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Sample records for dye-sensitized tio2 solar

  1. Optimum Nanoporous TiO2 Film and Its Application to Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴松元; 王孔嘉

    2003-01-01

    Properties of TiO2 nanoporous films, which are one of the crucial technologies in dye-sensitized solar cell, are investigated. The nanocrystalline TiO2 films were prepared with the sol-gel method at different pH in precursor and treatment temperature in autoclave for their application to dye-sensitized solar cells. The thickness of the TiO2 film is very important to the transfer of photoelectron as well as adsorption of dye, it is also known as one of the source to the dark current. The results show that the TiO2 films, such as different particle sizes of TiO2, different pH in precursor and treatment temperature in autoclave, have a strong influence on the photoelectrochemical properties of the dye-sensitized solar cells. We give the optimum TiO2 film thickness and morphology for the application to dye-sensitized solar cells.

  2. Influence of TiO2 nanofiber additives for high efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Jae-Wook; Park, Ju-Young; Kim, Sun-Il

    2011-02-01

    TiO2 nanofibers were prepared from a mixture of titanium-tetra-isopropoxide and poly vinyl pyrrolidone by applying the electrospinning method. The samples were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and BET analyses. The diameter of electrospun TiO2 nanofibers is in the range of 70 approximately 160 nm. To improve the short-circuit photocurrent, we added the TiO2 nanofibers in the TiO2 electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). TiO2 nanofibers added in DSSCs can make up to 20% more conversion energy than the conventional DSSC with only TiO2 films only.

  3. Composite Electrode SnO2/TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Bin XIA; Fu You LI; Shu Ming YANG; Chun Hui HUANG

    2004-01-01

    Composite nanoporous electrode SnO2/TiO2 was fabricated for the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with N3 (Cis-Ru). After introducing of TiO2, the open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) was higher than that of the pure SnO2 electrode, while short-circuit photocurrent (Isc) was varied with the ratio of the TiO2. Appropriate content of the TiO2 can be beneficial to the efficiency of the solar cell, and it gives negative impact on the composite electrode when the content of TiO2 is higher.

  4. Natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanorods assembly of broccoli shape based solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvapragasam, Akila; Muthukumarasamy, N; Agilan, S; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan; Senthil, T S; Sundaram, Senthilarasu

    2015-07-01

    TiO2 nanorods based thin films with rutile phase have been synthesized using template free low temperature hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscope images showed that the prepared TiO2 samples were made of TiO2 nanorods and the nanorods had arranged by itself to form a broccoli like shape. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the prepared TiO2 samples exhibit rutile phase. The grown TiO2 nanorods had been sensitized using the flowers of Sesbania (S) grandiflora, leaves of Camellia (C) sinensis and roots of Rubia (R) tinctorum. Dye sensitized solar cells had been fabricated using the natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanorods based thin film photoelectrode and the open circuit voltage and short circuit current density were found to lie in the range of 0.45-0.6 V and 5.6-6.4 mA/cm(2) respectively. The photovoltaic performance of all the fabricated natural dye sensitized TiO2 solar cells indicate that natural dyes have the potential to be used as effective sensitizer in dye sensitized solar cells.

  5. Fabrication of a TiO2-P25/(TiO2-P25+TiO2 nanotubes) junction for dye sensitized solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Huy Hao; Gobinda Gyawali; Tohru Sekino; Soo Wohn Lee

    2016-01-01

    The dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), which converts solar light into electric energy, is expected to be a promising renewable energy source for today's world. In this work, dye sensitized solar cells, one containing a single layer and one containing a double layer, were fabricated. In the double layer DSSC structure, the under-layer was TiO2-P25 film, and the top layer consisted of a mixture of TiO2-P25 and TiO2 nanotubes. The results indicated that the efficiency of the DSSC with the double...

  6. Enhanced efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells with novel synthesized TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Ki-Young; Cho, Jung-Min; Cho, Sung-June; Yun, Je-Jung; Mun, Soo-San; Han, Eun-Mi

    2010-05-01

    An anatase TiO2 and three kinds of novel TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by a hydrothermal method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which were obtained by mixing NaOH (10 M), KOH (14 M) and LiOH (10 M) solution with an anatase TiO2 powder, respectively. The TiO2 working electrodes of DSSCs were prepared and the photoelectric properties of the cells were characterized. The influence of different poly(ethylene glycol) contents in TiO2 films with and without HNO3 treatment on the electron transfer in DSSCs were investigated. It is found that the DSSC with HNO3 (0.002 mol/l)-treated film containing 16.7 wt% PEG shows the higher power conversion efficiency of 6.0%, which was mainly depended on the degrees of TiO2 pore size and uniformity of TiO2 films.

  7. One-Dimensional TiO2 Nanostructures as Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Qu; Chao Lai

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is star materials due to its remarkable optical and electronic properties, resulting in various applications, especially in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photoanode is the most important part of the DSSCs, which help to adsorb dye molecules and transport the injected electrons. The size, structure, and morphology of TiO2 photoanode have been found to show significant influence on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. In this paper, we briefly summa...

  8. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anatase TiO2 Nanorods Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal method provides an effective reaction environment for the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials with high purity and well-controlled crystallinity. In this work, we started with various sizes of commercial TiO2 powders and used the hydrothermal method to prepare TiO2 thin films. We found that the synthesized TiO2 nanorods were thin and long when smaller TiO2 particles were used, while larger TiO2 particles produced thicker and shorter nanorods. We also found that TiO2 films prepared by TiO2 nanorods exhibited larger surface roughness than those prepared by the commercial TiO2 particles. It was found that a pure anatase phase of TiO2 nanorods can be obtained from the hydrothermal method. The dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with TiO2 nanorods exhibited a higher solar efficiency than those fabricated with commercial TiO2 nanoparticles directly. Further, triple-layer structures of TiO2 thin films with different particle sizes were investigated to improve the solar efficiency.

  9. Block copolymer directed synthesis of mesoporous TiO 2 for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nedelcu, Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    The morphology of TiO2 plays an important role in the operation of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. By using polyisoprene-block- ethyleneoxide (PI-b-PEO) copolymers as structure directing agents for a sol-gel based synthesis of mesoporous TiO2, we demonstrate a strategy for the detailed control of the semiconductor morphology on the 10 nm length scale. The careful adjustment of polymer molecular weight and titania precursor content is used to systematically vary the material structure and its influence upon solar cell performance is investigated. Furthermore, the use of a partially sp 2 hybridized structure directing polymer enables the crystallization of porous TiO2 networks at high temperatures without pore collapse, improving its performance in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Effect of TiO2 blocking layer on TiO2 nanorod arrays based dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, R.; Paulraj, M.

    2016-05-01

    Highly ordered rutile titanium dioxide nanorod (TNR) arrays (1.2 to 6.2 μm thickness) were grown on TiO2 blocking layer chemically deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate and were used as photo-electrodes to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC's). Homogeneous layer of TiO2 on FTO was achieved by using aqueous peroxo- titanium complex (PTC) solutions via chemical bath deposition. Structural and morphological properties of the prepared samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. TNR arrays (6.2 μm) with TiO2 blocking layer showed higher energy conversion efficiency (1.46%) than that without TiO2 blocking layer. The reason can be ascertained to the suppression of electron-hole recombination at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface by the effect of TiO2 blocking layer.

  11. Hierarchical structured TiO2 photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yen-Chen; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-04-01

    A novel approach has been developed to fabricate hills-like hierarchical structured TiO2 photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The appropriately aggregated TiO2 clusters in the photoanode layer could cause stronger light scattering and higher dye loading that increases the efficiency of photovoltaic device. For detailed light-harvesting study, different molecular weights of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as binders for TiO2 nanoparticles (P-25 Degussa) aggregation. A series of TiO2 films with dissimilar morphology, the reflection of TiO2 films, absorbance of attached dye, amount of dye loading, and performance of fabricated DSSC devices, were measured and investigated. An optimized device had energy conversion efficiency of 4.47% having a higher dye loading and good light harvesting, achieving a 23% increase of short-circuit current J(sc) in DSSCs.

  12. One-Dimensional TiO2 Nanostructures as Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is star materials due to its remarkable optical and electronic properties, resulting in various applications, especially in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Photoanode is the most important part of the DSSCs, which help to adsorb dye molecules and transport the injected electrons. The size, structure, and morphology of TiO2 photoanode have been found to show significant influence on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. In this paper, we briefly summarize the synthesis and properties of one-dimensional (1D TiO2 nanomaterials (bare 1D TiO2 nanomaterial and 1D hierarchical TiO2 and their photovoltaic performance in DSSCs.

  13. TiO2 Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells Fabricated by Hydrothermal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Gu, Haoshuang; Xia, Huating; Hu, Mingzhe

    2011-02-01

    TiO2 nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated by using hydrothermal method. The synthesizing of TiO2 nanowire/nanorod arrays directly on FTO substrate would cause a high conducting loss to solar cells. Through la minating a compact layer between FTO substrate and photonic anode layer, the conducting loss could be effectively prevented. Results indicated that using different concentration of titanium tetrabutoxide would affect the photoelectric conversion efficiency and different producing methods of the compact layer also played an important role to the conversion efficiency.

  14. Electrospun TiO2 electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi Yeon; Kim, Do Kyun; Ihn, Kyo Jin; Jo, Seong Mu; Kim, Dong Young

    2004-12-01

    We report the new application of electrospun TiO2 fibres as an electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). TiO2 fibre electrode was electrospun directly onto a conducting glass substrate from a mixture of titanium(IV) propoxide and poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) in dimethyl formamide. The TiO2 fibres are composed of one-dimensionally aligned nanofibrils about 20 nm thick with an islands-in-a-sea morphology, which was obtained from the phase separation of TiO2 gel and PVAc during the solidification process. The porous structure of the electrospun TiO2 electrode was found to be efficiently penetrated by a viscous polymer gel electrolyte. In order to improve the photocurrent generation, we treated the electrospun TiO2 electrode with TiCl4 aqueous solution. The rutile crystal was grown on the surface of anatase TiO2 fibres. An additional TiO2 layer increased the volume fraction of active materials, resulting in an increase of sensitizer adsorption. The energy conversion efficiency obtained from electrospun TiO2 electrodes with a PVDF-HFP gel electrolyte was over 90% of that from a liquid electrolyte system.

  15. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiue-Hsyan Wang; Chaochin Su; Huei-Siou Chen; Yi-Cheng Liu; Yi-Wen Hsu; Nai-Mu Hsu; Wen-Ren Li

    2011-01-01

    Nano-porous TiO2 thin films have been widely used as the working electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this work, the phase-pure anatase TiO2 (a-TiO2) and rutile TiO2 (r-TiO2) have been prepared using hydrothermal processes. The investigation of photo-to-electron conversion efficiency of DSSCs fabricated from mixed-TiO2 with a-TiO2 and r-TiO2 ratio of 80 : 20 (A8R2) was performed and compared to that from commercial TiO2 (DP-25). The results showed higher efficiency of DSSC for...

  16. Fabrication of a TiO2-P25/(TiO2-P25+TiO2 nanotubes) junction for dye sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen Huy Hao; Gobinda Gyawali; Tohru Sekino; Soo Wohn Lee

    2016-01-01

    The dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), which converts solar light into electric energy, is expected to be a promising renewable energy source for today's world. In this work, dye sensitized solar cells, one con-taining a single layer and one containing a double layer, were fabricated. In the double layer DSSC structure, the under-layer was TiO2-P25 film, and the top layer consisted of a mixture of TiO2-P25 and TiO2 nanotubes. The results indicated that the efficiency of the DSSC with the double layer structure was a significant improvement in comparison to the DSSC consisting of only a single film layer. The addition of TiO2-P25 in the top layer caused an improvement in the adsorption of dye molecules on the film rather than on the TiO2 nanotubes only. The presence of the TiO2 nanotubes together with TiO2-P25 in the top layer revealed the enhancement in harvesting the incident light and an improvement of electron transport through the film.

  17. Fabrication of a TiO2-P25/(TiO2-P25+TiO2 nanotubes junction for dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Huy Hao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC, which converts solar light into electric energy, is expected to be a promising renewable energy source for today's world. In this work, dye sensitized solar cells, one containing a single layer and one containing a double layer, were fabricated. In the double layer DSSC structure, the under-layer was TiO2-P25 film, and the top layer consisted of a mixture of TiO2-P25 and TiO2 nanotubes. The results indicated that the efficiency of the DSSC with the double layer structure was a significant improvement in comparison to the DSSC consisting of only a single film layer. The addition of TiO2-P25 in the top layer caused an improvement in the adsorption of dye molecules on the film rather than on the TiO2 nanotubes only. The presence of the TiO2 nanotubes together with TiO2-P25 in the top layer revealed the enhancement in harvesting the incident light and an improvement of electron transport through the film.

  18. TiO2 nanotube arrays and TiO2-nanotube-array based dye-sensitized solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YanBiao; ZHOU BaoXue; XIONG BiTao; BAI Jing; LI LongHai

    2007-01-01

    To substitute the non-regular nano-crystalline semiconductor for a novel kind of ordered microstructure is a very important aspect in the domain of dye-sensitized solar cell.One of the researching hotspots is the highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube architecture.As a new type of titania nano-material,titania nanotube arrays have drawn extraordinary attention due to its distinctive morphology,notable photoelectrical and hydro-sensitive performance.At 100% sun the new kind of TiO2 nanotube arrays solar cell exhibits an overall conversion efficiency of 5.44%.This paper introduces the preparation methods of titania nanotube arrays,the existing problems and recent progress in titania nanotube arrays solar cell.

  19. Characteristics of Boron Decorated TiO2 Nanoparticles for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photoanode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yuan Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different boron weight percents on mixed-phase (anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized to investigate structure morphology, defect states, luminescence properties, and energy conversion. The measured results indicate that boron doping of TiO2 both increases the crystallite size and rutile-phase percent in an anatase matrix. Decreasing the band gap by boron doping can extend the absorption to the visible region, while undoped TiO2 exhibits high UV absorption. Oxygen vacancy defects generated by boron ions reduce Ti+4 and affect electron transport in dye-sensitized solar cells. Excess electrons originating from the oxygen vacancies of doped TiO2 downward shift in the conduction band edge and prompt the transfer of photoelectrons from the conduction band of the rutile phase to the lower energy anatase trapping sites; they then separate charges to enhance the photocurrent and Jsc. Although the resistance of the electron recombination (Rk between doped TiO2 photoanode and the electrolyte for the doped TiO2 sample is lower, a longer electron lifetime (τ of 19.7 ms with a higher electron density (ns of 2.1 × 1018 cm−3 contributes to high solar conversion efficiency.

  20. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiue-Hsyan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-porous TiO2 thin films have been widely used as the working electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. In this work, the phase-pure anatase TiO2 (a-TiO2 and rutile TiO2 (r-TiO2 have been prepared using hydrothermal processes. The investigation of photo-to-electron conversion efficiency of DSSCs fabricated from mixed-TiO2 with a-TiO2 and r-TiO2 ratio of 80 : 20 (A8R2 was performed and compared to that from commercial TiO2 (DP-25. The results showed higher efficiency of DSSC for A8R2 cells with same dependence of cell efficiency on the film thickness for both A8R2 and DP-25 cells. The best efficiency obtained in this work is 5.2% from A8R2 cell with TiO2 film thickness of 12.0 μm. The correlation between the TiO2 films thickness and photoelectron chemical properties of DSSCs fabricated from A8R2 and DP-25 was compared and discussed.

  1. Spherical TiO2 aggregates with different building units for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Su, Xunjia; Hou, Genliang; Bi, Song; Xiao, Zhou; Jia, Haipeng

    2013-09-07

    Tailoring the architectures of spherical TiO2 aggregates is crucial to obtain superior photovoltaic properties and promote their application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Herein, we synthesized spherical TiO2 aggregates using different building units, including nanocrystallites, nanorods, nanosheets, and nanotubes, via a hydrothermal method, and studied the effect of the building units on the performances of DSSCs. The aggregates assembled by uniform nanosheet and nanotube building units were synthesized with the use of spherical TiO2 nanorod aggregates as titanium sources in an alkaline hydrothermal reaction. Compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, the spherical TiO2 aggregates possess higher surface area, more efficient light scattering ability, and better electron transport properties. Among the four types of spherical TiO2 aggregates; the nanorod, nanotube, and nanosheet aggregates demonstrate better electron transport properties than the nanocrystallite aggregates; the nanotube and nanosheet aggregates exhibit more efficient light scattering than the nanocrystallite and nanorod aggregates; and the nanotube aggregates show the highest surface area. Thus the DSSC based on nanotube aggregates exhibited the highest energy conversion efficiency of 7.48%, which is 16.0%, 9.7%, and 19.5% higher than those of the DSSCs based on the nanosheet, nanorod, and nanocrystallite aggregates, respectively.

  2. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells.

  3. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-07-22

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells.

  4. Comparative study of TiO2 nanoparticles applied to dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubi, Besma; Bennaceur, Jamila; Ben Taieb, S.; Chtourou, Rathowan

    2014-02-01

    Microcrystalline titanium oxide (TiO2) particles of anatase crystal phase were prepared by the sol-gel route, varying thermal treatment conditions (400 °C and 600 °C), for a comparison purpose with commercial TiO2 (P25). Structural, optical and electrical properties were investigated for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) application. Both microcrystalline TiO2 particles, synthesized by the sol-gel method and obtained from the P25 powder were used to prepare a light scattering layer of the working electrode. The obtained electrodes were then immersed in a solution of N-719 (ruthenium) dye, at the ambient temperature, during 24 h. Finally, the DSSCs were assembled, the short circuit photocurrent, the open circuit photovoltage, and the power conversion efficiency were measured using an I-V measurement system. The overall conversion efficiencies for all elaborated DSSCs were proximate. A maximum efficiency of 2.3% was achieved for the sol-gel TiO2 thin film annealed at 400 °C, under one sun irradiation, with an open circuit voltage of 0.61 V and a current density of 6.54 mA/cm2. The higher efficiency value of the sol-gel TiO2 sample, annealed at 400 °C, was attributed to the uniformity of the prepared titanium oxide substrate, which provides a better surface for the dye absorption.

  5. Structurally stabilized mesoporous TiO2 nanofibres for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fargol Hasani Bijarbooneh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1D TiO2 nanostructures are very desirable for providing fascinating properties and features, such as high electron mobility, quantum confinement effects, and high specific surface area. Herein, 1D mesoporous TiO2 nanofibres were prepared using the electrospinning method to verify their potential for use as the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The 1D mesoporous nanofibres, 300 nm in diameter and 10-20 μm in length, were aggregated from anatase nanoparticles 20-30 nm in size. The employment of these novel 1D mesoporous nanofibres significantly improved dye loading and light scattering of the DSSC photoanode, and resulted in conversion cell efficiency of 8.14%, corresponding to an ∼35% enhancement over the Degussa P25 reference photoanode.

  6. The Layer Boundary Effect on Multi-Layer Mesoporous TiO2 Film Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Yixin

    2016-10-01

    Multi-layer mesoporous TiO2 prepared by screen printing is widely used for fabrication of high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compare the three types of ~10 um thick mesoporous TiO2 films, which were screen printed as 1-, 2- and 4-layers using the same TiO2 nanocrystal paste. The layer boundary of the multi-layer mesoporous TiO2 films was observed in the cross-section SEM. The existence of a layer boundary could reduce the photoelectron diffusion length with the increase of layer number. However, the photoelectron diffusion lengths of the Z907 dye sensitized solar cells based on these different layered mesoporous TiO2 films are all longer than the film thickness. Consequently, the photovoltaic performance seems to have little dependence on the layer number of the multi-layer TiO2 based DSSCs.

  7. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 barrier layers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yichen; Klankowski, Steven; Yang, Yiqun; Li, Jun

    2014-07-09

    A TiO2 barrier layer is critical in enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Two methods to prepare the TiO2 barrier layer on fluorine-doped tin dioxide (FTO) surface were systematically studied in order to minimize electron-hole recombination and electron backflow during photovoltaic processes of DSSCs. The film structure and materials properties were correlated with the photovoltaic characteristics and electrochemical properties. In the first approach, a porous TiO2 layer was deposited by wet chemical treatment of the sample with TiCl4 solution for time periods varying from 0 to 60 min. The N719 dye molecules were found to be able to insert into the porous barrier layers. The 20 min treatment formed a nonuniform but intact TiO2 layer of ∼100-300 nm in thickness, which gave the highest open-circuit voltage VOC, short-circuit photocurrent density JSC, and energy conversion efficiency. But thicker TiO2 barrier layers by this method caused a decrease in JSC, possibly limited by lower electrical conductance. In the second approach, a compact TiO2 barrier layer was created by sputter-coating 0-15 nm Ti metal films on FTO/glass and then oxidizing them into TiO2 with thermal treatment at 500 °C in the air for 30 min. The dye molecules were found to only attach at the outer surface of the barrier layer and slightly increased with the layer thickness. These two kinds of barrier layer showed different characteristics and may be tailored for different DSSC studies.

  8. Hydrothermal growth of highly monodispersed TiO2 nanoparticles: Functional properties and dye-sensitized solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethan, M.; Nithiananth, S.; Abinaya, R.; Harish, S.; Archana, J.; Sudha, L.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Ikeda, H.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2017-10-01

    Monodispersed anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method using citric acid as a capping agent. The effect of citric acid and the growth time on the formation of TiO2, functional properties and dye-sensitized solar cell performances were investigated. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy results revealed that the TiO2 nanoparticles possess the anatase phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with monodispersity in size and morphology. An average size of 14 nm was obtained for the growth period of 15 h. The maximum efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cell was achieved for TiO2 nanoparticles grown for 15 h as 7.66% which was higher than that of commercial P25 TiO2 (5.23%) and uncapped nanoparticles (3.68%).

  9. Mesoporous TiO2 Nanowire Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Xu, Jia; Liu, Xiu; Zhang, Yongzhe; Zhang, Bing; Yao, Jianxi; Dai, Songyuan; Tan, Zhanao; Pan, Xu

    2016-06-01

    In this work, TiO2 nanowire arrays were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, and then were converted into mesoporous nanowires (MNWs). The TiO2 MNWs are about 5 μm in length and 30-200 nm in diameter, with mesopores size of 5-30 nm randomly distributed on the NW surface. X-ray diffraction pattern reports show that the NWs are single crystallized rutile TiO2 and oriented grown along [001]. Through further characterization of FT-IR and TG-DSC, we proposed a reasonable explanation for pore existence. After dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) assembly, the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of MNWs based DSSC achieved 3.2%. It means tenfold enhancement of photoelectric property compare with the as-grown NWs. Furthermore, dye absorb capacity of MNWs can reach up to 4.11 x 10(-8) mol/cm2. However, such MNWs can not only provide quick and efficient electron transmission channel, but also owns big specific surface area to absorb abundant dyes, thus conducive to fabricate solar cell with a high PCE.

  10. Preparation of flexible TiO2 photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ren; Wang, Hsiu-Hsuan; Lin, Chia-Feng; Su, Chaochin

    2014-09-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on nanocrystalline TiO2 photoelectrodes on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polymer substrates have drawn great attention due to its lightweight, flexibility and advantages in commercial applications. However, the thermal instability of polymer substrates limits the process temperature to below 150 °C. In order to assure high and firm interparticle connection between TiO2 nanocrystals (TiO2-NC) and polymer substrates, the post-treatment of flexible TiO2 photoelectrodes (F-TiO2-PE) by mechanical compression was employed. In this work, Degussa P25 TiO2-NC was mixed with tert-butyl alcohol and DI-water to form TiO2 paste. F-TiO2-PE was then prepared by coating the TiO2 paste onto ITO coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate using doctor blade followed by low temperature sintering at 120 °C for 2 hours. To study the effect of mechanical compression, we applied 50 and 100 kg/cm2 pressure on TiO2/PET to complete the fabrication of F-TiO2-PE. The surface morphology of F-TiO2-PE was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The resultant F-TiO2-PE sample exhibited a smooth, crack-free structure indicating the great improvement in the interparticle connection of TiO2-NC. Increase of compression pressure could lead to the increase of DSSC photoconversion efficiency. The best photoconversion efficiency of 4.19 % (open circuit voltage (Voc) = 0.79 V, short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) = 7.75 mA/cm2, fill factor (FF) = 0.68) was obtained for the F-TiO2-PE device, which showed great enhancement compared with the F-TiO2-PE cell without compression treatment. The effect of compression in DSSC performance was vindicated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement.

  11. Mechanism of Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based TiO2 Films Treated by Titanium Tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾隆月; 戴松元; 王孔嘉; 潘旭; 史成武; 郭力

    2004-01-01

    Performance of dye-sensitized solar cells can be improved by treating the nanoporous TiO2 films with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) aqueous solution. We explore the reason why the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells is enhanced by this method. It is found that the effect of TiCl4 treatment not only reduces the films surface area and improves the electronic contact, but also enhances the binding of N719 with the TiO2 films surface.

  12. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Photoanode Made with Polystyrene-Ball-Embedded TiO2 Pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Ching; Wu, Tony Chang Chi; Cheng, I.-Chun; Chen, Jian-Zhang; Yang, Mu-Rong

    2011-06-01

    We report the effect of varying the concentration of polystyrene (PS) balls embedded in TiO2 paste during the fabrication of TiO2 photoanodes on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We fabricated porous photoanodes using TiO2 pastes mixed with various concentrations of PS balls in aqueous solution. During the TiO2 sintering processes, the PS evaporated, leaving behind large cavities (>1 µm) in the photoanodes. These cavities enhance the scattering of light, leading to improved absorption of light by N3 dyes. DSSC efficiency increases with the increase in PS ball concentration during TiO2 fabrication. As with classical devices, TiCl4 treatment of TiO2 and the use of a compact TiO2 layer both improve the cell efficiency of DSSC devices with our large-cavity TiO2 photoanodes.

  13. Effects of Homogenization Scheme of TiO2 Screen-Printing Paste for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Seigo Ito; Kaoru Takahashi; Shin-ich Yusa; Takahiro Imamura; Kenji Tanimoto

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 porous electrodes have been fabricated for photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) using TiO2 screen-printing paste from nanocrystalline TiO2 powder dried from the synthesized sol. We prepared the TiO2 screen-printing paste by two different methods to disperse the nanocrystalline TiO2 powder: a “ball-milling route” and a “mortal-grinding route.” The TiO2 ball-milling (TiO2-BM) route gave monodisperse TiO2 nanoparticles, resulting in high photocurrent density (14.2 mA cm−2) a...

  14. Analisa Pengaruh Komposisi Graphene- TiO2 Terhadap Unjuk Kerja Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indera Cahya Pradana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini,  89,5% pembangkit tenaga listrik di Indonesia menggunakan energi fosil yang tidak dapat diperbaharui. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mencari sumber energi alternatif dengan memanfaatkan energi surya yang dikonversikan menjadi energi listrik menggunakan dye-sensitized solar cell. Material semikonduktor pada fotoelektroda DSSC penelitian ini terdiri dari komposit TiO2 dengan graphene. Graphene yang dikompositkan merupakan hasil sintesis dengan metode modifikasi Hummer sebagai salah satu komponennya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh komposisi 0; 5; 10 dan 15% wt graphene pada komposit graphene- TiO2 yang terbaik untuk didapatkan efisiensi unjuk kerja yang maksimal. Pada penelitian ini, digunakan dye dari ekstrak bunga Geranium (Geranium sylvaticum. Unjuk kerja DSSC pada penelitian ini didasarkan pada efisiensi dan fill factor DSSC. Efisiensi dan Fill Factor terbaik didapatkan pada komposisi 10% wt graphene pada komposit graphene- TiO2 dengan nilai efisiensi sebesar 0,00532% dan fill factor sebesar 0,69 (69%.

  15. Light scattering of nanocrystalline TiO2 film used in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Bi-Tao; Zhou Bao-Xue; Bai Jing; Zheng Qing; Liu Yan-Biao; Cai Wei-Min; Cai Jun

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the light scattering and adsorption of nanocrystalline TiO2 porous films used in dye-sensitized solar cells composed of anatase and/or rutile particles by using an optical four-flux radiative transfer model.These light properties are difficult to measure directly on the functioning solar cells and they can not be calculated easily from the first-principle computational or quantitative theoretical evaluations.These simulation results indicate that the light scattering of 1-25 nm TiO2 panicles is negligible,but it is effective in the range of 80 and 180 nm.A suitable mixture of small particles(10 nm radius),which are resulted in a large effective surface,and of larger particles(150 nm radius),which are effective light scatterers,have the potential to enhance solar absorption significantly.The rutile crystals have a larger refractive index and thus the light harvest of the mixtures of such larger rutile and relatively small anatase particles is improved in comparison with that of pure anatase films.The light absorption of the 10μm double-layered films is also examined.A maximal light absorption of double-layered film is gotten when the thickness of the first layer of 10 nm-sized anatase particles is comparable to that of the second larger rutile layer.

  16. Preparation of Smooth Surface TiO2 Photoanode for High Energy Conversion Efficiency in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sasipriya Kathirvel; Huei-Siou Chen; Chaochin Su; Hsiue-Hsyan Wang; Chung-Yen Li; Wen-Ren Li

    2013-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on a TiO2 photoanode have been considered as an alternative source in the field of renewable energy resources. In DSSCs, photoanode plays a key role to achieve excellent photo-to-electric conversion efficiency. The surface morphology, surface area, TiO2 crystal phase, and the dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles are the most important factors influencing the properties of a photoanode. The smooth TiO2 surface morphology of the photoanode indicates closely ...

  17. Control of dark current in photoelectrochemical (TiO2/I--I3-)) and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Seigo; Liska, Paul; Comte, Pascal; Charvet, Raphaël; Péchy, Peter; Bach, Udo; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Kay, Andreas; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K; Grätzel, Michael

    2005-09-14

    The ruthenium complex bis-tetrabutylammonium cis-dithiocyanato-N,N'-bis-2,2'-bipyridine-4-carboxylic acid, 4'-carboxylate ruthenium(II), N-719, was found to block the dark current of dye sensitized solar cells (DSC), based on mesoporous TiO2 films deposited on a F-doped tin oxide electrode and the effect was compared to surface treatment by TiCl4 and the introduction of a compact TiO2 blocking layer.

  18. High-efficient dye-sensitized solar cell based on novel TiO2 nanorod/nanoparticle bilayer electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Hafez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hoda Hafez1,2, Zhang Lan2, Qinghua Li2, Jihuai Wu21Environmental Studies and Research Institute, Minoufiya University, Sadat City, Egypt, 2Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, ChinaAbstract: High light-to-energy conversion efficiency was achieved by applying novel TiO2 nanorod/nanoparticle (NR/NP bilayer electrode in the N719 dye-sensitized solar cells. The short-circuit current density (JSC, the open-circuit voltage (VOC, the fill factor (FF, and the overall efficiency (η were 14.45 mA/cm2, 0.756 V, 0.65, and 7.1%, respectively. The single-crystalline TiO2 NRs with length 200–500 nm and diameter 30–50 nm were prepared by simple hydrothermal methods. The dye-sensitized solar cells with pure TiO2 NR and pure TiO2 NP electrodes showed only a lower light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 4.4% and 5.8%, respectively, compared with single-crystalline TiO2 NRs. This can be attributed to the new NR/NP bilayer design that can possess the advantages of both building blocks, ie, the high surface area of NP aggregates and rapid electron transport rate and the light scattering effect of single-crystalline NRs.Keywords: dye-sensitized solar cell, TiO2 nanorod, bilayer electrode

  19. Recombination Reduction in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Screen-Printed TiO2 Underlayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi-Zhe; HUANG Zhen; LI Ke-Xin; LI Hong; LI Dong-Mei; CHEN Li-Quan; MENG Qing-Bo

    2006-01-01

    @@ In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the TiO2 underlayer can block the electron recombination at the FTO(fluorine doped SnO2 ) glass/electrolyte interface. This underlayer was traditionally prepared by spray-pyrolysis or spin coating.

  20. Improved conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cell using Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Laxmi J.; Bhatt, Piyush J.; Desai, Rahul K.; Chakrabarty, B. S.; Panchal, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites were prepared by hydrothermal method for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The structural and optical properties were investigated by X -ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy respectively. XRD results revealed the formation of material in nano size. The average crystallite size is 22.32 nm, 17.41 nm and 6.31 nm for TiO2, TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites respectively. The optical bandgap varies from 2.04 eV to 3.75 eV. Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using the prepared material. Pomegranate juice was used as a sensitizer and graphite coated conducting glass plate was used as counter electrode. The I - V characteristics were recorded to measure photo response of DSSC. Photovoltaic parameter like open circuit voltage, power conversion efficiency, and fill factor were evaluated for fabricated solar cell. The power conversion efficiency of DSSC fabricated with TiO2, TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites were found 0.71%, 1.97% and 4.58% respectively.

  1. Electrochemical Characterization of TiO 2 Blocking Layers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kavan, Ladislav

    2014-07-31

    Thin compact layers of TiO2 are grown by thermal oxidation of Ti, by spray pyrolysis, by electrochemical deposition, and by atomic layer deposition. These layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells to prevent recombination of electrons from the substrate (FTO or Ti) with the hole-conducting medium at this interface. The quality of blocking is evaluated electrochemically by methylviologen, ferro/ferricyanide, and spiro-OMeTAD as the model redox probes. Two types of pinholes in the blocking layers are classified, and their effective area is quantified. Frequency-independent Mott-Schottky plots are fitted from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Certain films of the thicknesses of several nanometers allow distinguishing the depletion layer formation both in the TiO2 film and in the FTO substrate underneath the titania film. The excellent blocking function of thermally oxidized Ti, electrodeposited film (60 nm), and atomic-layer-deposited films (>6 nm) is documented by the relative pinhole area of less than 1%. However, the blocking behavior of electrodeposited and atomic-layer-deposited films is strongly reduced upon calcination at 500 °C. The blocking function of spray-pyrolyzed films is less good but also less sensitive to calcination. The thermally oxidized Ti is well blocking and insensitive to calcination. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  2. TiO2 nanotubes infiltrated with nanoparticles for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuan; Chen, Changhong; Zhu, Kai; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2011-06-01

    We present a detailed study of the infiltration of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes (NTs) with TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The aim is to combine the merits of the NP's high dye loading and high light harvesting capability with the NT's straight carrier transport path and high electron collection efficiency to improve the DSSC performance. On infiltrating NTs with TiCl4 solution followed by hydrothermal synthesis, 10 nm size NPs were observed to form a conformal and dense layer on the NT walls. Compared with the bare NT structure, dye loading of this mixed NT and NP structure is more than doubled. The overall photon conversion efficiencies of the fabricated DSSCs are improved by 152%, 107%, and 49% for 8, 13, and 20 µm long NTs, respectively. Electron transport and recombination parameters were extracted based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Although a slight reduction of electron lifetime was observed in the mixed structures due to enhanced recombination with a larger surface area, the diffusion length is still significantly longer than the NT length used, suggesting that most electrons are collected. In addition to dye loading and hence photocurrent increment, the photovoltage and filling factor were also improved in the mixed structure due to a low serial resistance, leading to the enhancement of the overall efficiency.

  3. Use Of Cu-C-Tio2 In Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Trivedi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel and simple strategy has been used for the preparation of TiO2 nanoparticles co-doped with carbon non-metal and copper transition metal by sol-gel method. The dye sensitized solar cell was fabricated with Cu-C-TiO2 nanocrystalline layer on FTO conductive glass sensitized with rhodamine B dye. Iamp8722 I3 amp8722 redox couple was used as liquid electrolyte and carbon graphite as counter electrode. The experimental results of rhodamine B sensitized Cu-C-doped TiO2 showed Voc 101.2 mV isc 0.0545 mA Vpp 55.9 mV andipp 0.0496 mA and FF 0.50. The photo-to-electric power conversion efficiency was 0.004 under 66.0 mWcm-2 light intensity. The undoped andCu-C-TiO2 nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction XRD scanning electron microscopySEM and Fourier transform infrared FT-IR techniques.

  4. Eu(3+) doped down shifting TiO2 layer for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Kumar, Anuj; Ntwaeaborwa, O M; Dutta, Viresh; Swart, H C

    2016-12-15

    Europium doped TiO2 (TiO2:Eu(3+)) down-shifting (DS) nanophosphors (NPrs) were synthesized by the solution-combustion method with different concentrations of Eu(3+). The X-ray diffraction results confirmed the formation of a polycrystalline tetragonal structure of the TiO2. The emission of colour of the TiO2:Eu(3+) DS NPr was tuned by varying the doping concentration of Eu(3+). The photoluminescence results confirmed that the TiO2:Eu(3+) DS NPrs converted the UV light into visible light by energy down-conversion process, i.e. down-shifting of high energy UV photons to low energy visible photons. These TiO2:Eu(3+) DS NPrs were used to enhance the efficiency of the Dye sensitized solar cell from 8.32% to 8.80%.

  5. Enhanced efficiency of dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells (DSSC) by doping of metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Young Cheol; Jung, Young Jin

    2005-03-15

    Doped TiO(2) semiconductor powders were synthesized using Al and W as photovoltaic property-enhancing impurities. Al-doped TiO(2) electrodes increased open-circuit voltage (V(oc)), but reduced short-circuit current (I(sc)). In contrast, W-doped TiO(2) had an opposite effect. However, dye-sensitized solar cell efficiency fabricated with doped TiO(2) was remarkably better than that of undoped TiO(2). It seems that these phenomena were related to electrical surface-state modifications induced by metal-ion dopants. These modifications led to significant changes in powder aggregation, charge transfer kinetics, and dye adsorption characteristics. The highest efficiency was found by using (Al+W)-doped TiO(2) nanopowders.

  6. Large-Sized Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with TiO2 Cemented and Protected Silver Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Zhang; Wu, Jihuai; Lin, Jianming; Miaoliang

    2012-03-01

    Large-sized dye-sensitized solar cells were prepared with TiO2 cemented and protected Ag grids in the photo and counter electrodes. The addition of high conductive TiO2 cemented Ag grids can maintain high performance with the enlargement of the cells. The preparation of the compact TiO2 layer on the Ag grids can prevent the corrosion of the electrolyte, moreover, when it is prepared on the whole area of the photo electrode, it also can play as the blocking layer for further enhancing the performance of cells. The presented method shows a simple and efficient way to prepare high performance large single cells.

  7. Alignment of TiO2 (Anatase Crystal of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by External Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Yeong Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, magnetic field (B was applied on TiO2 (anatase of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC for alignment of crystal. Magnetic field was applied on TiO2 when deposited TiO2 on the fluorine tin oxide (FTO was dried at 373 K for crystalline orientation. And applying time of B was varied 0~25 min. Characteristics of the magnetic field applied TiO2 films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Current-voltage characteristics were also analyzed using solar simulator, and it was confirmed that the energy conversion efficiency of 41% was increased. Finally, it was identified that the magnetic field affected orientation of TiO2, resulting in the enhancement of the performance of the DSC.

  8. Effects of Homogenization Scheme of TiO2 Screen-Printing Paste for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 porous electrodes have been fabricated for photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs using TiO2 screen-printing paste from nanocrystalline TiO2 powder dried from the synthesized sol. We prepared the TiO2 screen-printing paste by two different methods to disperse the nanocrystalline TiO2 powder: a “ball-milling route” and a “mortal-grinding route.” The TiO2 ball-milling (TiO2-BM route gave monodisperse TiO2 nanoparticles, resulting in high photocurrent density (14.2 mA cm−2 and high photoconversion efficiency (8.27%. On the other hand, the TiO2 mortal-grinding (TiO2-MG route gave large aggregate of TiO2 nanoparticles, resulting in low photocurrent density (11.5 mA cm−2 and low photoconversion efficiency (6.43%. To analyze the photovoltaic characteristics, we measured the incident photon-to-current efficiency, light absorption spectroscopy, and electrical impedance spectroscopy of DSCs.

  9. Influence of TiO2 Nanorod Arrays on the Bilayered Photoanode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya; Li, Zhen; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Tao; Li, Yinchang; Liu, Xueqin; Li, Fei

    2016-10-01

    A TiO2 bilayered structure consisting of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2NP) as an overlayer and single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanorods (TiO2 NRs) as an underlayer on a transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate was designed as the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) through a facile hydrothermal treatment followed by a doctor-blade method. DSSCs based on the hierarchical TiO2 nano-architecture photoelectrode shows a power conversion efficiency of 7.39% because the relatively large specific surface area of TiO2NP increased the dye absorption, and oriented one-dimensional TiO2 NRs enhanced the light harvesting capability, accelerating interfacial electron transport. In particular, we observed the growth morphology of the TiO2 nanorod arrays in the bilayered photoanode and the influence of the whole solar cell. The result indicated that the TiO2 NRs layer clearly impacted the photoelectron chemical properties, while the vertical and intensive nanorod arrays significantly increased their performance.

  10. Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetics of Gardenia Blue on TiO2 Photoelectrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured porous TiO2 paste was deposited on the FTO conductive glass using squeeze printing technique in order to obtain a TiO2 thin film with a thickness of 10 μm and an area of 4 cm2. Gardenia blue (GB extracted from Gardenia jasminode Ellis was employed as the natural dye for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. Adsorption studies indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of GB on the surface of TiO2 thin film was approximately 417 mg GB/g TiO2 photoelectrode. The commercial and natural dyes, N-719 and GB, respectively, were employed to measure the adsorption kinetic data, which were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The energy conversion efficiency of the TiO2 electrode with successive adsorptions of GB dye was about 0.2%.

  11. Design of multi-porous layer for dye-sensitized solar cells by doping with TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tung-Li; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2013-01-01

    We propose a multi-layer dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Conventional DSSC components use a singular TiO2 particle size and a mono-layer active layer, but we demonstrate a multi-layer and multi-scale TiO2 particle based DSSC. Doping with large TiO2 particles can produce light scattering inside the DSSC component. Light scattering effects reduce TiO2 absorption at wavelengths of 200-300 nm. The unabsorbed light zig-zags between the Pt back electrode layer and the substrate, and enhances the Ru-dye absorption. To enhance the scattering, we doped the active layer with 20 wt% of large diameter TiO2. The multi-layer DSSC increases efficiency by about 15% compared with standard DSSCs.

  12. Preparation of Smooth Surface TiO2 Photoanode for High Energy Conversion Efficiency in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasipriya Kathirvel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs based on a TiO2 photoanode have been considered as an alternative source in the field of renewable energy resources. In DSSCs, photoanode plays a key role to achieve excellent photo-to-electric conversion efficiency. The surface morphology, surface area, TiO2 crystal phase, and the dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles are the most important factors influencing the properties of a photoanode. The smooth TiO2 surface morphology of the photoanode indicates closely packed arrangement of TiO2 particles which enhance the light harvesting efficiency of the cell. In this paper, a smooth TiO2 photoanode has been successfully prepared using a well-dispersed anatase TiO2 nanosol via a simple hydrothermal process. The above TiO2 photoanode was then compared with the photoanode made from commercial TiO2 nanoparticle pastes. The morphological and structural analyses of both the aforementioned photoanodes were comprehensively characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The DSSC fabricated by using a-TiO2 nanosol-based photoelectrode exhibited an overall light conversion efficiency of 7.20% and a short-circuit current density of 13.34 mA cm−2, which was significantly higher than those of the DSSCs with the TiO2 nanoparticles-based electrodes.

  13. Anatase TiO(2) nanosheets with exposed (001) facets: improved photoelectric conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaguo; Fan, Jiajie; Lv, Kangle

    2010-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated based on anatase TiO(2) nanosheets (TiO(2)-NSs) with exposed {001} facets, which were obtained by a simple one-pot hydrothermal route using HF as a morphology controlling agent and Ti(OC(4)H(9))(4) as precursor. The prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms. The photoelectric conversion performances of TiO(2)-NSs solar cells are also compared with TiO(2) nanoparticles (TiO(2)-NPs) and commercial-grade Degussa P25 TiO(2) nanoparticle (P25) solar cells at the same film thickness, and their photoelectric conversion efficiencies (η) are 4.56, 4.24 and 3.64%, respectively. The enhanced performance of the TiO(2)-NS solar cell is due to their good crystallization, high pore volume, large particle size and enhanced light scattering. The prepared TiO(2) nanosheet film electrode should also find wide-ranging potential applications in various fields including photocatalysis, catalysis, electrochemistry, separation, purification and so on.

  14. Anatase TiO2 nanosheets with exposed (001) facets: improved photoelectric conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaguo; Fan, Jiajie; Lv, Kangle

    2010-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated based on anatase TiO2 nanosheets (TiO2-NSs) with exposed {001} facets, which were obtained by a simple one-pot hydrothermal route using HF as a morphology controlling agent and Ti(OC4H9)4 as precursor. The prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The photoelectric conversion performances of TiO2-NSs solar cells are also compared with TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) and commercial-grade Degussa P25 TiO2 nanoparticle (P25) solar cells at the same film thickness, and their photoelectric conversion efficiencies (η) are 4.56, 4.24 and 3.64%, respectively. The enhanced performance of the TiO2-NS solar cell is due to their good crystallization, high pore volume, large particle size and enhanced light scattering. The prepared TiO2 nanosheet film electrode should also find wide-ranging potential applications in various fields including photocatalysis, catalysis, electrochemistry, separation, purification and so on.

  15. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells with multilayer photoanodes of hydrothermally grown TiO$_2$ nanocrystals and P25 TiO$_2$ nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MAZIAR MARANDI; MAHBOUBEH NAEIMI SANI SABET; FARZANEH AHMADLOO

    2016-10-01

    TiO$_2$ nanocrystals (NCs) with sizes around 20 nm were synthesized by hydrothermal method in acidic autoclaving pH. The hydrothermally grown TiO$_2$ NCs and P25 TiO$_2$ nanoparticles (NPs) were used in the preparationof two different pastes using different procedures. These pastes with different characteristics were separately deposited on FTO glass plates to form multilayer photoanodes of the dye-sensitized solar cells. The aim of this study was to search how a thin sub-layer of the hydrothermally grown TiO2 NCs in the photoanodes could improve the efficiency of TiO$_2$ P25-based solar cells. The highest efficiency of 6.5% was achieved for a cell with a photoanodecomposed of one transparent sub-layer of hydrothermally grown TiO$_2$ NCs and two over-layers of P25 NPs. Higher energy conversion efficiencies were also attainable using two transparent sub-layers of hydrothermally grown TiO$_2$ NCs. In this case, an efficiency of 7.2% was achieved for a cell with a photoelectrode made of one over-layer of P25 TiO$_2$ NPs. This could show an increase of about 30% in the efficiency compared to the similar cell with a photoanode made of two layers of hydrothermally grown TiO2 NCs.

  16. Ag nanoparticle-deposited TiO2 nanotube arrays for electrodes of Dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Go; Ohmi, Hayato; Tan, Wai Kian; Lockman, Zainovia; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2015-05-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells composed of a photoanode of Ag nanoparticle (NP)-deposited TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays were fabricated. The TNT arrays were prepared by anodizing Ti films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates. Efficient charge transportation through the ordered nanostructure of TNT arrays should be carried out compared to conventional particulate TiO2 electrodes. However, it has been a big challenge to grow TNT arrays on FTO glass substrates with the lengths needed for sufficient light-harvesting (tens of micrometers). In this work, we deposited Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the wall of TNT arrays to enhance light-harvesting property. Dye-sensitized solar cells with these Ag NP-deposited TNT arrays yielded a higher power conversion efficiency (2.03 %) than those without Ag NPs (1.39 %).

  17. Nanostructured TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells prepared by the sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Young Sam; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Park, Sang Joon; Yoon, Hyon Hee; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2011-12-01

    TiO2 films were prepared on glass substrates using the sol-gel process for a dye-sensitized solar cell application. The TiO2 sol was prepared using hydrolysis/polycondensation. Titanium (IV) Tetra Isopropoxide (TTIP) was used as precursor and Nitric acid (HNO3) was used as a catalyst for the peptization. The crystal structure and morphology of the prepared materials were characterized by XRD, and an SEM. The observations confirmed the nanocrystalline nature of the TiO2. The reaction parameters, such as the catalyst concentrations, the calcination time, and the calcination temperature were varied during the synthesis in order to achieve nanosize TiO2 particles. The prepared TiO2 particles were coated onto FTO glass using a screen printing technique. The prepared TiO2 films were characterized by UV-vis. The TiO2 particles calcinated at low temperatures showed an anatase phase they grew into a rutile phase when the calcination temperature increased. The size and structure of the TiO2 particles were adjusted to specific surface areas. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the DSSC was highly affected by the properties of the TiO2 particles.

  18. Effect of sulfur doped TiO2 on photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyunwoong; Nam, Sang-Hun; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2016-07-01

    In a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), a nano-porous semiconductor layer plays an important role in the performance. It determines open-circuit voltage and it affects the dye adsorption capacity and charge transfer, which are closely associated with photocurrent and overall performance. TiO2 is the most proper material for nano-porous layer since the first development of DSCs. This work focuses on the enhancement of TiO2 by doping. Sulfur (S) doping enhances charge transfer and the photoconversion of TiO2. Therefore, the increase in photocurrent and efficiency is expected by S doping. S is doped into TiO2 by hydrolysis method. The amount of S is varied and their photo-responses are verified. The most effective S doped TiO2 is applied to DSCs. Overall performance of DSC is enhanced by the addition of S doped TiO2. Especially, the photocurrent is much increased by the improvement on charge transfer, electron lifetime, and photo-conversion. The photovoltaic properties of DSCs are investigated with various ratios of undoped and S doped TiO2. Finally, a DSC based on undoped and S doped TiO2 ratio of 1:1 has the highest efficiency, better than that of a standard DSC based on undoped TiO2. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Electrochemical grafting of TiO2-based photo-anodes and its effect in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torben; Phuong, Nguyen Tuyet; Ruhland, Thomas Gerhard Aloysius

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that hydroxyl-groups which are located on the surfaces of mesoporous metal oxides (in particular sintered layers of F-doped tin oxide (FTO) and TiO2 on glass plates) are capable of undergoing reactions with 4-nitrobenzene radicals. The highly reactive benzene radicals are generated...... spectroscopy (ATR–FTIR), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). Implementation of electrochemically grafted TiO2 particles as photo-anodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) showed that the grafted surface is capable of suppressing...

  20. Improved Performance for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Compact TiO2 Layer Grown by Sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Hung-Chih Chang; Ming-Jenq Twu; Chun-Yao Hsu; Ray-Quen Hsu; Chin-Guo Kuo

    2014-01-01

    This work determines the effect of compact TiO2 layers that are deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). A series of compact TiO2 layers are prepared using radio frequency (rf) reactive magnetron sputtering. The films are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results show that when the Ar/O2/N2 flow rates are 36 : 18 : 9,...

  1. Mesoporous TiO2 Bragg Stack Templated by Graft Copolymer for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Tae Park; Won Seok Chi; Sang Jin Kim; Daeyeon Lee; Jong Hak Kim

    2014-01-01

    Organized mesoporous TiO2 Bragg stacks (om-TiO2 BS) consisting of alternating high and low refractive index organized mesoporous TiO2 (om-TiO2) films were prepared to enhance dye loading, light harvesting, electron transport, and electrolyte pore-infiltration in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The om-TiO2 films were synthesized via a sol-gel reaction using amphiphilic graft copolymers consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) backbones and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) side chains, i.e., PVC-g-...

  2. Nanocrystalline porous TiO2 electrode with ionic liquid impregnated solid polymer electrolyte for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramod K; Kim, Kang-Wook; Kim, Ki-Il; Park, Nam-Gyu; Rhee, Hee-Woo

    2008-10-01

    This communication reports the detailed fabrication of electrodes and solid polymer electrolyte with ionic liquid (IL) as an electrolyte for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Thick porous TiO2 film has been obtained by spreading and sintering TiO2 colloidal paste using "doctor blade" and characterized by SEM, TEM and XRD. The polymer electrolyte was PEO:KI/I2 incorporated with 1-ethyl 3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate (EMImSCN) as IL. Dispersal of IL in the polymer electrolyte improved the ionic conductivity and cell efficiency.

  3. Transparent TiO2 nanowire networks via wet corrosion of Ti thin films for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eunhye; Jin, Saera; Hong, Jongin

    2017-09-01

    Transparent TiO2 nanowire networks were prepared by corrosion of Ti thin films on F-doped SnO2 glass substrates in an alkaline (potassium hydroxide: KOH) solution. The formation of the porous TiO2 nanostructures from the Ti thin films was thoroughly investigated. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a photoanode of 1.2-μm-thick nanowire networks exhibit an average optical transmittance of 40% in the visible light region and a power conversion efficiency of 1.0% under one sun illumination.

  4. Niobium-Doped (001)-Dominated Anatase TiO2 Nanosheets as Photoelectrode for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Sun, Lei; Yang, Dong; Zhang, Jian; Li, Ya-Juan; Zou, Kun; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2017-03-13

    TiO2 nanocrystals with different reactive facets have attracted extensive interest since they were first synthesized. The anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with (001) or (100) dominate facets were considered to be excellent electrode materials to enhance the cell performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. However, which reactive facet presents the best surface for benefiting photovoltaic effect is still unknown. We report a systematic study of various anatase TiO2 surfaces interacting with N719 dye by means of density functional theory calculations in combination with microscopic techniques. The (001) surface interacting with N719 would have the lowest work function, leading to the best photovoltaic performances. To further increase the efficiency, Nb dopant was incorporated into the anatase TiO2 nanocrystals. Based on the theoretical prediction, we proposed and demonstrated novel Nb-doped (001)-dominated anatase TiO2 nanosheets as photoelectrode in a dye-sensitized solar cell to further enhance the open-circuit voltage. And a power conversion efficiency of 10% was achieved, which was 22% higher than that of the undoped device (P25 as an electrode).

  5. Rectangular bunched rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on carbon fiber for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenxi; Xu, Chen; Wang, Xue; Wang, Sihong; Pan, Caofeng; Lin, Changjian; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-03-07

    Because of their special application in photovoltaics, the growth of one-dimensional single-crystalline TiO(2) nanostructures on a flexible substrate is receiving intensive attention. Here we present a study of rectangular bunched TiO(2) nanorod (NR) arrays grown on carbon fibers (CFs) from titanium by a "dissolve and grow" method. After a corrosion process in a strong acid solution, every single nanorod is etched into a number of small nanowires. Tube-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells are fabricated by using etched TiO(2) NRs-coated CFs as the photoanode. An absolute energy conversion efficiency of 1.28% has been demonstrated under 100 mW cm(-2) AM 1.5 illumination. This work demonstrates an innovative method for growing bunched TiO(2) NRs on flexible substrates that can be applied in flexible devices for energy harvesting and storage.

  6. Mesoporous nitrogen-doped TiO2 sphere applied for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Peng; Li, Xiong; Wang, Heng; Liu, Guanghui; Shu, Ting; Zhou, Ziming; Ku, Zhiliang; Rong, Yaoguang; Xu, Mi; Liu, Linfeng; Hu, Min; Yang, Ying; Chen, Wei; Liu, Tongfa; Zhang, Meili; Han, Hongwei

    2011-11-24

    A mesoscopic nitrogen-doped TiO2 sphere has been developed for a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell [DSSC]. Compared with the undoped TiO2 sphere, the quasi-solid-state DSSC based on the nitrogen-doped TiO2 sphere shows more excellent photovoltaic performance. The photoelectrochemistry of electrodes based on nitrogen-doped and undoped TiO2 spheres was characterized with Mott-Schottky analysis, intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which indicated that both the quasi-Fermi level and the charge transport of the photoelectrode were improved after being doped with nitrogen. As a result, a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.01% was obtained for the quasi-solid-state DSSC.

  7. Plasma treatment effect on dye-sensitized solar cell efficiency of hydrothermal-processed TiO2 nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kyun; Lee, Hyun-Uk; Jeong, Se-Young; Kim, Jong-Pil; Jin, Jong Sung; Ahn, Hyeong-Soo; Kim, Hong-Seung; Cho, Chae-Ryong

    2012-07-01

    Atmospheric plasma (AP) treatment was carried out on TiO2 nanorods (NRs) that were hydrothermally grown on F-doped SnO2 (FTO)/glass. The effects of AP treatment on the surface of the TiO2 NRs were investigated, where the treatment involved the use of the reactive gases H2, N2, and O2. The surface energy of AP-treated TiO2 NRs was about 1.5 times higher than that of untreated TiO2 NRs (364.3 mJ/m2). After AP treatment, the increase of the peak area ratios of the Ti2O3 and TiO2 peaks in the XPS spectra resulted in a decrease in the number of oxygen vacancies in the TiO2 NRs. The efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the N2-plasma-treated TiO2 NRs, which was approximately 1.11%, was about 79% higher than that of a DSSC based on the untreated TiO2 NRs.

  8. Monolithic route to efficient dye-sensitized solar cells employing diblock copolymers for mesoporous TiO 2

    KAUST Repository

    Nedelcu, Mihaela

    2010-01-01

    We present a material and device based study on the fabrication of mesoporous TiO2 and its integration into dye-sensitized solar cells. Poly(isoprene-block-ethyleneoxide) (PI-b-PEO) copolymers were used as structure directing agents for the sol-gel based synthesis of nanoporous monolithic TiO2 which was subsequently ground down to small particles and processed into a paste. The TiO2 synthesis and the formation of tens of micrometre thick films from the paste is a scalable approach for the manufacture of dye sensitised solar cells (DSCs). In this study, we followed the self-assembly of the material through the various processing stages of DSC manufacture. Since this approach enables high annealing temperatures while maintaining porosity, excellent crystallinity was achieved. Internal TiO 2 structures ranging from the nanometre to micrometre scale combine a high internal surface area with the strong scattering of light, which results in high light absorption and an excellent full-sun power conversion efficiency of up to 6.4% in a robust, 3 μm thick dye-sensitized solar cell. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Multi-functionality of macroporous TiO2 spheres in dye-sensitized and hybrid heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerappan, Ganapathy; Jung, Dae-Woong; Kwon, Jeong; Choi, Jeong Mo; Heo, Nansra; Yi, Gi-Ra; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2014-03-25

    Micron-sized macroporous TiO2 spheres (MAC-TiO2) were synthesized using a colloidal templating process inside emulsions, which were then coated on a nanocrystalline TiO2 light absorption film to prepare a bilayered photoanode for liquid-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) and hybrid heterojunction solid-state solar cells. MAC-TiO2 layers can enhance light scattering as well as absorption, because their pore size and periodicity are comparable to light wavelength for unique multiple scattering and a porous surface can load dye more. Moreover, due to the bicontinuous nature of macropores and TiO2 walls, electrolyte could be transported much faster in between the TiO2 spheres rather than within the small TiO2 nonporous architectures. Electron transport was also facilitated along the interconnected TiO2 walls. In DSSCs with these MAC-TiO2 scattering layers, efficiency was higher than conventional DSSCs incorporating a commercial scattering layer. The unique geometry of MAC-TiO2 results in strong improvements in light scattering and infiltration of hole-transporting materials, thereby the MAC-TiO2-based solid-state device showed comparatively higher efficiency than the device with conventional nanocrystalline TiO2.

  10. Application of TiO2 nanoparticles coated multi-wall carbon nanotube to dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Kao, Mu-Jung; Huang, Kuohsiu-David; Hsieh, Tung-Jung; Chien, Shu-Hua

    2010-11-01

    This study uses the sol-gel method to prepare TiO2 nanoparticle, and further applies TiO2 nanoparticle coating on the surface of the multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). As a result, TiO2-CNT composite nanoparticles are prepared to serve as photoelectrode material in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). First, after acid treatment of MWCNT is used to remove impurities. Then, the sol-gel method is employed to prepare TiO2-CNT composite nanopowder. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows that after the TiO2 in TiO2-CNT composite nanopowder has been thermally treated at 450 degrees C, it can be completely changed to anatase phase. Furthermore, as shown from the SEM image, TiO2 has been successfully coated on CNT. The photoelectrode of DSSC is prepared using the electrophoretic deposition method (EPD) to mix the Degassa P25 TiO2 nanoparticles with TiO2-CNT powder for deposition on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass. After secondary EPD, a thin film of TiO2/CNTs with thickness 17 microm can be acquired. For the prepared TiO2-CNT composite nanoparticles, since MWCNT can increase the short-circuit current density of DSSC, the light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of DSSC can be effectively increased. Experimental results show that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSC using CNT/TiO2 photoelectrode and N719 dye is increased by 41% from the original 3.45% to 4.87%.

  11. Eco-friendly synthesis of TiO2, Au and Pt doped TiO2 nanoparticles for dye sensitized solar cell applications and evaluation of toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, K.; Kumaraguru, S.; Bhakyaraj, K.; Thirumal, S.; Arumugam, A.

    2016-04-01

    Driven by the demand of pure TiO2, Au and Pt doped TiO2 NPs were successfully synthesized using Terminalia arjuna bark extract. The eco-friendly synthesized NPs were characterized by UV-Vis-DRS, ATR-FT-IR, PL, XRD, Raman, SEM with EDX and TEM analysis. The synthesized NPs were investigation for dye sensitized solar cell applications. UV-Vis-Diffused Reflectance Spectra clearly showed that the expected TiO2 inter band absorption below 306 nm, incorporation of gold shows surface plasma resonant (SPR) near 555 nm and platinum incorporated TiO2 NPs shows absorbance at 460 nm. The energy conversion efficiency for Au doped TiO2 NPs when compared to pure and Pt doped TiO2 NPs. In addition to that, Au noble metal present TiO2 matrix and an improve open-circuit voltage (Voc) of DSSC. Synthesized NPs was evaluated into antibacterial and antifungal activities by disk diffusion method. It is observed that NPs have not shown any activities in all tested bacterial and fungal strains. In this eco-friendly synthesis method to provide non toxic and environmental friendly nanomaterials can be used for solar energy device application.

  12. LiF-doped mesoporous TiO2 as the photoanode of highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Chin Yong; Ouyang, Jianyong

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports the doping of nanocrystalline TiO2 with LiF by mechanical grinding and subsequent sintering and the application of LiF-doped TiO2 as the photoanode of highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The fluoride ions can dope into the TiO2 matrix as revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The LiF-doped TiO2 samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tunneling electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Doping of TiO2 with a small amount of LiF can improve the photovoltaic performance of DSCs. At the optimal LiF loading of 0.53 wt% in TiO2, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSCs is enhanced from 7.74% to 8.24% under simulated AM1.5 illumination. The effect of the LiF doping on the photovoltaic performance of DSCs is investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements. The improvement in the photovoltaic efficiency is attributed to the facilitation of the electron transport through the TiO2 electrode as a result of the increase in the anatase crystallinity induced by the LiF doping. The enhanced anatase crystallinity also causes a decrease in the charge recombination.

  13. A novel TiO2 tape for fabricating dye-sensitized solar cells on universal conductive substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Cheng, Rui; Chen, Yiwei; Chen, Xiaohong; Sun, Zhuo; Huang, Sumei

    2013-12-26

    The present paper describes a new method for manufacturing large scale, stable, transportable, and designable nanostructured porous TiO2 tapes on various substrates for use in photoelectrochemical cells. The method involves predeposition of TiO2 strips on the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by screen-printing method, peeling off TiO2 strips from the substrate by a novel laser-assisted lift-off technique, sintering the formed TiO2 tapes at 500 °C for 15 min, and compressing the sintered TiO2 tapes on different conductive substrates with a low pressure rolling press to form mechanically stable, electrically conducting, porous nanostructured TiO2 electrodes at room temperature. Photoelectrochemical characteristics of the resulted electrodes are presented. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with the as-fabricated TiO2 photoanodes on PET-ITO and FTO glass achieved a conversion efficiency of 4.2% and 6.2%, respectively. The potential use of this new manufacturing method in future DSSC applications is discussed.

  14. Effects of boron doping in TiO2 nanotubes and the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Alagesan; Wang, Hong-Wen

    2012-06-01

    Titanium nanotubes doped with boron used as the photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells were investigated. The materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, and UV-vis spectroscopy and their photoconversion efficiencies were evaluated. The chemical compositions of TiO2 nanotubes (TNA) and boron doped TNA (B-TNA) were identified by the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). XRD evidenced the presence of anatase as the main phase and presented the existence of boron elements at interstitial sites between the TiO2 lattices. The UV-vis spectra indicated the narrowing of band gap upon doping boron into titanium nanotubes. The photovoltaic properties were measured by a current-voltage meter under AM1.5 simulated light radiation. The boron-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays showed an enhanced performance with a photocurrent density of 7.85 ± 0.20 mA/cm2 and an overall conversion efficiency (η) of 3.44 ± 0.10%. The enhanced performance was attributed to the enhanced electron injection rate and retardation of the charge recombination, which could be due to perfect matching between the LUMO of dye molecules and the conduction band of TiO2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement indicated the longer electron lifetime and reduced TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface resistance for boron doped TiO2 nanotubes than that of undoped TiO2 nanotubes.

  15. The function of a TiO2 compact layer in dye-sensitized solar cells incorporating "planar" organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Anthony; Ito, Seigo; Snaith, Henry; Bach, Udo; Kwiatkowski, Joe; Grätzel, Michael

    2008-04-01

    We present a device based study into the operation of liquid electrolyte dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC's) using organic dyes. We find that, for these systems, it is entirely necessary to employ a compact TiO2 layer between the transparent fluorine doped SnO2 (FTO) anode and the electrolyte in order to reduce charge recombination losses. By incorporation of a compact layer, the device efficiency can be increased by over 160% under simulated full sun illumination and more than doubled at lower light intensities. This is strong evidence that the more widely employed ruthenium based sensitizers act as to "insulate" the anode against recombination losses and that many planar organic dyes employed in DSSC's could greatly benefit from the use of a compact TiO2 blocking layer. This is in strong contrast to DSSC's sensitized with ruthenium based systems, where the introduction of compact TiO2 has only marginal effects on conversion efficiencies.

  16. Improvement in performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with porous TiO2 electrodes using squid ink particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Toshihiko; Nagai, Sakura; Ogasawara, Kou; Minato, Ken-ichi; Sakai, Mitsuo; Ueno, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    A potentially appealing alternative to the traditional fabrication process of TiO2 film electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was presented by utilizing water-soluble TiO2 composite pastes containing size-controlled ink particles (SIPs) isolated from the squid. The mixture ratios of SIPs in the paste formulations affected the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE). The highest PCE was achieved when the mixture ratio of SIPs was 20%. The process is highly reproducible and leads to a 35% increase in PCE compared with that in the DSSC without SIP addition. The utilization of SIPs in the fabrication of TiO2 film electrodes enhanced the performance of DSSCs.

  17. Optimization of the TiO2-surface modification temperature for performance enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Kyung; Bae, Jae Young; Kim, Jae Hong; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Do Kyung; Han, Yoon Soo

    2014-08-01

    A nanoporous TiO2 electrode was modified with magnesium salts (MSs), MgCO3 and Mg(CH3COO)2, by simple dip coating process at varied temperatures, and then applied to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). When the surface treatment was conducted at 40 °C, the DSSC with MS-modified TiO2 layer showed an increase in short circuit current (JSC) and open circuit voltage (VOC), resulting in a power conversion efficiency of 8.52%, compared to that (7.02%) of reference device with bare TiO2. The improved JSC value was attributed to the increased dye adsorption. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dark current-voltage studies revealed that the VOC enhancement was caused by the suppression of charge recombination between injected electrons and I3(-) ions.

  18. A simple recipe for an efficient TiO2 nanofiber-based dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, A Sreekumaran; Jose, Rajan; Shengyuan, Yang; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2011-01-01

    Development of highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with good photovoltaic parameters is an active research area of current global interest. In this article, we provide a simple recipe for the fabrication of electrospun TiO(2) nanorod-based efficient dye-sensitized solar cell using a Pechini-type sol. The Pechini-type sol of TiO(2) nanofibers produces a highly porous and compact layer of TiO(2) upon doctor-blading and sintering without the need for an adhesion and scattering layers or TiCl(4) treatment. The best nanofiber DSSCs with an area of ~0.28 cm(2) shows an efficiency of ~4.2% under standard test conditions (100 mW/cm(2), 25°C and AM1.5 G) and an incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) of ~50%. Impedance measurements show lower charge transfer resistance that improved the fill factor. We believe that simple approaches such as the present one to develop nanofiber DSSCs would open up enormous possibilities in effective harvesting of solar energy for commercial applications, considering the fact that electrospinning is a cost-effective method for the mass scale production of nanofibers and nanorods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dual Functional TiO2-Au Nanocomposite Material for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandikumar, A; Suresh, S; Murugesan, S; Ramaraj, R

    2015-09-01

    Titanium dioxide-gold nanocomposite ((TiO2-Au)(nps)) materials dispersed in poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) polymer electrolyte are employed as solid-state electrolytes in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) containing nanocrystalline TiO2 nanoparticle (P25) or (P25-Au)(nps) thin film photoanode adsorbed with a near-IR dye sensitizer, nickel-phthalocyanine (NiPcTs). The photocurrent-photovoltage characteristics of the DSSCs are evaluated under standard AM 1.5 G simulated solar irradiation of 100 mW/cm2. The (TiO2-Au)(nps) nanocomposite material incorporated into the PDDA polymer electrolyte promotes interfacial charge transfer process, reduces crystallinity of the polymer electrolyte and enhances mobility of the /-/I3- redox couple, which are resulted in -6-fold increase in the overall solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency when compared to the unmodified polymer electrolyte based DSSC. When the P25 photoanode is replaced with the (P25-Au)(nps) photoanode, a further 8-fold increase in the overall energy conversion efficiency is achieved, owing to the increas in the charge transport through the photoanode. The photovoltaic performance of the present DSSC configuration is also compared with that of a cell sensitized by using standard N719 dye.

  20. Effect of anodic TiO2 powder as additive on electron transport properties in nanocrystalline TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Jung; Yu, Wen-Yueh; Chien, Shu-Hua

    2007-12-01

    Highly crystalline anodic TiO2 (AO-TiO2) powder was obtained by grinding of annealed TiO2 nanotube arrays grown using anodization of Ti foil. The influence of AO-TiO2 as additive in nanocrystalline TiO2 film on electron transport properties affecting the performance of these dye-sensitized solar cell was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the open-circuit voltage decay technique under AM 1.5 illumination. As a result of the enhanced charge-collection and light harvesting efficiencies, an increase of above 20% in photocurrent density was observed after the addition of AO-TiO2.

  1. Characteristics of the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using TiO2 Nanotubes Treated with TiCl4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hyuk Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of oxide semiconducting TiO2 nano particles with one dimensional TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs has been used for improving the electron transport in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Although use of one dimensional structure provides the enhanced photoelectrical performance, it tends to reduce the adsorption of dye on the TiO2 surface due to decrease of surface area. To overcome this problem, we investigate the effects of TiCl4 treatment on DSSCs which were constructed with composite films made of TiO2 nanoparticles and TNTs. To find optimum condition of TNTs concentration in TiO2 composites film, series of DSSCs with different TNTs concentration were made. In this optimum condition (DSSCs with 10 wt% of TNT, the effects of post treatment are compared for different TiCl4 concentrations. The results show that the DSSCs using a TiCl4 (90 mM post treatment shows a maximum conversion efficiency of 7.83% due to effective electron transport and enhanced adsorption of dye on TiO2 surface.

  2. Electrospun hierarchical TiO2 nanorods with high porosity for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Teng-Long; Fan, Jie; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2013-09-25

    Ultraporous anatase TiO2 nanorods with a composite structure of mesopores and macropores fabricated via a simple microemulsion electrospinning approach were first used as photoanode materials for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The special multiscale porous structure was formed by using low-cost paraffin oil microemulsion droplets as the soft template, which can not only provide enhanced adsorption sites for dye molecules but also facilitate the electrolyte diffusion. The morphology, porosity, and photovoltaic and electron dynamic characteristics of the porous TiO2 nanorod based DSSCs were investigated in detail by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 sorption measurements, current density-voltage (J-V) curves, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS), and open-circuit voltage decay (OCVD) measurements. The results revealed that, although fewer amounts of dyes were anchored on the porous TiO2 nanorod films, they exhibited stronger light scattering ability, fast electrolyte diffusion, and extended electron lifetime compared to the commercial P25 nanoparticles. A power conversion efficiency of 6.07% was obtained for the porous TiO2 nanorod based DSSCs. Moreover, this value can be further improved to 8.53% when bilayer structured photoanode with porous TiO2 nanorods acting as the light scattering layer was constructed. This study demonstrated that the porous TiO2 nanorods can work as promising photoanode materials for DSSCs.

  3. The effect of dye-sensitized solar cell based on the composite layer by anodic TiO2 nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays are very attractive for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) owing to their superior charge percolation and slower charge recombination. Highly ordered, vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays have been fabricated by a three-step anodization process. Although the use of a one-dimensional structure provides an enhanced photoelectrical performance, the smaller surface area reduces the adsorption of dye on the TiO2 surface. To overcome this problem, we investigated the effect of DSSCs constructed with a multilayer photoelectrode made of TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2 nanotube arrays. We fabricated the novel multilayer photoelectrode via a layer-by-layer assembly process and thoroughly investigated the effect of various structures on the sample efficiency. The DSSC with a four-layer photoelectrode exhibited a maximum conversion efficiency of 7.22% because of effective electron transport and enhanced adsorption of dye on the TiO2 surface.

  4. The effect of dye-sensitized solar cell based on the composite layer by anodic TiO2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2014-12-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays are very attractive for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) owing to their superior charge percolation and slower charge recombination. Highly ordered, vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays have been fabricated by a three-step anodization process. Although the use of a one-dimensional structure provides an enhanced photoelectrical performance, the smaller surface area reduces the adsorption of dye on the TiO2 surface. To overcome this problem, we investigated the effect of DSSCs constructed with a multilayer photoelectrode made of TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2 nanotube arrays. We fabricated the novel multilayer photoelectrode via a layer-by-layer assembly process and thoroughly investigated the effect of various structures on the sample efficiency. The DSSC with a four-layer photoelectrode exhibited a maximum conversion efficiency of 7.22% because of effective electron transport and enhanced adsorption of dye on the TiO2 surface.

  5. Characterization and Performance Evaluation of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Using Nanostructured TiO2 Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Erten-Ela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-free organic sensitizer consisting of donor, electron conducting, and anchoring anhydride groups was engineered at molecular level and synthesized. Dye sensitized solar cells based on conjugated naphthalene dye were fabricated using nanoporous electrode. Photoelectrodes with a 7 μm thick nanoporous layer and a 5 μm thick light-scattering layer were used to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells. DSSCs were fabricated in a FTO/nc-TiO2/organic dye/I-/I3-/Pt/FTO device geometry. Dye sensitized solar cell was characterized by current density-voltage (J-V measurement. All current-voltage (I-V measurements were done under 100 mW/cm2 light intensity and AM 1.5 conditions. The photovoltaic data revealed a short circuit photocurrent density of 1.86 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 430 mV, and a fill factor of 0.63, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 0.53%.

  6. Growth of TiO2 nanofibers on FTO substrates and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryana, R.; Rahmawati, L. R.; Triyana, K.

    2016-11-01

    Growth of TiO2 nanofibers on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates have been performed using electrospinning method. Homogenous TiO2 solution as nanofibers material was prepared with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP), ethanol, acetic acid and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) which was stirred for 24 h. TiO2 solution was loaded into the syringe pump. Electrospun voltage was operated under 15 kV with optimum distance between syringe tip and collector was 15 cm. FTO substrates were attached on the collector surface. Electrospinning coating time was varied at 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, and 60 min. Then TiO2 nanofibers layer was annealed at temperature of 450° C for 3 h. X-ray diffraction spectrum of TiO2 nanofibers showed major anatase peaks at 25.3°, 48.0° and 37.8° correlating crystal orientation of (101), (200), and (004), respectively while only one rutile peak at 27.5°(110). TiO2 nanofibers diameter was measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). TiO2 nanofibers have diameter in range of 100-1000 nm. The obtained-TiO2 nanofibers were applied in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with beta-carotene as dye, carbon as catalyst, and I-/I3- redox couple as electrolyte. DSSC performance was analyzed from I-V characterization. Growth of TiO2 nanofibers at electrospinning time for 45 min has highest efficiency that is 0.016%. It is considered that TiO2 nanofibers at electrospinning time for 45 min can produce optimum thickness so that it is speculated many dyes adsorb on the nanofiber surfaces and many electrons diffuse toward the electrodes.

  7. Influences of Sr-Incorporated TiO2 Layer on the Photovoltaic Properties of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Seong; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ju; Han, Yoon Soo

    2016-03-01

    Effects of a mixed overlayer composed of TiO2 and TiSrO3 on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated. The surface of TiO2 photoelectrode formed on F-doped SnO2 (FTO) was modified by soaking it in a TiCl4:SrCl2 mixed aqueous solution with various molar ratios and then calcining to produce the TiCl4:SrCl2-treated TiO2 photoelectrode (Ti:Sr-TiO2/FTO). The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) was obtained from DSSC with Ti:Sr(7:3)-TiO2/FTO, which was prepared from the mixed solution with the molar ratio of 7:3 (TiOl4:SrCl2). An enhancement in short-circuit photocurrent (J(sc)) and open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of DSSC with Ti:Sr(7:3)-TiO2/FTO was achieved, compared to those of the reference device with Ti:Sr(10:0)-TiC2/FTO (i.e., TiO2-coated TiO2/FTO). The incorporation of the mixed overlayer on the nanoporous TiO2 photoelectorde led to an improvement in the electron collection efficiency by a prolonged electron lifetime, thereby increasing the J(sc) value. The increase in V(oc) value of the device with Ti:Sr(7:3)-TiO2/FTO was due to the suppression of the charge recombination between injected electrons and I3(-) ions.

  8. Polyoxometalate-modified TiO2 nanotube arrays photoanode materials for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Sun, Zhixia; Zhang, Yuzhuo; Xu, Lin; Li, Na

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we prepared for the first time the TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) photoanode with polyoxometalate(POMs)-modified TiO2 electron-transport layer for improving the performance of zinc phthalocyanine(ZnPc)-sensitized solar cells. The as-prepared POMs/TNAs/ZnPc composite photoanode exhibited higher photovoltaic performances than the TNAs/ZnPc photoanode, so that the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device based on the POMs/TNAs/ZnPc photoanode displayed a notable improvement of 45%. These results indicated that the POMs play a key role in reducing charge recombination in phthalocyanine-sensitized solar cells, together with TiO2 nanotube arrays being helpful for electron transport. The mechanism of the performance improvement was demonstrated by the measurements of electrochemical impedance spectra and open-circuit voltage decay curves. Although the resulting performance is still below that of the state-of-the-art dye-sensitized solar cells, this study presents a new insight into improving the power conversion efficiency of phthalocyanine-sensitized solar cells via polyoxometalate-modified TiO2 nanotube arrays photoanode.

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on anatase TiO 2 hollow spheres/carbon nanotube composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaguo; Fan, Jiajie; Cheng, Bei

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on anatase TiO 2 hollow spheres (TiO2HS)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) nanocomposite films are prepared by a directly mechanical mixing and doctor blade method. The prepared samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The photoelectric conversion performances of the DSSCs based on TiO2HS/CNT composite film electrodes are also compared with commercial-grade Degussa P25 TiO 2 nanoparticles (P25)/CNT composite solar cells at the same film thickness. The results indicate that the photoelectric conversion efficiencies (η) of the TiO2HS/CNT composite DSSCs are dependent on CNT loading in the electrodes. A small amount of CNT clearly enhances DSSC efficiency, while excessive CNT loading significantly lowers their performance. The former is because CNT enhance the transport of electrons from the films to FTO substrates. The latter is due to high CNT loading shielding the visible light from being adsorbed by dyes.

  10. Analysis of the electron transport properties in dye-sensitized solar cells using highly ordered TiO2 nanotubes and TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Mu-Jung; Chang, Ho; Cho, Kun-Ching; Kuo, Chin-Guo; Chien, Shu-Hua; Liang, Shi-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    This study uses TiO2 nanoparticles and highly ordered anatase TiO2 nanotubes (AOTnt) as thin film photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). DSSCs are assembled by single-layer and double-layer films of photoanodes and their electron transfer performance is compared. TiO2 nanoparticles were fabricated by the sol-gel method, and AOTnts were grown on titanium foil. This study uses TiO2 nanoparticles or AOTnts to prepare single-layer photoanodes and TiO2 nanoparticles coated on an AOTnt film to fabricate double-layer photoanodes. These three different photoanodes are soaked in dye and assembled into DSSCs, and their open-loop voltage recession, electrochemical impedance, lifetime, life cycle, and effective diffusion coefficient are measured. Electron transfer efficiency of the photoanodes and light harvesting efficiency are further analyzed. The results show that the electron transfer efficiency, open-loop voltage recession, lifetime, life cycle, and effective diffusion coefficient of the DSSCs assembled using double-layer photoanodes (AOTnt-TiO2) are superior to those of single-layer photoanodes (TiO2 or AOTnt).

  11. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using TiO2 nanotubes infiltrated by TiO2 nanoparticles using a dipping-rinsing-hydrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu-Yin; Chen, Chia-Yuan; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Tsai, Keng-Wei; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Vittal, R.; Wu, Chun-Guey; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2013-12-01

    An efficient back-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is made with a flexible Ti-foil based photoanode composed of a composite TiO2 film with TiO2 nanotubes (TNT) and TiO2 nanoparticles (TNP). The composite TiO2 film is fabricated through a novel dipping-rinsing-hydrolysis (DRH) process by inserting TiO2 into TNT and sintering the product to form TNP inside TNT. By directly placing TiO2 nanoparticles into TNT, the former grow internally from the base of TNT to occupy it completely. This solves previous problems of incomplete filling of TNP into TNT, which used partial penetration of TiCl4 reactant from the top of the TNT. In the present case, the TNP are grown from the base of TNT. A DSSC containing TNT and TNP prepared in this way shows a photoelectric efficiency of 6.45%, which is much higher than that (4.21%) of a DSSC with untreated TNT. The films are characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The improvement in the photoelectric efficiency is explained by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) analysis, and UV-absorption spectra analysis.

  12. Natural Pigments from Plants Used as Sensitizers for TiO2 Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Kushwaha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four natural pigments, extracted from the leaves of teak (Tectona grandis, tamarind (Tamarindus indica, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus, and the flower of crimson bottle brush (Callistemon citrinus, were used as sensitizers for TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The dyes have shown absorption in broad range of the visible region (400–700 nm of the solar spectrum and appreciable adsorption onto the semiconductor (TiO2 surface. The DSSCs made using the extracted dyes have shown that the open circuit voltages (Voc varied from 0.430 to 0.610 V and the short circuit photocurrent densities (Jsc ranged from 0.11 to 0.29 mA cm−2. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCE varied from 12–37%. Among the four dyes studied, the extract obtained from teak has shown the best photosensitization effects in terms of the cell output.

  13. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gurpreet Singh Selopal; Hui-Ping Wu; Jianfeng Lu; Yu-Cheng Chang; Mingkui Wang; Alberto Vomiero; Isabella Concina; Eric Wei-Guang Diau

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. Th...

  14. Enhanced conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using a CNT-incorporated TiO2 slurry-based photoanode

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaoping Cai; Zexiang Chen; Jun Li; Yan Wang; Dong Xiang; Jijun Zhang; Hai Li

    2015-01-01

    A new titanium dioxide (TiO2) slurry formulation is herein reported for the fabrication of TiO2 photoanode for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared TiO2 photoanode featured a highly uniform mesoporous structure with well-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting TiO2 slurry-based DSSC was ∼63% higher than that achieved by a DSSC prepared using a commercial TiO2 slurry. Subsequently, the incorporation of acid-treated multi-walled carbon ...

  15. Preparation and properties of a phthalocyanine-sensitized TiO2 nanotube array for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wanxi; Shen, Yue; Wu, Guizhi; Gu, Feng; Zhang, Jiancheng; Wang, Linjun

    2010-12-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on an ordered titanate nanotube (TNT) array were fabricated using phthalocyanine as a dye sensitizer. The ordered TNT photoanode was prepared via two steps: (1) electrosynthesis of the TiO2 nanotube array in the HF solution by the anodization method; (2) electrodeposition of 2,9,16,23-tetra-amino zinc phthalocyanine (TAZnPc) in the TiO2 nanotubes array. The morphological characteristics and structures of TAZnPc immobilized TiO2 NTs (TAZnPc/TiO2 NTs) were examined. The average pore diameter of the TNT structures was 100 nm and its average length was 500 nm. The diffuse reflection spectra (DRS) curves of TAZnPc/TiO2 NTs had a wide absorption at 550-950 nm, which may come from the TAZnPc. The photocurrent and photovoltage of the cells were measured with an active area of 0.25 cm2 by using CHI660B electrochemical workstation in the condition of illumination (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm-2). The open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current (Jsc) and fill factor (FF) of the DSSC are 0.416 V, 0.115 mA cm-2 and 0.68, respectively.

  16. Influences of different TiO 2 morphologies and solvents on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Mu; Suryanarayanan, Vembu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    The effects of TiO 2 photoelectrode's surface morphology and different solvents on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were studied. By successive coating of TiO 2 suspension, composed of low and high molecular weight poly(ethylene)glycol (PEG) as a binder, double layered TiO 2 photoelectrodes with four different structures were obtained. Among the DSSCs with different TiO 2 electrodes, DSSC with P2P1 electrode (P2 and P1 correspond to PEG molecular weights of 20,000 and 200,000, respectively) showed higher performance under identical film thickness at a constant irradiation of 100 mW cm -2, which may be correlated with large pore size and high surface area of the corresponding TiO 2 electrode. This was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis of the DSSC and the transient photovoltage measurement of electrons in the TiO 2 electrode. Among the different solvents investigated here, the DSSC containing acetonitrile showed high conversion efficiency and the order of performance of the DSSCs with different solvents were AN > MPN > PC > GBL > DMA > DMF > DMSO. Better correlation was observed between the donor number of solvents and photoelectrochemical parameters of the DSSCs containing different solvents rather than the measured viscosity and dielectric constant of solvents. The reasons for the low performance of the DSSCs containing DMA, DMSO and DMF, respectively, were due to the negative shift of TiO 2 conduction band and the desorption of dye molecules from the TiO 2 photoelectrode by those solvents.

  17. TiO2 Nanostructure Synthesized by Sol-Gel for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells as Renewable Energy Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramelan, A. H.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Saputro, S.; Supriyanto, E.; Hanif, Q. A.

    2017-02-01

    The use of renewable materials as a constituent of a smart alternative energy such as the use of natural dyes for light harvesting needs to be developed. Synthesis of anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) and fabrication Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) using dye-based of anthocyanin from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) as a photosensitizer had been done. Synthesis TiO2 through sol-gel process with the addition of triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 template was controlled at pH 3 whereas calcination was carried out at a temperature of 500 °C, 550 °C and 600 °C. The obtained TiO2 were analyzed by XRD, SAA, and SEM. The conclusion is anatase TiO2 obtained until annealing up to 600 °C. Self-assembly Pluronic F127 triblock copolymer capable of restraining the growth of TiO2 crystals. Retention growth of TiO2 mesoporous produces material character that can be used as builders photoanode DSSC with natural sensitizer anthocyanin from purple sweet potatoes. Based on the analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns and surface area analyser, the higher the calcination temperature the greater the size of the anatase crystals is obtained, however, the smaller its surface area. Purple sweet potato anthocyanin’s dyed on to TiO2 was obtained a good enough performance for DSSC’s and gain the optimum performance from DSSC’s system built with mesoporous TiO2 annealed 550 °C using flavylium form anthocyanin.

  18. Novel Quasi-solid-state Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Based on Monolayer Capped TiO2 Nanoparticles Framework Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA,Jiang-Bin(夏江滨); LI,Fu-You(李富友); HUANG,Chun-Hui(黄春辉)

    2004-01-01

    Dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS)-capped TiO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized and employed in dye-sensitized solar cells to form a quasi-solid state electrolyte. Owing to the long alkyl-chain capping around the TiO2nanoparticles interacting with the liquid solvent, the dye sensitized solar cell based on such DBS-capped TiO2nanoparticle framework material gel electrolyte shows higher stability compared with the non-capped one in the long-term application and gives a comparable overall efficiency of 6.3% at AM 1.5 illumination.

  19. Dye-sensitized solid-state solar cells fabricated by screen-printed TiO2 thin film with addition of polystyrene balls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Han; Jin Mao Chen; Xiao Wen Zhou; Yuan Lin; Jing Bo Zhang; Jian Guang Jia

    2008-01-01

    The screen-printed nanoporous TiO2 thin film was employed to fabricate dye-sensitized solid-state solar cells using CuI as hole-transport materials. The solar cell based on nanoporous TiO2 thin film with large pores formed by the addition of polystyrene balls with diameter of 200 nm to the TiO2 paste exhibits photovoltaic performance enhancement, which is attributed to the good contact of CuI with surface of dye-sensitized thin film due to easy penetration of CuI in the film withlarge pores.

  20. Electrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells prepared by the binder-free TiO2 pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Ji; Lee, Jin; So, Soon-Youl; Hong, Kyung-Jin; Yun, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Ki

    2014-12-01

    Titania (TiO2) powder, which is material for photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), was fabricated by hydrothermal synthesis process at 230 degrees C for 12 hours. The crystal structures of all the synthesized nano-structured TiO2 films exhibited anatase phase. Binder-free pastes were prepared with the change of the amount of ammonia water from 2 μl to 640 μl in order to obtain the printable viscosity. It has been known that weak inter-particle bonds in slurry of flocculated particles make the slurry more viscous than slurry of dispersed particles. The increase of the amount of ammonia water for binder-free TiO2 pastes is attributed to the improvement of the viscosity of TiO2 paste and the power conversion efficiency of DSSCs using it. The viscosity of TiO2 pastes prepared at the ammonia water of 418 μl exhibited the highest value about 109,000 cP and also, was very transparent over 84%. As a result, the power conversion efficiency of DSSC prepared with the ammonia water of 418 μl was about 3%.

  1. Fabrication of High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on TiO2 Nanoparticles Embedded in Ti Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kang-Pil; Lee, Sang-Ju; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Heo, Young-Woo

    2015-01-01

    We have embedded a TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) photoelectrode in a Ti substrate to improve the cell efficiency of conventional TiO2 NP based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using Ti substrate. Compared to the conventional standing-type (TiO2 NPs on Ti substrate) DSSCs, the embedded-type (TiO2 NPs embedded in Ti substrate) DSSCs have shown an approximately 35% improvement in power conversion efficiency due to the improvement of J(sc). The embedded-type DSSCs have more charge transport paths than do standing-type DSSCs due to the increase of contact area between the TiO2 NP sidewall and the Ti substrate. This increased contact area decreases the electrical resistance and increases the charge collection efficiency, which leads to the improvement of J(sc). The embedded-type NP-DSSCs are very effective DSSC structures for enhancing the power conversion efficiency of Ti substrate based DSSCs.

  2. NiO-decorated mesoporous TiO2 flowers for an improved photovoltaic dye sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Jian; Chen, Angran; Cui, Houlei; Xie, Yian; Huang, Fuqiang

    2015-02-21

    Reducing light-induced e-h recombination is important for a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC); the p-type NiO component in TiO2-NiO nanoparticles was reported to significantly decrease charge recombination, but its photovoltaic efficiency remains below 4% owing to a small surface area. In this work, we used a one-pot self-assembly process to fabricate flower-like mesoporous TiO2 decorated by NiO oxides, employing a pluronic polymer P123 as a structure directing and pore forming agent. The flower-like porous TiO2-NiO nanoparticles (F-TiO2-NiO NPs), possessing a high BET surface of 130 m(2) g(-1), are first used as a photoanode in DSSCs. These hybrid nanoparticles, decorated with NiO islands, are beneficial for improving photocurrent by increasing dye absorption and suppressing electron-hole recombination. The optimized F-TiO2-NiO NP anode (10 μm thick) achieved a power conversion efficiency of 8.20%, which is 26% and 47% higher than pristine flower-like TiO2 and commercially available P25 anodes, respectively. This efficiency is the highest among the reported TiO2-NiO hybrid anodes.

  3. Photovoltaic performance of nanoporous TiO2 replicas synthesized from mesoporous materials for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-Jun; Yoo, Seung-Joon; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Ji-Man; Shim, Wang-Geun; Kim, Sun-Il; Lee, Jae-Wook

    2008-10-01

    For dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), highly ordered nanoporous TiO2 materials with crystalline frameworks were successfully synthesized from different silica templates including SBA-15, KIT-6 and MSU-H. A photoelectrode in DSSC was fabricated by adsorbing cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)-ruthenium(II)bis-tetrabutylammonium dye (N719) onto the prepared TiO2 nanoparticles. The samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, FE-SEM, AFM and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and FT-IR analysis. An investigation of the influence of the bonding structure of N719 dye and nanoporous TiO2 on the photovoltaic performance of DSSC revealed that the bonding structure of N719 on TiO2 films is caused by the unidentate and bidentate linkage. Based on the overall conversion efficiency (eta), fill factor (FF), open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) and short-circuit current (/sc) from the I-V curves measured, it was observed that the photoelectric performance is strongly dependent on the dispersion properties of the nanoporous TiO2 replicas from mesoporous silica templates.

  4. Yttrium doped TiO2 porous film photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells with enhanced photovoltaic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaofei; Hou, Yuchen; Liu, Meihua; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Mingqian; Song, Hongbing; Du, Fanglin

    In this paper, TiO2 photoanodes were doped with yttrium under different doping concentrations via hydrothermal method and further employed to assemble dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, UV-Vis DRS and PL measurements were carried out to investigate the yttrium doping effects on crystal structure, chemical status, optical properties and dye loading capacity of the photoanodes. The photovoltaic performance of the photoanodes with various yttrium doping concentration was measured by recording the photocurrent-photovoltaic curves, and the result indicated that TiO2:0.006 Y exhibited the best power conversion efficiency with high short circuit current density (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). This improvement may be due to the enhanced visible light harvesting, increased dye loading capacity and reduced photoelectron recombination.

  5. Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for Improving Efficiency: TiO2 Nanotube Arrays in Active Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Yeop Rho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have been widely studied due to several advantages, such as low cost-to-performance ratio, low cost of fabrication, functionality at wide angles and low intensities of incident light, mechanical robustness, and low weight. This paper summarizes the recent progress in DSSC technology for improving efficiency, focusing on the active layer in the photoanode, with a part of the DSSC consisting of dyes and a TiO2 film layer. In particular, this review highlights a huge pool of studies that report improvements in the efficiency of DSSCs using TiO2 nanotubes, which exhibit better electron transport. Finally, this paper suggests opportunities for future research.

  6. Evaluation and Optimization to Recycle Used TiO2 Photoelectrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruei-Tang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for recycling and activating the titanium oxide (TiO2/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs by repeated dye adsorption and desorption processes using various desorption agents. This simple and convenient method could be utilized to activate TiO2 photoelectrodes for DSCs after the long-term operation. The devices are immersed in acidic, alkaline, and neutral media of various concentrations for desorption and then are soaked in the N719 solution again. The optimal device had an overall power conversion efficiency (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW/cm2 with 5 × 10−3 M NaOH solution as a desorption agent being 6.44% better than that of devices that had not undergone recycling and activation.

  7. Improved Performance for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Compact TiO2 Layer Grown by Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chih Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work determines the effect of compact TiO2 layers that are deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO, to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC. A series of compact TiO2 layers are prepared using radio frequency (rf reactive magnetron sputtering. The films are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results show that when the Ar/O2/N2 flow rates are 36 : 18 : 9, the photo-induced decomposition of methylene blue and photo-induced hydrophilicity are enhanced. After annealing at 450°C in an atmosphere ambient for 30 min, the compact TiO2 layers exhibit higher optical transmittance. The XRD patterns for the TiO2 films for FTO/glass show a good crystalline structure and anatase (101 diffraction peaks, which demonstrate a higher crystallinity than the ITO/glass films. As a result of this increase in the short circuit photocurrent density, the open-circuit photovoltage, and the fill factor, the DSSC with the FTO/glass and Pt counter electrode demonstrates a solar conversion efficiency of 7.65%.

  8. Revealing the Origin of Fast Electron Transfer in TiO2-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai; Luo, Jun-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2016-07-01

    In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), the electron transfer from photoexcited dye molecules to semiconductor substrates remains a major bottleneck. Replacing TiO2 with ZnO is expected to enhance the efficiency of DSCs, owing to the latter possesses a much larger electron mobility, but similar bandgap and band positions as TiO2 remain. However, the record efficiency of ZnO-based DSCs is only 7% compared with 13% of TiO2-based DSCs due to the even slower electron-transfer rate in ZnO-based DSCs, which becomes a long-standing puzzle. Here, we computationally investigate the electron transfer from the dye molecule into ZnO and TiO2, respectively, by performing the first-principles calculations within the frame of the Marcus theory. The predicted electron-transfer rate in the TiO2-based DSC is about 1.15 × 10(9) s(-1), a factor of 15 faster than that of the ZnO-based DSC, which is in good agreement with experimental data. We find that the much larger density of states of the TiO2 compared with ZnO near the conduction band edge is the dominant factor, which is responsible for the faster electron-transfer rate in TiO2-based DSCs. These denser states provide additional efficient channels for the electron transfer. We also provide design principles to boost the efficiency of DSCs through surface engineering of high mobility photoanode semiconductors.

  9. Template-free TiO2 photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cell via modified chemical route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, M A; Mane, A A; Desai, S P; Moholkar, A V

    2017-02-15

    Surfactant and template-free Titanium dioxide (TiO2) spheres have been deposited via ultrasonic rinsing assisted modified successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (M-SILAR) method. The effect of M-SILAR cycle variation on the growth of TiO2 films and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been reported. Also, the significant influence of the dye adsorption time of photoelectrodes on the overall PCE of TiO2 based DSSCs has been investigated systematically. The SEM images reveal that the TiO2 microspheres are made up of densely packed and interconnected nanospheres. After dye loading maximum absorption peak around 500nm is seen with broader coverage in the visible region of the solar spectrum. The excess amount of dye for dye loading time 15h did not contribute to current and is suspected to be present either in multilayers or physisorbed on the surface of TiO2. The DSSC prepared using photoelectrode TO125 and dye loading time of 12h exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.16% with short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 8.17mA/cm(2), open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.42V and fill factor of 0.34. The PCE is attributed to the large molecular interconnected TiO2 spheres diffusing visible light to enhance the light absorption. Also, it possesses relatively superior 3-D microsphere like structure and thus provides the effective pathway to the photogenerated electrons with low recombination rate, leading to attaining the high PCE.

  10. Performance enhancement of TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells by carbon nanospheres in photoanode

    CERN Document Server

    Bayatloo, Elham; Polkoo, Sajad Saghaye

    2013-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is optimized by modifying the optical design and improving absorbance within the cell. These objectives are obtained by creating different sized cavities in TiO2 photoanode. For this purpose, carbon nanospheres with diameters 100-600 nm are synthesized by hydrothermal method. A paste of TiO2 is mixed with various amounts of carbon nanospheres. During TiO2 photoanode sintering processes at 500C temperature, the carbon nanospheres are removed. This leads to random creation of cavities in the DSSCs photoanode. These cavities enhance light scattering and porosity which improve light absorbance by dye N719 and provide a larger surface area for dye loading. These consequences enhance performance of DSSCs. By mixing 3% Wt. carbon nanospheres in the TiO2 pastes, we were able to increase the short circuit current density and efficiency by 40% (from 12.59 to 17.73 mA/cm2) and 33% (from 5.72% to 7.59%), respectively.

  11. Template-free synthesis of hierarchical TiO2 structures and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian; Yang, Songwang; Luo, Jianqiang

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate here the synthesis of a hierarchical TiO(2) architecture without any surfactants or templates. Two kinds of structure existed simultaneously, the ordered nanoarrays at bottom provided direct conduction pathway for photo generated electrons, while the upper micro-flowers consisted of nanobelt as building units increased the light harvesting ability as the scattering part. The formation mechanism of the hierarchical architecture has been proposed by studying the morphology evolution processes upon reaction time. The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on the obtained hierarchical anatase TiO(2) has been also studied, giving a J(SC) = 12.44 mA cm(-2), V(OC) = 0.64 V, FF = 69.05%, and η = 5.53%, which is superior than commercial TiO(2) (P25). The UV-vis results prove that the obtained morphology is beneficial to light-scattering and thus increases the light harvesting ability. This hierarchical TiO(2) structure offers great potential for the development of high-efficiency DSSCs. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Morphological studies of vertical arrays TiO2 nanotubes by electrochemical anodization technique for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su'ait, M. S.; Alamgir, F.; Scardi, P.; Ahmad, A.

    2013-11-01

    A vertical array titanium dioxide nanotube (n-TiO2) for photovoltaic materials in dye sensitized solar cell has been synthesized by electrochemical anodization technique in NH4F aqueous solution. The morphological observation performed by SEM analysis on the scratch film showed that the distribution growths of TiO2 nanotubes on Ti subtract were uniform. The duration of growth is varied up to 12 h, with tubes length approximately 1 μm. However, at the maximum duration, a compact TiO2 layers were formed. This phenomenon is due to the field-assisted anodic oxidation at the interfaces of Ti/TiO2 is at equal rate with the field-assisted dissolution rate of the top TiO2 nanotube's surface, resulting from the decreased quantity of F- ions to form fluoro complexes, [TiF6]2-. A slight increase in the rate of the chemical dissolution reaction produced a precipitated TiO2. Hence, [TiF6]2- complexes which are required for tubes formation are difficult to exist.

  13. Bilayer hollow/spindle-like anatase TiO2 photoanode for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanxi; Zhu, Xunjin; Yu, Jiaguo

    2015-03-01

    Derived from a hollow TiO2 nanoparticle (HNP) as underlayer and a TiO2 spindle (SP) as light scattering overlayer, a new bilayer single-crystalline photoanode (HNP/SP) is fabricated for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The prepared bilayer TiO2 photoanode and two comparative HNP/HNP and SP/SP ones are fully characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. An overall photoelectric conversion efficiency of 8.65% has been achieved for HNP/SP DSSC, which is 25% higher than that of HNP/HNP DSSC, and also far superior to that of SP/SP or conventional P25 DSSC. The improved photovoltaic performance of HNP/SP DSSC is attributed to the synergic effects, i.e. the single-crystalline bilayer structure favoring for rapid interfacial electron transport, the relatively large specific surface area of HNP for effective dye adsorption, and the 1D geometry of single-crystalline TiO2 spindles for direct electron transport pathway and strong light scattering effect.

  14. Copper and nitrogen doping on TiO2 photoelectrodes and their functions in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Yong; Kim, Chan-Soo; Okuyama, Kikuo; Lee, Hye-Moon; Jang, Hee-Dong; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Tae-Oh

    2016-02-01

    The influence of Cu doping on the function of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) dependent on Cu/N-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes was examined. Cu/N-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes with diverse Cu concentration were synthesized using the sol-gel process. Upon adequate addition of Cu, the nanoparticles exhibited small particle sizes, high surface area, and a significant red alteration of their absorption to the visible region in relation to Degussa P25 nanomaterials. Furthermore, the traces of Cu/N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles enhanced the charge transfer and reduced the charge recombination. The addition of sufficient Cu and N increased the surface area, elevating the dye adsorption degree, and decreasing the level of electron recombination. A DSSC fabricated with a 1 mM Cu/N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles accomplished 11.35% of the highest power conversion efficiency, with a short-circuit current of 22.5 mA/cm2. The energy conversion efficiency of this photoelectrode was approximately 37% greater than that of the control, Degussa P25. The increased energy efficiency can be resulted from the extension in surface area, which enabled larger dye charging amount, and the deduction in charge recombination, which accelerated the charge transfer.

  15. Effects of compression at elevated temperature for electrophorically deposited TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamimul Haque Choudhury, Md.; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of commercially available nanometer-sized titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (anatase, ST01) on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates. The rate of cathodic electrophoretic deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle agglomerates and the density of the obtained films were explored as a function of the applied electric field, keeping optimized suspension compositions, such as the particle concentration and the type of solvent. Optimized deposition conditions were found to result in homogeneous, well-controlled, mesoporous TiO2 thick-film photoanodes. Compression of the prepared glass substrate TiO2 photoanode at elevated temperature was commenced as a promising postdeposition surface treatment. The photovoltaic performance characteristics of DSSC prepared by this method were found to be considerably improved compared with those of DSSCs prepared by high-temperature postannealing and compression at room temperature. Surface morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and significant improvement was observed after compression as well as compression at elevated temperature.

  16. Contributions of Ag Nanowires to the Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency Enhancement of TiO2 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunyu; She, Guangwei; Qi, Xiaopeng; Mu, Lixuan; Wang, Xuesong; Shi, Wensheng

    2015-09-01

    Ag nanowires (AgNWs) were employed in mesoporous TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to enhance the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE). The possible reasons for PCE improvement, i.e., improvement in electron transport and light harvesting due to light scattering and plasmonic resonance effect of AgNWs are investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) study proved that addition of AgNWs can enhance the conductivity of TiO2 thin film photoanode, which is an important reason for the increase of photocurrent. Furthermore, through the comparison experiments as well as the UV-Vis absorption and IPCE characterization, contributions of the light scattering and plasmonic resonance effect to the enhancement of light harvest, and thus PCE of the DSSCs were demonstrated. It was found that fast electron transport of AgNWs played more important role for the PCE improvement than the light harvest enhancement due to light scattering and plasmonic effect. Based on these investigations, the AgNWs modified TiO2 thin film DSSCs were optimized. After integrating AgNWs into the photoanode, the photocurrent increased significantly and PCE increased -50% comparing with the pure TiO2-based DSSCs.

  17. Enhanced photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cell based on ultrathin 2D TiO2 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Putao; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yan; Qin, Yiying; Sun, Xiao Wei; Li, Wenqin; Wang, Jinmin

    2016-04-01

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) TiO2 nanostructures with a thickness of ∼5 nm and a specific surface area of 257.3 m2 g-1 were synthesized by a hydrothermal process. The 2D TiO2 nanostructures and P25 nanoparticles were introduced as scattering layer and underlayer to construct a bi-layer photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The as-prepared DSSC exhibits an enhanced power conversion efficiency (5.14%), which is 23.9% higher than that of pure P25 DSSC (4.15%). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicates that DSSC based on P25-2D TiO2 nanostructures shows a longer life time and a larger recombination resistance. The enhanced photovoltaic properties are attributed to the excellent light scattering capability and high capacity for dye adsorption of 2D TiO2 nanostructures, which makes them a promising candidate as an efficient scattering layer in high-performance DSSCs.

  18. Effect of TiO2–graphene nanocomposite photoanode on dye-sensitized solar cell performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akbar Eshaghi; Abbas Ail Aghaei

    2015-09-01

    In this research work, graphene–TiO2 photoanodes with various graphene concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 wt%) were deposited on fluorine tin oxide glass substrates as working electrodes for dyesensitized solar cells. The structure, morphology, surface composition and dye adsorption of the photoanodes were investigated by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–VIS–NIR spectroscopy, respectively. The photocurrent–voltage characteristics of the dye-sensitized solar cells were examined using a solar simulator. The results indicated that the dye adsorption on photoanode surfaces increases with the increase in the graphene content. In addition, dye-sensitized solar cells efficiency increases with the increase in the graphene content to 1.5 wt% and then decreased. The efficiency of the dyesensitized solar cell, based on the TiO2–1.5 wt% graphene nanocomposite, increased by 42% with respect to the pristine sample.

  19. High Efficient Transparent TiO2 Nanotube Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Adhesion of TiO2 Nanotube Membrane to FTO by Two Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mohammadpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to fabricate transparent TiO2 nanotube dye-sensitized solar cells, anodically growth nanotube membranes are detached from Ti substrate by a re-anodization method. The membranes are transferred on FTO glass by two different methods. At the first one, 100mM Ti-isopropoxide is used to make TiO2 nanoparticles for adhering TiO2 nanotube membranes to FTO and in the second one a commercial TiO2 nanoparticle paste is used as connector material. In order to investigate the effect of annealing temperature on the crystallinity of the photoanodes, they were annealed in temperatures from 350 to 650°C. All of the annealed photoanodes show high crystallinty and pure anatase phase in both cases. However nanoprticles with large diameter about 500nm and no homogeneity of dispersion of them at the first method leads to week interconnection between membranes and FTO glasses but good interconnection at the second method leads to high power conversion efficiency of 6.13% under 1 sun illumination without any extra treatment.

  20. Reduced interfacial recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells assisted with NiO:Eu3+,Tb3+ coated TiO2 film

    OpenAIRE

    Nannan Yao; Jinzhao Huang; Ke Fu; Xiaolong Deng; Meng Ding; Shouwei Zhang; Xijin Xu; Lin Li

    2016-01-01

    Eu3+,Tb3+ doped and undoped NiO films were deposited on TiO2 by a sol-gel spin-coating method as the photoanodes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A comparative study with different structures including TiO2, TiO2/NiO and TiO2/NiO:Eu3+,Tb3+ as the photoanodes was carried out to illustrate the photovoltaic performance of solar cells. NiO could enhance the performance of DSSCs ascribed to acting as a barrier for the charge recombination from the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) to electrolyt...

  1. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Using Various Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliarto, Brian; Fanani, Fahiem; Fuadi, M. Kasyful; Nugraha

    2010-10-01

    This article reports the development of organic dyes as an attempt to reduce material costs of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Indonesia, a country with variety and considerable number of botanical resources, is suitable to perform the research. Indonesian black rice, curcuma, papaya leaf, and the combination were chosen as organic dyes source. Dyes were extracted using organic solvent and adsorbed on mesoporous Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) which has been optimized in our laboratory. The best dyes light absorbance and performance obtained from papaya leaf as chlorophyll dyes that gives two peaks at 432 nm and 664 nm from UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and performance under 100 mW/cm2 Xenon light solar simulator gives VOC = 0.566 Volt, JSC = 0.24 mA/cm2, Fill Factor = 0.33, and efficiency of energy conversion 0,045%.

  2. The application of hollow box TiO2 as scattering centers in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiong; Li, Xin; Zhu, Menghua

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the hollow box TiO2 (BTiO2) with highly exposed (001) surface was synthesized through solid state precursor and various mixing ratio of BTiO2 film based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of solar cell with the content of 20 wt% BTiO2 could reach 6.1%, which greatly improves the photovoltaic performance by 101% compared with pure P25 film based photoanode (3.04%). This result may attribute to the enhanced light scattering capability and the prolonged electron lifetime with the increasing mixing ratio. Furthermore, the optical composite film structure can result in the faster electron transportation, great charge collection efficiency. This work shows a new photoelectrode design for enhanced energy conversion of DSSCs.

  3. Impact of the molecular structure and adsorption mode of D-π-A dye sensitizers with a pyridyl group in dye-sensitized solar cells on the adsorption equilibrium constant for dye-adsorption on TiO2 surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooyama, Yousuke; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Ohshita, Joji; Harima, Yutaka

    2016-12-07

    D-π-A dyes NI-4 bearing a pyridyl group, YNI-1 bearing two pyridyl groups and YNI-2 bearing two thienylpyridyl groups as the anchoring group on the TiO2 surface have been developed as dye sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), where NI-4 and YNI-2 can adsorb onto the TiO2 electrode through the formation of the coordinate bond between the pyridyl group of the dye and the Lewis acid site (exposed Ti(n+) cations) on the TiO2 surface, but YNI-1 is predominantly adsorbed on the TiO2 electrode through the formation of the hydrogen bond between the pyridyl group of the dye and the Brønsted acid sites (surface-bound hydroxyl groups, Ti-OH) on the TiO2 surface. The difference in the dye-adsorption mode among the three dyes on the TiO2 surface has been investigated from the adsorption equilibrium constant (Kad) based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherms. It was found that the Kad values of YNI-1 and YNI-2 are higher than that of NI-4, and more interestingly, the Kad value of YNI-2 is higher than that of YNI-1. This work demonstrates that that for the D-π-A dye sensitizers with the pyridyl group as the anchoring group to the TiO2 surface the number of pyridyl groups and the dye-adsorption mode on the TiO2 electrode as well as the molecular structure of the dye sensitizer affect the Kad value for the adsorption of the dye to the TiO2 electrode, that is, resulting in a difference in the Kad value among the D-π-A dye sensitizers NI-4, YNI-1 and YNI-2.

  4. Carbonate Doping in TiO2 Microsphere: The Key Parameter Influencing Others for Efficient Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigi, Zaki S.; Ahmed, Saleh A.; Sardar, Samim; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Four key parameters namely light trapping, density of light harvesting centre, photoinduced electron injection and electron transport without self-recombination are universally important across all kinds of solar cells. In the present study, we have considered the parameters in the context of a model Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Our experimental studies reveal that carbonate doping of TiO2 mesoporous microspheres (doped MS) makes positive influence to all the above mentioned key parameters responsible for the enhanced solar cell efficiency. A simple method has been employed to synthesize the doped MS for the photoanode of a N719 (ruthenium dye)-based DSSC. A detail electron microscopy has been used to characterize the change in morphology of the MS upon doping. The optical absorption spectrum of the doped MS reveals significant shift of TiO2 (compared to that of the MS without doping) towards maximum solar radiance (~500 nm) and the excellent scattering in the entire absorption band of the sensitizing dye (N719). Finally, and most importantly, for the first time we have demonstrated that the solar cells with doped MS offers better efficiency (7.6%) in light harvesting compared to MS without doping (5.2%) and also reveal minimum self recombination of photoelectrons in the redox chain.

  5. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anatase TiO2 Nanorods Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Jer Jeng; Yi-Lun Wung; Liann-Be Chang; Lee Chow

    2013-01-01

    The hydrothermal method provides an effective reaction environment for the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials with high purity and well-controlled crystallinity. In this work, we started with various sizes of commercial TiO2 powders and used the hydrothermal method to prepare TiO2 thin films. We found that the synthesized TiO2 nanorods were thin and long when smaller TiO2 particles were used, while larger TiO2 particles produced thicker and shorter nanorods. We also found that TiO2 films ...

  6. Improved efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by doping of strontium aluminate phosphor in TiO2 photoelectrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwangbo Seung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphor was synthesized by chemical solution route to use as a dopant in TiO2 layer employed as a photoelectrode for down conversion of ultraviolet and near-ultraviolet to visible and near-infrared light in a dye-sensitized solar cell. Nano-crystalline structure of the SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ powder was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Monitored at 520 nm, SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphor showed emission peaks at 460 to 610 nm due to 4f6 4f7 transitions of Eu2+ ions. For the study, SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphor-doped TiO2 layer was deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass by electrostatic spray deposition. The short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and conversion efficiency of the cells were measured. Experimental results revealed that the device efficiency for the SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphor-doped TiO2 layer increased to 7.20 %, whereas that of the pure-TiO2 photoelectrode was 4.13 %.

  7. Metal-free organic dyes for TiO2 and ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selopal, Gurpreet Singh; Wu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Jianfeng; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingkui; Vomiero, Alberto; Concina, Isabella; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of new metal-free organic dyes (namely B18, BTD-R, and CPTD-R) which designed with D-π-A concept to extending the light absorption region by strong conjugation group of π-linker part and applied as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We compared the photovoltaic performance of these dyes in two different photoanodes: a standard TiO2 mesoporous photoanode and a ZnO photoanode composed of hierarchically assembled nanostructures. The results demonstrated that B18 dye has better photovoltaic properties compared to other two dyes (BTD-R and CPTD-R) and each dye has higher current density (Jsc) when applied to hierarchical ZnO nanocrystallites than the standard TiO2 mesoporous film. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements (TCD/TVD) were applied to systematically study the charge transport and recombination kinetics in these devices, showing the electron life time (τR) of B18 dye in ZnO and TiO2 based DSSCs is higher than CPTD-R and BTD-R based DSSCs, which is consistent with the photovoltaic performances. The conversion efficiency in ZnO based DSSCs can be further boosted by 35%, when a compact ZnO blocking layer (BL) is applied to inhibit electron back reaction.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of a crystalline rutile TiO2 nanorod based network for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hua; Pan, Jian; Bai, Yang; Zong, Xu; Li, Xinyong; Wang, Lianzhou

    2013-09-27

    One-dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanostructures are desirable as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) due to their superior electron-transport capability. However, making use of the DSSC performance of 1D rutile TiO2 photoanodes remains challenging, mainly due to the small surface area and consequently low dye loading. Herein, a new type of photoanode with a three-dimensional (3D) rutile-nanorod-based network structure directly grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates was developed by using a facile two-step hydrothermal process. The resultant photoanode possesses oriented rutile nanorod arrays for fast electron transport as the bottom layer and radially packed rutile head-caps with an improved large surface area for efficient dye adsorption. The diffuse reflectance spectra showed that with the radially packed top layer, the light-harvesting efficiency was increased due to an enhanced light-scattering effect. A combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), dark current, and open-circuit voltage decay (OCVD) analyses confirmed that the electron-recombiantion rate was reduced on formation of the nanorod-based 3D network for fast electron transport. As a resut, a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 6.31% was achieved with this photoanode in DSSCs, which is comparable to the best DSSC efficiencies that have been reported to date for 1D rutile TiO2 .

  9. Comparison between P25 and anatase-based TiO2 quasi-solid state dye sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Fen; WANG LiDuo; QIU Yong

    2008-01-01

    Pure anatase TiO2 films have been made via hydration of titanium isopropoxide using a sol-gel tech-nique, while mixed TiO2 films which contained both anatase and rutile TiO2 were made from commercial P25 powder. Quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated with these two kinds of mesoporous films and a comparison study was carried out. The result showed that the open-circuit photovoltages (Voc) for both kinds of cells were essentially the same, whereas the short-circuit photo-currents (Isc) of the anatase-based cells were about 33% higher than that of the P25-based cells. The highest photocurrent intensity of the anatase-based cell was 6.12 mA/cm2 and that of the P25-based cell was 4.60 mA/cm2. Under an illumination with the light intensity of 30 mW/cm2, the corresponding en-ergy conversion efficiencywas measured to be 7.07% and 6.89% for anatase-based cells and P25-based cells, respectively.

  10. Highly flexible frontside-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells using three-dimensional network TiO2 nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai; Liu, Yong; Li, Ming; Wang, Yongcai; Huang, Hong; Shen, Hui

    2011-05-01

    Here we report a highly flexible frontside-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cell (FIDSSC) using Ti foils as the substrates. The laser-drilled microhole arrays (LDMAs) on Ti foil substrates as the photoanode provided an efficient pathway for the diffusion of liquid electrolyte, which would be particularly favorable for frontside illumination of FIDSSC designs. The three-dimensional (3D) network TiO2 nanowires (NWs) were directly grown on the Ti substrate with LDMAs via a simple hydrothermal method. Platinized Ti sheet was used as the counter electrode in the FIDSSC. The mechanical properties of the novel structured device were measured. It was shown that as-synthesized large-scale 3D network TiO2 NWs with a diameter of about 20-30 nm and a length of about 6 microm can prevent crack from generating efficiently when bended to an extreme angle of 120 degree. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the effects of the different bending angles on the performance of the 3D network TiO2 NWs-based FIDSSCs were slight, indicating NWs preferable advantages for the fabrication of flexible DSSCs. The results showed that the FIDSSC achieved an efficiency of 0.72% under front illumination of AM 1.5 simulated one sun light (100 mWcm(-2)).

  11. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di

    2010-03-16

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  12. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  13. Artificial photosynthesis based on ruthenium(II) tetrazole-dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Najafi, Leyla; Khanmirzaei, Leyla; Tarighi, Sara

    2015-11-01

    We have demonstrated the optical and morphological properties of a novel TiO2 nanoparticle as photoanode in order to apply in dye sensitized solar cells. The nanoparticles were synthesized through hydrothermal method in Tri-n-octyl amine (TOA) as capping agent. From the results it is concluded that the molar ratio of TiCl4 and TOA has remarkable influence on the size and homogeneity of the nanoparticles. The optimized nanoparticles structure for photoanode incorporated into dye-sensitized solar cell was obtained via the molar ratio of 1:10 for TiCl4:TOA. It has also studied the photovoltaic properties of different synthesized TiO2 nanocrystalline (1-4) anchored to ruthenium(II) complexes. 4-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl) benzoic acid (TzBA) applied as an anchoring ligand and 2,2-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and pyridine tetrazole (pyTz) used as ancillary ligands. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 1.06% was obtained for [Ru(TzBA)(bpy)(pyTz)(NCS)] (5) under the standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a Jsc of 2.29 mA cm(-2), a Voc of 0.51 V, and FF of 55% which are the highest values among Ru(TzBA) complexes. DSSC study reveals that pyTz as an auxiliary ligand exhibits improved current generating capacity than the bpy and phen, which are introduced by dye (5).

  14. Characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cell with TiO2 anode under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Kwei; Hsiao, Chih-Chen; Weng, Hao-Wei

    2016-03-01

    The anatase phase crystalline quality of commercial TiO2 (P25) nanoparticle sintered in air and N2 is improved. Compared DSSC with air-sintered TiO2 anode, DSSC with N2-sintered TiO2 anode has better performance mainly from high optical absorption efficiency. Under UV irradiation, organic contaminants adsorbed on TiO2 are dissociated by the photocatalysis, and the dye adsorption is enhanced. The DSSC performance with UV-treated/N2-sintered TiO2 anode is further improved.

  15. Amphiphilic block-graft copolymer templates for organized mesoporous TiO2 films in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Yup; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jung Min; Ahn, Joonmo; Cho, Hyung Hee; Kim, Jong Hak

    2016-01-01

    Amphiphilic block-graft copolymers composed of poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS) backbone and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) side chains are synthesized and combined with hydrophilically preformed TiO2 (Pre-TiO2), which works as a structural binder as well as titania source. This results in the formation of crack free, 6-μm-thick, organized mesoporous TiO2 (OM-TiO2) films via one-step doctor-blading based on self-assembly of SBS-g-POEM as well as preferential interaction of POEM chains with Pre-TiO2. SBS-g-POEM with different numbers of ethylene oxide repeating units, SBS-g-POEM(500) and SBS-g-POEM(950), are used to form OM-TiO2(500) and OM-TiO2(950), respectively. The efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with a quasi-solid-state polymer electrolyte reach 5.7% and 5.8% at 100 mW/cm2 for OM-TiO2(500) and OM-TiO2(950), respectively. The surface area of OM-TiO2(950) was greater than that of OM-TiO2(500) but the light reflectance was lower in the former, which is responsible for similar efficiency. Both DSSCs exhibit much higher efficiency than one (4.8%) with randomly-organized particulate TiO2 (Ran-TiO2), which is attributed to the higher dye loading, reduced charge recombination and improved pore infiltration of OM-TiO2. When utilizing poly((1-(4-ethenylphenyl)methyl)-3-butyl-imidazolium iodide) (PEBII) and mesoporous TiO2 spheres as the solid electrolyte and the scattering layer, the efficiency increases up to 7.5%, one of the highest values for N719-based solid-state DSSCs.

  16. Synergistic effect between anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gonghu; Richter, Christiaan P; Milot, Rebecca L; Cai, Lawrence; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A; Crabtree, Robert H; Brudvig, Gary W; Batista, Victor S

    2009-12-01

    A synergistic effect between anatase and rutile TiO2 is known, in which the addition of rutile can remarkably enhance the photocatalytic activity of anatase in the degradation of organic contaminants. In this study, mixed-phase TiO2 nanocomposites consisting of anatase and rutile nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared for use as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and were characterized by using UV-vis spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The addition of 10-15% rutile significantly improved light harvesting and the overall solar conversion efficiency of anatase NPs in DSSCs. The underlying mechanism for the synergistic effect in DSSCs is now explored by using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. It is clearly demonstrated that photo-excited electrons injected into the rutile NPs can migrate to the conduction band of anatase NPs, enhancing the photocurrent and efficiency. Interfacial electron transfer from rutile to anatase, similar to that in heterogeneous photocatalysis, is proposed to account for the synergistic effect in DSSCs. Our results further suggest that the synergistic effect can be used to explain the beneficial effect of TiCl4 treatment on DSSC efficiency.

  17. Porous (001)-faceted anatase TiO2 nanorice thin film for efficient dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Athar Ali; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 structures with nanorice-like morphology and high exposure of (001) facet has been successfully synthesized on an ITO surface using ammonium Hexafluoro Titanate and Hexamethylenetetramine as precursor and capping agent, respectively, under a microwave-assisted liquid-phase deposition method. These anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared within five minutes of reaction time by utilizing an inverter microwave system at a normal atmospheric pressure. The morphology and the size (approximately from 6 to 70 nm) of these nanostructures can be controlled. Homogenous, porous, 5.64 ± 0.002 μm thick layer of spongy-nanorice with facets (101) and (001) was grown on ITO substrate and used as a photo-anode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). This solar cell device has emerged out with 4.05 ± 0.10% power conversion efficiency (PCE) and 72% of incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) under AM1.5 G illumination.

  18. Porous (001-faceted anatase TiO2 nanorice thin film for efficient dye-sensitized solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Athar Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatase TiO2 structures with nanorice-like morphology and high exposure of (001 facet has been successfully synthesized on an ITO surface using ammonium Hexafluoro Titanate and Hexamethylenetetramine as precursor and capping agent, respectively, under a microwave-assisted liquid-phase deposition method. These anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared within five minutes of reaction time by utilizing an inverter microwave system at a normal atmospheric pressure. The morphology and the size (approximately from 6 to 70 nm of these nanostructures can be controlled. Homogenous, porous, 5.64 ± 0.002 μm thick layer of spongy-nanorice with facets (101 and (001 was grown on ITO substrate and used as a photo-anode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. This solar cell device has emerged out with 4.05 ± 0.10% power conversion efficiency (PCE and 72% of incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE under AM1.5 G illumination.

  19. Rapid charge transport in dye-sensitized solar cells made from vertically aligned single-crystal rutile TiO(2) nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinjian; Zhu, Kai; Frank, Arthur J; Grimes, Craig A; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2012-03-12

    A rapid solvothermal approach was used to synthesize aligned 1D single-crystal rutile TiO(2) nanowire (NW) arrays on transparent conducting substrates as electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The NW arrays showed a more than 200 times faster charge transport and a factor four lower defect state density than conventional rutile nanoparticle films.

  20. Correction: Dye adsorption mechanisms in TiO2 films, and their effects on the photodynamic and photovoltaic properties in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-Jun; Shim, Wang-Geun; Kim, Dajung; An, Jongdeok; Im, Chan; Kim, Youngjin; Kim, Gunwoo; Choi, Chulmin; Kang, Sang Ook; Cho, Dae Won

    2016-02-21

    Correction for 'Dye adsorption mechanisms in TiO2 films, and their effects on the photodynamic and photovoltaic properties in dye-sensitized solar cells' by Kyung-Jun Hwang et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, 17, 21974-21981.

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanocrystalline TiO2 films surface treated with Al3+ ions: photovoltage and electron transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, H; Boschloo, G; Mendoza, P; Solis, J L; Hagfeldt, A

    2005-10-06

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 films, surface modified with Al3+, were manufactured by depositing a TiO2 suspension containing small amounts of aluminum nitrate or aluminum chloride onto conducting glass substrates, followed by drying, compression, and finally heating to 530 degrees C. Electrodes prepared with TiO2 nanoparticles coated with less than 0.3 wt % aluminum oxide with respect to TiO2 improved the efficiency of the dye sensitized solar cell. This amount corresponds to less than a monolayer of aluminum oxide. Thus, the Al ions terminate the TiO2 surface rather than form a distinct aluminum oxide layer. The aluminum ion surface treatment affects the solar cell in different ways: the potential of the conduction band is shifted, the electron lifetime is increased, and the electron transport is slower when aluminum ions are present between interconnected TiO2 particles.

  2. Double-layer coating of SrCO3/TiO2 on nanoporous TiO2 for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shutao; Zhang, Xi; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2012-01-14

    Surface modification plays a crucial role in improving the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), but the reported surface treatments are in general superior to the untreated TiO(2) but inferior to the typical TiCl(4)-treated TiO(2) in terms of solar cell performance. This work demonstrates a two-step treatment of the nanoporous titania surface with strontium acetate [Sr(OAc)(2)] and TiCl(4) in order, each step followed by sintering. An electronically insulating layer of SrCO(3) is formed on the TiO(2) surface via the Sr(OAc)(2) treatment and then a fresh TiO(2) layer is deposited on top of the SrCO(3) layer via the TiCl(4) treatment, corresponding to a double layer of Sr(OAc)(2)/TiO(2) coated on the TiO(2) surface. As compared to the typical TiCl(4)-treated DSSC, the Sr(OAc)(2)-TiCl(4) treated DSSC improves short-circuit photocurrent (J(sc)) by 17%, open-circuit photovoltage (V(oc)) by 2%, and power conversion efficiency by 20%. These results indicate that the Sr(OAc)(2)-TiCl(4) treatment is better than the often used TiCl(4) treatment for fabrication of efficient DSSCs. Charge density at open circuit and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy reveal that the two electrodes show almost same conduction band level but different electron diffusion coefficient and charge recombination rate constant. Owing to the blocking effect of the SrCO(3) layer on electron recombination with I(3)(-) ions, the charge recombination rate constant of the Sr(OAc)(2)-TiCl(4) treated DSSC is half that of the TiCl(4)-treated DSSC, accounting well for the difference of their V(oc). The improved J(sc) is also attributed to the middle SrCO(3) layer, which increases dye adsorption and may improve charge separation efficiency due to the blocking effect of SrCO(3) on charge recombination.

  3. Effects of TiO2 structures in dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bok-Min; Rho, Seon-Gyun; Kang, Choon-Hyoung

    2011-02-01

    In this work, the effects of crystalline structure of the TiO2, which is incorporated in fabrication of the n-type electrode, on the DSSC performance were investigated in terms of the energy conversion efficiency. In this effort, TiO2 nanoparticle pastes with varying contents of rutile and anatase structures were prepared by using the ethanol mixing method. The most efficient photo-electro-chemical performance was achieved for the DSSC fabricated with the TiO2 paste in which the anatase form of the nanocrystal extends to 90%.

  4. Influence of nanostructured TiO2 film thickness on photoelectrode structure and performance of flexible Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malekshahi Byranvand

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A  commercial  Ti-Nanoxide  was  deposited  on  In-doped  SnO2 (ITO polymer  substrates by  tape casting  technique with different thicknesses  (7,  14  and  36μm  to  be  used  as  photoelectrode  in flexible  dye-sensitized  solar  cells  (DSSCs.  Ruthenium  dye  was adsorbed on each TiO2 film for 24 h. The resulting photoelectrodes were used to form flexible DSSCs in combination with electrolyte and  counter  electrode.  The  prepared  films  were  characterized  by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM.    Photovoltaic  parameters  like  short  circuit  current  (Isc, open  circuit  voltage  (Voc,  fill  factor  (FF  and power  conversion efficiency (η were evaluated for fabricated cells. The cell formed with a TiO2 film of 14μm thickness reached the best performance. 2012 JNS All rights reserved

  5. Multifunctional graded index TiO2 compact layer for performance enhancement in dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. H.; Rusop, M.

    2013-11-01

    A specially tailored index TiO2 compact layer (arc-TiO2) has been successfully deposited to serve as photoanode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The employment of the TiO2 compact layer in the DSSC was systematically investigated by means of UV-absorption spectra, incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE), open-circuit voltage decay (OCVD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The higher and red-shifted transmittance spectra of the ITO/arc-TiO2 electrode mimic the IPCE spectra of the DSSC, in a specific wavelength region. Furthermore, the blue-shift of the UV-absorption spectra and lower R1 value obtained from EIS measurements implied the decrease of the charge interfacial resistance, and this consequently facilitates the charge transport from the nanocrystalline-TiO2 to the ITO. The integrated effects of the arc-TiO2 compact layer originate the remarkable improvement in this type of DSSC applications. As a result, the arc-TiO2-based DSSC showed higher conversion efficiency of about 4.38%, representing almost 53% increment compared to bare ITO cell. This work also discuss the fundamental insight of the compact layer that determines the origin of such improvement in the DSSC performance.

  6. Illumination intensity dependence of the photovoltage in nanostructured TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, P; Hidalgo, M Gonzalez; Zaban, Arie; Bisquert, Juan

    2005-08-25

    The open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) dependence on the illumination intensity (phi0) under steady-state conditions in both bare and coated (blocked) nanostructured TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is analyzed. This analysis is based on a recently reported model [Bisquert, J.; Zaban, A.; Salvador, P. J. Phys. Chem. B 2002, 106, 8774] which describes the rate of interfacial electron transfer from the conduction band of TiO2 to acceptor electrolyte levels (recombination). The model involves two possible mechanisms: (1) direct, isoenergetic electron injection from the conduction band and (2) a two-step process involving inelastic electron trapping by band-gap surface states and subsequent isoenergetic transfer of trapped electrons to electrolyte levels. By considering the variation of V(oc) over a wide range of illumination intensities (10(10) DSSC is analyzed. It is concluded that this back-reaction route can be neglected, even at low light intensities, when its rate (exchange current density, j0), which can vary over 4 orders of magnitude depending on the type of FTO used, is low enough (j0 < or = 10(-8)A cm(-2)). The comparison of V(oc) vs phi0 measurements corresponding to different DSSCs with and without blocking of the FTO-electrolyte contact supports this conclusion.

  7. Effect of compressed TiO2 nanoparticle thin film thickness on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenn Kai; Hsu, Wen Dung; Wu, Tian Chiuan; Meen, Teen Hang; Chong, Wen Jie

    2013-11-05

    In this study, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as photoanode. Photoanode thin films were prepared by doctor blading method with 420 kg/cm2 of mechanical compression process and heat treatment in the air at 500°C for 30 min. The optimal thickness of the TiO2 NP photoanode is 26.6 μm with an efficiency of 9.01% under AM 1.5G illumination at 100 mW/cm2. The efficiency is around two times higher than that of conventional DSSCs with an uncompressed photoanode. The open-circuit voltage of DSSCs decreases as the thickness increases. One DSSC (sample D) has the highest conversion efficiency while it has the maximum short-circuit current density. The results indicate that the short-circuit current density is a compromise between two conflict factors: enlargement of the surface area by increasing photoanode thickness and extension of the electron diffusion length to the electrode as the thickness increases.

  8. TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Composite Film as Photoanode for High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghua Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A double-layered photoanode made of hierarchical TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNT-arrays as the overlayer and commercial-grade TiO2 nanoparticles (P25 as the underlayer is designed for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Crystallized free-standing TNT-arrays films are prepared by two-step anodization process. For photovoltaic applications, DSSCs based on double-layered photoanodes produce a remarkably enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE of up to 6.32% compared with the DSSCs solely composed of TNT-arrays (5.18% or nanoparticles (3.65% with a similar thickness (24 μm at a constant irradiation of 100 mW cm−2. This is mainly attributed to the fast charge transport paths and superior light-scattering ability of TNT-arrays overlayer and good electronic contact with F-doped tin oxide (FTO glass provided from P25 nanoparticles as a bonding layer.

  9. Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells using Ordered TiO2 Nanorods on Transparent Conductive Oxide as Photoanodes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Mingkui; Bai, Jie; Le Formal, Florian; Moon, Soo-Jin; Cevey-Ha, Le; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Graetzel, Carole; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Graetzel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 nanorod arrays were prepared on top of a transparent conductive glass substrate covered with a thin TiO2 compact layer. Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SSDSCs) were fabricated using these structured TiO2 films sensitized with C106 dye as a photoanode and 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-dipmethoxyphenylamine) 9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. Photovoltaic power conversion efficiency of 2.9% was obtained at full sunlight intensity. The electron ...

  10. Effect of sodium on photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells assembled with anatase TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Lu, Gaoqing Max; Wang, Lianzhou

    2013-02-01

    Anatase TiO(2) nanosheets with exposed reactive {001} facets were prepared in the presence of HF. The photovoltaic properties of NaOH-washed anatase TiO(2) nanosheets with exposed {001} facets were investigated by assembling the TiO(2) as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A decreased overall efficiency and increased recombination rate was observed in comparison with the H(2)O-washed counterpart by both dark current scan and open-circuit voltage decay scan, and XPS confirmed that the deleterious effect of sodium ions is responsible for this reduced efficiency in DSSCs.

  11. Photoconversion of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with a 3D-Structured Photoelectrode Consisting of Both TiO2 Nanofibers and Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Wan-Tae; Choi, Won-Youl

    2016-06-01

    In dye-sensitized solar cells, a three-dimensional (3-D)-structured photoelectrode of TiO2 nanofibers and nanoparticles was successfully fabricated by electro-spinning and screen-printing processes. Structures with one-dimensional nanofibers can be expected to improve the charge transport in a photoelectrode. The microstructure and crystalline structure were observed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and with an x-ray diffractometer, respectively. The particle size of the TiO2 particles and the diameters of the TiO2 nanofiber in the 3-D-structured photoelectrode were ~30 nm and ~500 nm, respectively. The total thickness of the TiO2 layer in the 3-D-structured photoelectrode, which is composed of a nanoparticle layer of ~12 μm and a nanofiber layer of ~8 μm, was ~20 μm. The crystalline, anatase phase was also determined. In these dye-sensitized solar cells with a 3-D-structured layer, a short-circuit current density of 12.36 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.74 V, a fill factor of 0.46, and an energy conversion efficiency of 4.18% were observed. These values are higher than those of dye-sensitized solar cells with a conventional TiO2 nanoparticle layer. The proposed 3-D-structured photoelectrode consisting of TiO2 nanofibers and nanoparticles can help improve the performance of commercial dye-sensitized solar cells.

  12. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cell based on TiO2 photoanode with FTO glass and film both treated by TiCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlun; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Wenguang; Qian, Yannan; Li, Zhenghui

    2016-11-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on TiO2 photoanode with FTO glass and TiO2 film co-treated by TiCl4 were fabricated. The effects of TiCl4 treatment on the photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs were investigated. TiCl4 treatment of the FTO glass resulted in the formation of a compact TiO2 thin layer on its surface, which could increase the electron collection efficiency. Meanwhile, TiCl4 treatment of the TiO2 film could fill gaps between nanoparticles in the TiO2 film, leading to better electron transfer. These advantages make the DSSC exhibit a highest conversion efficiency of 3.34% under a simulated solar irradiation with an intensity of 100 mW/cm2 (1 sun), increased by 38% compared with that of the untreated DSSC.

  13. ZnO nanosheets decorated with CdSe and TiO2 for the architecture of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Tae; Park, Mi Yeong; Choi, Kang Ho; Tai, Wei Sheng; Shim, Won Hyun; Park, Sun-Young; Kang, Jae-Wook; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Jeong, Yongsoo; Kim, Young Dok; Lim, Dong Chan

    2011-03-01

    Pure and TiO2- and CdSe-deposited ZnO nanosheets aligned vertically to the surface of ITO (Indium tin oxide) are prepared using electrodeposition, which is used for building blocks of dye sensitized solar cell. A significant improvement in the photovoltaic efficiency can be obtained by depositing TiO2 or CdSe on ZnO. Photoluminescence spectra show that the TiO2 and CdSe nanostructures suppress the recombination of the electron-hole pair of ZnO. We suggest that the interface charge transfer at TiO2-ZnO and CdSe-ZnO should be responsible for the suppression of the electron-hole pair recombination and enhanced solar cell efficiency by TiO2 and CdSe nanostructures.

  14. TiO2 dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC): linear relationship of maximum power point and anthocyanin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Radin

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship of anthocyanin concentration from different organic fruit species and output voltage and current in a TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and hypothesized that fruits with greater anthocyanin concentration produce higher maximum power point (MPP) which would lead to higher current and voltage. Anthocyanin dye solution was made with crushing of a group of fresh fruits with different anthocyanin content in 2 mL of de-ionized water and filtration. Using these test fruit dyes, multiple DSSCs were assembled such that light enters through the TiO2 side of the cell. The full current-voltage (I-V) co-variations were measured using a 500 Ω potentiometer as a variable load. Point-by point current and voltage data pairs were measured at various incremental resistance values. The maximum power point (MPP) generated by the solar cell was defined as a dependent variable and the anthocyanin concentration in the fruit used in the DSSC as the independent variable. A regression model was used to investigate the linear relationship between study variables. Regression analysis showed a significant linear relationship between MPP and anthocyanin concentration with a p-value of 0.007. Fruits like blueberry and black raspberry with the highest anthocyanin content generated higher MPP. In a DSSC, a linear model may predict MPP based on the anthocyanin concentration. This model is the first step to find organic anthocyanin sources in the nature with the highest dye concentration to generate energy.

  15. The effect of light-scattering layer on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell assembled using TiO2 double-layered films as photoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Zhao, Y. L.; Lin, X. P.; Gu, X. Q.; Qiang, Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated based on double-layered films of TiO2 nanospheres and TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs). TiO2 nanospheres, including TiO2 hollow spheres (HSs) and TiO2 solid spheres (SSs), were served as light-scattering layers on TiO2 NRAs as composite photoanodes. The as-prepared TiO2 NRAs, TiO2 HSs and TiO2 SSs have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The photoelectric properties of DSSCs were investigated by UV-vis reflectance spectra, current-voltage curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Owing to the synergic effects of the TiO2 HSs (SSs) and NRAs, including large specific surface area of HSs (SSs) as light-scattering layer for effective dye adsorption and harvesting light and rapid electron transport in one dimensional TiO2 NRAs, the optimal energy conversion efficiency of DSSCs with as-prepared double-layered films as nanocomposite photoanode (5.40%) were far higher than the ones using single-layered NRAs films (1.56%).

  16. The effect of optical properties on photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized TiO2 nanocrystalline solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Dao; Cui, Jie-Hu; Zheng, He-Gen; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2013-06-01

    In this study, well-crystallized TiO2 nanoparticles with average size of -20 nm were synthesized by hydrolysis of titania salt in aqueous medium. The effect of the optical properties of the obtained titania particles based thin films with different thickness on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells were investigated. Differential thermal analysis/thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the morphology, structure and crystal formation of the obtained samples. The optical properties such as reflectance and transmittance of the photoanodes with different thickness were systematically investigated. The reflectance property increased with increasing the film thickness, however, the transmittance property showed the opposite way. The improved scattering property with increasing the film thickness facilitated efficient utilization of solar spectrum, which was verified by incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency. The maximum energy conversion efficiency of 5.0% was achieved on photoelectrode film with 17.8 microm.

  17. Effect of TiO2 thickness on nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurdi, I.; Shafura, A. K.; Azhar, N. E. A.; Ishak, A.; Malek, M. F.; Alrokayan, A. H. Salman; Khan, Haseeb A.; Mamat, M. H.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    The TiO2 films were deposited on glass substrate at different thicknesses with different deposition frequencies (1, 2, 3 and 4 times) using spin coating technique and their structural properties were investigated. Subsequently, the nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorods and TiO2 were formed by deposited the TiO2 on top of aligned ZnO Nanorod on ITO-coated glass at different thicknesses using the same method of TiO2 deposited on glass substrate. The nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO2 were coated with different thicknesses of 900µm, 1815µm, 2710µm, 3620µm and ZnO without TiO2. The dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated from the nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO2 with thickness of 900µm, 1815µm, 2710µm and 3620µm and ZnO without TiO2 and their photovoltaic properties of the DSSCs were investigated. From the solar simulator measurement the solar energy conversion efficiency (η) of 2.543% under AM 1.5 was obtained for the ZnO nanorod/TiO2 photoanode-2710µm Dye-Sensitized solar cell.

  18. Effect of dye-sensitized solar cells based on the anodizing TiO2 nanotube array/nanoparticle double-layer electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun Hyuk; Wung Bark, Chung; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2014-11-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays fabricated by anodization are very attractive for dye-sensitized solar cells owing to their superior charge percolation and slower charge recombination. Highly ordered, vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays have been prepared by a three-step anodic oxidation. In this work, we considered the aforementioned strategies to improve the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Employing one of these approaches, the use of oxide semiconductors in the form of a TiO2 nanotube array was attempted as a novel means of improving the electron transport through the film. We fabricated a novel TiO2 nanoparticle/TiO2 nanotube array double-layer photoelectrode by a layer-by-layer assembly process, and we thoroughly investigated the effect of various structures on sample efficiency. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 5.48% were achieved at a simulated solar light irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 (AM 1.5).

  19. Treatment of TiO2 with COOH-functionalized germanium nanoparticles to enhance the photocurrent of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Ho; Ha, Eun-Sung; Baik, Hionsuck; Kim, Kang-Jin

    2011-03-01

    A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) containing a TiO(2) film treated with COOH-functionalized germanium nanoparticles (Ge-COOH Nps) exhibited a higher short-circuit photocurrent density (J(sc); 15.4 mA cm(-2)) compared to the corresponding untreated DSSC (13.4 mA cm(-2)) using N719 and a 12 μm thick TiO(2) film at 100 mW cm(-2). The amount of N719 attached to the treated TiO(2) film was 21% greater than that attached to the untreated TiO(2) film. Enhancement of the J(sc) value by 15% was attributed mostly to an intramolecular charge transfer from N719 attached to the Ge-COOH Nps to the TiO(2) conduction band through the Ge-COOH Nps.

  20. Enhanced performance of ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells using TiO2/graphene nanocomposite compact layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ying; Chen, Po-Hao; Wu, Yeun-Jung; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Hwang, Jih-Shang; Lin, Pei-Te; Lai, Kuan-Yu; Shih-Sen Chien, Forest; Lin, Tai-Yuan

    2017-04-01

    The applications of TiO2/graphene nanocomposite as a compact layer for ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) have been studied. It was shown that the role of bifunctional graphene flakes in TiO2 compact layer not only suppressed the electron recombination between indium-doped tin oxide and electrolyte, but also reduced the resistance of compact layer. In addition, compared to typical compact layers, TiO2/graphene nanocomposite without blocking effect in optical transmittance could further boost the power conversion efficiency in DSSC. TiO2/graphene nanocomposite was demonstrated the potential to be an alternative of compact layer to typical dense TiO2 for ZnO-based DSSCs.

  1. Performance optimization of dye-sensitized solar cells by multilayer gradient scattering architecture of TiO2 microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyue; Li, Meiya; Liu, Xiaolian; Bai, Lihua; Luoshan, Mengdai; Lei, Wen; Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Yongdan; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    TiO2 microspheres (TMSs) with unique hierarchical structure and unusual high specific surface area are synthesized and incorporated into a photoanode in various TMS multilayer gradient architectures to form novel photoanodes and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Significant influences of these architectures on the photoelectric properties of DSSCs are obtained. The DSSC with the optimal TMS gradient-ascent architecture of M036 has the largest amounts of dye absorption, strongest light absorption, longest electron lifetime and lowest electron recombination, and thus exhibits the maximum short circuit current density (Jsc) of 16.49 mA cm-2 and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of 7.01%, notably higher than those of conventional DSSCs by 21% and 22%, respectively. These notable improvements in the properties of DSSCs can be attributed to the TMS gradient-ascent architecture of M036 which can most effectively increase dye absorption and localize incident light within the photoanode by the light scattering of TMSs, and thus utilize the incident light thoroughly. This study provides an optimized and universal configuration for the scattering microspheres incorporated in the hybrid photoanode, which can significantly improve the performance of DSSCs.

  2. Transfer and assembly of large area TiO2 nanotube arrays onto conductive glass for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Siqian; Ding, Hao; Li, Quantong; Wang, Baoyuan; Wang, Xina; Wang, Hao

    2014-02-01

    Highly ordered titanium oxide nanotube arrays are synthesized by a two-step anodic oxidation of pure titanium foil at constant voltage. It is found that the length of nanotube arrays firstly increased rapidly with the anodization time, and then the growth rate gradually slowed down with further increasing the anodization time. The mechanism of anodization time-dependent tube length growth is discussed. Large area free-standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays are detached from the underlying Ti foil and transferred onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive glass substrates to serve as the photoanodes of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photoelectric performance of the DSSCs assembled by TNT/FTO films is strongly related to the tube length of titania and the surface treatment. For the photoanodes without any surface modification, the highest overall photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) that can be achieved is 4.12% in the DSSC assembled with 33-μm-thick TNT arrays, while the overall PCE of DSSC based on the 33-μm-thick TNT arrays increases to 9.02% in response to the treatment with TiCl4.

  3. Optical modeling-assisted characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells using TiO2 nanotube arrays as photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ho Yun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs using TiO2 nanotube (TNT arrays as photoanodes were investigated. The TNT arrays were 3.3, 11.5, and 20.6 μm long with the pore diameters of 50, 78.6, and 98.7 nm, respectively. The longest TNT array of 20.6 μm in length showed enhanced photovoltaic performances of 3.87% with significantly increased photocurrent density of 8.26 mA·cm−2. This improvement is attributed to the increased amount of the adsorbed dyes and the improved electron transport property with an increase in TNT length. The initial charge generation rate was improved from 4 × 1021 s−1·cm−3 to 7 × 1021 s−1·cm−3 in DSSCs based on optical modelling analysis. The modelling analysis of optical processes inside TNT-based DSSCs using generalized transfer matrix method (GTMM revealed that the amount of dye and TNT lengths were critical factors influencing the performance of DSSCs, which is consistent with the experimental results.

  4. Performance comparison of dye-sensitized solar cells by using different metal oxide- coated TiO2 as the photoanode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xuhui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells, TiO2 photoanode surface is often covered with a metal oxide layer to form a core-shell composite structure. Different metal oxide coating on TiO2 as composite photoanodes can affect the cell efficiency variously. However, there still lacks the crosswise comparison among the effects of different metal oxides on TiO2 photoanode. In this study, TiO2 was coated with Al2O3, CaO, ZnO, MgO, Fe2O3 or Bi2O3 separately by liquid phase deposition method. The results indicated that cells with TiO2/Al2O3, TiO2/ZnO, TiO2/CaO, or TiO2/MgO composite film as a photoanode had higher conversion efficiency than those with un-coated TiO2 films. TiO2/Al2O3 showed the highest efficiency and TiO2/CaO ranked second. On the contrary, cells with TiO2/Bi2O3 or TiO2/Fe2O3 composite film as a photoanode had lower conversion efficiency than those with un-coated TiO2 films. The mechanism of the cell efficiency change was also investigated. To get higher conversion efficiency, matched energy level of the metal oxide with TiO2 is the first prerequisite, and then the optimum coating thickness is also a necessary condition.

  5. Reduced interfacial recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells assisted with NiO:Eu(3+),Tb(3+) coated TiO2 film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nannan; Huang, Jinzhao; Fu, Ke; Deng, Xiaolong; Ding, Meng; Zhang, Shouwei; Xu, Xijin; Li, Lin

    2016-08-10

    Eu(3+),Tb(3+) doped and undoped NiO films were deposited on TiO2 by a sol-gel spin-coating method as the photoanodes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A comparative study with different structures including TiO2, TiO2/NiO and TiO2/NiO:Eu(3+),Tb(3+) as the photoanodes was carried out to illustrate the photovoltaic performance of solar cells. NiO could enhance the performance of DSSCs ascribed to acting as a barrier for the charge recombination from the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) to electrolyte and forming a p-n junction (NiO/TiO2). Moreover, Eu(3+), Tb(3+) co-doped NiO could accelerate the electron transfer at TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface, which further benefited the performance of solar cells. The solar cells assembled with the photoelectrodes consisting of NiO:Eu(3+),Tb(3+) and TiO2 exhibited short-circuit current density (JSC) of 17.4 mA cm(-2), open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 780 mV and conversion efficiency of 8.8%, which were higher than that with TiO2/NiO and pure TiO2. The mechanisms of the influence of NiO and NiO:Eu(3+),Tb(3+) on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs were discussed.

  6. Reduced interfacial recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells assisted with NiO:Eu3+,Tb3+ coated TiO2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nannan; Huang, Jinzhao; Fu, Ke; Deng, Xiaolong; Ding, Meng; Zhang, Shouwei; Xu, Xijin; Li, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Eu3+,Tb3+ doped and undoped NiO films were deposited on TiO2 by a sol-gel spin-coating method as the photoanodes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A comparative study with different structures including TiO2, TiO2/NiO and TiO2/NiO:Eu3+,Tb3+ as the photoanodes was carried out to illustrate the photovoltaic performance of solar cells. NiO could enhance the performance of DSSCs ascribed to acting as a barrier for the charge recombination from the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) to electrolyte and forming a p-n junction (NiO/TiO2). Moreover, Eu3+, Tb3+ co-doped NiO could accelerate the electron transfer at TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface, which further benefited the performance of solar cells. The solar cells assembled with the photoelectrodes consisting of NiO:Eu3+,Tb3+ and TiO2 exhibited short-circuit current density (JSC) of 17.4 mA cm‑2, open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 780 mV and conversion efficiency of 8.8%, which were higher than that with TiO2/NiO and pure TiO2. The mechanisms of the influence of NiO and NiO:Eu3+,Tb3+ on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs were discussed.

  7. Improvement of Short-Circuit Current Density in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Sputtered Nanocolumnar TiO2 Compact Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Lung-Chien Chen; Cheng-Chiang Chen; Bo-Shiang Tseng

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a nanocolumnar TiO2 compact layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was examined. Such a compact layer was sputtered on a glass substrate with an indium tin oxide (ITO) film using TiO2 powder as the raw material, with a thickness of ~100 nm. The compact layer improved the short-circuit current density and the efficiency of conversion of solar energy to electricity by the DSSC by 53.37% and 59.34%, yielding values of 27.33 mA/cm2 and 9.21%, respectively. The performance was a...

  8. Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 nanotube membranes using an optimized annealing profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, F; Moradi, M; Lee, K; Cha, G; So, S; Kahnt, A; Guldi, D M; Altomare, M; Schmuki, P

    2015-01-31

    We use free-standing TiO2 nanotube membranes that are transferred onto FTO slides in front-side illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We investigate the key parameters for solar cell arrangement of self-ordered anodic TiO2 nanotube layers on the FTO substrate, namely the influence of the annealing procedure on the DSSC light conversion efficiency. The results show that using an optimal temperature annealing profile can significantly enhance the DSSC efficiency (in our case η = 9.8%), as it leads to a markedly lower density of trapping states in the tube oxide, and thus to strongly improved electron transport properties.

  9. Influence of TiCl4 post-treatment condition on TiO2 electrode for enhancement photovoltaic efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae Sung; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2014-10-01

    Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) treatment processed by chemical bath deposition is usually adopted as pre- and post-treatment for nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) film deposition in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) technology. TiCl4 post-treatment is a widely known method capable of improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, the effect of TiCl4 post-treatment on the TiO2 electrode is proposed and compared to the untreated film. A TiO2 passivating layer was deposited on FTO glass by RF magnetron sputtering. The TiO2 sol prepared sol-gel method, nanoporous TiO2 upper layer was deposited by screen printing method on the passivating layer. TiCl4 post-treatment was deposited on the substrate by hydrolysis of TiCl4 aqueous solution. Crystalline structure was adjusted by various TiCl4 concentration and dipping time: 20 mM-150 mM and 30 min-120 min. The conversion efficiency was measured by solar simulator (100 mW/cm2). The dye-sensitized solar cell using TiCl4 post-treatment was measured the maximum conversion efficiency of 5.04% due to electron transport effectively. As a result, the DSSCs based on TiCl4 post-treatment showed better photovoltaic performance than cells made purely of TiO2 nanoparticles. The relative DSSCs devices are characterized in terms of short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, fill factor, conversion efficiency.

  10. Enhanced conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using a CNT-incorporated TiO2 slurry-based photoanode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoping Cai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new titanium dioxide (TiO2 slurry formulation is herein reported for the fabrication of TiO2 photoanode for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The prepared TiO2 photoanode featured a highly uniform mesoporous structure with well-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting TiO2 slurry-based DSSC was ∼63% higher than that achieved by a DSSC prepared using a commercial TiO2 slurry. Subsequently, the incorporation of acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs into the TiO2 slurry was examined. More specifically, the effect of varying the concentration of the CNTs in this slurry on the performance of the resulting DSSCs was studied. The chemical state of the CNTs-incorporated TiO2 photoanode was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A high energy conversion efficiency of 6.23% was obtained at an optimum CNT concentration of ∼0.06 wt.%. The obtained efficiency corresponds to a 63% enhancement when compared with that obtained from a DSSC based on a commercial TiO2 slurry. The higher efficiency was attributed to the improvement in the collection and transport of excited electrons in the presence of the CNTs.

  11. Enhanced conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using a CNT-incorporated TiO2 slurry-based photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiaoping; Chen, Zexiang; Li, Jun; Wang, Yan; Xiang, Dong; Zhang, Jijun; Li, Hai

    2015-02-01

    A new titanium dioxide (TiO2) slurry formulation is herein reported for the fabrication of TiO2 photoanode for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared TiO2 photoanode featured a highly uniform mesoporous structure with well-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting TiO2 slurry-based DSSC was ˜63% higher than that achieved by a DSSC prepared using a commercial TiO2 slurry. Subsequently, the incorporation of acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the TiO2 slurry was examined. More specifically, the effect of varying the concentration of the CNTs in this slurry on the performance of the resulting DSSCs was studied. The chemical state of the CNTs-incorporated TiO2 photoanode was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A high energy conversion efficiency of 6.23% was obtained at an optimum CNT concentration of ˜0.06 wt.%. The obtained efficiency corresponds to a 63% enhancement when compared with that obtained from a DSSC based on a commercial TiO2 slurry. The higher efficiency was attributed to the improvement in the collection and transport of excited electrons in the presence of the CNTs.

  12. Design of a TiO2 nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film photoanode and its improved performance for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguang; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Rong; Feng, Ming; Chen, Yiming

    2014-02-21

    A TiO2 film photoanode with gradient structure in nanosheet/nanoparticle concentration on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass from substrate to surface was prepared by a screen printing method. The as-prepared dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the gradient film electrode exhibited an enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.48%, exceeding that of a pure nanoparticle-based DSSC with the same film thickness by a factor of 2.6. The enhanced photovoltaic performance of the gradient film-based DSSC was attributed to the superior light scattering ability of TiO2 nanosheets within the gradient structure, which was beneficial to light harvesting. Furthermore, the TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets facilitated the electron transport from dye molecules to the conduction band of TiO2 and further to the conductive glass. Meanwhile, the high specific surface area of TiO2 nanosheets helped the adsorption of dye molecules, and the TiO2 nanoparticle underlayer ensured good electronic contact between the TiO2 film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements further confirmed the electron transport differences between DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film electrodes and DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle homogeneous mixtures, pure TiO2 nanoparticles and pure TiO2 nanosheets with the same film thickness.

  13. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using different particle sizes of TiO2 deposited via nano-particle deposition system (NPDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Su; Lee, Jin-Woong; Kim, Min-Saeng; Choi, Jung-Oh; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2012-04-01

    TiO2 layers were fabricated using a nano-particle deposition system (NPDS) on transparent conductive oxide (TCO) glass for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Conventionally, TiO2 paste for working electrodes has been fabricated using paste type methods. The fabricated paste composed of a mixture of nano-sized TiO2 powders, binders and solutions is then painted on TCO glass. After drying, the TiO2 layer on TCO glass is sintered to make a path for electron transfer. TiO2 layers formed by this paste type method require numerous steps, which can be time consuming. In this study, TiO2 powders were sprayed directly on TCO glass using NPDS in order to simplify the fabrication steps. To improve porosity and produce scattering layers, commercial nanocrystalline TiO, powders with different sizes were alternately deposited. Moreover, powders with different sizes were mixed and deposited on the TCO glass. The results indicate that the DSSCs with a TiO2 layer composed of different particle sizes had better cell performance than the cells assembled with single-sized TiO2 particles. Therefore, this study shows that a dry TiO2 coating process is possible for DSSC fabrication to improve its cell efficiencies, and this method can easily be applied on flexible substrates since NPDS is a room-temperature deposition process.

  14. Conveniently fabricated heterojunction ZnO/TiO2 electrodes using TiO2 nanotube arrays for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Yang, Wein-Duo; Qiang, Liang-Sheng; Liu, Hsin-Yi

    2012-12-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays with an inner average pore diameter of 83 nm and a length of 14 μm are grown on Ti foils by electrochemical anodization in ammonium fluoride-water-glycerol solution. ZnO is introduced into the TiO2 nanotube arrays by a convenient electrodeposition technique. ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposites supported on Ti substrate are used as the photo-anode electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The morphology, structure and electrochemical properties are investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffusion reflection spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry measurements. It is found that ZnO have been embedded in the TiO2 nanotube arrays, and changed some photoelectric properties. The conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells is more than doubled, compared with that of bare TiO2 nanotube arrays with deposited 60 min. This improvement comes from the synergetic effect between ZnO and TiO2, which increases dye absorption, electron transport and electron lifetime.

  15. Fabrication of TiO2 nanoparticles/nanorod composite arrays via a two-step method for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyang Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles/nanorod composite arrays were prepared on the F-doped tin oxide (FTO substrate through a two-step method of hydrothermal and d.c. magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and optical properties of the samples were characterized respectively by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and UV–vis spectrometer. The results showed that the TiO2 composite nanorod arrays possess the nature of high surface area for more dye molecule absorption and the strong light scattering effects. The dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs based on TiO2 composite nanorod arrays exhibited a 80% improvement in the overall energy conversion efficiency compared with the pure TiO2 nanorod arrays photoanode.

  16. Fabrication of TiO2 nanoparticles/nanorod composite arrays via a two-step method for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyang Wang; Shaohua Qu; Zhicheng Zhong; Song Wang; Ke Liu; Anzheng Hu

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles/nanorod composite arrays were prepared on the F-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate through a two-step method of hydrothermal and d.c. magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and optical properties of the samples were characterized respectively by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV–vis spectrometer. The results showed that the TiO2 composite nanorod arrays possess the nature of high surface area for more dye molecule absorption and the strong light scattering effects. The dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on TiO2 composite nanorod arrays exhibited a 80%improvement in the overall energy conversion efficiency compared with the pure TiO2 nanorod arrays photoanode.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of UV-treated Fe-doped bismuth lanthanum titanate-doped TiO2 layers in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Myoung Geun; Bark, Chung Wung

    2016-06-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) have been extensively studied because they constitute promising low-cost alternatives to their conventional semiconductor-based counterparts. However, much of the effort aimed at achieving high conversion efficiencies has focused on dye and liquid electrolytes. In this work, we report the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs fabricated by mixing TiO2 with Fe-doped bismuth lanthanum titanate (Fe-BLT). These nanosized Fe-BLT powders were prepared by using a high-energy ball-milling process. In addition, we used a UV radiation-ozone (UV-O3) treatment to change the surface wettability of TiO2 from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and thereby prevented the easy separation of the Fe-BLT-mixed TiO2 from the fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO) coating glass.

  18. Explanation of Effect of Added Water on Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline TiO2 Solar Cell: Correlation between Performance and Carrier Relaxation Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Yin, Xiong; Li, Heng; Lin, Yuan; Weng, Yu-Xiang

    2007-11-01

    Time-resolved mid-IR transient absorption spectroscopy is employed to explore the mechanism of improving the performance of dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell (DSSC) when a certain amount of H2O is added into the electrolyte. The relaxation kinetics of dye-sensitized TiO2 nanocrystalline film and the corresponding DSSC performance are investigated under different conditions. It is found that the interfacial charge recombination is retarded and electron injection efficiency is increased in the water vapour and in the electrolyte when D2O is added. The values of open-circuit photovoltage Voc and the short-circuit photocurrent Jsc of the cells are linearly correlated to the product of the two decay time constants. We also observed that Voc well correlates with electron injection efficiency. It provides a preliminary microscopic account for the function of the added water in improving the performance of DSSCs.

  19. Enhanced light harvesting of dye-sensitized solar cells with TiO2 microspheres as light scattering layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yingli; Song, Lixin; Zhou, Yangyang; Yin, Xin; Xie, Xueyao; Xiong, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Two kinds of TiO2 microspheres (TMS) with average diameter of 1500 nm but different surface were fabricated by solvothermal method from different Ti source. The effect of TMS on the light harvesting and photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)was investigated. The UV-Vis diffusion reflectance spectra and absorption spectra of N719 dye in detached solutions proved that the TMS showed dual functions of light scattering and dye-adsorption which was an important functional material in DSSCs. The results showed that the TMS made from titanium(IV) isopropoxide with rough surface (TMSR) exhibited better photovoltaic performance than that of TMS made from tetrabutyl titanate with smooth surface (TMSS). To further improve the photovoltaic performance, the double-layered DSSCs made of P25 as an underlayer and TMS as a light-scattering layer (P25-TMS) were fabricated. The photovoltaic performance of double-layered DSSCs was higher than that of the single-layered DSSCs with similar thickness. Especially, the DSSCs made of P25 as an underlayer and the TMSR as a light-scattering layer (P25-TMSR) had a highest power conversion efficiency of 7.62%. This was higher than that of single-layered TMSR-based cell (5.54%), P25-based cell (5.75%), and double-layered P25-TMSS-based cell (6.78%) with similar thickness. This was mainly attributed to the large specific surface area, superior light scattering ability, and fast electron transport of TMSR.

  20. Photovoltaic Characterization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Composite TiO2-MWCNT Photoelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvazian, E.; Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M. H.

    2014-05-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) use the effect of light on dye molecules to generate electricity through a photoelectrochemical mechanism. The aim of this study is to synthesize nanostructured DSSCs based on titania-multiwalled carbon nanotube (TiO2-MWCNT) composite photoelectrodes and improve their performance and efficiency. DSSCs were fabricated based on single-layer TiO2-MWCNT photoelectrodes with various weight percentages of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and bilayer TiO2/TiO2-2%MWCNT photoelectrodes. The microstructure and thickness of the anodic layers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. Also, to compare the conversion efficiency and determine the electron behavior in the electrical equivalent circuit of these cells, photovoltaic characterization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis were used. The DSSC based on a single-layer TiO2-2%MWCNT electrode, compared with other single-layer DSSCs in this study, had the highest conversion efficiency of 3.9% (for anodic layer thickness of 9 μm). The efficiency of the solar cell with the bilayer TiO2/TiO2-2%MWCNT photoelectrode, in comparison with the single-layer solar cell with the TiO2-2%MWCNT electrode, showed a 23% increase from 4.33% to 5.35% (for anodic layer thickness of 18 μm). EIS analysis indicated that the charge-transport resistance of the DSSC based on the bilayer photoelectrode, in comparison with the single-layer TiO2 and TiO2-2%MWCNT solar cells, was decreased by 68% and 57%, respectively.

  1. The result of synthesis analysis of the powder TiO2/ZnO as a layer of electrodes for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnaningsih, Lilis; Muliani, Lia

    2016-04-01

    This study has been conducted synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticle powders and ZnO nanoparticle powder into a paste to be in this research, dye-sensitive solar cells (DSSC) was produced by TiO2 nanopowder and ZnO nanopowder synthesis to make paste that is applied as electrode. This electrode works based on photon absorbed by dye and transferred to different composition of TiO2/ ZnO particle. Properties of DSSC are affected by fabrication method, parameter and dimension of TiO2 / ZnO nanoparticles, technique and composition of TiO2 / ZnO paste preparation is important to get the higher performance of DSSC. Doctor blade is a method for electrode coating on glass substrate. The electrode was immersed into dye solution of Z907 and ethanol. From the experiment, the effect of TiO2 and ZnO nanopowder mixture for electrode was investigated. XRD characterization show anatase and rutile phase, which sintered TiO2/ZnO has intensity more than 11,000. SEM characterization shows the composition of 20% TiO2 / 80% ZnO has better porosity. Higher efficiency that is investigated by I-V measurement using Sun Simulator.

  2. Improving photoelectrochemical activity of dye sensitized solar cell by a bilayered electrode with an overlayer of mesoporous anatase TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Jiang; Jian Zhang; Feng Gu; Wei Shao; Chunzhong Li; Mengkai Lu

    2011-01-01

    For better performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a bilayer structured electrode was constructed by employing a mesoporous anatase TiO2 overlayer above a commercial P25 TiO2 nanoparticles underlayer. The mesoporous anatase TiO2, prepared through a facile surfactant-assisted sol-gel process,possessed large pore size and well inter-connected network structure, both beneficial for dye adsorption and electron transfer. The dye adsorption capability of the mesoporous TiO2 was nearly twice that of the P25 counterpart. In the electrode, the mesoporous TiO2 film enhanced both dye adsorption and lightharvest, to increase photocurrent (Jsc) from 12.32 to 14.78 mA/cm2. Compared to the single P25 TiO2 film,the synergy of the mesoporous TiO2 and the P25 TiO2 nanoparticle films in the electrode resulted in a 24% improvement in light-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η). This bilayered electrode provides an alternative approach for further developing a photovoltaic device with better cell performance.

  3. Surface modified TiO2 nanostructure with 3D urchin-like morphology for dye-sensitized solar cell application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seong Sik; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Sangwook; Cho, In-Sun; Kim, Dong Hoe; Park, Jong Hoon; Hong, Kug Sun

    2012-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) urchin-like rutile TiO2 powders were synthesized by a mild hydrothermal method without any templates. An individual urchin-like TiO2 powder consists of self-assembled nanorods with a length of about 150 nm and width of about 10 nm. Additionally, the urchin-like TiO2 nanopowders were coated with an ultra-thin ZnO layer in order to modify the surface properties of the nanopowders, and the ZnO layer was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The ZnO-modified TiO2 was used as a photoelectrode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and the solar cell performances were investigated. In comparison with bare TiO2, ZnO-modified TiO2 improved the photovoltaic performances, i.e., energy conversion efficiency, open circuit voltage, and short circuit current were increased. The higher DSSC performance of ZnO-modified TiO2 was attributed to its higher dye loading and lower charge recombination rate.

  4. Ultrafast Flame Annealing of TiO2 Paste for Fabricating Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Kyu; Chai, Sung Uk; Cho, Yoonjun; Cai, Lili; Kim, Sung June; Park, Sangwook; Park, Jong Hyeok; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2017-09-20

    Mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) films are broadly used as electrodes in photoelectrochemical cells, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and perovskite solar cells (PSCs). State-of-the-art mesoporous TiO2 NP films for these solar cells are fabricated by annealing TiO2 paste-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass in a box furnace at 500 °C for ≈30 min. Here, the use of a nontraditional reactor, i.e., flame, is reported for the high throughput and ultrafast annealing of TiO2 paste (≈1 min). This flame-annealing method, compared to conventional furnace annealing, exhibits three distinct benefits. First, flame removes polymeric binders in the initial TiO2 paste more completely because of its high temperature (≈1000 °C). Second, flame induces strong interconnections between TiO2 nanoparticles without affecting the underlying transparent conducting oxide substrate. Third, the flame-induced carbothermic reduction on the TiO2 surface facilitates charge injection from the dye/perovskite to TiO2 . Consequently, when the flame-annealed mesoporous TiO2 film is used to fabricate DSSCs and PSCs, both exhibit enhanced charge transport and higher power conversion efficiencies than those fabricated using furnace-annealed TiO2 films. Finally, when the ultrafast flame-annealing method is combined with a fast dye-coating method to fabricate DSSC devices, its total fabrication time is reduced from over 3 h to ≈10 min. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Improvement of Short-Circuit Current Density in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Sputtered Nanocolumnar TiO2 Compact Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chien Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a nanocolumnar TiO2 compact layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was examined. Such a compact layer was sputtered on a glass substrate with an indium tin oxide (ITO film using TiO2 powder as the raw material, with a thickness of ~100 nm. The compact layer improved the short-circuit current density and the efficiency of conversion of solar energy to electricity by the DSSC by 53.37% and 59.34%, yielding values of 27.33 mA/cm2 and 9.21%, respectively. The performance was attributed to the effective electron pathways in the TiO2 compact layer, which reduced the back reaction by preventing direct contact between the redox electrolyte and the conductive substrate.

  6. Solvothermal Synthesis of Hierarchical TiO2 Microstructures with High Crystallinity and Superior Light Scattering for High-Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Qian; Mo, Li-E; Chen, Wang-Chao; Shi, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Ning; Hu, Lin-Hua; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2017-09-20

    In this article, hierarchical TiO2 microstructures (HM-TiO2) were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method adopting tetra-n-butyl titanate as the titanium source in a mixed solvent composed of N,N-dimethylformamide and acetic acid. Due to the high crystallinity and superior light-scattering ability, the resultant HM-TiO2 are advantageous as photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. When assembled to the entire photovoltaic device with C101 dye as a sensitizer, the pure HM-TiO2-based solar cells showed an ultrahigh photovoltage up to 0.853 V. Finally, by employing the as-obtained HM-TiO2 as the scattering layer and optimizing the architecture of dye-sensitized solar cells, both higher photovoltage and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency value were harvested with respect to TiO2 nanoparticles-based dye-sensitized solar cells, resulting in a high power conversion efficiency of 9.79%. This work provides a promising strategy to develop photoanode materials with outstanding photoelectric conversion performance.

  7. Aplikasi Semikonduktor TiO2 dengan Variasi Temperatur dan Waktu Tahan Kalsinasi sebagai Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC dengan Dye dari Ekstrak Buah Terung Belanda (Solanum betaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maula Nafi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai dye sensitized solar cell dilakukan dengan dye dari ekstrak buah terung belanda sebagai sumber energi alternatif dari tenaga surya. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC dibuat dengan menggunakan semikonduktor TiO2 yang dilapiskan pada kaca konduktif Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide (FTO dan dikalsinasi  dengan variasi temperatur 5500C, 6500C, dan 7500C, dengan waktu tahan 60 dan 120 menit pada tiap temperaturnya. Lapisan TiO2 pada substrat dikarakterisasi dengan menggunakan SEM dan XRD. Luas permukaan aktif diukur dengan pengujian BET. Hasil SEM menunjukkan ukuran bentuk partikel TiO2 berupa sphere. Hasil XRD menunjukkan struktur kristal TiO2 adalah body centered tetragonal. Luas permukaan aktif dibandingkan dengan hasil kelistrikan DSSC, yang selaras meningkat dari temperatur 5500C ke 6500C, namun menurun pada 7500C. Densitas arus dan voltase maksimum diperoleh pada variasi temperatur 650oC dengan waktu tahan 60 menit yaitu sebesar 0,356 mA/cm2 dan 593,1 mV. Efisiensi maksimum yang diperoleh sebesar 0,469208%. DSSC dimodifikasi dengan menambahkan pembungkus plastik, sehingga dapat memperlambat penurunan daya yang terjadi saat DSSC bekerja.

  8. Variasi Temperatur dan Waktu Tahan Kalsinasi terhadap Unjuk Kerja Semikonduktor TiO2 sebagai Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC dengan Dye dari Ekstrak Buah Naga Merah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahat M. R. Nadaek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu energi alternatif yang mempunyai potensi sumber energi yang sangat besar untuk mencegah terjadinya krisis energi namun sering kali terabaikan adalah sinar matahari. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk  menghasilkan prototype dalam mengkonversi energi cahaya matahari menjadi energi listrik. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC telah difabrikasi dengan menggunakan serbuk Titanium Dioksida (TiO2 yang dilapisi ke kaca Indium Tin Oxide dan diberi variasi temperatur 350oC, 450oC, dan 550oC dengan waktu tahan kalsinasi 30 dan 60 menit yang kemudian disensitisasi ke dalam larutan dye ekstrak buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus. DSSC di-assembling dengan coating Pd/Au yang telah di-sputtering ke kaca Indium Tin Oxide yang selanjutnya ditetesi dengan larutan elektrolit. Kemudian lapisan TiO2 tersebut dikarakterisasi menggunakan uji (SEM dan (XRD. Luas permukaan aktif partikel diidentifikasi dengan menggunakan BET analyzer. Dari hasil XRD dapat diketahui struktur kristalnya tetragonal. Hasil SEM menunjukkan bahwa bentuk partikel TiO2 adalah spherical. Untuk luas permukaan aktif yang dihasilkan menunjukkan nilai yang berbanding lurus dengan kenaikan nilai kelistrikan DSSC buah naga. Dari uji kelistrikan didapatkan hasil optimum pada temperatur 550oC dan waktu tahan 60 menit dengan voltase 562 mV, kuat arus 0.307 mA, dan memiliki efisiensi sebesar 0.089%. Kata kunci: Dye ekstrak buah naga merah, dye sensitized solar cell, temperatur kalsinasi, TiO2, waktu tahan kalsinasi.

  9. Layer-by-Layer Formation of Block-Copolymer-Derived TiO2 for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Guldin, Stefan

    2011-12-15

    Morphology control on the 10 nm length scale in mesoporous TiO 2 films is crucial for the manufacture of high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells. While the combination of block-copolymer self-assembly with sol-gel chemistry yields good results for very thin films, the shrinkage during the film manufacture typically prevents the build-up of sufficiently thick layers to enable optimum solar cell operation. Here, a study on the temporal evolution of block-copolymer-directed mesoporous TiO 2 films during annealing and calcination is presented. The in-situ investigation of the shrinkage process enables the establishment of a simple and fast protocol for the fabrication of thicker films. When used as photoanodes in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, the mesoporous networks exhibit significantly enhanced transport and collection rates compared to the state-of-the-art nanoparticle-based devices. As a consequence of the increased film thickness, power conversion efficiencies above 4% are reached. Fabrication of sufficiently thick mesoporous TiO 2 photoelectrodes with morphology control on the 10 nm length scale is essential for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSC). This study of the temporal evolution of block-copolymer-directed mesoporous TiO 2 films during annealing and calcination enables the build-up of sufficiently thick films for high-performance ssDSC devices. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The effect of substrate temperature on the spray-deposited TiO2 nanostructured films for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Faruk; Takahashi, Takakazu

    2011-04-01

    The nanostructured TiO2 films have deposited on SnO2:F (FTO) coated glass substrate by spray pyrolysis technique at different substrate temperatures of 200-500 degrees C. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of TiO2 films significantly vary with the substrate temperature. The surface of the TiO2 films deposited at 400 degrees C shows the nanoflakes and short nanorods (approximately 130 nm) like structures while the TiO2 films prepared at 500 degrees C shows only the nanoflakes like structures. The band gap of the TiO2 films prepared at higher temperatures (300-500 degrees C) becomes narrow due to presence the rutile phases in their crystal structure. Ruthenium (II) complex as a dye, KI/I2 as an electrolyte and carbon on FTO glass as a counter electrode has used to fabricate the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC). The TiO2 film deposited at 400 degrees C has showed the best photovoltaic performance in DSC with the efficiency of 3.81%, the photovoltage of 773 mV, the photocurrent of 8.34 mA/cm2, and the fill factor of 56.17%. The photovoltage of the DSC increases with the increase of substrate temperature during the deposition of TiO2 films. Moreover, all the DSCs exhibit reasonably high fill factor value.

  11. Investigation of the electric field in TiO2/FTO junctions used in dye-sensitized solar cells by photocurrent transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühle, Sven; Dittrich, Thomas

    2005-05-19

    We have investigated the electrostatic potential distribution in compact and nanoporous TiO2 films, deposited on conducting F-doped SnO2 substrate (FTO), which are used in dye-sensitized solar cells. The TiO2 films were immersed into aqueous electrolyte and excited from the FTO side by light pulses of a N2 laser while the current response was measured as a function of time. The measurements were carried out as a function of the pH value of the electrolyte and at different electrostatic potentials. For compact TiO2 films, the sign of the transient current at short response times changed when the applied electrostatic potential or the pH value was decreased. This was not observed for mesoporous TiO2 films directly deposited onto the FTO substrate without a compact TiO2 layer. We interpret the results in terms of a macroscopic electric field across the compact layer which is changed by the applied potential or the pH of the electrolyte. In contrast, measurements on mesoporous TiO2 films indicate that the contact region is mainly field-free, and we explain our results by a very sharp electrostatic potential drop within the first layer of particles at the TiO2/FTO interface.

  12. Effect of anodic aluminum oxide template imprinting on TiO2 blocking layer of flexible dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kang-Pil; Lee, Sang-Ju; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Hwang, Dae-Kue

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) structure that employs an Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) template imprinted TiO2 blocking layer, in which the AAO template creates TiO2 nano-particle aggregated islands on the TiO2 blocking layer. The TiO2 blocking layer prevents charge recombination between the metal foil and the liquid electrolyte. TiO2 nano-particle aggregated islands improve the scattering of incident light during back illumination and provide the wider surface area, yielding enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE). All the flexible DSSC structure with TiO2 nano-particle aggregated islands on the TiO2 blocking layer exhibited higher photocurrent than did conventional DSSC because light that passed through the photoanode was scattered, thereby giving it improved PCE that was as much as 23% higher than that of a conventional DSSC. This proposed method is an effective manufacturing process for flexible DSSC.

  13. Reduced electron recombination of dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 spheres consisting of ultrathin nanosheets with [001] facet exposed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An anatase TiO2 material with hierarchically structured spheres consisting of ultrathin nanosheets with 100% of the [001] facet exposed was employed to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. Investigation of the electron transport and back reaction of the DSCs by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the spheres had a threefold lower electron recombination rate compared to the conventional TiO2 nanoparticles. In contrast, the effective electron diffusion coefficient, Dn, was not sensitive to the variation of the TiO2 morphology. The TiO2 spheres showed the same Dn as that of the nanoparticles. The influence of TiCl4 post-treatment on the conduction band of the TiO2 spheres and on the kinetics of electron transport and back reactions was also investigated. It was found that the TiCl4 post-treatment caused a downward shift of the TiO2 conduction band edge by 30 meV. Meanwhile, a fourfold increase of the effective electron lifetime of the DSC was also observed after TiCl4 treatment. The synergistic effect of the variation of the TiO2 conduction band and the electron recombination determined the open-circuit voltage of the DSC.

  14. Tailoring of nanoporous TiO2 spheres with 100-200 nm sizes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sora; You, Ji Su; Yang, In Seok; Kang, Paul; Rawal, Sher Bahadur; Sung, Sang Do; Lee, Wan In

    2016-09-01

    Highly porous and monodispersed TiO2 spheres (SPs) with diameters in the range of 100-200 nm, notably smaller than the conventional SPs reported thus far, were selectively controlled, and found to be an outstanding building block for the mesoporous TiO2 layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The prepared TiO2 films employing these SPs are highly transparent, and the fabricated DSCs exhibit significantly enhanced photovoltaic performances. Particularly, the 100 nm-sized TiO2 SP (SP100) provides a photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.66% with a JSC of 17.98 mA/cm2, VOC of 808 mV, and FF of 0.734, which is higher than the PCE of DSCs with the typical 20 nm-sized TiO2 nanoparticle (NP20) or conventional 250 nm-sized SP (SP250). Transient photoelectron spectroscopic analyses revealed that both the electron diffusion coefficient and electron lifetime of the TiO2 layer increase as the size of the SPs decreases. The tiny TiO2 SPs prepared in this work offer distinct advantages in electron transport as well as dye-soaking and electrolyte diffusion.

  15. Improvement of photovoltaic efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell by introducing highly transparent nanoporous TiO2 buffer layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Joo; Kim, Hark Jin; Lee, Mi Hyeon; Lim, Goo Il; Song, Hye Young; Choi, Young Sik; Park, Nam-Gyu; Lee, Chongmu; Lee, Wan In

    2010-01-01

    13 nm-sized highly-dispersible TiO2 nanoparticle was synthesized by solvothermal reaction of titanium isopropoxide in a basic condition with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH). The prepared TiO2 nanoparticle was applied to fabrication of the transparent nanoporous TiO2 layer with 1.2 microm-thickness. By introducing this buffer layer between FTO and main TiO2 layer in the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), the photovoltaic conversion efficiency was improved from 5.92% to 7.13%. Due to the excellent antireflective role of nanoporous TiO2 buffer layer, the transmittance of FTO glass was increased by 9.2%, and this seemed to be one of the major factors in enhancing photovoltaic conversion efficiency. Moreover, the presence of nanoporous TiO2 buffer layer induces excellent adhesion between FTO and main TiO2 layer, as well as it suppresses the back reaction by blocking direct contact between I3- and FTO electrode.

  16. Efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells by use of ZrO2-doped TiO2 nanofibers photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ibrahim M A; Dao, Van-Duong; Barakat, Nasser A M; Yasin, Ahmed S; Yousef, Ahmed; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2016-08-15

    Due to the good stability and convenient optical properties, TiO2 nanostructures still the prominent photoanode materials in the Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs). However, the well-known low bandgap energy and weak adsorption affinity for the dye distinctly constrain the wide application. This work discusses the impact of Zr-doping and nanofibrous morphology on the performance and physicochemical properties of TiO2. Zr-doped TiO2 nanofibers (NFs), with various zirconia content (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2wt%) were prepared by calcination of electrospun mats composed of polyvinyl acetate, titanium isopropoxyl and zirconium n-propoxyl. For all formulations, the results have shown that the prepared materials are continuous, randomly oriented, and good morphology nanofibers. The average diameter decreased from 353.85nm to 210.78nm after calcination without a considerable influence on the nanofibrous structure regardless the zirconia content. XRD result shows that there is no Rutile nor Brookite phases in the obtained material and the average crystallite size of the sample is affected by the presence of Zr-doping and changed from 23.01nm to 37.63nm for TiO2 and Zr-doped TiO2, respectively. Optical studies have shown Zr-doped TiO2 NFs have more absorbance in the visible region than that of pristine TiO2 NFs; the maximum absorbance is corresponding to the NFs having 1wt% zirconia. The improved spectra of Zr-doped TiO2 in the visible region is attributed to the heterostructure composition resulting from Zr-doping. The absorption bandgaps were calculated using Tauc model as 3.202 and 3.217 for pristine and Zr (1wt%)-doped TiO2 NFs, respectively. Furthermore, in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, utilizing Zr (1wt%)-doped TiO2 nanofibers achieved higher efficiency of 4.51% compared to the 1.61% obtained from the pristine TiO2 NFs.

  17. Enhanced performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell with the incorporation of titanium carbide in the TiO2 matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chuan-Pei; Chen, Po-Yen; Vittal, R; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2010-08-28

    The effects of incorporation of various weight percentages of titanium carbide (TiC) into TiO(2) matrices on the photovoltaics of the respective dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated. It is established through relevant photographs, XRD and EDX analysis that TiC was partially converted into anatase TiO(2) (a-TiO(2)) when the TiC was sintered at 450 degrees C. With the incorporation of 3.0 wt% of the TiC in the TiO(2) film, the solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (eta) of the cell reached 7.56% from its value of 6.61% with a bare TiO(2) film. "In situ" incorporation of this TiC/a-TiO(2) composite in the commercial TiO(2) is considered as the basis for enhanced cell efficiency of the benefited cell. The variations in J(SC), FF, and V(OC) are explained by analyzing the data of dark currents, UV-absorption spectra, transparency spectra, and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) which were obtained under illumination and darkness. Enhancement in the V(OC) for the promoted cell is explained through pertinent electron lifetime in the TiO(2) film, which was obtained by using laser-induced photo-voltage transient studies. Electron diffusion coefficient was also measured by using laser-induced photo-current transient studies.

  18. Optical investigation of shell thickness in light scattering SiO2 particle with TiO2 nanoshells and its application in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahatdoost, Samira; Ara, Mohammad Hossein Majles; Shaban, Zeinab; Ghazyani, Nahid

    2015-09-01

    Monodisperse SiO2@TiO2 core/shell submicron particles with specific core size and different shell thicknesses have been successfully synthesized by facile, controllable and reproducible method. The structure and morphology of samples were investigated by EDX, FESEM, FTIR and XRD. Analysis showed monodisperse SiO2 cores and SiO2@TiO2 particles, which are about 350 nm, 370 nm, 390 nm, 405 nm and 420 nm, respectively. DRS graphs of SiO2@TiO2 particles showed effective diffuse reflectance, which had been examined in dye sensitized solar cells as a back-scatterer. So they made 18% increases in cell efficiency compare to cell without back-scatterer.

  19. A convenient route to high area, nanoparticulate TiO2 photoelectrodes suitable for high-efficiency energy conversion in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Nak Cheon; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2011-03-01

    Ethanol-soluble amphiphilic TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) of average diameter ∼9 nm were synthesized, and an α-terpineol-based TiO(2) paste was readily prepared from them in comparatively few steps. When used for fabrication of photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the paste yielded highly transparent films and possessing greater-than-typical, thickness-normalized surface areas. These film properties enabled the corresponding DSSCs to produce high photocurrent densities (17.7 mA cm(-2)) and a comparatively high overall light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency (9.6%) when deployed with the well-known ruthenium-based molecular dye, N719. These efficiencies are about ∼1.4 times greater than those obtained from DSSCs containing photoelectrodes derived from a standard commercial source of TiO(2) paste.

  20. Performance enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cell with a TiCl4-treated TiO2 compact layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisuk; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2015-03-01

    We here show that an effective blocking layer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) can be formed by spin coating a commercial TiO2 paste onto a conducting glass substrate. The spin-coated TiO2 layer was made more compact than the main absorption layer by TiCl4 treatment. DSSCs employing a compact layer exhibited an average current density and an efficiency of 19.09 mA/cm2 and 9.10%, respectively, while 16.91 mA/cm2 and 8.33% were obtained from unblocked reference cells. The enhanced DSSC performance is attributed to the increased electron lifetime. Intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay analysis showed that a TiCl4-treated compact layer substantially suppresses the charge recombination at the TiO2/substrate interface, thereby increasing the electron lifetime. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Novel structure of TiO2-ZnO core shell rice grain for photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lixin; Jiang, Qingxu; Du, Pingfan; Yang, Yefeng; Xiong, Jie; Cui, Can

    2014-09-01

    The TiO2-ZnO core shell rice grains are prepared by coaxial electrospinning and calcination. These core shell rice grains have the length of 300-800 nm and the BET surface area of 66.3 m2 g-1. They consist of anatase TiO2 (core) and wurtzite ZnO (shell). Using this novel structure as the photoanodic material, the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have the conversion efficiency (η) of 5.31%, which is increased by 23.9% in comparison with that of the DSSCs based on the TiO2 rice grains. This is mainly ascribed to the improvement in both light harvesting efficiency and electron collection efficiency, and the effective suppression of charge recombination.

  2. Synthesis and application of TiO2 single-crystal nanorod arrays grown by multicycle hydrothermal for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-Jing; Zhao, Yu-Long; Zhu, Lei; Gu, Xiu-Quan; Qiang, Ying-Huai

    2014-04-01

    TiO2 is a wide band gap semiconductor with important applications in photovoltaic cells. Vertically aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRs) are grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a multicycle hydrothermal synthesis process. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). It is found that dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) assembled by the as-prepared TiO2 single-crystal NRs exhibit different trends under the condition of different nucleation and growth concentrations. Optimum cell performance is obtained with high nucleation concentration and low growth cycle concentration. The efficiency enhancement is mainly attributed to the improved specific surface area of the nanorod.

  3. Evaluating the Critical Thickness of TiO 2 Layer on Insulating Mesoporous Templates for Efficient Current Collection in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chandiran, Aravind Kumar

    2013-01-15

    In this paper, a way of utilizing thin and conformal overlayer of titanium dioxide on an insulating mesoporous template as a photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells is presented. Different thicknesses of TiO2 ranging from 1 to 15 nm are deposited on the surface of the template by atomic layer deposition. This systematic study helps unraveling the minimum critical thickness of the TiO2 overlayer required to transport the photogenerated electrons efficiently. A merely 6-nm-thick TiO2 film on a 3-μm mesoporous insulating substrate is shown to transport 8 mA/cm 2 of photocurrent density along with ≈900 mV of open-circuit potential when using our standard donor-π-acceptor sensitizer and Co(bipyridine) redox mediator. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Preparation and photovoltaic properties of layered TiO2/carbon nanotube/TiO2 photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, M.; Grosso, D. R.; Imbrogno, A.; Xu, F.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report on the realization of photoanodes for dye sensitized solar cells based on composites of carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Our results show the best photovoltaics performance for carbon nanotubes weight percentages between 0.2% and 0.4%. Photoanodes realized in three-layer configuration, TiO2/carbon nanotube/TiO2, show a cell efficiency of 10.5% and a fill factor of 70%, values 2.4 times greater with respect to that of classical TiO2 anode. The presence of carbon nanotubes enhances the charge transport, strongly reducing the electron/hole recombination in the anode bulk, while the double layer of TiO2 increases the dye adsorption limiting the reduction caused by the presence of carbon nanotubes.

  5. Nanostructured ZnO, TiO2, and Composite ZnO/TiO2 Films for Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Myrsini Giannouli

    2013-01-01

    The effects of using composite semiconductor films on the efficiency and stability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated. Four different types of composite ZnO/TiO2 cells were developed and sensitized with the organic molecules Coumarin 343 (C343) and Rose Bengal (RB). A comparative assessment of the different composite cells was conducted, and the photovoltaic performance of single-semiconductor ZnO and TiO2 solar cells was also compared to that of the composite ZnO/TiO2 ce...

  6. A General Method for Preparing Anatase TiO2 Treelike-Nanoarrays on Various Metal Wires for Fiber Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Liang; Li, Luying; Su, Jun; Tu, Fanfan; Liu, Nishuang; Gao, Yihua

    2014-03-01

    Anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays were prepared on various metal wires (Ti, W, Ni, etc.) through one-step facile hydrothermal reaction. The anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays consist of long TiO2 nanowire trunks with direct charge transport channels, and a large number of short TiO2 nanorod branches with large surface areas. Fiber dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSSCs) based on the anatase TiO2 tree-like nanoarrays deposited on Ti wires can achieve outstanding power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.32%, while FDSSCs on W wires have lower PCE of 3.24% due to the formation of WO3 layer, which might enhance recombination of charges. When the substrate is changed to a Nicole oxide wire, a novel p-n heterojunction can be obtained. This universal method is simple, facile, and low cost for preparing anatase TiO2 treelike-nanoarrays on various metal wires, which may find potential applications in fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

  7. Influence of PVP template on the formation of porous TiO2 nanofibers by electrospinning technique for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayappan, Vijayakumar; Panneerselvam, Pratheep; Nemala, Sivasankar; Nallathambi, Karthick S.; Angaiah, Subramania

    2015-09-01

    The porous TiO2 nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning technique using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as template as well as pore-forming agent at the calcination temperature of 475 °C for 5 h. The influence of various concentrations of PVP (5, 8 and 10 wt%) on the surface area and porosity of the prepared TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) were studied by using BET-specific surface area analyzer. The TiO2 NFs obtained by using 5 wt% of PVP had higher surface area and porosity than those obtained by using 8 and 10 wt% of PVP. The prepared electrospun TiO2 NFs were characterized by using TG analysis, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, FE-SEM and TEM studies. Finally, dye-sensitized solar cells were assembled using the prepared TiO2 NFs as the photoanode, Pt as the cathode and 0.5 M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide, 0.5 M LiI, 0.05 M I2, 0.5 M 4-tertbutylpyridine in acetonitrile as an electrolyte. Among the three photoanodes, the cell assembled using porous TiO2 NFs obtained by using 5 wt% of PVP showed higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.81 % than those obtained by using 8 and 10 wt% of PVP, which showed the lower PCE of 4.13 and 3.42 %, respectively.

  8. Photoanode based on chain-shaped anatase TiO2 nanorods for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yichuan; Li, Yaogang; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong

    2012-10-01

    Anatase TiO(2) nanorods with large specific surface areas and high crystallinity have been synthesized by surfactant-free hydrothermal treatment of water-soluble peroxotitanium acid (PTA). X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis showed that all TiO(2) nanorods derived from PTA in different hydrothermal processes were in the anatase phase, and high aspect ratio TiO(2) nanorods with chain-shaped structures were formed at 150 °C for 24 h by oriented growth. The nanorods were fabricated as photoanodes for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). DSSCs fabricated from the chain-shaped TiO(2) nanorods gave a highest short-circuit current density of 14.8 mA cm(-2) and a maximum energy conversion efficiency of 7.28 %, as a result of the presence of far fewer surface defects and grain boundaries than are present in commercial P25 TiO(2) nanoparticles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy also confirmed that DSSCs based on the TiO(2) nanorods have enhanced electron transport properties and a long electron lifetime. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of photoelectrode thin films with different morphologies of TiO2 nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Mu-Jung; Chang, Ho; Kuo, Chin-Guo; Huang, Kuohsiu-David; Chen, Yu-Ling

    2011-08-01

    This study deals with the fabrication of three different morphologies of TiO2 nanoparticles to fabricate two-layer photoelectrode thin film for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The four different TiO2 morphologies are titania nanotubes (Tnt), TiO2 nanoparticles (H220), TiO2 nanoparticle (SP) and commercial DP-25 nanoparticles (P-25). To prepare the thin films of the photoelectrodes, the first layer is coated by H220 TiO2 nanoparticles, and the second is coated by 3 kinds of materials optimally proportionally mixed - P25, SP and Tnt. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of DSSCs with photoelectrodes fabricated using H220 reached 6.31%. Finally, the TiO2 nanaomaterials with four different morphologies were used to prepare a two layer photoelectrode with the structure of H220/P25-Tnt-SP which was combined with a Pt counter electrode to assemble DSSCs. These DSSCs had photoelectric conversion efficiencies of as high as 7.47%.

  10. Combined Embedding of N/F-Doping and CaCO3 Surface Modification in the TiO2 Photoanode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Kyung; Yun, Tae Kwan; Bae, Jae Young

    2016-03-01

    N/F-doping and CaCO3 surface modification was carried out in TiO2 photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The combined effect of the N/F doped TiO2 and the CaCO3 coating showed a great increase of the short-circuit current (J(sc)), and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of the prepared cells; the efficiency (η) was improved from 7.00% of a commercial TiO2 photoelectrode to 7.90% of an uncoated N/F-doped electrode, and to 9.09% of a N/F-doped and CaCO3 surface modified electrode. An enhanced photoresponse in N/F-doped TiO2 nanoparticles generate more photo-excited electrons, as supported by measured UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra. A successive CaCO3 surface modification then forms a barrier on the surface of the N/F-doped TiO2 particles; the higher basicity of the CaCO3 modified TiO2 facilitates the dye adsorption, as supported by the direct measurement of the amount of adsorbed dye.

  11. An upconversion NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticle photoelectrode for improved efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Shen, Haiou; Guo, Wei; Wang, Shunhao; Zhu, Chuntao; Xue, Fang; Hou, Jinfeng; Su, Haiquan; Yuan, Zhuobin

    2013-03-01

    Novel upconversion NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized and used to prepare the photoelectrode (PE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The morphology, structure, photoluminescence characterization of the NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+/TiO2 core-shell NPs and the photoelectric performance, alternating current impedance spectroscopy of DSSCs are characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, upconversion luminescence (UCL) spectrofluorimetry and electrochemistry. Compared with the pure TiO2 PE or the NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ upconversion NPs and TiO2 simply mixed prepared PE as the volume ratio of the core-shell structure, the DSSCs with the upconversion core-shell PE show a greater photovoltaic efficiency. The energy conversion efficiency of the DSSCs with a NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+/TiO2 PE is 23.1% higher than with a pure TiO2 PE and 99.1% higher than with a mixed PE using the same conditions. This enhancement is due to the UCL core extending the spectral response range of DSSCs to the infrared region and their particular shell structure, retaining its semiconductor character. This method represents a novel approach to increase the efficiencies of DSSCs.

  12. The influence of anatase-rutile mixed phase and ZnO blocking layer on dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2nanofiberphotoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianning; Li, Yan; Hu, Hongwei; Bai, Li; Zhang, Shuai; Yuan, Ningyi

    2013-01-01

    High performance is expected in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that utilize one-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanostructures owing to the effective electron transport. However, due to the low dye adsorption, mainly because of their smooth surfaces, 1-D TiO2 DSSCs show relatively lower efficiencies than nanoparticle-based ones. Herein, we demonstrate a very simple approach using thick TiO2 electrospun nanofiber films as photoanodes to obtain high conversion efficiency. To improve the performance of the DSCCs, anatase-rutile mixed-phase TiO2 nanofibers are achieved by increasing sintering temperature above 500°C, and very thin ZnO films are deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method as blocking layers. With approximately 40-μm-thick mixed-phase (approximately 15.6 wt.% rutile) TiO2 nanofiber as photoanode and 15-nm-thick compact ZnO film as a blocking layer in DSSC, the photoelectric conversion efficiency and short-circuit current are measured as 8.01% and 17.3 mA cm-2, respectively. Intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy measurements reveal that extremely large electron diffusion length is the key point to support the usage of thick TiO2 nanofibers as photoanodes with very thin ZnO blocking layers to obtain high photocurrents and high conversion efficiencies.

  13. Fabrication of Au@Ag core/shell nanoparticles decorated TiO2 hollow structure for efficient light-harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juyoung; Hwang, Sun Hye; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-01-28

    Improving the light-harvesting properties of photoanodes is promising way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We synthesized Au@Ag core/shell nanoparticles decorated TiO2 hollow nanoparticles (Au@Ag/TiO2 HNPs) via sol-gel reaction and chemical deposition. The Au@Ag/TiO2 HNPs exhibited multifunctions from Au@Ag core/shell NPs (Au@Ag CSNPs) and TiO2 hollow nanoparticles (TiO2 HNPs). These Au@Ag CSNPs exhibited strong and broadened localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), together with a large specific surface area of 129 m(2) g(-1), light scattering effect, and facile oxidation-reduction reaction of electrolyte from TiO2 HNPs, which resulted in enhancement of the light harvesting. The optimum PCE of η = 9.7% was achieved for the DSSCs using photoanode materials based on TiO2 HNPs containing Au@Ag/TiO2 HNPs (0.2 wt % Au@Ag CSNPs with respect to TiO2 HNPs), which outperformed by 24% enhancement that of conventional photoanodes formed using P25 (η = 7.8%).

  14. Enhanced photoelectrical performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with double-layer TiO2 on perovskite SrTiO3 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiuhong; Sun, Qiong; Zhang, Min; Li, Yang; Zhao, Mei; Dong, Lifeng

    2016-04-01

    In this research, perovskite SrTiO3 particles are synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and TiO2 with a double-layer structure is grown on the SrTiO3 surface by a hydrolysis-condensation process. Structural characterizations reveal that TiO2 comprises of two phases: anatase film at the bottom and single-crystal rutile nanorods grown along the [110] direction on top. The TiO2-SrTiO3 composite film is investigated as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells. In comparison with pure TiO2 and SrTiO3, the composite photoanode shows a much better performance in photoelectric conversion efficiency (1.35 %), which is about 2 and 100 times as efficient as pure TiO2 and SrTiO3, respectively. This indicates that the composite structure can facilitate charge carrier transfer and reduce electron-hole recombination to enhance photoelectrical properties of TiO2-based photoanode materials.

  15. Solution Combustion Synthesis of TiO2 and Its Use for Fabrication of Photoelectrode for Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyan-Lung Chung; Ching-Mei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Three different types of TiO2 nano powders were synthesized by a solution combustion synthesis (SCS) method using three different fuels and for comparison, another type of Ti2 nano powder was synthesized by calcination of titanyl hydroxide. These TiO2 nano powders were used to fabricate photoelectrodes for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and their performance was compared to that of the DSSC fabricated with Degussa P25 TiO2. The results showed that the SCS TiO2 could work well as photoelectrode for DSSC. The SCS TiO2 contained impurities of C and/or S, thus exhibiting visible light absorption and reduced band gap. The open circuit voltage and the fill factor both varied little among the various TiO2 and thus both had little effect on the photoelectrical conversion efficiency (η). However, the variation of r/was seen to be in quite a good agreement with that of the short circuit current (Isc), suggesting that r/was dominated by Isc. lsc was found to be enhanced by light scattering effect due to the presence of large particles but reduced by high impurity content due to an increase in electron transfer resistance. In addition, the specific surface area of the powders was found to be an important factor affecting the Isc and thus the η.

  16. Growth of the [110] oriented TiO2 nanorods on ITO substrates by sputtering technique for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIJIAN eMENG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 films have been deposited on ITO substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering technique. It has been found that the sputtering pressure is a very important parameter for the structure of the deposited TiO2 films. When the pressure is lower than 1 Pa, the deposited film has a dense structure and shows a preferred orientation along the [101] direction. However, the nanorod structure has been obtained as the sputtering pressure is higher than 1 Pa. These nanorods structure TiO2 film shows a preferred orientation along the [110] direction. The phases of the deposited TiO2 films have been characterized by the x-ray diffraction and the Raman scattering measurements. All the films show an anatase phase and no other phase has been observed. The results of the SEM show that these TiO2 nanorods are perpendicular to the ITO substrate. The TEM measurement shows that the nanorods have a very rough surface. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have been assembled using these TiO2 nanorod films prepared at different sputtering pressures as photoelectrode. And the effect of the sputtering pressure on the properties of the photoelectric conversion of the DSSCs has been studied.

  17. Double-layer electrode based on TiO2 nanotubes arrays for enhancing photovoltaic properties in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zuoli; Que, Wenxiu; Sun, Peng; Ren, Jiangbo

    2013-12-26

    The present work reports a rapid and facile method to fabricate a novel double-layer TiO2 photoanode, which is based on highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays and monodispersive scattering microspheres. This double-layer TiO2 sphere/TNTA photoanode have got many unique structural and optical properties from TiO2 scattering microspheres, such as high specific surface area, multiple interparticle scattering, and efficient light-harvesting. Results indicate that this as-fabricated double-layer TiO2 sphere/TNTA front-illumination dye-sensitized solar cell, which is fabricated from the TiO2 nanotube arrays with a 17.4 μm length after TiCl4 treatment, exhibits a pronounced power conversion efficiency of 7.24% under an AM1.5 G irradiation, which can be attributed to the increased incident photon-to-current conversion and light-harvesting efficiency.

  18. Enhancement of photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells with the spin-coated TiO2 blocking layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Gwan; Cheon, Jong Hun; Yang, Hyeon Seok; Lee, Do Kyung; Kim, Jae Hong

    2012-07-01

    The TiO2 thin film layers were introduced with the spin-coating method between FTO electrode and TiO2 photoanode in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) to prevent electron back migration from the FTO electrode to electrolyte. The DSSC containg different thickness of TiO2 thin film (10-30, 40-60 and 120-150 nm) were prepared and photovoltaic performances were analysed with /-Vcurves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The maximum cell performance was observed in DSSC with 10-30 nm of TiO2 thin film thickness (11.92 mA/cm2, 0.74 V, 64%, and 5.62%) to compare with that of pristine DSSC (11.09 mA/cm2, 0.65 V, 62%, and 4.43%). The variation of photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs with different TiO2 thin film thickness was discussed with the analysis of crystallographic and microstructural properties of TiO2 thin films.

  19. Control of Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance by Block-Copolymer-Directed TiO2 Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Docampo, Pablo

    2010-04-21

    Hybrid dye-sensitized solar cells are typically composed of mesoporous titania (TiO2), light-harvesting dyes, and organic molecular hole-transporters. Correctly matching the electronic properties of the materials is critical to ensure efficient device operation. In this study, TiO 2 is synthesized in a welldefined morphological confinement that arises from the self-assembly of a diblock copolymer - poly(isoprene-b-ethylene oxide) (Pl-b-PEO). The crystallization environment, tuned by the inorganic (TiO2 mass) to organic (polymer) ratio, is shown to be a decisive factor in determining the distribution of sub-bandgap electronic states and the associated electronic function in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Interestingly, the tuning of the sub-bandgap states does not appear to strongly influence the charge transport and recombination in the devices. However, increasing the depth and breadth of the density of sub-bandgap states correlates well with an increase in photocurrent generation, suggesting that a high density of these sub-bandgap states is critical for efficient photo-induced electron transfer and charge separation. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Facile Preparation of TiO2 Nanobranch/Nanoparticle Hybrid Architecture with Enhanced Light Harvesting Properties for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Seong Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report TiO2 nanobranches/nanoparticles (NBN hybrid architectures that can be synthesized by a facile solution phase method. The hybrid architecture simultaneously improves light harvesting and charge collection performances for a dye-sensitized solar cell. First, TiO2 nanorods with a trunk length of 2 μm were grown on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO/glass substrate, and then nanobranches and nanoparticles were deposited on the nanorods’ trunks through a solution method using an aqueous TiCl3 solution at 80°C. The relative amount of nanobranches and nanoparticles can be controlled by multiplying the number of TiCl3 treatments to maximize the amount of surface area. We found that the resultant TiO2 NBN hybrid architecture greatly improves the amount of dye adsorption (five times compared to bare nanorods due to the enhanced surface area, while maintaining a fast charge collection, leading to a three times higher current density and thus tripling the maximum power conversion efficiency for a dye-sensitized solar cell.

  1. Random nanowires of nickel doped TiO2 with high surface area and electron mobility for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, P S; Naveen Kumar, E; Vijila, C; Ramakrishna, S; Yusoff, M M; Jose, R

    2013-01-28

    Mesoporous TiO(2) with a large specific surface area (~150 m(2) g(-1)) is the most successful material in dye-sensitized solar cells so far; however, its inferior charge mobility is a major efficiency limiter. This paper demonstrates that random nanowires of Ni-doped TiO(2) (Ni:TiO(2)) have a dramatic influence on the particulate and charge transport properties. Nanowires (dia ~60 nm) of Ni:TiO(2) with a specific surface area of ~80 m(2) g(-1) were developed by an electrospinning technique. The band gap of the Ni:TiO(2) shifted to the visible region upon doping of 5 at% Ni atoms. The Mott-Schottky analysis shows that the flat band potential of Ni:TiO(2) shifts to a more negative value than the undoped samples. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements showed that the Ni:TiO(2) offer lower charge transport resistance, higher charge recombination resistance, and enhanced electron lifetime compared to the undoped samples. The dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated using the Ni:TiO(2) nanowires showed an enhanced photoconversion efficiency and short-circuit current density compared to the undoped analogue. The transient photocurrent measurements showed that the Ni:TiO(2) has improved charge mobility compared with TiO(2) and is several orders of magnitude higher compared to the P25 particles.

  2. Improved performance of Ag-doped TiO2 synthesized by modified sol-gel method as photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj; Bahadur, Lal

    2016-08-01

    Ag-doped TiO2 with Ag content ranging from 1 to 7 mol% was synthesized by a modified sol-gel route, and its performance as the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was compared with undoped TiO2 photoanode. Titanium(IV)isopropoxide was used as precursor and hexamethylenetetramine as the capping agent. XRD results show the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 5 nm (1 % Ag-doped TiO2) and 9 nm (undoped TiO2), respectively. The TiO2 nanopowder was used to prepare its thin film photoelectrode using doctor's blade method. Significant improvement in light-to-energy conversion efficiency was achieved when thin films of 1 % Ag-doped TiO2 were applied as photoanode in DSSC taking N719 as the sensitizer dye. As evidenced by EIS measurements, the electron lifetime of DSSC with Ag-doped TiO2 increased from 1.33 (for undoped TiO2) to 2.05 ms. The short-circuit current density ( J sc), open-circuit voltage ( V oc), fill factor (FF) and the overall energy conversion efficiency ( η) were 1.07 mA cm-2, 0.72 V, 0.73 and 0.40 %, respectively, with the use of 1 % Ag-doped TiO2 photoanode, whereas with undoped TiO2 under similar conditions, J sc = 0.63 mA cm-2, V oc = 0.70 V, fill factor 0.45 and conversion efficiency 0.14 % could be obtained. Therefore, compared with the reference DSSC containing an undoped TiO2 photoanode, the power conversion efficiency of the cell based on Ag-doped TiO2 has been remarkably enhanced by ~70 %. The substantial improvement in the device performance is attributed to the reduced band-gap energy, retarded charge recombination and greater surface coverage of the sensitizing dye over Ag-doped TiO2, which ultimately resulted in improved IPCE, J SC and η values.

  3. Ultra-High Speed Fabrication of TiO2 Photoanode by Flash Light for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a new way to fabricate nanoporous TiO2 photoanode by flash light is demonstrated. TiO2 nanoparticles are sintered on FTO glass by flash light irradiation at room temperature in ambient condition, which is dramatically simple, ultrahigh speed and one-shot large area fabrication process compared to a conventional high temperature (120 °C) thermal sintering process. The effect of the flash light conditions (flash light energy, pulse numbers and pulse duration) on the nanostructures of sintered TiO2 layer, was studied and discussed using several microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques such as SEM, FT-IR, XRD and XPS. The sintered TiO2 photoanodes by flash light were used in DSSC and its performance were compared with that of DSSC fabricated by conventional thermal sintering process. It was found that a flash light sintered TiO2 photoanode has efficiency which is similar to that of the thermal sintered photoanode. It is expected that the newly developed flash light sintering technique of TiO2 nanoparticles would be a strong alternative to realize the room temperature and in-situ sintering of photoanode fabrication for outdoor solar cell fabrication.

  4. Explanation of Effect of Added Water on Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline TiO2 Solar Cell: Correlation between Performance and Carrier Relaxation Kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui; YIN Xiong; LI Heng; LIN Yuan; WENG Yu-Xiang

    2007-01-01

    Time-resolved mid-IR transient absorption spectroscopy is employed to explore the mechanism of improving the performance of dye-sensitized TiOi solar cell (DSSC) when a certain amount of HiO is added into the electrolyte. The relaxation kinetics of dye-sensitized TiO2 nanocrystalline film and the corresponding DSSC performance are investigated under different conditions. It is found that the interfacial charge recombination is retarded and electron injection efficiency is increased in the water vapour and in the electrolyte when D2O is added. The values of open-circuit photovoltage Voc and the short-circuit photocurrent Jsc of the cells are linearly correlated to the product of the two decay time constants. We also observed that Voc well correlates with electron injection efficiency. It provides a preliminary microscopic account for the function of the added water in improving the performance of DSSCs.

  5. Density Functional Theory (DFT Study of Coumarin-based Dyes Adsorbed on TiO2 Nanoclusters—Applications to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai A. Gîrţu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coumarin-based dyes have been successfully used in dye-sensitized solar cells, leading to photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of up to about 8%. Given the need to better understand the behavior of the dye adsorbed on the TiO2 nanoparticle, we report results of density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT studies of several coumarin-based dyes, as well as complex systems consisting of the dye bound to a TiO2 cluster. We provide the electronic structure and simulated UV-Vis spectra of the dyes alone and adsorbed to the cluster and discuss the matching with the solar spectrum. We display the energy level diagrams and the electron density of the key molecular orbitals and analyze the electron transfer from the dye to the oxide. Finally, we compare our theoretical results with the experimental data available and discuss the key issues that influence the device performance.

  6. Application of doped rare-earth oxide TiO2:(Tm3+, Yb3+) in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guixiang; Wei, Yuelin; Fan, Leqing; Wu, Jihuai

    2012-01-01

    Tm3+ and Yb3+ are codoped into TiO2 film in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The emission and excitation spectra of TiO2:(Tm3+, Yb3+) power shows that the rare-earth ions possess up-conversion luminescence function, which results in harvesting more incident light and increasing photocurrent for the DSSC. On the other hand, owing to the p-type doping effect by Tm3+ and Yb3+, the photovoltage of the DSSC is enhanced. Under a simulated solar light irradiation of 100 mW·cm-2, a DSSC containing Tm3+/Yb3+ achieves a conversion efficiency of 7.05 %, which is increased by 10.0% compared with a DSSC lacking Tm3+/Yb3+.

  7. Experimental elaboration and analysis of dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells (DSSC) dyed by natural dyes and conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    KałuŻyński, P.; Maciak, E.; Herzog, T.; Wójcik, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we propose low cost and easy in development fully working dye-sensitized solar cell module made with use of a different sensitizing dyes (various anthocyanins and P3HT) for increasing the absorption spectrum, transparent conducting substrates (vaccum spattered chromium and gold), nanometer sized TiO2 film, iodide and methyl viologen dichloride based electrolyte, and a counter electrode (vaccum spattered platinum or carbon). Moreover, some of the different technologies and optimization manufacturing processes were elaborated for energy efficiency increase and were presented in this paper.

  8. Enhanced conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells based on bilayered nano-composite photoanode film consisting of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, P F; Song, L X; Xiong, J

    2014-06-01

    Novel TiO2 nanoparticles/nanofibers (NPs/NFs) bilayered nano-composite photoanode film for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was fabricated through the combination of spin-coating and electrospinning. The NPs and NFs layers have complementary roles. The underlaid spin-coated NPs layer provides the photoanode film with higher specific surface area for dye adsorption and improved adhesion to conductive glass substrate. The overlaid electrospun NFs layer endows the photoanode film with better dye-loading and light-harvesting capabilities due to its porous meshwork structure. And the NFs layer also offers larger pore volume, which can facilitate the electrolyte diffusion and the activity regeneration of dye sensitizers. As a result, the electron transport is accelerated while the charge recombination is suppressed. Ascribing to the synergic effect of the NPs and NFs layers, the TiO2 NPs/NFs-based DSSCs achieve a conversion efficiency of 4.46%, which is nearly 14% higher than that of the pure TiO2 NPs-based ones.

  9. Synthesis of Nanoporous TiO2 and Its Potential Applicability for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using Antocyanine Black Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Yuliarto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous mesostructure TiO2 powders were synthesized by sol-gel method, with TiCl4 as a precursor in methanol solution. The Pluronic PE 6200 of block copolymer was used as the pores template. It was found from XRD measurements, both at 400∘C and 450∘C calcination temperatures, that the sol-gel technique yielded the nanoporous TiO2 with anatase phase. Based on N2 adsorption characterization using BET method, the TiO2 samples have surface area of 108 m2/g and 88 m2/g for calcination temperatures of 400∘C and of 450∘C, respectively. From small-angle neutron scattering (SANS patterns, TiO2 samples were observed to have nanoporous structures with pore sizes between 22–24 nm. The TiO2 also have order degree which depends on the calcination temperature. The potential applicability of the resulting TiO2 is confirmed for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC, composed of nanoporous anatase TiO2 and natural dye from antocyanine black rice. UV-Vis measurement of dye extracted from the black rice indicated that the antocyanine chelate can propagate into the TiO2 nanoporous network. The short circuit photocurrent density (Jsc under 100 mWcm−2 reached 1.287 mAcm−2 with open circuit photovoltage (Voc of 550 mV and the fill factor of 33.4%. The results show that the hybrid organic-inorganic structures are very attractive for future low-cost devices.

  10. Influence of Yb-Doped Nanoporous TiO2 Films on Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-Wei; DAI Song-Yuan; HU Lin-Hua; LIANG Lin-Yun; WANG Kong-Jia

    2006-01-01

    @@ Yb-doped TiO2 pastes with different Yb/TiO2 weight ratios are prepared in the sol-gel process to obtain dyesensitized solar cells (DSCs). The nanocrystalline size of Yb-TiO2 becomes smaller and the lattice parameters change. Lattice distortion is observed and dark current is detected. It is found that a part of Yb existing as insulating oxide Yb2Oa state acts as barrier layers at the electrode-electrolyte interface to suppress charge recombination. A Yb-doped TiO2 electrode applied in DSCs leads to a higher open-circuit voltage and a higher fill factor. How the Yb-doped TiO2 films affect the photovoltaic response of DSCs is discussed.

  11. Improving the Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Growing Longer ZnO Nanorods on TiO2 Photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-gai Zhai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By increasing the temperature of hydrothermal reactions from 70 to 100°C, vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the TiO2 thin film in the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs as the blocking layer to reduce the electron back recombinations at the TiO2/electrolyte interfaces. The length effects of ZnO nanorods on the photovoltaic performances of TiO2 based DSSCs were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, photoluminescence spectrophotometer, and the photocurrent-voltage measurement. Under the illumination of 100 mW/cm2, the power conversion efficiency of DSSC with ZnO nanorods decorated TiO2 thin film as its photoanode can be increased nearly fourfold from 0.27% to 1.30% as the length of ZnO nanorods increases from 300 to 1600 nm. The enhanced efficiency of DSSC with ZnO nanorods decorated TiO2 thin film as the photoanode can be attributed to the larger surface area and the lower defect density in longer ZnO nanorods, which are in favor of more dye adsorption and more efficient transport in the photoanode.

  12. Effect of TiO2 nanotube length and lateral tubular spacing on photovoltaic properties of back illuminated dye sensitized solar cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shantikumar V Nair; A Balakrishnan; K R V Subramanian; A M Anu; A M Asha; B Deepika

    2012-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to show the effect of TiO2 nanotube length, diameter and intertubular lateral spacings on the performance of back illuminated dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The present study shows that processing short TiO2 nanotubes with good lateral spacings could significantly improve the performance of back illuminated DSSCs. Vertically aligned, uniform sized diameter TiO2 nanotube arrays of different tube lengths have been fabricated on Ti plates by a controlled anodization technique at different times of 24, 36, 48 and 72 h using ethylene glycol and ammonium fluoride as an electrolyte medium. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed formation of nanotube arrays spread uniformly over a large area. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of TiO2 nanotube layer revealed the presence of crystalline anatase phases. By employing the TiO2 nanotube array anodized at 24 h showing a diameter ∼80 nm and length ∼1.5 m as the photo-anode for back illuminated DSSCs, a full-sun conversion efficiency () of 3.5%was achieved, the highest value reported for this length of nanotubes.

  13. Hierarchical rutile TiO2 flower cluster-based high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells via direct hydrothermal growth on conducting substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Meidan; Liu, Hsiang-Yu; Lin, Changjian; Lin, Zhiqun

    2013-01-28

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on hierarchical rutile TiO(2) flower clusters prepared by a facile, one-pot hydrothermal process exhibit a high efficiency. Complex yet appealing rutile TiO(2) flower films are, for the first time, directly hydrothermally grown on a transparent conducting fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. The thickness and density of as-grown flower clusters can be readily tuned by tailoring growth parameters, such as growth time, the addition of cations of different valence and size, initial concentrations of precursor and cation, growth temperature, and acidity. Notably, the small lattice mismatch between the FTO substrate and rutile TiO(2) renders the epitaxial growth of a compact rutile TiO(2) layer on the FTO glass. Intriguingly, these TiO(2) flower clusters can then be exploited as photoanodes to produce DSSCs, yielding a power conversion efficiency of 2.94% despite their rutile nature, which is further increased to 4.07% upon the TiCl(4) treatment.

  14. TiO2 film decorated with highly dispersed polyoxometalate nanoparticles synthesized by micelle directed method for the efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lifei; Chen, Li; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Weilin; Shan, Chunhui; Su, Zhongmin; Wang, Enbo

    2016-10-01

    In this work, two kinds of polyoxometalate (POM) nanoparticles with controlled shapes and structures were synthesized by micelle directed method and then composited with TiO2 via calcination to remove the surfactants owing to the excellent electronic storage and transmission ability of POM, finally obtaining two kinds of TiO2 composites with highly dispersed and small-sized POM nanoparticles (∼1 nm). The TiO2 composites were then induced into the photoanodes of dye-sensitized (N719) solar cells (DSSCs). The separation of electron-holes becomes more favorable due to the nanostructure and high dispersion of POM which provide more active sites than pure POM tending to agglomeration. The TiO2 composite photoanodes finally yielded the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.4% and 8.2%, respectively, which were 42% and 39% higher than the pristine TiO2 based anodes. In addition, the mechanisms of POM in DSSC are proposed.

  15. Improved electron transfer and plasmonic effect in dye-sensitized solar cells with bi-functional Nb-doped TiO2/Ag ternary nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Tae; Chi, Won Seok; Jeon, Harim; Kim, Jong Hak

    2014-03-07

    TiO2 nanoparticles are surface-modified via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with a hydrophilic poly(oxyethylene)methacrylate (POEM), which can coordinate to the Ag precursor, i.e. silver trifluoromethanesulfonate (AgCF3SO3). Following the reduction of Ag ions, a Nb2O5 doping process and calcination at 450 °C, bi-functional Nb-doped TiO2/Ag ternary nanostructures are generated. The resulting nanostructures are characterized by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectroscopy. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the Nb-doped TiO2/Ag nanostructure photoanode with a polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) as the solid polymer electrolyte shows an overall energy conversion efficiency (η) of 6.9%, which is much higher than those of neat TiO2 (4.7%) and Nb-doped TiO2 (5.4%). The enhancement of η is mostly due to the increase of current density, attributed to the improved electron transfer properties including electron injection, collection, and plasmonic effects without the negative effects of charge recombination or problems with corrosion. These properties are supported by intensity modulated photocurrent/voltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS) and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements.

  16. Sputtered highly ordered TiO2 nanorod arrays and their applications as the electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lijian; Ma, Aifeng; Ying, Pinliang; Feng, Zhaochi; Li, Can

    2011-02-01

    For the first time, the TiO2 nanorod arrays have been prepared on ITO substrates at room temperature by dc reactive magnetron sputtering technique. These TiO2 nanorods have a preferred orientation along the (220) direction and are perpendicular to the ITO substrate. Both the X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements show that the highly ordered TiO2 nanorod arrays have an anatase crystal structure. The diameter of the nanorod varies from 30 nm to 100 nm and the nanorod length can be varied from several hundred nanometers to several micrometers depending on the deposition time. The TiO2 nanorod arrays with about 3 micrometers length have been used as an electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Short-circuit photocurrent density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor and light-to-electricity conversion efficiency at 100 mW/cm2 light intensity are estimated to be 12.76 mA/cm2, 0.65 V, 0.63 and 5.25%, respectively, for the DSSC made of the TiO2 nanorods.

  17. Zinc-porphyrin-imide type sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays as photoactive electrode in a dyes sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafaat, F.; Gunlazuardi, J.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, TiO2 nanotube was prepared by rapid breakdown electrooxidation of Ti foil in electrolyte containing 0.15 M HClO4. The obtained TiO2 nanotube bundling powder was calcinated at 450°C for 3 hours, then characterized by SEM, XRD, UV-Vis DRS, and BET. Zinc-porphyrin-imide dyes was deposited into TiO2 nanotube by immersion of TiO2 nanotube in zinc-porphyrin-imide solution for 24 hours. Free zinc-porphyrin-imide dyes shows characteristics of absorption spectra in visible region at 439 nm and 620 nm. Meanwhile, when it was immobilized to TiO2-nanotube, the absorption peak shifted to 421 nm and 640 nm. The zinc-porphyrin-imide/TiO2 electrode showed an excellent response toward the visible light with the typical photocurrent density of 1.1 mA/cm2. When the fabricated photoelectrode was assembled in a typical Dyes Sensitize Solar Cell (DSSC), the I-V curve showed photoconversion efficiency of the assembled zinc-porphyrin-imide/TiO2 DSSC was 1.914% (front side illumination) and 1.147% (backside illumination), respectively.

  18. Effect of TiO2 Photoanode Porosity on Dye Diffusion Kinetics and Performance of Standard Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Charbonneau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost water-based P25-TiO2 pastes were formulated and used to produce porous TiO2 films in application to the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells. The structural properties of the films were characterized using a variety of techniques such as stylus profilometry, FEG-SEM imaging, BET surface area, and BJH pore size analyses. These were compared to films produced from a commercial paste, DSL 18 NR-AO (Dyesol. The major difference was in the fraction of macroporosity: 23% of the total pore volume for films produced with the commercial material and 67–73% for the P25-TiO2 films owing to the vast difference in dispersion and size distribution of the particles in the two types of pastes. The macroporosity was found to have a dramatic effect on the dye diffusion kinetics measured using in situ UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy. The sensitization of P25-based films was much faster for heavily macroporous P25-TiO2 films (>90% saturation at 15–35 mins than for their commercial analogue (>90% saturation at 110 mins. DSC devices built with optimized P25-TiO2 photoanodes showed better performance at short dye immersion time (30 mins and 1 hr due to faster percolation of the dye molecules through the film.

  19. Formation and photovoltaic performance of few-layered graphene-decorated TiO2 nanocrystals used in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yueli; Cheng, Yuqing; Shu, Wei; Peng, Zhuoyin; Chen, Keqiang; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Wen; Zakharova, Galina S

    2014-06-21

    Few-layer graphene/TiO2 nanocrystal composites are successfully in situ synthesized at a low temperature of 400 °C using C28H16Br2 as the precursor. Raman mapping images show that the TiO2 nanocrystals are very uniformly dispersed in the composite films, and the in situ coating during the thermal decomposition process will favor the formation of a good interface combination between the few-layered graphene and the TiO2 nanocrystals. The few-layer graphene/TiO2 nanocrystal composites are used as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and the conversion efficiency of 8.25% is obtained under full sun irradiation (AM 1.5), which increases by 65% compared with that of the pure TiO2 nanocrystal DSSCs (5.01%). It is found that the good interface combination between few-layered graphene and TiO2 nanocrystals may improve the electric conductivity and lifetime of photoinduced electrons in DSSCs. Moreover, some carbon atoms are doped into the crystal structure of the TiO2 nanocrystals during the thermal decomposition process, which will enhance the light absorption by narrowing the band gap and favor the improvement of the photovoltaic efficiency.

  20. Sol-gel growth of TiO2 nanocrystals in n-heptan and their deposition for application in dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Anajafi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, TiO2 nanocrystals were prepared by sol-gel method through the hydrolysis of the titanium tetraisopropoxide in n-heptan solution. The beneficial role of n-heptan solvent was the dilution of the reacting precursors. This could consequently create smaller TiO2 nanocrystals and a better powder effective area. The anatase phase TiO2 nanopowder was achieved by performing an annealing process at 450 ˚C for 1h. Then, the TiO2 nanocrystals were added to an aqueous solution of polyethylene glycol with suitable concentration, as a pastiness factor, to form a viscous TiO2 paste . Finally the prepared paste was deposited on glass FTO substrates by standard doctor blade method and the photoanode of the dye sensitized solar cells  was prepared.Then other steps, consisting of dye adsorption, preparation of platinum counter electrode and injection of  electrolyte were performed. The results demonstrated that the energy conversion efficiency was maximum for the cell with 15 μm photoanode thickness. The photovoltaic parameters of this cell were measured as 12.44 mA/cm2 , 655 mV, 0.55 and 4.4 % for the Jsc, Voc, FF and efficiency, respectively. 

  1. Locally placed nanoscale gold islands film within a TiO2 photoanode for enhanced plasmon light absorption in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeheon; Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Cho, Sung Jun; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Lee, Heon; Jung, Gun Young

    2016-12-01

    As metal nanostructures demonstrated extraordinary plasmon resonance, their optical characteristics have widely been investigated in photo-electronic applications. However, there has been no clear demonstration on the location effect of plasmonic metal layer within the photoanode on both optical characteristics and photovoltaic performances. In this research, the gold (Au) nano-islands (NIs) film was embedded at different positions within the TiO2 nanoparticulate photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) to check the effect of plasmon resonance location on the device performance; at the top, in the middle, at the bottom of the TiO2 photoanode, and also at all the three positions. The Au NIs were fabricated by annealing a Au thin film at 550 °C. The DSSC having the Au NIs-embedded TiO2 photoanode exhibited an increase in short circuit currents (Jsc) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) owing to the plasmon resonance absorption. Thus, the PCE was increased from 5.92% (reference: only TiO2 photoanode) to 6.52% when the Au NIs film was solely positioned at the bottom, in the middle or at the top of TiO2 film. When the Au NIs films were placed at all the three positions, the Jsc was increased by 16% compared to the reference cell, and consequently the PCE was further increased to 7.01%.

  2. First-Principle Characterization of the Adsorption Configurations of Cyanoacrylic Dyes on TiO2 Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hui-Hsu Gavin; Hu, Jia-Cheng; Tan, Chun-Jui; Sheng, Yung-Ching; Chiu, Chih-Chiang

    2016-11-10

    The loading of sensitizers on a semiconductor is crucial for determining the light-harvesting efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The interfacial properties of dyes adsorbed on a TiO2 film, such as adsorption configurations and adsorption energy, can influence the total amount of dye sensitizers that loads and the stability of a DSSC device. Therefore, it is important to characterize the adsorption properties of sensitizers on TiO2 films atomically and electronically to ensure rational structure-based dye design for high-performance DSSCs. Due to the complex properties of interfacial dyes, previous works on the identification of adsorption configurations of dyes on TiO2 have sometimes been controversial, in particular, the essential IR band assignments. In this study, we employed density functional theory to investigate the adsorption energies, geometries, and vibrational frequencies of various adsorption configurations of 2-cyano-3-(thiophen-2-yl)acrylic acid adsorbed on TiO2. We performed a comparative assignment of the calculated vibrational peaks of tridentate and bidentate configurations to the experimental FT-IR spectra simultaneously. Our work backs up the coexistence of tridentate and bidentate bridging configurations, first proposed by Meng and co-workers. Moreover, our comparative IR mode assignments provide clues for further studies of the interfacial properties of dyes adsorbed on TiO2. Study of the transformation mechanisms between tridentate and bidentate modes suggests that the bidentate bridging configuration is a kinetically trapped adsorption mode and the tridentate configuration is thermodynamically the most stable one. Finally, we investigated the photophysical properties of a D-π-A dye in tridentate and bidentate adsorption configurations.

  3. Effect of Nb-doped TiO2 on nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO2:Nb for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurdi, I.; Shafura, A. K.; Azhar, N. E. A.; Ishak, A.; Malek, M. F.; Alrokayan, A. H. Salman; Khan, Haseeb A.; Mamat, M. H.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Nb-doped TiO2 films were deposited on glass substrate at different Nb concentrations of 0 at.%, 1 at.%, 3 at.%, 5 at.% and 7 at.%, respectively and their electrical and structural properties were investigated. Subsequently, the Nb-doped TiO2 films were deposited on top of aligned ZnO Nanorod on ITO glass substrates using spin coating technique. The nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/Nb-doped TiO2 (TiO2:Nb) were coated with different Nb concentrations of 0 at.%, 1 at.%, 3 at.%, 5 at.% and 7 at.%, respectively. The Dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated from the nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO2:Nb photoanodes and their effects on the performance of the DSSCs were investigated. From the solar simulator measurement of DSSC the solar energy conversion efficiency (η) of 5.376% under AM 1.5 was obtained for the ZnO nanorod/TiO2:Nb-5at.%.

  4. Comparison of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle-nanofiber and nanofiber-nanoparticle on the application of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaning Tyas, Linda; Suryana, Risa; Nurosyid, Fahru; Asma Ilahi, Novita

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is a solar cell that has great potential in the future because of the cheaper cost of fabrication and environmentally friendly basic ingredients. This study aims to determine the effect of type of screen on the TiO2 layer as the active electrode DSSC. The active electrode TiO2 based DSSC fabricated by the method of double layer. Efficiency Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) can be obtained from the current-voltage curve I-V meter. Nanofiber on the nanoparticles can reach a highest efficiency of DSSC about 0,015%. The second variation of between nanofiber-nanoparticle layering, and nanoparticle-nanofiber, it appears that the nanofiber layer of nanoparticles above, no significant changes, namely in 10 minutes η = 0.014965; 15 minutes η = 0.011021 and 20 minutes η = 0.013332. This is demonstrated by the nature of the dominant nanofiber as a photon trap covered by the nature of the dominant nanoparticles absorb the dye, so that overtime does not affect the incoming electron. While the results of nanofiber layer on the nanoparticles changed significantly in the variation of 20 minutes, ie η = 0.00283. You can also see the most optimum time was 15 minutes, which is η = 0.01559. This may be due in this 15 minute nanofiber coating has a thickness that is optimum so that electrons can reach the electrode diffuse due to the interaction between photons and the dye more.

  5. Study of Light Harvesting Properties of Different Classes of Metal-Free Organic Dyes in TiO2 Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In dye-sensitized solar cells, the photosensitization of TiO2 thin film semiconductor was accomplished by using different classes of metal-free (fluorone, triarymethane, azo and thiazine based organic dyes as photosensitizer. The broad electronic absorption spectra of these dyes have been obtained in the visible region due to the presence of chromophoric groups in these dyes. The contribution of these dyes as light harvesting species is seen from the photocurrent action spectrum of the cell. Here, we report the sensitization activity of these dyes in terms of current-potential curve, open-circuit potential, fill factor, IPCE, and overall solar energy conversion efficiency which have been evaluated under 100 mW/cm2 light intensity. The results suggest that dyes based on fluorone and azo groups are promising candidates for high performance, dye-sensitized solar cells because of better anchoring groups (–COOH, –OH, and –SO3- present in these dyes. Better anchorage of dyes to the surface of TiO2 semiconductor helps in charge transfer phenomenon.

  6. Effects of Metal Oxide Modifications on Photoelectrochemical Properties of Mesoporous TiO2 Nanoparticles Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-you Peng; Ke Fan; De Zhao; Li-juan Yu; Ren-jie Li

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 (m-TiO2) nanoparticles were used to prepare the porous film electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,and a second metal oxide (MgO,ZnO,Al2O3,or NiO) modification was carried out by dipping the m-TiO2 electrode into their respective nitrate solution followed by annealing at 500 ℃.Experimental results indicated that the above second metal oxide modifications on m-TiO2 electrode are shown in all cases to act as barrier layer for the interfacial charge transfer processes,but film electron transport and interfacial charge recombination characteristics under applied bias voltage were dependent significantly on the existing states and kinds of these second metal oxides.Those changes based on second metal oxide modifications showed good correlation with the current-voltage analyses of dye-sensitized solar cell,and all modifications were found to increase the open-circuit photovoltage in various degrees,while the MgO,ZnO,and NiO modifications result in 23%,13%,and 6% improvement in cell conversion efficiency,respectively.The above observations indicate that controlling the charge transport and recombination is very important to improve the photovoltaic performance of TiO2-based solar cell.

  7. Morphology control studies of TiO2 microstructures via surfactant-assisted hydrothermal process for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekphet, Woranan; Ke, Tsai-Chyuan; Su, Chaochin; Kathirvel, Sasipriya; Sireesha, Pedaballi; Akula, Suri Babu; Li, Wen-Ren

    2016-09-01

    The controlled morphological TiO2 particles have gained great importance in a wide variety of applications due to their promising physico-chemical properties. In this study, TiO2 microstructures with various shapes to utilize as scattering layer in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications were successfully synthesized via different hydrothermal conditions. The effects of the versatile preparation parameters including the amount of titania precursor and surfactant, the addition of ethanol/water, and the hydrothermal process temperature and time on the TiO2 morphology were investigated. The structural and morphological analysis clearly shown that the preparation conditions played crucial roles in the morphology, particle size, and crystalline phase of the TiO2 microparticles. Different kinds of shapes such as rice- (∼1.10 μm (l) and ∼0.41 μm (w)), star- (∼3.60 μm) and flower-like (3.75 μm) TiO2 morphological structures were obtained. The morphology and size of the TiO2 particles were mainly governed by the concentrations of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) precursor, amounts of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) surfactant and hydrothermal temperatures and durations. The as-prepared rice-shaped TiO2 was composed of mixed anatase and brookite binary phases, whereas the star- and flower-shaped TiO2 microstructures were consisted of ternary anatase, rutile, and brookite crystalline TiO2 phases. The three different rice-, star-, and flower-shaped TiO2 microstructures were employed as scattering layers for photoanodes in DSSCs. Among them, the star-like TiO2 photoanode based DSSC exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 9.56%, which was also better than those of the devices fabricated without scattering layer (a-TiO2, 8.38%) and with commercial P25 as scattering layer (a-TiO2/P25-TiO2, 8.52%) at the same film thickness of ∼14 μm.

  8. TiO2 nanotube membranes on transparent conducting glass for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Mukul; Shrestha, Maheshwar; Zhong, Yihan; Galipeau, David; He, Hongshan

    2011-07-15

    Crack-free TiO(2) nanotube (NT) membranes were obtained by short time re-anodization of a sintered TiO(2) NT array on Ti foil, followed by dilute HF etching at room temperature. The resulting freestanding TiO(2) membranes were opaque with a slight yellow color having one end open and another end closed. The membranes were then fixed on transparent fluorine-tin-oxide glass using a thin layer of screen-printed TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) as a binding medium. It was found that low temperature treatment of the resulting NT/NP film under appropriate pressure before sintering at 450 °C was critical for successful fixation of the NT membrane on the NP layer. The resulting films with open-ends of NT membranes facing the NP layer (open-ends down, OED, configuration) exhibited better interfacial contact between NTs and NPs than those with closed-ends facing the NP layer (closed-ends down, CED, configuration). The cells with an OED configuration exhibit higher external quantum efficiency, greater charge transfer resistance from FTO/TiO(2) to electrolyte, and better dye loading compared to CED configurations. The solar cells with the OED configuration gave 6.1% energy conversion efficiency under AM1.5G condition when the commercial N719 was used as a dye and I(-)/I(3)(-) as a redox couple, showing the promise of this method for high efficiency solar cells.

  9. Photoelectrochemical cell/dye-sensitized solar cell tandem water splitting systems with transparent and vertically aligned quantum dot sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kahee; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-03-01

    The present work reports fabrication of vertically aligned CdS sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on transparent conducting oxide substrate with high transparency as a photoanode in photoelectrochemical cell for water splitting. To realize an unassisted water splitting system, the photoanode and dye-sensitized solar cell tandem structures are tried and their electrochemical behaviors are also investigated. The hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays followed by CdS nanoparticle decoration can improve the light absorption of long wavelength light resulting in increased photocurrent density. Two different techniques (electrodeposition and spray pyrolysis deposition) of CdS nanoparticle sensitization are carried out and their water splitting behaviors in the tandem cell are compared.

  10. Photovoltaic performance of TiO2 electrode adsorbed with gardenia yellow purified by nonionic polymeric sorbent in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Oun; Kim, Eui Jin; Lee, Jae Hyeok; Kim, Tae Young; Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Sang Yook; Suh, Hwa Jin; Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Jae Wook

    2015-02-05

    To improve the photovoltaic conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), TiO2 electrode adsorbed with gardenia yellow purified by nonionic polymeric sorbent was successfully formulated on nanoporous TiO2 surface. Adsorption and desorption properties of crude gardenia yellow solution on a macroporous resin, XAD-1600, were investigated to purify gardenia yellow because of its strong adsorption and desorption abilities as well as high selectivity. To this end, adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data were measured and fitted using adsorption isotherms and kinetic models. Adsorption and desorption breakthrough curves in a column packed with XAD-1600 resin was obtained to optimize the separation process of gardenia yellow. The photovoltaic performance of the photo-electrode adsorbed with the crude and purified gardenia yellow in DSSCs was compared from current-voltage measurements. The results showed that the photovoltaic conversion efficiency was highly dependent on how to separate and purify gardenia yellow as a photosensitizer.

  11. Effect of highly ordered single-crystalline TiO2 nanowire length on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng-ji; Fan, Jun-qi; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Wen-hui; Du, Zu-liang; Wu, Si-xin

    2011-11-01

    One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures grown directly onto transparent conducting oxide substrates with a high internal surface area are most desirable for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Herein, we present a multicycle hydrothermal synthesis process to produce vertically aligned, single crystal rutile TiO(2) nanowires with different lengths between 1 and 8 μm for application as the working electrode in DSSCs. Optimum performance was obtained with a TiO(2) nanowire length of 2.0 μm, which may be ascribed to a smaller nanowire diameter with a high internal surface area and better optical transmittance with an increase in the incident light intensity on the N719 dye; as well as a firm connection at the FTO/TiO(2) nanowire interface.

  12. Photovoltaic study of dye sensitized solar cells based on TiO2, ZnO:Al3+ nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Godoy, H. E.; Rodríguez-Rojas, R. A.; Castañeda-Contreras, J.; Marañón-Ruiz, V. F.; Pérez-Ladrón de Guevara, H.; López-Luke, T.; De la Rosa-Cruz

    2015-10-01

    A technique to fabricate dye (rhodamine B) sensitized solar cells based on Titanium Oxide (TiO2) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are reported. The TiO2 was synthesized using the sol-gel method and the ZnO was synthesized by hydrolysis method to obtain nanoparticles of ~ 5 nm and 150 nm respectively. ZnO was doped with Al3+ in order to enhance the photovoltaic efficiency to promote the electrons mobility. The photovoltaic conversion characterization of films of TiO2, ZnO and ZnO:Al3+ nanoparticles is also reported. The generated photocurrent was measured by two methods; one of those uses a three electrode electrochemical cell and the other use an electronic array where the cells were exposed to UV lamp and the sun light. The role of the TiO2, ZnO and Al3+ doped ZnO nanoparticles is discussed to obtain a better efficiency in the generation of photocurrent (PC). The results exhibited by the electrochemical cell method, efficiencies of 0.55 (PC=187 μA/cm2) and 0.22 (PC=149 μA/cm2) for TiO2 and undoped ZnO respectively. However, when ZnO is doped with Al3+ at the higher concentration the efficiency was 0.44. While using the electronic array the results exhibited efficiencies of 0.31 (PC=45 μA/cm2) and 0.09 (PC=16 μA/cm2) for TiO2 and undoped ZnO respectively. However, when ZnO is doped with Al3+ at the higher concentration the efficiency was 0.44 and 0.48 for electrochemical cell and electronic array respectively. This shows that Al3+ enhances the photogenerated charge carriers increasing the mobility of electrons.

  13. A Comparative Study of Nanostructured TiO2, ZnO and Bilayer TiO2/ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Mamta; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), Zinc oxide (ZnO) and bilayer TiO2/ZnO (TZO) based cells have been developed and sensitized with five organic dyes and one cocktail dye composed of five dyes. Photovoltaic performance of TiO2 and ZnO solar cell sensitized with six dyes is compared to that of bilayer TZO cells. The forward current is found to increase with applied voltage in the range V ≤ 0.4 V, which is dominated by thermionic emission, whereas in 0.4 ≤ V ≤ 0.7 V, the current transport is due to space charge-limited current controlled by exponential trap distribution in all devices. The combined properties of the materials enhance the efficiency of composite TZO cells. TiO2 permits the formation of an energy barrier at the ZnO electrode/electrolyte interface, which reduces the back electron transfer from the conduction band of ZnO to I3 - in the electrolyte. Also, due to the TiO2 layer on the ZnO, the latter forms a compact layer between flourine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/TiO2 which benefits the fast electron transfer from TiO2 to ZnO to FTO glass. This reduces the charge recombination occurring at the ZnO/FTO interface leading to higher open circuit voltage ( V oc), higher short circuit current ( J sc), lower series resistance ( R s), and in turn higher efficiency in TZO solar cells as compared to ZnO cells. Among the six dyes, Eosin-Y and Rose Bengal dye gave the best performance as sensitizers with TZO.

  14. Improved performance of dye sensitized solar cells using Cu-doped TiO2 as photoanode materials: Band edge movement study by spectroelectrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wei, Liguo; Yang, Yulin; Xia, Xue; Wang, Ping; Yu, Jia; Luan, Tianzhu

    2016-08-01

    Cu-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are prepared and used as semiconductor materials of photoanode to improve the performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). UV-Vis spectroscopy and variable temperature spectroelectrochemistry study are used to characterize the influence of copper dopant with different concentrations on the band gap energies of TiO2 nanoparticles. The prepared Cu-doped TiO2 semiconductor has avoided the formation of CuO during hydrothermal process and lowered the conduction band position of TiO2, which contribute to increase the short circuit current density of DSSCs. At the optimum Cu concentration of 1.0 at.%, the short circuit current density increased from 12.54 to 14.98 mA cm-2, full sun solar power conversion efficiencies increased from 5.58% up to 6.71% as compared to the blank DSSC. This showed that the presence of copper in DSSCs leads to improvements of up to 20% in the conversion efficiency of DSSCs.

  15. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2016-02-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol.

  16. High-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells based on robust and both-end-open TiO2 nanotube membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present work, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated by incorporating transparent electrodes of ordered free-standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT arrays with both ends open transferred onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO conductive glass. The high-quality TiO2 membranes used here were obtained by a self-detaching technique, with the superiorities of facile but reliable procedures. Afterwards, these TNT membranes can be easily transferred to FTO glass substrates by TiO2 nanoparticle paste without any crack. Compared with those DSSCs consisting of the bottom-closed membranes or attached to Ti substrate, the carefully assembled and front-side illuminated DSSCs showed an enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency as high as 5.32% of 24-μm-thick TiO2 nanotube membranes without further treatments. These results reveal that by facilitating high-quality membrane synthesis, this kind of DSSCs assembly with optimized tube configuration can have a fascinating future.

  17. Bilayer film electrode of brookite TiO2 particles with different morphology to improve the performance of pure brookite-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinlei; Wu, Shufang; Ri, Jin Hyok; Jin, Jingpeng; Peng, Tianyou

    2016-09-01

    A novel bilayer brookite TiO2 film photoanode consisting of quasi nanocube film as underlayer and rice-like submicrometer particle film as overlayer are fabricated for improving the photovoltaic properties of the pure brookite-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The brookite TiO2 nanocubes have a mean size of ∼50 nm, and the brookite TiO2 rice-like particles have diameter of ∼600 nm and length of ∼1100 nm. An optimal photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5.51% is obtained from the bilayer brookite-based solar cell, with ∼41% improvement in the efficiency as compared to the single brookite nanocube film-based one (3.91%) under AM 1.5G one sun irradiation. The bilayer brookite-based solar cell shows not only reduced charge recombination and dark current, but also prolonged electron lifetime compared to the single brookite nanocube film-based one. All these lead to a higher photocurrent and voltage, and then to the improved efficiency of the brookite-based solar cell. The present results demonstrate a clear advance towards efficient improvement of the photovoltaic performance of pure brookite-based solar cells.

  18. Graphene oxide nanosheets as an effective template for the synthesis of porous TiO2 film in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; He, Fenglong; Wang, Jin; Yu, Huogen; Zhao, Li

    2015-12-01

    Template method by using various organic components as the pore-forming agent is an effective strategy for the preparation of various porous inorganic materials. After high-temperature calcination in air, the organic components can be in situ decomposed into the gaseous CO2, resulting in the formation of porous structures in inorganic materials. In addition to the well-known organic components, it is highly required to develop new and simple carbon-containing template to prepare porous inorganic nanostructures. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were used as a new template for the preparation of porous TiO2 film photoelectrode, which can be applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The porous TiO2 film was fabricated via a three-step method, including the initially homogeneous grafting of GO nanosheets on the TiO2 surface (TiO2-GO), the preparation of TiO2-GO film using blade method and final formation of porous structure after the in situ removal of GO by high-temperature calcination. The effect of GO content on photoelectric conversion performance of the as-fabricated DSSCs was investigated. It was found that the conversion efficiency of DSSC based on porous TiO2-GO (0.75%) film reached up to a maximum value (4.65%), which was much higher than that of DSSC based on nonporous TiO2 film (4.01%). The enhanced conversion efficiency can be attributed to the formation of more porous structures caused by the GO nanosheets after high-temperature calcination. This work may provide a new insight for preparing other porous structured materials.

  19. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of fully flexible dye-sensitized solar cells based on the Nb2O5 coated hierarchical TiO2 nanowire-nanosheet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwu; Hong, Chengxun; Wang, Hui-gang; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min

    2016-02-01

    Nb2O5 coated hierarchical TiO2 nanowire-sheet arrays photoanode was synthesized on flexible Ti-mesh substrate by using a hydrothermal approach. The effect of TiO2 morphology and Nb2O5 coating layer on the photovoltaic performance of the flexible dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on Ti-mesh supported nanostructures were systematically investigated. Compared to the TiO2 nanowire arrays (NWAs), hierarchical TiO2 nanowire arrays (HNWAs) with enlarged internal surface area and strong light scattering properties exhibited higher overall conversion efficiency. The introduction of thin Nb2O5 coating layers on the surface of the TiO2 HNWAs played a key role in improving the photovoltaic performance of the flexible DSSC. By separating the TiO2 and electrolyte (I-/I3-), the Nb2O5 energy barrier decreased the electron recombination rate and increased electron collection efficiency and injection efficiency, resulting in improved Jsc and Voc. Furthermore, the influence of Nb2O5 coating amounts on the power conversion efficiency were discussed in detail. The fully flexible DSSC based on Nb2O5 coated TiO2 HNWAs films with a thickness of 14 μm displayed a well photovoltaic property of 4.55% (Jsc = 10.50 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.75 V, FF = 0.58). The performance enhancement of the flexible DSSC is largely attributed to the reduced electron recombination, enlarged internal surface area and superior light scattering ability of the formed hierarchical nanostructures.

  20. Nitrogen doped TiO2-Cu(x)O core-shell mesoporous spherical hybrids for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Enyan; Yin, Longwei

    2015-01-07

    We report on high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on nitrogen doped anatase TiO2-CuxO core-shell mesoporous hybrids synthesized through a facile and controlled combined sol-gel and hydrothermal process in the presence of hexadecylamine as the structure-directing agent. The matching of band edges between CuxO and TiO2 to form a semiconductor heterojunction plays an important role in effective separation of light induced electrons and holes, providing a promising photoanode for DSSCs because of its wide absorption spectrum, high electron injection efficiency, and fast electron transference. DSSCs based on the mesoporous TiO2-CuxO core-shell hybrids show a high short-circuit current density of 9.60 mA cm(-2) and a conversion efficiency of 3.86% under one sun illumination. While DSSCs based on the N-doped mesoporous TiO2-CuxO hybrids exhibit the higher short-circuit current density of 13.24 mA cm(-2) and a conversion efficiency of 4.57% under one sun illumination. In comparison with un-doped TiO2-CuxO hybrids, the doping of nitrogen into the lattice of TiO2 can extend the light absorption in the ultraviolet range to the visible light region and effectively decrease the recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes. The presented N-doped mesoporous TiO2-CuxO hybrids as photoanodes could find potential applications for high performance DSSCs.

  1. MgO-hybridized TiO2 interfacial layers assisting efficiency enhancement of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Nobuya; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2014-02-01

    Interfacial modification of a thin TiO2 compact layer (T-CL) by hybridization with MgO enhanced the quantum conversion efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) comprising a multilayer structure of transparent electrode/T-CL/dye-sensitized mesoporous TiO2/hole conductor/metal counter electrode. The Mg(CH3COO)2 treatment was employed to introduce a MgO-TiO2 CL (T/M-CL), which enhanced the physical connection and conduction between the CL and mesoporous semiconductor layer as a consecutive interface, owing to the dehydration reaction of Mg(CH3COO)2. The photocurrent density of ssDSSC was increased 33% by the T/M-CL compared with the T-CL, using an equivalent amount of adsorbed dye. The ssDSSC with the T/M-CL yielded the highest efficiency of 4.02% under irradiation at 100 mW cm-2. The electrical impedance spectroscopy showed that the charge-transfer resistance (Rct) of the photoelectrode with T/M-CL was reduced by 300 Ω from the reference non-treated T-CL electrode. Characterized by the intrinsically low Rct of the compact layer, the T/M-CL is capable of improving the photovoltaic performance of solid-state sensitized mesoscopic solar cells.

  2. Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (NDSSCs From Opuntia Prickly Pear Dye Using ZnO Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Prabu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural dye-sensitized solar cells (NDSSCs have gained considerable attention in the field of solar energy due to their simple fabrication, good efficiency, and low production cost. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted natural dyes. We investigated the influence of various factors in the extraction process, such as utilization of different extraction approaches, the acidity of extraction solvent, and different compounds of solvents on the optical absorption spectra. It was found that we could considerably enhance the optical absorptivity of dye and consequently the performance of DSSC by choosing a proper mixture of ethanol, methanol and water. In this study, a photo electrode using ZnO doped TiO2 nanoparticles was prepared by sol-gel method. In this paper we investigate the optical absorption, functional group, surface morphology and elementary composition of pure TiO2, ZnO doped TiO2 nanoparticles and opuntia prickly pear dye extract by using UV-Visible, PL-Studies, FT-IR, FE-SEM and EDS analysis. Finally photocurrent-voltaic characterization of nanocrystaline natural dye solar cell using I-V studies. It was found that the levels of short-circuit current (Jsc, open-circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF and overall conversion efficiency (η.

  3. Solar physical vapor deposition preparation and microstructural characterization of TiO2 based nanophases for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrea, Denis; Ducu, Catalin; Moga, Sorin; Malinovschi, Viorel; Monty, Claude J A; Vasile, Bogdan; Dorobantu, Dorel; Enachescu, Marian

    2012-11-01

    Titanium dioxide exists in three crystalline phases: anatase, rutile and brookite. Although rutile is thermodynamically more stable, anatase is considered as the most favorable phase for photocatalysis and solar energy conversion. Recent studies have shown a significant improvement of light harvesting and overall solar conversion efficiency of anatase nanoparticles in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) when using a mixture of anatase and rutile phases (10-15% rutile). TiO2 nanopowders have been prepared by a solar physical vapor deposition process (SPVD). This method has been developed in Odeillo-Font Romeu France using "heliotron" solar reactors working under concentrated sunlight in 2 kW solar furnaces. By controlling reactor's atmosphere type (air/argon) and gas pressure, several types of anatase/rutile nanophases have been obtained with slightly different microstructural properties and morphological characteristics. X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) were performed on precursor and on the SPVD obtained nanopowders. Information concerning their phase composition and coherence diffraction domain (crystallites size and strain) was obtained. Nanopowders morphology has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  4. Enhanced Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Mesoporous-Macroporous TiO2 Photoanode Obtained Using ZnO Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Trang T. T.; Mathews, Nripan; Lam, Yeng-Ming; Mhaisalkar, Subodh

    2017-06-01

    Improved light harvesting efficiency can be achieved by enhancing the optical properties of the titanium dioxide (TiO2) photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), leading to higher power conversion efficiency. By incorporating submicrometer cavities in TiO2 mesoporous film, using zinc oxide (ZnO) particles as a template, a bimodal pore size structure has been created, called a mesoporous-macroporous nanostructure. This photoanode structure consists of 20-nm TiO2 nanoparticles with two kinds of pores with size of 20 nm (mesopores) and 500 nm (macropores). Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction studies showed no trace of ZnO in the TiO2 after removal by TiCl4 treatment. Higher diffuse transmittance of this film compared with the standard transparent photoanode provides evidence of improved light scattering. When employed in a device, the incident-photon-to-current efficiency of ZnO-assisted devices showed enhancement at longer wavelengths, corresponding to the Mie light scattering effect with the macropores as scattering centers. This resulted in overall higher power conversion efficiency of the DSSC. In this work, a nonvolatile gel ionic liquid was used as the electrolyte to also demonstrate the benefit of this structure in combination with a viscous electrolyte and its promising application to prolong the stability of DSSCs.

  5. Hydrothermal Growth and Application of ZnO Nanowire Films with ZnO and TiO2Buffer Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Chunhua

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports the effects of the seed layers prepared by spin-coating and dip-coating methods on the morphology and density of ZnO nanowire arrays, thus on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The nanowire films with the thick ZnO buffer layer (~0.8–1 μm thick can improve the open circuit voltage of the DSSCs through suppressing carrier recombination, however, and cause the decrease of dye loading absorbed on ZnO nanowires. In order to further investigate the effect of TiO2buffer layer on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based DSSCs, compared with the ZnO nanowire-based DSSCs without a compact TiO2buffer layer, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency and open circuit voltage of the ZnO DSSCs with the compact TiO2layer (~50 nm thick were improved by 3.9–12.5 and 2.4–41.7%, respectively. This can be attributed to the introduction of the compact TiO2layer prepared by sputtering method, which effectively suppressed carrier recombination occurring across both the film–electrolyte interface and the substrate–electrolyte interface.

  6. Influence of TiO2 Nanocrystals Fabricating Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell on the Absorption Spectra of N719 Sensitizer

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    Puhong Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The absorption spectra of N719 sensitizer anchored on the films prepared by TiO2 nanocrystals with different morphology and size were investigated for improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. We find that the morphology and size of TiO2 nanocrystals can affect the UV-vis and FT-IR spectra of the sensitizer anchored on their surfaces. In particular, the low-energy metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transitions (MLCT band in the visible absorption spectra of N719 is strongly affected, and locations of these MLCT bands revealed larger differences. The results indicate that there is a red shift of MLCT band in the spectra obtained by using TiO2 nanocrystals with long morphology and large size compared to that in solution. And it produced a larger red-shift on the MLCT band after TiO2 nanocrystals with small size mixed with some long nanocrystals. Accordingly, the utilization rate to visible light is increased. This is a reason why the DSC prepared by using such film as a photoelectrode has better performance than before mixing.

  7. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 anode film with spinodal phase separation structure in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guli, Mina; Yao, Jianxi; Zhao, Jingyong; Rao, Wangping; Xiao, Li; Tian, Hongxin

    2013-10-01

    Low electronic transmission efficiency and high charge recombination are the existing problems of photoanode film in traditional dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). This paper put forward the photoanode TiO2 films with spinodal phase separation structure (SPSS) and continuous TiO2 skeleton which were triggered by the photopolymerization of organic monomers in a photomonomer-inorganic precursor system. The photoanode TiO2 films fabricated by different precursor solution compositions and different coating layers were characterized mainly by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photocatalysis and photoelectric performance test. The results indicated that, the as-prepared TiO2 anode film with seven coating layers and heat treated at 500 °C showed higher photoelectric conversion efficiency at about 2% than that of other samples with less coating layers and lower heat treatment temperature. The film also showed excellent photocatalytic activity by using methylene blue (MB) dye as a model organic substrate under fluorescent lamp irradiation. It is suggested that the film with SPSS structure has the potential to improve the electronic transmission efficiency and reduce the carrier recombination due to its particular structure, higher surface area, and lack of bottleneck in electronic transmission. It is worth noting that the SPSS structure provides new ideas to develop new photoanode films and further improve the photoelectric conversion performance of the DSSC in future.

  8. Surface Modification of TiO2 Photoanodes with Fluorinated Self-Assembled Monolayers for Highly Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooh, Sanghyuk; Kim, Tea-Yon; Song, Donghoon; Lee, Yong-Gun; Lee, Tae Kyung; Bergmann, Victor W; Weber, Stefan A L; Bisquert, Juan; Kang, Yong Soo; Char, Kookheon

    2015-11-25

    Dye aggregation and electron recombination in TiO2 photoanodes are the two major phenomena lowering the energy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Herein, we introduce a novel surface modification strategy of TiO2 photoanodes by the fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (F-SAM) formation with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (PFTS), blocking the vacant sites of the TiO2 surface after dye adsorption. The F-SAM helps to efficiently lower the surface tension, resulting in efficient repelling ions, e.g., I3(-), in the electrolyte to decrease the electron recombination rate, and the role of F-SAM is characterized in detail by impedance spectroscopy using a diffusion-recombination model. In addition, the dye aggregates on the TiO2 surface are relaxed by the F-SAM with large conformational perturbation (i.e., helix structure) seemingly because of steric hindrance developed during the SAM formation. Such multifunctional effects suppress the electron recombination as well as the intermolecular interactions of dye aggregates without the loss of adsorbed dyes, enhancing both the photocurrent density (11.9 → 13.5 mA cm(-2)) and open-circuit voltage (0.67 → 0.72 V). Moreover, the combined surface modification with the F-SAM and the classical coadsorbent further improves the photovoltaic performance in DSCs.

  9. Efficient Performance of Electrostatic Spray-Deposited TiO2 Blocking Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells after Swift Heavy Ion Beam Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhagar, P; Asokan, K; Jung, June Hyuk; Lee, Yong-Gun; Park, Suil; Kang, Yong Soo

    2011-12-01

    A compact TiO2 layer (~1.1 μm) prepared by electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) and swift heavy ion beam (SHI) irradiation using oxygen ions onto a fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) conducting substrate showed enhancement of photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The short circuit current density (Jsc = 12.2 mA cm(-2)) of DSSCs was found to increase significantly when an ESD technique was applied for fabrication of the TiO2 blocking layer, compared to a conventional spin-coated layer (Jsc = 8.9 mA cm(-2)). When SHI irradiation of oxygen ions of fluence 1 × 10(13) ions/cm(2) was carried out on the ESD TiO2, it was found that the energy conversion efficiency improved mainly due to the increase in open circuit voltage of DSSCs. This increased energy conversion efficiency seems to be associated with improved electronic energy transfer by increasing the densification of the blocking layer and improving the adhesion between the blocking layer and the FTO substrate. The adhesion results from instantaneous local melting of the TiO2 particles. An increase in the electron transport from the blocking layer may also retard the electron recombination process due to the oxidized species present in the electrolyte. These findings from novel treatments using ESD and SHI irradiation techniques may provide a new tool to improve the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs.

  10. Extremely enhanced photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells by sintering mesoporous TiO2 photoanodes with crystalline titania chelated by acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo-Tau; Chou, Ya-Hui; Liu, Jin-Yan

    2016-04-01

    The study presents a significant improvement on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) through incorporating the crystalline titania chelated by acetic acid (TAc) into the mesoporous TiO2 photoanodes. The effects of TAc on the blocking layer, mesoporous TiO2 layer, and post-treatment have been investigated. The TAc blocking layer displays compact construction, revealing superior response time and resistance to suppress dark current compared to the blocking layer made from titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP). The power conversion efficiency of DSSCs with the TAc treatment can reach as high as 10.49%, which is much higher than that of pristine DSSCs (5.67%) and that of DSSCs treated by TTIP (7.86%). We find that the TAc incorporation can lead to the decrease of charge transfer resistance and the increase of dye adsorption. The result may be attributed to the fact that the TAc possesses high crystallinity, exposed (101) planes, and acid groups chelated on surface, which are favorable for dye attachment and strong bonding at the FTO/TiO2 and the TiO2/TiO2 interfaces, These improvements result in the remarkable increase of photocurrent and thereby that of power conversion efficiency.

  11. Hydrothermal Growth and Application of ZnO Nanowire Films with ZnO and TiO2 Buffer Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiguang; Wan, Farong; Chen, Siwei; Jiang, Chunhua

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports the effects of the seed layers prepared by spin-coating and dip-coating methods on the morphology and density of ZnO nanowire arrays, thus on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The nanowire films with the thick ZnO buffer layer (~0.8-1 μm thick) can improve the open circuit voltage of the DSSCs through suppressing carrier recombination, however, and cause the decrease of dye loading absorbed on ZnO nanowires. In order to further investigate the effect of TiO2 buffer layer on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based DSSCs, compared with the ZnO nanowire-based DSSCs without a compact TiO2 buffer layer, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency and open circuit voltage of the ZnO DSSCs with the compact TiO2 layer (~50 nm thick) were improved by 3.9-12.5 and 2.4-41.7%, respectively. This can be attributed to the introduction of the compact TiO2 layer prepared by sputtering method, which effectively suppressed carrier recombination occurring across both the film-electrolyte interface and the substrate-electrolyte interface.

  12. Effects of size-controlled TiO2 nanopowders synthesized by chemical vapor condensation process on conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo-Byoung; Lee, Jai-Sung

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the microstructural effects of the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders such as particle size, specific surface area, pore size and pore distributions for the application of an anode material of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), size-controlled and well-dispersed TiO2 nanopowders were synthesized by chemical vapor condensation (CVC) process in the range of 800-1000 degreesC under a pressure of 50 mbar. The average particle size of synthesized TiO2 nanopowders was increased with increasing temperature from 13 nm for 800 degreesC, 15 nm for 900 degreesC and 26 nm. The specific surface area of synthesized nanoparticles were measured as 119.1 m2/g for 800 degreesC, 104.7 m2/g for 900 degreesC and 59.5 m2/g for 1000 degreesC, respectively. The conversion efficiency values (eta%) of DSSC with the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders at 800 degreesC, 900 degreesC, and 1000 degreesC were 2.59%, 5.96% and 3.66%, respectively. The highest conversion efficiency obtained in the 900 degreesC (5.96%) sample is thought to be attributable to homogeneous particle size and pore distributions, large specific surface area, and high transmittance in regions of dye absorption wavelength.

  13. Template-free synthesis of hierarchical TiO2 hollow microspheres as scattering layer for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yichuan; Wang, Linlin; Zhao, Jiachang; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Xu, Jingli

    2016-04-01

    Hierarchical TiO2 hollow microspheres were synthesized by a 2-step process consisting of thermal hydrolysis and subsequent solvothermal reaction. Quasi-monodispersed solid TiO2 microspheres aggregated by amorphous particles were firstly obtained by the controlled thermal hydrolysis of titanium sulfate, and then the solid structures transformed to hollow ones and crystallized during the subsequent solvothermal treatment. SEM and TEM images of the samples revealed that the morphological evolution was in perfect accordance with the inside-out Ostwald ripening mechanism. The rich porosity and unique hierarchical hollow structure endow the TiO2 microspheres with a large specific surface area of 108.0 m2 g-1. As an effective anode material for dye-sensitized solar cells, TiO2 hollow microspheres showed good capability of dye adsorption and strong light scattering, leading to a comparable energy conversion efficiency to the commercial 18NR-T transparent titania. Finally, a high efficiency of 7.84% was achieved for the bi-layer DSSC by coating the hollow microspheres on top of the 18NR-T titania as the light scattering layer.

  14. Analysis on the Light-Scattering Effect in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell according to the TiO2 Structural Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Kyu Son

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A light-scattering layer is widely used in highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs because it improves the light-harvesting ability of a DSC by reflecting the light passing through the transparent TiO2 layer. Among many parameters affecting this light-scattering effect, the thickness of the TiO2 photoelectrode is also a significant parameter. However, most studies regarding the influence of the TiO2 photoelectrode thickness on the light-scattering effect have only focused on the thickness of the transparent TiO2 layer and have ignored the light-scattering layer thickness itself. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the light scattering effect according to the thickness of the light-scattering layer and the resulting photovoltaic performance of the DSC. Finally, it was confirmed that the light-scattering effect is enhanced to some degree with the increase of the light-scattering layer thickness, while it is weakened when the light-scattering layer thickness is further increased.

  15. Study of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Scanning Electron Micrograph Observation and Thickness Optimization of Porous TiO2 Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the photoenergy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, it is important to optimize their porous TiO2 electrodes. This paper examines the surface and cross-sectional views of the electrodes using scanning electron micrography. Two types of samples for cross-sectional viewing were prepared by mechanically breaking the substrate and by using an Ar-ion etching beam. The former displays the surface of the TiO2 particles and the latter shows the cross-section of the TiO2 particles. We found interesting surface and cross-sectional structures in the scattering layer containing the 400 nm diameter particles, which have an angular and horned shape. The influence of TiO2 particle size and the thickness of the nanocrystalline-TiO2 electrode in DSCs using four kinds of sensitizing dyes (D149, K19, N719 and Z907 and two kinds of electrolytes (acetonitrile-based and ionic-liquid electrolytes are discussed in regards to conversion efficiency, which this paper aims to optimize.

  16. Enhanced Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Mesoporous-Macroporous TiO2 Photoanode Obtained Using ZnO Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Trang T. T.; Mathews, Nripan; Lam, Yeng-Ming; Mhaisalkar, Subodh

    2017-02-01

    Improved light harvesting efficiency can be achieved by enhancing the optical properties of the titanium dioxide (TiO2) photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), leading to higher power conversion efficiency. By incorporating submicrometer cavities in TiO2 mesoporous film, using zinc oxide (ZnO) particles as a template, a bimodal pore size structure has been created, called a mesoporous-macroporous nanostructure. This photoanode structure consists of 20-nm TiO2 nanoparticles with two kinds of pores with size of 20 nm (mesopores) and 500 nm (macropores). Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction studies showed no trace of ZnO in the TiO2 after removal by TiCl4 treatment. Higher diffuse transmittance of this film compared with the standard transparent photoanode provides evidence of improved light scattering. When employed in a device, the incident-photon-to-current efficiency of ZnO-assisted devices showed enhancement at longer wavelengths, corresponding to the Mie light scattering effect with the macropores as scattering centers. This resulted in overall higher power conversion efficiency of the DSSC. In this work, a nonvolatile gel ionic liquid was used as the electrolyte to also demonstrate the benefit of this structure in combination with a viscous electrolyte and its promising application to prolong the stability of DSSCs.

  17. Design of Ag@C@SnO2@TiO2 yolk-shell nanospheres with enhanced photoelectric properties for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peilu; Li, Dan; Yao, Shiting; Zhang, Yiqun; Liu, Fengmin; Sun, Peng; Chuai, Xiaohong; Gao, Yuan; Lu, Geyu

    2016-06-01

    The hierarchical Ag@C@SnO2@TiO2 nanospheres (ACSTS) have been successfully synthesized by deposition of SnO2 and TiO2 on the Ag@C templates layer by layer. The size of ACSTS is ca. 360 nm while the Ag@C cores have an average diameter of about 300 nm. The rough and porous shell structure consisting of SnO2 and TiO2 ensures a large specific surface area (115.5 m2 g-1). To demonstrate how such a unique structure might lead to more excellent photovoltaic property, several kinds of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are also fabricated using different nanospheres based photoanodes. It is found that the ACSTS based DSSC exhibits an obvious improvement in cell performance. According to various technical characterization, the ACSTS can provide dual-functions of light absorption and charge transfer, hence resulting in an enhanced short-circuit photocurrent density of 18.68 mA cm-2 and a higher FF of 63% compared with other DSSCs. The ACSTS cell finally obtains a PCE of up to 8.62%, increasing by 70.4% and 10.2% than hollow TiO2 nanospheres and Ag@C@TiO2 nanospheres based cells, respectively. The improved photovoltaic properties of ACSTS cell can be mainly ascribed to the unique microstructure and the synergistic effect of the encapsulated Ag@C cores.

  18. Dye-sensitized solar cells with vertically aligned TiO2 nanowire arrays grown on carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xin; Wu, Hongwei; Hou, Shaocong; Peng, Ming; Yu, Xiao; Zou, Dechun

    2014-02-01

    One-dimensional semiconductor TiO2 nanowires (TNWs) have received widespread attention from solar cell and related optoelectronics scientists. The controllable synthesis of ordered TNW arrays on arbitrary substrates would benefit both fundamental research and practical applications. Herein, vertically aligned TNW arrays in situ grown on carbon fiber (CF) substrates through a facile, controllable, and seed-assisted thermal process is presented. Also, hierarchical TiO2 -nanoparticle/TNW arrays were prepared that favor both the dye loading and depressed charge recombination of the CF/TNW photoanode. An impressive conversion efficiency of 2.48 % (under air mass 1.5 global illumination) and an apparent efficiency of 4.18 % (with a diffuse board) due to the 3D light harvesting of the wire solar cell were achieved. Moreover, efficient and inexpensive wire solar cells made from all-CF electrodes and completely flexible CF-based wire solar cells were demonstrated, taking into account actual application requirements. This work may provide an intriguing avenue for the pursuit of lightweight, cost-effective, and high-performance flexible/wearable solar cells.

  19. Dry-spray deposition of TiO2 for a flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using a nanoparticle deposition system (NPDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Saeng; Chun, Doo-Man; Choi, Jung-Oh; Lee, Jong-Cheon; Kim, Yang Hee; Kim, Kwang-Su; Lee, Caroline Sunyong; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2012-04-01

    TiO2 powders were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates for application to the photoelectrode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). In the conventional DSSC manufacturing process, a semiconductor oxide such as TiO2 powder requires a sintering process at higher temperature than the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of polymers, and thus utilization of flexible polymer substrates in DSSC research has been constrained. To overcome this restriction related to sintering, we used a nanoparticle deposition system (NPDS) that could produce a thin coating layer through a dry-spray method under atmospheric pressure at room temperature. The powder was sprayed through a slit-type nozzle having a 0.4 x 10 mm2 rectangular outlet. In order to determine the deposited TiO2 thickness, five kinds of TiO2 layered specimens were prepared, where the specimens have single and double layer structures. Deposited powders on the ITO coated PET substrates were observed using FE-SEM and a scan profiler The thicker TiO2 photoelectrode with a DSSC having a double layer structure showed higher energy efficiency than the single layer case. The highest fabricated flexible DSSC displayed a short circuit current density J(sc) = 1.99 mA cm(-2), open circuit voltage V(oc) = 0.71 V, and energy efficiency eta = 0.94%. These results demonstrate the possibility of utilizing the dry-spray method to fabricate a TiO2 layer on flexible polymer substrates at room temperature under atmospheric pressure.

  20. Double-sided brush-shaped TiO2 nanostructure assemblies with highly ordered nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Chenyang; Shen, Liming; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yifeng; Korgel, Brian A; Gupta, Arunava; Bao, Ningzhong

    2014-01-08

    We describe a seeded hydrothermal process for the growth of unique double-sided brush-shaped (DSBS) TiO2 nanostructure assemblies consisting of highly ordered rutile nanowires vertically aligned around an annealed TiO2 nanoparticle layer. The annealed TiO2 nanoparticle layer seeds the nanowire growth and also supports the DSBS structure. The morphology of the DSBS TiO2 nanostructure depends on the hydrothermal reaction time. The diameter of the nanowires is about 6.6 nm, and with increasing reaction time from 1 to 8 h the nanowire length increases from 0.6 to 6.2 μm, whereas the thickness of the nanoparticle layer decreases from 4.3 to 2.8 μm. These free-standing nanowire arrays provide large internal surface area, which is essential for minimizing carrier recombination in high performance photovoltaic devices. Furthermore, the nanowire architecture can help increase the rate of charge transport as compared to particulate films because of lower concentration of grain boundaries. The power conversion efficiency of backside (DSBS TiO2/FTO photoanode) illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated using the DSBS TiO2 nanostructure assembly is found to be depended on the nanowire length. A cell fabricated using 15.2 μm thick nanostructures sensitized by N719 has a short-circuit current density of 12.18 mA cm(-2), 0.78 V open circuit potential, and a 0.59 filling factor, yielding a maximum power conversion efficiency of 5.61% under AM 1.5 illumination.

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on composite TiO$_2$ nanoparticle–nanorod single and bi-layer photoelectrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F REZVANI; E PARVAZIAN; S A HOSSEINI

    2016-10-01

    TiO$_2$ nanoparticle (NP), composite TiO$_2$ nanoparticle–nanorod (NP–NR) and bi-layer TiO2 nanoparticle/ nanorod (NP/NR) with the optimized diameter of NRs had been prepared as anode layer in dye-sensitized solarcells (DSSCs). Morphology and thickness of anode layers were provided by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) devices. Current density–voltage diagrams were preparedby potentiostat and solar simulator devices at air mass (AM) 1.5. It is determined that DSSCs based on composite NP–NR photoelectrode had the best conversion efficiency of 5.07%. Also, the results of the electrochemical modelling of these DSSCs indicated that solar cells based on NP–NR electrode had the highest electron transport time ($\\tau_d$) of 312.87 ms, electrons’ recombination lifetime ($\\tau_n$) of 130.4 ms and the lowest transfer resistance ($R_{ct}$) as wellas transport resistance ($R_t$) of 22.46 and 9.4 $\\Omega$, respectively.

  2. Callindra haematocephata and Peltophorum pterocarpum flowers as natural sensitizers for TiO2 thin film based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Ishwar Chandra; Neetu; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj; Bahadur, Lal

    2016-10-01

    We have studied the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells employing natural dye extracted from the flowers Callindra haematocephata and Peltophorum pterocarpum as sensitizers for TiO2 photoanode. The extracts have shown appreciable absorption in the visible region. FTIR studies indicated the presence of anthocyanins and β-carotene in the flowers of C. haematocephata and P. pterocarpum respectively. The extracts were anchored on TiO2 film deposited on transparent conductive glass (FTO) which were used as photoanode. The dye coated TiO2 film electrode, Pt counter electrode and electrolyte (I-3) assembled into a cell module was illuminated by a light source with intensity 100 mW/cm2 to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs. From the J-V characteristic curves of cells, the parameters related to the solar cell performance were determined. The conversion efficiency of the DSSC employing natural dye extract from the flower C. haematocephata and P. pterocarpumwere was found as 0.06% and 0.04%, with open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 370 mV & 400 mV, short-circuit current density (JSC) of 0.25 mA/cm2 & 0.15 mA/cm2, fill factor (FF) of 0.70 & 0.71 and Pmax of 65 & 45 μW cm-2 respectively. The extract of the flower C. haematocephata exhibited better photosensitization action compared to the flower of P. pterocarpum.

  3. Microsphere assembly of TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with highly exposed (101) facets and application in a light-trapping quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiyun; Ruan, Peng; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Hongxia; Zhou, Xingfu

    2015-02-01

    The morphology of nano-titania has a significant effect on the photoelectric properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this study, microsphere assembly of a TiO2 mesoporous nanosheet constructed by nanocuboids was conducted via a simple hydrothermal process. The XRD pattern indicated that the hierarchical mesoporous microspheres are anatase phase with decreased (004) peaks. Raman spectrum shows enhanced Eg peaks at 143 and 638 cm-1 caused by the symmetric stretching vibration of O-Ti-O of the (101) crystalline facet in anatase TiO2. FESEM and TEM images show that well monodispersed TiO2 microspheres with a diameter of 2 μm are assembled by TiO2 mesoporous nanosheets with exposed (101) facets. The oriented attachment of TiO2 nanocuboids along the (101) direction leads to the formation of mesoporous titania nanosheets. The UV-Vis spectrum shows that the mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets have high scattering ability and light absorption by dye. Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells that incorporate these microspheres into the top scattering layers exhibit a prominent improvement in the power conversion efficiency of 7.51%, which shows a 45.8% increase in the overall conversion efficiency when compared with the spine hierarchical TiO2 microspheres (5.15%). There is the potential application for microsphere assembly of mesoporous TiO2 nanosheets in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with excellent stability.

  4. Influence of Dye Adsorbtion Time on TiO2 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Krokot Extract (Portulaca Oleracea. L as A Natural Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Krisdiyanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC photoelectrodes were fabricated using titanium oxide (TiO2 and sensitized with the krokot extract dye. This study investigated the effect of dye adsorption time to an efficiency of the solar cells. The fabrication cells immersed with krokot extract dye for 1, 8 and 26 hours. The photochemical performance of the DSSC showed that the open circuit voltage (Voc were 0.33, 0.036 and 0.27 V with short photocurrent density (Isc 8.00 x 10-5, 6.80 x 10-7 and 3.10 x 10-4. The photo-to-electric conversion efficiency of the DSSC reached 4.63 x 10-3 % for 26 hours adsorption time.

  5. Preparation of brookite TiO2 nanoparticles with small sizes and the improved photovoltaic performance of brookite-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinlei; Wu, Shufang; Jin, Jingpeng; Peng, Tianyou

    2016-11-10

    Brookite TiO2 nanoparticles with small sizes (hereafter denoted as BTP particles) were synthesized through the hydrothermal treatment of TiCl4 solution with Pb(NO3)2 as an additive. The obtained BTP particles have a large specific surface area (∼122.2 m(2) g(-1)) and relatively uniform particle sizes (∼10 nm) with the coexistence of a small quantity of nanorods with a length of ∼100 nm. When used as a photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the BTP particles show a much higher dye-loading content than the brookite TiO2 quasi nanocubes (denoted as BTN particles) with a mean size of ∼50 nm and a specific surface area of ∼34.2 m(2) g(-1) that were prepared through a similar hydrothermal process but without the addition of Pb(NO3)2. The fabricated BTP film-based solar cell with an optimized film thickness gives a conversion efficiency up to 6.36% with a 74% improvement when compared to the BTN film-based one (3.65%) under AM 1.5G one sun irradiation, while the corresponding bilayer brookite-based solar cell by using brookite TiO2 submicrometer particles as an overlayer of the BTP film displays a significantly enhanced efficiency of 7.64%. Both of them exceed the current record (5.97%) for the conversion efficiency of pure brookite-based DSSCs reported in the literature. The present results not only demonstrate a really simple synthesis of brookite TiO2 nanoparticles with both high phase purity and a large surface area, but also offer an efficient approach to improve the photovoltaic performance of brookite-based solar cells by offsetting brookite's inherent shortages such as lower dye-loading and poor conductivity as compared to anatase.

  6. Fabrication N, F, and N/F-Doped TiO2 Photoelectrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Kyung; Yun, Tae Kwan; Bae, Jae Young

    2015-08-01

    In this study, pure TiO2, N-doped TiO2, F-doped TiO2, and N/F-doped TiO2 particles were successfully synthesized through the hydrolysis of TiCl4 in the presence of ammonia water and NH4F, respectively. The introduction of doping materials did not affect the crystalline structure. No absorption peak for pure TiO2 was observed above the wavelength of 400 nm. However, the N-doped TiO2 and N/F-doped TiO2 powders exhibited a new absorption peak in the visible light region between 400 and 530 nm. The Jsc value of DSSCs based on the N/F-doped TiO2 electrode was increased by 10% compared to DSSCs using a pure TiO2 electrode, and the energy conversion efficiency was increased by 12%.

  7. Characterization of the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells by means of a titania-binding nitroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattori, Alberto; Cangiotti, Michela; Fiorani, Luigi; Lucchi, Susanna; Ottaviani, Maria Francesca

    2014-11-18

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been characterized in several literature examples by using relatively complex methods and/or modified DSSC conditions with respect to the usual working ones. In this study, we propose a method for the investigation of the interfaces TiO2/dye/electrolyte in a DSSC at its usual working conditions. This method implies the use of a computer-aided analysis of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the spin probe 4-carboxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (4-carboxy-TEMPO, indicated as 4-cT). This probe well-mimics the dyes in their interactions with TiO2 surface, but does not perturb dye adsorption onto TiO2 surface, as verified by UV-vis measurements. First, we investigated the interacting ability toward 4-cT of commercially available TiO2 used for assembling the DSSC. It was found that interactions are modulated by the different distribution of interacting sites at the solid surface and powder aggregation. Further, experiments on 4-cT were carried out in the presence of a series of other molecules coded as N3, N719, and D149, which are commonly used as dyes in DSSCs. Then, the effect of solutions added to the electrodes was investigated. On the basis of the interactions occurring at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interfaces, we selected the ingredients of the DSSCs. Electrical and EPR characterizations of these DSSCs miniaturized to enter the EPR cavity, together with time-dependent laser-light on-off experiments, were carried out, which demonstrated the ability of the EPR analysis to monitor the types and strengths of the interactions occurring at the cell's different interfaces. This method using the standard continuous wave EPR technique at room temperature may be profitably used to characterize the quality and performances of a DSSC.

  8. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell with Conventionally Annealed and Post-Hydrothermally Treated Nanocrystalline Semiconductor Oxide TiO2 Derived from Sol-Gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Yuwono

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC is one of the very promising alternative renewable energy sources to anticipate the declination in the fossil fuel reserves in the next few decades and to make use of the abundance of intensive sunlight energy in tropical countries like Indonesia. In the present study, TiO2 nanoparticles of different nanocrystallinity was synthesized via sol−gel process with various water to inorganic precursor ratio (Rw of 0.85, 2.00 and 3.50 upon sol preparation, followed with subsequent drying, conventional annealing and post-hydrothermal treatments. The resulting nanoparticles were integrated into the DSSC prototype and sensitized with an organic dye made of the extract of red onion. The basic performance of the fabricated DSSC has been examined and correlated to the crystallite size and band gap energy of TiO2 nanoparticles. It was found that post-hydrothermally treated TiO2 nanoparticles derived from sol of 2.00 Rw, with the most enhanced nanocrystalline size of 12.46 nm and the lowest band gap energy of 3.48 eV, showed the highest open circuit voltage (Voc of 69.33 mV.

  9. Fabrication of 3D interconnected porous TiO2 nanotubes templated by poly(vinyl chloride-g-4-vinyl pyridine) for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Joo Hwan; Koh, Jong Kwan; Seo, Jin Ah; Shin, Jong-Shik; Kim, Jong Hak

    2011-09-01

    Porous TiO2 nanotube arrays with three-dimensional (3D) interconnectivity were prepared using a sol-gel process assisted by poly(vinyl chloride-graft-4-vinyl pyridine), PVC-g-P4VP graft copolymer and a ZnO nanorod template. A 7 µm long ZnO nanorod array was grown from the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass via a liquid phase deposition method. The TiO2 sol-gel solution templated by the PVC-g-P4VP graft copolymer produced a random 3D interconnection between the adjacent ZnO nanorods during spin coating. Upon etching of ZnO, TiO2 nanotubes consisting of 10-15 nm nanoparticles were generated, as confirmed by wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS), energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The ordered and interconnected nanotube architecture showed an enhanced light scattering effect and increased penetration of polymer electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The energy conversion efficiency reached 1.82% for liquid electrolyte, and 1.46% for low molecular weight (Mw) and 0.74% for high Mw polymer electrolytes.

  10. Rational design of anatase TiO2 architecture with hierarchical nanotubes and hollow microspheres for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiuwang; Khan, Javid; Chai, Zhisheng; Yuan, Yufei; Yu, Xiang; Liu, Pengyi; Wu, Mingmei; Mai, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Large surface area, sufficient light-harvesting and superior electron transport property are the major factors for an ideal photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which requires rational design of the nanoarchitectures and smart integration of state-of-the-art technologies. In this work, a 3D anatase TiO2 architecture consisting of vertically aligned 1D hierarchical TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) with ultra-dense branches (HTNTs, bottom layer) and 0D hollow TiO2 microspheres with rough surface (HTS, top layer) is first successfully constructed on transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide glass through a series of facile processes. When used as photoanodes, the DSSCs achieve a very large short-current density of 19.46 mA cm-2 and a high overall power conversion efficiency of 8.38%. The remarkable photovoltaic performance is predominantly ascribed to the enhanced charge transport capacity of the NTs (function as the electron highway), the large surface area of the branches (act as the electron branch lines), the pronounced light harvesting efficiency of the HTS (serve as the light scattering centers), and the engineered intimate interfaces between all of them (minimize the recombination effect). Our work demonstrates a possibility of fabricating superior photoanodes for high-performance DSSCs by rational design of nanoarchitectures and smart integration of multi-functional components.

  11. Hydrothermal fabrication of quasi-one-dimensional single-crystalline anatase TiO2 nanostructures on FTO glass and their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jin-Yun; Lei, Bing-Xin; Wang, Yu-Fen; Liu, Jun-Min; Su, Cheng-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin

    2011-01-24

    One-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are desirable for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), since they can provide direct pathways for the rapid collection of photogenerated electrons, which could improve the photovoltaic performance of the device. Quasi-1D single-crystalline anatase TiO(2) nanostructures have been successfully prepared on transparent, conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with a growth direction of [101] through a facile hydrothermal approach. The influences of the initial titanium n-butoxide (TBT) concentration, hydrothermal reaction temperature, and time on the length of quasi-1D anatase TiO(2) nanostructures and on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs have been investigated in detail. A power conversion efficiency of 5.81% has been obtained based on the prepared TiO(2) nanostructure photoelectrode 6.7 μm thick and commercial N719 dye, with a short-circuit current density of 13.3 mA cm(-2) , an open-circuit voltage of 810 mV, and a fill factor of 0.54. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Fabrikasi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC Berdasarkan Fraksi Volume TiO2 Anatase-Rutile dengan Garcinia mangostana dan Rhoeo Spathacea sebagai Dye Fotosensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sustia Agustini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sejak pertama kali dikembangkan, usaha untuk meningkatkan efisiensi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC terus dilakukan. Mulai dari pemilihan bahan pewarna, jenis semikonduktor yang digunakan, desain counter elektroda, struktur sandwich atau yang lainnya. Anatase dan rutile adalah fase dari TiO2 yang sering digunakan untuk fabrikasi DSSC. Penelitian ini menggunakan kulit manggis dan Rhoeo spathacea yang diekstrak menggunakan ethanol sebagai pewarna alami yang mengandung antosianin. Pewarna tersebut dikarakterisasi menggunakan UV-Vis dan FTIR, dan menunjukkan absorpsi pada panjang gelombang 392 nm untuk kulit manggis dan 413 nm untuk Rhoeo spathacea. TiO2 disintesis menggunakan metode co-precipitation. Ukuran partikel yang dihasilkan adalah 11 nm untuk anatase and 54,5 nm untuk rutile dengan menggunakan persamaan Scherrer. DSSC difabrikasi dengan variasi fraksi volume TiO2 anatase dan rutile. DSSC diuji dibawah cahaya matahari dengan daya sebesar 17 mW/cm2. Kurva arus-tegangan (I-V DSSC yang dihasilkan fraksi volume 75%:25% memperlihatkan hasil terbaik dibanding yang lain. Efisiensi tertinggi adalah 0.037% dan 0.013% dihasilkan oleh DSSC dengan pewarna alami dari kulit manggis dan Rhoeo spathacea.

  13. Effect of thermal treatment on TiO2 nanorod electrodes prepared by the solvothermal method for dye-sensitized solar cells: Surface reconfiguration and improved electron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyong; Yao, Jianxi; Zhang, Yongzhe; Guli, Mina; Xiao, Li

    2014-06-01

    Solvothermal synthesis is considered a novel method of preparing the photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which can directly synthesize material with good crystallinity at low temperatures without thermal treatment. However, how thermal treatment influences the properties of the materials synthesized by this method is still unclear, especial at the microscopic level. In this study, we applied TiO2 nanorod arrays prepared by the solvothermal method to DSSCs. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman results indicate that the crystal structure of TiO2 nanorods did not change after thermal treatment. However, the photovoltaic performance improved by 39%. Detailed analysis of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results demonstrate that a surface reconfiguration occurred, shifting one thin amorphous TiO2 layer to tiny crystallite spheres. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements further confirm this morphology change, and the surface states also become more suitable for dye absorption, which leads to a significant improvement in efficiency. Moreover, good electrical transport is observed due to the low concentration of surface defects. Therefore, we believe the performance improvement comes from crystalline surface and surface chemical bonding improvements. Our results could be useful in photoelectrical applications of the solvothermal synthesis method.

  14. Restrain recombination by spraying pyrolysis TiO2 on NiO film for quinoxaline-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Li, Xing; Shen, Zhongjin; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Peng; Gao, Yuting; Jiang, Tao; Hua, Jianli

    2017-03-15

    In this work, we reported two new quinoxaline-based sensitizers (BQI and BQII) for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSSCs) featuring carboxylic acid and pyridine as anchoring groups, respectively, in combination with triphenylamine donor. The optical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of BQI and BQII were investigated. Results showed that BQI-based p-DSSC with carboxylic acid anchoring group obtained higher photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.140%. To further optimize the device performance, we added a layer of TiO2 on the surface of NiO film as a barrier layer, which contributed to the improvement of the photocurrent density from 3.00 to 3.84mAcm(-2). The p-DSSCs based on BQI reached the PCE of 0.20% at an irradiance of 100mWcm(-2) simulated AM1.5 sunlight. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis indicated that the hole recombination resistance of p-DSSCs with TiO2 barrier layer was larger than that of the naked NiO film. Meanwhile, the surface profile of TiO2 on NiO film was verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS).

  15. Hierarchical growth of TiO2 nanosheets on anodic ZnO nanowires for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, David O.; Lee, Chang Soo; Cameron, Petra J.; Mattia, Davide; Kim, Jong Hak

    2016-09-01

    We present a novel route to hierarchical core-shell structures consisting of an anodic ZnO nanowire core surrounded by a shell of TiO2 nanosheets (ZNW@TNS). This material combines the beneficial properties of enhanced electron transport, provided by the nanowire core, with the high surface area and chemical stability of the TiO2 shell. Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (qssDSSCs) are prepared using different quantities of either the bare ZnO nanowires or the hierarchical nanowire structures and the effect on cell performance is examined. It is found that whilst the addition of the bare ZnO nanowires results in a decrease in cell performance, significant improvements can be achieved with the addition of small quantities of the hierarchical structures. Power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.5% are achieved under 1 Sun, AM 1.5 simulated sunlight, with a ∼30% increase compared to non-hierarchical mesoporous TiO2 films. A solid-state DSSC (ssDSSC) with a single component solid polymer also exhibits excellent efficiency of 7.2%. The improvement in cell performance is related to the improved light scattering, surface area and electron transport properties via the use of reflectance spectroscopy, BET surface area measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on thick highly ordered TiO(2) nanotubes produced by controlled anodic oxidation in non-aqueous electrolytic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, T; Ghicov, A; Likodimos, V; Tsoukleris, D S; Kunze, J; Schmuki, P; Falaras, P

    2008-06-11

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared using TiO(2) nanotubes, grown by controlled Ti anodic oxidation in non-aqueous media. Smooth, vertically oriented TiO(2) nanotube arrays, presenting a high degree of self-organization and a length of 20 µm, have been grown using ethylene glycol electrolyte containing HF. As-grown nanotubes exhibit an amorphous structure, which transforms to the anatase TiO(2) crystalline phase upon post-annealing in air at 450 °C. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the porous morphology together with high roughness and fractality of the surface. The annealed tubes were sensitized by the standard N719 ruthenium dye and the adsorption was characterized using resonance micro-Raman spectroscopy and adsorption-desorption measurements. The sensitized tubes were further used as active photoelectrodes after incorporation in sandwich-type DSSCs using both liquid and solidified electrolytes. The efficiencies obtained under air mass (AM) 1.5 conditions, using a back-side illumination geometry, were very promising: 0.85% using a composite polymer redox electrolyte, while the efficiency was further increased up to 1.65% using a liquid electrolyte.

  17. Enhancing the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by modifying TiO2 photoanodes with layered structure g-C3N4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Huiru; Yuan, Xiaowei; Cui, Can

    2017-03-01

    The layered structure graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) makes it possible to form good interfacial contact with metal oxide nanoparticles. In this paper, we obtain the TiO2/g-C3N4 (TC) composite via ultra-sonication and apply it as photoanode materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The TC photoanodes decrease the energy barrier of electron transport and improve the injection efficiency of photo-generated electrons. Moreover, the g-C3N4 broadens the absorption spectrum of the TiO2 based photoanode to visible region and enhances the light harvesting. As a result, the short-circuit current density (Jsc) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSCs based on TC photoanode have been considerably increased from 9.75 mA/cm-2 to 11.29 mA/cm-2, 3.87% to 4.51%, compared with pure TiO2 photoanode, enhanced by 15.8% and 16.8%, respectively.

  18. Effect of the rutile content on the photovoltaic performance of the dye-sensitized solar cells composed of mixed-phase TiO2 photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Tae Kwan; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Duckhyun; Shim, Jae-Hyun; Bae, Jae Young; Huh, Seong; Won, Yong Sun

    2012-01-28

    The effect of the rutile content on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) composed of mixed-phase TiO(2) photoelectrode has been investigated. The mixed-phase TiO(2) particles with varied amounts of rutile, relative to anatase phase, are synthesized by an in situ method where the concentration of sulfate ion is used as a phase-controlling parameter in the formation of TiO(2) using TiCl(4) hydrolysis. The surface area (S(BET)) varies from 33 (pure rutile) to 165 (pure anatase) m(2) g(-1). Generally, both the current density (J(sc)) and photo-conversion efficiency (η) decrease as the rutile content increases. The incorporation of rod-shaped rutile particles causes low uptake of dye due to the reduced surface area, as well as slow electron transport in less efficiently-stacked structure. However, maximum J(sc) (14.63 mA cm(-2)) and η (8.69%) appear when relatively low rutile content (16%) is employed. The reported synergistic effect by the efficient interparticle electron transport from rutile to anatase seems to overbalance the decrease of surface area when small amount of rutile particles is incorporated.

  19. Low-temperature fabrication of TiO2 nanocrystalline film electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, G.; Lee, K.E.; Charboneau, C.; Demopoulos, G.P.; Gauvin, R. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique

    2008-07-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have the potential to render solar energy widely accessible. The deposition of titania nano-crystalline powders on a substrate is an important step in the manufacture of the DSSC. The deposition forms a mesoporous thin film that is followed by thermal treatment and sensitization. Usually titania films are deposited on glass by screen printing and then annealed at temperatures as high as 530 degrees C to provide a good electrical contact between the semiconductor particles and crystallization of the anatase phase. Several research and development efforts have focused on the deposition of titania film on flexible plastic substrates that will simplify the whole manufacturing process in terms of flexibility, weight, application and cost. Lower temperature processing is needed for the preparation of plastic-based titania film electrodes, but this has proven to be counterproductive when it comes to the cell's conversion efficiency. This paper presented a comprehensive evaluation of the different coating and annealing techniques at low temperature as well as important processing factors for improvement. To date, these techniques include pressing, hydrothermal process, electrodeposition, electrophoretic deposition, microwave or UV irradiation, and lift-off technique.

  20. Rose Bengal sensitized bilayered photoanode of nano-crystalline TiO2-CeO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyed, Suhail A. A. R.; Beedri, Niyamat I.; Kadam, Vishal S.; Pathan, Habib M.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with the study of TiO2-CeO2 bilayered photoanode with low-cost Rose Bengal (RB) dye as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cell application. The recombination reactions are reduced in bilayered TiO2-CeO2 photoanode as compared to the single-layered CeO2 photoanode. Once the electrons get transferred from lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level of RB dye to the conduction band (CB) of TiO2, then the possibilities of recombination of electrons with oxidized dye molecules or oxidized redox couple are reduced. This is because the CB position of CeO2 is higher than that of TiO2, which blocks the path of electrons. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis shows negative shift in frequency for bilayered TiO2-CeO2 photoanode as compared to CeO2 photoanode. Hence, in bilayered photoanode lifetime of electrons is more than in single-layered photoanode, confirming reduction in recombination reactions. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirm both anatase TiO2 and CeO2 with crystalline size using Scherrer formula as 24 and 10 nm, respectively. The scanning electron microscopy images of photoanode show the porous structure useful for dye adsorption. The presence of Ti and Ce is confirmed by electron diffraction studies. The band gap values for TiO2 and CeO2 were calculated as 3.20 and 3.11 eV, respectively, using diffused reflectance spectroscopy. The bilayered TiO2-CeO2 photoanode showed open-circuit voltage ( V OC) ~500 mV and short-circuit photocurrent density ( J SC) ~0.29 mA/cm2 with fill factor (FF) ~62.17 %. There is increase in V OC and J SC values by 66.67 and 38.10 %, respectively, compared to RB-sensitized CeO2 photoanode.

  1. Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2/NiO core-shell nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekprasart, Wanichaya; Noonuruk, Russameeruk; Jarernboon, Wirat; Pecharapa, Wisanu

    2011-07-01

    The core-shell nanocomposites of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and nickel oxide (NiO) used as modified photoelectrode materials in a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (quasi-DSSC) were synthesized using TiO2 P-25 and a nickel acetate precursor, via ball milling. The as-obtained intermediate products were annealed at 350, 450, and 550 degrees C. The structural properties of the NiO/TiO2 nanocomposites were well characterized via X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results imply that NiO-shell-coated TiO2 nanoparticles can be obtained with the assistance of sufficient thermal energy in the system. The crystallite size of the composite increased as the annealing temperature increased. Among all the prepared conditions, the composite with 0.1 wt% NiO exhibited the best performance, with an optimized solar-energy conversion efficiency of 2.29% and with a short-circuit current density of 7.21 mA/cm2. The significant enhancement of the device's current density may be associated with the charge recombination suppression by the NiO shell, which acted as a potential barrier in the composite. The decrease in the recombination of the photo-injected electrons, and the increase in the number of electrons tunneling through the NiO layer at the interface, may have resulted from the presence of a NiO layer on the TiO2 nanoparticles.

  2. Effects of nano anatase-rutile TiO2 volume fraction with natural dye containing anthocyanin on the dye sensitized solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustini, S.; Wahyuono, R. A.; Sawitri, D.; Risanti, D. D.

    2013-09-01

    Since its first development, efforts to improve efficiency of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) are continuously carried out, either through selection of dye materials, the type of semiconductor, counter electrode design or the sandwiched structure. It is widely known that anatase and rutile are phases of TiO2 that often being used for fabrication of DSSC. Rutile is thermodynamically more stable phase having band-gap suitable for absorption of sunlight spectrum. On the other hand, anatase has higher electrical conductivity, capability to adsorp dye as well as higher electron diffusion coefficient than those of rutile. Present research uses mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea extracted in ethanol as natural dye containing anthocyanin. These dyes were characterized by using UV-Vis and FTIR, showing that the absorption maxima peaks obtained at 389 nm and 413 nm, for mangosteen and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively. The nano TiO2 was prepared by means of co-precipitation method. The particle size were 9-11 nm and 54.5 nm for anatase and rutile, respectively, according to Scherrer's equation. DSSCs were fabricated in various volume fractions of anatase and rutile TiO2. The fabricated DSSCs were tested under 17 mW/cm2 of solar irradiation. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of DSSCs employing 75%: 25% volume fraction of anatase and rutile TiO2 have outstanding result than others. The highest conversion efficiencies of 0.037% and 0.013% are obtained for DSSC employing natural dye extract from mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively.

  3. In Situ Mapping of the Molecular Arrangement of Amphiphilic Dye Molecules at the TiO 2 Surface of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Voïtchovsky, Kislon

    2015-05-27

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Amphiphilic sensitizers are central to the function of dye-sensitized solar cells. It is known that the cell\\'s performance depends on the molecular arrangement and the density of the dye on the semiconductor surface, but a molecular-level picture of the cell-electrolyte interface is still lacking. Here, we present subnanometer in situ atomic force microscopy images of the Z907 dye at the surface of TiO2 in a relevant liquid. Our results reveal changes in the conformation and the lateral arrangement of the dye molecules, depending on their average packing density on the surface. Complementary quantitative measurements on the ensemble of the film are obtained by the quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation technique. An atomistic picture of the dye coverage-dependent packing, the effectiveness of the hydrophobic alkyl chains as blocking layer, and the solvent accessibility is obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. (Figure Presented).

  4. Growth of TiO2 nanosheet-array thin films by quick chemical bath deposition for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hu; Yang, Junyou; Feng, Shuanglong; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Jiansheng; Li, Gen

    2011-11-01

    Rutile TiO2 nanofilms, which were composed of many nanosheet-array domains with different orientations, were synthesized directly on fluorine-doped SnO2 conductive glass (FTO) substrates by a chemical deposition method in a short time in this paper. The average thickness of the nanosheets is about 10 nm; the nanosheets in each domain were parallel to each other and perpendicular to the substrate. The size and profile of the domains have a good correspondence to those of the FTO grains of the substrate, indicating a coherent nucleating and epitaxial growing nature of the films. The nanosheets split gradually and finally developed into nanofibers on prolonging the growing time to 20 h. Dye-sensitized solar cells, which were fabricated with the films, present an open-circuit voltage of 0.63 V and a short-circuit current of 7.02 mA/cm2, respectively.

  5. A periodic density functional theory investigation of tetrazole derivatives adsorbed on anatase TiO2 surface applied in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Marzieh; Beni, Ali Reza Salimi; Hosseinzadeh, Behzad

    2017-10-01

    In the current investigation, four different additives namely 2H-tetrazole (2HTz), 2H-tetrazole-5-amine (5ATz), 2H-tetrazole-5-thiol (5TTz) and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) are utilized to examine the interaction of these additives with anatase TiO2 (101), (100) and (001) surfaces under vacuum condition. In addition, analyses of adsorption mode and electronic structure using a periodic density functional theory method is performed to find the interaction of acetonitrile solvent. The obtained results revealed that these four additives are adsorbed into the sorbent surface as the following order of (100) open-circuit photovoltage of dye-sensitized solar cells. Besides, the obtained results demonstrated that although addition of the acetonitrile solvent leads to a reduction in adsorption energy, it improves the shift trend of Fermi energy except for 2HTz and 5TTz-TiO2 (001) systems.

  6. Deposition of a thin film of TiOx from a titanium metal target as novel blocking layers at conducting glass/TiO2 interfaces in ionic liquid mesoscopic TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangbin; Masaki, Naruhiko; Jiang, Kejian; Yanagida, Shozo

    2006-12-21

    In dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, charge recombination processes at interfaces between fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), TiO2, dye, and electrolyte play an important role in limiting the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency. From this point of view, a high work function material such as titanium deposited by sputtering on FTO has been investigated as an effective blocking layer for preventing electron leakage from FTO without influencing electron injection. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicates that different species of Ti (Ti4+, Ti3+, Ti2+, and a small amount of Ti0) exist on FTO. Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical measurements reveal that thin films of titanium species, expressed as TiOx, work as a compact blocking layer between FTO and TiO2 nanocrystaline film, improving Voc and the fill factor, finally giving a better conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells with ionic liquid electrolytes.

  7. Influences of Stacking Architectures of TiO2 Nanoparticle Layers on Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Hung Tsai; Yu-Tang Tsai; Tsung-Wei Huang; Sui-Ying Hsu; Yan-Fang Chen; Yuan-Hsuan Jhang; Lun Hsieh; Chung-Chih Wu; Yen-Shan Chen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influences of stacking architectures of the TiO2 nanoparticle layers on characteristics and performances of DSSCs. TiO2 nanoparticles of different sizes and compositions were characterized for their morphological and optical/scattering properties in thin films. They were used to construct different stacking architectures of the TiO2 nanoparticle layers for use as working electrodes of DSSCs. Characteristics and performances of DSSCs were examined to establish correlation o...

  8. Application of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nano-tubes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Vy Anh; Thinh Troung, Trieu; Pham Phan, Thu Anh

    2017-01-01

    Our research aimed to improve the overall energy conversion efficiency of DSCs by applying nitrogen-doped TiO2 nano-tubes (N-TNT) for the preparation of DSCs photo-anodes. The none-doped TiO2 nano-tubes (TNTs) were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of Degussa P25 TiO2 particles in 10 M...

  9. Nanoparticulate hollow TiO2 fibers as light scatterers in dye-sensitized solar cells: layer-by-layer self-assembly parameters and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Masoud; Tajabadi, Fariba; Shooshtari, Leyla; Taghavinia, Nima

    2011-04-04

    Hollow structures show both light scattering and light trapping, which makes them promising for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. In this work, nanoparticulate hollow TiO(2) fibers are prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly deposition of TiO(2) nanoparticles on natural cellulose fibers as template, followed by thermal removal of the template. The effect of LbL parameters such as the type and molecular weight of polyelectrolyte, number of dip cycles, and the TiO(2) dispersion (amorphous or crystalline sol) are investigated. LbL deposition with weak polyelectrolytes (polyethylenimine, PEI) gives greater nanoparticle deposition yield compared to strong polyelectrolytes (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), PDDA). Decreasing the molecular weight of the polyelectrolyte results in more deposition of nanoparticles in each dip cycle with narrower pore size distribution. Fibers prepared by the deposition of crystalline TiO(2) nanoparticles show higher surface area and higher pore volume than amorphous nanoparticles. Scattering coefficients and backscattering properties of fibers are investigated and compared with those of commercial P25 nanoparticles. Composite P25-fiber films are electrophoretically deposited and employed as the photoanode in DSSC. Photoelectrochemical measurements showed an increase of around 50% in conversion efficiency. By employing the intensity-modulated photovoltage and photocurrent spectroscopy methods, it is shown that the performance improvement due to addition of fibers is mostly due to the increase in light-harvesting efficiency. The high surface area due to the nanoparticulate structure and strong light harvesting due to the hollow structure make these fibers promising scatterers in DSSCs. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Bimodal porous TiO2 structures templated by graft copolymer/homopolymer blend for dye-sensitized solar cells with polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Sang-Yup; Cho, Hyung Hee; Kim, Jong Hak

    2016-12-01

    Bimodal porous TiO2 (BP-TiO2) with large surface area, high porosity, good interconnectivity, and excellent light-scattering ability are synthesized via a facile one-step method using a self-assembled blend template consisting of an amphiphilic poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) graft copolymer and a hydrophobic poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) homopolymer. The hydrophilically surface-modified TiO2 nanoparticles selectively interact with the hydrophilic POEM chains, while the addition of the PVC homopolymer increases the hydrophobic domain size, resulting in the formation of dual pores (i.e., macropores and mesopores). The sizes and numbers of macropores can easily be controlled by changing the molecular weight and amount of the PVC homopolymer. The polymer electrolyte dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated with BP-TiO2 photoanodes exhibited energy conversion efficiencies of up to 7.6% at 100 mW cm-2, which is much higher than those of mesoporous TiO2 (5.8%) with PVC-g-POEM only and conventional nanocrystalline TiO2 (4.9%) with commercial Dyesol paste. The enhanced energy conversion efficiencies mostly resulted from the light-scattering effects of the macropores, which increased the light-harvesting efficiencies. The improved light-harvesting and photovoltaic performances of the DSSCs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy.

  11. Influence of Nitrogen Doping on Device Operation for TiO2-Based Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photo-Physics from Materials to Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSC constitute a major approach to photovoltaic energy conversion with efficiencies over 8% reported thanks to the rational design of efficient porous metal oxide electrodes, organic chromophores, and hole transporters. Among the various strategies used to push the performance ahead, doping of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2 electrode is regularly proposed to extend the photo-activity of the materials into the visible range. However, although various beneficial effects for device performance have been observed in the literature, they remain strongly dependent on the method used for the production of the metal oxide, and the influence of nitrogen atoms on charge kinetics remains unclear. To shed light on this open question, we synthesized a set of N-doped TiO2 nanopowders with various nitrogen contents, and exploited them for the fabrication of ssDSSC. Particularly, we carefully analyzed the localization of the dopants using X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS and monitored their influence on the photo-induced charge kinetics probed both at the material and device levels. We demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of photo-induced charge carriers probed both at the level of the nanopowders and at the level of working solar cells, illustrating a direct transposition of the photo-physic properties from materials to devices.

  12. A strategy to reduce the angular dependence of a dye-sensitized solar cell by coupling to a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

    2014-11-07

    Almost all types of solar cells suffer from a decreased power output when the incident light is tilted away from normal since the incident intensity generally follows a cosine law of the incident angle. Making use of the blue shift nature of the Bragg position of a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (NT PC) under oblique incidence, we demonstrate experimentally that the use of the NT PC can partially compensate the cosine power loss of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The strategy used here is to purposely choose the Bragg position of the NT PC to be at the longer wavelength side of the dye absorption peak. When the incident light is tilted, the blue shift of the Bragg position results in more overlap with the dye absorption peak, generating a higher efficiency that partially compensates the reduced photon flux due to light inclination. Moreover, the unique structure of the vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes contributes an additional scattering effect when the incident light is tilted. As a result, the power output of a DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer shows a much flatter angular dependence than a DSSC without the NT PC. At all the incident angles, the DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer also shows a higher power conversion efficiency than the one without. The concept of using NT PC to mitigate the angular dependence of DSSCs can be easily extended to many other optoelectronic devices that are irradiance sensitive.

  13. Achieving Enhanced Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance by TiCl4/Al2O3 Doped TiO2 Nanotube Array Photoelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Soo Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For various reasons, low cost, easy fabrication, and so forth, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs have been consistently studied in many laboratories. To improve the DSSCs performance, using an aqueous solution of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 treatment is one of many processes. Before the treatment of TiCl4, nanoporous TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs are fabricated through a secondary anodization process. TiCl4 treatment on TNTs film enhanced short-circuit current density (JSC and aluminum oxide (Al2O3 posttreatment enhanced open-circuit voltage (VOC. As a result, Al2O3 posttreatment on TNTs film conversion efficiency of 8.65% is realized, which is 7% higher than TiCl4 treatment on TNTs film. In this work, we investigated that double dip-coating of TiCl4/Al2O3 treatment on TiO2 nanotubes film had an effect on enhancement of JSC and VOC due to improvement of electron transfer, increment of dye adsorption, and reduction of recombination rate of charge. Photoelectrode DSSCs with light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency were achieved under a simulated solar light irradiation of 100 mW·cm2 (AM 1.5.

  14. Influences of Stacking Architectures of TiO2 Nanoparticle Layers on Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influences of stacking architectures of the TiO2 nanoparticle layers on characteristics and performances of DSSCs. TiO2 nanoparticles of different sizes and compositions were characterized for their morphological and optical/scattering properties in thin films. They were used to construct different stacking architectures of the TiO2 nanoparticle layers for use as working electrodes of DSSCs. Characteristics and performances of DSSCs were examined to establish correlation of the stacking architectures of TiO2 nanoparticle layers with characteristics of DSSCs. The results suggest that the three-layer DSSC architecture, with sandwiching a 20 nm TiO2 nanoparticle layer between a 37 nm TiO2 nanoparticle layer and a hundred nm sized TiO2 back scattering/reflection layer, is effective in enhancing DSSC efficiencies. The high-total-transmittance 37 nm TiO2 nanoparticle layer with a larger haze can serve as an effective front scattering layer to scatter a portion of the incident light into larger oblique angles and therefore increase optical paths and absorption.

  15. Electron transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells made from single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache-Pommer, Emil; Liu, Bin; Aydil, Eray S

    2009-11-14

    Contrary to expectations, the electron transport rate in dye-sensitized solar cells made from single-crystal rutile titanium dioxide nanowires is found to be similar to that measured in dye-sensitized solar cells made from titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

  16. Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells aided by Sr,Cr co-doped TiO2 xerogel films made of uniform spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshayesh, A M; Bakhshayesh, N

    2015-12-15

    One-pot preparation of Sr,Cr co-doped TiO2 xerogel film for boosting the short circuit current density of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is reported. The 2.5-μm-diameter spheres are assembled from 60nm nanoparticles by a modified sol-gel method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that Sr(2+) and Cr(3+) ions to be well incorporated into the titania crystal lattice without forming specific strontium and chromium compositions. The crystallite size, phase composition, and band structure of the particles depend on the dopants concentration. Isolated energy levels near valence band as a result of the transition ion (i.e., Cr) introduction, in conjunction with the local lattice distortions owing to the alkaline earth ion (i.e., Sr) insertion, improves the photocatalytic activity of the prepared TiO2 spheres, enhancing the short circuit current density of the cells. The DSC co-doped with 0.075 at.% Sr and 2.5 at.% Cr (i.e., S7C25 solar cell) showed the highest power conversion efficiency of 7.89% and short circuit current density of 18.58mA/cm(2) thanks to lower charge transfer resistance (2.35Ωcm(2)), lower electron transit time (1.26ms), and higher electron diffusion coefficient (17.1×10(4)cm(2)S(-1)) compared to the other cells, demonstrated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The concept of simultaneously introduction of alkaline earth ions and transition ions into TiO2 lattice will open up a new insight into the fabrication of high performance DSCs.

  17. High open voltage and superior light-harvesting dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated by flower-like hierarchical TiO2 composed with highly crystalline nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Ya-Ping; Weng, Jian; Hu, Lin-Hua; Wu, Ji-Huai; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    The morphology, microstructure and crystallography of titanium dioxide (TiO2) have great effect on the photoelectric performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Herein, flower-like 3D TiO2 microstructures based on well-defined high-crystalline nanosheets are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. Especially, morphological evolution process and mechanism of this hierarchical structure are investigated. Due to the highly crystalline nature and smaller surface area of these nanosheets, the corresponding device shows an extremely high open-current voltage up to 0.84 V, which results from the less electron recombination. When applied as a scattering layer on top of the nanoparticle layer, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) can be significantly improved and give birth to a PCE value of 9.6%, which is 24.6% higher than that of an analogous device using nanoparticles (NP) (7.7%). As reflected by diffusion reflection spectra, intensity of the modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), this hierarchical structure can not only enhance light harvesting, but also reduce electron recombination, facilitate electron transport and improve electron collection efficiency.

  18. Worm-like mesoporous TiO2 thin films templated using comb copolymer for dye-sensitized solar cells with polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hun; Park, Cheol Hun; Jung, Jung Pyo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2015-12-01

    A comb copolymer consisting of hydrophobic poly(2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl] ethyl methacrylate) (PBEM) and hydrophilic poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) is synthesized via one-pot free radical polymerization. The PBEM-POEM comb copolymer is used as an agent to direct the structure toward one consisting of worm-like mesoporous TiO2 (WM-TiO2) films. The selective, preferential interaction between the titania precursor and the hydrophilic POEM chains is responsible for the formation of a well-organized worm-like mesostructure. The morphology of the WM-TiO2 films is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In particular, the effects of film thickness on the optical and electrochemical properties are systematically investigated. The introduction of the WM-TiO2 layer between the nanocrystalline TiO2 (NC-TiO2) layer and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass results in increased transmittance of visible light due to an antireflective property, decreased interfacial resistance and suppressed charge recombination at the interfaces of NC-TiO2/FTO glass. As a result, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with a polymer electrolyte is improved from 5.3% to 6.6% at an optimum film thickness (310 nm). The obtained efficiency represents a higher efficiency for the N719-based DSSC with a solvent-free, polymer electrolyte.

  19. High-performance plastic dye-sensitized solar cells based on low-cost commercial P25 TiO2 and organic dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiong; Xue, Zhaosheng; Wang, Long; Cheng, Yueming; Liu, Bin

    2012-03-01

    High-performance plastic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on low-cost commercial Degussa P25 TiO(2) and organic indoline dye D149 have been fabricated using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) with compression post-treatment at room temperature. The pressed EPD electrode outperformed the sintered EPD electrode and as-prepared EPD electrode in short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. About 150% and 180% enhancement in power conversion efficiency have been achieved in DSC devices with sintering and compression post-treatment as compared to the as-prepared electrode, respectively. Several characterizations including intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra have been employed to reveal the nature of improvement with post-treatment. Experimental results indicate that the sintering and compression post-treatment are beneficial to improve the electron transport and thus lead to the enhancement of photocurrent and power conversion efficiency. In addition, the compression post-treatment is more efficient than sintering post-treatment in improving interparticle connection in the as-prepared EPD electrode. Under optimized conditions, the conversion efficiency of plastic devices with D149-sensitized P25 TiO(2) photoanode has reached 5.76% under illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW cm(-2)). This study demonstrates that the EPD combined with compression post-treatment provides a way to fabricate highly efficient plastic photovoltaic devices. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  20. TiO2 nanorods: a facile size- and shape-tunable synthesis and effective improvement of charge collection kinetics for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Xie, Yan; Xiong, Dehua; Zeng, Xianwei; Li, Zhihong; Wang, Mingkui; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Chen, Wei; Yan, Keyou; Yang, Shihe

    2014-06-25

    In this paper, we present a novel, high-yield, and cost-effective hydrothermal method for the preparation of single crystal-like anatase TiO2 nanorods (NRs) with specific {101} exposed crystal planes and preferred [001] growth direction, which is governed by the "oriented attachment" mechanism. The successful synthesis of TiO2 NRs and fine tuning on their size and shape could be easily accomplished by adjusting the solvent compositions. The salient feature of these NRs, in lieu of traditional nanoparticles as building blocks of photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) system, rests with their significantly reduced grain boundaries. The electron diffusion and recombination kinetics have been critically compared for the first time with respect to the size and shape of the novel building blocks. A high efficiency of 8.87% has finally been achieved for DSSC based on long-thin NRs rather than short-thin or long-thick NRs, which possesses balanced optimizations on charge collection and light-harvesting properties.

  1. Preparation of silver nanowires coated with TiO2 using chemical binder and their applications as photoanodes in dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Inseok; Kang, Taeho; Cho, Woohyung; Kang, Yong Soo; Oh, Seong-Geun; Im, Seung Soon

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the core-shell structured Ag@TiO2 wire was prepared for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The Ag nanowire, having an excellent electrical conductivity, was synthesized by using the facile microwave-assisted polyol reduction process. The diameter and length of Ag wires were 40-50 nm and 20-30 μm, respectively, and the face-centered cubic silver crystal structure was obtained. In the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol as a chemical binder, the entire surface of Ag wire was coated with the TiO2 shell, which has thickness of 20 nm, through solvothermal method. The crystalline structure of TiO2 shell was the anatase phase possessing an advantage to achieve the high efficiency in DSSC. The core-shell structured Ag@TiO2 wire exhibited the high thermal stability. The high conversion efficiency (5.56%) in fabricated device with Ag@TiO2 electrode, which is about 10% higher than reference cell, was achieved by enhancement of short-current density (Jsc) value. The core-shell structured Ag@TiO2 wire could effectively reduce the charge recombination through the contribution to electron shortcut for improvement in the electron transfer rate and lifetime.

  2. Improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with TiO2/graphene/TiO2 sandwich structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Chien; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Chan, Po-Shun; Zhang, Xiuyu; Huang, Cing-Jhih

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which the TiO2/graphene/TiO2 sandwich structure improves the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) over that of DSSCs with the traditional structure. Studies have demonstrated that the TiO2/graphene/TiO2 sandwich structure effectively enhances the open circuit voltage (V oc), short-circuit current density (J sc), and photoelectrical conversion efficiency (η) of DSSCs. The enhanced performance of DSSCs with the sandwich structure can be attributed to an increase in electron transport efficiency and in the absorption of light in the visible range. The DSSC with the sandwich structure in this study exhibited a V oc of 0.6 V, a high J sc of 11.22 mA cm(-2), a fill factor (FF) of 0.58, and a calculated η of 3.93%, which is 60% higher than that of a DSSC with the traditional structure.

  3. Enhanced performance of reversely transferred, doubly open-ended TiO2 nanotube arrays for front-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Lee, Soo-Yong; Kim, Jae-Hong; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kang, Soon-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Doubly open-ended conventional TiO2 nanotube arrays (Type I) and nanoporous-layer-covered nanotube arrays (Type II) were transferred to transparent fluorine-doped tin oxides (FTOs) for front-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). FTO/Type II exhibited a long electron lifetime ( τ e ) and rapid electron transport compared to FTO/Type I because of the reduced surface defect-state-mediated recombination rate. In particular, Type II transferred reversely to the FTO (FTO/Type II-rev) had beneficial geometric effects, leading to a decrease in pore size from the bottom to the top and a nanoporous TiO2 thin bottom layer. These enabled more effective light scattering near the FTO and facilitated lateral electron movement toward the FTO, leading to a shortened electron pathway and a reduced recombination rate. The significantly enhanced electron lifetime and the shortened electron transit time of the FTO/Type II-rev improved the charge collection efficiency significantly. Furthermore, the enhanced light scattering increased the light harvesting efficiency. These beneficial geometric effects of FTO/Type II-rev contributed to the greatly enhanced overall cell efficiency (7.61%) of the DSSC compared to the DSSCs with FTO/Type I (5.27%) and FTO/Type II (6.65%).

  4. Morphology-controlled cactus-like branched anatase TiO2 arrays with high light-harvesting efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wu-Qiang; Rao, Hua-Shang; Feng, Hao-Lin; Guo, Xin-Dong; Su, Cheng-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin

    2014-08-01

    The present work establishes a facile process for one-step hydrothermal growth of vertically aligned anatase cactus-like branched TiO2 (CBT) arrays on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate. Various CBT morphologies are obtained by adjusting the potassium titanium oxide oxalate (PTO) reactant concentration (from 0.05 M to 0.15 M) and this yields a morphologically-controllable branched TiO2 arrays geometry. The CBT arrays consist of a vertically oriented nanowire (NW) or nanosheet (NS) stem and a host of short nanorod (NR) branches. The hierarchical CBT arrays demonstrate their excellent candidatures as photoanodes, which are capable of exhibiting high light-harvesting efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Consequently, DSSCs based on 7 μm long optimized CBT arrays (0.05 M PTO), which are assembled with high density and high aspect-ratio NR branches, exhibit an impressive power conversion efficiency of 6.43% under AM 1.5G one sun illumination. The high performance can be attributed to the prominent light-harvesting efficiency, resulting from larger surface area and superior light-scattering capability.

  5. 3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 and metal-free organic sensitizer producing dye-sensitized solar cells 8.6% conversion efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianjian; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Nattestad, Andrew; Sun, Ziqi; Wang, Lianzhou; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

    2014-08-29

    Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical nanoscale architectures comprised of building blocks, with specifically engineered morphologies, are expected to play important roles in the fabrication of 'next generation' microelectronic and optoelectronic devices due to their high surface-to-volume ratio as well as opto-electronic properties. Herein, a series of well-defined 3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 architectures (HRT) were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal method without any surfactant or template, simply by changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid used in the synthesis. The production of these materials provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first identified example of a ledgewise growth mechanism in a rutile TiO2 structure. Also for the first time, a Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSC) combining a HRT is reported in conjunction with a high-extinction-coefficient metal-free organic sensitizer (D149), achieving a conversion efficiency of 5.5%, which is superior to ones employing P25 (4.5%), comparable to state-of-the-art commercial transparent titania anatase paste (5.8%). Further to this, an overall conversion efficiency 8.6% was achieved when HRT was used as the light scattering layer, a considerable improvement over the commercial transparent/reflector titania anatase paste (7.6%), a significantly smaller gap in performance than has been seen previously.

  6. Facile synthesis of SnO2 coated urchin-like TiO2 hollow microspheres as efficient scattering layer for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fengyan; Li, Yafeng; Dou, Jie; Wu, Junxiu; Wei, Mingdeng

    2016-12-01

    SnO2 coated urchin-like TiO2 hollow microspheres are prepared via a facile one-step hydrothermal method by using titanium tetrabutoxide (TBOT) as titanium source. The synthesized products are characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM measurements. It's found that the as-prepared microspheres with a diameter of 500-800 nm are consisted of densely interconnected nanowires and possessed a high specific surface area of 134.92 m2 g-1. Moreover, HRTEM and element mapping results show that the surface of urchin-like microsphere is coated by lots of SnO2 nanoparticles. When used as scattering layer for dye-sensitized solar cells, the microspheres show good dye adsorption capability, superior light scattering and electron diffusibility, leading to a higher photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 8.33%, which is a 28.4% enhancement comparable to that of bare nanocrystalline TiO2 (Dyesol 18NR-T, 6.49%).

  7. Electrospinning Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) nanofiber for dye sensitized solar cells based on Bryophyta as a sensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma Ilahi, Novita; Suryana, Risa; Nurrosyid, Fahru; Kusuma, N. T. Linda

    2017-01-01

    From an engineering and economic perspective, immobilized TiO2 nanocatalysts are preferred in a variety of applications. In this study, TiO2 polymer solution was synthesized using ethanol, acetic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP). TiO2 solution was deposited on the FTO substrate by electrospinning method to obtain nano-sized layer. Capillary of syringes given a positive DC voltage of 6 kV to produce nanofiber, then annealed at 450 °C for 3 hours. Chlorophyll has obtained from extracted moss through a chromatographic process to used for dye. TiO2 nanofiber layer manufactured with varied by time and characterized by UV-Vis and IV-meter. The result exhibited a maximum efficiency of 0,0036% and significant absorption at 350 nm-500 nm wavelength.

  8. Enhanced electron lifetime on nitrogen-doped TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Tae Kwan; Cheon, Jong Hun; Bae, Jae Young; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Jae Hong

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 crystallites were prepared via the hydrolysis of TiCl4 using an ammonia medium in an aqueous solution for DSSC photoelectrodes. The optimized photoelectrode for the DSSC was prepared with 9.4 nm sized N-doped TiO2 crystal (BET; 200 m2/g), which provides a relatively high short circuit current and energy conversion efficiency in the DSSC. The photovoltaic performance of the N-doped TiO2 electrode was confirmed using incident photon-to-current efficient spectra, impedance analyses, and Bode-phase plots which proved that the N-doped TiO2 electrode has a significantly enhanced electron lifetime compared with that of the P25 electrode.

  9. Improving Electron Transfer from Dye to TiO2 by Using CdTe Nanostructure Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshkar, Farshad; Sabet, Mohammad; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2015-08-01

    In this work, TiO2 P25 was deposited successfully on the FTO glass by electrophoresis method. Different chemical methods were served for deposition of nanosized CdTe such as successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and drop-cast. Dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated from prepared electrodes, Pt as a counter electrode, dye solution, and electrolyte. The effects of chemical deposition methods were investigated on the surface quality, optical properties, and solar cell efficiency. It was observed that deposition method has an important role on the solar cell performance. It was also seen that deposition method affects directly on surface thickness and the amount of dye adsorption. In fact, each deposition method creates different surfaces, and hence, they act variously in electron transfer across the electrode surface. Among different deposition methods that were used in this experimental work, SILAR method showed the best performance and the surface that was created by this method could transfer the electrons across the electrode faster than the other ones. But this chemical method cannot improve solar cell efficiency due to some different reasons that we mentioned in this paper.

  10. Kinetics of electron recombination of dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 nanorod arrays sensitized with different dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Liu, Meinan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Peng; Miura, Hidetoshi; Cheng, Yan; Bell, John

    2011-10-14

    The performance and electron recombination kinetics of dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO(2) films consisting of one-dimensional nanorod arrays (NR-DSSCs) which are sensitized with dyes N719, C218 and D205, respectively, have been studied. It has been found that the best efficiency is obtained with the dye C218 based NR-DSSCs, benefiting from a 40% higher short-circuit photocurrent density. However, the open circuit photovoltage of the N719 based cell is 40 mV higher than that of the organic dye C218 and D205 based devices. Investigation of the electron recombination kinetics of the NR-DSSCs has revealed that the effective electron lifetime, τ(n), of the different dye based NR-DSSCs shows the sequence of C218 > D205 > N719. The higher V(oc) with the N719 based NR-DSSC is originated from the more negative energy level of the conduction band of the TiO(2) film. In addition, in comparison to the DSSCs with the conventional nanocrystalline particles based TiO(2) films, the NR-DSSCs have shown over two orders of magnitude higher τ(n) when employing N719 as the sensitizer. Nevertheless, the τ(n) of the DSSCs with the C218 based nanorod arrays is only ten-fold higher than that of the nanoparticles based devices. The remarkable characteristic of the dye C218 in suppressing the electron recombination of DSSCs is discussed.

  11. High-Performance and Stable Gel-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Anodic TiO2 Nanotube Arrays and Polymer-Based Gel Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidalilir, Zahra; Malekfar, Rasoul; Wu, Hui-Ping; Shiu, Jia-Wei; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2015-06-17

    Highly ordered and vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays were synthesized with potentiostatic anodization of Ti foil and applied to fabricate gel-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The open structure of the TiO2 NT facilitates the infiltration of the gel-state electrolyte; their one-dimensional structural feature provides effective charge transport. TiO2 NTs of length L=15-35 μm were produced on anodization for periods of t=5-15 h at a constant voltage of 60 V, and sensitized with N719 for photovoltaic characterization. A commercially available copolymer, poly(methyl methacrylate-co-ethyl acrylate) (PMMA-EA), served as a gelling agent to prepare a polymer-gel electrolyte (PGE) for DSSC applications. The PGE as prepared exhibited a maximum conductivity of 4.58 mS cm(-1) with PMMA-EA (7 wt %). The phase transition temperature (Tp) of the PGE containing PMMA-EA at varied concentrations was determined on the basis of the viscosities measured at varied temperatures. Tp increased with increasing concentration of PMMA-EA. An NT-DSSC with L=30 μm assembled using a PGE containing PMMA-EA (7 wt %) exhibited an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.9%, which is comparable with that of a corresponding liquid-type device, PCE=7.1%. Moreover, the gel-state NT-DSSC exhibited excellent thermal and light-soaking enduring stability: the best device retained ∼90% of its initial efficiency after 1000 h under 1 sun of illumination at 50 °C, whereas its liquid-state counterpart decayed appreciably after light soaking for 500 h.

  12. TiO2 nanotube formation by Ti film anodization and their transport properties for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iraj, M.; Kolahdouz, M.; Asl-Soleimani, E.; Esmaeili, E.; Kolahdouz Esfahani, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the synthesis of TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays formed by anodization of Ti film deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass substrate by direct current magnetron sputtering. NH4F/ethylene glycol electrolyte was used to demonstrate the growth of stable nanotubes at room

  13. Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (NDSSCs) From Opuntia Prickly Pear Dye Using ZnO Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Method

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Natural dye-sensitized solar cells (NDSSCs) have gained considerable attention in the field of solar energy due to their simple fabrication, good efficiency, and low production cost. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted natural dyes. W...

  14. Removing structural disorder from oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays: reducing the dimensionality of transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kai; Vinzant, Todd B; Neale, Nathan R; Frank, Arthur J

    2007-12-01

    We report on the influence of morphological disorder, arising from bundling of nanotubes (NTs) and microcracks in films of oriented TiO2 NT arrays, on charge transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Capillary stress created during evaporation of liquids from the mesopores of dense TiO2 NT arrays was of sufficient magnitude to induce bundling and microcrack formation. The average lateral deflection of the NTs in the bundles increased with the surface tension of the liquids and with the film thicknesses. The supercritical CO2 drying technique was used to produce bundle-free and crack-free NT films. Charge transport and recombination properties of sensitized films were studied by frequency-resolved modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopies. Transport became significantly faster with decreased clustering of the NTs, indicating that bundling creates additional pathways via intertube contacts. Removing such contacts alters the transport mechanism from a combination of one and three dimensions to the expected one dimension and shortens the electron-transport pathway. Reducing intertube contacts also resulted in a lower density of surface recombination centers by minimizing distortion-induced surface defects in bundled NTs. A causal connection between transport and recombination is observed. The dye coverage was greater in the more aligned NT arrays, suggesting that reducing intertube contacts increases the internal surface area of the films accessible to dye molecules. The solar conversion efficiency and photocurrent density were highest for DSSCs incorporating films with more aligned NT arrays owing to an enhanced light-harvesting efficiency. Removing structural disorder from other materials and devices consisting of nominally one-dimensional architectures (e.g., nanowire arrays) should produce similar effects.

  15. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of novel TiO2 photoelectrode on TCO substrates for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jung Eun; Kwon, Soon Jin; Jo, Hyo Jeong; Yi, Kwang Bok; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we report synthesis and growth of rutile-anatase TiO2 thin film on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a two-step hydrothermal method. The effects of additional treatments (i.e., TiCl4 post-treatment and seed layer formation were also studied. Photocurrent-voltage (I-V) measurement of rutile-anatase TiO2 thin film was performed under 1.5 G light illumination. Photovoltaic performance was investigated by incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS/IMPS) and open-circuit photovoltage decay (OCVD).

  16. Nanocrystalline TiO2 Powder Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrzański L. A.; Szindler M. M.; Szindler M.; Lukaszkowicz K.; Drygała A.; Prokopiuk vel Prokopowicz M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study titanium dioxide nanopowder has been manufactured and examined. Nanocrystalline TiO2 powder has been obtained by hydrolysis and peptization of a solution of titanium isopropoxide and isopropanol. Subsequently, produced powder has been subjected to structural analysis by using a transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, and Raman spectrometer. For comparison purposes, a commercially available titanium dioxide powder (i.e. titanium white) was also used. Thin layers h...

  17. Nanostructured ZnO, TiO2, and Composite ZnO/TiO2 Films for Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrsini Giannouli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of using composite semiconductor films on the efficiency and stability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were investigated. Four different types of composite ZnO/TiO2 cells were developed and sensitized with the organic molecules Coumarin 343 (C343 and Rose Bengal (RB. A comparative assessment of the different composite cells was conducted, and the photovoltaic performance of single-semiconductor ZnO and TiO2 solar cells was also compared to that of the composite ZnO/TiO2 cells. It was observed that composite cells with ZnO/TiO2 ratio equal to 90/10 have comparable efficiency to single-semiconductor cells and have the advantage of higher stability. The effects of using various multicomponent electrolytes on the efficiency and stability of the ZnO/TiO2 cells were also investigated. It was observed that the combined properties of the materials used in these electrolytes enhance the efficiency of the composite ZnO/TiO2 cells.

  18. Dye adsorption mechanisms in TiO2 films, and their effects on the photodynamic and photovoltaic properties in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-Jun; Shim, Wang-Geun; Kim, Youngjin; Kim, Gunwoo; Choi, Chulmin; Kang, Sang Ook; Cho, Dae Won

    2015-09-14

    The adsorption mechanism for the N719 dye on a TiO2 electrode was examined by the kinetic and diffusion models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion models). Among these methods, the observed adsorption kinetics are well-described using the pseudo-second order model. Moreover, the film diffusion process was the main controlling step of adsorption, which was analysed using a diffusion-based model. The photodynamic properties in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated using time-resolved transient absorption techniques. The photodynamics of the oxidized N719 species were shown to be dependent on the adsorption time, and also the adsorbed concentration of N719. The photovoltaic parameters (Jsc, Voc, FF and η) of this DSSC were determined in terms of the dye adsorption amounts. The solar cell performance correlates significantly with charge recombination and dye regeneration dynamics, which are also affected by the dye adsorption amounts. Therefore, the photovoltaic performance of this DSSC can be interpreted in terms of the adsorption kinetics and the photodynamics of oxidized N719.

  19. Triblock-Terpolymer-Directed Self-Assembly of Mesoporous TiO2: High-Performance Photoanodes for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Docampo, Pablo

    2012-04-30

    A new self-assembly platform for the fast and straightforward synthesis of bicontinuous, mesoporous TiO 2 films is presented, based on the triblock terpolymer poly(isoprene - b - styrene - b - ethylene oxide). This new materials route allows the co-assembly of the metal oxide as a fully interconnected minority phase, which results in a highly porous photoanode with strong advantages over the state-of-the-art nanoparticle-based photoanodes employed in solidstate dye-sensitized solar cells. Devices fabricated through this triblock terpolymer route exhibit a high availability of sub-bandgap states distributed in a narrow and low enough energy band, which maximizes photoinduced charge generation from a state-of-the-art organic dye, C220. As a consequence, the co-assembled mesoporous metal oxide system outperformed the conventional nanoparticle-based electrodes fabricated and tested under the same conditions, exhibiting solar power-conversion efficiencies of over 5%. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Application of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nano-tubes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Vy Anh; Truong, Trieu Thinh; Phan, Thu Anh Pham; Nguyen, Trang Ngoc; Huynh, Tuan Van; Agresti, Antonio; Pescetelli, Sara; Le, Tien Khoa; Di Carlo, Aldo; Lund, Torben; Le, So-Nhu; Nguyen, Phuong Tuyet

    2017-03-01

    Our research aimed to improve the overall energy conversion efficiency of DSCs by applying nitrogen-doped TiO2 nano-tubes (N-TNT) for the preparation of DSCs photo-anodes. The none-doped TiO2 nano-tubes (TNTs) were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of Degussa P25 TiO2 particles in 10 M NaOH. The nano-tubes were N-doped by reflux in various concentrations of NH4NO3. The effects of nitrogen doping on the structure, morphology, and crystallography of N-TNT were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). DSCs fabricated with doped N-TNT and TNT was characterized by J-V measurements. Results showed that nitrogen doping significantly enhanced the efficiency of N-TNT cells, reaching the optimum value (η = 7.36%) with 2 M nitrogen dopant, compared to η = 4.75% of TNT cells. The high efficiency of the N-TNT cells was attributed to increased current density due to the reduction of dark current in the DSCs.

  1. Application of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nano-tubes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Vy Anh; Thinh Troung, Trieu; Pham Phan, Thu Anh;

    2017-01-01

    Our research aimed to improve the overall energy conversion efficiency of DSCs by applying nitrogendoped TiO2 nano-tubes (N-TNT) for the preparation of DSCs photo-anodes. The none-doped TiO2 nano-tubes (TNTs) were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of Degussa P25 TiO2 particles in 10 M...... NaOH. The nano-tubes were N-doped by reflux in various concentrations of NH4NO3. The effects of nitrogen doping on the structure, morphology, and crystallography of N-TNT were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron...... spectra (XPS). DSCs fabricated with doped N-TNT and TNT was characterized by J-V measurements. Results showed that nitrogen doping significantly enhanced the efficiency of N-TNT cells, reaching the optimum value ( = 7.36%) with 2 M nitrogen dopant, compared to = 4.75% of TNT cells. The high efficiency...

  2. TiO 2 Conduction Band Modulation with In 2 O 3 Recombination Barrier Layers in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.

    2013-11-21

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to grow subnanometer indium oxide recombination barriers in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the spiro-OMeTAD hole-transport material (HTM) and the WN1 donor-π-acceptor organic dye. While optimal device performance was achieved after 3-10 ALD cycles, 15 ALD cycles (∼2 Å of In2O 3) was observed to be optimal for increasing open-circuit voltage (VOC) with an average improvement of over 100 mV, including one device with an extremely high VOC of 1.00 V. An unexpected phenomenon was observed after 15 ALD cycles: the increasing VOC trend reversed, and after 30 ALD cycles VOC dropped by over 100 mV relative to control devices without any In2O3. To explore possible causes of the nonmonotonic behavior resulting from In2O3 barrier layers, we conducted several device measurements, including transient photovoltage experiments and capacitance measurements, as well as density functional theory (DFT) studies. Our results suggest that the VOC gains observed in the first 20 ALD cycles are due to both a surface dipole that pulls up the TiO2 conduction band and recombination suppression. After 30 ALD cycles, however, both effects are reversed: the surface dipole of the In2O3 layer reverses direction, lowering the TiO 2 conduction band, and mid-bandgap states introduced by In 2O3 accelerate recombination, leading to a reduced V OC. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Nanostructure Developments of TiO2 Nanocrystals and Aerogels and Their Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Yeoul; Park, Yu-Sik

    2015-07-01

    We synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles (TPs) as a reference via hydrothermal method and also TiO2 aerogels (TAs) via CO2 supercritical drying method. We investigated crystal phase transformation behavior of TPs and TAs with temperature. As-prepared TPs are anatase and rutile phase transformation from anatase starts at 600 °C and was complete at 700 °C. However, TAs are amorphous phase until 300 °C and the crystallization to anatase occurs at 400 °C, and remains anantase phase until 700 °C. At the results of nitrogen adsorption and desorption analyses, TPs with specific surface area of 209 m2/g at 100 °C showed the decrease of the specific surface area and pore volume with increasing temperature and 95% of decrease at 700 °C. TAs showed higher specific surface area, 498 m2/g at 100 °C, and the decreasing trend according to temperature is similar with those of TPs. We prepared three types of photoelectrodes, TPs, TAs, and TATPs (1:1 TAs and TPs composite photoelectrode). After results of DSC photocurrent conversion efficiency measurements of the three type cells, we found that TATPs showed the improved cell efficiency by 1% point, compared with a reference TPs below 15 micrometer thickness. In conclusion, the introduction of nanoporous TAs can improve the photocurrent conversion efficiency due to their high specific surface area for high dye adsorption without degrading of electron transfer.

  4. DC sputtering assisted nano-branched core-shell TiO2/ZnO electrodes for application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengming; Hu, Yong; Qin, Fuyu; Ding, Yutian

    2016-07-01

    TiO2/ZnO core-shell photo-anodes with a large surface area were synthesised by a combination of chemical growth and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering (MS). The use of these combined methods for the advancement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was discussed. An understanding of the morphology and structure of this core-shell material was obtained from the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the thickness of the ZnO nanoshells (as assessed by using TEM), prepared by MS, has a significant effect on improvements in the conversion efficiency. The conversion efficiency can be greatly improved from 0.06% to 0.72% by optimising different experimental conditions, such as ZnO nanoshell MS time and chemical bath deposition time. The enhanced efficiency may be attributed to the emergence of a ZnO energy barrier and the improvement of the photo-anode surface area.

  5. Enhanced efficiency and improved photocatalytic activity of 1 :1 composite mixture of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanotubes in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Maheswari; P Venkatachalam

    2014-10-01

    TiO2-based nanotubes (NTs), nanoparticles (NPs) and composite structural film (50% NP + 50% NT film) were synthesized by sol–gel hydrothermal process. Synthetic indigo dye was used as a sensitizer with the unique combination of electrolyte (EMII + BMII + PMII) and with cobalt sulphide as counter electrode. The structure and morphology of the three films, namely, NP, NT and NPNT is studied through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The absorption spectra and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the three films were compared and found to be higher for NPNT film. The efficiency and photocatalytic activity of three films were evaluated. The composite structure showed improved efficiency (1.72%) than NP (1%) and NT films (0.78%). The photocatalytic activity of the three films were measured using organic dye, methylene blue under UV light radiation. The composite structure showed higher dye absorption and higher rate of reaction with time. This paper certainly proves that there are many rooms to focus on the photoanode configuration, which plays a key role to improve the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC).

  6. Anatase TiO2 pillar-nanoparticle composite fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoliang; Pan, Kai; Zhou, Wei; Qu, Yang; Pan, Qingjing; Jiang, Baojiang; Tian, Guohui; Wang, Guofeng; Xie, Ying; Dong, Youzhen; Miao, Xiaohuan; Tian, Chungui

    2012-11-07

    The anatase TiO(2) pillar (PL)-TiO(2) nanoparticle (NP) composite is fabricated via layer-by-layer assembly. The composition of the nanostructures (i.e. the pillar-to-nanoparticle ratio) can be conveniently tuned by controlling the experimental conditions of the layer-by-layer assembly. It has been used to fabricate photoelectrodes for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which combine the advantages of the rapid electron transport in PLs with the high surface area of NPs. It was found that, with optimum preparation conditions, DSSCs with the composite photoelectrode show a better photoelectrical conversion efficiency (8.06%) than those with either the naked PL photoelectrode or the mechanically mixed PL-NP photoelectrode. This is explained by the photoelectron injection drive force and the interfacial electron transport of the DSSCs, which are quantitatively characterized using the surface photovoltage spectra and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. It is evident that the DSSC with the optimal PL/NP ratio displays the largest photoelectron injection drive force and the fastest interfacial electron transfer.

  7. Formation of anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays in NaOH added fluoride-ethylene glycol electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyein, Nyein; Tan, Wai Kian; Kawamura, Go; Matsuda, Atsunori; Lockman, Zainovia

    2017-07-01

    TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays were formed by anodizing titanium foil in fluoride-ethylene glycol (EG) electrolyte added to it either water (H2O) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as oxidant. In NaOH added fluoride-EG electrolyte, 10 µm long TNT arrays were formed compared to 5 μm long nanotubes in H2O added fluoride-EG electrolyte. When NaOH was added to EG, the electrolyte pH was 9. As the pH of the electrolyte was rather high, surface etching of the nanotubes was reduced resulting in tubes with longer length. Moreover, the addition of NaOH into fluoride-EG resulted in the crystallization of anatase in the as-made TNT arrays. Annealing obviously improved the crystallinity of the oxide. The TNT arrays were then used as a photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A photoconversion efficiency of 2.4 % was recorded with photocurrent of 6.9 mA/cm2.

  8. In-Situ Spectroscopic Analyses of the Dye Uptake on ZnO and TiO2 Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Nadia; Pugliese, Diego; Shahzad, Muhammad Imran; Tresso, Elena

    2015-08-01

    UV-Vis spectroscopic measurements have been performed on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) photoanodes at different dye impregnation times ranging from few minutes to 24 hours. In addition to the traditional absorbance experiments, based on diffuse and specular reflectance of dye impregnated thin films and on the desorption of dye molecules from the photoanodes by means of a basic solution, an alternative in-situ solution depletion measurement, which enables fast and continuous evaluation of dye uptake, has been employed. Two different nanostructured semiconducting oxide films (mesoporous TiO2 and sponge-like ZnO) and two different dyes, the traditional Ruthenizer 535-bisTBA (N719) and a newly introduced metal-free organic dye based on a hemi-squaraine molecule (CT1), have been analyzed. DSSCs have been fabricated with the dye-impregnated photoanodes using a customized microfluidic architecture. The dye adsorption results are discussed and correlated to the obtained DSSC electrical performances such as photovoltaic conversion efficiencies and Incident Photon-to-electron Conversion Efficiency (IPCE) spectra. It is shown that simple UV-Vis measurements can give useful insights on the dye adsorption mechanisms and on the evaluation of the optimal impregnation times.

  9. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+)-incorporated nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang; Wang, Hongyan; Zhang, Quanxin; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-01

    Near infrared to visible up-conversion of light by rare earth ion-doped phosphors (NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+)) that convert multiple photons of lower energy to higher energy photons offer new possibilities for improved performance of photovoltaic devices. Here, up-conversion phosphor NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) doped nanocrystalline TiO2 films are designed and used as a electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells, and the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs based on composite electrodes are investigated. The results show the cell with NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) achieves a power conversion efficiency of 7.65% under one sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100mWcm(-2)), which is an increase of 14% compared to the cell without NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) (6.71%). The performance improvement is attributed to the dual effects of enhanced light harvesting from extended light absorption range and increased light scattering, and lower electron transfer resistance.

  10. Nanocrystalline TiO2 Powder Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study titanium dioxide nanopowder has been manufactured and examined. Nanocrystalline TiO2 powder has been obtained by hydrolysis and peptization of a solution of titanium isopropoxide and isopropanol. Subsequently, produced powder has been subjected to structural analysis by using a transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, and Raman spectrometer. For comparison purposes, a commercially available titanium dioxide powder (i.e. titanium white was also used. Thin layers have been made from this powder and further have been examined by using a UV/VIS spectrometer. Completed research shows the nanocrystalline structure of obtained layers and their good properties such as absorbance at the range of wavelength equal 200 - 1000 nm.

  11. Fruit based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, M. C.; Sipaut, C. S.; Dayou, J.; Liow, K. S.; Kulip, J.; Mansa, R. F.

    2017-07-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) was first discovered in 1991 by O’regan and Gratzel. This new type of solar cell was reported to have lower production cost with efficiency as high as 12% which is comparable to conventional silicon solar cell. Initially, it uses ruthenium dye as light sensitizer for the operation. However, DSSC with ruthenium dyes are facing environment friendly issues due to the toxic chemicals and costly purification in processing ruthenium dye. Regardless of the poor performance in DSSC, natural dyes which are easy to prepare, cheap and environmental friendly still appear to be an alternative as dye sensitizer. In this study, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using anthocyanin source dyes extracted from several local fruits. All the extracts absorb a wide range of the visible light and ultraviolet spectrum. Therefore, all of the natural dyes show light absorption properties which is important for a dye sensitizer. A DSSC is comprised of conductive substrate, nanoporous semiconductor TiO2 layer, dye sensitizer, electrolyte with redox couple and a counter electrode with catalyst. In this study, the effect of different light source and different counter electrode are been investigated. However, it is vital to know that further research need to do more on the locally Borneo sourced dyes to evaluate and enhance their performance in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell.

  12. Photocurrent enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 loaded K6SiW11O39Co(II)(H2O)·xH2O photoanode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Yang, YuLin; Fan, RuiQing; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Qingming; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Bin; Cao, Wenwu; Zhang, Wenzhi; Wang, Yazhen; Ma, Liqun

    2014-01-28

    Through loading of TiO2 on the surface of K6SiW11O39Co(II)(H2O)·xH2O (SiW11Co), a novel photoanode material has been created for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The absorbing band as well as photoelectricity response range of TiO2@SiW11Co is extended to the visible range. In addition, the absorption in the UV range is enhanced notably compared with P25 (raw TiO2). More importantly, the recombination of the TiO2 network is avoided. TiO2@SiW11Co is mixed with P25 powder (wt ∼1 : 1) to assemble dye-sensitized (N719) solar cells, which exhibit a short-circuit photocurrent density as high as 18.05 mA cm(-2), which is 64% higher than blank samples under the standard AM1.5G global solar irradiation. In addition, the mechanisms for SiW11Co in DSSC are proposed.

  13. Synergistic effects of the aspect ratio of TiO2 nanowires and multi-walled carbon nanotube embedment for enhancing photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Young; Kim, Ji Hoon; Moon, Kook Joo; Park, So Dam; Kim, Soo Hyung

    2013-08-07

    The existence of numerous interfacial boundaries among TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) accumulated in the photoelectrode layer of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) hinders the effective transport of photogenerated electrons to an electrode. Therefore, as a replacement for TiO2 NPs, one-dimensional TiO2 nanowires (NWs) can be suggested to provide pathways for fast electron transport by significantly reducing the number of interfacial boundaries. In order to provide direct evidence for the better performance of such longer TiO2 NWs than shorter TiO2 NWs, we examine the effect of the controlled aspect ratio of the TiO2 NWs randomly accumulated in the photoelectrode layer on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. It is clearly found that longer TiO2 NWs significantly improve the electron transport by reducing the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interfacial contact resistance. Furthermore, the embedment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as an effective charge transfer medium in longer TiO2 NWs is proposed in this study to promote more synergistic effects, which lead to significant improvements in the photovoltaic properties of DSSCs.

  14. Effect of Isotopic Substitution on Elementary Processes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Deuterated Amino-Phenyl Acid Dyes on TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Manzhos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the first computational study of the effects of isotopic substitution on the operation of dye-sensitized solar cells. Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the effect of deuteration on light absorption, dye adsorption dynamics, the averaged over vibrations driving force to injection (∆Gi and regeneration (∆Gr, as well as on promotion of electron back-donation in dyes NK1 (2E,4E-2-cyano-5-(4-dimethylaminophenylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid and NK7 (2E,4E-2-cyano-5-(4-diphenylaminophenylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid adsorbed in monodentate molecular and bidentate bridging dissociative configurations on the anatase (101 surface of TiO2. Deuteration causes a red shift of the absorption spectrum of the dye/TiO2 complex by about 5% (dozens of nm, which can noticeably affect the overlap with the solar spectrum in real cells. The dynamics effect on the driving force to injection and recombination (the difference between the averaged <∆Gi,r> and ∆Gi,requil at the equilibrium configuration is strong, yet there is surprisingly little isotopic effect: the average driving force to injection <∆Gi> and to regeneration <∆Gr> changes by only about 10 meV upon deuteration. The nuclear dynamics enhance recombination to the dye ground state due to the approach of the electron-donating group to TiO2, yet this effect is similar for deuterated and non-deuterated dyes. We conclude that the nuclear dynamics of the C-H(D bonds, mostly affected by deuteration, might not be important for the operation of photoelectrochemical cells based on organic dyes. As the expectation value of the ground state energy is higher than its optimum geometry value (by up to 0.1 eV in the present case, nuclear motions will affect dye regeneration by recently proposed redox shuttle-dye combinations operating at low driving forces.

  15. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells based on coaxial TiO2@TiO heterostructures with a cobalt(II/III) redox electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiandong; Fàbrega, Cristian; Zamani, Reza R; Hao, Yan; Parra, Andres; Andreu, Teresa; Arbiol, Jordi; Boschloo, Gerrit; Hagfeldt, Anders; Morante, Joan Ramon; Cabot, Andreu

    2013-10-23

    The growth of a TiO shell at the surface of TiO2 nanowires (NWs) allowed us to improve the power conversion efficiency of NW-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) by a factor 2.5. TiO2@TiO core-shell NWs were obtained by a two-step process: First, rutile-phase TiO2 NWs were hydrothermally grown. Second, a hongquiite-phase TiO shell was electrochemically deposited at the surface of the TiO2 NWs. Bare TiO2 and heterojunction TiO2@TiO NW-based DSCs were obtained using a cobalt(II/III) redox electrolyte and LEG4 as the dye. With this electrolyte/dye combination, DSCs with outstanding Voc values above 900 mV were systematically obtained. While TiO2@TiO NW-based DSCs had slightly lower Voc values than bare TiO2 NW-based DSCs, they provided 3-fold higher photocurrents, overall reaching 2.5-fold higher power conversion efficiencies. The higher photocurrents were associated with the larger surface roughness and an enhanced charge-carrier separation/transfer at the NW/dye interface.

  16. TiO2薄膜优化对染料敏化太阳电池性能的影响%Influence of Nanoporous TiO2 Films on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚小网; 胡林华; 方霞琴; 戴松元

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure of nanoporous TiO2 films has obvious influence on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). In this work, the effect of different treatment methods such as autoclaving temperature, film thickness, scattering particles, TiCl4 solution treatment and electroposition treatment on DSC photovoltaic performance is introduced, and the optimized results were obtained. Such simple but effective strategies provided a good way to improve the overall energy conversion efficiency of DSC and to future mass production of nanoporous TiO2 films.%纳米TiO2多孔薄膜微结构对染料敏化太阳电池(DSC)光伏性能有很大的影响.本文采用不同实验和测试方法研究和分析了溶胶-凝胶法制备纳米TiO2颗粒时的热处理温度、TiO2多孔薄膜厚度、纳米TiO2大颗粒光散射、TiCl4溶液处理和电沉积致密TiO2层对纳米多孔薄膜电极和染料敏化太阳电池光伏性能的影响,得到了最佳的优化条件,为纳米TiO2薄膜材料的批量化制作打下了良好基础.

  17. Development of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Sputtered N-Doped TiO2 Thin Films: From Modeling the Growth Mechanism of the Films to Fabrication of the Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films were deposited by DC reactive sputtering at different doping levels for the development of dye-sensitized solar cells. The mechanism of film growth during the sputtering process and the effect of the nitrogen doping on the structural, optical, morphological, chemical, and electronic properties of the TiO2 were investigated by numerical modeling and experimental methods. The influence of the nitrogen doping on the working principle of the prototypes was investigated by current-voltage relations measured under illuminated and dark conditions. The results indicate that, during the film deposition, the control of the oxidation processes of the nitride layers plays a fundamental role for an effective incorporation of substitutional nitrogen in the film structure and cells built with nitrogen-doped TiO2 have higher short-circuit photocurrent in relation to that obtained with conventional DSSCs. On the other hand, DSSCs built with nondoped TiO2 have higher open-circuit voltage. These experimental observations indicate that the incorporation of nitrogen in the TiO2 lattice increases simultaneously the processes of generation and destruction of electric current.

  18. Fabrication and performance of a monolithic dye-sensitized TiO2/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film tandem solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Wenger, Sophie; Seyrling, Sieghard; Tiwari, Ayodhya; Grätzel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tandem solar cells using different bandgap absorbers allow efficient photovoltaic conversion in a wide range of the solar spectrum. The optical gaps of the dye-sensitized solar cell and the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell are ideal for application in double-junction devices and a mechanically stacked device has been reported recently. We report on the monolithic integration of these subcells to cut optical losses at needless interfaces and material costs, achieving 12.2% conversion efficiency at full...

  19. Low-Temperature Preparation of Amorphous-Shell/Nanocrystalline-Core Nanostructured TiO2 Electrodes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongshe Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An amorphous shell/nanocrystalline core nanostructured TiO2 electrode was prepared at low temperature, in which the mixture of TiO2 powder and TiCl4 aqueous solution was used as the paste for coating a film and in this film amorphous TiO2 resulted from direct hydrolysis of TiCl4 at 100∘C sintering was produced to connect the particles forming a thick crack-free uniform nanostructured TiO2 film (12 μm, and on which a photoelectrochemical solar cell-based was fabricated, generating a short-circuit photocurrent density of 13.58 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.647 V, and an overall 4.48% light-to-electricity conversion efficiency under 1 sun illumination.

  20. Study on the blocking effect of a quantum-dot TiO2 compact layer in dye-sensitized solar cells with ionic liquid electrolyte under low-intensity illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Lee, Hyeonseok; Huang, Yu-Ting; Wei, Tzu-Chien; Feng, Shien-Ping

    2016-10-01

    In this study, ultrasmall and ultrafine TiO2 quantum dots (QDs) were prepared and used as a high-performance compact layer (CL) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). We systematically investigated the performance of TiO2 CL under both low-intensity light and indoor fluorescent light illumination and found that the efficiency of DSCs with the insertion of optimal TiO2 QDs-CL was increased up to 18.3% under indoor T5 fluorescent light illumination (7000 lux). We clarified the controversy over the blocking effect of TiO2 CL for the efficiency increment and confirmed that the TiO2 QDs-CL performed significantly better under low-intensity illumination due to the efficient suppression of electron recombination at the FTO/electrolyte interface. We, for the first time, demonstrate this potential for the application of the DSCs with TiO2 QDs-CL in the low-intensity light and indoor fluorescent light illumination.

  1. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 photoelectrode codoped with aluminum and boron and its application in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xiaoling; ZENG Peng; HU Shejun; KUANG Tongchun; XIE Guangrong; GAO Feng

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline titania films codoped with aluminum and boron were prepared by cathodic vacuum arc deposition. In the process, titanium alloy target was used under an O2/Ar atmosphere, and sensitization of films were carried out by natural dye-sensitized complex in anhydrous ethanol. The structure, surface morphology and UV-vis spectra of titania films codoped were measured by X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectrometer. Theas-deposited films are found to be amorphous. The films annealed were examinedto be of anatase structure with orientation along the (101) planes, the averagecrystal size is in the range between 41 and 45 nm. SEM results show that thereare some pores in the codoped titania films, the optical properties of the dye-sensitized films were also measured which reveals that the spectral responses of films shift to the visible region. Under simulated sunlight illumination, the overall energy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cell is 0.9%.

  2. First principles study of thieno[2,3-b]indole-based organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells: Screen novel π-linkers and explore the interface between photosensitizers and TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yaping; Wu, Wenpeng; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Weiyi; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jinglai

    2016-09-01

    Four organic compounds with different π-linkers are theoretically explored as potential photosensitizers for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Besides the isolated dyes, the interfacial properties of dyes adsorbed on TiO2 anatase (101) surface are theoretically investigated. The overall conversion efficiency (η) of DSSCs is evaluated by the following items on the basis of the isolated dyes, including structures, absorption spectrum, energy gap, open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and reorganization energies (λtotal). After adsorbed on the TiO2 surface, the electron would be efficiently injected from dye into the TiO2 surface because of the increased of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level of the dyes, the decreased of the conduction band of TiO2 surface, and the narrowed band gaps for both dye and TiO2. Moreover, the injection times are in a reasonable range indicating that they are ideal dyes. Combination of all items, the performance of THI-2T-C (See Scheme 1, the sketch structures of all the investigated isolated dyes) stands out from the rest investigated dyes from the theoretical viewpoint. Only enlargement of the π-linker extent is not a smart choice, since the nature of π-linker plays a more important role in affecting the performance of DSSCs.

  3. Effect of Carbon Modification on the Electrical, Structural, and Optical Properties of TiO2 Electrodes and Their Performance in Labscale Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Taziwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles (C:TiO2 NPs have been synthesized by ultrasonic nebulizer spray pyrolysis (USP and pneumatic spray pyrolysis (PSP techniques. HRTEM on the NPs shows difference in lattice spacing in the NP structures prepared by the two methods—2.02 Å for the USP NPs and an average of 3.74 Å for the PSP NPs. The most probable particle sizes are 3.11 nm and 5.5 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy supported by FTIR confirms the TiO2 polymorph to be anatase with the intense phonon frequency at 153 cm−1 blue-shifted from 141 cm−1 ascribed to both carbon doping and particle size. A modified phonon confinement model for nanoparticles has been used to extract phonon dispersion and other parameters for anatase for the first time. Electronic measurements show “negative conductance” at some critical bias voltage, which is characteristic of n-type conductivity in the carbon-doped TiO2 NPs as confirmed by the calculated areas under the I-V curves, a property suited for solar cell applications. Practical solar cells built from carbon-doped TiO2 electrodes show up to 1.5 times improvement in efficiency compared to pure TiO2 electrodes of similar construction.

  4. Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on organic dopant incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO polymer blend electrolyte with g-C3N4/TiO2 photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R. A.; Theerthagiri, J.; Madhavan, J.; Murugan, K.; Arunachalam, Prabhakarn; Arof, A. K.

    2016-10-01

    This work describes the effect of 2-aminopyrimidine (2-APY) on poly(vinylidinefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/polyethylene oxide (PEO) blend polymer electrolyte along with binary iodide salts (tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI) and potassium iodide (KI)) and iodine (I2) were studied for enhancing the efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) consisting of g-C3N4/TiO2 composite as photoanode. The g-C3N4 was synthesized from low cost urea by thermal condensation method. It was used as a precursor to synthesize the various weight percentage ratios (5%, 10% and 15%) of g-C3N4/TiO2 composites by wet-impregnation method. The pure and 2-APY incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO polymer blend electrolytes were arranged by wet chemical process (casting method) using DMF as a solvent. The synthesized g-C3N4/TiO2 composites and polymer blend electrolytes were studied and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ionic conductivity values of the pure and 2-APY incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO blend electrolytes were estimated to be 4.53×10-5 and 1.87×10-4 Scm-1 respectively. The UV-vis absorption spectroscopy was carried out for the pure and different wt% of g-C3N4/TiO2 composites coated FTO films after N3 dye-sensitization. The 10 wt% g-C3N4/TiO2 composite film showed a maximum absorption compared to the others. The DSSC assembled with 10 wt% g-C3N4/TiO2 as photoanode using the pure polymer blend electrolyte exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.17% , which was superior than that of DSSC based pure TiO2 (2.46%). However, the PCE was increased to 4.73% for the DSSC assembled using 10 wt% g-C3N4/TiO2 as photoanode with 2-APY incorporated polymer blend electrolyte. Hence, the present study is a successful attempt to provide a new pathway to enhance the performance of DSSCs.

  5. Enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells performance using anatase TiO2 mesocrystals with the Wulff construction of nearly 100% exposed {101} facets as effective light scattering layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Hai; Song, Yeping; Fang, Liang; Ye, Naiqing; Wang, Linjiang

    2014-03-28

    Anatase TiO2 mesocrystals with a Wulff construction of nearly 100% exposed {101} facets were successfully synthesized by a facile, green solvothermal method. Their morphology, and crystal structure are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Accordingly, a possible growth mechanism of anatase TiO2 mesocrystals is elucidated in this work. The as-prepared single anatase TiO2 mesocrystal's mean center diameter is about 500 nm, and the length is about 1 μm. They exhibit high light adsorbance, high reflectance and low transmittance in the visible region due to the unique nearly 100% exposed {101} facets. When utilized as the scattering layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), such mesocrystals effectively enhanced light harvesting and led to an increase of the photocurrent of the DSSCs. As a result, by using an anatase TiO2 mesocrystal film as a scattering overlayer of a compact commercial P25 TiO2 nanoparticle film, the double layered DSSCs show a power conversion efficiency of 7.23%, indicating a great improvement compared to the DSSCs based on a P25 film (5.39%) and anatase TiO2 mesocrystal films, respectively. The synergetic effect of P25 and the mesocrystals as well as the latters unique feature of a Wulff construction of nearly 100% exposed (101) facets are probably responsible for the enhanced photoelectrical performance. In particular, we explore the possibility of the low surface area and exposed {101} facets as an efficient light scattering layer of DSSCs. Our work suggests that anatase TiO2 mesocrystals with the Wulff construction is a promising candidate as a superior scattering material for high-performance DSSCs.

  6. Enhancement of the Photoelectric Performance of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells by Sol-gel Modified TiO2 Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunfeng Zhao; Xiaojie Li; Qiuping Li; Changsheng Deng

    2011-01-01

    Modified TiO2 films have been prepared by combining commercial titania powders (Degussa P25) with sol-gel made by titanium chloride (Ti-sol). The result shows that clusters are formed by nanoparticles and large pores can be seen on the surface of the TiO2 films. The short circuit photocurrent density and photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cells are obviously enhanced compared with those without modification. The relationship between the photoelectric conversion efficiency and the amount of Ti-sol was investigated. With the addition of 30 wt% Ti-sol, the photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 9.75% is achieved, increasing by 28.3% compared with the solar cells without modification.

  7. TiO2光阳极染料敏化太阳能电池的研究进展%Research progress of dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 photo-anode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洪芳; 王小蕊; 马芳; 丁严广; 王振

    2013-01-01

    通过介绍染料敏化太阳能电池(dye-sensitized solar cells,简称DSSC)的研究背景,指出了DSSC的研究意义.从光阳极、染料敏化剂、电解质和对电极等基本构成要素方面综述了DSSC的研究现状,并展望了其未来的发展方向.

  8. Synthesis of mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanotubes by a hydrothermal treatment and their use in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Kang; Park, Soo-Jin

    2011-05-01

    Mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) with the diameter of about 7 12 nm and the length of several hundred nanometers were synthesized by a hydrothermal method on commercial TiO2 particles in NaOH followed by HCI washing. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmitting electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) measurements. The hydrothermal treatment temperature at 130 degrees C was shown to affect not only the extent of particle-to-sheet conversion, and thus the resulting structures of the NTs, but also the anatase-to-rutile transformation. The surface area of the NTs was 200 m2g(-1). This value was much higher in comparison to TiO2 nanoparticles of 50 m2g(-1). It was also found that the NT photoelectrodes had a pronounced impact on the performance of solar cells as compared to nanoparticle ones. This was probably due to lead to a significantly higher specific dye loading and, for certain hydrothermal treatments, resulting in a doubling of the solar cell efficiency (in our case from 2.84% to 4.03% of AM 1.5 conditions).

  9. Charge transport in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Masatoshi

    2015-03-01

    The effect of charge transport on the photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was investigated by the experimental results and the ion transport. The short current photocurrent density (Jsc) is determined by the electron transport in porous TiO2 when the diffusion limited current (Jdif) due to the {{I}3}- transport is larger than the photo-generated electron flux (Jg) estimated from the light harvesting efficiency of dye-sensitized porous TiO2 and the solar spectrum. However, the Jsc value is determined by the ion transport in the electrolyte solution at Jdif Nanotechnology IWAMSN2014, 2-6 November, 2014, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  10. Effect of screen printing type on transparent TiO2 layer as the working electrode of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) for solar windows applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurosyid, F.; Furqoni, L.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2016-11-01

    The working electrode based on semiconductor TiO2 DSSC has been fabricated by screen printing method. This study aim is to determine the effect of the screen type on TiO2 layer as the working electrode of DSSC. Screen used for deposition of TiO2 has the types of; T- 49, T-55 and T-61. TiO2 layer was sintered at temperature of 500°C. DSSC structure was composed of semiconductor TiO2 adsorbed dye, an electrolyte solution and a platinum counter electrode. TiO2 layer thickness was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), while the absorbance was characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and the electrical properties of DSSC were characterized by Keithley I-V measurement. TiO2 layer fabricated by screen T-49 had the biggest thickness that was 3.2 ± 0.3 μm and the highest UV-Vis absorbance wave at the peak wavelength of 315 nm with the absorbance value was 1.7. The I-V characterization showed that the sample fabricated by screen T-49 obtained the greatest efficiency that was 1.0 × 10-1%

  11. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsatorn Amornpitoksuk

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell is a new type of solar cell. The operating system of this solar cell type is similar to plant’s photosynthesis process. The sensitizer is available for absorption light and transfer electrons to nanocrystalline metal oxide semiconductor. The ruthenium(II complexes with polypyridyl ligands are usually used as the sensitizers in solar cell. At the present time, the complex of [Ru(2,2',2'’-(COOH3- terpy(NCS3] is the most efficient sensitizer. The total photon to current conversion efficiency was approximately 10% at AM = 1.5.

  12. Passivation of nanocrystalline TiO2 junctions by surface adsorbed phosphinate amphiphiles enhances the photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2009-01-01

    We report a new class of molecular insulators that electronically passivate the surface of nanocrystalline titania films for high performance dye sensitized solar cells (DSC). Using electrical impedance measurements we demonstrate that co-adsorption of dineohexyl bis-(3,3-dimethyl-butyl)-phosphinic acid (DINHOP), along with the amphiphilic ruthenium sensitizer Z907Na increased substantially the power output of the cells mainly due to a retardation of interfacial recombination of photo-generated charge carriers. The use of phosphinates as anchoring groups opens up new avenues for modification of the surface by molecular insulators, sensitizers and other electro-active molecules to realize the desired optoelectronic performance of devices based on oxide junctions. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Increase in efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by porous TiO2 layer modification with gadolinium-containing thin layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maciej Zalas; Mariusz Walkowiak; Grzegorz Schroeder

    2011-01-01

    Modified with gadolinium-containing layer,nanoporous titania electrode and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells were reported.The electrode prepared was characterized with UV-Vis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques.The amount of gadolinium was measured with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) experiments.The modified electrode showed reduced N3 dye adsorption ability,but increased light conversion efficiency in comparison with the non-modified electrode.The overall conversion efficiencies,determined under 400 W/m2 irradiation with tungsten- halogen lamp at room temperature,were 0.55% for non-modified and 0.74% for modified electrodes.

  14. Synthesis, photovoltaic performances and TD-DFT modeling of push-pull diacetylide platinum complexes in TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Sébastien; Caro, Bertrand; Robin-Le Guen, Françoise; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai; Gladysz, John A; Wojcik, Laurianne; Le Poul, Nicolas; Planchat, Aurélien; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Jacquemin, Denis; Odobel, Fabrice

    2014-08-07

    In this joint experimental-theoretical work, we present the synthesis and optical and electrochemical characterization of five new bis-acetylide platinum complex dyes end capped with diphenylpyranylidene moieties, as well as their performances in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Theoretical calculations relying on Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) and a range-separated hybrid show a very good match with experimental data and allow us to quantify the charge-transfer character of each compound. The photoconversion efficiency obtained reaches 4.7% for 8e (see TOC Graphic) with the tri-thiophene segment, which is among the highest efficiencies reported for platinum complexes in DSCs.

  15. Toward Higher Energy Conversion Efficiency for Solid Polymer Electrolyte Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Ionic Conductivity and TiO2 Pore-Filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Donghoon; Cho, Woohyung; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kang, Yong Soo

    2014-04-03

    Even though the solid polymer electrolyte has many intrinsic advantages over the liquid electrolyte, its ionic conductivity and mesopore-filling are much poorer than those of the liquid electrolyte, limiting its practical application to electrochemical devices such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Two major shortcomings associated with utilizing solid polymer electrolytes in DSCs are first discussed, low ionic conductivity and poor pore-filling in mesoporous photoanodes for DSCs. In addition, future directions for the successful utilization of solid polymer electrolytes toward improving the performance of DSCs are proposed. For instance, the facilitated mass-transport concept could be applied to increase the ionic conductivity. Modified biphasic and triple-phasic structures for the photoanode are suggested to take advantage of both the liquid- and solid-state properties of electrolytes.

  16. Blocking layer effect on dye-sensitized solar cells assembled with TiO2 nanorods prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Lijian; Li Can

    2011-01-01

    Three different thickness dense TiO2 (150 nm, 300 nm and 450 nm respectively) films were deposited on ITO substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering technique. These dense TiO2 films were used as the blocking layers. After that, TiO2 nanorod films were deposited on these dense TiO2 films by same technique. Both the dense and nanorod TiO2 films have an anatase phase. The dense TiO2 films have an orientation along the [101] direction and the TiO2 nanorod films show a very strong orientation...

  17. Room Temperature Synthesis of Highly Compact TiO2 Coatings by Vacuum Kinetic Spraying to Serve as a Blocking Layer in Polymer Electrolyte-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jeeae; Sudhagar, P.; Park, Hyungkwon; Cho, Woohyung; Kang, Yong Soo; Lee, Changhee

    2015-02-01

    Vacuum kinetic spraying (VKS) was used to form a blocking layer (BL) in order to increase the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Nano-sized TiO2 powders were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass while varying the coating parameters including the mass flow, substrate transverse speed, and number of coating passes in order to control the thickness of the BL. Compared to the cell without a BL, the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density of the solar cell with a VKS-coated BL were noticeably improved. Consequently, the photoconversion efficiency increased up to 5.6%, which is significantly higher than that of a spin-coated BL.

  18. Effects of calcination treatment on the morphology, crystallinity, and photoelectric properties of all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells assembled by TiO2 nanorod arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianmiao; Sun, Qiong; Li, Yang; Sui, Lina; Dong, Lifeng

    2013-11-14

    TiO2 has been extensively investigated due to its unique photoelectric properties. In this study, oriented single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were synthesized and then calcined at different temperatures in the atmosphere. The morphology and crystalline characterization indicated that the length of TiO2 nanorods increased rapidly and the nanorods became aggregated and fragile after calcination, yet the sintering treatment seemed to have almost no effect on the crystallinity. To obtain the all-solid-state, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a newly reported solid inorganic semiconductor, CsSnI2.95F0.05, was employed as the electrolyte, and the Pt deposited on the conductive side of the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate was used as the counter-electrode. The effects of the calcination treatment on the photoelectric properties of the solar cells, including external quantum efficiency (EQE), open circuit voltage (V(OC)), short-circuit current (J(SC)), and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η), were investigated under the illumination of a solar simulator. As a result, all of the EQE, V(OC), J(SC), and η values of the cells first increased and then declined with the increase of calcination temperatures, and the highest η of 2.81% was obtained by the cell assembled with its TiO2 electrode sintered at 450 °C for 3 h, a value almost 2.5 times that of the non-sintered sample (1.1%).

  19. Dye-sensitized photovoltaic wires using highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoyue; Misra, Mano

    2010-04-27

    Dye-sensitized photovoltaic wires (DSPVWs) are developed using anodized Ti wires that contain ordered arrays of TiO2 nanotubes. The prototype DSPVW consists of N719 dye-adsorbed TiO2 nanotube arrays around a Ti wire as a working electrode, a platinum wire as a counter electrode, and an organic electrolyte encased in a capillary glass tube. The effect of length of nanotube arrays on the photovoltaic performance of DSPVWs is studied systematically. A solar-to-electric conversion efficiency of 2.78% is achieved with 55 microm long nanotubes under 98.3 mW/cm(2) AM 1.5 simulated full light. The prototype device is capable of achieving a long distance transport of photocurrent and harvesting all light from any direction in surroundings to generate electricity.

  20. Improved Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated from a Coumarin NKX-2700 Dye-Sensitized TiO2/MgO Core-Shell Photoanode with an HfO2 Blocking Layer and a Quasi-Solid-State Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswari, D.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2015-03-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were fabricated from a coumarin NKX-2700 dye-sensitized core-shell photoanode and a quasi-solid-state electrolyte, sandwiched together, with a cobalt sulfide-coated counter electrode. The core-shell photoanode consisted of a composite mixture of 90% TiO2 nanoparticles and 10% TiO2 nanowires (TNPW) as core layer and MgO nanoparticles (MNP) as shell layer. Hafnium oxide (HfO2) was applied to the core-shell photoanode film as a blocking layer. TiO2 nanoparticles, TiO2 nanowires, and TNPW/MNP were characterized by x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It was apparent from the UV-visible spectrum of the sensitizing dye coumarin NKX-2700 that its absorption was maximum at 525 nm. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) was greater for DSSC-1, fabricated with a core-shell TNPW/MNP/HfO2 photoanode, than for the other DSSC; its photovoltaic properties were: short circuit photocurrent J sc = 19 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage ( V oc) = 720 mV, fill factor ( FF) = 66%, and PCE ( η) = 9.02%. The charge-transport and charge-recombination behavior of the DSSC were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; the results showed that the composite core-shell film resulted in the lowest charge-transfer resistance ( R CE) and the longest electron lifetime ( τ eff). Hence, the improved performance of DSSC-1 could be ascribed to the core-shell photoanode with blocking layer, which increased electron transport and suppressed recombination of charge carriers at the photoanode/dye/electrolyte interface.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Pure Rutile TiO2 Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Study and Thin Films for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Siou Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure rutile-phase TiO2 (r-TiO2 was synthesized by a simple one pot experiment under hydrothermal condition using titanium (IV n-butoxide as a Ti-precursor and HCl as a peptizer. The TiO2 products were characterized by XRD, TEM, ESCA, and BET surface area measurement. The r-TiO2 were rodlike in shape with average size of ∼61×32 nm at hydrothermal temperature of 220°C for 10 h. Hydrothermal treatment at longer reaction time increased the tendency of crystal growth and also decreased the BET surface area. The degradation of methylene blue was selected as a test reaction to confer the photocatalytic activity of as-obtained r-TiO2. The results showed a strong correlation between the structure evolution, particle size, and photocatalytic performance of r-TiO2. Furthermore, the r-TiO2-based solar cell was prepared for the photovoltaic characteristics study, and the best efficiency of ~3.16% was obtained.

  2. A Bi-layer Composite Film Based on TiO2 Hollow Spheres, P25, and Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes for Efficient Photoanode of Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Putao Zhang; Zhiqiang Hu; Yan Wang; Yiying Qin; Wenqin Li; Jinmin Wang

    2016-01-01

    A bi-layer photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was fabricated, in which TiO2 hollow spheres (THSs) were designed as a scattering layer and P25/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as an under-layer. The THSs were synthesized by a sacrifice template method and showed good light scattering ability as an over-layer of the pho-toanode. MWNTs were mixed with P25 to form an under-layer of the photoanode to improve the electron transmission ability of the photoanode. The power conversion efficiency of this kind of DSSC with bi-layer was enhanced to 5.13%, which is 14.25%higher than that of pure P25 DSSC. Graphical Abstract A bi-layer composite photoanode based on P25/MWNTs-THSs with improved light scattering and electron transmission, which will provide a new insight into fabrication and structure design of highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

  3. Electrodeposited ZnO thin film as an efficient alternative blocking layer for TiCl4 pre-treatment in TiO2-based dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhestanian, E.; Mozaffari, S. A.; Ranjbar, M.; SalarAmoli, H.; Armanmehr, M. H.

    2016-08-01

    Recently, ZnO nanostructures have received considerable attention in fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanodes due to their unique transport properties. In the present study, a chronoamperometric method was performed to fabricate the ZnO nanostructures as an appropriate alternative of TiCl4 pre-treatment to reduce the recombination reactions, while retaining the TiO2-based DSSC performance. The effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on ZnO electrodeposition to control the growth and crystallization of ZnO nanostructures was investigated. ZnO/TiO2 based-DSSCs were fabricated using N719 ruthenium dye and all photovoltaic parameters were characterized. Incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and VOC decay techniques were employed for studying the cell properties which is resulted in a significant enhancement in cell performance.

  4. Development of Well-Aligned TiO2 Nanotube Arrays to Improve Electron Transport in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ho Chung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated well-aligned one-dimensional (1-D titania nanotubes (TNT on transparent conducting oxide (TCO by anodization of Ti foil. Different lengths of TNTs were prepared by varying the applied potential (70 V time, and we investigated the performance of these TNTs in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, transplanted onto a 6 μm TNP adhesion layer. The fabricated TNTs arrays (length 15 μm photoelectrode showed 24% increased efficiency compared to the TNP photoelectrode of 17 μm thickness. We further investigated the performances of DSSCs for the TNTs (1 wt% incorporated TNP photoelectrode and obtained 22% increased efficiency. The increased efficiency of the pure TNTs arrays and TNT-mixed TNP photoelectrodes was attributed to the directional electron movement of TNTs and light scattering effect of the TNT with the decreased rate of back electron transfer. The anodized and fabricated TNTs and DSSCs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS.

  5. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-02-01

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  6. Applications of Nano-Structured TiO2 in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells%TiO2纳米结构在染料敏化太阳电池中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭英才; Seiichi Miyazaki; 徐骏

    2009-01-01

    The latest progress in applications of nano-structured TiO2films material in fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSC)was tentatively reviewed.In general,the solar cells consist of photo-anodes made of nano-structured TiO2 films,dye-sensitizers,electroytes and counter-electrodes.And an increased research effort has been focusing on development of good nano-structured photoanode material to improve the photo-electrochemical properties of the solar cells.As a result,discussion centered on fabrication and application of a variety of nanostructures,including TiO2 nano-composites,TiO2-based core-shell nanostructures,TiO2 nano-structures embedded with quantum dots,and tandem solar cells.Some possible solutions to improve the photovoltaic properties of the solar cells were also proposed in a thought provoking way.%利用纳米结构材料作为光阳极制备的染料敏化太阳电池被称为纳米结构染料敏化太阳电池(NDSSC).一般而言,它由纳米结构金属氧化物半导体的光阳极、染料敏化剂,电解质和对电极等几个部分组成.目前,纳米结构光阳极的研究主要集中在如何优化设计和成功制备各种纳米结构的光阳极材料,以改善NDSSC的光电转换性能.本文着重介绍了各种TiO2纳米结构,例如TiO2晶粒薄膜、TiO2准一维纳米结构、TiO2纳米复合物膜层、TiO2核-壳纳米结构、TiO2量子点敏化结构以及串联电池结构等在NDSSC中的应用,并评论了它们最近的主要研究进展.

  7. Fabrications of TiO2 Photoanodes for Flexible Dye-sensitized Solar Cells%柔性染料敏化太阳能电池TiO2光阳极的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蔚; 刘阳桥; 罗建强; 靳喜海; 孙静; 高濂

    2014-01-01

    Flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (FDSSC) is a type of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on flexible substrates, such as plastics and metals, etc. The advantages of FDSSC over rigid DSSC involve bendability, lower cost, ease of large-scale production and wider application, which make it attract much attention. The fabrication methods for FDSSC photoanodes are generally categorized to low-temperature fabrications and high-temperature fabrications, in-cluding chemical additive method, mechanical compression, electrophoretic deposition, lift-off method, and some new technologies. This paper reviewed the above fabrication methods and the performance of the cells was discussed by taking into account the mechanisms for electron transfer and recombination. Finally, the future development of FDSSC was prospected.%柔性染料敏化太阳能电池(Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell, FDSSC)是以聚合物或金属等柔性材料为基底的染料敏化太阳能电池(Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC)。相比于刚性DSSC,其具有可弯曲、低成本、易大面积加工和应用范围广等优点,越来越受到人们的关注。柔性染料敏化太阳能电池 TiO2光阳极的制备方法,根据热处理温度的不同可以分为低温和高温制备方法,其中包括化学法、压力法、电泳沉积法、转移法、金属基底上的制备以及一些新的制备方法等。本文结合DSSC光阳极中电子的传输和复合的基本原理,针对电极的各制备方法进行了综述,并对电池的相关性能作了一定的介绍;最后,对FDSSC未来的发展前景和有潜力的研究方向进行了展望。

  8. Effects of TiO2 and TiC Nanofillers on the Performance of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Based on the Polymer Gel Electrolyte of a Cobalt Redox System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Shanmuganathan; Liu, I-Ping; Chen, Li-Tung; Hou, Yi-Chen; Li, Chiao-Wei; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2016-09-21

    Polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) of cobalt redox system are prepared for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) is used as a gelator of an acetonitrile (ACN) liquid electrolyte containing tris(2,2'-bipyridine)cobalt(II/III) redox couple. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and titanium carbide (TiC) nanoparticles are utilized as nanofillers (NFs) of this PGE, and the effects of the two NFs on the conductivity of the PGEs, charge-transfer resistances at the electrode/PGE interface, and the performance of the gel-state DSSCs are studied and compared. The results show that the presence of TiC NFs significantly increases the conductivity of the PGE and decreases the charge-transfer resistance at the Pt counter-electrode (CE)/PGE interface. Therefore, the gel-state DSSC utilizing TiC NFs can achieve a conversion efficiency (6.29%) comparable to its liquid counterpart (6.30%), and, furthermore, the cell efficiency can retain 94% of its initial value after a 1000 h stability test at 50 °C. On the contrary, introduction of TiO2 NFs in the PGE causes a decrease of cell performances. It shows that the presence of TiO2 NFs increases the charge-transfer resistance at the Pt CE/PGE interface, induces the charge recombination at the photoanode/PGE interface, and, furthermore, causes a dye desorption in a long-term-stability test. These results are different from those reported for the iodide redox system and are ascribed to a specific attractive interaction between TiO2 and cobalt redox ions.

  9. Polyol thermolysis synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and its paste formulation to fabricate photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheep, P.; Vijayakumar, E.; Subramania, A.

    2015-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by a simple polyol thermolysis process using various mole ratios of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The prepared TiO2 NPs were characterized by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, and BET analysis. The TiO2 NPs obtained using 0.1 M of TiCl4 and 0.02 M of PVP have high surface area with lesser particles size than the same obtained using 0.1 M of TiCl4 with other mole ratios of PVP. The high surface area TiO2 NPs were used to formulate TiO2 paste. The impact of ethyl cellulose, terpineol, and dibutyl phthalate in the formulation of TiO2 paste was optimized with respect to standard TiO2 paste ( Dyesol Ltd.) on the adsorption of dye was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of DSSCs fabricated using the formulated TiO2 paste has achieved 97.83 % of power conversion efficiency (PCE) (η = 4.5 %) with respect to the standard TiO2 paste ( Dyesol Ltd.) and its PCE were found to be 4.6 % (η). This PCE value was nearly closer to that of the same DSSC fabricated using the standard TiO2 paste ( Dyesol Ltd.) and higher than the P25 TiO2 ( Degussa) paste and its achieved PCE were found to be 86.04 %.

  10. 10% Efficiency Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Using P25 TiO2 Nanocrystalline Electrode Prepared by a Bead-milling Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Kawaraya, Masahide; Segawa, Hiroshi; Uchida, Satoshi; Kano, Junya; Saito, Fumio; Tsujimoto, Kazuki; Saito, Tsubasa; Ito, Seigo

    2011-01-01

    ...). The coated nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a haze meter. The shape and crystallinity of the TiO2 nanoparticles were not changed, but the transparency was improved by the bead-milling process...

  11. Effect of solvents on the extraction of natural pigments and adsorption onto TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alwani, Mahmoud A. M.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abd. Amir H.; Ludin, Norasikin A.

    2015-03-01

    Nine solvents, namely, n-hexane, ethanol, acetonitrile, chloroform, ethyl-ether, ethyl-acetate, petroleum ether, n-butyl alcohol, and methanol were used to extract natural dyes from Cordyline fruticosa, Pandannus amaryllifolius and Hylocereus polyrhizus. To improve the adsorption of dyes onto the TiO2 particles, betalain and chlorophyll dyes were mixed with methanol or ethanol and water at various ratios. The adsorption of the dyes mixed with titanium dioxide (TiO2) was also observed. The highest adsorption of the C.fruticosa dye mixed with TiO2 was achieved at ratio 3:1 of methanol: water. The highest adsorption of P.amaryllifolius dye mixed with TiO2 was observed at 2:1 of ethanol: water. H.polyrhizus dye extracted by water and mixed with TiO2 demonstrated the highest adsorption among the solvents. All extracted dye was adsorbed onto the surface of TiO2 based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The inhibition of crystallinity of TiO2 was likewise investigated by X-ray analysis. The morphological properties and composition of dyes were analyzed via SEM and EDX.

  12. High Efficiency Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Constructed with Composites of TiO2 and the Hot-bubbling Synthesized Ultra-Small SnO2 Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ru; Zhang, Shouwei; Ding, Liping; Wan, Lei; Qin, Shengxian; Chen, Zhesheng; Xu, Jinzhang; Miao, Shiding

    2016-01-13

    An efficient photo-anode for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) should have features of high loading of dye molecules, favorable band alignments and good efficiency in electron transport. Herein, the 3.4 nm-sized SnO2 nanocrystals (NCs) of high crystallinity, synthesized via the hot-bubbling method, were incorporated with the commercial TiO2 (P25) particles to fabricate the photo-anodes. The optimal percentage of the doped SnO2 NCs was found at ~7.5% (SnO2/TiO2, w/w), and the fabricated DSSC delivers a power conversion efficiency up to 6.7%, which is 1.52 times of the P25 based DSSCs. The ultra-small SnO2 NCs offer three benefits, (1) the incorporation of SnO2 NCs enlarges surface areas of the photo-anode films, and higher dye-loading amounts were achieved; (2) the high charge mobility provided by SnO2 was confirmed to accelerate the electron transport, and the photo-electron recombination was suppressed by the highly-crystallized NCs; (3) the conduction band minimum (CBM) of the SnO2 NCs was uplifted due to the quantum size effects, and this was found to alleviate the decrement in the open-circuit voltage. This work highlights great contributions of the SnO2 NCs to the improvement of the photovoltaic performances in the DSSCs.

  13. Graphene-embedded 3D TiO2 inverse opal electrodes for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells: morphological characteristics and photocurrent enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Na; Yoo, Haemin; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2013-05-21

    We demonstrated the preparation of graphene-embedded 3D inverse opal electrodes for use in DSSCs. The graphene was incorporated locally into the top layers of the inverse opal structures and was embedded into the TiO2 matrix via post-treatment of the TiO2 precursors. DSSCs comprising the bare and 1-5 wt% graphene-incorporated TiO2 inverse opal electrodes were compared. We observed that the local arrangement of graphene sheets effectively enhanced electron transport without significantly reducing light harvesting by the dye molecules. A high efficiency of 7.5% was achieved in DSSCs prepared with the 3 wt% graphene-incorporated TiO2 inverse opal electrodes, constituting a 50% increase over the efficiencies of DSSCs prepared without graphene. The increase in efficiency was mainly attributed to an increase in J(SC), as determined by the photovoltaic parameters and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis.

  14. Impedance analysis for dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 electrode coated with Cr2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhuang, Q. C.; Wang, H. T.; Xu, X. Q.; Qiang, Y. H.; Fang, L.

    2013-09-01

    TiO2 nanomaterial with typical anatase was prepared by hydrothermal method. A surface modification method was carried out by dip TiO2 electrode into Cr(NO3)3 solution. The TiO2/Cr2O3 thin film was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The current-voltage (I-V) curve revealed that short circuit current and photoelectric transfer efficiency of the modified electrode enhanced by 19.3% and 21%, respectively. The main features of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were discussed in a wide range of potential applied. The parameters of electron transport resistance in TiO2 film (Rw), the overall charge transfer resistance (Rct) and capacitance (Cfilm) of film were analyzed using an equivalent circuit. It was found that Rw, Rct and Cfilm switch to exponential behavior at high bias.

  15. Progress on the Electrolytes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The development of a new type of solar cell has been promoted by public concern about pollution and energy consumption.Since the prototype of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) was reported in 1991 by M.Gratzel,it has aroused intensive interest over the past decade due to its low cost and simple preparation procedure.The typical cell is a sandwiched structure consisting of a dye-sensitized TiO2 electrode,a platinized counter electrode and a filled redox couple electrolyte between the electrodes...

  16. Low temperature chemically synthesized rutile TiO2 photoanodes with high electron lifetime for organic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Swapnil B; Ambade, Rohan B; Mane, Rajaram S; Lee, Go-Woon; Shaikh, ShoyebMohamad F; Patil, Supriya A; Joo, Oh-Shim; Han, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2013-04-11

    Electron lifetime in mesoporous nanostructured rutile TiO2 photoanodes, synthesized via a simple, cost-effective, low temperature (50-55 °C) wet chemical process, annealed at 350 °C for 1 h and not employing any sprayed TiO2 compact layer, was successfully tailored with 0.2 mM TiCl4 surface treatment that resulted in light to electric power conversion efficiency up to 4.4%.

  17. Electrochemical formation of transparent nanostructured TiO2 film as an effective bifunctional layer for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Tsai, Chen-Hsiu; Wei, Tzu-Chien

    2011-03-14

    A bifunctional TiO(2) layer having an inner compact layer and an outer anchoring layer coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass could reduce the charge recombination and interfacial contact resistance between FTO and the main TiO(2) layer; photoelectron conversion efficiency of cell was increased from 7.31 to 8.04% by incorporating the bifunctional layer.

  18. Improved Light Conversion Efficiency Of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell By Dispersing Submicron-Sized Granules Into The Nano-Sized TiO2 Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song S.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, TiO2 nanoparticles and submicron-sized granules were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and spray pyrolysis, respectively. Submicron-sized granules were dispersed into the nano-sized TiO2 layer to improve the light conversion efficiency. Granules showed better light scattering, but lower in terms of the dye-loading quantity and recombination resistance compared with nanoparticles. Consequently, the nano-sized TiO2 layer had higher cell efficiency than the granulized TiO2 layer. When dispersed granules into the nanoparticle layer, the light scattering was enhanced without the loss of dye-loading quantities. The dispersion of granulized TiO2 led to increase the cell efficiency up to 6.51%, which was about 5.2 % higher than that of the electrode consisting of only TiO2 nanoparticles. Finally, the optimal hydrothermal temperature and dispersing quantity of granules were found to be 200°C and 20 wt%, respectively.

  19. TiO2 Nanowires Infiltrated with Graphene-decorated Mesoporous TiO2 for En-hanced Dye-sensitized Solar Cell%基于介孔TiO2/石墨烯修饰的TiO2纳米线光阳极的染料敏化太阳能电池

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈盎然; 赵伟; 崔厚磊; 支键; 黄富强

    2015-01-01

    Novel hybrid dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated and characterized, employing a com-posite photoanode of TiO2 nanowires infiltrated with graphene-decorated mesoporous TiO2. Combining the mer-its of the high dye loading of mesoporous TiO2, high light harvesting capability with the carrier transport of TiO2 nanowires and the high electron collection efficiency from graphene, the overall performance of such photoanode was significantly improved. The obtained DSSCs showed a power conversion efficiency of up to 7.58%, about 1.5 times higher than the pristine TiO2 nanowires, which was quite competitive compared with the similar 1D structured photoanode of DSSCs.%本工作制作了基于介孔 TiO2/石墨烯修饰的 TiO2纳米线光阳极的染料敏化太阳能电池,并进行表征。光阳极结合了介孔TiO2的高染料吸附率,TiO2纳米线的高载流子传导率和石墨烯的高电子收获能力等优点,使器件光电转换效率有了很大的提高。制作出的染料敏化太阳能电池光电转换效率高达7.58%,比纯纳米线制作的电池约提高了1.5倍,在拥有相似一维结构的染料敏化太阳能电池中具有较大优势。

  20. Preparation of Carbon-Doped TiO2 and Its Application as a Photoelectrodes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Kyung; Jeong, Jin Seong; Yun, Tae Kwan; Bae, Jae Young

    2015-02-01

    In this study, C-doped TiO2 particles were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Three binding energy peaks were observed at 284.6, 286.2, and 288.5 eV in the C is region of the XPS. The signals at 286.2 and 288.5 eV were attributed to chemically bound C-O and Ti-C-O linkages within the crystalline TiO2 lattice, respectively. The introduction of carbon did not affect the crystallite structure or BET surface area of TiO2. The JSC value of DSSCs based on a C-doped TiO2 electrode was increased by 20% compared to DSSCs using a pure TiO2 electrode, and the energy conversion efficiency was increased by 23%. This was due to the enhancement of dye adsorption and high electrical conductivity of the carbon. High energy conversion efficiency was achieved with the DSSCs based on the C-doped TiC2 electrode.

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cells: a successful combination of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, DSSC, are a promising alternative for the development of a new generation of photovoltaic devices. DSSC are a successful combination of materials, consisting of a transparent electrode coated with a dye-sensitized mesoporous film of nanocrystalline particles of TiO2, an electrolyte containing a suitable redox-couple and a Pt coated counter-electrode. In general, Ru bipyridyl complexes are used as the dye sensitizers. The light-to-energy conversion performance of the cell depends on the relative energy levels of the semiconductor and dye and on the kinetics of the electron-transfer processes at the sensitized semiconductor | electrolyte interface. The rate of these processes depends on the properties of its components. This contribution presents a discussion on the influence of each of the materials which constitute the DSSC of the overall process for energy conversion. An overview of the results obtained for solid-state dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells assembled with polymer electrolytes is also presented.

  2. Low temperature transfer of well-tailored TiO2 nanotube array membrane for efficient plastic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Nianqing; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yan; Liu, Yanchun; Guo, Min; Li, Wenfang; Huang, Haitao

    2017-03-01

    Transferring semiconductor film onto plastic substrate for efficient flexible photovoltaic devices with good mechanical stability against shape wrench is always a big challenge. In this work, well-designed TiO2 nanotube array (TNTA) membrane is achieved by a combination of hot-water-soaking and TiCl4 post-treatment for efficient plastic DSSCs. In this engineered TiO2 architecture, the TiO2 particle decorated and nanowire capped TNTA hybrid structure provides not only enormous dye-loading amount and excellent light scattering/trapping effects for superior light harvesting efficiency, but also fast charge transport along the 1D aligned TNTA scaffold. More importantly, the thin and mesoporous TiO2 layer deposited on the bottom surface of TNTA makes it is possible to form mechanical interlocking between TNTA membrane and the adhesive layer to insure the excellent mechanical stability and efficient electron transfer from the TNTA membrane to the substrate. The plastic DSSCs based on the well-tailored TNTA membranes yield an exciting efficiency of 6.25% and at the same time maintain 90% of its initial efficiency after hundreds of bending cycles.

  3. Effect of Carbon Modification on the Electrical, Structural, and Optical Properties of TiO2 Electrodes and Their Performance in Labscale Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Taziwa, R.; Meyer, E. L.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; R. M. Erasmus; E. MANIKANDAN; Mwakikunga, B. W.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles (C:TiO2 NPs) have been synthesized by ultrasonic nebulizer spray pyrolysis (USP) and pneumatic spray pyrolysis (PSP) techniques. HRTEM on the NPs shows difference in lattice spacing in the NP structures prepared by the two methods—2.02 Å for the USP NPs and an average of 3.74 Å for the PSP NPs. The most probable particle sizes are 3.11 nm and 5.5 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy supported by FTIR confirms the TiO2 polymorph to be anatase with...

  4. Design of an efficient photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells using electrospun one-dimensional GO/N-doped nanocomposite SnO2/TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ibrahim M. A.; Dao, Van-Duong; Yasin, Ahmed S.; Barakat, Nasser A. M.; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the combination of N, graphene oxide (GO) and SnO2 as efficient dopants into TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) photoanode substrate for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The developed NFs are synthesized by electrospinning and hydrothermal processes and characterized by FESEM, TEM, XPS, FT-IR, Raman and EDX-studies. The formation of short NFs is confirmed through FESEM and TEM measurements. As the results, the major crystal structure of TiO2 in the prepared NFs has anatase (85.23%) and rutile-structure (14.67%). XPS and EDX studies affirm that the material has Ti, O, Sn, N and C elements. In addition, FT-IR and Raman spectra give an indication about the GO-content. Typically, the DSC based on the novel NFs shows 6.18% efficiency. The Jsc, Voc, FF and Rct are estimated and found to be 10.32 mA cm-2, 0.825 V, 0.73 and 21.66 Ω, respectively. The high-power efficiency is contributed by three reasons. The first one is the high dye-loading (2.16 × 10-7 mol cm-2). The second reason is the enhanced charge transfer and decreasing of the electrons/holes recombination through formation of wide band-gap oxide (3.246 eV). Finally, the third one is GO-doping which may create new routes for the electron transfer in working electrode layer.

  5. One-step synthesis of vertically aligned anatase thornbush-like TiO2 nanowire arrays on transparent conducting oxides for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Dong Kyu; Chi, Won Seok; Ahn, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Harim; Kim, Jong Hak

    2013-08-01

    Herein, we report a facile synthesis of high-density anatase-phase vertically aligned thornbush-like TiO2 nanowires (TBWs) on transparent conducting oxide glasses. Morphologically controllable TBW arrays of 9 μm in length are generated through a one-step hydrothermal reaction at 200 °C over 11 h using potassium titanium oxide oxalate dehydrate, diethylene glycol (DEG), and water. The TBWs consist of a large number of nanoplates or nanorods, as confirmed by SEM and TEM imaging. The morphologies of TBWs are controllable by adjusting DEG/water ratios. TBW diameters gradually decrease from 600 (TBW600) to 400 (TBW400) to 200 nm (TBW200) and morphologies change from nanoplates to nanorods with an increase in DEG content. TBWs are utilized as photoanodes for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (qssDSSCs) and solid-state DSSCs (ssDSSCs). The energy-conversion efficiency of qssDSSCs is in the order: TBW200 (5.2%)>TBW400 (4.5%)>TBW600 (3.4%). These results can be attributed to the different surface areas, light-scattering effects, and charge transport rates, as confirmed by dye-loading measurements, reflectance spectroscopy, and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy analyses. TBW200 is further treated with a graft-copolymer-directed organized mesoporous TiO2 to increase the surface area and interconnectivity of TBWs. As a result, the energy-conversion efficiency of the ssDSSC increases to 6.7% at 100 mW cm(-2) , which is among the highest values for N719-dye-based ssDSSCs. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Alternative redox systems for the dye-sensitized solar cell

    OpenAIRE

    Nusbaumer, Hervé

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high efficiencies and their potentially low production costs, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have attracted much attention during the last few years. The technology is based on a layer made of mesoscopic TiO2 film which significantly increases the optical path for light harvesting by the surface-anchored sensitizer molecules, whilst keeping an efficient contact with the electrolytic solution. These sensitizer molecules are often based on ruthenium polypyridyl complexes because...

  7. 染料敏化太阳能电池的TiO2光电极的制备及优化%Fabrication and optimization of TiO2 photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄树繁; 王丽伟; 应雪晴; 黄仕华

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly investigated the optimum thickness of TiO2 nanocrystalline film prepared by screen-printing, the effects of large-particle scattering layer and TiCl4 treatment on the characteristic of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The results indicated that the adding of large-particle scattering layer and the treatment with TiCl4 can improve the photovoltaic performance of DSSC.%讨论了染料敏化太阳能电池的TiO2光电极制备与优化工艺过程,这主要包括TiO2薄膜厚度的优化,利用TiCl4处理导电玻璃以及添加大粒子散射层.研究结果表明,当TiO2光阳极厚度为11μm时,电池的转换效率最高.添加TiO2大粒子散射层后,增强了光阳极对光的吸收,当大粒子散射层为4.4μm时,电池的光电性能最好.对TiO2电极进行TiCl4处理后,电子的传输性能得到改善,光电性能得到较大的提高.

  8. Dye-sensitized solar cells using laser processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heungsoo; Pique, Alberto; Kushto, Gary P.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Lee, S. H.; Arnold, Craig B.; Kafafi, Zakia H.

    2004-07-01

    Laser processing techniques, such as laser direct-write (LDW) and laser sintering, have been used to deposit mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 (nc-TiO2) films for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. LDW enables the fabrication of conformal structures containing metals, ceramics, polymers and composites on rigid and flexible substrates without the use of masks or additional patterning techniques. The transferred material maintains a porous, high surface area structure that is ideally suited for dye-sensitized solar cells. In this experiment, a pulsed UV laser (355nm) is used to forward transfer a paste of commercial TiO2 nanopowder (P25) onto transparent conducting electrodes on flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and rigid glass substrates. For the cells based on flexible PET substrates, the transferred TiO2 layers were sintered using an in-situ laser to improve electron paths without damaging PET substrates. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of laser processing techniques to produce nc-TiO2 films (~10 μm thickness) on glass for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (Voc = 690 mV, Jsc = 8.7 mA/cm2, ff = 0.67, η = 4.0 % at 100 mW/cm2). This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  9. Peptide-templating dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae Hee; Moon, Hyoung-Seok; Hwang, Jin Ok; Seok, Sang Il; Im, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2010-05-07

    A hollow TiO(2) nanoribbon network electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) was fabricated by a biotemplating process combining peptide self-assembly and atomic layer deposition (ALD). An aromatic peptide of diphenylalanine was assembled into a three-dimensional network consisting of highly entangled nanoribbons. A thin TiO(2) layer was deposited at the surface of the peptide template via the ALD process. After the pyrolysis of the peptide template, a highly entangled nanotubular TiO(2) framework was successfully prepared. Evolution of the crystal phase and crystallite size of the TiO(2) nanostructure was exploited by controlling the calcination temperature. Finally, the hollow TiO(2) nanoribbon network electrode was integrated into DSSC devices and their photochemical performances were investigated. Hollow TiO(2) nanoribbon-based DSSCs exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 3.8%, which is comparable to the conventional TiO(2) nanoparticle-based DSSCs (3.5%). Our approach offers a novel pathway for DSSCs consisting of TiO(2) electrodes via biotemplating.

  10. Research Data Supporting "A facile low temperature route to deposit TiO2 scattering layer for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells"

    OpenAIRE

    Garmaroudi, Zahra Andaji; Abdi - Jalebi, Mojtaba; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Friend, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Raw data files pertaining to the UV-Vis absorption, diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), Photo thermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), Incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE), Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and solar cell measurements. EPSRC [EP/M005143/1

  11. Versatile preparation method for mesoporous TiO2 electrodes suitable for solid-state dye sensitized photocells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K R Senadeera; S Kobayashi; T Kitamura; Y Wada; S Yanagida

    2005-10-01

    Nano-structured TiO2 electrodes, suitable for dye sensitized solid-state solar cells were prepared by a new simple spraying technique (SPT). Physical properties of these electrodes were compared with the electrodes prepared by the `doctor blade’ technique (typical sliding method, DB). Dye sensitized solid-state solar cells, comprising of CuI as the hole conductor, were fabricated with these electrodes and enhanced photo responses were obtained with SPT electrodes. The effects of additives, either to the spray solution or to the hole conductor on the photoresponses of the above devices were also studied. The cells fabricated with SPT electrodes containing Al(BuiO)3 showed ∼ 2.4% efficiency and addition of 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium thiocyanate into CuI layer further enhanced the efficiency up to 2.75% under the irradiance of 100 mW cm-2(AM1.5).

  12. Novelionic Polymer Electrolytes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Shibi Fang; Yuan Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, dye-sensitized solar cells(DSC) based on nanocrystalline porous TiO2 films have attracted much attention because of their relatively higher efficiency and low cost compared with conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices[1]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive photo-to-energy conversion efficiency of over 10% where the electrolyte is volatile organic liquid solvents containing I-/I-3- as redox couple. Because of high volatilities, solvent losses occur during long-term operations, resulting in lowered DSC performances.And leakage of liquid electrolyte also limits the durability of DSC.

  13. Fabrication of a dye-sensitized solar cell containing a Mg-doped TiO2 electrode and a Br3(-)/Br- redox mediator with a high open-circuit photovoltage of 1.21 V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiage, Kenji; Tokutome, Toru; Iwamoto, Shinji; Kyomen, Toru; Hanaya, Minoru

    2013-01-07

    A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated by using a Mg(2+)-doped anatase-TiO(2) electrode with an alkoxysilyl dye and a Br(3)(-)/Br(-) electrolyte solution exhibited successfully a remarkably high open-circuit photovoltage over 1.2 V, demonstrating a new possibility of DSSCs as practical photovoltaic devices.

  14. Titania Nanostructures for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Malekshahi Byranvand; A Nemati Kharat; M H Bazargan

    2012-01-01

    Titania is one kind of important materials, which has been extensively investigated because of its unique electronic and optical properties. Research efforts have largely focused on the optimization of the dye, but recently the titania nanostructures electrode itself has attracted more attention. It has been shown that particle size, shape, crystallinity, surface morphology, and chemistry of the TiO2 material are key parameters which should be controlled for optimized performance of the solar cell. Titania can be found in different shape of nanostructures including mesoporous, nanotube, nanowire, and nanorod structures. The present article reviews the structural, synthesis, electronic, and optical properties of TiO2 nanostructures for dye sensitized solar cells.

  15. Photochromic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah M. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication and characterization of photochromic dye sensitized solar cells that possess the ability to change color depending on external lighting conditions. This device can be used as a “smart” window shade that tints, collects the sun's energy, and blocks sunlight when the sun shines, and is completely transparent at night.

  16. Review of Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Tai Kong

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduced the structure and the principle of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. The latest results about the critical technology and the industrialization research on dye-sensitized solar cells were reviewed. The development of key components, including nanoporous semiconductor films, dye sensitizers, redox electrolyte, counter electrode, and conducting substrate in dye-sensitized solar cells was reviewed in detail. The developing progress and prospect of dye-sensitized solar cells from small cells in the laboratory to industrialization large-scale production were reviewed. At last, the future development of DSC was prospective for the tendency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  17. TiO2纳米片/巢状分级结构纳米阵列薄膜的制备及其在染料敏化太阳能电池中的应用%Fabrication of Nanosheet/Nestlike Nanoarray Hierarchical TiO2 Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常萌蕾; 李新军

    2012-01-01

    A hierarchical configuration of TiO2 nanoarray film,comprising a nestlike TiO2 nanoarray layer integrated with a nanosheet network overlayer,was constructed.The hierarchical TiO2 film was obtained by the post-hydrothermal treatment with NaOH solution on hydrothermally synthesized TiO2-derived nanostructured arrays grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate (FTO).The TiO2 films were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD),ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,and absorbance spectroscopy.FE-SEM shows that the hierarchical TiO2 film with a thickness of 1.5 μm is composed of a nanosheet overlayer (~0.2 μm height) and the nestlike nanoarray layer (~1.3 μm height).XRD patterns display that the TiO2 films have pure anatase phase structure.UV-Vis spectra reveal enhanced light scattering and dye adsorption ability of the hierarchical TiO2 film.For the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the nanosheet/nestlike nanoarray hierarchical TiO2 film,a short-circuit current (Jac) of 7.79 mA· cm-2,open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.80 V,fill factor (FF) of 0.40,and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of 2.48% are achieved.Within the dye-sensitized solar cell,the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the hierarchical TiO2 film was nearky ten times higher than that of nanostructured array film.%采用水热合成法在氟掺杂二氧化锡(FTO)导电玻璃基底上得到TiO2纳米阵列薄膜,并进一步通过NaOH溶液水热处理制备了由巢状纳米阵列及纳米片覆盖层构成的TiO2纳米阵列分级结构一体化薄膜.采用场发射扫描电镜(FE-SEM),X射线衍射(XRD),紫外-可见(UV-Vis)漫反射光谱和吸收光谱技术对TiO2薄膜的结构和性质进行表征.FE-SEM结果表明:分级结构TiO2薄膜膜厚为1.5 μm,薄膜由一层纳米片覆盖层(约0.2 μm高)和一层巢状纳米阵列层(约1.3 μm高)组成.XRD谱图表明TiO2薄膜为锐钛矿相.UV-Vis

  18. Single-crystalline self-branched anatase titania nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenquan; Yang, Huang; Wu, Fei; Fu, Jianxun; Wang, Linjun; Yang, Weiguang

    2017-03-01

    The morphology of the anatase titania plays an important role in improving the photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, single-crystalline self-branched anatase TiO2 nanowires have been synthesized by hydrothermal method using TBAH and CTAB as morphology controlling agents. The obtained self-branched TiO2 nanowires dominated by a large percentage of (010) facets. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (6.37%) of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the self-branched TiO2 nanowires shows a significant improvement (26.6%) compared to that of P25 TiO2 (5.03%). The enhanced performance of the self-branched TiO2 nanowires-based DSSC is due to heir large percent of exposed (010) facets which have strong dye adsorption capacity and effective charge transport of the self-branched 1D nanostructures.

  19. Single-crystalline self-branched anatase titania nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenquan; Yang, Huang; Wu, Fei; Fu, Jianxun; Wang, Linjun; Yang, Weiguang

    2016-12-01

    The morphology of the anatase titania plays an important role in improving the photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, single-crystalline self-branched anatase TiO2 nanowires have been synthesized by hydrothermal method using TBAH and CTAB as morphology controlling agents. The obtained self-branched TiO2 nanowires dominated by a large percentage of (010) facets. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (6.37%) of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the self-branched TiO2 nanowires shows a significant improvement (26.6%) compared to that of P25 TiO2 (5.03%). The enhanced performance of the self-branched TiO2 nanowires-based DSSC is due to heir large percent of exposed (010) facets which have strong dye adsorption capacity and effective charge transport of the self-branched 1D nanostructures.

  20. Solution Processed Silver Nanoparticles in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Berginc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A plasmonic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs is studied. The solutions of silver nitrate in isopropanol, ethylene glycol, or in TiO2 sol were examined as possible precursors for Ag NPs formation. The solutions were dip-coated on the top of the porous TiO2 layer. The results of optical measurements confirmed the formation of Ag NPs throughout the porous TiO2 layer after the heat treatment of the layers above 100°C. Heat treatment at 220°C was found to be optimal regarding the formation of the Ag NPs. The porous TiO2 layers with Ag NPs have been evaluated also in DSSC by measuring current-voltage characteristics and the external quantum efficiency of the cells. In addition, the amount of adsorbed dye has been determined to prove the plasmonic effect in the cells. The I-V characterization of the DSSCs revealed an increase of the short circuit current in the presence of Ag NPs although the amount of the attached dye molecules decreased. These results confirm that the performance enhancement is related to the plasmonic effect. However, neither a thin sol-gel TiO2 layer nor poly(4-vinylpyridine shells provide effective protection for the long term stability of the Ag NPs against the corrosion of I3-/I- based electrolyte.

  1. High-Efficiency Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Fast Charge Extraction through Self-Assembled 3D Fibrous Network of Crystalline TiO 2 Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2010-12-28

    Herein, we present a novel morphology for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on the simple and straightforward self-assembly of nanorods into a 3D fibrous network of fused single-crystalline anatase nanowires. This architecture offers a high roughness factor, significant light scattering, and up to several orders of magnitude faster electron transport to reach a near-record-breaking conversion efficiency of 4.9%. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  2. High-efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells: fast charge extraction through self-assembled 3D fibrous network of crystalline TiO2 nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tétreault, Nicolas; Horváth, Endre; Moehl, Thomas; Brillet, Jérémie; Smajda, Rita; Bungener, Stéphane; Cai, Ning; Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Forró, László; Magrez, Arnaud; Grätzel, Michael

    2010-12-28

    Herein, we present a novel morphology for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on the simple and straightforward self-assembly of nanorods into a 3D fibrous network of fused single-crystalline anatase nanowires. This architecture offers a high roughness factor, significant light scattering, and up to several orders of magnitude faster electron transport to reach a near-record-breaking conversion efficiency of 4.9%.

  3. Mechanism of degradation of electrolyte solutions for dye-sensitized solar cells under ultraviolet light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shohei; Katoh, Ryuzi

    2015-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of the degradation of I-/I3--containing electrolyte solutions for dye-sensitized solar cells under UV light irradiation. The yellow electrolyte solutions underwent achromatization during irradiation, indicating the reduction of I3-. We propose a mechanism involving the production of holes in TiO2, reaction of the holes with solvent molecules, and subsequent reduction of I3- by electrons remaining in the TiO2. Although the quantum yield of the photodegradation reaction is estimated to be low (3 × 10-3), this reaction can nevertheless be expected to affect the long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cell devices.

  4. Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2010-12-14

    This image presents a scanning electron microscopy image of solid state dye-sensitized solar cell with a plasmonic back reflector, overlaid with simulated field intensity plots when monochromatic light is incident on the device. Plasmonic back reflectors, which consist of 2D arrays of silver nanodomes, can enhance absorption through excitation of plasmonic modes and increased light scattering, as reported by Michael D. McGehee, Yi Cui, and co-workers.

  5. Recent Advances in TiO2 Nanoarrays Photoanode Used in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells%二氧化钛有序纳米阵列染料敏化太阳能电池光阳极的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵义平; 陶汝华; 董伟伟; 邵景珍; 邓赞红; 方晓东

    2012-01-01

    Structure and principle of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) are introduced and development in fabrication technology of TiO2 nanotube, nanowire and nanorod arrays is reviewed with the emphasis on fabrication of TiO2 nanotube arrays by anodization and fabrication of TiO2 nanowire and nanorod arrays by hydrothermal method. Several methods to enhance photoelectric efficiency of TiO2 nanotube based DSSC are proposed, such as optimizing the length and diameter of TiO2 nanotube, enhancing the transport properties of TiO2 nanotube, fabricating TiO2 nandtube on transparent substrate, and surface modification. Finally, several research areas of TiO2 nanoarrays used in DSSC are prospected.%介绍了染料敏化太阳能电池(DSSC)的结构和基本原理,综述了近年来作为DSSC光阳极的TiO2纳米管、纳米线、纳米棒阵列的制备工艺进展,重点介绍了阳极氧化法制备纳米管和水热法制备纳米线和纳米棒.阐述了通过改进TiO2纳米管提高DSSC效率的几种途径,包括优化纳米管的尺寸、改善纳米管的输运性能、在透明基板上生长纳米管、对纳米管进行表面修饰等.最后展望了TiO2纳米阵列DSSC的研究方向.

  6. Photo-electrochemical studies of chemically deposited nanocrystalline meso-porous n-type TiO2 thin films for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using simple synthesized azo dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezema, C. G.; Nwanya, A. C.; Ezema, B. E.; Patil, B. H.; Bulakhe, R. N.; Ukoha, P. O.; Lokhande, C. D.; Maaza, Malik; Ezema, Fabian I.

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrate at room temperature (300 K). Titanium trichloride and sodium hydroxide were used as cationic and anionic sources, respectively. The as-deposited and annealed films were characterized for structural, morphological, optical, electrical and wettability properties. The photoelectrochemical study of TiO2 sensitized with a laboratory synthesized organic dye (azo) was evaluated in the polyiodide electrolyte at 40 mW cm-2 light illumination intensity. The photovoltaic characteristics show a fill factor of 0.24 and solar conversion efficiency value of 0.032 % for a TiO2 thickness of 0.96 µm as compared to efficiency of 0.014 % for rose Bengal of the same thickness.

  7. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on bisindolylmaleimide derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong ZHANG; Zhijun NING; Hongcui PEI; Wenjun WU

    2009-01-01

    Three organic dyes based on bisindolylmaleimide derivatives (11, 12 and 13) were synthesized and investigated as sensitizers for the application in nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells. The indole group,maleimide group and carboxylic group functioned as electron donor, acceptor and anchoring group, respec-tively. Solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies under simulated amplitude-modulated 1.5 irradiation based on 12 and of 1.87% and 1.50% for 13 and 11,respectively. The open circuit voltage Voc was demon-strated to be enhanced by the introduction of dodecyl or benzyl moieties on the indole groups. The nonplanar structure of bisindolylmaleimide was proven to be effective in aggregation resistance. This work suggests that organic sensitizers with maleimide as electron acceptor are promising candidates as organic sensiti-zers in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  8. Natural Pigment-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Hernández-Martínez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC based on natural dyes extracted from five different sources is reported. These are inexpensive, have no nutritional use, and are easy to find in Mexico. The solar cells were assembled using a thin film and a TiO2 mesoporous film on ITO-coated glass; these films were characterized by FTIR. The extracts were characterized using UV–Vis and typical I-V curves were obtained for the cells. The best performance was for Punica Granatum with a solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.86%, with a current density Jsc of 3.341 mA/cm2using an incident irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at 25 ºC.

  9. High efficiency dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells based on ionic liquid polymer gel electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Exnar, Ivan; Grätzel, Michael

    2002-12-21

    An ionic liquid polymer gel containing 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) and poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) has been employed as quasi-solid-state electrolyte in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells with an overall conversion efficiency of 5.3% at AM 1.5 illumination.

  10. High Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liyuan Han

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Much attention has been paid to the development of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) during the past decade. In general, a DSC comprises a nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) electrode modified with a dye fabricated on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO), a platinum (Pt) counter electrode, and an electrolyte solution with a dissolved iodide ion/tri-iodide ion redox couple between the electrodes. Although a DSC using black dye with high efficiency of 10.4%, which was measured by NREL(U. S. A. ), was reported by Graetzel et al. [1], the efficiency of DSCs should be further improved for practical use in comparison with silicon solar cells.

  11. Strategies to Optimizing Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Organic Sensitizers, Tandem Device Structures, and Numerical Device Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Wenger, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) constitute a novel class of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. At the heart of the device is a mesoporous film of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, which are coated with a monolayer of dye sensitive to the visible region of the solar spectrum. The role of the dye is similar to the role of chlorophyll in plants; it harvests solar light and transfers the energy via electron transfer to a suitable material (here ...

  12. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jerry D.; Hehemann, David G.; Duraj, Stan A.

    2003-01-01

    During the course of this grant, dye-sensitized solar cells were prepared and characterized. The solar cells were prepared using materials (dyes, electrolytes, transparent conductive oxide coated glass, nanocrystalline TiO2) entirely prepared in-house, as well as prepared using materials available commercially. Complete cells were characterized under simulated AM0 illumination. The best cell prepared at NASA had an AM0 efficiency of 1.22% for a 1.1 sq cm cell. Short circuit current (Isc), open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) for the cell were 6.95 mA, 618 mV and 42.8%, respectively. For comparison purposes, two commercially prepared dye-sensitized solar cells were obtained from Solaronix SA, Aubonne, Switzerland. The Solaronix cells were also characterized under simulated AM0 illumination. The best cell from Solaronix had an active area of 3.71 sq cm and measured an AM0 efficiency of 3.16%. with Isc, Voc and FF of 45.80 mA, 669.6 mV and 52.3%, respectively. Both cells from Solaronix were rapid thermal cycled between -80 C and 80 C. Thermal cycling led to a 4.6% loss of efficiency in one of the cells and led to nearly a complete failure in the second cell.

  13. Morphological and photoelectrochemical characterization of core-shell nanoparticle films for dye-sensitized solar cells: Zn-O type shell on SnO2 and TiO2 cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, N G; Kang, M G; Kim, K M; Ryu, K S; Chang, S H; Kim, D K; van de Lagemaat, J; Benkstein, K D; Frank, A J

    2004-05-11

    Core-shell type nanoparticles with SnO2 and TiO2 cores and zinc oxide shells were prepared and characterized by surface sensitive techniques. The influence of the structure of the ZnO shell and the morphology ofnanoparticle films on the performance was evaluated. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies show the presence of thin ZnO-like shells around the nanoparticles at low Zn levels. In the case of SnO2 cores, ZnO nanocrystals are formed at high Zn/Sn ratios (ca. 0.5). Scanning electron microscopy studies show that Zn modification of SnO2 nanoparticles changes the film morphology from a compact mesoporous structure to a less dense macroporous structure. In contrast, Zn modification of TiO2 nanoparticles has no apparent influence on film morphology. For SnO2 cores, adding ZnO improves the solar cell efficiency by increasing light scattering and dye uptake and decreasing recombination. In contrast, adding a ZnO shell to the TiO2 core decreases the cell efficiency, largely owing to a loss of photocurrent resulting from slow electron transport associated with the buildup of the ZnO surface layer.

  14. Asymmetric Zinc Phthalocyanines as Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Gulenay; Yavuz, Yunus; Gurek, Aysegul; Canimkurbey, Betul; Kosemen, Arif; San, Sait Eren; Ahsen, Vefa

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have received increasing attention due to their high incident to photon efficiency, easy fabrication and low production cost . Tremendous research efforts have been devoted to the development of new and efficient sensitizers suitable for practical use. In TiO2-based DSSCs, efficiencies of up to 11.4% under simulated sunlight have been obtained with rutheniumepolypyridyl complexes. However, the main drawback of ruthenium complexes is the lack of absorption in the red region of the visible light and the high cost. For this reason, dyes with large and stable p-conjugated systems such as porphyrins and phthalocyanines are important classes of potential sensitizers for highly efficient DSSCs. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been widely used as sensitizers because of their improved light-harvesting properties in the far red- and near-IR spectral regions and their extraordinary robustness [1]. In this work, a series of asymmetric Zn(II) Pcs bearing a carboxylic acid group and six hexylthia groups either at the peripheral or non-peripheral positions have been designed and synthesized to investigate the influence of the COOH group and the positions of hexylthia groups on the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance.

  15. Phototransistor Behavior Based on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X Q; Wang, Y F; Zhou, W Q; Lu, Y M; Liu, Z Y

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, a light-controlled device cell is established based on the dye-sensitized solar cell using nanocrystalline TiO2 films. Voltage-current curves are characterized by three types of transport behaviors: linear increase, saturated plateau and breakdown-like increase, which are actually of the typical performances for a photo-gated transistor. Moreover, an asymmetric behavior is observed in the voltage-current loops, which is believed to arise from the difference in the effective photo-conducting areas. The photovoltaic voltage between the shared counter electrode and drain (VCE-D) is investigated as well, clarifying that the predominant dark process in source and the predominant photovoltaic process in drain are series connected, modifying the electric potential levels and thus resulting in the characteristic phototransistor behaviors.

  16. Exploiting quantum interference in dye sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggio, Emanuele; Solomon, Gemma C.; Troisi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    A strategy to hinder the charge recombination process in dye sensitized solar cells is developed in analogy with similar approaches to modulate charge transport across nanostructures. The system studied is a TiO2 (anatase)-chromophore interface, with an unsaturated carbon bridge connecting the two...... subunits. A theory for nonadiabatic electron transfer is employed in order to take explicitly into account the contribution from the bridge states mediating the process. If a cross-conjugated fragment is present in the bridge, it is possible to suppress the charge recombination by negative interference...... of the possible tunnelling path. Calculations carried out on realistic molecules at the DFT level of theory show how the recombination lifetime can be modulated by changes in the electron-withdrawing (donating) character of the groups connected to the cross-conjugated bridge. Tight binding calculations...

  17. Halogen Bonding Promotes Higher Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photovoltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sarah J C; Parlane, Fraser G L; Swords, Wesley B; Kellett, Cameron W; Du, Chuan; Lam, Brian; Dean, Rebecca K; Hu, Ke; Meyer, Gerald J; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2016-08-24

    We report here an enhancement in photovoltage for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) where halogen-bonding interactions exist between a nucleophilic electrolyte species (I(-)) and a photo-oxidized dye immobilized on a TiO2 surface. The triarylamine-based dyes under investigation showed larger rate constants for dye regeneration (kreg) by the nucleophilic electrolyte species when heavier halogen substituents were positioned on the dye. The open-circuit voltages (VOC) tracked these kreg values. This analysis of a homologous series of dyes that differ only in the identity of two halogen substituents provides compelling evidence that the DSSC photovoltage is sensitive to kreg. This study also provides the first direct evidence that halogen-bonding interactions between the dye and the electrolyte can bolster DSSC performance.

  18. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for Economically Viable Photovoltaic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2013-05-16

    TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a significant level of scientific and technological interest for their potential as economically viable photovoltaic devices. While DSSCs have multiple benefits such as material abundance, a short energy payback period, constant power output, and compatibility with flexible applications, there are still several challenges that hold back large scale commercialization. Critical factors determining the future of DSSCs involve energy conversion efficiency, long-term stability, and production cost. Continuous advancement of their long-term stability suggests that state-of-the-art DSSCs will operate for over 20 years without a significant decrease in performance. Nevertheless, key questions remain in regards to energy conversion efficiency improvements and material cost reduction. In this Perspective, the present state of the field and the ongoing efforts to address the requirements of DSSCs are summarized with views on the future of DSSCs.

  19. Organic and inorganic surface passivations of TiO2 nanotube arrays for dye-sensitized photoelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun; Yang, Changduk; Choi, Won-Youl

    2012-10-01

    Surface passivation of photoelectrodes is widely used to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). We use the organic and inorganic materials as a surface-passivating layer of photoelectrodes and introduce the effect of surface passivation on the power conversion efficiency of DSCs. TiO2 nanotube arrays are fabricated by anodic oxidation of Ti foil for photoelectrodes of DSCs. Surface passivating layers are conducted by immersing photoelectrode in various precursor solutions. MgO and WO3 are selected for inorganic passivation. PC61BM is used for organic passivation. In case of inorganic passivation, a basic material (MgO) which has a high isoelectric point (pI >7) shows higher power conversion efficiency of 2.63% by increasing of open circuit voltage (Voc) to 0.74 V than bare sample of 2.55%. But, an acidic material (WO3) shifts Voc to low potential resulting in a worse efficiency of DSCs. In case of organic passivation, PC61BM enhances photocurrents and decreases Voc value compared to bare sample. The power conversion efficiency of PC61BM-coated DSCs is overall improved due to enhanced photocurrents despite of Voc offset to low potential. Back-transfer electron blocking, dye adsorption, TiO2 conduction band shifting, and additional charge generation by surface passivation are discussed.

  20. Variation in optoelectronic properties of azo dye-sensitized TiO2 semiconductor interfaces with different adsorption anchors: carboxylate, sulfonate, hydroxyl and pyridyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M; Dai, Chencheng

    2014-05-28

    The optoelectronic properties of four azo dye-sensitized TiO2 interfaces are systematically studied as a function of a changing dye anchoring group: carboxylate, sulfonate, hydroxyl, and pyridyl. The variation in optoelectronic properties of the free dyes and those in dye/TiO2 nanocomposites are studied both experimentally and computationally, in the context of prospective dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. Experimental UV/vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and DSSC device performance testing reveal a strong dependence on the nature of the anchor of the optoelectronic properties of these dyes, both in solution and as dye/TiO2 nanocomposites. First-principles calculations on both an isolated dye/TiO2 cluster model (using localized basis sets) and each dye modeled onto the surface of a 2D periodic TiO2 nanostructure (using plane wave basis sets) are presented. Detailed examination of these experimental and computational results, in terms of light harvesting, electron conversion and photovoltaic device performance characteristics, indicates that carboxylate is the best anchoring group, and hydroxyl is the worst, whereas sulfonate and pyridyl groups exhibit competing potential. Different sensitization solvents are found to affect critically the extent of dye adsorption achieved in the dye-sensitization of the TiO2 semiconductor, especially where the anchor is a pyridyl group.

  1. The Fabrication, Formation Mechanism of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays and Its Application on Dye Sensitized Solar Cells%TiO2纳米管阵列膜的制备、机理与光电性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春宁; 程义; 何品; 贾梅秀; 张军; 叶葱

    2015-01-01

    The high ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were prepared on Ti foils by two-step anodization.The surface morphology and crystallographic structure of the TiO2 nanotube arrays were analyzed and its formation mechanism was studied.Meanwhile, the photovoltaic performance of assembled dye sensitized solar cells ( DSSCs) based on the TiO2 nanotube arrays was investigated.It was found that the power conversion efficiency of 4.9% was obtained in DSSCs assembled with 24 h anodized TiO2 nanotube arrays.In order to enhance the power conversion efficiency of the DSSCs, the TiCl4 treatment was used to modify the surface of the TiO2 nanotube, and the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs with surface modification were improved to be 8.7%.It has benefit for the industry application of DSSCs especially.%采用两步阳极氧化法,在金属Ti箔片表面制备出了高度有序的TiO2纳米管阵列膜,分析了制备出的纳米管的表面形貌与晶向结构,并阐述了其生长机理;同时,将获得的TiO2纳米管阵列薄膜与染料、电解液、 Pt/FTO对电极组装成染料敏化太阳能电池( dye sensitized solar cells, DSSCs),并探究其光电转化性能。实验表明,氧化时间为24 h条件下获得的纳米管组装成DSSCs的光电转换效率为4.9%。进一步的,通过采用TiCl4溶液对纳米管进行表面修饰,组装DSSCs的光电性能提升至8.7%,更有利于实现DSSCs的工业化应用。

  2. Recent progress in interface modification for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Interface modification on the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is one of the most effective approaches to suppress the charge recombination,improve electron injection and transportation,and thus ameliorate the conversion efficiency and stability of DSCs.Conventional research focusing on the photoanodes interface modification before sensitization in dye-sensitized solar cells has been carried out and reviewed.However,recent studies showed that post-modification after sensitization of the TiO2 electrode also plays a significant role on the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface.This post-modification using the immersing method could deprotonate dye molecules,prohibit the dye aggregation and retard the recombination reaction.As a result,it has great influence on the devices’ photovoltaic performance.This interface modification could also provide an approach to broaden the response of the solar spectrum by introducing an alternative assembling structure.An in-situ meaning of using a co-adsorbent is employed to modify the interface in the DSCs,which could retard the aggregation of the dye molecules and enhance the conversion efficiency.In addition,electrolyte additives can be used to modify the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface through some unique mechanisms.Based on the background of interface modification of photoanodes before sensitization,this review introduces various interface modifications after sensitization of dye-sensitized solar cells and their mechanisms.

  3. Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Charles Brandon Sweeney, Mark Bundy, Mark Griep, and Shashi P. Karna...ARL-TR-7100 September 2014 Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Charles Brandon Sweeney Texas A&M...

  4. Numerical Procedure for Optimizing Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Razvan Mitroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a numerical procedure consisting of a simplified physical model and a numerical method with the aim of optimizing the performance parameters of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. We calculate the real rate of absorbed photons (in the dye spectral range Grealx by introducing a factor β<1 in order to simplify the light absorption and reflection on TCO electrode. We consider the electrical transport to be purely diffusive and the recombination process only to occur between electrons from the TiO2 conduction band and anions from the electrolyte. The used numerical method permits solving the system of differential equations resulting from the physical model. We apply the proposed numerical procedure on a classical DSSC based on Ruthenium dye in order to validate it. For this, we simulate the J-V characteristics and calculate the main parameters: short-circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc, fill factor FF, and power conversion efficiency η. We analyze the influence of the nature of semiconductor (TiO2 and dye and also the influence of different technological parameters on the performance parameters of DSSCs. The obtained results show that the proposed numerical procedure is suitable for developing a numerical simulation platform for improving the DSSCs performance by choosing the optimal parameters.

  5. TiO2/Chitosan-NH4I(+I2-BMII-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anthocyanin Dyes Extracted from Black Rice and Red Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Buraidah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated using anthocyanin dye and polymer electrolyte with ammonium iodide (NH4I salt. The study was designed to focus on increasing the efficiency of the DSSC. DSSC using 26.9 wt. % chitosan-22 wt. % NH4I(+2.2 wt.% I2-48.9 wt. % IL solid electrolyte, black rice anthocyanin with Pt counter electrode showed Jsc of 172 μA cm−2 and Voc of 195 mV. The performance of the cell with Pt electrode was further improved by coating a blocking layer on the indium tin oxide (ITO substrate. The black rice DSSC using 11 wt. % (chitosan:PEO, wt. ratio 30:70-9 wt. % NH4I-80 wt. % BMII gel electrolyte exhibited Jsc of 1213 μA cm−2, Voc of 400 mV, FF of 0.47, and η of 0.23%. The red cabbage anthocyanin DSSC containing (phthaloyl chitosan-PEO-NH4I-BMII gel electrolyte using tartaric acid to adjust the pH of anthocyanin solution showed the best performance with the fill factor of 0.39, Jsc of 3503 μA cm−2, Voc of 340 mV, and an overall conversion efficiency of 0.46%.

  6. Interfaces in Dye-Sensitized Oxide / Hole-Conductor Heterojunctions for Solar Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Nanoporous dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) are promising devices for solar to electric energy conversion. In this thesis photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and photovoltaic measurements are used for studies of the key interfaces in the DSSC. Photovoltaic properties of new combinations of TiO2/dye/hole-conductor heterojunctions were demonstrated and their interfacial structures were studied. Three different types of hole-conductor materials were investigate...

  7. Investigating the performance of nitrogen-doped graphene photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Easter; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Kait, Chong Fai; Saheed, Mohamed Shuaib Mohamed; Khatani, Mehboob

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) is used to synthesize graphene on a copper substrate by utilizing methane as a precursor and N-doped graphene (NDG) in the presence of ammonia. The performance of pure titanium dioxide (TiO2), TiO2/graphene, and TiO2/NDG as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) were compared. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed flakes of few layers with an interrupted layer in both graphene and NDG. DSSC consist of TiO2/NDG photoanode exhibits a better enhancement due to the high conductivity of donor N in graphene which enhances the electron transportation across nanoporous TiO2.

  8. Nano-TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraton, Marie-Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaics are amongst the most popular renewable energy sources and low-cost solar cell technologies are making progress to the market. Research on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) usually based on nanocrystalline TiO2 has been extensively pursued, and the number of papers and patents published in this area has grown exponentially over the last ten years. Research efforts have largely focused on the optimization of the dye, but recently the TiO2 nanocrystalline electrode itself has attracted more attention. It has been shown that particle size and shape, crystallinity, surface morphology and chemistry of the TiO2 material are key parameters to be controlled for optimized performance of the solar cell. This article will review the most recent research activities on nanostructured TiO2 for improvement of the DSSC performance.

  9. Nanomaterials Enabled Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Pei

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs), as the third generation of solar cells, have attracted tremendous attention for their unique properties. The semi-transparent nature, low-cost, environmental friendliness, and convenient manufacturing conditions of this generation of solar cells are promising aspects of DSCs that make them competitive in their future applications. However, much improvement in many aspects of DSCs' is required for the realization of its full potential. In this thesis, various nanomaterials, such as graphene, multi wall carbon nanotubes, vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes, hybrid structures and etc, have been used to improve the performance of DSCs. First, the application of graphene covered metal grids as transparent conductive electrodes in DSCs is explored. It is demonstrated that the mechanical properties of these flexible hybrid transparent electrodes, in both bending and stretching tests, are better than their oxide-based counter parts. Moreover, different kinds of carbon nanotubes, for instance vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes, have been used as a replacement for traditional platinum counter electrodes, in both iodine electrolyte, and sulfide-electrolyte. Further, a flexible, seamlessly connected, 3-dimensional vertically-aligned few wall carbon nanotubes graphene hybrid structures on Ni foil as DSCs' counter electrodes improve their efficiency significantly. All these nanomaterials enabled DSCs architectures achieve a comparable or better performance than standard brittle platinum/fluorine doped tin oxide combination. The large surface area of such nanomaterials in addition to the high electrical conductivity and their mechanical robustness provides a platform for significant enhancements in DSCs' performance.

  10. Progress in nanostructured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian; Liu, Yong; Lin, Tong

    2016-09-01

    Solar cells represent a principal energy technology to convert light into electricity. Commercial solar cells are at present predominately produced by single- or multi-crystalline silicon wafers. The main drawback to silicon-based solar cells, however, is high material and manufacturing costs. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted much attention during recent years because of the low production cost and other advantages. The photoanode (working electrode) plays a key role in determining the performance of DSSCs. In particular, nanostructured photoanodes with a large surface area, high electron transfer efficiency, and low electron recombination facilitate to prepare DSSCs with high energy conversion efficiency. In this review article, we summarize recent progress in the development of novel photoanodes for DSSCs. Effect of semiconductor material (e.g. TiO2, ZnO, SnO2, N2O5, and nano carbon), preparation, morphology and structure (e.g. nanoparticles, nanorods, nanofibers, nanotubes, fiber/particle composites, and hierarchical structure) on photovoltaic performance of DSSCs is described. The possibility of replacing silicon-based solar cells with DSSCs is discussed.

  11. Photoreduction of Shewanella oneidensis Extracellular Cytochromes by Organic Chromophores and Dye-Sensitized TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Emma V; Lockwood, Colin W J; White, Gaye F; Hwang, Ee Taek; Sakai, Tsubasa; Gross, Manuela A; Richardson, David J; Clarke, Thomas A; Jeuken, Lars J C; Reisner, Erwin; Butt, Julea N

    2016-12-14

    The transfer of photoenergized electrons from extracellular photosensitizers across a bacterial cell envelope to drive intracellular chemical transformations represents an attractive way to harness nature's catalytic machinery for solar-assisted chemical synthesis. In Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), trans-outer-membrane electron transfer is performed by the extracellular cytochromes MtrC and OmcA acting together with the outer-membrane-spanning porin⋅cytochrome complex (MtrAB). Here we demonstrate photoreduction of solutions of MtrC, OmcA, and the MtrCAB complex by soluble photosensitizers: namely, eosin Y, fluorescein, proflavine, flavin, and adenine dinucleotide, as well as by riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide, two compounds secreted by MR-1. We show photoreduction of MtrC and OmcA adsorbed on Ru(II) -dye-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles and that these protein-coated particles perform photocatalytic reduction of solutions of MtrC, OmcA, and MtrCAB. These findings provide a framework for informed development of strategies for using the outer-membrane-associated cytochromes of MR-1 for solar-driven microbial synthesis in natural and engineered bacteria. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  12. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

    2014-12-01

    The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

  13. Carbonaceous Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar; Biggs, Mark J; Shapter, Joseph G

    2015-03-01

    High photovoltaic efficiency is one of the most important keys to the commercialization of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in the quickly growing renewable electricity generation market. The heart of the DSSC system is a wide bandgap semiconductor based photoelectrode film that helps to adsorb dye molecules and transport the injected electrons away into the electrical circuit. However, charge recombination, poor light harvesting efficiency and slow electron transport of the nanocrystalline oxide photoelectrode film are major issues in the DSSC's performance. Recently, semiconducting composites based on carbonaceous materials (carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene) have been shown to be promising materials for the photoelectrode of DSSCs due to their fascinating properties and low cost. After a brief introduction to development of nanocrystalline oxide based films, this Review outlines advancements that have been achieved in the application of carbonaceous-based materials in the photoelectrode of DSSCs and how these advancements have improved performance. In addition, several of the unsolved issues in this research area are discussed and some important future directions are also highlighted.

  14. Enhanced performance of natural dye sensitised solar cells fabricated using rutile TIO2 nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akila, Y.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Agilan, S.; Mallick, Tapas K.; Senthilarasu, S.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2016-08-01

    Due to the lower cost, natural dye molecules are good alternatives for the ruthenium based sensitizers in the dye-sensitized solar cells. In this article, we have reported the natural sensitizer based dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated using TiO2 nanorods. Rutile phase TiO2 nanorods have been synthesized by template free hydrothermal method which results in TiO2 nanorods in the form of acropora corals. These TiO2 nanorods have been sensitized by flowers of Sesbania grandiflora, leaves of Camellia sinensis and roots of Rubia tinctorum. The maximum conversion efficiency of 1.53% has been obtained for TiO2 nanorods based solar cells sensitized with the leaves of Camellia sinensis. The flowers of Sesbania grandiflora and roots of Rubia tinctorum sensitized TiO2 nanorods based solar cells exhibited an efficiency of 0.65% and 1.28% respectively.

  15. Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells based on Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 Framework Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong; CHENG Yun-Fei; LI Fu-You; ZHOU Zhi-Guo; YI Tao; HUANG Chun-Hui; JIA Neng-Qin

    2005-01-01

    @@ We develop a novel and efficient quasi-solid-state electrolyte based on the mesoporous silica SBA-15 as a framework material for a dye sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cell. A solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 4.34% is achieved under AM 1.5 illumination (100mW/cm2).

  16. Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanoparticle Sensitized Metal-Organic Framework Derived Mesoporous TiO2 as Photoanodes for High-Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Xie, Zhirun; Zhou, Shujie; Zhang, Yanan; Yuan, Zhimin; Zhang, Luyuan; Yin, Longwei

    2016-08-31

    We present a facile hot injection and hydrothermal method to synthesize Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles sensitized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-derived mesoporous TiO2. The MOFs-derived TiO2 inherits the large specific surface area and abundantly porous structures of the MOFs structure, which is of great benefit to effectively enhance the dye loading capacity, prolong the incident light traveling length by enhancing the multiple interparticle light-scattering process, and therefore improve the light absorption capacity. The sensitization of CZTS nanoparticles effectively enlarges the photoresponse range of TiO2 to the visible light region and facilitates photoinduced carrier transport. The formed heterostructure between CZTS nanoparticles and MOFs-derived TiO2 with matched band gap structure effectively suppresses the recombination rates of photogenerated electron/hole pairs and prolongs the lifespan of the carriers. Photoanodes based upon CZTS/MOFs-derived TiO2 photoanodes can achieve the maximal photocurrent of 17.27 mA cm(-2) and photoelectric conversion performance of 8.10%, nearly 1.93 and 2.21 times higher than those of TiO2-based photoanode. The related mechanism and model are investigated. The strikingly improved photoelectric properties are ascribed to a synergistic action between the MOFs-derived TiO2 and the sensitization of CZTS nanoparticles.

  17. Fabrication of Highly-Oriented TiO2 Nanotube Arrays and Its Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells%二氧化钛纳米管阵列制备及其在染料敏化太阳能电池中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦星剑; 林红; 李思钊; 李建保

    2011-01-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated by anodization of titanium foils in an ethylene glycol and NH-4F system. The dimensions of nanotubes were controlled by tailoring anodization voltage. Titania nanotube arrays with various lengths (10-45 μm) and pore sizes (50-150 nm) were prepared. The effect of anodization voltage on the microstructural morphology of nanotubes and performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on the TiO2 nanotube arrays was investigated. The experimental results show that the active surface area increases when the length of nanotubes is longer. The photocurrent and efficiency of DSCs enhanced with increasing anodization voltage, and a promising efficiency of 2.27% for DSCs based on anodized TiO2 nanotube arrays was achieved.%以NH4F的乙二醇溶液为电解液,采用阳极氧化法在钛板上制备二氧化钛纳米管阵列,通过调控氧化电压改变纳米管的长度和管径,得到了长度为10~45μm、管径为50~150nm的二氧化钛纳米管.分析了阳极氧化实验条件对TiO2纳米管尺寸的影响,并研究了TiO2纳米管阵列的尺寸对染料敏化太阳能电池(dye-sensitized solar cells,DSCs)性能的影响.结果表明;随着纳米管长度增加,表面积增大,电池的短路电流显著提高,光电转换效率也随之增大.基于TiO2纳米管阵列的DSCs最高光电转换效率达到了2.27%.

  18. Review on development of electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since the prototype of a dye-sensitized solar cell(DSSC)was reported in 1991 by M. Gratzel,it has aroused intensive interest over the past decade due to its low cost and simple preparation procedure.The typical cell consists of a dye-coated mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO_2 film sandwiched between two transparent electroldes.A liquid electrolyte,traditionally containing the trioidide/iodide redox couple,fills the pores of the mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO_2 film and contacts the nanoparticles.Photoexcite...

  19. A Hybrid Tandem Solar Cell Combining a Dye-Sensitized and a Polymer Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhipeng; Chen, Shuanghong; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhu, Liangzheng; Ye, Jiajiu; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    A hybrid tandem solar cell was assambled by connecting a dye sensitized solar cell and a polymer solar cell in series. A N719 sensitized TiO2 was used as photocathode in dye-sensitized subcell, and a MEH-PPV/PCBM composite was used as active layer in the polymer subcell. The polymer subcell fabricated on the counter electrode of the dye sensitized solar cell. A solution processed TiO(x) layer was used as electron collection layer of the polymer sub cell and the charge recombination layer. The effects of the TiO(x) interlayer and the spectral overlap between the two sub cells have been studied and optimized. The results shows that a proper thickness of the TiO(x) layer is needed for tandem solar cells. Thick TiO(x) will enhance the series resistance, but too thin TiO(x), layer will damage the hole blocking effect and its hydrophilic. The resulting optimized tandem solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 1.28% with a V(oc) of 0.95 V under simulated 100 mW cm(-2) AM 1.5 illumination.

  20. Improved Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Diethyldithiocarbamate-Modified Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. B. P. Ariyasinghe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface modification of a TiO2 electrode with diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was studied. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS indicate that over half of the sulfur atoms become positively charged after the DEDTC treatment of the TiO2 surface. DSSCs were fabricated with TiO2 electrodes modified by adsorbing DEDTC using a simple dip-coating process. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs has been optimized to 6.6% through the enhancement of the short-circuit current density ( mA/cm2. This is substantially higher compared to the efficiency of 5.9% ( mA/cm2 for the DSSCs made with untreated TiO2 electrodes.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Ag nanowires: Improved performance in dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia A. Kazmi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs with good photovoltaic parameters is an active research area of current global interest. Recently, one dimensional nanomaterial, such as nanorods and nanotubes has replaced the nanoparticles used in DSSCs anode because of their ability to improve the electron transport leading to enhanced electron collection efficiency. In the present work, rapid synthesis of silver nanowires (AgNWs was done. The XRD characterization was performed to confirm the formation and size of synthesized AgNWs. It was observed that FWHM of the diffraction peaks was increased with AgNWs concentration in TiO2. The synthesized TiO2AgNWs nanocomposite was used as the photo anode of Dye sensitized solar cell. The I–V characteristics of the solar cell were drawn using standard conditions. It was observed that TiO2AgNWs based solar cells have significantly increased photocurrent density resulting in improved conversion efficiency as compared to pure TiO2 based DSSC.

  2. Stoichiometry gradient, cation interdiffusion, and band alignment between a nanosized TiO2 blocking layer and a transparent conductive oxide in dye-sensitized solar cell front contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvinelli, Gabriele; Drera, Giovanni; Baratto, Camilla; Braga, Antonio; Sangaletti, Luigi

    2015-01-14

    An angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study allowed us to identify cation interdiffusion and stoichiometry gradients at the interface between a nanosized TiO2 blocking layer and a transparent conductive Cd-Sn oxide substrate. A stoichiometry gradient for the Sn cations is already found in the bare Cd-Sn oxide layer. When TiO2 ultrathin layers are deposited by RF sputtering on the Cd-Sn oxide layer, Ti is found to partially replace Sn, resulting in a Cd-Sn-Ti mixed oxide layer with a thickness ranging from 0.85 to 3.3 nm. The band gap profile across the junction has been reconstructed for three TiO2 layers, resulting in a valence band offset decrease (and a conduction band offset increase) with the blocking layer thickness. The results are related to the cell efficiencies in terms of charge injection and recombination processes.

  3. An efficient photoanode for dye sensitized solar cells using naturally derived S/TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunmetha, S.; Rajendran, V.; Vinoth, M.; Karthik, A.; Srither, S. R.; Srither Panday, M.; Nithyavathy, N.; Manivasakan, P.; Maaza, M.

    2017-03-01

    Natural mineral rutile sand is used for preparing titania (TiO2) nanoparticles employing a cost-effective simple chemical method and mass production technology. Further the sulfur doped (S/TiO2) and pure TiO2 are produced from chemical precursor also. Different techniques are used to analyse the effect of sulfur dopant like x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectra, photoluminescence, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analyser, field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Under visible light, a useful procedure is followed on the sulfur-doped samples preparation, enhancing the charge carrier recombination, and reducing crystallite size. In the improvement of the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells, this dopant could open up vast opportunities; consequently, our work is extended to apply these prepared samples in standard dye-sensitized solar cells. The photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells are made up of these prepared materials (S-doped TiO2 and pure TiO2) and compared with both commercial TiO2 (P-25) powder, as well as commercially available paste (Dyesol). The S/TiO2 nanoparticles on dye-sensitized solar cells exhibit enhanced ultra-violet visible light absorbance with increased photogenerated electrons and holes meanwhile reduce the recombination rate of charge carriers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Further, the overall power-conversion efficiency (η) and external quantum efficiency of the S/TiO2 cells (η  =  4.32% and EQE  =  32%) is two times higher than that of pure TiO2 cells (η  =  2.75% and EQE  =  16%).

  4. Study on the effect of mass ratio of ZnO to TiO2 on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells%ZnO与TiO2的质量比对染料敏化太阳能电池性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旺; 魏爱香; 刘俊; 葛增娴; 刘传标

    2011-01-01

    采用低温水溶液法制备ZnO微米棒;ZnO微米棒与TiO2纳米粉以不同比例混合,制备复合浆料;采用刮涂法把复合浆料涂敷在透明导电玻璃上,制备ZnO/Fio2复合薄膜光阳极.通过电池的I-U特性和电化学阻抗谱测试,研究ZnO微米棒与TiO2纳米粉的比例对电池性能的影响.结果表明:当ZnO与TiO2的质量比为1:1时,DSSC的效率最高,此时的光电转换效率比纯TiO2电池的效率提高了31%.这主要得益于ZnO微米棒更高的光利用率和良好的电子转移特性.%The ZnO microrods were prepared by low temperature solution-phase method. ZnO/TiO2 composites photoanodes were prepared on FTO with pastes of different proportions of ZnO microrods and TiO2 nanopowders by doctor-blade method. The effect of the relative microwire/nanoparticle ratio on the performance of solar cells were systematically investigated by I-U curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscope. The results show that the solar conversion efficiency of the dye sensitized solar cells after the addition ofZnO microrods (50%) was increased by about 30% by comparison to that of the pure TiO2 photoanode. This is mainly because of the ZnO microrods having higher photon absorption and a good electron transfer properties.

  5. Size-tunable TiO2 nanorod microspheres synthesised via a one-pot solvothermal method and used as the scattering layer for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yichuan; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi

    2013-11-01

    TiO2 microspheres assembled by single crystalline rutile TiO2 nanorods were synthesized by one-pot solvothermal treatment at 180 °C based on an aqueous-organic mixture solution containing n-hexane, distilled water, titanium n-butoxide and hydrochloric acid. The spheres had a radiative structure from the center, and their diameters were controlled in the range from 1 to 5 μm by adjusting the volume of the reactant water. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms showed that all the as-prepared microspheres had relatively high specific surface areas of about 50 m2 g-1. The 1 μm sized TiO2 nanorod microspheres were fabricated as a scattering overlayer in DSSCs, leading to a remarkable improvement in the power conversion efficiency: 8.22% of the bi-layer DSSCs versus 7.00% for the reference cell made of a single-layer film prepared from nanocrystalline TiO2. Such improvement was mainly attributed to the enhanced light harvesting and dye loading brought by the effective scattering centers.TiO2 microspheres assembled by single crystalline rutile TiO2 nanorods were synthesized by one-pot solvothermal treatment at 180 °C based on an aqueous-organic mixture solution containing n-hexane, distilled water, titanium n-butoxide and hydrochloric acid. The spheres had a radiative structure from the center, and their diameters were controlled in the range from 1 to 5 μm by adjusting the volume of the reactant water. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms showed that all the as-prepared microspheres had relatively high specific surface areas of about 50 m2 g-1. The 1 μm sized TiO2 nanorod microspheres were fabricated as a scattering overlayer in DSSCs, leading to a remarkable improvement in the power conversion efficiency: 8.22% of the bi-layer DSSCs versus 7.00% for the reference cell made of a single-layer film prepared from nanocrystalline TiO2. Such improvement was mainly attributed to the enhanced light harvesting and dye loading brought by the effective scattering centers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04462a

  6. Characteristics of dye Rhoeo spathacea in dye sensitizer solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumardiasih, Sri; Obina, Wilfrida M.; Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Septiawan, Trio Y.; Khairuddin

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a device that converts solar energy into electrical energy. The magnitude of the efficiency of DSSC is mainly based on the amount of dye absorbed by the surface of TiO2. In this work, used natural dye extracted from leaves Rhoeo spathacea. The dye partially used to immerse of TiO2 as working electrodes, and the rest are directly mixed TiO2 paste to obtain dye titanium dioxide.The paste TiO2 and dye titanium dioxide coated onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass plate by spin coating method. The absorbance spectra of the dye, dye titanium dioxide and TiO2 were obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The conductivity of the dye, dye titanium dioxide, and TiO2 was measured by two point probe El-Kahfi 100. The DSSC based on dye titanium dioxide that stirring for 5 hours the highest efficiency of 0,0520 % whereas those based on TiO2 immersed for 36 hours showed achieved 0,0501 % obtained from I-V characterization.

  7. High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on the Anatase TiO2 Sols%基于锐钛矿相二氧化钛溶胶的高效染料敏化太阳能电池

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝艳明; 石国英; 钱迪峰; 张青红

    2011-01-01

    用稀硝酸或双氧水对TiO2沉淀进行处理,分别得到锐钛矿相TiO2溶胶及过氧钛酸溶液,两者经水热处理后通过“定向附着”得到比表面积均大于100m2/g的TiO2纳米棒溶胶,制成染料敏化太阳能电池后,电池的开路电压得到提高.溶胶在导电玻璃上形成致密阻挡层,也能渗入到Degussa P25为原料经刮涂法制备的光阳极内,消除其中的大孔与缺陷.溶胶修饰的电极经过烧结、组装电池后,AM1.5模拟太阳光照下电池的光电转化效率由4.15%提高到5.63%.%TiO2 precipitates were treated with dilute HNO3 solution or H2O2 solution, anatase TiO2 sols and peroxotitanium acid (PTA) solution were obtained, respectively. Both anatase TiO2 sols and PTA solution were subjected to further hydrothermal treatment, and TiO2 nanorod sols with a specific surface area of more than 100m2/g were formed via the oriented attachment mechanism. The anatase nanorods were used to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and cells with a higher open-circuit voltage were observed. The anatase nanorod sols were also used to make compact layers over FTO conductive glass, and infiltrated into porous TiO2 layers using Degussa P25 titania as raw material by doctor-blade technique to elimination large pores and defects in DSSCs anodes. The sols treated anodes were sintered and assembled into DSSCs, and the photoelectric conversion efficiency of resulted DSSCs increased from 4.15% to 5.63% under AM1.5 simulated solar irradiation.

  8. Interface Modification of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells with Pivalic Acid to Enhance the Open-circuit Voltage

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Pivalic acid (PVA) was used as a new coadsorbent to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) to modify the interface between the TiO2 films and electrolyte. The addition of PVA improved the light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of devices by 8% by enhancing the open-circuit voltage. Copyright © 2009 The Chemical Society of Japan.

  9. Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Al-Doped TiO2 Thin Films%基于铝离子掺杂二氧化钛薄膜的染料敏化太阳能电池的光电性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秋平; 黄慧娟; 周洋; 段彦栋; 孙庆文; 林原

    2012-01-01

    Al-doped TiO2 thin films were synthesized by the hydrothermal method.To prepare a working electrode,a TiO2 or AlTiO2 slurry was coated onto a fiuorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate by the doctor blade method and the coated substrate was sintered at 450℃.TiO2 and Al-doped TiO2 films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),and tested by the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) system.The influences of Al-doping on TiO2 crystal form and the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs were investigated.X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data indicate that the doped Al ions exist in the form of Al3+,and these ions play a role as e- or h+ traps and reduce the e-/h* pair recombination rate.The corresponding MottSchottky plot indicates that the Al-doped TiO2 photoanode shifts the fiat band potential positively.The positive shift of the fiat band potential improves the driving force of injected electrons from the LUMO of the dye to the conduction band of TiO2.The Al-doped TiO2 thin film shows a photovoltaic efficiency of 6.48%,which is higher than that of the undoped TiO2 thin film (5.58%) and the short-circuit photocurrent density increases from 16.5 to 18.2 mA·cm-2.%采用水热法制备出Al3+掺杂二氧化钛薄膜,通过玻璃棒涂于导电玻璃上,在450℃的温度下烧结并将其用N3染料敏化制成染料敏化太阳能电池(DSSCs).通过X射线光电子能谱(XPS)、X射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电镜(SEM)及DSSCs测试系统对其进行了测试表征,研究了Al3+掺杂对TiO2晶型及染料敏化太阳能电池的光电性能影响.XPS数据显示Al3+成功掺杂到了TiO2晶格内,由于Al3+的存在,对半导体内电子和空穴的捕获及阻止电子/空穴对的复合发挥重要作用.莫特-肖特基曲线显示掺杂Al3+后二氧化钛平带电位发生正移,并导致电子从染料注入到TiO2的驱动力提高.DSSCs系统测试结果表明,Al3+掺杂的TiO2

  10. TiO2纳米颗粒/纳米线复合光阳极的染料敏化太阳能电池%Dye-sensitized solar cells with TiO2 nanoparticle/nanowire composites photoanode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旺; 魏爱香; 刘俊; 葛增娴; 刘传标

    2011-01-01

    TiO2 nanowires powder were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Tetrabutyl titanate sol was pre-pared from sol-gel process. Gel slurry was formated by tetrabutyl titanate sol mixing with TiO2 nanowires pow-der. The composites photoanode of TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2 nanowires were prepared on transparent con-ductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by dip-coating method. The structure and morphology char-acteristics of TiO2 nanowires powder and composites photoanode have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of the relative nanowire/nanoparticle ratio on the per-formance of solar cells were systematically investigated by J-V curves and electrochemical impedance spectro-scope. The results showed that the short-circuit current density and light-to-electricity efficiency of DSSCs obvi-ously increas, open-circuit voltage and fill factor basically maintain constant, the impedance of electron transfer decrease, electron lifetime in the photoanode lengthen, with increasing of TiO2 nanowires in composites photoa-node.%首先采用水热合成技术制备TiO2纳米线粉末,然后采用溶胶-凝胶技术制备钛酸丁酯溶胶,向溶胶中加入适量的TiO2纳米线制备凝胶浆体,采用浸渍提拉法在透明导电玻璃上制备TiO2纳米颗粒/TiO2纳米线复合薄膜的光阳极.通过XRD、SEM,电池的I-V特性和电化学阻抗谱测试,研究TiO2纳米线的添加量对光阳极的结构、形貌和电池性能的影响.结果表明,随着溶胶中TiO2纳米线添加量的增加,染料敏化太阳能电池的短路电流密度和光电转换效率显著提高,而开路电压和填充因子基本保持不变;复合光阳极中随着纳米线添加量的增加,电子的传输阻抗显著减少,电子的寿命延长.

  11. Study on the modulation of TiO2 photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell by ZnO%ZnO调制改性染料敏化太阳能电池TiO2光阳极研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔旭梅; 左承阳; 蓝德均; 王军; 黄载春

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 films,TiO2-ZnO composite films and TiO2/ZnO double films as photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell were prepared by screen-printing technique,and the modulation effect of ZnO on the TiO2 photoanode was studied.The results of the study indicate that conversion efficiency of the solar cell with TiO2-ZnO composite films photoanode prepared with zinc acetate doped is higher than that of with no doped by 1 time,and because of the um magnitude of the large size of ZnO,its composite photoanode make the conversion efficiency of the solar cell decrease.The conversion efficiency of the solar cell with TiO2/ZnO double films photoanode prepared from zinc acetate as raw material is higher than that of without ZnO film layer by 13 times.The conversion efficiency of the cell with TiO2/ZnO double films is 4.7% by optimization.%采用丝网印刷的方式制备了染料敏化太阳能电池的TiO2薄膜光阳极、TiO2-ZnO复合薄膜光阳极以及TiO2/ZnO双层薄膜光阳极,研究了ZnO对TiO2薄膜光阳极的调制改性作用。研究结果表明分别以醋酸锌和ZnO直接掺杂制备的TiO2-ZnO复合薄膜光阳极同未掺杂的TiO2薄膜光阳极相比,以醋酸锌为原料制备的复合薄膜光阳极使电池转换效率提高了1倍,而由于微米量级的ZnO的粒径大,用其作原料制得的复合薄膜光阳极反而使电池的转换效率有所降低。以醋酸锌为原料制备的TiO2/ZnO双层薄膜光阳极同TiO2薄膜光阳极相比,电池转换效率提高了13倍,通过性能优化后电池的转换效率达到4.7%。

  12. Exploiting nanocarbons in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavan, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond, and graphene find various applications in the development of solar cells, including dye sensitized solar cells. Nanocarbons can be used as (1) active light-absorbing component, (2) current collector, (3) photoanode additive, or (4) counter electrode. Graphene-based materials have attracted considerable interest for catalytic counter electrodes, particularly in state-of-the-art dye sensitized solar cells with Co-mediators. The understanding of electrochemical charge-transfer at carbon surfaces is key to optimization of these solar cells, but the electrocatalysis on carbon surfaces is still a subject of conflicting debate. Due to the rich palette of problems at the interface of nanocarbons and photovoltaics, this review is selective rather than comprehensive. Its motivation was to highlight selected prospective inputs from nanocarbon science towards the development of novel dye sensitized solar cells with improved efficiency, durability, and cost.

  13. Preparation of anatase/rutile mixed-phase titania nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yong-Kyung; Park, Sung Soo; Lim, Jun-Heok; Won, Yong Sun; Huh, Seong

    2013-03-01

    Acid-labile high surface mesoporous ZnO/Zn(OH)2 composite material is used as a novel hard template for the preparation of mesoporous amorphous TiO2. The template-free amorphous TiO2 material is then thermally crystallized at suitable temperature to control the relative ratio of anatase and rutile phases in a particle. Four different anatase/rutile (AR) mixed-phase TiO2 nanoparticles (AR-3, AR-15, AR-20, and AR-23 denoted for the samples of 3%, 15%, 20%, and 23% rutile phase, respectively) are prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The coexistence of anatase and rutile phases in a TiO2 nanoparticle is visually confirmed by HRTEM analysis. These mixed-phase TiO2 nanoparticles are examined as candidates for photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The J-V curves and IPCE spectra for the DSSCs prepared from the mixed-phase TiO2 nanoparticles are obtained, and their photovoltaic properties are investigated. The photo-conversion efficiency (eta) indicates the highest value of 5.07% for AR-20. The synergistic effect of coexisting anatase and rutile phases with an optimal ratio in a TiO2 nanoparticle of AR-20 for an efficient interfacial transfer of photo-generated electrons is likely to lead to the highest efficiency among the AR-n samples.

  14. 浆料的制备工艺对TiO2纳米晶染料敏化太阳能电池性能的影响%Influence of Paste Preparation Process on the Performance of TiO2 Nanocrystalline Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡志霞; 王光超; 谢淑红

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 pastes were prepared by using P25 powers grinding with three kinds of additives. TiO2 photoanode films had been fabricated by doctor-blading method. The samples were characterized and measured by means of scanning electron microscope(SEM), UV-vis spectrophotometer(UV) and current densi-ty-voltage curves (J-V) methods. The effects of adding method of additives on Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) photoelectric properties were discussed. The results showed that when the additives were added dropwise, and the grinding time was 20 min, the fabricated DSSCs were porous and loose, which photoelectric conversion efficiency is 8. 6 %.%在TiO2(P25)粉末中分别加入各种添加剂,经研磨后得到TiO2浆料,采用涂刮法制备TiO2纳米晶薄膜光阳极,并组装成染料敏化太阳能电池(DSSC).采用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、紫外-可见光光度计(UV)和光电流密度-电压(J-V)对样品进行形貌表征和光电性能测试,探索了浆料制备工艺对DSSC光电性能的影响.实验结果表明,依次缓慢添加各种添加剂,且各添加剂的研磨时间分别为20min时,制备的浆料可制成疏松多孔的TiO2纳米晶薄膜,其光电转化效率可以达到8.6%.

  15. 电泳法制备具有{001}面TiO2纳米片分级球散射层的染敏太阳电池光电极%Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with An Electrophoresis-Deposited Layer of {001} Exposed Nanosheet-Based Hierarchical TiO2 Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐泽坤; 黄欢; 管杰; 于涛; 邹志刚

    2012-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanosheet-based hierarchical spheres (HSs) with nearly 100% exposed {001} facets were synthesized via a facile solvothermal process.Using these hierarchical spheres as a scattering layer on nanocrystaline TiO2 film,bi-layered dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been fabricated by electrophoresis deposition method,which well preserved the fragile hierarchical structure.Owing to the superior dye adsorption and light scattering effect of HSs,an overall energy conversion efficiency of 7.38% is achieved,which is 26% higher than that of nanoparticle-based photoanode.%利用简便的溶剂热法,制得了由锐钛矿相的纳米片组成的、{001}面接近100%暴露的TiO2分级球形结构.利用电泳沉积法,将所得的TiO2分级球形结构作为散射层引入到染料敏化太阳电池(DSSC)中,并很好地保护了这种脆弱的分级结构.由于这种分级球形结构比TiO2纳米颗粒具有更好的染料吸附性能和光散射性能,使用这种TiO2分级球形结构作为散射层的DSSC达到了7.38%的光电转换效率,较之基于TiO2纳米颗粒的DSSC有了26%的提高.

  16. A hybrid PVDF-HFP/nanoparticle gel electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh-Lang; Shen, Yu-Jen; Yang, Yu-Min

    2008-11-01

    Graphite and TiO2 nanoparticles are used as fillers to prepare a polymer gel electrolyte (PGE) based on I-/I3- and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. Graphite nanoparticles (GNP) were proved to be a more efficient filler than TiO2 in enhancing the charge conductivity of the PGE, decreasing the activation energy for charge transport and inhibiting the charge recombination at the TiO2/electrolyte interface. The energy conversion efficiency of a DSSC fabricated using a PGE containing 0.25 wt% of GNP can be increased from 4.69% (without filler) to 6.04%, close to that of a liquid system obtained in this work.

  17. Synthesis of dye-sensitized solar cells. Efficiency cells as a thickness of titanium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szura, Dominika

    2016-12-01

    Defying the influence of the thickness of TiO2 efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell. It was confirmed that the compatibility of printed layers with the parameters closely related with the DSSC. It was found that the increase in thickness of the titanium dioxide layer, increases the distance between the electrodes, determined by the thickness of the Surlyn foil. With the rise of thickness of dyed layer of TiO2 established decrease in the value of its transmittance. Greatest transparency and aesthetic value obtained for photovoltaic modules with a single layer of titanium dioxide. The improved performance efficiency and preferred yields maximum power were noticed and exhibited by the cells covered with three layers of TiO2. It was established that the behaviour of economic efficiency in the production process, provides a range of cells with two layers of oxide, showing a similar performance and greater transparency.

  18. Synthesis of dye-sensitized solar cells. Efficiency cells as a thickness of titanium dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szura Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Defying the influence of the thickness of TiO2 efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell. It was confirmed that the compatibility of printed layers with the parameters closely related with the DSSC. It was found that the increase in thickness of the titanium dioxide layer, increases the distance between the electrodes, determined by the thickness of the Surlyn foil. With the rise of thickness of dyed layer of TiO2 established decrease in the value of its transmittance. Greatest transparency and aesthetic value obtained for photovoltaic modules with a single layer of titanium dioxide. The improved performance efficiency and preferred yields maximum power were noticed and exhibited by the cells covered with three layers of TiO2. It was established that the behaviour of economic efficiency in the production process, provides a range of cells with two layers of oxide, showing a similar performance and greater transparency.

  19. Design of hybrid nanoheterostructure systems for enhanced quantum and solar conversion efficiencies in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Bayram; Telli, Hakan; Tüzemen, Sebahattin; Başaran, Ali; Pirge, Gursev

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with an innovative design involving controlled-morphology vertically aligned (VA) ZnO nanowires within mesoporous TiO2 structures with ultrahigh surface area for implementation as photoanodes are herein reported. Although TiO2 nanostructures exhibit excellent power conversion efficiency, the electron transport rate is low owing to low electron mobility. To overcome this, ZnO nanowires with high electron mobility have been investigated as potential candidates for photoanodes. However, the power conversion efficiency of ZnO nanowires is still lower than that of TiO2 owing to their low internal surface area. Consequently, in this work, vertical growth of ZnO nanowires within mesoporous TiO2 structures is carried out to increase their solar power conversion efficiency. The photovoltaic performance of solar cells using ZnO nanowires, mesoporous TiO2, and TiO2/ZnO hybrid structures are compared. The VA TiO2/ZnO hybrid structures are found to provide direct electron transfer compared with the tortuous pathway of zero-dimensional nanostructures, resulting in an increased conversion efficiency. It is demonstrated that the light scattering of the photoanode film is increased and electron recombination is decreased when an appropriate amount of mesoporous TiO2 is used as a substrate for ZnO nanowires. The DSSC fabricated with the TiO2/ZnO hybrid photoanode prepared with 15.8 wt. % TiO2 showed the highest conversion efficiency of 7.30%, approximately 5%, 18%, and 40% higher than that of DSSCs fabricated with 3.99 wt. % TiO2, pure TiO2, and pure ZnO photoanodes, respectively.

  20. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hardin, Brian E.

    2010-08-11

    The energy relay dye, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4- dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), was used with a near-infrared sensitizing dye, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3.5% to 4.5%. The unattached DCM dyes exhibit an average excitation transfer efficiency (EÌ?TE) of 96% inside TT1-covered, mesostructured TiO2 films. Further performance increases were limited by the solubility of DCM in an acetonitrile based electrolyte. This demonstration shows that energy relay dyes can be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  1. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Bi4Ti3O12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12 particles were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment and nanoporous thin films were prepared on conducting glass substrates. The structures and morphologies of the samples were examined with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Significant absorbance spectra emerged in visible region which indicated the efficient sensitization of Bi4Ti3O12 with N3 dye. Surface photovoltaic properties of the samples were investigated by surface photovoltage. The results further indicate that N3 can extend the photovoltaic response range of Bi4Ti3O12 nanoparticles to the visible region, which shows potential application in dye-sensitized solar cell. As a working electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, the overall efficiency reached 0.48% after TiO2 modification.

  2. Dye-sensitized Solar Cells for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M. S.; Deol, Y. S.; Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Narottam; Janu, Yojana

    2011-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) also known as Gratzel cells, have attracted the interests of researchers to a great extent because of its cost effective and easy manufacturing process without involving highly sophisticated lithographic technique and high cost raw materials as usually seen in conventional solar cell. Based on simple photo-electrochemical process, it has got immense potential in converting solar energy to electrical power in remote and desert area where the supply of conventional power is not possible. The overall peak power-production efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has been reported around 11 percent, so they are best suited to low-density applications and the price-to-performance ratio obtained through these solar cells is superior to others. DSSCs have ability to absorb even diffused sunlight and therefore work in cloudy whether as well without much impact over the efficiency. The present communication deals with a review of our work on DSSCs wherein we have used cost effective natural dyes/pigments as a sensitizer of nc-TiO2 and discussed about various key factors affecting the conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  3. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin; Maiaugree, Wasan; Suriharn, Bhalang; Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-09-01

    Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  4. Photophysical and electrochemical properties, and molecular structures of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooyama, Yousuke; Harima, Yutaka

    2012-12-21

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on organic dyes adsorbed on oxide semiconductor electrodes, such as TiO(2), ZnO, or NiO, which have emerged as a new generation of sustainable photovoltaic devices, have attracted much attention from chemists, physicists, and engineers because of enormous scientific interest in not only their construction and operational principles, but also in their high incident-solar-light-to-electricity conversion efficiency and low cost of production. To develop high-performance DSSCs, it is important to create efficient organic dye sensitizers, which should be optimized for the photophysical and electrochemical properties of the dyes themselves, with molecular structures that provide good light-harvesting features, good electron communication between the dye and semiconductor electrode and between the dye and electrolyte, and to control the molecular orientation and arrangement of the dyes on a semiconductor surface. The aim of this Review is not to make a list of a number of organic dye sensitizers developed so far, but to provide a new direction in the epoch-making molecular design of organic dyes for high photovoltaic performance and long-term stability of DSSCs, based on the accumulated knowledge of their photophysical and electrochemical properties, and molecular structures of the organic dye sensitizers developed so far.

  5. Solution processable titanium dioxide precursor and nanoparticulated ink: application in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Jimenez, Pau; Yu, Youhai; Lira-Cantu, Mónica; Domingo, Concepción; Ayllón, José A

    2014-02-15

    Colloidal TiO2 anatase nanoparticles of 4-8 nm diameter capped with 3,6,9-trioxadecanoic acid (TODA) were synthesized at low temperature using water and ethanol as the solvents. ATR-FTIR and (1)H NMR characterization showed the capping acid capability of stabilizing the TiO2 nanoparticles through labile hydrogen bonds. The presence of the capping ligand permitted the further preparation of homogeneous and stable colloidal dispersions of the TiO2 powder in aqueous media. Moreover, after solvent evaporation, the ligand could be easily eliminated by soft treatments, such as UV irradiation or low-temperature thermal annealing. These properties have been used in this work to fabricate mesoporous TiO2 electrodes, which can be applied as photoanodes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). For the preparation of the electrodes, the as-synthesized mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles were mixed with commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25) and deposited on FTO substrates by using the doctor blade technique. A mixture of water and ethanol was used as the solvent. A soft thermal treatment at 140 °C for 2h eliminated the organic compound and produced a sintered mesoporous layer of 6 μm thickness. The photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs applying these electrodes sensitized with the N3 dye resulted in 5.6% power conversion efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Ethyl Cellulose on Performance of Titania Photoanode for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting-Chien; Wu, Chih-Chung; Huang, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Chih-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Ethyl cellulose (EC) was added to a titania (TiO2) paste from 2 wt.% to 18 wt.% as a binder/dispersant, and its effects on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated. The TiO2 mesoporous film constructed on the photoanode exhibited a dense and network structure composed of well-interconnected TiO2 nanoparticles when using a proper amount of EC (10 wt.%). Excessive and deficient addition of EC resulted in aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles and formation of pores, respectively, in the TiO2 film. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSC showed a strong dependence on the EC content and the highest PCE of 7.53% with the highest short-circuit current density ( J SC) of 12.7 mA/cm2 was achieved when the content of EC was 10 wt.%. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results indicated that the TiO2 mesoporous film fabricated using a proper EC addition was beneficial for electron generation (also confirmed by dye desorption experiments) and electron transport, and, therefore, improved the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs.

  7. Influence of Titania Dispersivity on the Conversion Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titania powder (P25 was dispersed by bead-milling breakdown method, and the dispersivity of TiO2 was controlled by adjusting the mean secondary TiO2 particle size to 45, 56, and 75 nm by changing the dispersion solvent blend ratio of ethanol and terpineol. The transparency of the coated layer increased when the particle size of TiO2 aggregates became smaller than 100 nm. Although the transparency was significantly different according to differences in the size of nanocrystallyne-TiO2 aggregates, the resulting photovoltaic (PV effect of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC was not significantly different between the different aggregate sizes. A double layer structure (transparent TiO2 layer/opaque TiO2 layer was adopted to improve the PV effect, which resulted in an improvement of the photocurrent and conversion efficiency of 13.2% and 11.1%, respectively, from that for the DSSCs with single-layered TiO2 electrodes.

  8. Effect of Silver Nanoparticle Size on Efficiency Enhancement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanu Photiphitak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide/silver (TiO2/Ag composite films were prepared by incorporating Ag in pores of mesoporous TiO2 films using a photoreduction method. The Ag nanoparticle sizes were in a range of 4.36–38.56 nm. The TiO2/Ag composite films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The TiO2 and TiO2/Ag composite films were then sensitized by immersing in a 0.3 mM N719 dye solution and fabricated for conventional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. J-V characteristics of the TiO2/Ag DSCs showed that the Ag nanoparticle size of 19.16 nm resulted in the short circuit current density and efficiency of 8.12 mA/cm2 and 4.76%.

  9. Effects of Ethyl Cellulose on Performance of Titania Photoanode for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting-Chien; Wu, Chih-Chung; Huang, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Chih-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Ethyl cellulose (EC) was added to a titania (TiO2) paste from 2 wt.% to 18 wt.% as a binder/dispersant, and its effects on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated. The TiO2 mesoporous film constructed on the photoanode exhibited a dense and network structure composed of well-interconnected TiO2 nanoparticles when using a proper amount of EC (10 wt.%). Excessive and deficient addition of EC resulted in aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles and formation of pores, respectively, in the TiO2 film. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSC showed a strong dependence on the EC content and the highest PCE of 7.53% with the highest short-circuit current density (J SC) of 12.7 mA/cm2 was achieved when the content of EC was 10 wt.%. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) results indicated that the TiO2 mesoporous film fabricated using a proper EC addition was beneficial for electron generation (also confirmed by dye desorption experiments) and electron transport, and, therefore, improved the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan Binder-Based Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En Mei Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A chitosan binder-based TiO2 photoelectrode is used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM images revealed that the grain size, thickness, and distribution of TiO2 films are affected by the chitosan content. With addition of 2.0 wt% chitosan to the TiO2 film (D2, the surface pore size became the smallest, and the pores were fairly evenly distributed. The electron transit time, electron recombination lifetime, diffusion coefficient, and diffusion length were analyzed by IMVS and IMPS. The best DSSC, with 2.0 wt% chitosan addition to the TiO2 film, had a shorter electron transit time, longer electron recombination lifetime, and larger diffusion coefficient and diffusion length than the other samples. The results of 2.0 wt% chitosan-added TiO2 DSSCs are an electron transit time of  s, electron recombination lifetime of  s, diffusion coefficient of  cm2 s−1, diffusion length of 14.81 μm, and a solar conversion efficiency of 4.18%.

  11. 锂掺杂二氧化钛致密层对染料敏化太阳电池性能的影响%Effect of Li-doped TiO2 Compact Layers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文谦; 鲁玉明; 陈昌兆; 刘志勇; 蔡传兵

    2011-01-01

    Both TiO2 compact layer (d-TiO2) and Li-doped TiO2 compact layer (d-Li-TiO2) were deposited between nano-TiO2 and transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) by the technique of pulsed laser deposition (PLD). XRD pattern shows the compact layers are crystallized in anatase structure. Compared with FTO-based DSSC without compact layer, the open voltage decay measurement shows the novel structure can slow the decay of the open circuit voltage, indicating an effective suppression of back electrons transfer from TCO to the electrolyte by the dense buffer layers. In addition, the interface resistance between the nano-TiO2 and the TCO falls down due to the reduced energy band-gap of Li-doped TiO2, which makes it easier to transfer the generated electrons from conducting band of nano-TiO2 to TCO surface, leading an enlarged short current from 4.2 mA/cm of FTO-based to 4.8 mA/cm2 for that with d-TiO2 and 6.1 mA/cm2 for d-Li-TiO2, respectively. Thus, the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of DSSC based on the Li-doped TiO2 compact layer enhances as much as 42% compared with that FTO-based DSSC without TiO2 compact layer.%利用脉冲激光沉积(PLD),在纳米多孔二氧化钛层(np-TiO2)与透明导电玻璃之间分别沉积了二氧化钛致密层(d-TiO2)和掺锂二氧化钛致密层(d-Li-TiO2),XRD衍射结果显示该致密层具有锐钛矿结构.电池开路电压随时间的衰减实验结果表明,该结构可以有效减慢开路电压的衰减,抑制透明导电玻璃上的电子向电解质逆向传输并进行电子复合的几率;同时,掺入锂后,致密TiO2层(d-TiO2)能带宽度变窄,降低了np-TiO2层与透明导电玻璃之间的界面电阻,使得np-TiO2层导带上的光生电子更容易地向透明导电玻璃传输,进而使得具有d-Li-TiO2层的染料敏化太阳电池比无致密层的染料敏化太阳电池光电转换效率提高了42%.

  12. 分级微纳结构TiO2空心球的制备及其在DSSC中的应用%Preparation of TiO2 hollow spheres with hierarchical micro/nano architectures and its application in dye sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马黎; 赵丽; 王世敏; 董兵海; 许祖勋; 卢红兵; 万丽

    2012-01-01

    The TiO2 hollow spheres with diameter of 200 nm and shell thickness of 20~25 nm were synthesized via a templates method using titanium butoxide as the titanium source and ethanol absolute as solvent. The morphology, crystal phases, porous structures and UV-vis spectra of the product were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption. The results show that the anatase TiO2 hollow sphere (HS) is consist of TiO2 nanometer particles. TiO2 hollow spheres are used in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) to increase the light scattering. By fabrication of TiO2 P25/HS double-layer film electrode, a higher performance of the DSSC (7SC = 15.79 mA cm-2, VOC = 0.653 V, FF = 0.55, η = 6.66%) is obtained compared with the pure P25 nanocrystalline DSSC (7SC = 13.5 mA cm-2, VOC = 0.653 V, FF = 0.53, η = 4.95%).%以钛酸四丁酯为钛源,无水乙醇为溶剂,通过碳球模板法制备出直径为200 nm、壳厚20-25 nm的TiO2空心球(HS).通过X射线衍射(XRD)、透射电子显微镜(TEM)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和N2吸附脱附等对产物的形貌、晶相组成、孔结构和紫外-可见光谱性质进行了表征,结果显示所制备的锐钛矿相TiO2空心微球是由初级结构纳米级TiO2晶粒构成的.将这种TiO2空心球应用于染料敏化太阳电池(DSSC)领域可以提高光阳极对光的散射.通过制备P25/HS-TiO2双层膜电极,相比单纯的P25纳米晶电极(Jsc=13.5 mA cm-2,Voc=0.653 V,FF=0.53,η=4.95%)可以得到更高的光电转化效率(Jsc=15.79 mA cm-2,Voc=0.653 V,FF=0.55,η=6.66%).

  13. ZnO—TiO2染料敏化太阳能电池的制备和性能%Preparation and property of dye-sensitized solar cells based ZnO - TiO2 composite photoanodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 魏爱香; 刘传标; 赵旺

    2011-01-01

    采用低温水溶液法制备ZnO纳米花,将其与TiO2纳米颗粒以不同的质量比混合制备成复合浆料,采用刮涂法涂敷在掺氟的SnOz透明导电玻璃(FTO)上制备ZnO纳米花-TiO2纳米颗粒复合薄膜光阳极,与Pt对电极和电解质组装成染料敏化太阳能电池(DSSC)。通过光伏性能和电化学阻抗谱测试分析,研究ZnO纳米花与TiO2纳米颗粒的质量比对电池性能的影响。结果表明:随着光阳极中TiO2纳米颗粒的增加,DSSC的开路电压和填充因子提高,当ZnO与TiO2的质量比为83:17时,光电转换效率最高达3.20%;ZnO—TO2染料电池的阻抗谱类似于Gerischer阻抗谱,电子的扩散阻抗与背反应复合阻抗相耦合。%The composite photoanodes with different mass ratios of ZnO nano flowers to TiO2 nano-particles were prepared on transparent conductive fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO) substrates by doctor-blade technique. These anodes were sealed together with Pt-counter electrode to assemble into dye-sensitized solar celI(DSSC). The effect of mass ratio of ZnO nano-flowers to TiO2 nano-partieles on the performance and electron transport properties of DSSC were studied by means of the photocurrent - voltage curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that open-circuit voltage and fill factor of DSSC increase with increasing the mass ratio of TiO2 nanopartices in composite photoanodes. The energy conversion efficiency reaches 3. 20% when the mass ratio of ZnO to TiO2 is 83 : 17. The impedance spectrum of DSSC assembled from ZnO - TiO2 composite anodes is similar to Gerisher impedance, and the impedance of diffusion is coupled with impedance of recombination.

  14. Dye-sensitized solar cells using double-oxide electrodes: a brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Okamoto, Yuji; Ishii, Natsumi

    2015-04-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC or DSSC) have been widely investigated because of their potentially high cost performance compared with Si-based solar cells and of their fascinating appearance. DSC with photoelectric conversion efficiency of >10 % (or even 12 %) have been reported, where porous TiO2 films are generally used as semi-conductor electrodes. Such porous TiO2 films usually have high specific surface area, and thus, they adsorb plenty of dye molecules, resulting in high photocurrent density. Recently, some double oxides have been examined as alternative photoanode materials, mainly in order to improve photovoltage. Here, studies on DSC using double-oxide electrodes, i.e., perovskite, spinel, ilmenite, wolframite, scheelite and pseudobrookite-types, are briefly reviewed.

  15. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Arumanayagam, T; Murugakoothan, P

    2014-07-15

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

  16. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2014-07-01

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

  17. High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Three-Dimensional Photoanode

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2011-11-09

    Herein, we present a straightforward bottom-up synthesis of a high electron mobility and highly light scattering macroporous photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The dense three-dimensional Al/ZnO, SnO2, or TiO 2 host integrates a conformal passivation thin film to reduce recombination and a large surface-area mesoporous anatase guest for high dye loading. This novel photoanode is designed to improve the charge extraction resulting in higher fill factor and photovoltage for DSCs. An increase in photovoltage of up to 110 mV over state-of-the-art DSC is demonstrated. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Nanostructure Graphene Electron Transfer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of nanostructure graphene thin films as electron transfer layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was demonstrated. The effect of a nanostructure graphene thin film in DSSC structure was examined. The nanostructure graphene thin films provides a great electron transfer channel for the photogenerated electrons from TiO2 to indium tin oxide (ITO glass. Obvious improvements in short-circuit current density of the DSSCs were observed by using the graphene electron transport layer modified photoelectrode. The graphene electron transport layer reduces effectively the back reaction in the interface between the ITO transparent conductive film and the electrolyte in the DSSC.

  19. Nanographite-TiO2 photoanode for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. S.; Sharma, Khushboo; Sharma, Vinay

    2016-05-01

    Nanographite-TiO2 (NG-TiO2) composite was successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method and its performance as the photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was investigated. Environmental Scanning electron microscope (E-SEM) micrographs show the uniform distribution of TiO2 nanoflowers deposited over nanographite sheets. The average performance characteristics of the assembled cell in terms of short-ciruit current density (JSC), open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF) and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) were measured.

  20. Performance Degradation of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Induced by Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Ru-Yuan Yang; Huang-Yu Chen; Fu-Der Lai

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the change of the electric characteristics in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) when the electrolyte has been injected and measured initially and lately for a period of time. It was found that the short-circuit current density decreased from 9.799 mA/cm2 to 7.056 mA/cm2 and the fill factor increased from 0.406 to 0.559 when the cell had stood for an hour, while the open-circuit photovoltage did not change due to fixed difference between the Fermi level of TiO2 and the oxidation...