime statistics, and discuss their relevance to realistic models of community dynamics.

  2. Discrete time population dynamics of a two-stage species with recruitment and capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladino, Lilia M.; Mammana, Cristiana; Michetti, Elisabetta; Valverde, Jose C.

    2016-01-01

    This work models and analyzes the dynamics of a two-stage species with recruitment and capture factors. It arises from the discretization of a previous model developed by Ladino and Valverde (2013), which represents a progress in the knowledge of the dynamics of exploited populations. Although the methods used here are related to the study of discrete-time systems and are different from those related to continuous version, the results are similar in both the discrete and the continuous case what confirm the skill in the selection of the factors to design the model. Unlike for the continuous-time case, for the discrete-time one some (non-negative) parametric constraints are derived from the biological significance of the model and become fundamental for the proofs of such results. Finally, numerical simulations show different scenarios of dynamics related to the analytical results which confirm the validity of the model.

  3. Rhythmic behaviour of marine benthopelagic species and the synchronous dynamics of benthic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Tecchio, Samuele; Navarro, Joan; Company, Joan B.

    2015-01-01

    Light-intensity cycles drive the relentless motion of species in the oceans, and water column migrants may cyclically make contact with the seabed, hence influencing the temporal dynamism of benthic ecosystems. The influence of light on this process remains largely unknown to date. In this study, we focus on the occurrence of day-night changes in benthic communities on the western Mediterranean continental shelf (100 m depth) and slope (400 m depth) as a potential result of a behaviourally sustained benthopelagic coupling. We analysed fluctuations in species abundance based on trawling at hourly intervals over a 4-day period as a proxy of activity rhythms at the seabed. We also measured light in situ to assess how the depth-related decrease of its intensity influences species rhythms and the occurrence of the putative benthopelagic synchronisation. Temporal similarities in the catch patterns for different species were screened by dendrogram analysis. On the continental shelf, species performing diel migrations (i.e., over a 24 h period) that were either vertical (i.e., benthopelagic) or horizontal across depths (i.e., nektobenthic) clustered together separately from the more sedentary endobenthic and epibenthic species. At the same depth, waveform analysis showed a significant diurnal increase in the catch of water column species and benthic species at night. Such coupling was absent on the continental slope, where light intensity was several orders of magnitude lower than that on the shelf. Our data indicate that diel activity rhythms, which are well known for vertical pelagic migrators, are also evident in the benthos. We discuss the role of light as a major evolutionary driver shaping the composition and biodiversity of benthic communities via visual predation.

  4. Structual Dynamics and Function of the Na+/H+ Exchanger 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendus-Altenburger, Ruth

    Na+/H+ Exchangers (SLC9As) are of pivotal importance in several physiological processes, and their dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of several diseases. The Na+/H+ Exchanger 1 (NHE1) is ubiquitously expressed at the plasma membrane. It contains two domains, the transmembrane ion...... translocation domain and a large cytoplasmic regulatory domain. Despite its physiological and pathophysiological importance, high resolution structural data of NHE1 is missing, and even though several binding partners and phosphorylation sites of the NHE1 regulatory domain are known and many more suggested......, the molecular structures and mechanisms underlying NHE1 regulation and function are still incompletely understood. In this work, in silico analysis revealed two structured and two intrinsically disordered regions in the regulatory domain. A divide-and-conquer approach was used to identify subdomains...

  5. Separation of seven arsenic species by ion-pair and ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Hansen, Sven Hedegaard

    1992-01-01

    Arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate, dimethylarsinate, arsenobetaine, arsenocholine and the tetramethylarsonium ion were subjected to ion-exchange and ion-pair reversed phase HPLC. The ion exchange method was superior in selectivity and time of analysis for the arsenic anions. The ammonium ions...... used for the ion-pair method only resulted in separation of some of the anionic arsenic compounds. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used for on-line arsenic-specific detection....

  6. Interactions among K+-Ca2+ exchange, sorption of m-dinitrobenzene, and smectite quasicrystal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ritushree; Laird, David A; Thompson, Michael L

    2008-12-15

    The fate of organic contaminants in soils and sediments is influenced by sorption of the compounds to surfaces of soil materials. We investigated the interaction among sorption of an organic compound, cation exchange reactions, and both the size and swelling of smectite quasicrystals. Two reference smectites that vary in location and amount of layer charge, SPV (a Wyoming bentonite) and SAz-1 were initially Ca- and K-saturated and then equilibrated with mixed 0.01 M KCl and 0.005 M CaCl2 salt solutions both with and without the presence of 200 mg L(-1) m-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). In general, sorption of m-DNB increased with the amount of K+ in the system for both clays, and the SPV sorbed more m-DNB than the SAz-1. Sorption of m-DNB increased the preference of Ca-SPV for K+ relative to Ca2+ but had little effect on K+-Ca2+ selectivity for K-SPV. Selectivity for K+ relative to Ca2+ was slightly higher for both K-SAz-1 and Ca-SAz-1 in the presence of m-DNB than in its absence. Distinct hysteresis loops were observed for the K+-Ca2+ cation exchange reactions for both clays, and the legacy of having been initially Ca- or K-saturated influenced sorption of m-DNB by SPV but had little effect for SAz-1. Suspension X-ray diffraction was used to measure changes in d-spacing and the relative thickness of smectite quasicrystals during the cation exchange and m-DNB sorption reactions. The results suggest that interactions among cation exchange and organic sorption reactions are controlled byan inherently hysteretic complex feedback process that is regulated by changes in the size and extent of swelling of smectite quasicrystals.

  7. Dynamical realization of breaking of exchanged degeneracy and violation of Zweig's rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsky, S.S.; Snider, D.R.

    1975-08-01

    A multiperipheral model that implements part of the Veneziano topological expansion and in which the cylinder correction breaks exchange degeneracy and produces Zweig's rule violation as well as a Pomeron above one is presented. In the negative charge conjugation channel the model is identical to the 0 meson model of Freund and Nambu if continued to a spin one pole on the daughter of the Pomeron

  8. Dynamics of radionuclide exchange in the calcareous algae Halimeda at Enewetak Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spies, R.B.; Marsh, K.V.; Kercher, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of /sup 239+240/Pu in the detrital inclusions and in acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions of Halimeda macrophysa showed a 10-fold higher concentration in the acid-insoluble coenocytic filaments than in the acid-soluble fraction. In a depuration experiment with Halimeda incrassata at Enewetak Atoll the loss rate of six radionuclides was measured. Data for /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 102m/Rh were fit to loss curves by using one term for exponential loss; data for /sup 155/Eu, /sup 239+240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am required two terms. For each radionuclide, compartment size and transfer functions were determined for the appropriate one- and two-compartment models. Of 26 possible two-compartment models, only seven gave solutions with our data. Nearly identical loss rates were obtained for /sup 155/Eu, /sup 239+240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am in the fast-exchanging compartments for all seven models. The uptake rates for these nuclides were also similar when uptake rates were normalized to local sediment concentrations. The fast-exchanging compartment probably corresponds to the mucilage surface layer of the coenocytic filaments. The identity of the slow-exchanging compartment is less certain but it may correspond to the skeletal surface.

  9. Dynamics of radionuclide exchange in the calcareous algae Halimeda at Enewetak Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spies, R.B. (Lawrence Livermore Lab., CA); Marsh, K.V.; Kercher, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of /sup 239 +240/Pu in the detrital inclusions and in acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions of Halimeda macrophysa showed a 10-fold higher concentration in the acid-insoluble coenocytic filaments than in the acid-soluble fraction. In a depuration experiment with Halimeda incrassata at Enewetak Atoll the loss rate of six radionuclides was measured. Data for /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 102//sup m/Rh were fit to loss curves by using one term for exponential loss; data for /sup 155/Eu, /sup 239 +240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am required two terms. For each radionuclide, compartment size and transfer functions were determined for the apropriate one- and two-compartment models. Of 26 possible two-compartment models, only seven gave solutions with our data. Nearly identical loss rates were obtained for /sup 155/Eu, /sup 239 +240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am in the fast-exchanging compartments for all seven models. The uptake rates for these nuclides were also similar when uptake rates were normalized to local sediment concentrations. The fast-exchanging compartment probably corresponds to the mucilage surface layer of the coenocytic filaments. The identity of the slow-exchanging compartment is less certain but it may correspond to the skeletal surface.

  10. Climate, invasive species and land use drive population dynamics of a cold-water specialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Whited, Diane C.; Schmetterling, David A.; Dux, Andrew M; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is an additional stressor in a complex suite of threats facing freshwater biodiversity, particularly for cold-water fishes. Research addressing the consequences of climate change on cold-water fish has generally focused on temperature limits defining spatial distributions, largely ignoring how climatic variation influences population dynamics in the context of other existing stressors.We used long-term data from 92 populations of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus – one of North America's most cold-adapted fishes – to quantify additive and interactive effects of climate, invasive species and land use on population dynamics (abundance, variability and growth rate).Populations were generally depressed, more variable and declining where spawning and rearing stream habitat was limited, invasive species and land use were prevalent and stream temperatures were highest. Increasing stream temperature acted additively and independently, whereas land use and invasive species had additive and interactive effects (i.e. the impact of one stressor depended on exposure to the other stressor).Most (58%–78%) of the explained variation in population dynamics was attributed to the presence of invasive species, differences in life history and management actions in foraging habitats in rivers, lakes and reservoirs. Although invasive fishes had strong negative effects on populations in foraging habitats, proactive control programmes appeared to effectively temper their negative impact.Synthesis and applications. Long-term demographic data emphasize that climate warming will exacerbate imperilment of cold-water specialists like bull trout, yet other stressors – especially invasive fishes – are immediate threats that can be addressed by proactive management actions. Therefore, climate-adaptation strategies for freshwater biodiversity should consider existing abiotic and biotic stressors, some of which provide potential and realized opportunity for conservation

  11. Energy exchange analysis in droplet dynamics via the Navier–Stokes–Cahn–Hilliard model

    KAUST Repository

    Espath, L. F. R.; Sarmiento, Adel; Vignal, Philippe; Varga, B. O. N.; Cortes, Adriano Mauricio; Dalcin, Lisandro; Calo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop the energy budget equation of the coupled Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard (NSCH) system. We use the NSCH equations to model the dynamics of liquid droplets in a liquid continuum. Buoyancy effects are accounted for through the Boussinesq

  12. Moving Towards Dynamic Ocean Management: How Well Do Modeled Ocean Products Predict Species Distributions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Becker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models are now widely used in conservation and management to predict suitable habitat for protected marine species. The primary sources of dynamic habitat data have been in situ and remotely sensed oceanic variables (both are considered “measured data”, but now ocean models can provide historical estimates and forecast predictions of relevant habitat variables such as temperature, salinity, and mixed layer depth. To assess the performance of modeled ocean data in species distribution models, we present a case study for cetaceans that compares models based on output from a data assimilative implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS to those based on measured data. Specifically, we used seven years of cetacean line-transect survey data collected between 1991 and 2009 to develop predictive habitat-based models of cetacean density for 11 species in the California Current Ecosystem. Two different generalized additive models were compared: one built with a full suite of ROMS output and another built with a full suite of measured data. Model performance was assessed using the percentage of explained deviance, root mean squared error (RMSE, observed to predicted density ratios, and visual inspection of predicted and observed distributions. Predicted distribution patterns were similar for models using ROMS output and measured data, and showed good concordance between observed sightings and model predictions. Quantitative measures of predictive ability were also similar between model types, and RMSE values were almost identical. The overall demonstrated success of the ROMS-based models opens new opportunities for dynamic species management and biodiversity monitoring because ROMS output is available in near real time and can be forecast.

  13. Quantifying Km-scale Hydrological Exchange Flows under Dynamic Flows and Their Influences on River Corridor Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Song, X.; Shuai, P.; Hammond, G. E.; Ren, H.; Zachara, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic exchange flows (HEFs) in rivers play vital roles in watershed ecological and biogeochemical functions due to their strong capacity to attenuate contaminants and process significant quantities of carbon and nutrients. While most of existing HEF studies focus on headwater systems with the assumption of steady-state flow, there is lack of understanding of large-scale HEFs in high-order regulated rivers that experience high-frequency stage fluctuations. The large variability of HEFs is a result of interactions between spatial heterogeneity in hydrogeologic properties and temporal variation in river discharge induced by natural or anthropogenic perturbations. Our 9-year spatially distributed dataset (water elevation, specific conductance, and temperature) combined with mechanistic hydrobiogeochemical simulations have revealed complex spatial and temporal dynamics in km-scale HEFs and their significant impacts on contaminant plume mobility and hyporheic biogeochemical processes along the Hanford Reach. Extended multidirectional flow behaviors of unconfined, river corridor groundwater were observed hundreds of meters inland from the river shore resulting from discharge-dependent HEFs. An appropriately sized modeling domain to capture the impact of regional groundwater flow as well as knowledge of subsurface structures controlling intra-aquifer hydrologic connectivity were essential to realistically model transient storage in this large-scale river corridor. This work showed that both river water and mobile groundwater contaminants could serve as effective tracers of HEFs, thus providing valuable information for evaluating and validating the HEF models. Multimodal residence time distributions with long tails were resulted from the mixture of long and short exchange pathways, which consequently impact the carbon and nutrient cycling within the river corridor. Improved understanding of HEFs using integrated observational and modeling approaches sheds light on

  14. The Intra-Daily Exchange Rate Dynamics and Monetary Policies After the G5 Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Takatoshi Ito

    1986-01-01

    This paper investigates determinants of yen appreciation from the G5 agreement of September 1985 to the end of May, 1986. During that period, four waves of appreciation separated by calm periods are identified. For each wave and calm period, the changes in the yen/dollar exchange rate are decomposed in those taken place in the Tokyo, Europe and New York markets. In addition, correlations among the yen, mark, and pound for each market for each wave are studied. The surprisingly strong effect o...

  15. Seasonal source-sink dynamics at the edge of a species' range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, L Leann; Fuller, Todd K; Sievert, Paul R; Kellogg, Robert L

    2009-06-01

    The roles of dispersal and population dynamics in determining species' range boundaries recently have received theoretical attention but little empirical work. Here we provide data on survival, reproduction, and movement for a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population at a local distributional edge in central Massachusetts (USA). Most juvenile females that apparently exploited anthropogenic resources survived their first winter, whereas those using adjacent natural resources died of starvation. In spring, adult females recolonized natural areas. A life-table model suggests that a population exploiting anthropogenic resources may grow, acting as source to a geographically interlaced sink of opossums using only natural resources, and also providing emigrants for further range expansion to new human-dominated landscapes. In a geographical model, this source-sink dynamic is consistent with the local distribution identified through road-kill surveys. The Virginia opossum's exploitation of human resources likely ameliorates energetically restrictive winters and may explain both their local distribution and their northward expansion in unsuitable natural climatic regimes. Landscape heterogeneity, such as created by urbanization, may result in source-sink dynamics at highly localized scales. Differential fitness and individual dispersal movements within local populations are key to generating regional distributions, and thus species ranges, that exceed expectations.

  16. Seasonal source-sink dynamics at the edge of a species' range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, L.L.; Fuller, T.K.; Sievert, P.R.; Kellogg, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    The roles of dispersal and population dynamics in determining species' range boundaries recently have received theoretical attention but little empirical work. Here we provide data on survival, reproduction, and movement for a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population at a local distributional edge in central Massachusetts (USA). Most juvenile females that apparently exploited anthropogenic resources survived their first winter, whereas those using adjacent natural resources died of starvation. In spring, adult females recolonized natural areas. A life-table model suggests that a population exploiting anthropogenic resources may grow, acting as source to a geographically interlaced sink of opossums using only natural resources, and also providing emigrants for further range expansion to new human-dominated landscapes. In a geographical model, this source-sink dynamic is consistent with the local distribution identified through road-kill surveys. The Virginia opossum's exploitation of human resources likely ameliorates energetically restrictive winters and may explain both their local distribution and their northward expansion in unsuitable natural climatic regimes. Landscape heterogeneity, such as created by urbanization, may result in source-sink dynamics at highly localized scales. Differential fitness and individual dispersal movements within local populations are key to generating regional distributions, and thus species ranges, that exceed expectations. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Population dynamics in changing environments: the case of an eruptive forest pest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausrud, Kyrre; Okland, Bjørn; Skarpaas, Olav; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Erbilgin, Nadir; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2012-02-01

    In recent decades we have seen rapid and co-occurring changes in landscape structure, species distributions and even climate as consequences of human activity. Such changes affect the dynamics of the interaction between major forest pest species, such as bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), and their host trees. Normally breeding mostly in broken or severely stressed spruce; at high population densities some bark beetle species can colonise and kill healthy trees on scales ranging from single trees in a stand to multi-annual landscape-wide outbreaks. In Eurasia, the largest outbreaks are caused by the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (Linnaeus), which is common and shares a wide distribution with its main host, Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.). A large literature is now available, from which this review aims to synthesize research relevant for the population dynamics of I. typographus and co-occurring species under changing conditions. We find that spruce bark beetle population dynamics tend to be metastable, but that mixed-species and age-heterogeneous forests with good site-matching tend to be less susceptible to large-scale outbreaks. While large accumulations of logs should be removed and/or debarked before the next swarming period, intensive removal of all coarse dead wood may be counterproductive, as it reduces the diversity of predators that in some areas may play a role in keeping I. typographus populations below the outbreak threshold, and sanitary logging frequently causes edge effects and root damage, reducing the resistance of remaining trees. It is very hard to predict the outcome of interspecific interactions due to invading beetle species or I. typographus establishing outside its current range, as they can be of varying sign and strength and may fluctuate depending on environmental factors and population phase. Most research indicates that beetle outbreaks will increase in frequency and magnitude as temperature, wind speed and

  18. The Dynamics of Lateral Gene Transfer in Genus Leishmania - A Route for Adaptation and Species Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikeved, Elisabet; Backlund, Anders; Alsmark, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The genome of Leishmania major harbours a comparably high proportion of genes of prokaryote origin, acquired by lateral gene transfer (LGT). Some of these are present in closely related trypanosomatids, while some are detected in Leishmania only. We have evaluated the impact and destiny of LGT in genus Leishmania. To study the dynamics and fate of LGTs we have performed phylogenetic, as well as nucleotide and amino acid composition analyses within orthologous groups of LGTs detected in Leishmania. A set of universal trypanosomatid LGTs was added as a reference group. Both groups of LGTs have, to some extent, ameliorated to resemble the recipient genomes. However, while virtually all of the universal trypanosomatid LGTs are distributed and conserved in the entire genus Leishmania, the LGTs uniquely present in genus Leishmania are more prone to gene loss and display faster rates of evolution. Furthermore, a PCR based approach has been employed to ascertain the presence of a set of twenty LGTs uniquely present in genus Leishmania, and three universal trypanosomatid LGTs, in ten additional strains of Leishmania. Evolutionary rates and predicted expression levels of these LGTs have also been estimated. Ten of the twenty LGTs are distributed and conserved in all species investigated, while the remainder have been subjected to modifications, or undergone pseudogenization, degradation or loss in one or more species. LGTs unique to the genus Leishmania have been acquired after the divergence of Leishmania from the other trypanosomatids, and are evolving faster than their recipient genomes. This implies that LGT in genus Leishmania is a continuous and dynamic process contributing to species differentiation and speciation. This study also highlights the importance of carefully evaluating these dynamic genes, e.g. as LGTs have been suggested as potential drug targets.

  19. The Dynamics of Lateral Gene Transfer in Genus Leishmania - A Route for Adaptation and Species Diversification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Vikeved

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genome of Leishmania major harbours a comparably high proportion of genes of prokaryote origin, acquired by lateral gene transfer (LGT. Some of these are present in closely related trypanosomatids, while some are detected in Leishmania only. We have evaluated the impact and destiny of LGT in genus Leishmania.To study the dynamics and fate of LGTs we have performed phylogenetic, as well as nucleotide and amino acid composition analyses within orthologous groups of LGTs detected in Leishmania. A set of universal trypanosomatid LGTs was added as a reference group. Both groups of LGTs have, to some extent, ameliorated to resemble the recipient genomes. However, while virtually all of the universal trypanosomatid LGTs are distributed and conserved in the entire genus Leishmania, the LGTs uniquely present in genus Leishmania are more prone to gene loss and display faster rates of evolution. Furthermore, a PCR based approach has been employed to ascertain the presence of a set of twenty LGTs uniquely present in genus Leishmania, and three universal trypanosomatid LGTs, in ten additional strains of Leishmania. Evolutionary rates and predicted expression levels of these LGTs have also been estimated. Ten of the twenty LGTs are distributed and conserved in all species investigated, while the remainder have been subjected to modifications, or undergone pseudogenization, degradation or loss in one or more species.LGTs unique to the genus Leishmania have been acquired after the divergence of Leishmania from the other trypanosomatids, and are evolving faster than their recipient genomes. This implies that LGT in genus Leishmania is a continuous and dynamic process contributing to species differentiation and speciation. This study also highlights the importance of carefully evaluating these dynamic genes, e.g. as LGTs have been suggested as potential drug targets.

  20. The Dynamics of Lateral Gene Transfer in Genus Leishmania - A Route for Adaptation and Species Diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikeved, Elisabet; Backlund, Anders; Alsmark, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Background The genome of Leishmania major harbours a comparably high proportion of genes of prokaryote origin, acquired by lateral gene transfer (LGT). Some of these are present in closely related trypanosomatids, while some are detected in Leishmania only. We have evaluated the impact and destiny of LGT in genus Leishmania. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the dynamics and fate of LGTs we have performed phylogenetic, as well as nucleotide and amino acid composition analyses within orthologous groups of LGTs detected in Leishmania. A set of universal trypanosomatid LGTs was added as a reference group. Both groups of LGTs have, to some extent, ameliorated to resemble the recipient genomes. However, while virtually all of the universal trypanosomatid LGTs are distributed and conserved in the entire genus Leishmania, the LGTs uniquely present in genus Leishmania are more prone to gene loss and display faster rates of evolution. Furthermore, a PCR based approach has been employed to ascertain the presence of a set of twenty LGTs uniquely present in genus Leishmania, and three universal trypanosomatid LGTs, in ten additional strains of Leishmania. Evolutionary rates and predicted expression levels of these LGTs have also been estimated. Ten of the twenty LGTs are distributed and conserved in all species investigated, while the remainder have been subjected to modifications, or undergone pseudogenization, degradation or loss in one or more species. Conclusions/Significance LGTs unique to the genus Leishmania have been acquired after the divergence of Leishmania from the other trypanosomatids, and are evolving faster than their recipient genomes. This implies that LGT in genus Leishmania is a continuous and dynamic process contributing to species differentiation and speciation. This study also highlights the importance of carefully evaluating these dynamic genes, e.g. as LGTs have been suggested as potential drug targets. PMID:26730948

  1. Temporal-spatial dynamics in orthoptera in relation to nutrient availability and plant species richness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob J J Hendriks

    Full Text Available Nutrient availability in ecosystems has increased dramatically over the last century. Excess reactive nitrogen deposition is known to negatively impact plant communities, e.g. by changing species composition, biomass and vegetation structure. In contrast, little is known on how such impacts propagate to higher trophic levels. To evaluate how nitrogen deposition affects plants and herbivore communities through time, we used extensive databases of spatially explicit historical records of Dutch plant species and Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets, a group of animals that are particularly susceptible to changes in the C:N ratio of their resources. We use robust methods that deal with the unstandardized nature of historical databases to test whether nitrogen deposition levels and plant richness changes influence the patterns of richness change of Orthoptera, taking into account Orthoptera species functional traits. Our findings show that effects indeed also propagate to higher trophic levels. Differences in functional traits affected the temporal-spatial dynamics of assemblages of Orthoptera. While nitrogen deposition affected plant diversity, contrary to our expectations, we could not find a strong significant effect of food related traits. However we found that species with low habitat specificity, limited dispersal capacity and egg deposition in the soil were more negativly affected by nitrogen deposition levels. Despite the lack of significant effect of plant richness or food related traits on Orthoptera, the negative effects of nitrogen detected within certain trait groups (e.g. groups with limited disperse ability could be related to subtle changes in plant abundance and plant quality. Our results, however, suggest that the changes in soil conditions (where many Orthoptera species lay their eggs or other habitat changes driven by nitrogen have a stronger influence than food related traits. To fully evaluate the negative effects of nitrogen

  2. The dynamics of the Hg + Br2 reaction: elucidation of the reaction mechanism for the Br exchange reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambrina, P G; Menéndez, M; Aoiz, F J

    2017-06-28

    In spite of its importance in the Hg atmospheric chemistry, the dynamics of the Hg + Br 2 → HgBr + Br reaction is poorly understood. In this article, we have carried out a comprehensive study of the reaction mechanism of this reaction by means of quasiclassical trajectories (QCTs) on an existing ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The reaction has a non trivial dynamics, as a consequence of its large endothermicity, the presence of a deep potential well, and the competition between the Br exchange and the collision induced dissociation processes. Our calculations demonstrate that insertion is only relevant at energies just above the reaction threshold and that, at energies above 2.3 eV, HgBr formation typically takes place via a sort of frustrated dissociation. In order to compare directly with the results obtained in extensive cross molecular beam experiments for the homologous reaction with I 2 , angular distributions in the laboratory frame for Hg + Br 2 have been simulated under similar experimental conditions. The lack of agreement at the highest energies considered suggests that either the two reactions have substantially different mechanisms or that calculations on a single PES cannot account for the dynamics at those energies.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of equilibrium configurations of plasmas containing multi-species dusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanhong; Chew, Lock Yue

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrium configurations of dusty plasmas with grains of different sizes, which interact through a screened Coulomb force field and confined by a two-dimensional quadratic potential, are studied using molecular dynamics simulation. The system configuration depends on the sizes, masses and charges of the grain species as well as the screening strength of the background plasma. The consideration of the grain size has established a different equilibrium configuration relative to that of point grains. In the new configurations, grains of different species separate into different shells, with the grains of larger mass and charge located away from the system center, forming a shell that surrounds the grains of smaller mass and charge at the system center. This configuration occurs beyond a critical grain radius, and its structure and size are determined by the competing effects between the inter-grain electrostatic repulsive force, the screening effect of the plasma and the mass-dependent confinement force of the quadratic potential

  4. Genes, communities & invasive species: understanding the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, J J; Thrall, P H; Ericson, L

    2013-08-01

    Reciprocal interactions between hosts and pathogens drive ecological, epidemiological and co-evolutionary trajectories, resulting in complex patterns of diversity at population, species and community levels. Recent results confirm the importance of negative frequency-dependent rather than 'arms-race' processes in the evolution of individual host-pathogen associations. At the community level, complex relationships between species abundance and diversity dampen or alter pathogen impacts. Invasive pathogens challenge these controls reflecting the earliest stages of evolutionary associations (akin to arms-race) where disease effects may be so great that they overwhelm the host's and community's ability to respond. Viewing these different stabilization/destabilization phases as a continuum provides a valuable perspective to assessment of the role of genetics and ecology in the dynamics of both natural and invasive host-pathogen associations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Floral nectary, nectar production dynamics, and floral reproductive isolation among closely related species of Pedicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Nan; Li, Yan; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-02-01

    Floral nectar is thought to be one of the most important rewards that attract pollinators in Pedicularis; however, few studies have examined variation of nectary structure and/or nectar secretion in the genus, particularly among closely related species. Here we investigated nectary morphology, nectar quality, and nectar production dynamics in flowers of Pedicularis section Cyathophora. We found a conical floral nectary at the base of the ovary in species of the rex-thamnophila clade. Stomata were found on the surface of the nectary, and copious starch grains were detected in the nectary tissues. In contrast, a semi-annular nectary was found in flowers of the species of the superba clade. Only a few starch grains were observed in tissues of the semi-annular nectary, and the nectar sugar concentration in these flowers was much lower than that in the flowers of the rex-thamnophila clade. Our results indicate that the floral nectary has experienced considerable morphological, structural, and functional differentiation among closely related species of Pedicularis. This could have affected nectar production, leading to a shift of the pollination mode. Our results also imply that variation of the nectary morphology and nectar production may have played an important role in the speciation of sect. Cyathophora. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. High population variability and source-sink dynamics in a solitary bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Markus; Nilsson, Sven G

    2013-06-01

    Although solitary bees are considered to play key roles in ecosystem functions, surprisingly few studies have explored their population dynamics. We investigated the population dynamics of a rare, declining, solitary bee (Andrena humilis) in a landscape of 80 km2 in southern Sweden from 2003 to 2011. Only one population was persistent throughout all years studied; most likely this population supplied the surrounding landscape with 11 smaller, temporary local populations. Despite stable pollen availability, the size of the persistent population fluctuated dramatically in a two-year cycle over the nine years, with 490-1230 nests in odd-numbered years and 21-48 nests in even-numbered years. These fluctuations were not significantly related to climatic variables or pollen availability. Nineteen colonization and 14 extinction events were recorded. Occupancy decreased with distance from the persistent population and increased with increasing resource (pollen) availability. There were significant positive correlations between the size of the persistent population and patch occupancy and colonization. Colonizations were generally more common in patches closer to the persistent population, whereas extinctions were independent of distance from the persistent population. Our results highlight the complex population dynamics that exist for this solitary bee species, which could be due to source-sink dynamics, a prolonged diapause, or can represent a bet-hedging strategy to avoid natural enemies and survive in small habitat patches. If large fluctuations in solitary bee populations prove to be widespread, it will have important implications for interpreting ecological relationships, bee conservation, and pollination.

  7. An Autoethnographic Exchange: Exploring the Dynamics of Selves as Adult Learners and Adult Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.; Delgado, Antonio; Seepersad, Rehana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores four former doctoral students' perceptions about their selves as adult learners and adult educators through the use of autoethnography and reflective dialogue. The dynamics between the two selves were explored to identify emerging themes and implications for practice in adult education. The duality of their roles as learners…

  8. Dynamics of urokinase receptor interaction with Peptide antagonists studied by amide hydrogen exchange and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Danø, Keld

    2004-01-01

    Using amide hydrogen exchange combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we have in this study determined the number of amide hydrogens on several peptides that become solvent-inaccessible as a result of their high-affinity interaction with the urokinase-type plasminogen activator...... receptor (uPAR). These experiments reveal that at least six out of eight amide hydrogens in a synthetic nine-mer peptide antagonist (AE105) become sequestered upon engagement in uPAR binding. Various uPAR mutants with decreased affinity for this peptide antagonist gave similar results, thereby indicating...... that deletion of the favorable interactions involving the side chains of these residues in uPAR does not affect the number of hydrogen bonds established by the main chain of the peptide ligand. The isolated growth factor-like domain (GFD) of the cognate serine protease ligand for uPAR showed 11 protected amide...

  9. Evaluation of unrestrained replica-exchange simulations using dynamic walkers in temperature space for protein structure refinement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Olson

    Full Text Available A central problem of computational structural biology is the refinement of modeled protein structures taken from either comparative modeling or knowledge-based methods. Simulations are commonly used to achieve higher resolution of the structures at the all-atom level, yet methodologies that consistently yield accurate results remain elusive. In this work, we provide an assessment of an adaptive temperature-based replica exchange simulation method where the temperature clients dynamically walk in temperature space to enrich their population and exchanges near steep energetic barriers. This approach is compared to earlier work of applying the conventional method of static temperature clients to refine a dataset of conformational decoys. Our results show that, while an adaptive method has many theoretical advantages over a static distribution of client temperatures, only limited improvement was gained from this strategy in excursions of the downhill refinement regime leading to an increase in the fraction of native contacts. To illustrate the sampling differences between the two simulation methods, energy landscapes are presented along with their temperature client profiles.

  10. Algorithms and programs for solution of static and dynamic characteristics of counterflow heat exchangers with dissociating coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitej, N.V.; Sharovarov, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    The method of estimation of counterflow heat exchanger characteristics is presented. Mathematical description of the processes is presented by the mass, energy and pulse conservation equations for both coolants and energy conservation equation for the wall which devides them. In the presence of chemical reactions the system is supplemented by equations, characterizing the kinetics of their progress. The methods of numerical solution of static and dynamic problems have been chosen, and the computer programs on the Fortran language have been developed. The schemes of solution of both problems are so constructed, that the conservation equations are placed in the main program, and such characteristics of the coolants as properties, heat transfer and friction coefficients, the mechanism of chemical reaction are concentrated in the subprogram unit. This allows to create the single method of solution with the flow of single-phase and two-phase coolants of abovecritical and supercritical paramters. The evaluation results of three heat exchangers are given: with heating of N 2 O 4 gas phase by heat of flue gas; with cooling of N 2 O 4 supercritical parameters by water; regenerator on N 2 O 4

  11. Investigation of solvent dynamic effects on the electron self-exchange in two thianthrene couples with large inner reorganization energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choto, P; Rasmussen, K; Grampp, G

    2015-02-07

    The large structural difference between thianthrene radical cations and their neutral parent molecules can possibly affect their electron self-exchange reactions. Before this can be investigated experimentally, it is necessary to first understand the influence of the solvent on such electron transfer reactions. To achieve this, the rate constants of the electron self-exchange reactions of the Th˙(+)/Th and MTh˙(+)/MTh (Th = thianthrene, MTh = 2,3,7,8-tetramethoxythianthrene) couples were investigated by means of ESR line broadening experiments in different solvents at 293 K. The diffusion corrected rate constants cover a range of 7.2 × 10(8)≤ket≤ 44 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) for Th˙(+)/Th and 2.0 × 10(8)≤ket≤ 11.6 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) for MTh˙(+)/MTh, respectively. The results were analysed within the framework of the Marcus Theory and the characteristic reorganization energy, λ, was determined. Both couples clearly show a solvent dynamic effect controlled by the longitudinal relaxation time τL of the solvents. However, the influence of the structural changes, in terms of λ, was smaller than expected at room temperature.

  12. Slug-flow dynamics with phase change heat transfer in compact heat exchangers with oblique wavy walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kenichi; Kinoshita, Hidenori; Matsushita, Ryo; Suzuki, Yuji

    2017-11-01

    With abundance of low-temperature geothermal energy source, small-scale binary-cycle power generation system has gained renewed attention. Although heat exchangers play a dominant role in thermal efficiency and the system size, the optimum design strategy has not been established due to complex flow phenomena and the lack of versatile heat transfer models. In the present study, the concept of oblique wavy walls, with which high j/f factor is achieved by strong secondary flows in single-phase system, is extended to two-phase exchangers. The present analyses are based on evaporation model coupled to a VOF technique, and a train of isolated bubbles is generated under the controlled inlet quality. R245fa is adopted as a low boiling-point working media, and two types of channels are considered with a hydraulic diameter of 4 mm: (i) a straight circular pipe and (ii) a duct with oblique wavy walls. The focus is on slug-flow dynamics with evaporation under small capillary but moderate Weber numbers, where the inertial effect as well as the surface tension is of significance. A possible direction of the change in thermo-physical properties is explored by assuming varied thermal conductivity. Effects of the vortical motions on evaporative heat transfer are highlighted. This work has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Japan.

  13. Semiconducting double-dot exchange-only qubit dynamics in the presence of magnetic and charge noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, E.; Fanciulli, M.; De Michielis, M.

    2018-06-01

    The effects of magnetic and charge noises on the dynamical evolution of the double-dot exchange-only qubit (DEOQ) is theoretically investigated. The DEOQ consisting of three electrons arranged in an electrostatically defined double quantum dot deserves special interest in quantum computation applications. Its advantages are in terms of fabrication, control and manipulation in view of implementation of fast single and two-qubit operations through only electrical tuning. The presence of the environmental noise due to nuclear spins and charge traps, in addition to fluctuations in the applied magnetic field and charge fluctuations on the electrostatic gates adopted to confine the electrons, is taken into account including random magnetic field and random coupling terms in the Hamiltonian. The behavior of the return probability as a function of time for initial conditions of interest is presented. Moreover, through an envelope-fitting procedure on the return probabilities, coherence times are extracted when model parameters take values achievable experimentally in semiconducting devices.

  14. Dynamics of liquids, molecules, and proteins measured with ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo chemical exchange spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, M D

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of molecular systems undergo fast structural changes under thermal equilibrium conditions. Such transformations are involved in a vast array of chemical problems. Experimentally measuring equilibrium dynamics is a challenging problem that is at the forefront of chemical research. This review describes ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo chemical exchange experiments and applies them to several types of molecular systems. The formation and dissociation of organic solute-solvent complexes are directly observed. The dissociation times of 13 complexes, ranging from 4 ps to 140 ps, are shown to obey a relationship that depends on the complex's formation enthalpy. The rate of rotational gauche-trans isomerization around a carbon-carbon single bond is determined for a substituted ethane at room temperature in a low viscosity solvent. The results are used to obtain an approximate isomerization rate for ethane. Finally, the time dependence of a well-defined single structural transformation of a protein is measured.

  15. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  16. Impact of unexpected events, shocking news, and rumors on foreign exchange market dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mark; Suleman, Omer; Williams, Stacy; Howison, Sam; Johnson, Neil F.

    2008-04-01

    The dynamical response of a population of interconnected objects, when exposed to external perturbations, is of great interest to physicists working on complex systems. Here we focus on human systems, by analyzing the dynamical response of the world’s financial community to various types of unexpected events—including the 9/11 terrorist attacks as they unfolded on a minute-by-minute basis. For the unfolding events of 9/11, our results show that there was a gradual collective understanding of what was happening, rather than an immediate realization. More generally, we find that for news items which are not simple economic statements—and hence whose implications for the market are not immediately obvious—there are periods of collective discovery during which opinions seem to vary in a remarkably synchronized way.

  17. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  18. The AmP project: Comparing species on the basis of dynamic energy budget parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo M Marques

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed new methods for parameter estimation-in-context and, with the help of 125 authors, built the AmP (Add-my-Pet database of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB models, parameters and referenced underlying data for animals, where each species constitutes one database entry. The combination of DEB parameters covers all aspects of energetics throughout the full organism's life cycle, from the start of embryo development to death by aging. The species-specific parameter values capture biodiversity and can now, for the first time, be compared between animals species. An important insight brought by the AmP project is the classification of animal energetics according to a family of related DEB models that is structured on the basis of the mode of metabolic acceleration, which links up with the development of larval stages. We discuss the evolution of metabolism in this context, among animals in general, and ray-finned fish, mollusks and crustaceans in particular. New DEBtool code for estimating DEB parameters from data has been written. AmPtool code for analyzing patterns in parameter values has also been created. A new web-interface supports multiple ways to visualize data, parameters, and implied properties from the entire collection as well as on an entry by entry basis. The DEB models proved to fit data well, the median relative error is only 0.07, for the 1035 animal species at 2018/03/12, including some extinct ones, from all large phyla and all chordate orders, spanning a range of body masses of 16 orders of magnitude. This study is a first step to include evolutionary aspects into parameter estimation, allowing to infer properties of species for which very little is known.

  19. Could beaked whales get the bends? Effect of diving behaviour and physiology on modelled gas exchange for three species: Ziphius cavirostris, Mesoplodon densirostris and Hyperoodon ampullatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Sascha K; Baird, Robin W; Fahlman, Andreas

    2009-07-31

    A mathematical model, based on current knowledge of gas exchange and physiology of marine mammals, was used to predict blood and tissue tension N2 (P(N2)) using field data from three beaked whale species: northern bottlenose whales, Cuvier's beaked whales, and Blainville's beaked whales. The objective was to determine if physiology (body mass, diving lung volume, dive response) or dive behaviour (dive depth and duration, changes in ascent rate, diel behaviour) would lead to differences in P(N2) levels and thereby decompression sickness (DCS) risk between species. Diving lung volume and extent of the dive response had a large effect on end-dive P(N2). The dive profile had a larger influence on end-dive P(N2) than body mass differences between species. Despite diel changes in dive behaviour, P(N2) levels showed no consistent trend. Model output suggested that all three species live with tissue P(N2) levels that would cause a significant proportion of DCS cases in terrestrial mammals. Cuvier's beaked whale diving behaviour appears to put them at higher risk than the other species, which may explain their prevalence in strandings after the use of mid-frequency sonar.

  20. Leaf gas exchange, fv/fm ratio, ion content and growth conditions of the two moringa species under magnetic water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.M.; Alharby, H.F.; Hajar, A.; Hakeem, K.R.

    2017-01-01

    The current greenhouse experiment investigates the role of magnetic water on the two Moringa species (Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina). Both species were exposed to the magnetic field (30 mT). The magnetic water increased the plant height, leaf number, leaflet number, and internode distances in both the species, respectively. Relative water content (RWC) and leaf area in both the species showed changes under magnetic water treatment. The results showed in magnetic water treatment, the leaf gas exchange parameters such as assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were increased. Similarly, Photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Chl b, Chl (a+b), Carotenoids), photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE) were also increased significantly. Magnetized water had also significant effects on the maximal efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm). Our study suggested that magnetic water treatment could be used as an environment-friendly technology for improving the growth and physiology of Moringa species. In addition, this technology could be further incorporated into the traditional methods of agriculture for the improvement of crop plants, particularly in the arid and sub-arid areas of the world. (author)

  1. Macroevolutionary dynamics and historical biogeography of primate diversification inferred from a species supermatrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Springer

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and patterns of biogeographic descent among primate species are both complex and contentious. Here, we generate a robust molecular phylogeny for 70 primate genera and 367 primate species based on a concatenation of 69 nuclear gene segments and ten mitochondrial gene sequences, most of which were extracted from GenBank. Relaxed clock analyses of divergence times with 14 fossil-calibrated nodes suggest that living Primates last shared a common ancestor 71-63 Ma, and that divergences within both Strepsirrhini and Haplorhini are entirely post-Cretaceous. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction of non-avian dinosaurs played an important role in the diversification of placental mammals. Previous queries into primate historical biogeography have suggested Africa, Asia, Europe, or North America as the ancestral area of crown primates, but were based on methods that were coopted from phylogeny reconstruction. By contrast, we analyzed our molecular phylogeny with two methods that were developed explicitly for ancestral area reconstruction, and find support for the hypothesis that the most recent common ancestor of living Primates resided in Asia. Analyses of primate macroevolutionary dynamics provide support for a diversification rate increase in the late Miocene, possibly in response to elevated global mean temperatures, and are consistent with the fossil record. By contrast, diversification analyses failed to detect evidence for rate-shift changes near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary even though the fossil record provides clear evidence for a major turnover event ("Grande Coupure" at this time. Our results highlight the power and limitations of inferring diversification dynamics from molecular phylogenies, as well as the sensitivity of diversification analyses to different species concepts.

  2. Constraints on genome dynamics revealed from gene distribution among the Ralstonia solanacearum species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Lefeuvre

    Full Text Available Because it is suspected that gene content may partly explain host adaptation and ecology of pathogenic bacteria, it is important to study factors affecting genome composition and its evolution. While recent genomic advances have revealed extremely large pan-genomes for some bacterial species, it remains difficult to predict to what extent gene pool is accessible within or transferable between populations. As genomes bear imprints of the history of the organisms, gene distribution pattern analyses should provide insights into the forces and factors at play in the shaping and maintaining of bacterial genomes. In this study, we revisited the data obtained from a previous CGH microarrays analysis in order to assess the genomic plasticity of the R. solanacearum species complex. Gene distribution analyses demonstrated the remarkably dispersed genome of R. solanacearum with more than half of the genes being accessory. From the reconstruction of the ancestral genomes compositions, we were able to infer the number of gene gain and loss events along the phylogeny. Analyses of gene movement patterns reveal that factors associated with gene function, genomic localization and ecology delineate gene flow patterns. While the chromosome displayed lower rates of movement, the megaplasmid was clearly associated with hot-spots of gene gain and loss. Gene function was also confirmed to be an essential factor in gene gain and loss dynamics with significant differences in movement patterns between different COG categories. Finally, analyses of gene distribution highlighted possible highways of horizontal gene transfer. Due to sampling and design bias, we can only speculate on factors at play in this gene movement dynamic. Further studies examining precise conditions that favor gene transfer would provide invaluable insights in the fate of bacteria, species delineation and the emergence of successful pathogens.

  3. Novel Wireless Sensor System for Dynamic Characterization of Borehole Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo García-Olcina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The design and field test of a novel sensor system based in autonomous wireless sensors to measure the temperature of the heat transfer fluid along a borehole heat exchanger (BHE is presented. The system, by means of two specials valves, inserts and extracts miniaturized wireless sensors inside the pipes of the borehole, which are carried by the thermal fluid. Each sensor is embedded in a small sphere of just 25 mm diameter and 8 gr weight, containing a transceiver, a microcontroller, a temperature sensor and a power supply. A wireless data processing unit transmits to the sensors the acquisition configuration before the measurements, and also downloads the temperature data measured by the sensor along its way through the BHE U-tube. This sensor system is intended to improve the conventional thermal response test (TRT and it allows the collection of information about the thermal characteristics of the geological structure of subsurface and its influence in borehole thermal behaviour, which in turn, facilitates the implementation of TRTs in a more cost-effective and reliable way.

  4. Geometric optimization of cross-flow heat exchanger based on dynamic controllability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alotaibi Sorour

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation of heat exchangers and other thermal equipments in the face of variable loads is usually controlled by manipulating inlet fluid temperatures or mass flow rates, where the controlled variable is usually one of the output temperatures. The aim of this work is to optimize the geometry of a tube with internal flow of water and an external cross-flow of air, based on its controllability characteristics. Controllability is a useful concept both from theoretical and practical perspective since it tells us if a particular output can be controlled by a particular input. This concept can also provide us with information about the easiest operating condition to control a particular output. A transient model of a tube in cross-flow is developed, where an implicit formulation is used for transient numerical solutions. The aspect ratio of the tube is optimized, subject to volume constraints, based on the optimum operation in terms of controllability. The reported optimized aspect ratio, water mass flow rate and controllability are studied for deferent external properties of the tube.

  5. Meson-exchange Hamiltonian for NN scattering and isobar-nucleus dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.S.H.

    1983-01-01

    We have constructed a meson-exchange Hamiltonian for π, N, Δ and N* for NN scattering up to 2 GeV. The model gives good descriptions of the Arndt phase-shifts up to 1 GeV in both the T = 0 and T = 1 channels. The calculated total cross sections sigma/sup tot/, Δsigma/sub L//sup tot/ and Δsigma/sub T//sup tot/ agree to a large extent with the data in both the magnitudes and the signs. The present calculation gives a sound starting point for future refinements. Among them, a large-scale three-body calculation could be needed to investigate the energy dependence of the effect due to NN interactions in the πNN channel. Until this effect is carefully studied, it is premature to extract information on dibaryon resonances, if they exist, from the data. Our model also gives definite predictions of np scattering. Precise np polarization measurements at higher energy > 0.6 GeV are needed to have a complete test of our model. Finally, the present model Hamiltonian can be used to carry our many-body calculations

  6. Magnetization reversal dynamics in exchange-coupled NiO - Co bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarero, J.; Pennec, Y.; Bonfim, M.; Vogel, J.; Pizzini, S.; Fontaine, A.; Cartier, M.; Fettar, F.; Dieny, B.

    2001-01-01

    We performed a detailed study of the magnetization reversal in polycrystalline exchange-coupled NiO/Co bilayers over 10 decades of field sweep rate dH/dt for different NiO and Co thicknesses. For all sweep rates and thicknesses, the symmetry of the hysteresis loops shows that an identical pinning strength has to be overcome in both directions of the reversal. At low dH/dt the reversal is governed by domain wall displacement while domain nucleation is dominant at higher ones. The dH/dt at which the transition between the two regimes takes place depends on the relative thickness of the NiO and Co layers. It increases (decreases) when the Co (NiO) thickness is increased. Experimentally, it was found that the energy barrier varies linearly with the square root of the area corresponding to the activation (Barkhausen) volume which is consistent with a random walk model of the coupling between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic layers. The results can be explained in terms of a thermally activated switching of the NiO magnetization dragged by the Co reversal. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  7. Novel wireless sensor system for dynamic characterization of borehole heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Julio; Montero, Álvaro; Torres, José; Soret, Jesús; Martínez, Guillermo; García-Olcina, Raimundo

    2011-01-01

    The design and field test of a novel sensor system based in autonomous wireless sensors to measure the temperature of the heat transfer fluid along a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is presented. The system, by means of two special valves, inserts and extracts miniaturized wireless sensors inside the pipes of the borehole, which are carried by the thermal fluid. Each sensor is embedded in a small sphere of just 25 mm diameter and 8 gr weight, containing a transceiver, a microcontroller, a temperature sensor and a power supply. A wireless data processing unit transmits to the sensors the acquisition configuration before the measurements, and also downloads the temperature data measured by the sensor along its way through the BHE U-tube. This sensor system is intended to improve the conventional thermal response test (TRT) and it allows the collection of information about the thermal characteristics of the geological structure of subsurface and its influence in borehole thermal behaviour, which in turn, facilitates the implementation of TRTs in a more cost-effective and reliable way.

  8. Limitations of heterogeneous models of liquid dynamics: very slow rate exchange in the excess wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Subarna; Richert, Ranko

    2014-02-07

    For several molecular glass formers, the nonlinear dielectric effects (NDE's) are investigated for the so-called excess wing regime, i.e., for the relatively high frequencies between 10(2) and 10(7) times the peak loss frequency. It is found that significant nonlinear behavior persists across the entire frequency window of this study, and that its magnitude traces the temperature dependence of the activation energy. A time resolved measurement of the dielectric loss at fields up to 480 kV/cm across tens of thousands of periods reveals that it takes an unexpectedly long time for the steady state NDE to develop. For various materials and at different temperatures and frequencies, it is found that the average structural relaxation with time scale τα governs the equilibration of these fast modes that are associated with time constants τ which are up to 10(7) times shorter than τα. It is argued that true indicators of structural relaxation (such as rate exchange and aging) of these fast modes are slaved to macroscopic softening on the time scale of τα, and thus many orders of magnitude slower than the time constant of the mode itself.

  9. The importance of incorporating functional habitats into conservation planning for highly mobile species in dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Matthew H; Terauds, Aleks; Tulloch, Ayesha; Bell, Phil; Stojanovic, Dejan; Heinsohn, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of mobile species in dynamic systems can vary greatly over time and space. Estimating their population size and geographic range can be problematic and affect the accuracy of conservation assessments. Scarce data on mobile species and the resources they need can also limit the type of analytical approaches available to derive such estimates. We quantified change in availability and use of key ecological resources required for breeding for a critically endangered nomadic habitat specialist, the Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor). We compared estimates of occupied habitat derived from dynamic presence-background (i.e., presence-only data) climatic models with estimates derived from dynamic occupancy models that included a direct measure of food availability. We then compared estimates that incorporate fine-resolution spatial data on the availability of key ecological resources (i.e., functional habitats) with more common approaches that focus on broader climatic suitability or vegetation cover (due to the absence of fine-resolution data). The occupancy models produced significantly (P increase or decrease in the area of one functional habitat (foraging or nesting) did not necessarily correspond to an increase or decrease in the other. Thus, an increase in the extent of occupied area may not equate to improved habitat quality or function. We argue these patterns are typical for mobile resource specialists but often go unnoticed because of limited data over relevant spatial and temporal scales and lack of spatial data on the availability of key resources. Understanding changes in the relative availability of functional habitats is crucial to informing conservation planning and accurately assessing extinction risk for mobile resource specialists. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Microbial Species Diversity, Community Dynamics, and Metabolite Kinetics of Water Kefir Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David

    2014-01-01

    Water kefir is a sour, alcoholic, and fruity fermented beverage of which the fermentation is started with water kefir grains. These water kefir grains consist of polysaccharide and contain the microorganisms responsible for the water kefir fermentation. In this work, a water kefir fermentation process was followed as a function of time during 192 h to unravel the community dynamics, the species diversity, and the kinetics of substrate consumption and metabolite production. The majority of the water kefir ecosystem was found to be present on the water kefir grains. The most important microbial species present were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus harbinensis, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum/crudilactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Dekkera bruxellensis. The microbial species diversities in the water kefir liquor and on the water kefir grains were similar and remained stable during the whole fermentation process. The major substrate, sucrose, was completely converted after 24 h of fermentation, which coincided with the production of the major part of the water kefir grain polysaccharide. The main metabolites of the fermentation were ethanol and lactic acid. Glycerol, acetic acid, and mannitol were produced in low concentrations. The major part of these metabolites was produced during the first 72 h of fermentation, during which the pH decreased from 4.26 to 3.45. The most prevalent volatile aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl decanoate, which might be of significance with respect to the aroma of the end product. PMID:24532061

  11. Flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species of sugar beet and possibilities their control (Transylvania-Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muresanu Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the obtained results regarding the flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species in sugar beet crops in Transylvania (the central part of Romania. In order to limit the appearance of mentioned pests to the economic threshold, Trichogramma spp. were obtained in laboratory conditions at ARDS Turda and SBRDS Brasov. The experiments were conducted in production areas on 0,5 ha minimum for each variant. The variants included four Trichogramma species: T. dendrolimi, T. evanescens, T. maidis, T. buesi that were manually released three times: the first release, 10.000 individuals/ha, the second, 120.000 individuals/ha and the third, 150.000 individuals/ha. The first release was performed at the beginning of the Lepidoptera flight, the second at the maximum flight and the third 5 days after the second. The efficiency of T. maidis was between 75-90%, of T. evanescens, it was between 73-88%, of T. dendrolimi, it was between 85-92% and of T. buesi 79-82%. Among the Trichogramma species utilized, T. dendrolimi and T. evanescens were very efficient in the reduction of mentioned pests. Root production was significantly higher compared to the untreated variant, 4,0-4,7 t/ha more were recorded after the application of biological treatments with T. evanescens and T. dendrolimi.

  12. Difference between the vocalizations of two sister species of pigeons explained in dynamical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R Gogui; Kopuchian, Cecilia; Amador, Ana; Suarez, Maria de Los Angeles; Tubaro, Pablo L; Mindlin, Gabriel B

    2016-05-01

    Vocal communication is an unique example, where the nonlinear nature of the periphery can give rise to complex sounds even when driven by simple neural instructions. In this work we studied the case of two close-related bird species, Patagioenas maculosa and Patagioenas picazuro, whose vocalizations differ only in the timbre. The temporal modulation of the fundamental frequency is similar in both cases, differing only in the existence of sidebands around the fundamental frequency in the P. maculosa. We tested the hypothesis that the qualitative difference between these vocalizations lies in the nonlinear nature of the syrinx. In particular, we propose that the roughness of maculosa's vocalizations is due to an asymmetry between the right and left vibratory membranes, whose nonlinear dynamics generate the sound. To test the hypothesis, we generated a biomechanical model for vocal production with an asymmetric parameter Q with which we can control the level of asymmetry between these membranes. Using this model we generated synthetic vocalizations with the principal acoustic features of both species. In addition, we confirmed the anatomical predictions by making post mortem inspection of the syrinxes, showing that the species with tonal song (picazuro) has a more symmetrical pair of membranes compared to maculosa.

  13. Microbial species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of water kefir fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David; De Vuyst, Luc

    2014-04-01

    Water kefir is a sour, alcoholic, and fruity fermented beverage of which the fermentation is started with water kefir grains. These water kefir grains consist of polysaccharide and contain the microorganisms responsible for the water kefir fermentation. In this work, a water kefir fermentation process was followed as a function of time during 192 h to unravel the community dynamics, the species diversity, and the kinetics of substrate consumption and metabolite production. The majority of the water kefir ecosystem was found to be present on the water kefir grains. The most important microbial species present were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus harbinensis, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum/crudilactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Dekkera bruxellensis. The microbial species diversities in the water kefir liquor and on the water kefir grains were similar and remained stable during the whole fermentation process. The major substrate, sucrose, was completely converted after 24 h of fermentation, which coincided with the production of the major part of the water kefir grain polysaccharide. The main metabolites of the fermentation were ethanol and lactic acid. Glycerol, acetic acid, and mannitol were produced in low concentrations. The major part of these metabolites was produced during the first 72 h of fermentation, during which the pH decreased from 4.26 to 3.45. The most prevalent volatile aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl decanoate, which might be of significance with respect to the aroma of the end product.

  14. Mass exchange and angular distribution in a dynamical treatment of heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, C.; Hofmann, H.

    1977-01-01

    One presents a first numerical computation of the absolute value of the double differential cross section as a function of mass asymmetry and detection angle including a dynamical coupling between relative motion and mass asymmetry. One applies it to the 63 Cu+ 197 Au experiment at two different energies. The equation of motion used is a Fokker-Planck equation for distribution function in classical phase space. The coefficients needed are those known from classical model calculations, besides a friction coefficient introduced for the mass asymmetry degree. Encouraging agreement between the calculated and experimental curves is found

  15. Applications of hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX for the characterization of conformational dynamics in light-activated photoreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eLindner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of optogenetic tools is inherently linked to the understanding of photoreceptor function. Structural analysis of elements involved in signal integration in individual sensor domains provides an initial idea of their mode of operation, but understanding how local structural rearrangements eventually affect signal transmission to output domains requires inclusion of the effector regions in the characterization. However, the dynamic nature of these assemblies renders their structural analysis challenging and therefore a combination of high- and low-resolution techniques is required to appreciate functional aspects of photoreceptors.This review focuses on the potential of Hydrogen-Deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS for complementing the structural characterization of photoreceptors. In this respect, the ability of HDX-MS to provide information on the conformational dynamics and the possibility to address multiple functionally relevant states in solution render this methodology ideally suitable. We highlight recent examples demonstrating the potential of HDX-MS and discuss how these results can help to improve existing optogenetic systems or guide the design of novel optogenetic tools.

  16. Process Stability Identification Through Dynamic Study of Single-bed Ammonia Reactor with Feed-Effluent Heat Exchanger (FEHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Tri Partono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In ammonia reactor system, a feed-effluent heat exchanger (FEHE is typically installed to utilize reaction-generated heat to heat the reactor’s feed. Utilizing energy from exothermic reaction to the incoming feed stream is often called “autothermic operation”. Despite the advantage of FEHE, there is a risk of utilizing FEHE in a reactor system such as instability of process temperature or known as hysteresis. Hysteresis phenomena in chemical process could cause operational problems, for example it could damage the integrity of the equipment’s material. This paper aims to evaluate the dynamic behavior of a single-bed ammonia reactor with FEHE, particularly to propose a way to prevent instability within the system. The dynamic simulation of the single-bed ammonia reactor with FEHE was performed with Aspen HYSYS v8.8. The result of the simulation result shows that hysteresis phenomenon in the ammonia reactor system occurs when the feed’s temperature is below a certain value. If the feed temperature reaches that value, the temperature of the reactor’s outlet oscillates. One of the solution to keep the feed temperature above that critical value is by installing a trim heater within the system. Based on the simulation, trim heater installation within the system is able to prevent hysteresis in the system evaluated.

  17. Magnetization dynamics of perpendicular exchange-biased (Pt/Co)-Pt-IrMn multilayers studied by MOKE microscopy and magnetometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czapkiewicz, M.; Stobiecki, T.; Rak, R.; Zoladz, M.; Mietniowski, P. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Dijken, S. van [SFI Trinity Nanoscience Laboratory, Physics Department, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics of the magnetization reversal process in perpendicularly biased [20 Aa Pt/5 Aa Co]{sub 3}/t Aa Pt/100 Aa IrMn/20 Aa Pt multilayers with different Pt insertion layer thickness (0 Aa{<=}t{<=}12 Aa) is studied. The insertion of 1 Aa thick Pt enhances the exchange bias field (H{sub ex}) and for t>3 Aa H{sub ex} decreases exponentially with increasing Pt layer thickness. We show by magnetization relaxation measurements and direct observation of magnetic domains that magnetization reversal takes place by the nucleation of isolated cylindrical domains with a different nucleation site density in the forward and backward branches of the hysteresis loop. All the results were quantitatively analyzed using the Fatuzzo model for the dynamics of domain reversal processes. The activation energies for magnetization reversal by domain nucleation and domain propagation were determined. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. De novo transcriptome analysis of pneumatophores (modified roots in the true mangrove species Avicennia marina and identification of the genes related to root gas exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushothaman Natarajan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves plants which grow in estuaries naturally tolerate extreme conditions of high salinity (90 ppt and high light intensity. Avicennia marina is a true mangrove tree species with physiological adaptations like modified root system (pneumatophores and salt excretion glands in leaves as its one of the unique features to consider. The pneumatophores are a special type of roots with negative geotropism that project above the water surface or the level of flooded soils [1]. In contact with air these roots develop lenticels, which improve gas exchange between roots and environment [2]. In swamps and wetlands the presence of pneumatophores facilitates oxygen diffusion through the tissues, maintaining levels adequate for cellular respiration [3]. Objective of this study was to perform the whole transcriptome analysis of pneumatophore tissue of A. marina by Illumina sequencing and to identify putative genes involved in process of root gas exchange. We generated 19.73 million of paired-end reads and assembled into 86,856 unigenes with an average length of 772 bp. Further, annotation, tissue specific gene expression and genes related to root gas exchange will be presented.

  19. Spin-wave dynamics and exchange interactions in multiferroic NdFe3(BO3)4 explored by inelastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosovsky, I. V.; Ovsyanikov, A. K.; Aristov, D. N.; Matveeva, P. G.; Mukhin, A. A.; Boehm, M.; Regnault, L.-P.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic excitations and exchange interactions in multiferroic NdFe3(BO3)4 were studied by inelastic neutron scattering in the phase with commensurate antiferromagnetic structure. The observed spectra were analyzed in the frame of the linear spin-wave theory. It was shown that only the model, which includes the exchange interactions within eight coordination spheres, describes satisfactorily all observed dispersion curves. The calculation showed that the spin-wave dynamics is governed by the strongest antiferromagnetic intra-chain interaction and three almost the same inter-chain interactions. Other interactions, including ferromagnetic exchange, appeared to be insignificant. The overall energy balance of the antiferromagnetic inter-chain exchange interactions, which couple the moments from the adjacent ferromagnetic layers as well as within a layer, stabilizes ferromagnetic arrangement in the latter. It demonstrates that the pathway geometry plays a crucial role in forming of the magnetic structure.

  20. The mass transfer dynamics of gaseous methyl-iodide adsorption by silver-exchanged sodium mordenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1994-12-01

    The adsorption of methyl iodide onto hydrogen-reduced silver-exchange mordenite was studied. The removal of organic iodides from off-gas streams is an important step in controlling the release of radioactive iodine to the environment during the treatment of radioactive wastes or the processing of some irradiated materials. Nine well accepted mass transfer models were evaluated for their ability to adequately explain the observed CH 3 I uptake behavior onto the Ag-Z. Linear and multidimensional regression techniques were utilized in the estimation of the diffusion constants and other model parameters which then permitted the selection of an appropriate mass transfer model. To date, only bulk loading data exist for the adsorption of CH 3 I onto Ag-Z. Hence this is believed to be the first study to quantify the controlling mass transfer mechanisms of this process. It can be concluded from the analysis of the experimental data obtained by the single-pellet type experiments and for the process conditions used in this study that the overall mass transfer rate associated with the adsorption of CH 3 I onto Ag-Z is affected by both micropore and macropore diffusion. The macropore diffusion rate was significantly faster than the micropore diffusion, resulting in a two-step adsorption behavior which was adequately modeled by a bimodal pore distribution model. The micropore diffusivity was determined to be on the order of 2 x 10 -14 cm 2 /s. The system was also shown to be isothermal under all conditions of this study. Two other conclusions were also obtained. First, the gas film resistance to mass transfer for the 1/16 and 1/8-in.-diam Ag-Z pellets can be ignored under the conditions used in this study. Finally, it was shown that by decreasing the water vapor content of the feed gas, the chemical reaction rate appeared to become the initial rate-limiting factor for the mass transfer. 75 refs

  1. Expression Pattern and Localization Dynamics of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor RIC8 during Mouse Oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merly Saare

    Full Text Available Targeting of G proteins to the cell cortex and their activation is one of the triggers of both asymmetric and symmetric cell division. Resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (RIC8, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, activates a certain subgroup of G protein α-subunits in a receptor independent manner. RIC8 controls the asymmetric cell division in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, and symmetric cell division in cultured mammalian cells, where it regulates the mitotic spindle orientation. Although intensely studied in mitosis, the function of RIC8 in mammalian meiosis has remained unknown. Here we demonstrate that the expression and subcellular localization of RIC8 changes profoundly during mouse oogenesis. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that RIC8 expression is dependent on oocyte growth and cell cycle phase. During oocyte growth, RIC8 is abundantly present in cytoplasm of oocytes at primordial, primary and secondary preantral follicle stages. Later, upon oocyte maturation RIC8 also populates the germinal vesicle, its localization becomes cell cycle dependent, and it associates with chromatin and the meiotic spindle. After fertilization, RIC8 protein converges to the pronuclei and is also detectable at high levels in the nucleolus precursor bodies of both maternal and paternal pronucleus. During first cleavage of zygote RIC8 localizes in the mitotic spindle and cell cortex of forming blastomeres. In addition, we demonstrate that RIC8 co-localizes with its interaction partners Gαi1/2:GDP and LGN in meiotic/mitotic spindle, cell cortex and polar bodies of maturing oocytes and zygotes. Downregulation of Ric8 by siRNA leads to interferred translocation of Gαi1/2 to cortical region of maturing oocytes and reduction of its levels. RIC8 is also expressed at high level in female reproductive organs e.g. oviduct. Therefore we suggest a regulatory function for RIC8 in mammalian gametogenesis and fertility.

  2. Dynamical behaviors of inter-out-of-equilibrium state intervals in Korean futures exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, SooYong; Kim, Kyungsik; Lee, Dong-In; Scalas, Enrico

    2008-05-01

    A recently discovered feature of financial markets, the two-phase phenomenon, is utilized to categorize a financial time series into two phases, namely equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium states. For out-of-equilibrium states, we analyze the time intervals at which the state is revisited. The power-law distribution of inter-out-of-equilibrium state intervals is shown and we present an analogy with discrete-time heat bath dynamics, similar to random Ising systems. In the mean-field approximation, this model reduces to a one-dimensional multiplicative process. By varying global and local model parameters, the relevance between volatilities in financial markets and the interaction strengths between agents in the Ising model are investigated and discussed.

  3. On the Mediterranean Sea inter-basin exchanges and nutrient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupolo, V.; Ribera D'Alcalà, M.; Iudicone, D.; Artale, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is an evaporative basin in which the deficit of water is supplied by the inflow from the Gibraltar Strait of Atlantic Water. The net result of the air sea interactions in the entire basin is an outflow at Gibraltar of a salty water that is mainly constituted by the Levantin Intermediate Water, formed in the eastern part of the basin. Despite this simplified pattern, the circulation in the Mediterranean is rather complex. Most of the Mediterranean sub-basins are characterized by water mass formation processes and the presence of sills and straits strongly influence both the spreading and the mixing of intermediate and deep waters. In this context a Lagrangian diagnostics applied to numerical results was used to quantify mass transport in the main pathways of the upper and lower cells of the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation as they results from OGCM simulations. Lagrangian diagnostics reveals to be very useful to quantify both transports between different regions and the associated spectrum of transit times by means of pdf distribution of particles transit times between the different regions of the basin. This method is very effective to estimate the contribution of different water masses in isopycnal and diapycnal transformation processes and in reconstructing the fate of tracers. We use here these previous results on the basin circulation for better understanding the nutrient dynamics within the basin where the inputs from the different sources (atmosphere, runoff and open ocean) have similar order of magnitude. This, to the aim of building scenarios on the impact of climate driven changes in elemental fluxes to the basin on the internal nutrient dynamics.

  4. Dowex anion exchanger-loaded-baker's yeast as bi-functionalized biosorbents for selective extraction of anionic and cationic mercury(II) species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed E.; Yakout, Amr A.; Osman, Maher M.

    2009-01-01

    Dowex anion exchanger-immobilized-baker's yeast [Dae-yeast] were synthesized and potentially applied as environmental friendly biosorbents to evaluate the up-take process of anionic and cationic mercury(II) species as well as other metal ions. Optimization of mass ratio of Dowex anion exchanger versus yeast (1:1-1:10) in presence of various interacting buffer solutions (pH 4.0-9.0) was performed and evaluated. Surface modification of [Dae-yeast] was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy. The maximum metal biosorption capacity values of [Dae-yeast] towards mercury(II) were found in the range of 0.800-0.960, 0.840-0.950 and 0.730-0.900 mmol g -1 in presence of buffer solutions pH 2.0, 4.0 and 7.0, respectively. Three possible and different mechanisms are proposed to account for the biosorption of mercury and mercuric species under these three buffering conditions based on ion exchange, ion pair and chelation interaction processes. Factors affecting biosorption of mercury from aqueous medium including the pH effect of aqueous solutions (1.0-7.0), shaking time (1-30 min) and interfering ions were searched. The potential applications of modified biosorbents for selective biosorption and extraction of mercury from different real matrices including dental filling waste materials, industrial waste water samples and mercury lamp waste materials were also explored. The results denote to excellent percentage extraction values, from nitric acid as the dissolution solvent with a pH 2.0, as determined in the range of 90.77-97.91 ± 3.00-5.00%, 90.00-93.40 ± 4.00-5.00% and 92.31-100.00 ± 3.00-4.00% for the three tested samples, respectively.

  5. {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO{sub 2} selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo-Hidalgo, Ana G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagueez Campus, Mayagueez, PR 00681-9000 (Puerto Rico); Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J., E-mail: arturoj.hernandez@upr.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagueez Campus, Mayagueez, PR 00681-9000 (Puerto Rico)

    2012-07-15

    The location of extraframework cations in Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO{sub 2} adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium. - Graphical abstract: MAS NMR was used to elucidate the position the cationic species in alkaline earth metal exchanged silicoaluminophosphates. These species played a significant role during the ion exchange process and, therefore, the materials ultimate CO{sub 2} adsorption performance. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Location of extraframework Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} cations was estimated by means of {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} ion exchanged SAPOs are outstanding CO{sub 2} adsorbents.

  6. Characterization of D-maltose as a T2 -exchange contrast agent for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Joshua M; Pagel, Mark D; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Julio

    2018-09-01

    We sought to investigate the potential of D-maltose, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol as T 2 exchange magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. We also sought to compare the in vivo pharmacokinetics of D-maltose with D-glucose with dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI. T 1 and T 2 relaxation time constants of the saccharides were measured using eight pH values and nine concentrations. The effect of echo spacing in a multiecho acquisition sequence used for the T 2 measurement was evaluated for all samples. Finally, performances of D-maltose and D-glucose during T 2 -weighted DCE-MRI were compared in vivo. Estimated T 2 relaxivities (r 2 ) of D-glucose and D-maltose were highly and nonlinearly dependent on pH and echo spacing, reaching their maximum at pH = 7.0 (∼0.08 mM -1 s -1 ). The r 2 values of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol were estimated to be ∼0.02 mM -1 s -1 and were invariant to pH and echo spacing for pH ≤7.0. The change in T 2 in tumor and muscle tissues remained constant after administration of D-maltose, whereas the change in T 2 decreased in tumor and muscle after administration of D-glucose. Therefore, D-maltose has a longer time window for T 2 -weighted DCE-MRI in tumors. We have demonstrated that D-maltose can be used as a T 2 exchange MRI contrast agent. The larger, sustained T 2 -weighted contrast from D-maltose relative to D-glucose has practical advantages for tumor diagnoses during T 2 -weighted DCE-MRI. Magn Reson Med 80:1158-1164, 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Lactose Binding Induces Opposing Dynamics Changes in Human Galectins Revealed by NMR-Based Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Ta Henry; Ho, Meng-Ru; Lin, Chung-Hung; Hsu, Shang-Te Danny

    2017-08-16

    Galectins are β-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in a myriad of biological functions. Despite their highly conserved carbohydrate binding motifs with essentially identical structures, their affinities for lactose, a common galectin inhibitor, vary significantly. Here, we aimed to examine the molecular basis of differential lactose affinities amongst galectins using solution-based techniques. Consistent dissociation constants of lactose binding were derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry and bio-layer interferometry for human galectin-1 (hGal1), galectin-7 (hGal7), and the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of galectin-8 (hGal8 NTD and hGal8 CTD , respectively). Furthermore, the dissociation rates of lactose binding were extracted from NMR lineshape analyses. Structural mapping of chemical shift perturbations revealed long-range perturbations upon lactose binding for hGal1 and hGal8 NTD . We further demonstrated using the NMR-based hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) that lactose binding increases the exchange rates of residues located on the opposite side of the ligand-binding pocket for hGal1 and hGal8 NTD , indicative of allostery. Additionally, lactose binding induces significant stabilisation of hGal8 CTD across the entire domain. Our results suggested that lactose binding reduced the internal dynamics of hGal8 CTD on a very slow timescale (minutes and slower) at the expense of reduced binding affinity due to the unfavourable loss of conformational entropy.

  8. Roche-lobe overflow systems powered by black holes in young star clusters: the importance of dynamical exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mapelli, Michela; Zampieri, Luca, E-mail: michela.mapelli@oapd.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122, Padova (Italy)

    2014-10-10

    We have run 600 N-body simulations of intermediate-mass (∼3500 M {sub ☉}) young star clusters (SCs; with three different metallicities (Z = 0.01, 0.1, and 1 Z {sub ☉}). The simulations include the dependence of stellar properties and stellar winds on metallicity. Massive stellar black holes (MSBHs) with mass >25 M {sub ☉} are allowed to form through direct collapse of very massive metal-poor stars (Z < 0.3 Z {sub ☉}). We focus on the demographics of black hole (BH) binaries that undergo mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow (RLO). We find that 44% of all binaries that undergo an RLO phase (RLO binaries) formed through dynamical exchange. RLO binaries that formed via exchange (RLO-EBs) are powered by more massive BHs than RLO primordial binaries (RLO-PBs). Furthermore, the RLO-EBs tend to start the RLO phase later than the RLO-PBs. In metal-poor SCs (0.01-0.1 Z {sub ☉}), >20% of all RLO binaries are powered by MSBHs. The vast majority of RLO binaries powered by MSBHs are RLO-EBs. We have produced optical color-magnitude diagrams of the simulated RLO binaries, accounting for the emission of both the donor star and the irradiated accretion disk. We find that RLO-PBs are generally associated with bluer counterparts than RLO-EBs. We compare the simulated counterparts with the observed counterparts of nine ultraluminous X-ray sources. We discuss the possibility that IC 342 X-1, Ho IX X-1, NGC 1313 X-2, and NGC 5204 X-1 are powered by an MSBH.

  9. Confirmatory analysis of the AP1000 passive residual heat removal heat exchanger with 3-D computational fluid dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwall, James R.; Karim, Naeem U.; Thakkar, Jivan G.; Taylor, Creed; Schulz, Terry; Wright, Richard F.

    2006-01-01

    The AP1000 is an 1100 MWe advanced nuclear power plant that uses passive safety features to enhance plant safety and to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 received final design approval from the US-NRC in 2004. The AP1000 design is based on the AP600 design that received final design approval in 1999. Wherever possible, the AP1000 plant configuration and layout was kept the same as AP600 to take advantage of the maturity of the design and to minimize new design efforts. As a result, the two-loop configuration was maintained for AP1000, and the containment vessel diameter was kept the same. It was determined that this significant power up-rate was well within the capability of the passive safety features, and that the safety margins for AP1000 were greater than those of operating PWRs. A key feature of the passive core cooling system is the passive residual heat removal heat exchanger (PRHR HX) that provides decay heat removal for postulated LOCA and non-LOCA events. The PRHR HX is a C-tube heat exchanger located in the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) above the core promoting natural circulation heat removal between the reactor cooling system and the tank. Component testing was performed for the AP600 PRHR HX to determine the heat transfer characteristics and to develop correlations to be used for the AP1000 safety analysis codes. The data from these tests were confirmed by subsequent integral tests at three separate facilities including the ROSA facility in Japan. Owing to the importance of this component, an independent analysis has been performed using the ATHOS-based computational fluid dynamics computer code PRHRCFD. Two separate models of the PRHR HX and IRWST have been developed representing the ROSA test geometry and the AP1000 plant geometry. Confirmation of the ROSA test results were used to validate PRHRCFD, and the AP1000 plant model

  10. Studies of ground-state dynamics in isolated species by ionization-detected stimulated Raman techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)

    1993-12-01

    First, the author aims to develop methods of nonlinear Raman spectroscopy for application in studies of sparse samples. Second, the author wishes to apply such methods to structural and dynamical studies of species (molecules, complexes, and clusters) in supersonic molecular beams. In the past year, the author has made progress in several areas. The first pertains to the application of mass-selective ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopies (IDSRS) to the size-specific vibrational spectroscopy of solute-solvent{sub n} clusters. The second involves the application of IDSRS methods to studies of jet-cooled benzene clusters. The third pertains to the use of IDSRS methods in the study of intermolecular vibrational transitions in van der Waals complexes.

  11. Short-term light and leaf photosynthetic dynamics affect estimates of daily understory photosynthesis in four tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumburg, Elke; Ellsworth, David S

    2002-04-01

    Instantaneous measurements of photosynthesis are often implicitly or explicitly scaled to longer time frames to provide an understanding of plant performance in a given environment. For plants growing in a forest understory, results from photosynthetic light response curves in conjunction with diurnal light data are frequently extrapolated to daily photosynthesis (A(day)), ignoring dynamic photosynthetic responses to light. In this study, we evaluated the importance of two factors on A(day) estimates: dynamic physiological responses to photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD); and time-resolution of the PPFD data used for modeling. We used a dynamic photosynthesis model to investigate how these factors interact with species-specific photosynthetic traits, forest type, and sky conditions to affect the accuracy of A(day) predictions. Increasing time-averaging of PPFD significantly increased the relative overestimation of A(day) similarly for all study species because of the nonlinear response of photosynthesis to PPFD (15% with 5-min PPFD means). Depending on the light environment characteristics and species-specific dynamic responses to PPFD, understory tree A(day) can be overestimated by 6-42% for the study species by ignoring these dynamics. Although these overestimates decrease under cloudy conditions where direct sunlight and consequently understory sunfleck radiation is reduced, they are still significant. Within a species, overestimation of A(day) as a result of ignoring dynamic responses was highly dependent on daily sunfleck PPFD and the frequency and irradiance of sunflecks. Overall, large overestimates of A(day) in understory trees may cause misleading inferences concerning species growth and competition in forest understories with sunlight. We conclude that comparisons of A(day) among co-occurring understory species in deep shade will be enhanced by consideration of sunflecks by using high-resolution PPFD data and understanding the physiological

  12. Probing dynamics and mechanism of exchange process of quaternary ammonium dimeric surfactants, 14-s-14, in the presence of conventional surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Jiang, Yan; Chen, Hong; Mao, Shi Zhen; Du, You Ru; Liu, Mai Li

    2012-12-27

    In this Article, we investigated effects of different types of conventional surfactants on exchange dynamics of quaternary ammonium dimeric surfactants, with chemical formula C(14)H(29)N(+)(CH(3))(2)- (CH(2))(s)-N(+)(CH(3))(2)C(14)H(29)·2Br(-), or 14-s-14 for short. Two nonionic surfactants, TritonX-100 (TX-100) and polyethylene glycol (23) laurylether (Brij-35), and one cationic surfactant, n-tetradecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (TTAB), and one ionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were chosen as typical conventional surfactants. Exchange rates of 14-s-14 (s = 2, 3, and 4) between the micelle form and monomer in solution were detected by two NMR methods: one-dimensional (1D) line shape analysis and two-dimensional (2D) exchange spectroscopy (EXSY). Results show that the nonionic surfactants (TX-100 and Brij-35), the cationic surfactant (TTAB), and the ionic surfactant (SDS) respectively accelerated, barely influenced, and slowed the exchange rate of 14-s-14. The effect mechanism was investigated by the self-diffusion experiment, relaxation time measurements (T(2)/T(1)), the fluorescence experiment (I(1)/I(3)) and observed chemical shift variations. Results reveal that, nonionic conventional surfactants (TX-100 and Brij-35) loosened the molecule arrangement and decreased hydrophobic interactions in the micelle, and thus accelerated the exchange rate of 14-s-14. The cationic conventional surfactant (TTAB) barely changed the molecule arrangement and thus barely influenced the exchange rate of 14-s-14. The ionic conventional surfactant (SDS) introduced the electrostatic attraction effect, tightened the molecule arrangement, and increased hydrophobic interactions in the micelle, and thus slowed down the exchange rate of 14-s-14. Additionally, the two-step exchange mechanism of 14-s-14 in the mixed solution was revealed through interesting variation tendencies of exchange rates of 14-s-14.

  13. Estuarine-ocean exchange in a North Pacific estuary: comparison of steady state and dynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, W. E.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Sigleo, A. C.; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2007-01-01

    The physical scales of many stream and river plumes often lie between the scales for mixing zone plume models, such as the EPA Visual Plumes plume models and larger-sized grid scales for regional circulation models like FVCOM. A potential advantage of these plume models is that they use entrainment theory to simulate the growth of plumes, a technique proven useful in simulating turbulent plume discharges from various sources, some approaching the dimensions of rivers. Important advantages of models like FVCOM are that they are dynamic and include the effects of the earth's rotation. The results based on limited verification data showed that the simple steady state model simulates observed velocity and concentration data fairly well during times that its governing assumptions were most valid, namely during periods of weak or absent ambient current and strong discharge velocity. FVCOM was judged to give better estimates under all other ambient current conditions, although the data cannot be used to prove this assertion when the plume was deflected from the path of the instruments. It was found that plume models can be used to help establish appropriate boundary limits and conditions when setting up hydrodynamic models

  14. Multistate models of bigheaded carps in the Illinois River reveal spatial dynamics of invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Alison A.; Brey, Marybeth; Lubejko, Matthew; Kallis, Jahn L.; Coulter, David P.; Glover, David C.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Garvey, James E.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distributions and dispersal characteristics of invasive species is necessary for managing the spread of highly mobile species, such as invasive bigheaded carps (Bighead Carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and Silver Carp [H. molitrix]). Management of invasive bigheaded carps in the Illinois River has focused on using human-made barriers and harvest to limit dispersal towards the Laurentian Great Lakes. Acoustic telemetry data were used to parameterize multistate models to examine the spatial dynamics of bigheaded carps in the Illinois River to (1) evaluate the effects of existing dams on movement, (2) identify how individuals distribute among pools, and (3) gauge the effects of reductions in movement towards the invasion front. Multistate models estimated that movement was generally less likely among upper river pools (Starved Rock, Marseilles, and Dresden Island) than the lower river (La Grange and Peoria) which matched the pattern of gated versus wicket style dams. Simulations using estimated movement probabilities indicated that Bighead Carp accumulate in La Grange Pool while Silver Carp accumulate in Alton Pool. Fewer Bighead Carp reached the upper river compared to Silver Carp during simulations. Reducing upstream movement probabilities (e.g., reduced propagule pressure) by ≥ 75% into any of the upper river pools could reduce upper river abundance with similar results regardless of location. Given bigheaded carp reproduction in the upper Illinois River is presently limited, reduced movement towards the invasion front coupled with removal of individuals reaching these areas could limit potential future dispersal towards the Great Lakes.

  15. Leaf Litter Decomposition and Nutrient Dynamics Associated with Common Horticultural Cropland Agroforest Tree Species of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hasanuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangifera indica, Zizyphus jujuba, Litchi chinensis, and Artocarpus heterophyllus are the most common cropland agroforest horticultural tree species of Bangladesh. This study focused on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient (N, P, and K dynamics during the decomposition process. This experiment was conducted for 180 days by using litter bag technique during dry and wet seasons. Mass loss was the highest (49% and 57% for A. heterophyllus and the lowest (25% was found for L. chinensis. The highest initial rates (0.75% and 2.35%/day of decomposition were observed for Z. jujuba and the lowest (0.50% and 0.79%/day for L. chinensis. The highest decay constant was observed for A. heterophyllus (2.14 and 2.34 and the lowest (0.88 and 0.94 for L. chinensis. Leaf litter of all the studied species showed a similar pattern (K > N > P of nutrient release during the decomposition process. Zizyphus jujuba showed comparatively higher return of N, P, and K than others. However, a significant (P<0.05 higher amount of mass loss, rate of decomposition, decay constant, and amount of nutrient return from leaf litter were observed during the wet season.

  16. Synthesis of Formamide and Related Organic Species in the Interstellar Medium via Chemical Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spezia, Riccardo; Jeanvoine, Yannick; Hase, William L.; Song, Kihyung; Largo, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    We show, by means of direct dynamics simulations, how it is possible to define possible reactants and mechanisms leading to the formation of formamide in the interstellar medium. In particular, different ion-molecule reactions in the gas phase were considered: NH3OH+, NH2OH{}2+, H2COH+, and NH4 + for the ions and NH2OH, H2CO, and NH3 for the partner neutrals. These calculations were combined with high level ab initio calculations to investigate possible further evolution of the products observed. In particular, for formamide, we propose that the NH2OH{}2+ + H2CO reaction can produce an isomer, NH2OCH{}2+, that, after dissociative recombination, can produce neutral formamide, which was observed in space. The direct dynamics do not pre-impose any reaction pathways and in other reactions, we did not observe the formation of formamide or any possible precursor. On the other hand, we obtained other interesting reactions, like the formation of NH2CH{}2+. Finally, some radiative association processes are proposed. All of the results obtained are discussed in light of the species observed in radioastronomy.

  17. Phylogenetic fields through time: temporal dynamics of geographical co-occurrence and phylogenetic structure within species ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Fabricio; Carotenuto, Francesco; Raia, Pasquale; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F

    2016-04-05

    Species co-occur with different sets of other species across their geographical distribution, which can be either closely or distantly related. Such co-occurrence patterns and their phylogenetic structure within individual species ranges represent what we call the species phylogenetic fields (PFs). These PFs allow investigation of the role of historical processes--speciation, extinction and dispersal--in shaping species co-occurrence patterns, in both extinct and extant species. Here, we investigate PFs of large mammalian species during the last 3 Myr, and how these correlate with trends in diversification rates. Using the fossil record, we evaluate species' distributional and co-occurrence patterns along with their phylogenetic structure. We apply a novel Bayesian framework on fossil occurrences to estimate diversification rates through time. Our findings highlight the effect of evolutionary processes and past climatic changes on species' distributions and co-occurrences. From the Late Pliocene to the Recent, mammal species seem to have responded in an individualistic manner to climate changes and diversification dynamics, co-occurring with different sets of species from different lineages across their geographical ranges. These findings stress the difficulty of forecasting potential effects of future climate changes on biodiversity. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Use of the neutron diffraction - H/D exchange technique to determine the conformational dynamics of trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossiakoff, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Reported here are studies analyzing the extent and nature of the inherent conformational fluctuations in trypsin by neutron diffraction - hydrogen exchange techniques. The pattern of exchange investigates systematic relationships between exchangeable sites and the structural and chemical properties of the molecule. Our findings that pH 7, 20 0 and 1 year of soaking all sites of trypsin are fully exchanged except those which are especially well protected by the structure. Essentially all the sites in which the peptide hydrogens are bonded directly to water molecules - either in the bulk solvent regions or in interior clusters - are fully exchanged. 41 references, 10 figures

  19. Dynamic studies of H-Ras•GTPγS interactions with nucleotide exchange factor Sos reveal a transient ternary complex formation in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Embrey, Kevin J; Golovanov, Alexander P

    2016-07-14

    The cycling between GDP- and GTP- bound forms of the Ras protein is partly regulated by the binding of Sos. The structural/dynamic behavior of the complex formed between activated Sos and Ras at the point of the functional cycle where the nucleotide exchange is completed has not been described to date. Here we show that solution NMR spectra of H-Ras∙GTPγS mixed with a functional fragment of Sos (Sos(Cat)) at a 2:1 ratio are consistent with the formation of a rather dynamic assembly. H-Ras∙GTPγS binding was in fast exchange on the NMR timescale and retained a significant degree of molecular tumbling independent of Sos(Cat), while Sos(Cat) also tumbled largely independently of H-Ras. Estimates of apparent molecular weight from both NMR data and SEC-MALS revealed that, at most, only one H-Ras∙GTPγS molecule appears stably bound to Sos. The weak transient interaction between Sos and the second H-Ras∙GTPγS may provide a necessary mechanism for complex dissociation upon the completion of the native GDP → GTP exchange reaction, but also explains measurable GTP → GTP exchange activity of Sos routinely observed in in vitro assays that use fluorescently-labelled analogs of GTP. Overall, the data presents the first dynamic snapshot of Ras functional cycle as controlled by Sos.

  20. Photodissociation dynamics of gaseous CpCo(CO)2 and ligand exchange reactions of CpCoH2 with C3H4, C3H6, and NH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oana, Melania; Nakatsuka, Yumiko; Albert, Daniel R; Davis, H Floyd

    2012-05-31

    The photodissociation dynamics of CpCo(CO)(2) was studied in a molecular beam using photofragment translational energy spectroscopy with 157 nm photoionization detection of the metallic products. At 532 and 355 nm excitation, the dominant one-photon channel involved loss of a single CO ligand producing CpCoCO. The product angular distributions were isotropic, and a large fraction of excess energy appeared as product vibrational excitation. Production of CpCO + 2CO resulted from two-photon absorption processes. The two-photon dissociation of mixtures containing CpCo(CO)(2) and H(2) at the orifice of a pulsed nozzle was used to produce a novel 16-electron unsaturated species, CpCoH(2). Transition metal ligand exchange reactions, CpCoH(2) + L → CpCoL + H(2) (L = propyne, propene, or ammonia), were studied under single-collision conditions for the first time. In all cases, ligand exchange occurred via 18-electron association complexes with lifetimes comparable to their rotational periods. Although ligand exchange reactions were not detected from CpCoH(2) collisions with methane or propane (L = CH(4) or C(3)H(8)), a molecular beam containing CpCoCH(4) was produced by photolysis of mixtures containing CpCo(CO)(2) and CH(4).

  1. Exchange rate and price dynamics in a small open economy - the role of the zero lower bound and monetary policy regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Bäurle; Daniel Kaufmann

    2014-01-01

    We analyse nominal exchange rate and price dynamics after risk premium shocks with short-term interest rates constrained by the zero lower bound (ZLB). In a small-open-economy DSGE model, temporary risk premium shocks lead to shifts of the exchange rate and the price level if a central bank implements an inflation target by means of a traditional Taylor rule. These shifts are strongly amplified and become more persistent once the ZLB is included in the model. We also provide empirical support...

  2. Considering transient population dynamics in the conservation of slow life-history species: An application to the sandhill crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Brian D.; Kendall, William L.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of transient dynamics of structured populations is increasingly recognized in ecology, yet these implications are not largely considered in conservation practices. We investigate transient and long-term population dynamics to demonstrate the process and utility of incorporating transient dynamics into conservation research and to better understand the population management of slow life-history species; these species can be theoretically highly sensitive to short- and long-term transient effects. We are specifically interested in the effects of anthropogenic removal of individuals from populations, such as caused by harvest, poaching, translocation, or incidental take. We use the sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) as an exemplar species; it is long-lived, has low reproduction, late maturity, and multiple populations are subject to sport harvest. We found sandhill cranes to have extremely high potential, but low likelihood for transient dynamics, even when the population is being harvested. The typically low population growth rate of slow life-history species appears to buffer against many perturbations causing large transient effects. Transient dynamics will dominate population trajectories of these species when stage structures are highly biased towards the younger and non-reproducing individuals, a situation that may be rare in established populations of long-lived animals. However, short-term transient population growth can be highly sensitive to vital rates that are relatively insensitive under equilibrium, suggesting that stage structure should be known if perturbation analysis is used to identify effective conservation strategies. For populations of slow life-history species that are not prone to large perturbations to their most productive individuals, population growth may be approximated by equilibrium dynamics.

  3. Dynamic environmental transmission electron microscopy observation of platinum electrode catalyst deactivation in a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenta; Xudong, Zhang; Bright, Alexander N; Saitoh, Koh; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2013-02-15

    Spherical-aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy (AC-ETEM) was applied to study the catalytic activity of platinum/amorphous carbon electrode catalysts in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). These electrode catalysts were characterized in different atmospheres, such as hydrogen and air, and a conventional high vacuum of 10(-5) Pa. A high-speed charge coupled device camera was used to capture real-time movies to dynamically study the diffusion and reconstruction of nanoparticles with an information transfer down to 0.1 nm, a time resolution below 0.2 s and an acceleration voltage of 300 kV. With such high spatial and time resolution, AC-ETEM permits the visualization of surface-atom behaviour that dominates the coalescence and surface-reconstruction processes of the nanoparticles. To contribute to the development of robust PEMFC platinum/amorphous carbon electrode catalysts, the change in the specific surface area of platinum particles was evaluated in hydrogen and air atmospheres. The deactivation of such catalysts during cycle operation is a serious problem that must be resolved for the practical use of PEMFCs in real vehicles. In this paper, the mechanism for the deactivation of platinum/amorphous carbon electrode catalysts is discussed using the decay rate of the specific surface area of platinum particles, measured first in a vacuum and then in hydrogen and air atmospheres for comparison.

  4. Dynamic Study of Feed-Effluent Heat Exchanger Addition on Double Bed Configuration Ammonia Reactor System within Varied Quenching Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Tri Partono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is one of the most important industrial commodity due to its wide function. Ammonia synthesis reaction is an exotermic reaction. Therefore, Feed-Effluent Heat Exchanger (FEHE is added to increase thermal efficiency. However, FEHE could lead the process to experience hysteresis phenomenon due to interaction between equipments as one steady state T feed could result several T outlet. Hysteresis phenomenon may result asset losses like explosion, leakage, and loosing material integrity. Double bed reactor configuration allows us to use several operating parameters as variation to overcome hysteresis. In this review, quenching ratio was chosen to be that varied parameter. This study aims to determine how quenching ratio affects hysteresis zone by utilizing Aspen Hysys® V8.8 as simulation tool. Simulation showed that quenching ratio would narrow hysteresis zone yet increased extinction temperature that lower the conversion. Conversion profile showed that 0.2 quenching ratio got the highest conversion for system with bed volume ratio 2:1 while total volume was 30 m3. However, the feed temperature was fallen at hysteresis zone. Dynamic simulation showed that highest conversion feed temperature (10%ΔTf above extinct temperature was still able to preserve stability with descending temperature approach. Hysteresis itself started to occur at 1.7%ΔTf above extinct temperature

  5. Dynamic surface water-groundwater exchange and nitrogen transport in the riparian aquifer of a tidal river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, A. H.; Barnes, R.; Wallace, C.; Knights, D.; Tight, D.; Bayer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Tides in coastal rivers can propagate tens to hundreds of kilometers inland and drive large daily changes in water and nitrogen exchange across the sediment-water interface. We use field observations and numerical models to illuminate hydrodynamic controls on nitrogen export from the riparian aquifer to a fresh, tidal reach of White Clay Creek (Delaware, USA). In the banks, an aerobic zone with high groundwater nitrate concentrations occurs near the fluctuating water table. Continuous depth-resolved measurements of redox potential suggest that this zone is relatively stable over tidal timescales but moves up or down in response to storms. The main source of dissolved oxygen is soil air that is imbibed in the zone of water table fluctuations, and the source of nitrate is likely nitrification of ammonium produced locally from the mineralization of organic matter in floodplain soils. Much of the nitrate is removed by denitrification along oscillating flow paths towards the channel. Within centimeters of the sediment-water interface, denitrification is limited by the mixing of groundwater with oxygen-rich river water. Our models predict that the benthic zones of tidal rivers play an important role in removing new nitrate inputs from discharging groundwater but may be less effective at removing nitrate from river water. Nitrate removal and production rates are expected to vary significantly along tidal rivers as permeability, organic matter content, tidal range vary. It is imperative that we understand nitrogen dynamics along tidal rivers and their role in nitrogen export to the coast.

  6. Similarity measure and topology evolution of foreign exchange markets using dynamic time warping method: Evidence from minimal spanning tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang-Jin; Xie, Chi; Han, Feng; Sun, Bo

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we employ a dynamic time warping method to study the topology of similarity networks among 35 major currencies in international foreign exchange (FX) markets, measured by the minimal spanning tree (MST) approach, which is expected to overcome the synchronous restriction of the Pearson correlation coefficient. In the empirical process, firstly, we subdivide the analysis period from June 2005 to May 2011 into three sub-periods: before, during, and after the US sub-prime crisis. Secondly, we choose NZD (New Zealand dollar) as the numeraire and then, analyze the topology evolution of FX markets in terms of the structure changes of MSTs during the above periods. We also present the hierarchical tree associated with the MST to study the currency clusters in each sub-period. Our results confirm that USD and EUR are the predominant world currencies. But USD gradually loses the most central position while EUR acts as a stable center in the MST passing through the crisis. Furthermore, an interesting finding is that, after the crisis, SGD (Singapore dollar) becomes a new center currency for the network.

  7. Dynamic mass exchange in doubly degenerate binaries. I - 0.9 and 1.2 solar mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, W.; Cameron, A.G.W.; Press, W.H.; Bowers, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic mass exchange process in doubly degenerate binaries was investigated using a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the evolution of a doubly degenerate binary system in which the primary is a 1.2-solar-mass white dwarf and the Roche lobe filling secondary is a 0.9-solar-mass dwarf. The results show that, in a little more than two orbital periods, the secondary is completely destroyed and transformed into a thick disk orbiting about the primary. Since only a very small fraction of the mass (0.0063 solar mass) escapes the system, the evolution of the binary results in the formation of a massive object. This object is composed of three parts, the initial white dwarf primary, a very hot pressure-supported spherical envelope, and a rotationally supported outer disk. The evolution of the system can be understood in terms of a simple analytical model where it is shown that the angular momentum carried by the mass during the transfer and stored in the disk determines the evolution of the system. 34 refs

  8. Seismic dynamic analysis of Heat Exchangers inside of the Auxiliary Buildings in AP1000{sup T}M NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Fonzo, M.; Aragon, J.; Moraleda, F.; Palazuelos, M.; San vicente, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    Seismic dynamic analysis was carried out for the Heat Exchangers (RNS-HR) located inside of the Auxiliary Building in AP 1000{sup T}M NPP. The main function of the RNS-HX is to provide shutdown reactor cooling. These equipment's are safety-related. So the seismic analysis was done using the methodology for Seismic Category I (SCI) structures. The most important topic is that the RNS-HX shall withstand the effects of the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) and maintain the specified design functions. for the analysis, two finite element models (FEM) were built in order to investigate the structural response of the couple system of building and equipment. The response spectra method was used. The floor response spectra (FRS) at the slab-wall connection were used as input Lateral seismic restrain was necessary to added in order to achieve the natural frequency of 33 Hz. The global structural response was obtained by means of the modal combination method indicated in the Regulatory Guide 1.92.

  9. SCREENING OF CONTENT AND DYNAMIC OF ACCUMULATION OF POLYPHENOLS IN SOME BASIDIOMYCETES SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veligodska A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the total content of polyphenolic substances in Basidiomycetes carpophores from 50 species, of which 27 belong to the order Polyporales and 23 to the order Agaricales. Introduced 23 strains of 8 species of Basidiomycetes. Methods. Gathered wild carpophores dried and crushed to a particle size of 0,1 till 0,01 mm and searching strains were cultured in Erlenmeyyers flasks by surface method on standard glucose-peptone culture medium. Determination of total content of polyphenolic compounds was carried out in ethanol extracts of mycological material by a modified method of Folin-Chokalteu. Completely dry biomass of carpophores and mycelium was determined gravimetrically. Results. There was identified the species of polyporal fungi Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Laetiporus sulphureus and Fomes fomentarius and types of agarical mushrooms Stropharia rugosoannulata, Agrocybe cylindracea, Tricholoma flavovirens, Flammulina velutipes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Fistulina hepatica high in polyphenolic compounds. It was determined the content of polyphenols ranging from more than 60 mg / g completely dry biomass. For introduced strains established dynamics of growth and accumulation of polyphenolic compounds in the mycelium and culture filtrate during fermentation on glucose-peptone medium. All cultures reach a maximum accumulation of biomass on the 12th day of growth. Shizophyllum commune Sc-1101 and 10 and F. velutipes F-202 have been identified as the most productive strains. The lowest accumulation of absolutely dry biomass was recorded for strain P. ostreatus P-192 and strain F. fomentarius Ff-09. Cultures have investigated individual value growth such as biomass accumulation in the applied cultivation conditions, which probably reflects the suitability of the medium for their growth and genotypic characteristics. Strains are overwhelmingly able to accumulate polyphenolic compounds in both mycelium and

  10. SCREENING OF CONTENT AND DYNAMIC OF ACCUMULATION OF POLYPHENOLS IN SOME BASIDIOMYCETES SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Veligodska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the total content of polyphenolic substances in Basidiomycetes carpophores from 50 species, of which 27 belong to the order Polyporales and 23 to the order Agaricales. Introduced 23 strains of 8 species of Basidiomycetes. Methods. Gathered wild carpophores dried and crushed to a particle size of 0,1 till 0,01 mm and searching strains were cultured in Erlenmeyyers flasks by surface method on standard glucose-peptone culture medium. Determination of total content of polyphenolic compounds was carried out in ethanol extracts of mycological material by a modified method of Folin-Chokalteu. Completely dry biomass of carpophores and mycelium was determined gravimetrically. Results. There was identified the species of polyporal fungi Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Laetiporus sulphureus and Fomes fomentarius and types of agarical mushrooms Stropharia rugosoannulata, Agrocybe cylindracea, Tricholoma flavovirens, Flammulina velutipes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Fistulina hepatica high in polyphenolic compounds. It was determined the content of polyphenols ranging from more than 60 mg / g completely dry biomass. For introduced strains established dynamics of growth and accumulation of polyphenolic compounds in the mycelium and culture filtrate during fermentation on glucose-peptone medium. All cultures reach a maximum accumulation of biomass on the 12th day of growth. Shizophyllum commune Sc-1101 and 10 and F. velutipes F-202 have been identified as the most productive strains. The lowest accumulation of absolutely dry biomass was recorded for strain P. ostreatus P-192 and strain F. fomentarius Ff-09. Cultures have investigated individual value growth such as biomass accumulation in the applied cultivation conditions, which probably reflects the suitability of the medium for their growth and genotypic characteristics. Strains are overwhelmingly able to accumulate polyphenolic compounds in both mycelium and

  11. Gas exchange and growth responses to nutrient enrichment in invasive Glyceria maxima and native New Zealand Carex species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans; Fitridge, Isla

    2012-01-01

    the sedges, but correlations between leaf N, gas exchange parameters (Amaxa, Amaxm, Rd and gs) and RGR were all highly significant in G. maxima, whereas they were weak or absent in the sedges. Allocation of biomass (root:shoot ratio, leaf mass ratio, root mass ratio), plant N and P content, and allocation......) in G. maxima (17 ± 6 m2 kg-1) was 1.3 times that of the sedges, leading to 1.4 times higher maximum rates of photosynthesis (350 – 400 nmol CO2 g-1 dry mass s-1) expressed on a leaf mass basis (Amaxm) when N supply was unlimited, compared to the sedges (mass s-1). Analysis......, the sedges had 2.4 times higher intrinsic water use efficiency (A/gs: range 20-70 c.f. 8-30 µmol CO2 mol-1 H2O) and 1.6 times higher nitrogen use efficiency (NUE: 25 – 30 c.f. 20 – 23 g dry mass g-1 N) under excess N supply. Relative growth rates (RGR) were not significantly higher in G. maxima than...

  12. Transpiration efficiency over an annual cycle, leaf gas exchange and wood carbon isotope ratio of three tropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Aranda, Jorge; Virgo, Aurelio; Garcia, Milton

    2009-09-01

    Variation in transpiration efficiency (TE) and its relationship with the stable carbon isotope ratio of wood was investigated in the saplings of three tropical tree species. Five individuals each of Platymiscium pinnatum (Jacq.) Dugand, Swietenia macrophylla King and Tectona grandis Linn. f. were grown individually in large (760 l) pots over 16 months in the Republic of Panama. Cumulative transpiration was determined by repeatedly weighing the pots with a pallet truck scale. Dry matter production was determined by destructive harvest. The TE, expressed as experiment-long dry matter production divided by cumulative water use, averaged 4.1, 4.3 and 2.9 g dry matter kg(-1) water for P. pinnatum, S. macrophylla and T. grandis, respectively. The TE of T. grandis was significantly lower than that of the other two species. Instantaneous measurements of the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO(2) partial pressures (c(i)/c(a)), taken near the end of the experiment, explained 66% of variation in TE. Stomatal conductance was lower in S. macrophylla than in T. grandis, whereas P. pinnatum had similar stomatal conductance to T. grandis, but with a higher photosynthetic rate. Thus, c(i)/c(a) and TE appeared to vary in response to both stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity. Stem-wood delta(13)C varied over a relatively narrow range of just 2.2 per thousand, but still explained 28% of variation in TE. The results suggest that leaf-level processes largely determined variation among the three tropical tree species in whole-plant water-use efficiency integrated over a full annual cycle.

  13. Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry of bacteriorhodopsin reveals light-induced changes in the structural dynamics of a biomolecular machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yan; Brown, Leonid; Konermann, Lars

    2011-12-21

    Many proteins act as molecular machines that are fuelled by a nonthermal energy source. Examples include transmembrane pumps and stator-rotor complexes. These systems undergo cyclic motions (CMs) that are being driven along a well-defined conformational trajectory. Superimposed on these CMs are thermal fluctuations (TFs) that are coupled to stochastic motions of the solvent. Here we explore whether the TFs of a molecular machine are affected by the occurrence of CMs. Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is a light-driven proton pump that serves as a model system in this study. The function of BR is based on a photocycle that involves trans/cis isomerization of a retinal chromophore, as well as motions of transmembrane helices. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry was used to monitor the TFs of BR, focusing on the monomeric form of the protein. Comparative HDX studies were conducted under illumination and in the dark. The HDX kinetics of BR are dramatically accelerated in the presence of light. The isotope exchange rates and the number of backbone amides involved in EX2 opening transitions increase roughly 2-fold upon illumination. In contrast, light/dark control experiments on retinal-free protein produced no discernible differences. It can be concluded that the extent of TFs in BR strongly depends on photon-driven CMs. The light-induced differences in HDX behavior are ascribed to protein destabilization. Specifically, the thermodynamic stability of the dark-adapted protein is estimated to be 5.5 kJ mol(-1) under the conditions of our work. This value represents the free energy difference between the folded state F and a significantly unfolded conformer U. Illumination reduces the stability of F by 2.2 kJ mol(-1). Mechanical agitation caused by isomerization of the chromophore is transferred to the surrounding protein scaffold, and subsequently, the energy dissipates into the solvent. Light-induced retinal motions therefore act analogously to an internal heat

  14. Electrical resistivity dynamics beneath a fractured sedimentary bedrock riverbed in response to temperature and groundwater–surface water exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Steelman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bedrock rivers occur where surface water flows along an exposed rock surface. Fractured sedimentary bedrock can exhibit variable groundwater residence times, anisotropic flow paths, and heterogeneity, along with diffusive exchange between fractures and rock matrix. These properties of the rock will affect thermal transients in the riverbed and groundwater–surface water exchange. In this study, surface electrical methods were used as a non-invasive technique to assess the scale and temporal variability of riverbed temperature and groundwater–surface water interaction beneath a sedimentary bedrock riverbed. Conditions were monitored at a semi-daily to semi-weekly interval over a full annual period that included a seasonal freeze–thaw cycle. Surface electromagnetic induction (EMI and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT methods captured conditions beneath the riverbed along a pool–riffle sequence of the Eramosa River in Canada. Geophysical datasets were accompanied by continuous measurements of aqueous specific conductance, temperature, and river stage. Time-lapse vertical temperature trolling within a lined borehole adjacent to the river revealed active groundwater flow zones along fracture networks within the upper 10 m of rock. EMI measurements collected during cooler high-flow and warmer low-flow periods identified a spatiotemporal riverbed response that was largely dependent upon riverbed morphology and seasonal groundwater temperature. Time-lapse ERT profiles across the pool and riffle sequence identified seasonal transients within the upper 2 and 3 m of rock, respectively, with spatial variations controlled by riverbed morphology (pool versus riffle and dominant surficial rock properties (competent versus weathered rock rubble surface. While the pool and riffle both exhibited a dynamic resistivity through seasonal cooling and warming cycles, conditions beneath the pool were more variable, largely due to the formation of river

  15. The Ecuadorian Artisanal Fishery for Large Pelagics: Species Composition and Spatio-Temporal Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Martínez-Ortiz

    Full Text Available The artisanal fisheries of Ecuador operate within one of the most dynamic and productive marine ecosystems of the world. This study investigates the catch composition of the Ecuadorian artisanal fishery for large pelagic fishes, including aspects of its spatio-temporal dynamics. The analyses of this study are based on the most extensive dataset available to date for this fishery: a total of 106,963 trip-landing inspection records collected at its five principal ports during 2008 ‒ 2012. Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries remove a substantial amount of biomass from the upper trophic-level predatory fish community of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. It is estimated that at least 135 thousand metric tons (mt (about 15.5 million fish were landed in the five principal ports during the study period. The great novelty of Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries is the "oceanic-artisanal" fleet component, which consists of mother-ship (nodriza boats with their towed fiber-glass skiffs (fibras operating with pelagic longlines. This fleet has fully expanded into oceanic waters as far offshore as 100°W, west of the Galapagos Archipelago. It is estimated that nodriza operations produce as much as 80% of the total catches of the artisanal fishery. The remainder is produced by independent fibras operating in inshore waters with pelagic longlines and/or surface gillnets. A multivariate regression tree analysis was used to investigate spatio-environmental effects on the nodriza fleet (n = 6,821 trips. The catch species composition of the nodriza fleet is strongly influenced by the northwesterly circulation of the Humboldt Current along the coast of Peru and its associated cold waters masses. The target species and longline gear-type used by nodrizas change seasonally with the incursion of cool waters (< 25°C from the south and offshore. During this season, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus dominates the catches. However, in warmer waters, the fishery changes to tuna

  16. The Ecuadorian Artisanal Fishery for Large Pelagics: Species Composition and Spatio-Temporal Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ortiz, Jimmy; Aires-da-Silva, Alexandre M; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy E; Maunder, Mark N

    2015-01-01

    The artisanal fisheries of Ecuador operate within one of the most dynamic and productive marine ecosystems of the world. This study investigates the catch composition of the Ecuadorian artisanal fishery for large pelagic fishes, including aspects of its spatio-temporal dynamics. The analyses of this study are based on the most extensive dataset available to date for this fishery: a total of 106,963 trip-landing inspection records collected at its five principal ports during 2008 ‒ 2012. Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries remove a substantial amount of biomass from the upper trophic-level predatory fish community of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. It is estimated that at least 135 thousand metric tons (mt) (about 15.5 million fish) were landed in the five principal ports during the study period. The great novelty of Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries is the "oceanic-artisanal" fleet component, which consists of mother-ship (nodriza) boats with their towed fiber-glass skiffs (fibras) operating with pelagic longlines. This fleet has fully expanded into oceanic waters as far offshore as 100°W, west of the Galapagos Archipelago. It is estimated that nodriza operations produce as much as 80% of the total catches of the artisanal fishery. The remainder is produced by independent fibras operating in inshore waters with pelagic longlines and/or surface gillnets. A multivariate regression tree analysis was used to investigate spatio-environmental effects on the nodriza fleet (n = 6,821 trips). The catch species composition of the nodriza fleet is strongly influenced by the northwesterly circulation of the Humboldt Current along the coast of Peru and its associated cold waters masses. The target species and longline gear-type used by nodrizas change seasonally with the incursion of cool waters (< 25°C) from the south and offshore. During this season, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) dominates the catches. However, in warmer waters, the fishery changes to tuna

  17. Operculina from the northwestern Pacific (Sesoko Island, Japan) Species Differentiation, Population Dynamics, Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades larger benthic foraminifera have gained importance as indicator species and are used in a variety of applications, from ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, or reconstructing paleoenvironments. They significantly contribute to the carbonate budget of costal areas and are invaluable tools in biostratigraphy. Even before their advancement as bioindicators, laboratory experiments have been conducted to investigate the effects of various ecological parameters on community composition, biology of single species, or investigating the effects of salinity and temperature on stable isotope composition of the foraminiferal test, to name only a few. The natural laboratory approach (continuous sampling over a period of more than one year) was conducted at the island of Sesoko (Okinawa, Japan). in combination with µ-CT scanning was used to reveal population dynamics of 3 different morphotypes of Operculina. The clarification of reproductive cycles as well as generation and size abundances were used to calculate natural growth models. Best fit was achieved using Bertalanffy and Michaelis-Menten functions. Exponential-, logistic-, generalized logistic-, Gompertz-function yielded weaker fits, when compared by coefficient of determination as well as Akaike Information criterion. The resulting growth curves and inferred growth rates were in turn used to evaluate the quality of a laboratory cultivation experiment carried out simultaneously over a period of 15 months. Culturing parameters such as temperature, light intensities, salinity and pH and light-dark duration were continuously adapted to measurements in the field. The average investigation time in culture was 77days. 13 Individuals lived more than 200 days, 3 reproduced asexually and one sexually. 14% of 186 Individuals were lost, while 22% could not be kept alive for more than one month. Growth curves also represent an instrumental source of information for the various

  18. Dynamic control of osmolality and ionic composition of the xylem sap in two mangrove species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Portillo, Jorge; Ewers, Frank W; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Paredes López, Claudia L; Angeles, Guillermo; Alarcón Jiménez, Ana Luisa; Lara-Domínguez, Ana Laura; Torres Barrera, María Del Carmen

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Xylem sap osmolality and salinity is a critical unresolved issue in plant function with impacts on transport efficiency, pressure gradients, and living cell turgor pressure, especially for halophytes such as mangrove trees.• Methods: We collected successive xylem vessel sap samples from stems and shoots of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa using vacuum and pressure extraction and measured their osmolality. Following a series of extractions with the pressure chamber, we depressurized the shoot and pressurized again after various equilibration periods (minutes to hours) to test for dynamic control of osmolality. Transpiration and final sap osmolality were measured in shoots perfused with deionized water or different seawater dilutions.• Key results: For both species, the sap osmolality values of consecutive samples collected by vacuum extraction were stable and matched those of the initial samples extracted with the pressure chamber. Further extraction of samples with the pressure chamber decreased sap osmolality, suggesting reverse osmosis occurred. However, sap osmolalities increased when longer equilibration periods after sap extraction were allowed. Analysis of expressed sap with HPLC indicated a 1:1 relation between measured osmolality and the osmolality of the inorganic ions in the sap (mainly Na + , K + , and Cl - ), suggesting no contamination by organic compounds. In stems perfused with deionized water, the sap osmolality increased to mimic the native sap osmolality.• Conclusions: Xylem sap osmolality and ionic contents are dynamically adjusted by mangroves and may help modulate turgor pressure, hydraulic conductivity, and water potential, thus being important for mangrove physiology, survival, and distribution. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  19. Testing for reproductive interference in the population dynamics of two congeneric species of herbivorous mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Alba, J M; Sabelis, M W

    2014-01-01

    When phylogenetically close, two competing species may reproductively interfere, and thereby affect their population dynamics. We tested for reproductive interference (RI) between two congeneric haplo-diploid spider mites, Tetranychus evansi and Tetranychus urticae, by investigating their interspecific mating and their population dynamics when they competed on the same plants. They are both pests of tomato, but differ in the host plant defences that they suppress or induce. To reduce the effect of plant-mediated interaction, we used a mutant tomato plant lacking jasmonate-mediated anti-herbivore defences in the competition experiment. In addition, to manipulate the effect of RI, we introduced founder females already mated with conspecific males in mild RI treatments or founder, virgin females in strong RI treatments (in either case together with heterospecific and conspecific males). As females show first-male sperm precedence, RI should occur especially in the founder generation under strong RI treatments. We found that T. urticae outcompeted T. evansi in mild, but not in strong RI treatments. Thus, T. evansi interfered reproductively with T. urticae. This result was supported by crossing experiments showing frequent interspecific copulations, strong postmating reproductive isolation and a preference of T. evansi males to mate with T. urticae (instead of conspecific) females, whereas T. urticae males preferred conspecific females. We conclude that interspecific mating comes at a cost due to asymmetric mate preferences of males. Because RI by T. evansi can improve its competitiveness to T. urticae, we propose that RI partly explains why T. evansi became invasive in Europe where T. urticae is endemic. PMID:24865602

  20. Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L. in a replacement series experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L., typical representatives of ruderal vegetation, was analyzed in a replacement series experiment. The analyzed species were sown in an area with meadow vegetation, where the vegetation present had been previously removed by a total herbicide and additionally by hoeing. The objective of the experiment was to monitor growth dynamics and the effect of intra- and inter-specific interaction of the species Plantago major and Poa annua in conditions of different sowing densities and proportions. The effects of intra- and inter-specific interference and the density-dependent responses were assessed on the basis of several parameters (natality, mortality, age structure, and measures of ontogenetic changes. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the responses of the species in the experiment were different, which is explained by different adaptive mechanisms, i.e., strategies, in the specific environmental conditions. An effect of the density dependent response was present in both species in the replacement series experiment. The response was amplified by water deficit caused by intensive evapora­tion of the bare soil. No effect of inter-specific interference was observed at the given densities of the study species on the sample plots. An effect of intra-specific interference of the species Plantago major and Poa annua was observed in the guise of a density-negative response of the rate of ontogenetic changes and fecundity.

  1. Evolution and Emergence of Enteroviruses through Intra- and Inter-species Recombination: Plasticity and Phenotypic Impact of Modular Genetic Exchanges in the 5' Untranslated Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslin, Claire; Joffret, Marie-Line; Pelletier, Isabelle; Blondel, Bruno; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Genetic recombination shapes the diversity of RNA viruses, including enteroviruses (EVs), which frequently have mosaic genomes. Pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) genomes consist of mutated vaccine poliovirus (PV) sequences encoding capsid proteins, and sequences encoding nonstructural proteins derived from other species' C EVs, including certain coxsackieviruses A (CV-A) in particular. Many cVDPV genomes also have an exogenous 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). This region is involved in virulence and includes the cloverleaf (CL) and the internal ribosomal entry site, which play major roles in replication and the initiation of translation, respectively. We investigated the plasticity of the PV genome in terms of recombination in the 5' UTR, by developing an experimental model involving the rescue of a bipartite PV/CV-A cVDPV genome rendered defective by mutations in the CL, following the co-transfection of cells with 5' UTR RNAs from each of the four human EV species (EV-A to -D). The defective cVDPV was rescued by recombination with 5' UTR sequences from the four EV species. Homologous and nonhomologous recombinants with large deletions or insertions in three hotspots were isolated, revealing a striking plasticity of the 5' UTR. By contrast to the recombination of the cVDPV with the 5' UTR of group II (EV-A and -B), which can decrease viral replication and virulence, recombination with the 5' UTRs of group I (EV-C and -D) appeared to be evolutionarily neutral or associated with a gain in fitness. This study illustrates how the genomes of positive-strand RNA viruses can evolve into mosaic recombinant genomes through intra- or inter-species modular genetic exchanges, favoring the emergence of new recombinant lineages.

  2. Dynamics of leaf gas exchange, xylem and phloem transport, water potential and carbohydrate concentration in a realistic 3-D model tree crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikinmaa, Eero; Sievänen, Risto; Hölttä, Teemu

    2014-09-01

    Tree models simulate productivity using general gas exchange responses and structural relationships, but they rarely check whether leaf gas exchange and resulting water and assimilate transport and driving pressure gradients remain within acceptable physical boundaries. This study presents an implementation of the cohesion-tension theory of xylem transport and the Münch hypothesis of phloem transport in a realistic 3-D tree structure and assesses the gas exchange and transport dynamics. A mechanistic model of xylem and phloem transport was used, together with a tested leaf assimilation and transpiration model in a realistic tree architecture to simulate leaf gas exchange and water and carbohydrate transport within an 8-year-old Scots pine tree. The model solved the dynamics of the amounts of water and sucrose solute in the xylem, cambium and phloem using a fine-grained mesh with a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. The simulations predicted the observed patterns of pressure gradients and sugar concentration. Diurnal variation of environmental conditions influenced tree-level gradients in turgor pressure and sugar concentration, which are important drivers of carbon allocation. The results and between-shoot variation were sensitive to structural and functional parameters such as tree-level scaling of conduit size and phloem unloading. Linking whole-tree-level water and assimilate transport, gas exchange and sink activity opens a new avenue for plant studies, as features that are difficult to measure can be studied dynamically with the model. Tree-level responses to local and external conditions can be tested, thus making the approach described here a good test-bench for studies of whole-tree physiology.

  3. Flow-Induced New Channels of Energy Exchange in Multi-Scale Plasma Dynamics - Revisiting Perturbative Hybrid Kinetic-MHD Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Junya; Miyato, Naoaki; Matsunaga, Go

    2016-05-10

    It is found that new channels of energy exchange between macro- and microscopic dynamics exist in plasmas. They are induced by macroscopic plasma flow. This finding is based on the kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory, which analyses interaction between macroscopic (MHD-scale) motion and microscopic (particle-scale) dynamics. The kinetic-MHD theory is extended to include effects of macroscopic plasma flow self-consistently. The extension is realised by generalising an energy exchange term due to wave-particle resonance, denoted by δ WK. The first extension is generalisation of the particle's Lagrangian, and the second one stems from modification to the particle distribution function due to flow. These extensions lead to a generalised expression of δ WK, which affects the MHD stability of plasmas.

  4. Divergent carbon dynamics under climate change in forests with diverse soils, tree species, and land use histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Scheller; Alec M. Kretchun; Steve Van Tuyl; Kenneth L. Clark; Melissa S. Lucash; John Hom

    2012-01-01

    Accounting for both climate change and natural disturbances—which typically result in greenhouse gas emissions—is necessary to begin managing forest carbon sequestration. Gaining a complete understanding of forest carbon dynamics is, however, challenging in systems characterized by historic over-utilization, diverse soils and tree species, and...

  5. Effects of herbivore species richness on the niche dynamics of blue sheep Pseudois nayaur in the Indian Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Mishra, C.; Jong, de C.B.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Aim To understand the community structure of mountain ungulates by exploring their niche dynamics in response to sympatric species richness. Location Ladakh and Spiti Regions of the Western Indian Trans-Himalaya. Methods We used the blue sheep Pseudois nayaur, a relatively widely distributed

  6. Effects of river morphology, hydraulic gradients, and sediment deposition on water exchange and oxygen dynamics in salmonid redds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler Wildhaber, Y; Michel, C; Epting, J; Wildhaber, R A; Huber, E; Huggenberger, P; Burkhardt-Holm, P; Alewell, C

    2014-02-01

    Fine sediment decreasing gravel permeability and oxygen supply to incubating salmonid embryos, is often considered the main contributing factor for the observed decline of salmonid populations. However, oxygen supply to salmonid embryos also depends on hydraulic conditions driving water flow through the redd. A more generalized perspective is needed to better understand the constraints on successful salmonid incubation in the many heavily modified fluvial ecosystems of the Northern Hemisphere. The effects of hydraulic gradients, riverbed and redd morphology as well as fine sediment deposition on dissolved oxygen (DO) and water exchange was studied in 18 artificial redds at three sites along a modified river. Fifty percent of the redds in the two downstream sites were lost during high flow events, while redd loss at the upstream site was substantially lower (8%). This pattern was likely related to increasing flood heights from up- to downstream. Specific water infiltration rates (q) and DO were highly dynamic and driven on multiple temporal and spatial scales. Temporally, the high permeability of the redd gravel and the typical pit-tail structure of the new built redds, leading to high DO, disappeared within a month, when fine sediment had infiltrated and the redd structure was leveled. On the scale of hours to days, DO concentrations and q increased during high flows, but decreased during the falling limb of the water level, most likely related to exfiltration of oxygen depleted groundwater or hyporheic water. DO concentrations also decreased under prolonged base flow conditions, when increased infiltration of silt and clay particles clogged the riverbed and reduced q. Spatially, artificial log steps affected fine sediment infiltration, q and interstitial DO in the redds. The results demonstrate that multiple factors have to be considered for successful river management in salmonid streams, including riverbed structure and local and regional hydrogeological

  7. Impacts of Suspended Sediment and Estuarine - Shelf Exchange Pathways on Shelf Ecosystem Dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggert, J. D.; Pan, C.; Dinniman, M. S.; Lau, Y.; Fitzpatrick, P. J.; O'Brien, S. J.; Bouchard, C.; Quas, L. M.; Miles, T. N.; Cambazoglu, M. K.; Dykstra, S. L.; Dzwonkowski, B.; Jacobs, G. A.; Church, I.; Hofmann, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    A circulation model based on the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System, with coupled biogeochemical and sediment transport modules, has been implemented for Mississippi Sound and the adjacent continental shelf region. The model has 400-m horizontal resolution, 24 vertical layers, and includes wetting/drying capability to resolve shallow inshore regions. The circulation model was spun-up using oceanographic initial and lateral boundary conditions provided by a 1-km resolution regional implementation of the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) in the Gulf of Mexico. The biogeochemical module includes multiple size classes of phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus, a fish larvae compartment, and explicitly tracks dissolved oxygen with benthic cycling interaction. The sediment transport model is implemented based on benthic mapping data that provides bottom sediment type distributions and spatio-temporal validation. A regionally specific atmospheric forcing product that provides improved spatial and temporal resolution, including diurnal sea breeze impacts, has been developed and applied. Model experiments focus on periods when comprehensive ship-based sampling was deployed by the CONCORDE (Consortium for Coastal River-Dominated Ecosystems) research program, which was established to investigate the complex fine-scale biological, chemical and physical interactions in a marine system controlled by pulsed-river plume dynamics. Biophysical interactions and biogeochemical variability associated with estuarine - shelf exchanges between nearshore lagoonal estuarine waters and the continental shelf revealed by the model provide new insight into how seasonal variation of hydrological forcing conditions influence ecological and biogeochemical processes in the highly productive Northern Gulf region. Application of the COAWST-based model system with and without inclusion of the sediment transport module demonstrates how suspended sediment in the

  8. Structure and Dynamics of NBD1 from CFTR Characterized Using Crystallography and Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, H.A.; Wang, C.; Zhao, X.; Hamuro, Y.; Conners, K.; Kearins, M.C.; Lu, F.; Sauder, J.M.; Molnar, K.S.; Coales, S.J.; Maloney, P.C.; Guggino, W.B.; Wetmore, D.R.; Weber, P.C.; Hunt, J.F. (SGX); (ExSAR); (Cystic); (JHU-MED); (Columbia)

    2012-04-30

    The {Delta}F508 mutation in nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the predominant cause of cystic fibrosis. Previous biophysical studies on human F508 and {Delta}F508 domains showed only local structural changes restricted to residues 509-511 and only minor differences in folding rate and stability. These results were remarkable because {Delta}F508 was widely assumed to perturb domain folding based on the fact that it prevents trafficking of CFTR out of the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the previously reported crystal structures did not come from matched F508 and {Delta}F508 constructs, and the {Delta}F508 structure contained additional mutations that were required to obtain sufficient protein solubility. In this article, we present additional biophysical studies of NBD1 designed to address these ambiguities. Mass spectral measurements of backbone amide {sup 1}H/{sup 2}H exchange rates in matched F508 and {Delta}F508 constructs reveal that {Delta}F508 increases backbone dynamics at residues 509-511 and the adjacent protein segments but not elsewhere in NBD1. These measurements also confirm a high level of flexibility in the protein segments exhibiting variable conformations in the crystal structures. We additionally present crystal structures of a broader set of human NBD1 constructs, including one harboring the native F508 residue and others harboring the {Delta}F508 mutation in the presence of fewer and different solubilizing mutations. The only consistent conformational difference is observed at residues 509-511. The side chain of residue V510 in this loop is mostly buried in all non-{Delta}F508 structures but completely solvent exposed in all {Delta}F508 structures. These results reinforce the importance of the perturbation {Delta}F508 causes in the surface topography of NBD1 in a region likely to mediate contact with the transmembrane domains of CFTR. However, they also suggest that increased

  9. Methodological framework for economical and controllable design of heat exchanger networks: Steady-state analysis, dynamic simulation, and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, Ibrahim T.; Abdel-Jabbar, Nabil; Qasim, Muhammad; Chebbi, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • HEN total annualized cost, heat recovery, and controllability are considered in the framework. • Steady-state and dynamic simulations are performed. • Effect of bypass on total annualized cost and controllability is reported. • Optimum bypass fractions are found from closed and open-loop efforts. - Abstract: The problem of interaction between economic design and control system design of heat exchanger networks (HENs) is addressed in this work. The controllability issues are incorporated in the classical design of HENs. A new methodological framework is proposed to account for both economics and controllability of HENs. Two classical design methods are employed, namely, Pinch and superstructure designs. Controllability measures such as relative gain array (RGA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) are used. The proposed framework also presents a bypass placement strategy for optimal control of the designed network. A case study is used to test the applicability of the framework and to assess both economics and controllability. The results indicate that the superstructure design is more economical and controllable compared to the Pinch design. The controllability of the designed HEN is evaluated using Aspen-HYSYS closed-loop dynamic simulator. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed to study the effect of bypass fractions on the total annualized cost and controllability of the designed HEN. The analysis shows that increasing any bypass fraction increases the total annualized cost. However, the trend with the total annualized cost was not observed with respect to the control effort manifested by minimizing the integral of the squared errors (ISE) between the controlled stream temperatures and their targets (set-points). An optimal ISE point is found at a certain bypass fraction, which does not correspond to the minimal total annualized cost. The bypass fractions are validated via open-loop simulation and the additional cooling and

  10. Dynamic Effect of a Change in the Exchange Rate System: From a Fixed Regime to a Basket-Peg or a Floating Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Kaji, Sahoko; Asonuma, Tamon

    2015-01-01

    This paper theoretically evaluates the dynamic effects of a shift in an exchange rate system from a fixed regime to a basket peg, or to a floating regime, and obtains transition paths for the shift based on a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model of a small open economy. We apply quantitative analysis using data from the People's Republic of China and Thailand and find that a small open country would be better off shifting to a basket peg or to a floating regime than maintaining a doll...

  11. Dynamics of ammonia exchange with cut grassland: synthesis of results and conclusions of the GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sutton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Improved data on biosphere-atmosphere exchange are fundamental to understanding the production and fate of ammonia (NH3 in the atmosphere. The GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment combined novel measurement and modelling approaches to provide the most comprehensive analysis of the interactions to date. Major inter-comparisons of micrometeorological parameters and NH3 flux measurements using the aerodynamic gradient method and relaxed eddy accumulation (REA were conducted. These showed close agreement, though the REA systems proved insufficiently precise to investigate vertical flux divergence. Grassland management had a large effect on fluxes: emissions increased after grass cutting (−50 to 700 ng m−2 s−1 NH3 and after N-fertilization (0 to 3800 ng m−2 s−1 compared with before the cut (−60 to 40 ng m−2 s−1.

    Effects of advection and air chemistry were investigated using horizontal NH3 profiles, acid gas and particle flux measurements. Inverse modelling of NH3 emission from an experimental farm agreed closely with inventory estimates, while advection errors were used to correct measured grassland fluxes. Advection effects were caused both by the farm and by emissions from the field, with an inverse dispersion-deposition model providing a reliable new approach to estimate net NH3 fluxes. Effects of aerosol chemistry on net NH3 fluxes were small, while the measurements allowed NH3-induced particle growth rates to be calculated and aerosol fluxes to be corrected.

    Bioassays estimated the emission potential Γ = [NH4+]/[H+] for different plant pools, with the apoplast having the smallest values (30–1000. The main within-canopy sources of NH3 emission appeared to be leaf litter and the soil surface, with Γ up to 3 million and

  12. Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics in forest soils depending on light conditions and tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselinovic, Bojana; Hager, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Climate change mitigation actions under the Kyoto Protocol apply among other decreases of CO2-emissions and/or increases of carbon (C) stocks. As soils represent the second biggest C-reservoir on Earth, an exact estimation of the stocks and reliable knowledge on C-dynamics in forest soils is of high importance. Anyhow, here, the accurate GHG-accounting, emission reductions and increase in C stocks is hampered due to lack of reliable data and solid statistical methods for the factors which influence C-sequestration in and its release from these systems. In spite of good progress in the scientific research, these factors are numerous and diverse in their interactions. This work focuses on influence of the economically relevant tree species - Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp. - and light conditions on forest floor and mineral soil C and N dynamics in forest soils. Spruce monocultures have been widely used management practices in central European forests during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes and on heavy and water logged soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially to windthrows. We hypothesize that windthrow areas loose C & N and that the establishment of the previous nutrient stocks is, if at all, only possible to be reached over the longer periods of time. We research also how the increased OM depletion affects the change of C & N stocks in forest floor vs. mineral soil. Conversion of such secondary spruce monocultures to site adequate beech and oak forests may enable higher stocks allocated predominantly as stable organic carbon and as plant available nitrogen. For this purpose sites at 300-700 m altitude with planosols were chosen in the region of the Northern Alpine Foothills. A false chronosequence approach was used in order to evaluate the impacts of the tree species and change in light conditions on dynamic of C & N in the forest floor and mineral soil, over the period 0-100 (for oak 120 y.) years. The C- and N

  13. Remote Sensing Dynamic Monitoring of Biological Invasive Species Based on Adaptive PCNN and Improved C-V Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG Gang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological species invasion problem bring serious damage to the ecosystem, and have become one of the six major enviromental problems that affect the future economic development, also have become one of the hot topic in domestic and foreign scholars. Remote sensing technology has been successfully used in the investigation of coastal zone resources, dynamic monitoring of the resources and environment, and other fields. It will cite a new remote sensing image change detection algorithm based on adaptive pulse coupled neural network (PCNN and improved C-V model, for remote sensing dynamic monitoring of biological species invasion. The experimental results show that the algorithm is effective in the test results of biological species invasions.

  14. Osmotic adjustment, gas exchanges and chlorophyll fluorescence of a hexaploid triticale and its parental species under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant-Manceau, Annick; Pradier, Elisabeth; Tremblin, Gérard

    2004-01-01

    The effect of salt stress (NaCl 85.7 or 110 mmol/L) was investigated in the triticale T300 and its parental species, Triticum dicoccum farrum (Triticum df) and Secale cereale cv. Petkus. Triticum df and T300 were more salt-tolerant than the rye (110 mmol/L NaCl was the highest concentration allowing rye growth to the three-leaf stage). Na+, K+ and Cl- ions accounted for almost half of the osmotic adjustment in Triticum df and T300, and up to 90% in rye. Salinity decreased the net photosynthesis and transpiration rates of the three cereals as compared to control plants, but induced no significant change in chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. Water-use efficiency (WUE) increased with salinity. In the presence of 110 mmol/L NaCl, the K+/Na+ ratio decreased markedly in rye as compared to the other two cereals. Proline concentration, which increased in Triticum df and T300, could have protected membrane selectivity in favour of K+. Proline content remained low in rye, and increasing soluble sugar content did not appear to prevent competition between Na+ and K+. The salt sensitivity of rye could be due to low K+ uptake in the presence of a high NaCl concentration.

  15. Occupancy dynamics in a tropical bird community: unexpectedly high forest use by birds classified as non-forest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana; Zipkin, Elise F.; Dhondt, Andre A.

    2010-01-01

    1. Worldwide loss of biodiversity necessitates a clear understanding of the factors driving population declines as well as informed predictions about which species and populations are at greatest risk. The biggest threat to the long-term persistence of populations is the reduction and changes in configuration of their natural habitat. 2. Inconsistencies have been noted in the responses of populations to the combined effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. These have been widely attributed to the effects of the matrix habitats in which remnant focal habitats are typically embedded. 3. We quantified the potential effects of the inter-patch matrix by estimating occupancy and colonization of forest and surrounding non-forest matrix (NF). We estimated species-specific parameters using a dynamic, multi-species hierarchical model on a bird community in southwestern Costa Rica. 4. Overall, we found higher probabilities of occupancy and colonization of forest relative to the NF across bird species, including those previously categorized as open habitat generalists not needing forest to persist. Forest dependency was a poor predictor of occupancy dynamics in our study region, largely predicting occupancy and colonization of only non-forest habitats. 5. Our results indicate that the protection of remnant forest habitats is key for the long-term persistence of all members of the bird community in this fragmented landscape, including species typically associated with open, non-forest habitats. 6.Synthesis and applications. We identified 39 bird species of conservation concern defined by having high estimates of forest occupancy, and low estimates of occupancy and colonization of non-forest. These species survive in forest but are unlikely to venture out into open, non-forested habitats, therefore, they are vulnerable to the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Our hierarchical community-level model can be used to estimate species-specific occupancy dynamics for focal

  16. Historical dynamics and current environmental effects explain the spatial distribution of species richness patterns of New World monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vallejos-Garrido

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Why biodiversity is not uniformly distributed on the Earth is a major research question of biogeography. One of the most striking patterns of disparity in species distribution are the biodiversity hotspots, which generally do not fit with the distribution of relevant components of the Neotropical biota. In this study, we assess the proximal causes of the species-richness pattern of one of the most conspicuous groups of Neotropical mammals, the New World monkeys the Platyrrhini. We test two complementary hypotheses: (1 there is a historical source-sink dynamic (addressed using macroevolutionary and macroecological approaches; (2 the large number of species in the Amazon basin is due to the constraints imposed by environmental variables occurring outside this area. Methods We first characterize spatial patterns of species richness and biodiversity hotspots using a new, objective protocol based on probabilities. Then we evaluate the source-sink hypothesis using BioGeoBEARS analysis and nestedness analysis of species richness patterns. Complementarily, to measure how often different species pairs appear in the same sites, we used null models to estimate the checkerboard score index (C-score. Finally, we evaluate the relationship between several climatic variables and species richness through ordinary least squares (OLS and spatial autoregressive (SAR models, and the potential environmental constraints on the pattern. Results We found one significant cluster of high values for species richness in the Amazon basin. Most dispersal events occurred from the Amazonian subregion to other Neotropical areas. Temperature (T, discrepancy (BR, and NODF indexes show a significant nesting in the matrix ordered by species richness and available energy. The C-score observed was significantly smaller than the null expectation for all sites in the Neotropics where there are records of platyrrhine species. Ten climatic variables comprised the best

  17. Seasonal climate manipulations have only minor effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics but strong effects on litter P dynamics of sub-arctic bog species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, R; Callaghan, T V; Dorrepaal, E; van Logtestijn, R S P; Cornelissen, J H C

    2012-11-01

    Litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization in high-latitude peatlands are constrained by low temperatures. So far, little is known about the effects of seasonal components of climate change (higher spring and summer temperatures, more snow which leads to higher winter soil temperatures) on these processes. In a 4-year field experiment, we manipulated these seasonal components in a sub-arctic bog and studied the effects on the decomposition and N and P dynamics of leaf litter of Calamagrostis lapponica, Betula nana, and Rubus chamaemorus, incubated both in a common ambient environment and in the treatment plots. Mass loss in the controls increased in the order Calamagrostis Litter chemistry showed within each incubation environment only a few and species-specific responses. Compared to the interspecific differences, they resulted in only moderate climate treatment effects on mass loss and these differed among seasons and species. Neither N nor P mineralization in the litter were affected by the incubation environment. Remarkably, for all species, no net N mineralization had occurred in any of the treatments during 4 years. Species differed in P-release patterns, and summer warming strongly stimulated P release for all species. Thus, moderate changes in summer temperatures and/or winter snow addition have limited effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics, but summer warming does stimulate litter P release. As a result, N-limitation of plant growth in this sub-arctic bog may be sustained or even further promoted.

  18. Simultaneous separation and determination of six arsenic species in rice by anion-exchange chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Yang, Zhaoguang; Tang, Jie; Wang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    The simultaneous separation and determination of arsenite As(III), arsenate As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), and arsenocholine (AsC) in rice samples have been carried out in one single anion-exchange column run by high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To estimate the effect of variables on arsenic (As) speciation, the chromatographic conditions including type of competing anion, ionic strength, pH of elution buffer, and flow rate of mobile phase have been investigated by a univariate approach. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions, baseline separation of six As species has been achieved within 10 min by gradient elution program using 4 mM NH4 HCO3 at pH 8.6 as mobile phase A and 4 mM NH4 HCO3 , 40 mM NH4 NO3 at pH 8.6 as mobile phase B. The method detection limits for As(III), As(V), MMA, DMA, AsB, and AsC were 0.4, 0.9, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.3 μg/kg, respectively. The proposed method has been applied to separation and quantification of As species in real rice samples collected from Hunan Province, China. The main As species detected in all samples were As(III), As(V) and DMA, with inorganic As accounting for over 80% of total As in these samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Evolution and Emergence of Enteroviruses through Intra- and Inter-species Recombination: Plasticity and Phenotypic Impact of Modular Genetic Exchanges in the 5’ Untranslated Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslin, Claire; Joffret, Marie-Line; Pelletier, Isabelle; Blondel, Bruno; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Genetic recombination shapes the diversity of RNA viruses, including enteroviruses (EVs), which frequently have mosaic genomes. Pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) genomes consist of mutated vaccine poliovirus (PV) sequences encoding capsid proteins, and sequences encoding nonstructural proteins derived from other species’ C EVs, including certain coxsackieviruses A (CV-A) in particular. Many cVDPV genomes also have an exogenous 5’ untranslated region (5’ UTR). This region is involved in virulence and includes the cloverleaf (CL) and the internal ribosomal entry site, which play major roles in replication and the initiation of translation, respectively. We investigated the plasticity of the PV genome in terms of recombination in the 5’ UTR, by developing an experimental model involving the rescue of a bipartite PV/CV-A cVDPV genome rendered defective by mutations in the CL, following the co-transfection of cells with 5’ UTR RNAs from each of the four human EV species (EV-A to -D). The defective cVDPV was rescued by recombination with 5’ UTR sequences from the four EV species. Homologous and nonhomologous recombinants with large deletions or insertions in three hotspots were isolated, revealing a striking plasticity of the 5’ UTR. By contrast to the recombination of the cVDPV with the 5’ UTR of group II (EV-A and -B), which can decrease viral replication and virulence, recombination with the 5’ UTRs of group I (EV-C and -D) appeared to be evolutionarily neutral or associated with a gain in fitness. This study illustrates how the genomes of positive-strand RNA viruses can evolve into mosaic recombinant genomes through intra- or inter-species modular genetic exchanges, favoring the emergence of new recombinant lineages. PMID:26562151

  20. Co-ordination of growth, gas exchange and hydraulics define the carbon safety margin in tree species with contrasting drought strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P J; O'Grady, A P; Tissue, D T; Worledge, D; Pinkard, E A

    2014-05-01

    Gas exchange, growth, water transport and carbon (C) metabolism diminish during drought according to their respective sensitivities to declining water status. The timing of this sequence of declining physiological functions may determine how water and C relations compromise plant survival. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that the degree of asynchrony between declining C supply (photosynthesis) and C demand (growth and respiration) determines the rate and magnitude of changes in whole-plant non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) during drought. Two complementary experiments using two tree species (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Pinus radiata D. Don) with contrasting drought response strategies were performed to (i) assess changes in radial stem growth, transpiration, leaf water potential and gas exchange in response to chronic drought, and (ii) evaluate the concomitant impacts of these drought responses on the temporal patterns of NSC during terminal drought. The three distinct phases of water stress were delineated by thresholds of growth cessation and stomatal closure that defined the 'carbon safety margin' (i.e., the difference between leaf water potential when growth is zero and leaf water potential when net photosynthesis is zero). A wider C safety margin in E. globulus was defined by an earlier cessation of growth relative to photosynthesis that reduced the demand for NSC while maintaining C acquisition. By contrast, the narrower C safety margin in P. radiata was characterized by a synchronous decline in growth and photosynthesis, whereby growth continued under a declining supply of NSC from photosynthesis. The narrower C safety margin in P. radiata was associated with declines in starch concentrations after ∼ 90 days of chronic drought and significant depletion of starch in all organs at mortality. The observed divergence in the sensitivity of drought responses is indicative of a potential trade-off between maintaining hydraulic safety and adequate C

  1. Seasonal Dynamics of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species Proven Vectors of Mediterranean Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Alten

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent geographical expansion of phlebotomine vectors of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean subregion has been attributed to ongoing climate changes. At these latitudes, the activity of sand flies is typically seasonal; because seasonal phenomena are also sensitive to general variations in climate, current phenological data sets can provide a baseline for continuing investigations on sand fly population dynamics that may impact on future scenarios of leishmaniasis transmission. With this aim, in 2011-2013 a consortium of partners from eight Mediterranean countries carried out entomological investigations in sites where L. infantum transmission was recently reported.A common protocol for sand fly collection included monthly captures by CDC light traps, complemented by sticky traps in most of the sites. Collections were replicated for more than one season in order to reduce the effects of local weather events. In each site, the trapping effort was left unchanged throughout the survey to legitimate inter-seasonal comparisons. Data from 99,000 collected specimens were analyzed, resulting in the description of seasonal dynamics of 56,000 sand flies belonging to L. infantum vector species throughout a wide geographical area, namely P. perniciosus (Portugal, Spain and Italy, P. ariasi (France, P. neglectus (Greece, P. tobbi (Cyprus and Turkey, P. balcanicus and P. kandelakii (Georgia. Time of sand fly appearance/disappearance in collections differed between sites, and seasonal densities showed variations in each site. Significant correlations were found between latitude/mean annual temperature of sites and i the first month of sand fly appearance, that ranged from early April to the first half of June; ii the type of density trend, varying from a single peak in July/August to multiple peaks increasing in magnitude from May through September. A 3-modal trend, recorded for P. tobbi in Cyprus, represents a novel finding for a L. infantum vector

  2. Seasonal Dynamics of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species Proven Vectors of Mediterranean Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alten, Bulent; Maia, Carla; Afonso, Maria Odete; Campino, Lenea; Jiménez, Maribel; González, Estela; Molina, Ricardo; Bañuls, Anne Laure; Prudhomme, Jorian; Vergnes, Baptiste; Toty, Celine; Cassan, Cécile; Rahola, Nil; Thierry, Magali; Sereno, Denis; Bongiorno, Gioia; Bianchi, Riccardo; Khoury, Cristina; Tsirigotakis, Nikolaos; Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Antoniou, Maria; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Mazeris, Apostolos; Karakus, Mehmet; Ozbel, Yusuf; Arserim, Suha K; Erisoz Kasap, Ozge; Gunay, Filiz; Oguz, Gizem; Kaynas, Sinan; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Tskhvaradze, Lamzira; Giorgobiani, Ekaterina; Gramiccia, Marina; Volf, Petr; Gradoni, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    The recent geographical expansion of phlebotomine vectors of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean subregion has been attributed to ongoing climate changes. At these latitudes, the activity of sand flies is typically seasonal; because seasonal phenomena are also sensitive to general variations in climate, current phenological data sets can provide a baseline for continuing investigations on sand fly population dynamics that may impact on future scenarios of leishmaniasis transmission. With this aim, in 2011-2013 a consortium of partners from eight Mediterranean countries carried out entomological investigations in sites where L. infantum transmission was recently reported. A common protocol for sand fly collection included monthly captures by CDC light traps, complemented by sticky traps in most of the sites. Collections were replicated for more than one season in order to reduce the effects of local weather events. In each site, the trapping effort was left unchanged throughout the survey to legitimate inter-seasonal comparisons. Data from 99,000 collected specimens were analyzed, resulting in the description of seasonal dynamics of 56,000 sand flies belonging to L. infantum vector species throughout a wide geographical area, namely P. perniciosus (Portugal, Spain and Italy), P. ariasi (France), P. neglectus (Greece), P. tobbi (Cyprus and Turkey), P. balcanicus and P. kandelakii (Georgia). Time of sand fly appearance/disappearance in collections differed between sites, and seasonal densities showed variations in each site. Significant correlations were found between latitude/mean annual temperature of sites and i) the first month of sand fly appearance, that ranged from early April to the first half of June; ii) the type of density trend, varying from a single peak in July/August to multiple peaks increasing in magnitude from May through September. A 3-modal trend, recorded for P. tobbi in Cyprus, represents a novel finding for a L. infantum vector. Adults

  3. Species frequency dynamics in an old-field succession: Effects of disturbance, fertilization and scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, D.J.; Middleton, B.A.; Foster, K.; Honu, Y.A.K.; Hoyer, E.W.; Mathis, M.

    2005-01-01

    Question: Can patterns of species frequency in an old-field be explained within the context of a metapopulation model? Are the patterns observed related to time, spatial scale, disturbance, and nutrient availability? Location: Upland and lowland old-fields in Illinois, USA. Method: Species richness was recorded annually for seven years following plowing of an upland and lowland old-field subject to crossed fertilizer and disturbance treatments (mowing and rototilling). Species occupancy distributions were assessed with respect to the numbers of core and satellite species. Results: In both fields, species richness became higher in disturbed plots than in undisturbed plots over time, and decreased in fertilized plots irrespective of time. A bimodal pattern of species richness consistent with the Core-satellite species (CSS) hypothesis occurred in the initial seed bank and through the course of early succession. The identity of native and exotic core species (those present in > 90% of blocks) changed with time. Some core species from the seed bank became core species in the vegetation, albeit after several years. At the scale of individual plots, a bimodal fit consistent with the CSS hypothesis applied only in year 1 and rarely thereafter. Conclusions: The CSS hypothesis provides a metapopulation perspective for understanding patterns of species richness but requires the assessment of spatial and temporal scaling effects. Regional processes (e.g. propagule availability) at the largest scale have the greatest impact influencing community structure during early secondary succession. Local processes (e.g., disturbance and soil nutrients) are more important at smaller scales and place constraints on species establishment and community structure of both native and exotic species. Under the highest intensity of disturbance, exotic species may be able to use resources unavailable to, or unused by, native species. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  4. Quantification of the effect of water exchange in dynamic contrast MRI perfusion measurements in the brain and heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Rosenbaum, S; Fritz-Hansen, T

    2001-01-01

    Measurement of myocardial and brain perfusion when using exogenous contrast agents (CAs) such as gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) and MRI is affected by the diffusion of water between compartments. This water exchange may have an impact on signal enhancement, or, equivalently, on the longitudinal...... exchange can have a significant effect on perfusion estimation (F) in the brain when using Gd-DTPA, where it acts as an intravascular contrast agent....

  5. A 3-D functional-structural grapevine model that couples the dynamics of water transport with leaf gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junqi; Dai, Zhanwu; Vivin, Philippe; Gambetta, Gregory A; Henke, Michael; Peccoux, Anthony; Ollat, Nathalie; Delrot, Serge

    2017-12-23

    Predicting both plant water status and leaf gas exchange under various environmental conditions is essential for anticipating the effects of climate change on plant growth and productivity. This study developed a functional-structural grapevine model which combines a mechanistic understanding of stomatal function and photosynthesis at the leaf level (i.e. extended Farqhuhar-von Caemmerer-Berry model) and the dynamics of water transport from soil to individual leaves (i.e. Tardieu-Davies model). The model included novel features that account for the effects of xylem embolism (fPLC) on leaf hydraulic conductance and residual stomatal conductance (g0), variable root and leaf hydraulic conductance, and the microclimate of individual organs. The model was calibrated with detailed datasets of leaf photosynthesis, leaf water potential, xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and hourly whole-plant transpiration observed within a soil drying period, and validated with independent datasets of whole-plant transpiration under both well-watered and water-stressed conditions. The model well captured the effects of radiation, temperature, CO2 and vapour pressure deficit on leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential, and correctly reproduced the diurnal pattern and decline of water flux within the soil drying period. In silico analyses revealed that decreases in g0 with increasing fPLC were essential to avoid unrealistic drops in leaf water potential under severe water stress. Additionally, by varying the hydraulic conductance along the pathway (e.g. root and leaves) and changing the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to ABA and leaf water potential, the model can produce different water use behaviours (i.e. iso- and anisohydric). The robust performance of this model allows for modelling climate effects from individual plants to fields, and for modelling plants with complex, non-homogenous canopies. In addition, the model provides a

  6. The invasive species Ulex europaeus (Fabaceae) shows high dynamism in a fragmented landscape of south-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Adison; Cely, Jenny Paola; Etter, Andrés; Miranda, Alejandro; Fuentes-Ramirez, Andres; Acevedo, Patricio; Salas, Christian; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2016-08-01

    Ulex europaeus (gorse) is an invasive shrub deemed as one of the most invasive species in the world. U. europaeus is widely distributed in the south-central area of Chile, which is considered a world hotspot for biodiversity conservation. In addition to its negative effects on the biodiversity of natural ecosystems, U. europaeus is one of the most severe pests for agriculture and forestry. Despite its importance as an invasive species, U. europaeus has been little studied. Although information exists on the potential distribution of the species, the interaction of the invasion process with the spatial dynamic of the landscape and the landscape-scale factors that control the presence or absence of the species is still lacking. We studied the spatial and temporal dynamics of the landscape and how these relate to U. europaeus invasion in south-central Chile. We used supervised classification of satellite images to determine the spatial distribution of the species and other land covers for the years 1986 and 2003, analysing the transitions between the different land covers. We used logistic regression for modelling the increase, decrease and permanence of U. europaeus invasion considering landscape variables. Results showed that the species covers only around 1 % of the study area and showed a 42 % reduction in area for the studied period. However, U. europaeus was the cover type which presented the greatest dynamism in the landscape. We found a strong relationship between changes in land cover and the invasion process, especially connected with forest plantations of exotic species, which promotes the displacement of U. europaeus. The model of gorse cover increase presented the best performance, and the most important predictors were distance to seed source and landscape complexity index. Our model predicted high spread potential of U. europaeus in areas of high conservation value. We conclude that proper management for this invasive species must take into account

  7. Seasonal dynamics, age structure and reproduction of four Carabus species (Coleoptera: Carabidae) living in forested landscapes in Hungary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Ferenc; Fazekas, Judit P.; Sárospataki, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics and reproductive phenological parameters of four Carabus species (C. convexus, C. coriaceus, C. germarii and C. hortensis) common in Hungary were studied by pitfall trapping and dissection. Beetles were collected in an abandoned apple orchard and in the bordering oak forest near...... Budapest (Central Hungary), in 1988–1991. The sex ratio was male-dominated, but this was significant only for C. coriaceus. The catch of C. germarii adults showed relatively short activity period with unimodal curve, but activity was longer and bimodal for the other three species. Adults of C. germarii...

  8. Conformational exchange in pseudoazurin: different kinds of microsecond to millisecond dynamics characterized by their pH and buffer dependence using 15N NMR relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Mathias A S; Vlasie, Monica D; Ubbink, Marcellus; Led, Jens J

    2009-01-13

    The dynamics of the reduced form of the blue copper protein pseudoazurin from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 was investigated using (15)N relaxation measurements with a focus on the dynamics of the micro- to millisecond time scale. Different types of conformational exchange processes are observed in the protein on this time scale. At low pH, the protonation of the C-terminal copper-ligated histidine, His81, is observed. A comparison of the exchange rates in the presence and absence of added buffers shows that the protonation is the rate-limiting step at low buffer concentrations. This finding agrees with previous observations for other blue copper proteins, e.g., amicyanin and plastocyanin. However, in contrast to plastocyanin but similar to amicyanin, a second conformational exchange between different conformations of the protonated copper site is observed at low pH, most likely triggered by the protonation of His81. This process has been further characterized using CPMG dispersion methods and is found to occur with a rate of a few thousands per second. Finally, micro- to millisecond motions are observed in one of the loop regions and in the alpha-helical regions. These motions are unaffected by pH and are unrelated to the conformational changes in the active site of pseudoazurin.

  9. Water droplet dynamic behavior during removal from a proton exchange membrane fuel cell gas diffusion layer by Lattice-Boltzmann method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molaeimanesh, Golamreza; Akbari, Mohammad Hadi [Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    A major challenge in the application of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is water management, with the flooding of electrodes as the main issue. The Lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) is a relatively new technique that is superior in modeling the dynamic interface of multiphase fluid flow in complex microstructures such as non-homogeneous and anisotropic porous media of PEMFC electrodes. In this study, the dynamic behavior of a water droplet during removal from gas diffusion layer (GDL) of a PEMFC electrode with interdigitated flow field is simulated using LBM. The effects of GDL wettability and its spanwise and transverse gradients on the removal process are investigated. The results demonstrate great influence of wettability and its spanwise and transverse gradients on the dynamic behavior of droplets during the removal process. Although increasing the hydrophobicity of GDL results in better droplet removal, its increase beyond a critical value does not show a significant effect.

  10. Effects of force fields on the conformational and dynamic properties of amyloid β(1-40) dimer explored by replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Charles R; Gregory, Andrew; Frisbie, Cole; Lovas, Sándor

    2018-03-01

    The conformational space and structural ensembles of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides and their oligomers in solution are inherently disordered and proven to be challenging to study. Optimum force field selection for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and the biophysical relevance of results are still unknown. We compared the conformational space of the Aβ(1-40) dimers by 300 ns replica exchange MD simulations at physiological temperature (310 K) using: the AMBER-ff99sb-ILDN, AMBER-ff99sb*-ILDN, AMBER-ff99sb-NMR, and CHARMM22* force fields. Statistical comparisons of simulation results to experimental data and previously published simulations utilizing the CHARMM22* and CHARMM36 force fields were performed. All force fields yield sampled ensembles of conformations with collision cross sectional areas for the dimer that are statistically significantly larger than experimental results. All force fields, with the exception of AMBER-ff99sb-ILDN (8.8 ± 6.4%) and CHARMM36 (2.7 ± 4.2%), tend to overestimate the α-helical content compared to experimental CD (5.3 ± 5.2%). Using the AMBER-ff99sb-NMR force field resulted in the greatest degree of variance (41.3 ± 12.9%). Except for the AMBER-ff99sb-NMR force field, the others tended to under estimate the expected amount of β-sheet and over estimate the amount of turn/bend/random coil conformations. All force fields, with the exception AMBER-ff99sb-NMR, reproduce a theoretically expected β-sheet-turn-β-sheet conformational motif, however, only the CHARMM22* and CHARMM36 force fields yield results compatible with collapse of the central and C-terminal hydrophobic cores from residues 17-21 and 30-36. Although analyses of essential subspace sampling showed only minor variations between force fields, secondary structures of lowest energy conformers are different. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Asymmetric biotic interactions and abiotic niche differences revealed by a dynamic joint species distribution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Nina K; Zarnetske, Phoebe L; Schliep, Erin M; Schaeffer, Robert N; Orians, Colin M; Orwig, David A; Preisser, Evan L

    2018-05-01

    A species' distribution and abundance are determined by abiotic conditions and biotic interactions with other species in the community. Most species distribution models correlate the occurrence of a single species with environmental variables only, and leave out biotic interactions. To test the importance of biotic interactions on occurrence and abundance, we compared a multivariate spatiotemporal model of the joint abundance of two invasive insects that share a host plant, hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae) and elongate hemlock scale (EHS; Fiorina externa), to independent models that do not account for dependence among co-occurring species. The joint model revealed that HWA responded more strongly to abiotic conditions than EHS. Additionally, HWA appeared to predispose stands to subsequent increase of EHS, but HWA abundance was not strongly dependent on EHS abundance. This study demonstrates how incorporating spatial and temporal dependence into a species distribution model can reveal the dependence of a species' abundance on other species in the community. Accounting for dependence among co-occurring species with a joint distribution model can also improve estimation of the abiotic niche for species affected by interspecific interactions. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. The role of dynamic surface water-groundwater exchange on streambed denitrification in a first-order, low-relief agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mina; Essaid, Hedeff I.; Wilson, John T.

    2015-12-01

    The role of temporally varying surface water-groundwater (SW-GW) exchange on nitrate removal by streambed denitrification was examined along a reach of Leary Weber Ditch (LWD), Indiana, a small, first-order, low-relief agricultural watershed within the Upper Mississippi River basin, using data collected in 2004 and 2005. Stream stage, GW heads (H), and temperatures (T) were continuously monitored in streambed piezometers and stream bank wells for two transects across LWD accompanied by synoptic measurements of stream stage, H, T, and nitrate (NO3) concentrations along the reach. The H and T data were used to develop and calibrate vertical two-dimensional, models of streambed water flow and heat transport across and along the axis of the stream. Model-estimated SW-GW exchange varied seasonally and in response to high-streamflow events due to dynamic interactions between SW stage and GW H. Comparison of 2004 and 2005 conditions showed that small changes in precipitation amount and intensity, evapotranspiration, and/or nearby GW levels within a low-relief watershed can readily impact SW-GW interactions. The calibrated LWD flow models and observed stream and streambed NO3 concentrations were used to predict temporal variations in streambed NO3 removal in response to dynamic SW-GW exchange. NO3 removal rates underwent slow seasonal changes, but also underwent rapid changes in response to high-flow events. These findings suggest that increased temporal variability of SW-GW exchange in low-order, low-relief watersheds may be a factor contributing their more efficient removal of NO3.

  13. Protein Internal Dynamics Associated With Pre-System Glass Transition Temperature Endothermic Events: Investigation of Insulin and Human Growth Hormone by Solid State Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Grobelny, Pawel J; Bogner, Robin H; Pikal, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Lyophilized proteins are generally stored below their glass transition temperature (T g ) to maintain long-term stability. Some proteins in the (pure) solid state showed a distinct endotherm at a temperature well below the glass transition, designated as a pre-T g endotherm. The pre-T g endothermic event has been linked with a transition in protein internal mobility. The aim of this study was to investigate the internal dynamics of 2 proteins, insulin and human growth hormone (hGH), both of which exhibit the pre-T g endothermic event with onsets at 50°C-60°C. Solid state hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of both proteins was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy over a temperature range from 30°C to 80°C. A distinct sigmoidal transition in the extent of H/D exchange had a midpoint of 56.1 ± 1.2°C for insulin and 61.7 ± 0.9°C for hGH, suggesting a transition to greater mobility in the protein molecules at these temperatures. The data support the hypothesis that the pre-T g event is related to a transition in internal protein mobility associated with the protein dynamical temperature. Exceeding the protein dynamical temperature is expected to activate protein internal motion and therefore may have stability consequences. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vegetation development following stream/river restoration: more natural fluvial dynamics and morphology, return of aquatic and riparian plant species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, M. B.

    2012-04-01

    After centuries of human interventions in stream/river dynamics and morphology aimed at optimizing landscapes for agricultural and industrial purposes, new insights have inspired water managers to try and combine stream and river ecosystem functions with the conservation of biodiversity. Around the world, aquatic and riparian species have declined strongly due to pollution, destruction and fragmentation of their habitat, so that biodiversity conservation initiatives primarily focus on habitat restoration. In the past decades many stream and river restoration projects have been carried out and often hydrological dynamics and morphology have been restored to a more natural state. However, the successful restoration of aquatic and riparian habitats very often failed to result in restoration of their biodiversity. This lack of success from a biodiversity conservation perspective is usually attributed to 'dispersal limitation', meaning that the habitat may be restored, but species fail to reach the site and re-colonize it. Especially re-colonization by aquatic and riparian plant species is important, as such species function as ecosystem engineers: their presence alters fluvial dynamics and morphology, generates additional habitat heterogeneity and provides habitat and food for animal species. Following minor disturbances, re-colonization is often possible through locally remaining populations, by seeds in the seed bank or by surviving plant fragments. However, following major disturbances, colonization and establishment from other source populations are necessary. This usually occurs through dispersal of seeds (and in more aquatic species also by dispersal of vegetative fragments) into the restored wetland area. As dispersal occurs predominantly over short distances and source populations of aquatic and riparian species may be lacking in the surroundings, dispersal may be a limiting factor in the development of aquatic and riparian vegetation at a restored site. But

  15. Studies on cambial activity: advances and challenges in the knowledge of growth dynamics of Brazilian woody species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÁTIA H. CALLADO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of specific research on the sequence of events that determine plant growth from meristem until wood formation represents a gap in the knowledge of growth dynamics in woody species. In this work, we surveyed published studies concerning cambial activity of Brazilian native species aiming at allowing the comparison of applied methods and obtained results. The annual cambial seasonality was observed in all the investigated species. Nevertheless, we found high heterogeneity in the used methodologies. As a result from this analysis, our opinion points to the need for standardizing sampling protocols and for discussing the suitability of experimental designs. This will help to define with greater precision the factors that determine the radial growth in the different tropical ecosystems.

  16. Characterization of mu s-ms dynamics of proteins using a combined analysis of N-15 NMR relaxation and chemical shift: Conformational exchange in plastocyanin induced by histidine protonations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, M. A. S.; Thuesen, Marianne Hallberg; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2004-01-01

    of the exchanging species can be determined independently of the relaxation rates. The applicability of the approach is demonstrated by a detailed analysis of the conformational exchange processes previously observed in the reduced form of the blue copper protein, plastocyanin from the cyanobacteria Anabaena......An approach is presented that allows a detailed, quantitative characterization of conformational exchange processes in proteins on the mus-ms time scale. The approach relies on a combined analysis of NMR relaxation rates and chemical shift changes and requires that the chemical shift...... quantitatively by the correlation between the R-ex terms and the corresponding chemical shift differences of the exchanging species. By this approach, the R-ex terms of N-15 nuclei belonging to contiguous regions in the protein could be assigned to the same exchange process. Furthermore, the analysis...

  17. Species-specific flight styles of flies are reflected in the response dynamics of a homologue motion sensitive neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart eGeurten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoverflies and blowflies have distinctly different flight styles. Yet, both species have been shown to structure their flight behaviour in a way that facilitates extraction of 3D information from the image flow on the retina (optic flow. Neuronal candidates to analyse the optic flow are the tangential cells in the third optical ganglion – the lobula complex. These neurons are directionally selective and integrate the optic flow over large parts of the visual field. Homologue tangential cells in hoverflies and blowflies have a similar morphology. Because blowflies and hoverflies have similar neuronal layout but distinctly different flight behaviours, they are an ideal substrate to pinpoint potential neuronal adaptations to the different flight styles.In this article we describe the relationship between locomotion behaviour and motion vision on three different levels:1.We compare the different flight styles based on the categorisation of flight behaviour into prototypical movements.2.We measure the species specific dynamics of the optic flow under naturalistic flight conditions. We found the translational optic flow of both species to be very different.3.We describe possible adaptations of a homologue motion sensitive neuron. We stimulate this cell in blowflies (Calliphora and hoverflies (Eristalis with naturalistic optic flow generated by both species during free flight. The characterized hoverfly tangential cell responds faster to transient changes in the optic flow than its blowfly homologue. It is discussed whether and how the different dynamical response properties aid optic flow analysis.

  18. Empirical phylogenies and species abundance distributions are consistent with pre-equilibrium dynamics of neutral community models with gene flow

    KAUST Repository

    Bonnet-Lebrun, Anne-Sophie

    2017-03-17

    Community characteristics reflect past ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Here, we investigate whether it is possible to obtain realistically shaped modelled communities - i.e., with phylogenetic trees and species abundance distributions shaped similarly to typical empirical bird and mammal communities - from neutral community models. To test the effect of gene flow, we contrasted two spatially explicit individual-based neutral models: one with protracted speciation, delayed by gene flow, and one with point mutation speciation, unaffected by gene flow. The former produced more realistic communities (shape of phylogenetic tree and species-abundance distribution), consistent with gene flow being a key process in macro-evolutionary dynamics. Earlier models struggled to capture the empirically observed branching tempo in phylogenetic trees, as measured by the gamma statistic. We show that the low gamma values typical of empirical trees can be obtained in models with protracted speciation, in pre-equilibrium communities developing from an initially abundant and widespread species. This was even more so in communities sampled incompletely, particularly if the unknown species are the youngest. Overall, our results demonstrate that the characteristics of empirical communities that we have studied can, to a large extent, be explained through a purely neutral model under pre-equilibrium conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Empirical phylogenies and species abundance distributions are consistent with pre-equilibrium dynamics of neutral community models with gene flow

    KAUST Repository

    Bonnet-Lebrun, Anne-Sophie; Manica, Andrea; Eriksson, Anders; Rodrigues, Ana S.L.

    2017-01-01

    Community characteristics reflect past ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Here, we investigate whether it is possible to obtain realistically shaped modelled communities - i.e., with phylogenetic trees and species abundance distributions shaped similarly to typical empirical bird and mammal communities - from neutral community models. To test the effect of gene flow, we contrasted two spatially explicit individual-based neutral models: one with protracted speciation, delayed by gene flow, and one with point mutation speciation, unaffected by gene flow. The former produced more realistic communities (shape of phylogenetic tree and species-abundance distribution), consistent with gene flow being a key process in macro-evolutionary dynamics. Earlier models struggled to capture the empirically observed branching tempo in phylogenetic trees, as measured by the gamma statistic. We show that the low gamma values typical of empirical trees can be obtained in models with protracted speciation, in pre-equilibrium communities developing from an initially abundant and widespread species. This was even more so in communities sampled incompletely, particularly if the unknown species are the youngest. Overall, our results demonstrate that the characteristics of empirical communities that we have studied can, to a large extent, be explained through a purely neutral model under pre-equilibrium conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Anode plasma dynamics in an extraction applied-B ion diode: effects on divergence, ion species and parasitic load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenly, J.B.; Appartaim, R.K.; Olson, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of data from the LION (1.2 MV, 300 kA, 40 ns) extraction applied-B diode allows a number of inferences regarding the effect of anode plasma dynamics on ion beam divergence, ion species composition, and diode impedance and power coupling. The two dominant features of anode plasma dynamics observed on LION are (1) plasma expansion away from the solid anode surface and into the accelerating gap during the beam pulse, and (2) evolution of the composition of the plasma during the pulse. The data presented in this paper characterize the plasma expansion, and suggest a possible picture of the mechanism of the plasma dynamics that could produce these basic features. (J.U.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  1. Anode plasma dynamics in an extraction applied-B ion diode: effects on divergence, ion species and parasitic load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenly, J B; Appartaim, R K; Olson, J C [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Plasma Studies

    1997-12-31

    Analysis of data from the LION (1.2 MV, 300 kA, 40 ns) extraction applied-B diode allows a number of inferences regarding the effect of anode plasma dynamics on ion beam divergence, ion species composition, and diode impedance and power coupling. The two dominant features of anode plasma dynamics observed on LION are (1) plasma expansion away from the solid anode surface and into the accelerating gap during the beam pulse, and (2) evolution of the composition of the plasma during the pulse. The data presented in this paper characterize the plasma expansion, and suggest a possible picture of the mechanism of the plasma dynamics that could produce these basic features. (J.U.). 2 figs., 5 refs.

  2. A structurally based analytic model of growth and biomass dynamics in single species stands of conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin J. Tausch

    2015-01-01

    A theoretically based analytic model of plant growth in single species conifer communities based on the species fully occupying a site and fully using the site resources is introduced. Model derivations result in a single equation simultaneously describes changes over both, different site conditions (or resources available), and over time for each variable for each...

  3. Evolutionary Dynamics of Microsatellite Distribution in Plants: Insight from the Comparison of Sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and Other Angiosperm Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Fu, Donghui; Yu, Jinyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2013-01-01

    Despite their ubiquity and functional importance, microsatellites have been largely ignored in comparative genomics, mostly due to the lack of genomic information. In the current study, microsatellite distribution was characterized and compared in the whole genomes and both the coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species to investigate their evolutionary dynamics in plants. The variation in the microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species was much smaller than those for their microsatellite numbers and genome sizes, suggesting that microsatellite frequency may be relatively stable in plants. The microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species were significantly negatively correlated with both their genome sizes and transposable elements contents. The pattern of microsatellite distribution may differ according to the different genomic regions (such as coding and non-coding sequences). The observed differences in many important microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif length, type and repeat number) of these angiosperm species were generally accordant with their phylogenetic distance, which suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution may be generally consistent with plant divergence/evolution. Importantly, by comparing these microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif type) the angiosperm species (aside from a few species) all clustered into two obviously different groups that were largely represented by monocots and dicots, suggesting a complex and generally dichotomous evolutionary pattern of microsatellite distribution in angiosperms. Polyploidy may lead to a slight increase in microsatellite frequency in the coding sequences and a significant decrease in microsatellite frequency in the whole genome/non-coding sequences, but have little effect on the microsatellite distribution with

  4. Evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution in plants: insight from the comparison of sequenced brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqin Shi

    Full Text Available Despite their ubiquity and functional importance, microsatellites have been largely ignored in comparative genomics, mostly due to the lack of genomic information. In the current study, microsatellite distribution was characterized and compared in the whole genomes and both the coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the sequenced Brassica, Arabidopsis and other angiosperm species to investigate their evolutionary dynamics in plants. The variation in the microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species was much smaller than those for their microsatellite numbers and genome sizes, suggesting that microsatellite frequency may be relatively stable in plants. The microsatellite frequencies of these angiosperm species were significantly negatively correlated with both their genome sizes and transposable elements contents. The pattern of microsatellite distribution may differ according to the different genomic regions (such as coding and non-coding sequences. The observed differences in many important microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif length, type and repeat number of these angiosperm species were generally accordant with their phylogenetic distance, which suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of microsatellite distribution may be generally consistent with plant divergence/evolution. Importantly, by comparing these microsatellite characteristics (especially the distribution with respect to motif type the angiosperm species (aside from a few species all clustered into two obviously different groups that were largely represented by monocots and dicots, suggesting a complex and generally dichotomous evolutionary pattern of microsatellite distribution in angiosperms. Polyploidy may lead to a slight increase in microsatellite frequency in the coding sequences and a significant decrease in microsatellite frequency in the whole genome/non-coding sequences, but have little effect on the microsatellite

  5. Remote-Sensed Monitoring of Dominant Plant Species Distribution and Dynamics at Jiuduansha Wetland in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora is one of the most hazardous invasive plant species in China. Monitoring the changes in dominant plant species can help identify the invasion mechanisms of S. alterniflora, thereby providing scientific guidelines on managing or controlling the spreading of this invasive species at Jiuduansha Wetland in Shanghai, China. However, because of the complex terrain and the inaccessibility of tidal wetlands, it is very difficult to conduct field experiments on a large scale in this wetland. Hence, remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring the dynamics of plant species and its distribution on both spatial and temporal scales. In this study, based on multi-spectral and high resolution (<10 m remote sensing images and field observational data, we analyzed spectral characteristics of four dominant plant species at different green-up phenophases. Based on the difference in spectral characteristics, a decision tree classification was built for identifying the distribution of these plant species. The results indicated that the overall classification accuracy for plant species was 87.17%, and the Kappa Coefficient was 0.81, implying that our classification method could effectively identify the four plant species. We found that the area of Phragmites australi showed an increasing trend from 1997 to 2004 and from 2004 to 2012, with an annual spreading rate of 33.77% and 31.92%, respectively. The area of Scirpus mariqueter displayed an increasing trend from 1997 to 2004 (12.16% per year and a decreasing trend from 2004 to 2012 (−7.05% per year. S. alterniflora has the biggest area (3302.20 ha as compared to other species, accounting for 51% of total vegetated area at the study region in 2012. It showed an increasing trend from 1997 to 2004 and from 2004 to 2012, with an annual spreading rate of 130.63% and 28.11%, respectively. As a result, the native species P. australi was surrounded and the habitats of S. mariqueter were

  6. Enhanced Reactive Oxygen Species Production, Acidic Cytosolic pH and Upregulated Na+/H+ Exchanger (NHE) in Dicer Deficient CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Zhou, Yuetao; Zhang, Shaqiu; Abdelazeem, Khalid N M; Elvira, Bernat; Salker, Madhuri S; Lang, Florian

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. Dicer, a cytoplasmic RNase III enzyme, is required for the maturation of miRNAs from precursor miRNAs. Dicer, therefore, is a critical enzyme involved in the biogenesis and processing of miRNAs. Several biological processes are controlled by miRNAs, including the regulation of T cell development and function. T cells generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) with parallel H+ extrusion accomplished by the Na+/H+-exchanger 1 (NHE1). The present study explored whether ROS production, as well as NHE1 expression and function are sensitive to the lack of Dicer (miRNAs deficient) and could be modified by individual miRNAs. CD4+ T cells were isolated from CD4 specific Dicer deficient (DicerΔ/Δ) mice and the respective control mice (Dicerfl/fl). Transcript and protein levels were quantified with RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. For determination of intracellular pH (pHi) cells were incubated with the pH sensitive dye bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) and Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) activity was calculated from re-alkalinization after an ammonium pulse. Changes in cell volume were measured using the forward scatter in flow cytometry, and ROS production utilizing 2',7' -dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. Transfection of miRNA-control and mimics in T cells was performed using DharmaFECT3 reagent. ROS production, cytosolic H+ concentration, NHE1 transcript and protein levels, NHE activity, and cell volume were all significantly higher in CD4+ T cells from DicerΔ/Δ mice than in CD4+ T cells from Dicerfl/fl mice. Furthermore, individual miR-200b and miR-15b modify pHi and NHE activity in Dicerfl/fl and DicerΔ/Δ CD4+ T cells, respectively. Lack of Dicer leads to oxidative stress, cytosolic acidification, upregulated NHE1 expression and activity as well as swelling of CD4+ T cells, functions all reversed by miR-15b or miR-200b. © 2017 The Author

  7. Population dynamics along a primary succession gradient: do alpine species fit into demographic succession theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcante, Silvia; Winkler, Eckart; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2009-05-01

    Understanding processes and mechanisms governing changes in plant species along primary successions has been of major importance in ecology. However, to date hardly any studies have focused on the complete life cycle of species along a successional gradient, comparing pioneer, early and late-successional species. In this study it is hypothesized that pioneer species should initially have a population growth rate, lambda, greater than one with high fecundity rates, and declining growth rates when they are replaced by late-successional species. Populations of late-successional species should also start, at the mid-successional stage (when pioneer species are declining), with growth rates greater than one and arrive at rates equal to one at the late successional stage, mainly due to higher survival rates that allow these species to persist for a long time. The demography of pioneer- (Saxifraga aizoides), early (Artemisia genipi) and late-successional species (Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. alpicola) was investigated together with that of a ubiquitous species (Poa alpina) along the Rotmoos glacier foreland (2300-2400 m a.s.l., Central Alps, Austria) over 3 years. A matrix modelling approach was used to compare the main demographic parameters. Elasticity values were plotted in a demographic triangle using fecundity, individual growth and survival as vital rates contributing to the population growth rates. The results largely confirmed the predictions for population growth rates during succession. However, high survival rates of larger adults characterized all species, regardless of where they were growing along the succession. At the pioneer site, high mortality rates of seedlings, plantlets and young individuals were recorded. Fecundity was found to be of minor relevance everywhere, but it was nevertheless sufficient to increase or maintain the population sizes. Demographically, all the species over all sites behaved like late-successional or climax species in secondary

  8. Novel Approaches to Spectral Properties of Correlated Electron Materials: From Generalized Kohn-Sham Theory to Screened Exchange Dynamical Mean Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delange, Pascal; Backes, Steffen; van Roekeghem, Ambroise; Pourovskii, Leonid; Jiang, Hong; Biermann, Silke

    2018-04-01

    The most intriguing properties of emergent materials are typically consequences of highly correlated quantum states of their electronic degrees of freedom. Describing those materials from first principles remains a challenge for modern condensed matter theory. Here, we review, apply and discuss novel approaches to spectral properties of correlated electron materials, assessing current day predictive capabilities of electronic structure calculations. In particular, we focus on the recent Screened Exchange Dynamical Mean-Field Theory scheme and its relation to generalized Kohn-Sham Theory. These concepts are illustrated on the transition metal pnictide BaCo2As2 and elemental zinc and cadmium.

  9. Control of advanced reactor-coupled heat exchanger system: Incorporation of reactor dynamics in system response to load disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skavdahi, Isaac; Utgikar, Vivek [Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow (United States); Christensen, Richard [Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls (United States); Chen, Ming Hui; Sun, Xiao Dong [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Alternative control schemes for an Advanced High Temperature Reactor system consisting of a reactor, an intermediate heat exchanger, and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX) are presented in this paper. One scheme is designed to control the cold outlet temperature of the SHX (T{sub co}) and the hot outlet temperature of the intermediate heat exchanger (Th{sub o2}) by manipulating the hot-side flow rates of the heat exchangers (F{sub h}/F{sub h2}) responding to the flow rate and temperature disturbances. The flow rate disturbances typically require a larger manipulation of the flow rates than temperature disturbances. An alternate strategy examines the control of the cold outlet temperature of the SHX (T{sub co}) only, since this temperature provides the driving force for energy production in the power conversion unit or the process application. The control can be achieved by three options: (1) flow rate manipulation; (2) reactor power manipulation; or (3) a combination of the two. The first option has a quicker response but requires a large flow rate change. The second option is the slowest but does not involve any change in the flow rates of streams. The third option appears preferable as it has an intermediate response time and requires only a minimal flow rate change.

  10. Control of Advanced Reactor-Coupled Heat Exchanger System: Incorporation of Reactor Dynamics in System Response to Load Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Skavdahl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative control schemes for an Advanced High Temperature Reactor system consisting of a reactor, an intermediate heat exchanger, and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX are presented in this paper. One scheme is designed to control the cold outlet temperature of the SHX (Tco and the hot outlet temperature of the intermediate heat exchanger (Tho2 by manipulating the hot-side flow rates of the heat exchangers (Fh/Fh2 responding to the flow rate and temperature disturbances. The flow rate disturbances typically require a larger manipulation of the flow rates than temperature disturbances. An alternate strategy examines the control of the cold outlet temperature of the SHX (Tco only, since this temperature provides the driving force for energy production in the power conversion unit or the process application. The control can be achieved by three options: (1 flow rate manipulation; (2 reactor power manipulation; or (3 a combination of the two. The first option has a quicker response but requires a large flow rate change. The second option is the slowest but does not involve any change in the flow rates of streams. The third option appears preferable as it has an intermediate response time and requires only a minimal flow rate change.

  11. Control of advanced reactor-coupled heat exchanger system: Incorporation of reactor dynamics in system response to load disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skavdahi, Isaac; Utgikar, Vivek; Christensen, Richard; Chen, Ming Hui; Sun, Xiao Dong; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Alternative control schemes for an Advanced High Temperature Reactor system consisting of a reactor, an intermediate heat exchanger, and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX) are presented in this paper. One scheme is designed to control the cold outlet temperature of the SHX (T_c_o) and the hot outlet temperature of the intermediate heat exchanger (Th_o_2) by manipulating the hot-side flow rates of the heat exchangers (F_h/F_h_2) responding to the flow rate and temperature disturbances. The flow rate disturbances typically require a larger manipulation of the flow rates than temperature disturbances. An alternate strategy examines the control of the cold outlet temperature of the SHX (T_c_o) only, since this temperature provides the driving force for energy production in the power conversion unit or the process application. The control can be achieved by three options: (1) flow rate manipulation; (2) reactor power manipulation; or (3) a combination of the two. The first option has a quicker response but requires a large flow rate change. The second option is the slowest but does not involve any change in the flow rates of streams. The third option appears preferable as it has an intermediate response time and requires only a minimal flow rate change

  12. An experimental study of the dynamic behavior of a 2 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack under various loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Qifei; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Haoting

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of the PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell stack has great effect on the safety and effective operation of its applications. In this paper, a self-designed bulb-array is used to simulate the various loading conditions and study the dynamic behavior of a 2 kW PEM fuel cell stack. An evaluation index, including oscillation rate, pressure variation and dynamic resistance factor, is used to analyze the transient response of the PEM fuel cell stack. It is observed that the stack current increases about 8.6%, and the Oscillation rate decreases more rapidly after activation. In the step-up load stage, the oscillation rate and the dynamic resistance decrease more rapidly as the external load increases. Due to the periodic anodic purge process, a periodic voltage fluctuation can be seen. In addition, when the stack works in the open-loop state (working without the external load), the transient response of the stack current is significantly affected by the hydrogen humidity and the charge double-layer. - Highlights: • The working time of open-loop state significantly affects the transient response. • Oscillation rate decreases faster as the external load increases. • Dynamic resistance factor decreases as the external load increases. • The periodic anodic purge process leads to a slight periodic oscillation of voltage

  13. Effects of 3d-4f magnetic exchange interactions on the dynamics of the magnetization of Dy(III)-M(II)-Dy(III) trinuclear clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointillart, Fabrice; Bernot, Kevin; Sessoli, Roberta; Gatteschi, Dante

    2007-01-01

    [{Dy(hfac)(3)}(2){Fe(bpca)(2)}] x CHCl(3) ([Dy(2)Fe]) and [{Dy(hfac)(3)}(2){Ni(bpca)(2)}]CHCl(3) ([Dy(2)Ni]) (in which hfac(-)=1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetonate and bpca(-)=bis(2-pyridylcarbonyl)amine anion) were synthesized and characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction shows that [Dy(2)Fe] and [Dy(2)Ni] are linear trinuclear complexes. Static magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal a weak ferromagnetic exchange interaction between Ni(II) and Dy(III) ions in [Dy(2)Ni], whereas the use of the diamagnetic Fe(II) ion leads to the absence of magnetic exchange interaction in [Dy(2)Fe]. Dynamic susceptibility measurements show a thermally activated behavior with the energy barrier of 9.7 and 4.9 K for the [Dy(2)Fe] and [Dy(2)Ni] complexes, respectively. A surprising negative effect of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction has been found and has been attributed to the structural conformation of these trinuclear complexes.

  14. Determination of glucose exchange rates and permeability of erythrocyte membrane in preeclampsia and subsequent oxidative stress-related protein damage using dynamic-{sup 19}F-NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabeth.dickinson@york.ac.uk [University of York, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Arnold, John R. P. [Selby College (United Kingdom); Fisher, Julie [University of Leeds, School of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    The cause of the pregnancy condition preeclampsia (PE) is thought to be endothelial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress. As abnormal glucose tolerance has also been associated with PE, we use a fluorinated-mimic of this metabolite to establish whether any oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in the erythrocyte membrane has increased cell membrane permeability. Data were acquired using {sup 19}F Dynamic-NMR (DNMR) to measure exchange of 3-fluoro-3-deoxyglucose (3-FDG) across the membrane of erythrocytes from 10 pregnant women (5 healthy control women, and 5 from women suffering from PE). Magnetisation transfer was measured using the 1D selective inversion and 2D EXSY pulse sequences, over a range of time delays. Integrated intensities from these experiments were used in matrix diagonalisation to estimate the values of the rate constants of exchange and membrane permeability. No significant differences were observed for the rate of exchange of 3-FDG and membrane permeability between healthy pregnant women and those suffering from PE, leading us to conclude that no oxidative damage had occurred at this carrier-protein site in the membrane.

  15. Determination of glucose exchange rates and permeability of erythrocyte membrane in preeclampsia and subsequent oxidative stress-related protein damage using dynamic-"1"9F-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, Elizabeth; Arnold, John R. P.; Fisher, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The cause of the pregnancy condition preeclampsia (PE) is thought to be endothelial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress. As abnormal glucose tolerance has also been associated with PE, we use a fluorinated-mimic of this metabolite to establish whether any oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in the erythrocyte membrane has increased cell membrane permeability. Data were acquired using "1"9F Dynamic-NMR (DNMR) to measure exchange of 3-fluoro-3-deoxyglucose (3-FDG) across the membrane of erythrocytes from 10 pregnant women (5 healthy control women, and 5 from women suffering from PE). Magnetisation transfer was measured using the 1D selective inversion and 2D EXSY pulse sequences, over a range of time delays. Integrated intensities from these experiments were used in matrix diagonalisation to estimate the values of the rate constants of exchange and membrane permeability. No significant differences were observed for the rate of exchange of 3-FDG and membrane permeability between healthy pregnant women and those suffering from PE, leading us to conclude that no oxidative damage had occurred at this carrier-protein site in the membrane.

  16. Scaling up of Carbon Exchange Dynamics from AmeriFlux Sites to a Super-Region in the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Peter Schmid; Craig Wayson

    2009-05-05

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate carbon exchange dynamics across a region of North America between the Great Plains and the East Coast. This region contains about 40 active carbon cycle research (AmeriFlux) sites in a variety of climatic and landuse settings, from upland forest to urban development. The core research involved a scaling strategy that uses measured fluxes of CO{sub 2}, energy, water, and other biophysical and biometric parameters to train and calibrate surface-vegetation-atmosphere models, in conjunction with satellite (MODIS) derived drivers. To achieve matching of measured and modeled fluxes, the ecosystem parameters of the models will be adjusted to the dynamically variable flux-tower footprints following Schmid (1997). High-resolution vegetation index variations around the flux sites have been derived from Landsat data for this purpose. The calibrated models are being used in conjunction with MODIS data, atmospheric re-analysis data, and digital land-cover databases to derive ecosystem exchange fluxes over the study domain.

  17. Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous feline leukemia virus proliferation among species of the domestic cat lineage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polani, Sagi; Roca, Alfred L.; Rosensteel, Bryan B.; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) occur in the germ lines of the domestic cat and related wild species (genus Felis). We sequenced the long terminal repeats and part of the env region of enFeLVs in domestic cats and five wild species. A total of 305 enFeLV sequences were generated across 17 individuals, demonstrating considerable diversity within two major clades. Distinct proliferations of enFeLVs occurred before and after the black-footed cat diverged from the other species. Diversity of enFeLVs was limited for the sand cat and jungle cat suggesting that proliferation of enFeLVs occurred within these species after they diverged. Relationships among enFeLVs were congruent with host species relationships except for the jungle cat, which carried only enFeLVs from a lineage that recently invaded the germline (enFeLV-AGTT). Comparison of wildcat and domestic cat enFeLVs indicated that a distinctive germ line invasion of enFeLVs has not occurred since the cat was domesticated.

  18. Reversible Heterolytic Cleavage of the H-H Bond by Molybdenum Complexes: Controlling the Dynamics of Exchange Between Proton and Hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaoguang; Appel, Aaron M.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2017-05-18

    Controlling the heterolytic cleavage of the H-H bond of dihydrogen is critically important in catalytic hydrogenations and in the catalytic oxidation of H2. We show how the rate of reversible heterolytic cleavage of H2 can be controlled over nearly four orders of magnitude at 25 °C, from 2.1 × 103 s-1 to ≥107 s-1. Bifunctional Mo complexes, [CpMo(CO)(κ3-P2N2)]+ (P2N2 = 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane with alkyl/aryl groups on N and P), have been developed for heterolytic cleavage of H2 into a proton and a hydride, akin to Frustrated Lewis Pairs. The H-H bond cleavage is enabled by the basic amine in the second coordination sphere. The products of heterolytic cleavage of H2, Mo hydride complexes bearing protonated amines, [CpMo(H)(CO)(P2N2H)]+, were characterized by spectroscopic studies and by X-ray crystallography. Variable temperature 1H, 15N and 2-D 1H-1H ROESY NMR spectra indicated rapid exchange of the proton and hydride. The exchange rates are in the order [CpMo(H)(CO)(PPh2NPh2H)]+ > [CpMo(H)(CO)(PtBu2NPh2H)]+ > [CpMo(H)(CO)(PPh2NBn2H)]+ > [CpMo(H)(CO)(PtBu2NBn2H)]+ > [CpMo(H)(CO)(PtBu2NtBu2H)]+. The pKa values determined in acetonitrile range from 9.3 to 17.7, and show a linear correlation with the logarithm of the exchange rates. Thus the exchange dynamics are controlled through the relative acidity of the [CpMo(H)(CO)(P2N2H)]+ and [CpMo(H2)(CO)(P2N2)]+ isomers, providing a design principle for controlling heterolytic cleavage of H2.

  19. Effects of pressure, temperature and atomic exchanges on phase separation dynamics in Au/Ni(111) surface alloy: Kinetic Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvejnieks, G. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Ibenskas, A., E-mail: ibenskas@pfi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Tornau, E.E. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2015-11-15

    Instability of the Au/Ni(111) surface alloy is studied in different CO gas pressure, p, and temperature limits using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We analyze the reaction front dynamics and formation of Au clusters using the model which takes into account surface adatom pair and three-body interactions, CO adsorption and desorption, catalytic carbonyl formation reaction, Au and Ni adatom diffusion and their concerted exchange. Variation of interaction parameters allows us to identify three possible reaction front propagation limits with different pressure dependencies: (i) slow channel-like flow in agreement with experimental data [1] (step flow rate, R, increases with p), (ii) intermediate regime (weak p–dependence), and (iii) fast homogeneous flow (R decreases with p). We find that only Au–Ni exchange, contrary to both Ni–CO and Au–CO exchanges, significantly reduces the number of screened Ni atoms inside the Au clusters and stimulates the occurrence of Ni-free Au clusters. The size of Au islands depends on both pressure and temperature. At a fixed temperature it decreases with pressure due to an increased step flow rate. In the high temperature limit, despite the step flow rate exponential increase with temperature, the cluster size increases due to an enhanced Au mobility. - Highlights: • Kinetic Monte Carlo study of Au–Ni surface alloy instability to CO pressure and temperature. • Three reaction front propagation regimes. • In channel-like regime, the step flow rate increases with CO pressure as in experiment. • Ni-free Au islands are obtained when Au-Ni adatom exchange mechanism is considered. • The size of Au islands decreases with pressure and increases with temperature.

  20. Effects of pressure, temperature and atomic exchanges on phase separation dynamics in Au/Ni(111) surface alloy: Kinetic Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvejnieks, G.; Ibenskas, A.; Tornau, E.E.

    2015-01-01

    Instability of the Au/Ni(111) surface alloy is studied in different CO gas pressure, p, and temperature limits using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We analyze the reaction front dynamics and formation of Au clusters using the model which takes into account surface adatom pair and three-body interactions, CO adsorption and desorption, catalytic carbonyl formation reaction, Au and Ni adatom diffusion and their concerted exchange. Variation of interaction parameters allows us to identify three possible reaction front propagation limits with different pressure dependencies: (i) slow channel-like flow in agreement with experimental data [1] (step flow rate, R, increases with p), (ii) intermediate regime (weak p–dependence), and (iii) fast homogeneous flow (R decreases with p). We find that only Au–Ni exchange, contrary to both Ni–CO and Au–CO exchanges, significantly reduces the number of screened Ni atoms inside the Au clusters and stimulates the occurrence of Ni-free Au clusters. The size of Au islands depends on both pressure and temperature. At a fixed temperature it decreases with pressure due to an increased step flow rate. In the high temperature limit, despite the step flow rate exponential increase with temperature, the cluster size increases due to an enhanced Au mobility. - Highlights: • Kinetic Monte Carlo study of Au–Ni surface alloy instability to CO pressure and temperature. • Three reaction front propagation regimes. • In channel-like regime, the step flow rate increases with CO pressure as in experiment. • Ni-free Au islands are obtained when Au-Ni adatom exchange mechanism is considered. • The size of Au islands decreases with pressure and increases with temperature

  1. Dynamic distinctions in the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger adopting the inward- and outward-facing conformational states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giladi, M.; Van Dijk, L.; Refaeli, B.; Almagor, L.; Hiller, R.; Man, Petr; Forest, E.; Khananshvili, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 29 (2017), s. 12311-12323 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : SODIUM-CALCIUM EXCHANGER * MASS-SPECTROMETRY * STRUCTURAL BASIS Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.125, year: 2016

  2. [The conformational dynamics of the tetramer hemoglobin molecule as revealed by hydrogen exchange. III. Influence of the heme removal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaturov, L V; Nosova, N G; Shliapnikova, S V

    2006-01-01

    Two main types of conformational fluctuations--local and global are characteristic of the native protein structure and revealed by hydrogen exchange. The probability of those fluctuations changes to a different extent upon hemoglobin oxygenation, changing of pH, splitting of the intersubunit contacts. To compare with the influence of the heme removal the rate of the H-D exchange of the peptide NH atoms of the human apoHb was studied at the pH range 5.5-9.0 and temperature 10-38 degrees C by the IR spectroscopy. The removal of the heme increases the rate of the H-D exchange of the 80% peptide NH atoms with the factor retardation of the exchange rate (P) in the range approximately 10(2)-10(8). For the most of the peptide NH atoms the probability of the local fluctuations weakly depends on the temperature, the enthalpy changes upon all such local conformational transitions deltaH(op) degrees are 0-15 kcal/M. Characterized by the stronger temperature dependence the global fluctuations are not arised upon the temperature increases up to 38 degrees C at pH 7.0 inspite of in these conditions the slow denaturation and aggregation of apoHb begin to occur. Upon the destabilization of the apoHb structure by the simultaneous decreasing of pH to 5.5 and temperature to 10 degrees C the global fluctuations of the apoHb native structure described by deltaH(op)o < 0 begin to intensify. The mechanism of the overall intensification of the local fluctuations upon the heme removal, the peculiarity of the heat denaturation of apoHb in conditions, close to that existing upon the selfassembly of Hb in vivo, and analogy between low temperature global fluctuations and cold denaturation of globular proteins are discussed.

  3. Dynamics and genetics of a disease-driven species decline to near extinction: lessons for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M A; Young, R P; D'Urban Jackson, J; Orozco-terWengel, P; Martin, L; James, A; Sulton, M; Garcia, G; Griffiths, R A; Thomas, R; Magin, C; Bruford, M W; Cunningham, A A

    2016-08-03

    Amphibian chytridiomycosis has caused precipitous declines in hundreds of species worldwide. By tracking mountain chicken (Leptodactylus fallax) populations before, during and after the emergence of chytridiomycosis, we quantified the real-time species level impacts of this disease. We report a range-wide species decline amongst the fastest ever recorded, with a loss of over 85% of the population in fewer than 18 months on Dominica and near extinction on Montserrat. Genetic diversity declined in the wild, but emergency measures to establish a captive assurance population captured a representative sample of genetic diversity from Montserrat. If the Convention on Biological Diversity's targets are to be met, it is important to evaluate the reasons why they appear consistently unattainable. The emergence of chytridiomycosis in the mountain chicken was predictable, but the decline could not be prevented. There is an urgent need to build mitigation capacity where amphibians are at risk from chytridiomycosis.

  4. Study of the dynamic of Bacillus species during of oil contaminated soil by PCR-DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shavandi

    2018-06-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Comparison of the pattern of DGGE bands variation between the microcosms showed that by entry of the contaminant into the soil, the diversity of Bacillus species was increased, indicating that Bacillus species has a particular role in diesel degradation. Simultaneous with decline of the pollution and microbial count of the soil, diversity of DGGE bands was decreased. Out of these findings we may conclude that addition of diesel as a carbon source to the soil increases the Bacillus spp. diversity at the beginning of bioremediation and afterwards by elimination of the pollutant, the diversity decreases gradually and shifts back to its original structure.

  5. Hierarchical demographic approaches for assessing invasion dynamics of non-indigenous species: An example using northern snakehead (Channa argus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y.; Lapointe, N.W.R.; Angermeier, P.L.; Murphy, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    Models of species' demographic features are commonly used to understand population dynamics and inform management tactics. Hierarchical demographic models are ideal for the assessment of non-indigenous species because our knowledge of non-indigenous populations is usually limited, data on demographic traits often come from a species' native range, these traits vary among populations, and traits are likely to vary considerably over time as species adapt to new environments. Hierarchical models readily incorporate this spatiotemporal variation in species' demographic traits by representing demographic parameters as multi-level hierarchies. As is done for traditional non-hierarchical matrix models, sensitivity and elasticity analyses are used to evaluate the contributions of different life stages and parameters to estimates of population growth rate. We applied a hierarchical model to northern snakehead (Channa argus), a fish currently invading the eastern United States. We used a Monte Carlo approach to simulate uncertainties in the sensitivity and elasticity analyses and to project future population persistence under selected management tactics. We gathered key biological information on northern snakehead natural mortality, maturity and recruitment in its native Asian environment. We compared the model performance with and without hierarchy of parameters. Our results suggest that ignoring the hierarchy of parameters in demographic models may result in poor estimates of population size and growth and may lead to erroneous management advice. In our case, the hierarchy used multi-level distributions to simulate the heterogeneity of demographic parameters across different locations or situations. The probability that the northern snakehead population will increase and harm the native fauna is considerable. Our elasticity and prognostic analyses showed that intensive control efforts immediately prior to spawning and/or juvenile-dispersal periods would be more effective

  6. The effect of wildfire on population dynamics for two native small mammal species in a coastal heathland in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedloff, Adam C.; Wilson, John C.; Engeman, Richard M.

    2018-04-01

    The influences of wildfire through population dynamics and life history for two species of small mammals in a south-east Queensland heathland on Bribie Island are presented. Trapping results provided information on breeding, immigration and movement of Melomys burtoni (Grassland melomys) and Rattus lutreolus (Swamp rat). We first investigated and optimized the design of trapping methodology for producing mark-recapture population estimates to compare two adjacent populations, one of which was subjected to an extensive wildfire during the two year study. We consider how well rodents survive wildfire and whether the immediate impacts of fire or altered habitat have the greatest impact on each species. We found the R. lutreolus population was far more influenced by the fire than the M. burtoni population both immediately after the fire and over 18 months of vegetation recovery.

  7. Emergent dynamics of fairness in the spatial coevolution of proposer and responder species in the ultimatum game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiji Suzuki

    Full Text Available While spatially local interactions are ubiquitous between coevolving species sharing recourses (e.g., plant-insect interactions, their effects on such coevolution processes of strategies involving the share of a resource are still not clearly understood. We construct a two-dimensional spatial model of the coevolution of the proposer and responder species in the ultimatum game (UG, in which a pair of proposer and responder individuals at each site plays the UG. We investigate the effects of the locality of interactions and the intensity of selection on the emergence of fairness between these species. We show that the lower intensity of selection favors fair strategies in general, and there are no significant differences in the evolution of fairness between the cases with local and global interactions when the intensity of selection is low. However, as the intensity of selection becomes higher, the spatially local interactions contribute to the evolution of fairer strategies more than the global interactions, even though fair strategies become more difficult to evolve. This positive effect of spatial interactions is expected to be due to the mutual benefit of fairness for both proposer and responder species in future generations, which brings about a dynamic evolution process of fairness.

  8. The evolutionary dynamics of major regulators for sexual development among Hymenoptera species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eBiewer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available All hymenopteran species, such as bees, wasps and ants, are characterized by the common principle of haplodiploid sex determination in which haploid males arise from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. The underlying molecular mechanism has been studied in detail in the western honey bee Apis mellifera, in which the gene complementary sex determiner (csd acts as primary signal of the sex determining pathway, initiating female development by csd-heterozygotes. Csd arose from gene duplication of the feminizer (fem gene, a transformer (tra ortholog, and mediates in conjunction with transformer2 (tra2 sex-specific splicing of fem. Comparative molecular analyses identified fem/tra and its downstream target doublesex (dsx as conserved unit within the sex determining pathway of holometabolous insects. In this study, we aim to examine evolutionary differences among these key regulators. Our main hypothesis is that sex determining key regulators in Hymenoptera species show signs of coevolution within single phylogenetic lineages. We take advantage of several newly sequenced genomes of bee species to test this hypothesis using bioinformatic approaches. We found evidences that duplications of fem are restricted to certain bee lineages and notable amino acid differences of tra2 between Apis and non-Apis species propose structural changes in Tra2 protein affecting co-regulatory function on target genes. These findings may help to gain deeper insights into the ancestral mode of hymenopteran sex determination and support the common view of the remarkable evolutionary flexibility in this regulatory pathway.

  9. Trait plasticity in species interactions: a driving force of community dynamics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.P.; Ellers, J.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary community ecology is an emerging field of study that includes evolutionary principles such as individual trait variation and plasticity of traits to provide a more mechanistic insight as to how species diversity is maintained and community processes are shaped across time and space. In

  10. Dynamics of species diversity of epiphytic lichenized fungi in the southern district of Moscow city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biazrov Lev

    2013-03-01

    2006-2007 on the same territory the representatives of 54 epiphytic lichen species were found. The basic reason of the changes in the compositionof lichen biota revealed on the studied urban territory is eutrophication mainly nitrophication of lichen habitats in Moscow city."

  11. Dynamics of leaf water relations components in co-occurring iso- and anisohydric conifer species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Meinzer; David Woodruff; Danielle Marias; Katherine McCulloh; Sanna Sevanto

    2014-01-01

    Because iso- and anisohydric species differ in stomatal regulation of the rate and magnitude of fluctuations in shoot water potential, they may be expected to show differences in the plasticity of their shoot water relations components, but explicit comparisons of this nature have rarely been made. We subjected excised shoots of co-occurring anisohydric Juniperus...

  12. Plant invasions in the Czech Republic: current state, introduction dynamics, invasive species and invaded habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Chytrý, M.; Pergl, Jan; Sádlo, Jiří; Wild, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2012), s. 575-629 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasive species * invaded habitats * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  13. Passerine extrapair mating dynamics: a bayesian modeling approach comparing four species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brommer, J.E.; Alho, J.S.; Biard, C.; Chapman, J.R.; Charmantier, A.; Dreiss, A.; Hartley, I.R.; Hjernquist, M.B.; Kempenaers, B.; Komdeur, J.; Laaksonen, T.; Lehtonen, P.K.; Lubjuhn, T.; Patrick, S.C.; Rosivall, B.; Tinbergen, J.M.; Van der Velde, M.; Van Oers, K.; Wilk, T.; Winkel, W.

    2010-01-01

    In many socially monogamous animals, females engage in extrapair copulation (EPC), causing some broods to contain both within‐pair and extrapair young (EPY). The proportion of all young that are EPY varies across populations and species. Because an EPC that does not result in EPY leaves no forensic

  14. Passerine Extrapair Mating Dynamics : A Bayesian Modeling Approach Comparing Four Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brommer, Jon E.; Alho, Jussi S.; Biard, Clotilde; Chapman, Joanne R.; Charmantier, Anne; Dreiss, Amelie; Hartley, Ian R.; Hjernquist, Marten B.; Kempenaers, Bart; Komdeur, Jan; Laaksonen, Toni; Lehtonen, Paula K.; Lubjuhn, Thomas; Patrick, Samantha C.; Rosivall, Balazs; Tinbergen, Joost M.; van der Velde, Marco; van Oers, Kees; Wilk, Tomasz; Winkel, Wolfgang; Hjernquist, Mårten B.; Boughman, Janette; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    In many socially monogamous animals, females engage in extrapair copulation (EPC), causing some broods to contain both within-pair and extrapair young (EPY). The proportion of all young that are EPY varies across populations and species. Because an EPC that does not result in EPY leaves no forensic

  15. Examining the patterns and dynamics of species abundance distributions in succession of forest communities by model selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shao-Ming; Chen, Ping; He, Xiao; Guo, Wei; Li, Bailian

    2018-01-01

    There are a few common species and many rare species in a biological community or a multi-species collection in given space and time. This hollow distribution curve is called species abundance distribution (SAD). Few studies have examined the patterns and dynamics of SADs during the succession of forest communities by model selection. This study explored whether the communities in different successional stages followed different SAD models and whether there existed a best SAD model to reveal their intrinsic quantitative features of structure and dynamics in succession. The abundance (the number of individuals) of each vascular plant was surveyed by quadrat sampling method from the tree, shrub and herb layers in two typical communities (i.e., the evergreen needle- and broad-leaved mixed forest and the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest) in southern subtropical Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, South China. The sites of two forest communities in different successional stages are both 1 ha in area. We collected seven widely representative SAD models with obviously different function forms and transformed them into the same octave (log2) scale. These models are simultaneously confronted with eight datasets from four layers of two communities, and their goodness-of-fits to the data were evaluated by the chi-squared test, the adjusted coefficient of determination and the information criteria. The results indicated that: (1) the logCauchy model followed all the datasets and was the best among seven models; (2) the fitness of each model to the data was not directly related to the successional stage of forest community; (3) according to the SAD curves predicted by the best model (i.e., the logCauchy), the proportion of rare species decreased but that of common ones increased in the upper layers with succession, while the reverse was true in the lower layers; and (4) the difference of the SADs increased between the upper and the lower layers with succession. We concluded that

  16. Mobility and Attenuation Dynamics of Potentially Toxic Chemical Species at an Abandoned Copper Mine Tailings Dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mugera Gitari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Large volumes of disposed mine tailings abound in several regions of South Africa, as a consequence of unregulated, unsustainable long years of mining activities. Tailings dumps occupy a large volume of valuable land, and present a potential risk for aquatic systems, through leaching of potentially toxic chemical species. This paper reports on the evaluation of the geochemical processes controlling the mobility of potentially toxic chemical species within the tailings profile, and their potential risk with regard to surface and groundwater systems. Combination of X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS techniques, show that the tailing profiles are uniform, weakly altered, and vary slightly with depth in both physical and geochemical properties, as well as mineralogical composition. Mineralogical analysis showed the following order of abundance: quartz > epidote > chlorite > muscovite > calcite > hematite within the tailings profiles. The neutralization of the dominant alumino-silicate minerals and the absence of sulfidic minerals, have produced medium alkaline pH conditions (7.97–8.37 at all depths and low concentrations of dissolved Cu (20.21–47.9 µg/L, Zn (0.88–1.80 µg/L, Pb (0.27–0.34 µg/L, and SO42− (15.71–55.94 mg/L in the tailings profile leachates. The relative percentage leach for the potentially toxic chemical species was low in the aqueous phase (Ni 0.081%, Cu 0.006%, and Zn 0.05%. This indicates that the transport load of potentially toxic chemical species from tailings to the aqueous phase is very low. The precipitation of secondary hematite has an important known ability to trap and attenuate the mobility of potentially toxic chemical species (Cu, Zn, and Pb by adsorption on the surface area. Geochemical modelling MINTEQA2 showed that the tailings leachates were below saturation regarding oxyhydroxide minerals, but oversaturated with Cu

  17. Co-Flocculation of Yeast Species, a New Mechanism to Govern Population Dynamics in Microbial Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Rossouw

    Full Text Available Flocculation has primarily been studied as an important technological property of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains in fermentation processes such as brewing and winemaking. These studies have led to the identification of a group of closely related genes, referred to as the FLO gene family, which controls the flocculation phenotype. All naturally occurring S. cerevisiae strains assessed thus far possess at least four independent copies of structurally similar FLO genes, namely FLO1, FLO5, FLO9 and FLO10. The genes appear to differ primarily by the degree of flocculation induced by their expression. However, the reason for the existence of a large family of very similar genes, all involved in the same phenotype, has remained unclear. In natural ecosystems, and in wine production, S. cerevisiae growth together and competes with a large number of other Saccharomyces and many more non-Saccharomyces yeast species. Our data show that many strains of such wine-related non-Saccharomyces species, some of which have recently attracted significant biotechnological interest as they contribute positively to fermentation and wine character, were able to flocculate efficiently. The data also show that both flocculent and non-flocculent S. cerevisiae strains formed mixed species flocs (a process hereafter referred to as co-flocculation with some of these non-Saccharomyces yeasts. This ability of yeast strains to impact flocculation behaviour of other species in mixed inocula has not been described previously. Further investigation into the genetic regulation of co-flocculation revealed that different FLO genes impact differently on such adhesion phenotypes, favouring adhesion with some species while excluding other species from such mixed flocs. The data therefore strongly suggest that FLO genes govern the selective association of S. cerevisiae with specific species of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, and may therefore be drivers of ecosystem organisational

  18. Dynamic partitioning of nanoparticulate metal species between gel layers and aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, van der P.L.R.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with several aspects of the use of Diffusive Gradient in Thin film (DGT) and Diffusive Equilibriation in Thin film (DET) in dynamic metal speciation analysis. It has a clear focus on the properties of the diffusive gel layer, and their possible impact on metal speciation

  19. Dynamics in species composition of stream fish assemblages: environmental variability and nested subsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Taylor; Melvin L. Warren

    2001-01-01

    Stream landscapes are highly variable in space and time and, like terrestrial landscapes, the resources they contain are patchily distributed. Organisms may disperse among patches to fulfill life-history requirements, but biotic and abiotic factors may limit patch or locality occupancy. Thus, the dynamics of immigration and extinction determine, in part, the local...

  20. Dynamics of Verticillium species microsclerotia in field soils in response to fumigation, cropping patterns, and flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many soil-inhabiting fungi are capable of surviving the dynamic soil microenvironment through the formation of resilient resting structures, such as thick-walled spores, melanized hyphae, and sclerotia. Verticillium dahliae is a soil-inhabiting, economically significant plant pathogenic fungus that ...

  1. Solute-solvent complex switching dynamics of chloroform between acetone and dimethylsulfoxide-two-dimensional IR chemical exchange spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyungwon; Rosenfeld, Daniel E; Chung, Jean K; Fayer, Michael D

    2008-11-06

    Hydrogen bonds formed between C-H and various hydrogen bond acceptors play important roles in the structure of proteins and organic crystals, and the mechanisms of C-H bond cleavage reactions. Chloroform, a C-H hydrogen bond donor, can form weak hydrogen-bonded complexes with acetone and with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). When chloroform is dissolved in a mixed solvent consisting of acetone and DMSO, both types of hydrogen-bonded complexes exist. The two complexes, chloroform-acetone and chloroform-DMSO, are in equilibrium, and they rapidly interconvert by chloroform exchanging hydrogen bond acceptors. This fast hydrogen bond acceptor substitution reaction is probed using ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) vibrational echo chemical exchange spectroscopy. Deuterated chloroform is used in the experiments, and the 2D-IR spectrum of the C-D stretching mode is measured. The chemical exchange of the chloroform hydrogen bonding partners is tracked by observing the time-dependent growth of off-diagonal peaks in the 2D-IR spectra. The measured substitution rate is 1/30 ps for an acetone molecule to replace a DMSO molecule in a chloroform-DMSO complex and 1/45 ps for a DMSO molecule to replace an acetone molecule in a chloroform-acetone complex. Free chloroform exists in the mixed solvent, and it acts as a reactive intermediate in the substitution reaction, analogous to a SN1 type reaction. From the measured rates and the equilibrium concentrations of acetone and DMSO, the dissociation rates for the chloroform-DMSO and chloroform-acetone complexes are found to be 1/24 ps and 1/5.5 ps, respectively. The difference between the measured rate for the complete substitution reaction and the rate for complex dissociation corresponds to the diffusion limited rate. The estimated diffusion limited rate agrees well with the result from a Smoluchowski treatment of diffusive reactions.

  2. Germination dynamics and seedling frost resistance of invasive and native Impatiens species reflect local climatic conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skálová, Hana; Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2011), s. 173-180 ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0668; GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : alien species * congeners * population differentiation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.208, year: 2011

  3. Study of the dynamic of Bacillus species during of oil contaminated soil by PCR-DGGE

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Shavandi; Nima Zamanian; Azam Haddadi

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Bioremediation is an effective, inexpensive and environmental friendly manner for removing oil pollutions. Studding the biodiversity of indigenous microorganisms and their function is very important for bioremediation strategy selection and performance. This study was aimed to investigate the rule of Bacillus species in bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil. Materials and Methods: Soil microcosms were prepared by adding 2 and 4% (W/W) of diesel to the soil. A control mic...

  4. Comparative Study of Lectin Domains in Model Species: New Insights into Evolutionary Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Van Holle

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are present throughout the plant kingdom and are reported to be involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we provide a comparative analysis of the lectin families from model species in a phylogenetic framework. The analysis focuses on the different plant lectin domains identified in five representative core angiosperm genomes (Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max, Cucumis sativus, Oryza sativa ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa ssp. indica. The genomes were screened for genes encoding lectin domains using a combination of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST, hidden Markov models, and InterProScan analysis. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships were investigated by constructing maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees. The results demonstrate that the majority of the lectin families are present in each of the species under study. Domain organization analysis showed that most identified proteins are multi-domain proteins, owing to the modular rearrangement of protein domains during evolution. Most of these multi-domain proteins are widespread, while others display a lineage-specific distribution. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analyses reveal that some lectin families evolved to be similar to the phylogeny of the plant species, while others share a closer evolutionary history based on the corresponding protein domain architecture. Our results yield insights into the evolutionary relationships and functional divergence of plant lectins.

  5. Legionella species diversity and dynamics from surface reservoir to tap water: from cold adaptation to thermophily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik, René; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred G

    2016-05-01

    Water samples of the Drinking Water Supply System (DWSS) of the city of Braunschweig were analysed for its Legionella species composition using genus-specific PCR amplicons and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) fingerprint analyses based on 16S rRNA genes. These analyses comprised the whole supply chain including raw water, treatment process and large-scale storage, and a seasonal study of finished drinking water sampled monthly from cold and hot tap water. Treatment of raw water had a major impact on Legionella species by reducing their diversity and abundances. The Legionella species composition of the tap water was highly distinct from that of both source waters. In cold water, 8-14 different phylotypes of Legionella (PTLs) were observed per sample with relative abundances ranging from >1% to 53%. In hot water, L. pneumophila was present during all seasons at high relative abundances (8-40%) accompanied by 5-14 other PTLs of which 6 PTLs were in common with cold water. This thermophilic Legionella community, including L. pneumophila, was able to grow in the hot water above 50 °C. Such thermophilic Legionella populations are of general relevance for drinking water management and public health, but also for the ecology and evolution of the genus Legionella.

  6. Survival dynamics of Melocactus conoideus Buining & Brederoo (Cactaceae, a threatened species endemic to northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hévila Prates Luz-Freire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the survival of species are essential to understanding their biology and to developing effective conservation and management plans. This study aimed to determine the best model to explain the survival of the species Melocactus conoideus on the basis of time, density, age structure and habitat location, as well as to describe the interactions among those factors. The study was conducted in three M. conoideus habitat patches in the municipality of Vitória da Conquista, in the state of Bahia, Brazil, only one of which was within a "conservation unit" (protected area. In each patch, we selected 120 specimens of M. conoideus, which were marked with identification plates and classified by developmental stage and density. The survival of those individuals was monitored for a period of one year. The overall survival of M. conoideus was 87.5% and was found to correlate with the month, as well as with the interaction between the factors Patch and Density. Our results show that the survival of M. conoideus individuals is related to the intrinsic characteristics of each habitat patch and suggest that more areas should be set aside for the conservation of this species.

  7. Stomatal kinetics and photosynthetic gas exchange along a continuum of isohydric to anisohydric regulation of plant water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Meinzer; Duncan D. Smith; David R. Woodruff; Danielle E. Marias; Katherine A. McCulloh; Ava R. Howard; Alicia L. Magedman

    2017-01-01

    Species’ differences in the stringency of stomatal control of plant water potential represent a continuum of isohydric to anisohydric behaviours. However, little is known about how quasi-steady-state stomatal regulation of water potential may relate to dynamic behaviour of stomata and photosynthetic gas exchange in species operating at different positions along this...

  8. Mercury and persistent organic pollutants in native and invading forage species of the Canadian Arctic: Consequences for food web dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Sara; Fisk, Aaron T; Tomy, Gregg T; Ferguson, Steven H; Hussey, Nigel E; Kessel, Steven T; McKinney, Melissa A

    2017-10-01

    Contaminant dynamics within Arctic marine food webs may be altered through the climate-driven northward invasions of temperate/boreal species. Here, we compare tissue concentrations of total mercury (THg) and legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in native versus invading forage species sampled from 2012 to 2014 near Arviat, Clyde River, and Resolute Bay, NU, representing, low, mid- and high eastern Canadian Arctic regions, respectively. Concentrations of THg, legacy Σ-polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) and Σ-organochlorine (ΣOC) pesticides were detected in all forage species, whereas emerging halogenated flame retardants were detected in only a few individuals. Concentrations of major contaminant groups among regions did not vary for Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), while for sculpin (Cottoidea) there was no clear latitudinal trend. Thus, considering interspecific variation, native sculpin and northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) had the highest overall concentrations of THg (0.17 ± 0.02 and 0.21 ± 0.01 μg g -1 wet weight, respectively), ΣPCB (322 ± 35 and 245 ± 25 ng g -1 lipid weight (lw), respectively), and ΣOC (413 ± 38 and 734 ± 64 ng g -1 lw, respectively). Comparing the keystone native species, Arctic cod, to its 'replacement' species, capelin (Mallotus villosus) and sandlance (Ammodytes spp.), THg concentrations were higher in Arctic cod compared to capelin (p compound patterns, in capelin and sandlance relative to Arctic cod seem, therefore, more likely related to a more "temperate"-type contaminant signature in the invaders. Nevertheless, the relatively small (up to two-fold) magnitude of these differences suggested limited effects of these ecological changes on contaminant uptake by Arctic piscivores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Positive Analysis of Invasive Species Control as a Dynamic Spatial Process

    OpenAIRE

    Buyuktahtakin, Esra; Feng, Zhuo; Olsson, Aaryn; Frisvold, George B.; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2010-01-01

    This paper models control of invasive buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare), a fire-prone African bunchgrass spreading rapidly across the southern Arizona desert as a spatial dynamic process. Buffelgrass spreads over a gridded landscape. Weed carrying capacity, treatment costs, and damages vary over grid cells. Damage from buffelgrass depends on its spatial distribution in relation to valued resources. We conduct positive analysis of recommended heuristic strategies for buffelgrass control, evalua...

  10. Impact of environmental colored noise in single-species population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanio, Tommaso; Hidalgo, Jorge; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2017-10-01

    Variability on external conditions has important consequences for the dynamics and the organization of biological systems. In many cases, the characteristic timescale of environmental changes as well as their correlations play a fundamental role in the way living systems adapt and respond to it. A proper mathematical approach to understand population dynamics, thus, requires approaches more refined than, e.g., simple white-noise approximations. To shed further light onto this problem, in this paper we propose a unifying framework based on different analytical and numerical tools available to deal with "colored" environmental noise. In particular, we employ a "unified colored noise approximation" to map the original problem into an effective one with white noise, and then we apply a standard path integral approach to gain analytical understanding. For the sake of specificity, we present our approach using as a guideline a variation of the contact process—which can also be seen as a birth-death process of the Malthus-Verhulst class—where the propagation or birth rate varies stochastically in time. Our approach allows us to tackle in a systematic manner some of the relevant questions concerning population dynamics under environmental variability, such as determining the stationary population density, establishing the conditions under which a population may become extinct, and estimating extinction times. We focus on the emerging phase diagram and its possible phase transitions, underlying how these are affected by the presence of environmental noise time-correlations.

  11. Bionomics of Anopheline species and malaria transmission dynamics along an altitudinal transect in Western Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toto Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highland areas of Africa are mostly malaria hypoendemic, due to climate which is not appropriate for anophelines development and their reproductive fitness. In view of designing a malaria control strategy in Western Cameroon highlands, baseline data on anopheline species bionomics were collected. Methods Longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted in three localities at different altitudinal levels. Mosquitoes were captured when landing on human volunteers and by pyrethrum spray catches. Sampled Anopheles were tested for the presence of Plasmodium circumsporozoite proteins and their blood meal origin with ELISA. Entomological parameters of malaria epidemiology were assessed using Mac Donald's formula. Results Anopheline species diversity and density decreased globally from lowland to highland. The most aggressive species along the altitudinal transect was Anopheles gambiae s.s. of S molecular form, followed in the lowland and on the plateau by An. funestus, but uphill by An. hancocki. An. gambiae and An. ziemanni exhibited similar seasonal biting patterns at the different levels, whereas different features were observed for An. funestus. Only indoor resting species could be captured uphill; it is therefore likely that endophilic behaviour is necessary for anophelines to climb above a certain threshold. Of the ten species collected along the transect, only An. gambiae and An. funestus were responsible for malaria transmission, with entomological inoculation rates (EIR of 90.5, 62.8 and zero infective bites/human/year in the lowland, on the plateau and uphill respectively. The duration of gonotrophic cycle was consistently one day shorter for An. gambiae as compared to An. funestus at equal altitude. Altitudinal climate variations had no effect on the survivorship and the subsequent life expectancy of the adult stage of these malaria vectors, but most probably on aquatic stages. On the contrary increasing altitude

  12. Soft mode characteristics of up-up-down-down spin chains: The role of exchange interactions on lattice dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y. J. [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Second Normal University, Nanjing 210013 (China); Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gao, Y. J.; Ge, C. N [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Second Normal University, Nanjing 210013 (China); Guo, Y. Y. [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M., E-mail: liujm@nju.edu.cn [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-05-07

    In this work, the dynamics of a diatomic chain is investigated with ↑↑↓↓ spin order in which the dispersion relation characterizes the effect of magnetic interactions on the lattice dynamics. The optical or acoustic mode softening in the center or boundary of the Brillouin zone can be observed, indicating the transitions of ferroelectric state, antiferromagnetic state, or ferroelastic state. The coexistence of the multiferroic orders related to the ↑↑↓↓ spin order represents a type of intrinsic multiferroic with strong ferroelectric order and different microscopic mechanisms.

  13. Altered dynamics of broad-leaved tree species in a Chinese subtropical montane mixed forest: the role of an anomalous extreme 2008 ice storm episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jielin; Xiong, Gaoming; Wang, Zhixian; Zhang, Mi; Zhao, Changming; Shen, Guozhen; Xu, Wenting; Xie, Zongqiang

    2015-04-01

    Extreme climatic events can trigger gradual or abrupt shifts in forest ecosystems via the reduction or elimination of foundation species. However, the impacts of these events on foundation species' demography and forest dynamics remain poorly understood. Here we quantified dynamics for both evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved species groups, utilizing a monitoring permanent plot in a subtropical montane mixed forest in central China from 2001 to 2010 with particular relevance to the anomalous 2008 ice storm episode. We found that both species groups showed limited floristic alterations over the study period. For each species group, size distribution of dead individuals approximated a roughly irregular and flat shape prior to the ice storm and resembled an inverse J-shaped distribution after the ice storm. Furthermore, patterns of mortality and recruitment displayed disequilibrium behaviors with mortality exceeding recruitment for both species groups following the ice storm. Deciduous broad-leaved species group accelerated overall diameter growth, but the ice storm reduced evergreen small-sized diameter growth. We concluded that evergreen broad-leaved species were more susceptible to ice storms than deciduous broad-leaved species, and ice storm events, which may become more frequent with climate change, might potentially threaten the perpetuity of evergreen-dominated broad-leaved forests in this subtropical region in the long term. These results underscore the importance of long-term monitoring that is indispensible to elucidate causal links between forest dynamics and climatic perturbations.

  14. Water-level fluctuations and metapopulation dynamics as drivers of genetic diversity in populations of three Tanganyikan cichlid fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevado, B; Mautner, S; Sturmbauer, C; Verheyen, E

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how genetic variation is generated and maintained in natural populations, and how this process unfolds in a changing environment, remains a central issue in biological research. In this work, we analysed patterns of genetic diversity from several populations of three cichlid species from Lake Tanganyika in parallel, using the mitochondrial DNA control region. We sampled populations inhabiting the littoral rocky habitats in both very deep and very shallow areas of the lake. We hypothesized that the former would constitute relatively older, more stable and genetically more diverse populations, because they should have been less severely affected by the well-documented episodes of dramatic water-level fluctuations. In agreement with our predictions, populations of all three species sampled in very shallow shorelines showed traces of stronger population growth than populations of the same species inhabiting deep shorelines. However, contrary to our working hypothesis, we found a significant trend towards increased genetic diversity in the younger, demographically less stable populations inhabiting shallow areas, in comparison with the older and more stable populations inhabiting the deep shorelines. We interpret this finding as the result of the establishment of metapopulation dynamics in the former shorelines, by the frequent perturbation and reshuffling of individuals between populations due to the lake-level fluctuations. The repeated succession of periods of allopatric separation and secondary contact is likely to have further increased the rapid pace of speciation in lacustrine cichlids. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dynamics of radioecological and genetic processes in populations of mammalian model species at contamination of ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabokon', N.I.; Goncharova, R.I.

    2008-01-01

    A short review of data on the time course of radiobiological and genetic processes in natural populations of mammalian model species inhabiting radiocontaminated ecosystems over many generations is presented here. The described time-courses of biological end-points in these populations do not reflect the time course of the whole-body dose rates, but do the outcome of multiple processes, including the direct response to individual irradiation, the transgeneration transmission and accumulation of induced damages and the development of adaptation. (authors)

  16. Dynamics analysis of a predator-prey system with harvesting prey and disease in prey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xin-You; Qin, Ni-Ni; Huo, Hai-Feng

    2018-12-01

    In this paper, a predator-prey system with harvesting prey and disease in prey species is given. In the absence of time delay, the existence and stability of all equilibria are investigated. In the presence of time delay, some sufficient conditions of the local stability of the positive equilibrium and the existence of Hopf bifurcation are obtained by analysing the corresponding characteristic equation, and the properties of Hopf bifurcation are given by using the normal form theory and centre manifold theorem. Furthermore, an optimal harvesting policy is investigated by applying the Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. Numerical simulations are performed to support our analytic results.

  17. A dynamic performance model for redox-flow batteries involving soluble species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.A.; Watt-Smith, M.J.; Walsh, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    A transient modelling framework for a vanadium redox-flow battery (RFB) is developed and experiments covering a range of vanadium concentration and electrolyte flow rate are conducted. The two-dimensional model is based on a comprehensive description of mass, charge and momentum transport and conservation, and is combined with a global kinetic model for reactions involving vanadium species. The model is validated against the experimental data and is used to study the effects of variations in concentration, electrolyte flow rate and electrode porosity. Extensions to the model and future work are suggested

  18. Development of ANN-based models to predict the static response and dynamic response of a heat exchanger in a real MVAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qinhua; So, Albert T P; Tse, W L; Ren, Qingchang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach to develop artificial neural network (ANN) models to predict the performance of a heat exchanger operating in real mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning (MVAC) system. Two approaches were attempted and presented. Every detailed components of the MVAC system have been considered and we attempt to model each of them by one ANN. This study used the neural network technique to obtain a static and a dynamic model for a heat exchanger mounted in an air handler unit (AHU), which is the key component of the MVAC system. It has been verified that almost all of the predicted values of the ANN model were within 95% - 105% of the measured values, with a consistent mean relative error (MRE) smaller than 2.5%. The paper details our experiences in using ANNs, especially those with back-propagation (BP) structures. Also, the weights and biases of our trained-up ANN models are listed out, which serve as good reference for readers to deal with their own situations

  19. Effect of diverse ions, column temperature and flow rate on the dynamic exchange-properties of cesium in various types of zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Hitoshi; Kanno, Takuji; Kimura, Toshiya.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of various diverse ions in solution, column temperature and flow rate on the dynamic exchange-properties of Cs have been studied with various types of zeolites, i.e., synthetic mordenite, natural mordenite and clinoptilolite. The concentration of nitric acid considerably affects on the break-through properties of Cs; break-through capacity (B. T. Cap), total capacity (T. Cap) and column utilization (U) decrease with increasing acid concentration. The break-throgh data in the pH range (pH >= 1) are as follows; above 50 (meq./100 g zeolite) for B. T. Cap, 110 (meq./100 g zeolite) for T. Cap and 45 (%) for U, respectively. On the other hand, the concentration of formic acid (<= 2 M) and sodium ion (<= 0.1 M) give no critical change on the break-through properties, and T. Cap was found to be nearly constant. Break-through capacity and exchange rate increase with an increase in column temperature, while T. Cap remains constant. Thus, a similar profile was found in the curves of these properties as a function of temperature. Their inflection point gives the value of C/Co asymptotically equals 0.63. The decrease in flow rate (S. V) appears to give an increase in both B. T. Cap and U. (author)

  20. Integrating dynamic fuzzy C-means, data envelopment analysis and artificial neural network to online prediction performance of companies in stock exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangoshai Rezaee, Mustafa; Jozmaleki, Mehrdad; Valipour, Mahsa

    2018-01-01

    One of the main features to invest in stock exchange companies is their financial performance. On the other hand, conventional evaluation methods such as data envelopment analysis are not only a retrospective process, but are also a process, which are incomplete and ineffective approaches to evaluate the companies in the future. To remove this problem, it is required to plan an expert system for evaluating organizations when the online data are received from stock exchange market. This paper deals with an approach for predicting the online financial performance of companies when data are received in different time's intervals. The proposed approach is based on integrating fuzzy C-means (FCM), data envelopment analysis (DEA) and artificial neural network (ANN). The classical FCM method is unable to update the number of clusters and their members when the data are changed or the new data are received. Hence, this method is developed in order to make dynamic features for the number of clusters and clusters members in classical FCM. Then, DEA is used to evaluate DMUs by using financial ratios to provide targets in neural network. Finally, the designed network is trained and prepared for predicting companies' future performance. The data on Tehran Stock Market companies for six consecutive years (2007-2012) are used to show the abilities of the proposed approach.

  1. A COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS ANALYSIS OF AIR FLOW THROUGH A TELECOM BACK-UP UNIT POWERED BY AN AIR-COOLED PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xin; Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive to stationary such as powering telecom back-up units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and heat....... This product heat has to be effectively removed from the fuel cell, and while automotive fuel cells are usually liquid-cooled using a secondary coolant loop similar to the internal combustion engines, stationary fuel cell systems as they are used for telecom back-up applications often rely on excessive air fed...... to the fuel cell cathode to remove the heat. Thereby, the fuel cell system is much simpler and cheaper while the fuel cell performance is substantially lower compared to automotive fuel cells. This work presents a computational fluid dynamics analysis on the heat management of an air-cooled fuel cell powered...

  2. Solvent exchange in a metal–organic framework single crystal monitored by dynamic in situ X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Jordan M.; Walton, Ian M.; Bateman, Gage; Benson, Cassidy A.; Mitchell, Travis; Sylvester, Eric; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Benedict, Jason B. (UC); (Buffalo)

    2017-07-25

    Understanding the processes by which porous solid-state materials adsorb and release guest molecules would represent a significant step towards developing rational design principles for functional porous materials. To elucidate the process of liquid exchange in these materials, dynamicin situX-ray diffraction techniques have been developed which utilize liquid-phase chemical stimuli. Using these time-resolved diffraction techniques, the ethanol solvation process in a flexible metal–organic framework [Co(AIP)(bpy)0.5(H2O)]·2H2O was examined. The measurements provide important insight into the nature of the chemical transformation in this system including the presence of a previously unreported neat ethanol solvate structure.

  3. Fructan dynamics in the underground organs of Chresta exsucca (Asteraceae, a dry season flowering species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Silva dos Santos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Climatic seasonality has an influence on the phenology of native Cerrado plants. Herbs and subshrubs tend to flower in the rainy season, although some species of these habits flower in the dry season. Reserve carbohydrates, stored in the underground organs, are used to support phases of high energy-demand, but also may protect plants from damage during periods of environmental limitation. In this study we evaluated variation in fructan levels in the underground organs of field-grown plants of Chresta exsucca among different phenological phases. Chresta exsucca flowers in the dry season and possesses a diffuse underground system, which stores inulin-type fructans. Resprouting was continual during the sampling period. Oligosaccharide content was always higher than polysaccharide content, except during senescence, the only phase with an oligosaccharide: polysaccharide ratio < 1. Fructan accumulation occurred during vegetative growth until flowering. Fructan mobilization was prominent during resprouting until the beginning of vegetative growth. Fructans stored in the underground organs of C. exsucca serve to fulfill the energetic demands of development and maintenance of this complex structure. In this way, fructans are essential to the persistence of this species in the environment of the Cerrado by ensuring reproduction in harsh conditions, such as drought.

  4. Computational thermal-fluid dynamics analysis of the laminar flow regime in the meander flow geometry characterizing the heat exchanger used in high temperature superconducting current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, Enrico; Heller, Reinhard; Richard, Laura Savoldi; Zanino, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The laminar regime in the meander flow geometry has been analysed with a previously validated computational strategy. • Several meander flow geometries as well as flow conditions have been analysed. • A range for the Reynolds number has been defined in which the flow can be considered laminar. • Correlations for the pressure drop and the heat transfer coefficients in the laminar regime have been derived. • A comparison between the computed the experimental pressure drop of the W7-X HTS current lead prototype is presented. -- Abstract: The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Politecnico di Torino have developed and validated a computational thermal-fluid dynamics (CtFD) strategy for the systematic analysis of the thermal-hydraulics inside the meander flow heat exchanger used in high-temperature superconducting current leads for fusion applications. In the recent past, the application of this CtFD technique has shown that some operating conditions occurring in these devices may not reach the turbulent regime region. With that motivation, the CtFD analysis of the helium thermal-fluid dynamics inside different meander flow geometries is extended here to the laminar flow regime. Our first aim is to clarify under which operative conditions the flow regime can be considered laminar and how the pressure drop as well as the heat transfer are related to the geometrical parameters and to the flow conditions. From the results of this analysis, correlations for the pressure drop and for the heat transfer coefficient in the meander flow geometry have been derived, which are applicable with good accuracy to the design of meander flow heat exchangers over a broad range of geometrical parameters

  5. Computational thermal-fluid dynamics analysis of the laminar flow regime in the meander flow geometry characterizing the heat exchanger used in high temperature superconducting current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Enrico, E-mail: enrico.rizzo@kit.edu [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Heller, Reinhard [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Richard, Laura Savoldi; Zanino, Roberto [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • The laminar regime in the meander flow geometry has been analysed with a previously validated computational strategy. • Several meander flow geometries as well as flow conditions have been analysed. • A range for the Reynolds number has been defined in which the flow can be considered laminar. • Correlations for the pressure drop and the heat transfer coefficients in the laminar regime have been