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Sample records for dwpf feed preparation

  1. SRAT CHEMISTRY AND ACID CONSUMPTION DURING SIMULATED DWPF MELTER FEED PREPARATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D; David Best, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-12-03

    Due to higher than expected hydrogen generation during the Tank 51-Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) qualification run, DWPF engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to expand the ongoing catalytic hydrogen generation program. The work presented in this Technical Report was identified as part of SRNL/Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) meetings to define potential causes of catalytic hydrogen generation as well as from an external technical review panel commissioned to evaluate SRNL hydrogen related data and programs. New scope included improving the understanding of SRAT/SME process chemistry, particularly as it related to acid consumption and hydrogen generation. The expanded hydrogen program scope was covered under the technical task request (TTR): HLW-DWPF-TTR-2007-0016. A task technical and quality assurance plan (TT&QAP) was issued to cover focus areas raised in meetings with LWO plus a portion of the recommendations made by the review panel. A supporting analytical study plan was issued. It was also noted in the review of catalytic hydrogen generation that control of the DWPF acid stoichiometry was an important element in controlling hydrogen generation. A separate TTR was issued to investigate ways of improving the determination of the acid requirement during processing: HLWDWPF-TTR-0015. A separate TT&QAP was prepared for this task request. This report discusses some progress on this task related to developing alternative acid equations and to performing experimental work to supplement the existing database. Simulant preparation and preliminary flowsheet studies were already documented. The prior work produced a sufficient quantity of simulant for the hydrogen program and melter feed rheology testing. It also defined a suitable acid addition stoichiometry. The results presented in this report come from samples and process data obtained during sixteen 22-L SRAT/SME simulations that were performed in the second half of 2007 to produce eight SME

  2. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

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    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy's extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative

  3. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy's extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative

  4. YIELD STRESS REDUCTION OF DWPF MELTER FEED SLURRIES

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    Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

    2006-12-28

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate). The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF A PRECIPITATE REACTOR FEED TANK (PRFT) SAMPLE FROM THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)

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    Crawford, C.; Bannochie, C.

    2014-05-12

    A sample of from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) was pulled and sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in June of 2013. The PRFT in DWPF receives Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/ Monosodium Titanate (MST) material from the 512-S Facility via the 511-S Facility. This 2.2 L sample was to be used in small-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing in the Shielded Cells Facility of SRNL. A 1L sub-sample portion was characterized to determine the physical properties such as weight percent solids, density, particle size distribution and crystalline phase identification. Further chemical analysis of the PRFT filtrate and dissolved slurry included metals and anions as well as carbon and base analysis. This technical report describes the characterization and analysis of the PRFT sample from DWPF. At SRNL, the 2.2 L PRFT sample was composited from eleven separate samples received from DWPF. The visible solids were observed to be relatively quick settling which allowed for the rinsing of the original shipping vials with PRFT supernate on the same day as compositing. Most analyses were performed in triplicate except for particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PRFT slurry samples were dissolved using a mixed HNO3/HF acid for subsequent Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analyses performed by SRNL Analytical Development (AD). Per the task request for this work, analysis of the PRFT slurry and filtrate for metals, anions, carbon and base were primarily performed to support the planned chemical process cell testing and to provide additional component concentrations in addition to the limited data available from DWPF. Analysis of the insoluble solids portion of the PRFT slurry was aimed at detailed characterization of these solids (TGA, PSD

  6. Corrosion Testing of Monofrax K-3 Refractory in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Alternate Reductant Feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-06

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) uses a combination of reductants and oxidants while converting high level waste (HLW) to a borosilicate waste form. A reducing flowsheet is maintained to retain radionuclides in their reduced oxidation states which promotes their incorporation into borosilicate glass. For the last 20 years of processing, the DWPF has used formic acid as the main reductant and nitric acid as the main oxidant. During reaction in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC), formate and formic acid release measurably significant H2 gas which requires monitoring of certain vessel’s vapor spaces. A switch to a nitric acid-glycolic acid (NG) flowsheet from the nitric-formic (NF) flowsheet is desired as the NG flowsheet releases considerably less H2 gas upon decomposition. This would greatly simplify DWPF processing from a safety standpoint as close monitoring of the H2 gas concentration could become less critical. In terms of the waste glass melter vapor space flammability, the switch from the NF flowsheet to the NG flowsheet showed a reduction of H2 gas production from the vitrification process as well. Due to the positive impact of the switch to glycolic acid determined on the flammability issues, evaluation of the other impacts of glycolic acid on the facility must be examined.

  7. Checkout and start-up of the integrated DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) melter system

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    Smith, M.E.; Hutson, N.D.; Miller, D.H.; Morrison, J.; Shah, H.; Shuford, J.A.; Glascock, J.; Wurzinger, F.H.; Zamecnik, J.R.

    1989-11-11

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a one-ninth-scale demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation, melter, and off-gas systems. The IDMS will be the first engineering-scale melter system at SRL to process mercury and flowsheet levels of halides and sulfates. This report includes a summary of the IDMS program objectives, system and equipment descriptions, and detailed discussions of the system checkout and start-up. 10 refs., 44 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. SCIX IMPACT ON DWPF CPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.

    2011-07-14

    consider the impact of proposed future alternative DWPF CPC flowsheets. The impact of the SCIX streams on DWPF processing using the selected flowsheet need to be considered as part of the technical baseline studies for coupled processing with the selected flowsheet. In addition, the downstream impact of aluminum dissolution on waste containing CST and MST has not yet been evaluated. The current baseline would not subject CST to the aluminum dissolution process and technical concerns with performing the dissolution with CST have been expressed. Should this option become feasible, the downstream impact should be considered. The main area of concern for DWPF from aluminum dissolution is an impact on rheology. The SCIX project is planning for SRNL to complete MST, CST, and sludge rheology testing to evaluate any expected changes. The impact of ground CST transport and flush water on the DWPF CPC feed tank (and potential need for decanting) has not been defined or studied.

  9. Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) campaign report: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plan (HWVP) process demonstration

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    Hutson, N.D.

    1992-08-10

    Vitrification facilities are being developed worldwide to convert high-level nuclear waste to a durable glass form for permanent disposal. Facilities in the United States include the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) at the Hanford Site and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) at West Valley, NY. At each of these sites, highly radioactive defense waste will be vitrified to a stable borosilicate glass. The DWPF and WVDP are near physical completion while the HWVP is in the design phase. The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a vitrification test facility at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). It was designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas treatment systems. Because of the similarities of the DWPF and HWVP processes, the IDMS facility has also been used to characterize the processing behavior of a reference NCAW simulant. The demonstration was undertaken specifically to determine material balances, to characterize the evolution of offgas products (especially hydrogen), to determine the effects of noble metals, and to obtain general HWVP design data. The campaign was conducted from November, 1991 to February, 1992.

  10. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  11. Corrosion impact of reductant on DWPF and downstream facilities

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    Mickalonis, J. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Imrich, K. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murphy, T. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilderman, J. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-12-01

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternate reductant in the preparation of high level waste for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). During processing, the glycolic acid is not completely consumed and small quantities of the glycolate anion are carried forward to other high level waste (HLW) facilities. The impact of the glycolate anion on the corrosion of the materials of construction throughout the waste processing system has not been previously evaluated. A literature review had revealed that corrosion data in glycolate-bearing solution applicable to SRS systems were not available. Therefore, testing was recommended to evaluate the materials of construction of vessels, piping and components within DWPF and downstream facilities. The testing, conducted in non-radioactive simulants, consisted of both accelerated tests (electrochemical and hot-wall) with coupons in laboratory vessels and prototypical tests with coupons immersed in scale-up and mock-up test systems. Eight waste or process streams were identified in which the glycolate anion might impact the performance of the materials of construction. These streams were 70% glycolic acid (DWPF feed vessels and piping), SRAT/SME supernate (Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) vessels and piping), DWPF acidic recycle (DWPF condenser and recycle tanks and piping), basic concentrated recycle (HLW tanks, evaporators, and transfer lines), salt processing (ARP, MCU, and Saltstone tanks and piping), boric acid (MCU separators), and dilute waste (HLW evaporator condensate tanks and transfer line and ETF components). For each stream, high temperature limits and worst-case glycolate concentrations were identified for performing the recommended tests. Test solution chemistries were generally based on analytical results of actual waste samples taken from the various process facilities or of prototypical simulants produced in the laboratory. The materials of construction for most vessels

  12. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

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    Stone, M

    2005-04-05

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted

  13. Melt Rate Improvement for DWPF MB3: Summary and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.P.

    2001-07-11

    The objective for this task is to understand and apply the control of glass batch chemistry (frit composition) and/or changes in chemical processing strategies to improve the overall melting process for Macrobatch 3 (MB3) (Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) sludge-only processing). For melt rate limited systems, a small increase in melting efficiency translates into substantial savings by reducing operational costs without compromising the quality of the final waste product. This report summarizes the key information collected during the FY01 melt-rate testing completed to support the conclusion that switching from Frit 200, the frit currently used to prepare all the glass produced in radioactive processing, to Frit 320 should improve the melt rate during processing of DWPF MB3 sludge (Note: MB3 is referred to as Sludge Batch 2 in the High-Level Waste System Plan). The report also includes recommendations that should be addressed prior to implementation of the new frit and future research that should be completed to further improve melt rate. No analysis has been completed to determine if Frit 320 can be used in processing of other sludge macrobatches. The testing in this report is based on dried-slurry testing of a MB3 melter feed prepared from nonradioactive simulants. Additional testing, particularly with a melter feed slurry and actual waste, would be required before implementing the new frit in DWPF, and a variability study would also be necessary. The work to date, at most, provides relative data until actual melter data can be obtained and compared.

  14. DWPF Welder Parametric Study

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    Plodinec, M.J.

    1998-11-20

    After being filled with glass, DWPF canistered waste forms will be welded closed using an upset resistance welding process. This final closure weld must be leaktight, and must remain so during extended storage at SRS. As part of the DWPF Startup Test Program, a parametric study (DWPF-WP-24) has been performed to determine a range of welder operating parameters which will produce acceptable welds. The parametric window of acceptable welds defined by this study is 90,000 + 15,000 lb of force, 248,000 + 22,000 amps of current, and 95 + 15 cycles* for the time of application of the current.

  15. DWPF simulant CPC studies for SB8

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    Koopman, D. C.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2013-06-25

    recommendations for DWPF along with some data related to Safety Class documentation at DWPF. Some significant observations regarding SB8 follow: Reduced washing in Tank 51 led to an increase in the wt.% soluble solids of the DWPF feed. If wt.% total solids for the SRAT and SME product weren’t adjusted upward to maintain insoluble solids levels similar to past sludge batches, then the rheological properties of the slurry went below the low end of the DWPF design bases for the SRAT and SME. Much higher levels of dissolved manganese were found in the SRAT and SME products than in recent sludge batches. Closed crucible melts were more reduced than expected. The working hypothesis is that the soluble Mn is less oxidizing than assumed in the REDOX calculations. A change in the coefficient for Mn in the REDOX equation was recommended in a separate report. The DWPF (Hsu) stoichiometric acid equation was examined in detail to better evaluate how to control acid in DWPF. The existing DWPF equation can likely be improved without changing the required sample analyses through a paper study using existing data. The recommended acid stoichiometry for initial SB8 SRAT batches is 115-120% stoichiometry until some processing experience is gained. The conservative range (based on feed properties) of stoichiometric factors derived in this study was from 110-147%, but SRNL recommends using only the lower half of this range, 110-126% even after initial batches provide processing experience. The stoichiometric range for sludge-only processing appears to be suitable for coupled operation based on results from the run in the middle of the range. Catalytic hydrogen was detectable (>0.005 vol%) in all SRAT and SME cycles. Hydrogen reached 30-35% of the SRAT and SME limits at the mid-point of the stoichiometry window (bounding noble metals and acid demand).

  16. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate tank materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to undertand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here. The composition of the Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) RCT material is largely a low base solution of 0.2M NaNO2 and 0.1M NaNO3 with a small amount of formate present. Insoluble solids comprise only 0.05 wt.% of the slurry. The solids appear to be largely sludge-like solids based on elemental composition and SEM-EDS analysis. The sample contains an elevated concentration of I-129 (38x) and substantial 59% fraction of Tc-99, as compared to the incoming SB8 Tank 40 feed material. The Hg concentration is 5x, when compared to Fe, of that expected based on sludge carryover. The total U and Pu concentrations are reduced significantly, 0.536 wt.% TS and 2.42E-03 wt.% TS, respectively, with the fissile components, U-233, U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241, an order of magnitude lower in concentration than those in the SB8 Tank 40 DWPF feed material. This report will be revised to include the foaming study requested in the TTR and outlined in the TTQAP when that work is concluded.

  17. The Behavior and Effects of the Noble Metals in the DWPF Melter System

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    Smith, M.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bickford, D.F.

    1997-11-30

    Governments worldwide have committed to stabilization of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) by vitrification to a durable glass form for permanent disposal. All of these nuclear wastes contain the fission-product noble metals: ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium. SRS wastes also contain natural silver from iodine scrubbers. Closely associated with the noble metals are the fission products selenium and tellurium which are chemical analogs of sulfur and which combine with noble metals to influence their behavior and properties. Experience has shown that these melt insoluble metals and their compounds tend to settle to the floor of Joule-heated ceramic melters. In fact, almost all of the major research and production facilities have experienced some operational problem which can be associated with the presence of dense accumulations of these relatively conductive metals and/or their compounds. In most cases, these deposits have led to a loss of production capability, in some cases, to the point that melter operation could not continue. HLW nuclear waste vitrification facilities in the United States are the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site, the planned Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) at the Hanford Site and the operating West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) at West Valley, NY. The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a vitrification test facility at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). It was designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas treatment systems. An extensive noble metals testing program was begun in 1990. The objectives of this task were to explore the effects of the noble metals on the DWPF melter feed preparation and waste vitrification processes. This report focuses on the vitrification portion of the test program.

  18. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

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    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  19. DWPF waste glass Product Composition Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.G.; Postles, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to blend aqueous radwaste (PHA) with solid radwaste (Sludge) in a waste receipt vessel (the SRAT). The resulting SRAT material is transferred to the SME an there blended with ground glass (Frit) to produce a batch of melter feed slurry. The SME material is passed to a hold tank (the MFT) which is used to continuously feed the DWPF melter. The melter. The melter produces a molten glass wasteform which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository. The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is the system intended to ensure that the melt will be processible and that the glass wasteform will be acceptable. This document provides a description of this system.

  20. Sludge Washing And Demonstration Of The DWPF Flowsheet In The SRNL Shielded Cells For Sludge Batch 8 Qualification

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    Pareizs, J. M.; Crawford, C. L.

    2013-04-26

    The current Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks to Tank 51. Tank 51 sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes using a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). WSE requested the SRNL to perform characterization on a Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) sample and demonstrate the DWPF flowsheet in the SRNL shielded cells for SB8 as the final qualification process required prior to SB8 transfer from Tank 51 to Tank 40. A 3-L sample from Tank 51 (the SB8 qualification sample; Tank Farm sample HTF-51-12-80) was received by SRNL on September 20, 2012. The as-received sample was characterized prior to being washed. The washed material was further characterized and used as the material for the DWPF process simulation including a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, and glass fabrication and chemical durability measurements.

  1. The DWPF Melter proposed heat up sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.E.

    1989-08-11

    Per the request of DWPT supervision, a proposed heatup sequence for the DWPF Melter has been documented in this report. DWPF personnel will use this report as a guide to write the detailed DWPF Melter startup plan. 6 refs.

  2. DWPF Simulant CPC Studies For SB8

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    Newell, J. D.

    2013-09-25

    Prior to processing a Sludge Batch (SB) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), flowsheet studies using simulants are performed. Typically, the flowsheet studies are conducted based on projected composition(s). The results from the flowsheet testing are used to 1) guide decisions during sludge batch preparation, 2) serve as a preliminary evaluation of potential processing issues, and 3) provide a basis to support the Shielded Cells qualification runs performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). SB8 was initially projected to be a combination of the Tank 40 heel (Sludge Batch 7b), Tank 13, Tank 12, and the Tank 51 heel. In order to accelerate preparation of SB8, the decision was made to delay the oxalate-rich material from Tank 12 to a future sludge batch. SB8 simulant studies without Tank 12 were reported in a separate report.1 The data presented in this report will be useful when processing future sludge batches containing Tank 12. The wash endpoint target for SB8 was set at a significantly higher sodium concentration to allow acceptable glass compositions at the targeted waste loading. Four non-coupled tests were conducted using simulant representing Tank 40 at 110-146% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Hydrogen was generated during high acid stoichiometry (146% acid) SRAT testing up to 31% of the DWPF hydrogen limit. SME hydrogen generation reached 48% of of the DWPF limit for the high acid run. Two non-coupled tests were conducted using simulant representing Tank 51 at 110-146% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Hydrogen was generated during high acid stoichiometry SRAT testing up to 16% of the DWPF limit. SME hydrogen generation reached 49% of the DWPF limit for hydrogen in the SME for the high acid run. Simulant processing was successful using previously established antifoam addition strategy. Foaming during formic acid addition was not observed in any of the runs. Nitrite was destroyed in all runs and no N2O was detected

  3. Sludge Washing and Demonstration of the DWPF Nitric/Formic Flowsheet in the SRNL Shielded Cells for Sludge Batch 9 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to qualify the next batch of sludge – Sludge Batch 9 (SB9). Current practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge to Tank 51 from other tanks. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) feed tank. Prior to sludge transfer from Tank 51 to Tank 40, the Tank 51 sludge must be qualified. SRNL qualifies the sludge in multiple steps. First, a Tank 51 sample is received, then characterized, washed, and again characterized. SRNL then demonstrates the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet with the sludge. The final step of qualification involves chemical durability measurements of glass fabricated in the DWPF CPC demonstrations. In past sludge batches, SRNL had completed the DWPF demonstration with Tank 51 sludge. For SB9, SRNL has been requested to process a blend of Tank 51 and Tank 40 at a targeted ratio of 44% Tank 51 and 56% Tank 40 on an insoluble solids basis.

  4. Validation of DWPF Melter Off-Gas Combustion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.S.

    2000-08-23

    The empirical melter off-gas combustion model currently used in the DWPF safety basis calculations is valid at melter vapor space temperatures above 570 degrees C, as measured in the thermowell. This lower temperature bound coincides with that of the off-gas data used as the basis of the model. In this study, the applicability of the empirical model in a wider temperature range was assessed using the off-gas data collected during two small-scale research melter runs. The first data set came from the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 run in 1985 with the sludge feed coupled with the precipitate hydrolysis product. The second data set came from the 774-A melter run in 1996 with the sludge-only feed prepared with the modified acid addition strategy during the feed pretreatment step. The results of the assessment showed that the data from these two melter runs agreed well with the existing model, and further provided the basis for extending the lower temperature bound of the model to the measured melter vapor space temperature of 445 degrees C.

  5. DWPF Development Plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzscheiter, E.W.

    1994-05-09

    The DWPF Development Plan is based on an evaluation process flowsheet and related waste management systems. The scope is shown in Figure 1 entitled ``DWPF Process Development Systems.`` To identify the critical development efforts, each system has been analyzed to determine: The identification of unresolved technology issues. A technology issue (TI) is one that requires basic development to resolve a previously unknown process or equipment problem and is managed via the Technology Assurance Program co-chaired by DWPF and SRTC. Areas that require further work to sufficiently define the process basis or technical operating envelop for DWPF. This activity involves the application of sound engineering and development principles to define the scope of work required to complete the technical data. The identification of the level of effort and expertise required to provide process technical consultation during the start-up and demonstration of this first of a kind plant.

  6. DWPF MATERIALS EVALUATION SUMMARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, T.; Chandler, G.; Daugherty, W.; Imrich, K.; Jankins, C.

    1996-09-12

    To better ensure the reliability of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) remote canyon process equipment, a materials evaluation program was performed as part of the overall startup test program. Specific test programs included FA-04 ('Process Vessels Erosion/Corrosion Studies') and FA-05 (melter inspection). At the conclusion of field testing, Test Results Reports were issued to cover the various test phases. While these reports completed the startup test requirements, DWPF-Engineering agreed to compile a more detailed report which would include essentially all of the materials testing programs performed at DWPF. The scope of the materials evaouation programs included selected equipment from the Salt Process Cell (SPC), Chemical Process Cell (CPC), Melt Cell, Canister Decon Cell (CDC), and supporting facilities. The program consisted of performing pre-service baseline inspections (work completed in 1992) and follow-up inspections after completion of the DWPF cold chemical runs. Process equipment inspected included: process vessels, pumps, agitators, coils, jumpers, and melter top head components. Various NDE (non-destructive examination) techniques were used during the inspection program, including: ultrasonic testing (UT), visual (direct or video probe), radiography, penetrant testing (PT), and dimensional analyses. Finally, coupon racks were placed in selected tanks in 1992 for subsequent removal and corrosion evaluation after chemical runs.

  7. Results of Hg speciation testing on DWPF SMECT-4, SMECT-6, and RCT-2 samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-04

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team.i,ii The fifteenth shipment of samples was designated to include Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) samples from Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 738 and a Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample from SRAT Batch 736. The DWPF sample designations for the three samples analyzed are provided in Table 1. The Batch 738 ‘Baseline’ SMECT sample was taken prior to Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) addition and concentration and therefore, precedes the SMECT-5 sample reported previously. iii The Batch 738 ‘End of SRAT Cycle’ SMECT sample was taken at the conclusion of SRAT operations for this batch (PRFT addition/concentration, acid additions, initial concentration, MCU addition, and steam stripping). Batch 738 experienced a sludge slurry carryover event, which introduced sludge solids to the SMECT that were particularly evident in the SMECT-5 sample, but less evident in the ‘End of SRAT Cycle’ SMECT-6 sample. The Batch 736 ‘After SME’ RCT sample was taken after completion of SMECT transfers at the end of the SME cycle.

  8. A STATISTICAL REVIEW OF DWPF LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS GENERATED DURING THE PROCESSING OF BATCHES 300 THROUGH 356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T

    2006-08-31

    In this report, the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides summaries and comparisons of composition measurements for glass samples that were generated during the processing of batches 300 through 356 at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These analyses, which include measurements of samples from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) as well as samples of glass standards, were provided to SCS by the DWPF Laboratory (DWPF Lab) of Waste Laboratory Services. The comparisons made by SCS were extensive given that these data allowed for contrasts between preparation methods and between the two spectrometers that are currently in use at the DWPF Lab. In addition to general comparisons, specific questions that were posed in the Technical Task Request (TTR) behind this effort were addressed in this report.

  9. Freeze and restart of the DWPF Scale Glass Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.S.

    1989-07-31

    After over two years of successful demonstration of many design and operating concepts of the DWPF Melter system, the last Scale Glass Melter campaign was initiated on 6/9/88 and consisted of two parts; (1) simulation of noble metal buildup and (2) freeze and subsequent restart of the melter under various scenarios. The objectives were to simulate a prolonged power loss to major heating elements and to examine the characteristics of transient melter operations during a startup with a limited supply of lid heat. Experimental results indicate that in case of a total power loss to the lower electrodes such as due to noble metal deposition, spinel crystals will begin to form in the SRL 165 composite waste glass pool in 24 hours. The total lid heater power required to initiate joule heating was the same as that during slurry-feeding. Results of a radiative heat transfer analysis in the plenum indicate that under the identical operating conditions, the startup capabilities of the SGM and the DWPF Melter are quite similar, despite a greater lid heater to melt surface area ratio in the DWPF Melter.

  10. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  11. Analysis of the DWPF glass pouring system using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calloway, T.B. Jr.; Jantzen, C.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Medich, L.; Spennato, N. [Pavillion Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-08-05

    Neural networks were used to determine the sensitivity of 39 selected Melter/Melter Off Gas and Melter Feed System process parameters as related to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter Pour Spout Pressure during the overall analysis and resolution of the DWPF glass production and pouring issues. Two different commercial neural network software packages were used for this analysis. Models were developed and used to determine the critical parameters which accurately describe the DWPF Pour Spout Pressure. The model created using a low-end software package has a root mean square error of {+-} 0.35 inwc (< 2% of the instrument`s measured range, R{sup 2} = 0.77) with respect to the plant data used to validate and test the model. The model created using a high-end software package has a R{sub 2} = 0.97 with respect to the plant data used to validate and test the model. The models developed for this application identified the key process parameters which contribute to the control of the DWPF Melter Pour Spout pressure during glass pouring operations. The relative contribution and ranking of the selected parameters was determined using the modeling software. Neural network computing software was determined to be a cost-effective software tool for process engineers performing troubleshooting and system performance monitoring activities. In remote high-level waste processing environments, neural network software is especially useful as a replacement for sensors which have failed and are costly to replace. The software can be used to accurately model critical remotely installed plant instrumentation. When the instrumentation fails, the software can be used to provide a soft sensor to replace the actual sensor, thereby decreasing the overall operating cost. Additionally, neural network software tools require very little training and are especially useful in mining or selecting critical variables from the vast amounts of data collected from process computers.

  12. IMPACT OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION MELT RATE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Koopman, D.

    2011-04-26

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential impacts of the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) streams - particularly the addition of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) - on the melt rate of simulated feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Additional MST was added to account for contributions from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) was used to evaluate four melter feed compositions: two with simulated SCIX and SWPF material and two without. The Slurry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) was then used to compare two different feeds: one with and one without bounding concentrations of simulated SCIX and SWPF material. Analyses of the melter feed materials confirmed that they met their targeted compositions. Four feeds were tested in triplicate in the MRF. The linear melt rates were determined by using X-ray computed tomography to measure the height of the glass formed along the bottom of the beakers. The addition of the SCIX and SWPF material reduced the average measured melt rate by about 10% in MRF testing, although there was significant scatter in the data. Two feeds were tested in the SMRF. It was noted that the ground CST alone (ground CST with liquid in a bucket) was extremely difficult to resuspend during preparation of the feed with material from SCIX and SWPF. This feed was also more difficult to pump than the material without MST and CST due to settling occurring in the melter feed line, although the yield stress of both feeds was high relative to the DWPF design basis. Steady state feeding conditions were maintained for about five hours for each feed. There was a reduction in the feed and pour rates of approximately 15% when CST and MST were added to the feed, although there was significant scatter in the data. Analysis of samples collected from the SMRF pour stream showed that the composition of the glass changed as expected when MST and

  13. Preliminary analysis of species partitioning in the DWPF melter. Sludge batch 7A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith III, F. G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    The work described in this report is preliminary in nature since its goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating the off-gas carryover from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter based on a simple mass balance using measured feed and glass pour stream (PS) compositions and time-averaged melter operating data over the duration of one canister-filling cycle.

  14. Remote waste handling and feed preparation for Mixed Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, S.A.; Merrill, R.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Densley, P.J. [Science Applications International Corp., (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will serve as a national testbed to demonstrate mature mixed waste handling and treatment technologies in a complete front-end to back-end --facility (1). Remote operations, modular processing units and telerobotics for initial waste characterization, sorting and feed preparation have been demonstrated at the bench scale and have been selected for demonstration in MWMF. The goal of the Feed Preparation design team was to design and deploy a robust system that meets the initial waste preparation flexibility and productivity needs while providing a smooth upgrade path to incorporate technology advances as they occur. The selection of telerobotics for remote handling in MWMF was made based on a number of factors -- personnel protection, waste generation, maturity, cost, flexibility and extendibility. Modular processing units were selected to enable processing flexibility and facilitate reconfiguration as new treatment processes or waste streams are brought on line for demonstration. Modularity will be achieved through standard interfaces for mechanical attachment as well as process utilities, feeds and effluents. This will facilitate reconfiguration of contaminated systems without drilling, cutting or welding of contaminated materials and with a minimum of operator contact. Modular interfaces also provide a standard connection and disconnection method that can be engineered to allow convenient remote operation.

  15. ANALYSIS OF DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8) POUR STREAM SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-05-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The sum of oxides for the official SB7a pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%). (2) The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7a is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7a pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7a Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample. (3) As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the official SB7a pour stream sample. (4) The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7a pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.64 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental

  16. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Adamson, D. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to understand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here.

  17. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Billings, A.; Click, D.

    2011-07-08

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry (Sludge Batch 7a*) be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) is composed of portions of Tanks 4, 7, and 12; the Sludge Batch 6 heel in Tank 51; and a plutonium stream from H Canyon. SRNL received the Tank 51 qualification sample (sample ID HTF-51-10-125) following sludge additions to Tank 51. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernate) and concentration (decanting of supernate) of the SB7a - Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a non

  18. Use of certain herbal preparations in broiler feeds - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Putturu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance and use of herbal remedies (turmeric, tulsi, amla and aloe vera etc. has been reviewed systematically. Turmeric (curcumin, acts as an antioxidant, antimutagenic, antiinflamatory and antimicrobial agent and protect liver against a variety of toxicants. Tulsi (eugenol have anticancer properties, reduced blood glucose levels, total cholesterol levels and promotes immune system function. Amla, richest source of vitamin-c and it's active tannoid principles have antimicrobial, antidiabetics, anticarcinogenic properties and enhances immune property. Aloe vera contains phytochemicals (Saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and phenols, which is an indication of cosmetic and medicinal value. Turmeric, tulsi, amla and aloe vera preparations increased the body weight gain, feed efficiency and decreased the feed intake. These preparations decreased the mortality rates and the cost of feed has been decreased from 6.2% to 13.5%. They have reduced the fat accumulation, increased dressing percentage, liver weight, spleen weight and whole giblet weights. Significant reduction of serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides and increased the humoral response against RD vaccine. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 172-179

  19. MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR DWPF ALTERNATE REDUCTANT FLOWSHEET OPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.

    2011-07-08

    Glycolic acid and sugar are being considered as potential candidates to substitute for much of the formic acid currently being added to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed as a reductant. A series of small-scale melter tests were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) in January 2011 to collect necessary data for the assessment of the impact of these alternate reductants on the melter off-gas flammability. The DM10 melter with a 0.021 m{sup 2} melt surface area was run with three different feeds which were prepared at SRNL based on; (1) the baseline formic/nitric acid flowsheet, (2) glycolic/formic/nitric acid flowsheet, and (3) sugar/formic/nitric acid flowsheet - these feeds will be called the baseline, glycolic, and sugar flowsheet feeds, respectively, hereafter. The actual addition of sugar to the sugar flowsheet feed was made at VSL before it was fed to the melter. For each feed, the DM10 was run under both bubbled (with argon) and non-bubbled conditions at varying melter vapor space temperatures. The goal was to lower its vapor space temperature from nominal 500 C to less than 300 C at 50 C increments and maintain steady state at each temperature at least for one hour, preferentially for two hours, while collecting off-gas data including CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} concentrations. Just a few hours into the first test with the baseline feed, it was discovered that the DM10 vapor space temperature would not readily fall below 350 C simply by ramping up the feed rate as the test plan called for. To overcome this, ambient air was introduced directly into the vapor space through a dilution air damper in addition to the natural air inleakage occurring at the operating melter pressure of -1 inch H{sub 2}O. A detailed description of the DM10 run along with all the data taken is given in the report issued by VSL. The SRNL personnel have analyzed the DM10 data and identified 25 steady state periods lasting from 32 to 92 minutes for all

  20. Investigation into feed preparation for regulatory fish metabolism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeritz, Ina; Atorf, Cornelia; Whalley, Paul; Seymour, Paul; Klein, Michael; Schlechtriem, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Test diets used in fish metabolism studies for regulatory purposes must be homogenously fortified with the radiolabelled test substance and stable with respect to leaching. Standard fish food, as used in commercial fish farming, should also be used in fish metabolism studies. Therefore, suitable spiking and coating procedures are required to ensure the correct dosing of the fish during the experiment. Methods for the homogeneous, safe and efficient application of radiolabelled test items to the surface of commercial feeding pellets were developed. Leaching studies showed that test items of low lipophilicity applied to feeding pellets need to be stabilised, to reduce the risk of significant losses prior to ingestion by the fish. Coating of solvent-spiked pellets with calcium alginate was shown to reduce leaching losses of water-soluble test items significantly. Alternatively, commercial feeding pellets can be coated with alginate or vegetable oil fortified with a radiolabelled test item also leading to sufficiently stabilised test diets. Experimental conditions, such as the water temperature, may have a significant effect on the leaching behaviour of the test items. A detailed description of different spiking and coating procedures for the preparation of experimental diets suitable for fish metabolism studies is provided. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Literature Review: Assessment of DWPF Melter and Melter Off-gas System Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-30

    Testing to date for the MOC for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melters is being reviewed with the lessons learned from DWPF in mind and with consideration to the changes in the flowsheet/feed compositions that have occurred since the original testing was performed. This information will be presented in a separate technical report that identifies any potential gaps for WTP processing.

  2. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, D. (ed.); Marek, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; Just-in-Time'' precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

  3. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, D. (ed.); Marek, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; Just-in-Time'' precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

  4. Phase Stability Determinations of DWPF Waste Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, S.L.

    1999-10-22

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. To fulfill this requirement, glass samples were heat treated at various times and temperatures. These results will provide guidance to the repository program about conditions to be avoided during shipping, handling and storage of DWPF canistered waste forms.

  5. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point

  6. DWPF SMECT PVV SAMPLE CHARACTERIZATION AND REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C.; Crawford, C.

    2013-06-18

    On April 2, 2013, a solid sample of material collected from the Defense Waste Processing Facility’s Process Vessel Vent (PVV) jumper for the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) was received at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). DWPF has experienced pressure spikes within the SMECT and other process vessels which have resulted in processing delays while a vacuum was re-established. Work on this sample was requested in a Technical Assistance Request (TAR). This document reports the results of chemical and physical property measurements made on the sample, as well as insights into the possible impact to the material using DWPF’s proposed remediation methods. DWPF was interested in what the facility could expect when the material was exposed to either 8M nitric acid or 90% formic acid, the two materials they have the ability to flush through the PVV line in addition to process water once the line is capped off during a facility outage.

  7. Liquidus Temperature Data for DWPF Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GF Piepel; JD Vienna; JV Crum; M Mika; P Hrma

    1999-05-21

    This report provides new liquidus temperature (TL) versus composition data that can be used to reduce uncertainty in TL calculation for DWPF glass. According to the test plan and test matrix design PNNL has measured TL for 53 glasses within and just outside of the current DWPF processing composition window. The TL database generated under this task will directly support developing and enhancing the current TL process-control model. Preliminary calculations have shown a high probability of increasing HLW loading in glass produced at the SRS and Hanford. This increase in waste loading will decrease the lifecycle tank cleanup costs by decreasing process time and the volume of waste glass produced.

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF TECHNICAL MEANS FOR PREPARATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FEED MIXTURES AT SMALL CATTLE FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov V. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To increase the productivity of the cattle it is demanded simultaneous distribution of all types of animal feed in the form of balanced feed mixture with a given nutritional value. Balanced feeding of animals can improve their productivity, reduce feed wastage, and include alternative components of feed mixtures in their diets, which have nourishing properties and high digestibility; make and adjust feeding rations. Researches conducted by Russian and foreign scientists, proved the prospects of full feeding of complete feed mixtures, which allow to increase the productivity of animals to 9-30 % and reduce the feed consumption in the calculation of 1 с of milk by 7-8 %. The composition of complete feed mixtures includes sunflower cake, silage, root crops and forage. The process of preparation and distribution of feeds for large horned livestock is the issue of all the necessary components of the feed mixture with a given nutritional value. Saturation of the feed product with extra energy goes during its interaction with the working bodies of technical means for preparation and distribution (TMPD of different types of food. For preparation and distribution of components of the feed mixture it is necessary to have following facilities, provided with reducing energy intensity and improving the qualitative indicators of processes: for grinding beet fodder and sunflower cake we need disk shredders; for shredding silage and roughage – bearnie and rotor shredders, respectively; for dispensing of beet fodder and sunflower cake – belt conveyor, for dispensing silage and roughage we use disc and drum dispensers, respectively; for mixing sunflower cake - rotary mixers, and for silage, beet fodder and for-age we may use paddle mixers; for distribution of sunflower cake we use rotary feeders, for silage and beet fodder – bin distributors, and for coarse feed we should use conveyor dispensers

  9. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a Late Wash' facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  10. Preliminary Analysis of Species Partitioning in the DWPF Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kesterson, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-15

    The work described in this report is preliminary in nature since its goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating the off-gas entrainment rates from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter based on a simple mass balance using measured feed and glass pour stream compositions and timeaveraged melter operating data over the duration of one canister-filling cycle. The only case considered in this study involved the SB6 pour stream sample taken while Canister #3472 was being filled over a 20-hour period on 12/20/2010, approximately three months after the bubblers were installed. The analytical results for that pour stream sample provided the necessary glass composition data for the mass balance calculations. To estimate the “matching” feed composition, which is not necessarily the same as that of the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) batch being fed at the time of pour stream sampling, a mixing model was developed involving three preceding MFT batches as well as the one being fed at that time based on the assumption of perfect mixing in the glass pool but with an induction period to account for the process delays involved in the calcination/fusion step in the cold cap and the melter turnover.

  11. Logistics and feed preparation of straw for gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The system for supply of biomass comprises the entire chain from harvest to feeding. The subsequent energy process makes demands on the quality of the biomass that is supplied. The process, moreover, makes a number of demands on the preceding pretreatment and the equipment subsequently utilised. The straw delivery and handling system ought therefore to be considered as a coherent unit whole consisting of the following: harvesting and collection; storage; transportation; fragmentizing; drying; densification; handling at the plants; feeding; `subsequent process`. (EG)

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ddddddd... - Applicability of General Provisions to Prepared Feeds Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Prepared Feeds Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDDDDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Area Sources: Prepared Feeds Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDDDDD, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDDDDDD of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Prepared Feeds Manufacturing Area Sources...

  13. Analysis Of DWPF Sludge Batch 7a (Macrobatch 8) Pour Stream Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2012-10-24

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed.

  14. PROCESS CHANGES TO DWPF TO INCREASE THROUGHPUT AND INCORPORATE SALT STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C; David Peeler, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Michael Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

    2007-06-13

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been vitrifying High Level Waste sludge since 1996. Sludge batch 1a, 1b, 2, and 3 have been successfully stabilized. In the last several years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has worked with DWPF to implement process and compositional changes to improve throughput. These changes allowed significant increases in waste throughput for processing of sludge batch 3 and will be necessary to maintain reasonable throughput for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). SB4 processing was initiated in June 2007 and will be the first significantly HM-type sludge batch processed. This sludge is high in aluminum and other components troublesome to DWPF processing. In addition, coupled processing is scheduled to start in the next fiscal year, which will also impact throughput. Coupled processing will begin with the incorporation of waste streams from the Actinide Removal Process and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit and will eventually transition to the feed from the larger scale Salt Waste Processing Facility. A discussion of the programs to improve throughput and implement salt processing will be provided.

  15. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Viscosity Model: Revisions for Processing High TiO2 Containing Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Radioactive high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it is poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to guarantee, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository. The DWPF SPC system is known as the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The DWPF will soon be receiving wastes from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) containing increased concentrations of TiO2, Na2O, and Cs2O . The SWPF is being built to pretreat the high-curie fraction of the salt waste to be removed from the HLW tanks in the F- and H-Area Tank Farms at the SRS. In order to process TiO2 concentrations >2.0 wt% in the DWPF, new viscosity data were developed over the range of 1.90 to 6.09 wt% TiO2 and evaluated against the 2005 viscosity model. An alternate viscosity model is also derived for potential future use, should the DWPF ever need to process other titanate-containing ion exchange materials. The ultimate limit on the amount of TiO2 that can be accommodated from SWPF will be determined by the three PCCS models, the waste composition of a given sludge

  16. DWPF GC FILTER ASSEMBLY SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C.; Imrich, K.

    2009-11-11

    On March 18, 2009 a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) GC Line Filter Assembly was received at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This filter assembly was removed from operation following the completion of Sludge Batch 4 processing in the DWPF. Work on this sample was requested in a Technical Assistance Request. This document reports the pictures, observations, samples collected, and analytical results for the assembly. The assembly arrived at SRNL separated into its three component filters: high efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-1, HEPA-2, and a high efficiency mist evaporator (HEME). Each stage of the assembly's media was sampled and examined visually and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solids built up in the filter housing following the first stage HEME, were dissolved in dilute nitric acid and analyzed by ICP-AES and the undissolved white solids were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The vast majority of the material in each of the three stages of the DWPF GC Line Filter Assembly appears to be contaminated with a Hg compound that is {approx}59 wt% Hg on a total solids basis. The Hg species was identified by XRD analysis to contain a mixture of Hg{sub 4}(OH)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Hg{sub 10}(OH){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}. Only in the core sample of the second stage HEPA, did this material appear to be completely covering portions of the filter media, possibly explaining the pressure drops observed by DWPF. The fact that the material migrates through the HEME filter and both HEPA filters, and that it was seen collecting on the outlet side of the HEME filter, would seem to indicate that these filters are not efficient at removing this material. Further SRAT off-gas system modeling should help determine the extent of Hg breakthrough past the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT). The SRAT off-gas system has not been modeled since startup of the facility. Improvements to the efficiency of Hg stripping prior to the ammonia scrubber would seem

  17. Evaluation of ISDP Batch 2 Qualification Compliance to 512-S, DWPF, Tank Farm, and Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, A.

    2010-05-05

    The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of the second macrobatch (Salt Batch 2) of Tank 49H waste to H Tank Farm, DWPF, and Saltstone for operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). Tank 49 feed meets the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) requirements specified by References 11, 12, and 13. Salt Batch 2 material is qualified and ready to be processed through ARP/MCU to the final disposal facilities.

  18. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations. Savannah River Site 200-S Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, D. [ed.; Marek, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; ``Just-in-Time`` precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

  19. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations. Savannah River Site 200-S Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, D. [ed.; Marek, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; ``Just-in-Time`` precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

  20. ANALYSIS OF DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 6 (MACROBATCH 7) POUR STREAM GLASS SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-01-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), also referred to as Macrobatch 7 (MB7), in June 2010. SB6 is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), H-Canyon Np transfers and SB6 that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51.1 SB6 was processed using Frit 418. Sludge is received into the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and is processed through the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator Tank (SME). The treated sludge slurry is then transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) and fed to the melter. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP) and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. The DWPF requested various analyses of radioactive glass samples obtained from the melter pour stream during processing of SB6 as well as reduction/oxidation (REDOX) analysis of MFT samples to determine the impact of Argon bubbling. Sample analysis followed the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and an Analytical Study Plan (ASP). Four Pour Stream (PS) glass samples and two MFT slurry samples were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from the DWPF. Table 1-1 lists the sample information for each pour stream glass sample. SB6 PS3 (S03472) was selected as the official pour stream sample for SB6 and full analysis was requested. This report details the visual observations of the as-received SB6 PS No.3 glass sample as well as results for the chemical composition, Product Consistency Test (PCT), radionuclide content, noble metals, and glass density. REDOX results will be provided for all four pour stream samples and vitrified samples of MFT-558 and MFT-568A. Where appropriate, data from other pour stream samples will be provided.

  1. Recycle Waste Collection Tank (RWCT) simulant testing in the PVTD feed preparation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrigo, G.P.; Daume, J.T.; Halstead, S.D.; Myers, R.L.; Beckette, M.R.; Freeman, C.J.; Hatchell, B.K.

    1996-03-01

    (This is part of the radwaste vitrification program at Hanford.) RWCT was to routinely receive final canister decontamination sand blast frit and rinse water, Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank bottoms, and melter off-gas Submerged Bed Scrubber filter cake. In order to address the design needs of the RWCT system to meet performance levels, the PNL Vitrification Technology (PVTD) program used the Feed Preparation Test System (FPTS) to evaluate its equipment and performance for a simulant of RWCT slurry. (FPTS is an adaptation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility feed preparation system and represents the initially proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feed preparation system designed by Fluor-Daniel, Inc.) The following were determined: mixing performance, pump priming, pump performance, simulant flow characterization, evaporator and condenser performance, and ammonia dispersion. The RWCT test had two runs, one with and one without tank baffles.

  2. Liquidus Temperature Data for DWPF Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Vienna, John D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Mika, Martin (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Crum, Jarrod V.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Piepel, Gregory F.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    1998-12-01

    A liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) database has been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass composition region to support DWPF process control schemes. A test matrix consisting of 53 glasses (including two duplicates) was generated at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using statistical experimental design methods. To ensure homogeneity, glasses were melted twice. Both melts were performed at T = T{sub 5} + {Delta}T, where T{sub 5} is the temperature at which the melt viscosity is 5 Pa{center_dot}s and {Delta}T {ge} 100 C. The T{sub 5} value was estimated using a PNNL viscosity database. Its span for the test matrix was 1007 C to 1284 C. Melting at T > T{sub 5} (from 1107 C to 1400 C) was necessary to dissolve (and possibly volatilize) some of the RuO{sub 2}. All glasses contained a large fraction of 0.09 mass% RuO{sub 2}, which prevented a reliable detection of spinel near the liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) when the melting temperature was T{sub 5}. T{sub L} was measured by heat-treating glass samples over a range of constant temperatures. They used optical microscopy to detect the presence or absence of crystals in the samples. T{sub L} was determined from observing crystallization within the bulk glass (more than 0.5 mm from the glass surface). The T{sub L} values were adjusted by measuring the T{sub L} of an internal PNNL standard glass in each furnace and checked by a National Bureau of Stands (NBS) standard glass. All measured T{sub L} values are summarized in Table I-S. The accuracy of values is estimated at {+-} 10 C, based on the accuracy of calibrated thermocouples and the ability to discern spinel crystals in glass near T{sub L}. Another possible source of error is glass redox connected with the difference between the melting temperature and T{sub L}. The heat treatment period of samples was long enough to ensure equilibrating the glass with atmospheric air. However, repeated

  3. DWPF Melter Off-Gas Flammability Assessment for Sludge Batch 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The slurry feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter contains several organic carbon species that decompose in the cold cap and produce flammable gases that could accumulate in the off-gas system and create potential flammability hazard. To mitigate such a hazard, DWPF has implemented a strategy to impose the Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) limits on all key operating variables affecting off-gas flammability and operate the melter within those limits using both hardwired/software interlocks and administrative controls. The operating variables that are currently being controlled include; (1) total organic carbon (TOC), (2) air purges for combustion and dilution, (3) melter vapor space temperature, and (4) feed rate. The safety basis limits for these operating variables are determined using two computer models, 4-stage cold cap and Melter Off-Gas (MOG) dynamics models, under the baseline upset scenario - a surge in off-gas flow due to the inherent cold cap instabilities in the slurry-fed melter.

  4. 40 CFR 63.11621 - What are the standards for new and existing prepared feeds manufacturing facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prepared feed products containing chromium or manganese are loaded into trucks or railcars, you must use a... between the loading arm and the truck or railcar. (e) For the pelleting operations at prepared feeds... manufacturer's specifications are not available, you must develop and follow standard maintenance and...

  5. The influence of operational parameters and feed preparation in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Sin Tung; Shahar, Asnawi; Abdul Aziz, Norashikin; Anuar, Mohd Shamsul; Yusof, Yus Aniza; Taip, Farah Saleena

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of feed preparation characteristics and operational parameters on mixing homogeneity in a convective batch ribbon mixer. Lactose 100M, lactose 200M, ascorbic acid, and zinc oxide powders were used for the mixing study. Operational parameters studied were rotational speed and mixing time. The feed preparations studied were the use of preblending and the particle size of the feed materials. The blends of ascorbic acid, zinc oxide, and lactose were prepared with preblending and without preblending, prior to mixing at different blender rotation speeds and mixing times. Chemical tests were performed to measure the homogeneity of the ascorbic acid in the model mixture. With preblending, a mixture with lactose 200M achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. The results indicated that the homogeneity of the mixtures was influenced by the blender rotation speed and mixing time. Better mixing can be obtained with higher rotation speeds and longer mixing time. It was also observed that preblending and smaller feed particle size achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. These results illustrate that using binders with a smaller particle size and a preblending technique improves the mixing process in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer. However, prolonged periods of high-speed mixing will lead to mixture segregation.

  6. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  7. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Viscosity Model: Revisions for Processing High TiO2 Containing Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Radioactive high level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it is poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to guarantee, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository.

  8. Defense waste processing facility (DWPF) liquids model: revisions for processing higher TIO2 containing glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Trivelpiece, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-01

    Radioactive high level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it is poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to guarantee, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository. This report documents the development of revised TiO2, Na2O, Li2O and Fe2O3 coefficients in the SWPF liquidus model and revised coefficients (a, b, c, and d).

  9. Examination Of Sulfur Measurements In DWPF Sludge Slurry And SRAT Product Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J.; Wiedenman, B. J.

    2012-11-29

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to re-sample the received SB7b WAPS material for wt. % solids, perform an aqua regia digestion and analyze the digested material by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), as well as re-examine the supernate by ICP-AES. The new analyses were requested in order to provide confidence that the initial analytical subsample was representative of the Tank 40 sample received and to replicate the S results obtained on the initial subsample collected. The ICP-AES analyses for S were examined with both axial and radial detection of the sulfur ICP-AES spectroscopic emission lines to ascertain if there was any significant difference in the reported results. The outcome of this second subsample of the Tank 40 WAPS material is the first subject of this report. After examination of the data from the new subsample of the SB7b WAPS material, a team of DWPF and SRNL staff looked for ways to address the question of whether there was in fact insoluble S that was not being accounted for by ion chromatography (IC) analysis. The question of how much S is reaching the melter was thought best addressed by examining a DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Product sample, but the significant dilution of sludge material, containing the S species in question, that results from frit addition was believed to add additional uncertainty to the S analysis of SME Product material. At the time of these discussions it was believed that all S present in a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt sample would be converted to sulfate during the course of the SRAT cycle. A SRAT Product sample would not have the S dilution effect resulting from frit addition, and hence, it was decided that a DWPF SRAT Product sample would be obtained and submitted to SRNL for digestion and sample preparation followed by a round-robin analysis of the prepared samples by the DWPF Laboratory, F/H Laboratories, and SRNL for S and sulfate. The

  10. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  11. The influence of operational parameters and feed preparation in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer

    OpenAIRE

    Yeow ST; Shahar A; Abdul Aziz N; Anuar MS; Yusof YA; Taip FS

    2011-01-01

    Sin Tung Yeow, Asnawi Shahar, Norashikin Abdul Aziz, Mohd Shamsul Anuar, Yus Aniza Yusof, Farah Saleena TaipDepartment of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaPurpose: To investigate the effect of feed preparation characteristics and operational parameters on mixing homogeneity in a convective batch ribbon mixer.Methods: Lactose 100M, lactose 200M, ascorbic acid, and zinc oxide powders were used for the mixing study. Operational pa...

  12. Bacterial contamination of hospital-prepared enteral tube feeding formulas in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Hospital-prepared tube feedings from three intensive care units of two hospitals in Isfahan, Iran were analyzed for microbial contamination.
    • METHODS: A total number of 152 samples (76 samples each at the time of preparation and 18 hours following preparation were collected. Standard plate count, coliform count and Staphylococcus aureus count for all samples were conducted. Samples were analyzed also for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp.
    • RESULTS: At the time of food preparation, out of 76 samples, 53 samples (70% had coliform contamination and 87% of these contaminated samples had counts greater than 101 cfu/g. Also, 68  amples (90% had S. aureus contamination greater than 101 cfu/g. In standard plate count, 74 samples (97% had counts greater than 103 cfu/g, while 54 samples (71% had counts greater than 104 cfu/g. In second sampling occasion, out of 76 samples, 68 samples (90% had coliform contamination and 84% of these contaminated samples had counts greater than 101 cfu/g. Also, 72 samples (95% had S. aureus contamination, 98.6% of these contaminated samples had counts greater than 102 cfu/g. In standard plate count, 74 samples (97% had counts greater than 104 cfu/g. No Salmonella or Listeria was detected from samples.
    • CONCLUSION: The results indicated that a majority of the blenderized enteral tube feedings in those hospitals are not safe. In comparison to the standard limits, these enteral tube feedings are highly  ontaminated and posed substantial risk for developing a foodborne disease or nosocomial infection.
    • KEYWORDS: Enteral Feeding, Microbial Contamination, Nosocomial Infection, Standard Plate Count, Coliform.

  13. SME Acceptability Determination For DWPF Process Control (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-12

    The statistical system described in this document is called the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). K. G. Brown and R. L. Postles were the originators and developers of this system as well as the authors of the first three versions of this technical basis document for PCCS. PCCS has guided acceptability decisions for the processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) since the start of radioactive operations in 1996. The author of this revision to the document gratefully acknowledges the firm technical foundation that Brown and Postles established to support the ongoing successful operation at the DWPF. Their integration of the glass propertycomposition models, developed under the direction of C. M. Jantzen, into a coherent and robust control system, has served the DWPF well over the last 20+ years, even as new challenges, such as the introduction into the DWPF flowsheet of auxiliary streams from the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and other processes, were met. The purpose of this revision is to provide a technical basis for modifications to PCCS required to support the introduction of waste streams from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) into the DWPF flowsheet. An expanded glass composition region is anticipated by the introduction of waste streams from SWPF, and property-composition studies of that glass region have been conducted. Jantzen, once again, directed the development of glass property-composition models applicable for this expanded composition region. The author gratefully acknowledges the technical contributions of C.M. Jantzen leading to the development of these glass property-composition models. The integration of these models into the PCCS constraints necessary to administer future acceptability decisions for the processing at DWPF is provided by this sixth revision of this document.

  14. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, A.

    2011-04-19

    During processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), high sulfate concentrations in the feed are a concern to DWPF as it can lead to the formation of a detrimental, sulfate-rich, molten salt phase on the surface of the glass melt pool. To avoid these issues, a sulfate concentration limit was implemented into the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Related to SB7a frit development efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessed the viability of using the current 0.6 wt % SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} limit set for SB6 (in glass) and the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} solubility limit in PCCS to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations, targeted waste loadings, and inclusion of secondary streams (e.g., Actinide Removal Process (ARP)) with two recommended frits (Frit 418 and Frit 702) for SB7a processing. For a nominal SB7a blend with a 63 inch SB6 heel remaining in Tank 40 (projection SB7a-63), a 0.60 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass limit was determined for waste loadings of 34 wt% up to 40 wt% with Frit 418 based on crucible melts with batched chemicals. SRNL also examined the inclusion of ARP for the same blending scenario (SB7a-63-ARP) with Frit 418 and at least a 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} level, and waste loadings of 34 wt% to 40 wt% were also acceptable. When a visible yellow and/or white sulfate salt layer was visible on the surface of any cooled glass, it was assumed to have surpassed the solubility limit of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for that particular composition. All of the glasses fabricated at these concentrations did not exhibit a sulfate rich salt layer on the surface of the glass melt and retained the majority of the batched SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. At higher levels of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} 'spiked' into the projected sludge compositions over the aforementioned interval of waste loadings, with Frit 418, low viscosity sulfur layers were observed on the surface of glass melts which confirm exceeding the solubility

  15. The influence of operational parameters and feed preparation in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeow ST

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sin Tung Yeow, Asnawi Shahar, Norashikin Abdul Aziz, Mohd Shamsul Anuar, Yus Aniza Yusof, Farah Saleena TaipDepartment of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaPurpose: To investigate the effect of feed preparation characteristics and operational parameters on mixing homogeneity in a convective batch ribbon mixer.Methods: Lactose 100M, lactose 200M, ascorbic acid, and zinc oxide powders were used for the mixing study. Operational parameters studied were rotational speed and mixing time. The feed preparations studied were the use of preblending and the particle size of the feed materials. The blends of ascorbic acid, zinc oxide, and lactose were prepared with preblending and without preblending, prior to mixing at different blender rotation speeds and mixing times. Chemical tests were performed to measure the homogeneity of the ascorbic acid in the model mixture.Results: With preblending, a mixture with lactose 200M achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed.Conclusion: The results indicated that the homogeneity of the mixtures was influenced by the blender rotation speed and mixing time. Better mixing can be obtained with higher rotation speeds and longer mixing time. It was also observed that preblending and smaller feed particle size achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. These results illustrate that using binders with a smaller particle size and a preblending technique improves the mixing process in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer. However, prolonged periods of high-speed mixing will lead to mixture segregation.Keywords: powder blending, ascorbic acid, rotational speed, particle size, preblending

  16. Probiotic preparation reduces faecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in chickens fed ochratoxin A contaminated feed (in vivo study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Nowak, Adriana; Smulikowska, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the faecal water of chickens fed ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated feed with and without probiotic preparation. The study was performed on 20 healthy female Ross broiler chickens divided into 4 groups: control chickens - fed with non-supplemented feed; PP chickens - fed feed supplemented with the probiotic preparation; OTA chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA; OTA + PP chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA and supplemented with the probiotic preparation. Faecal water samples were collected on the 35(th) day of life of chickens from each group. Genotoxicity was measured using the comet assay, and cytotoxicity by means of MTT tests. Mean DNA damage, measured as the percentage of DNA in the tails of the comets, was 8.50 ± 1.10 for chickens fed OTA at 1 mg/kg and 6.41 ± 0.67 in the controls. The supplementation of feed with the probiotic preparation decreased the extent of DNA damage to 4.74 ± 0.78. In the control group of chickens the average cytotoxicity was 38.5 ± 0.5 (in MTT), while in the probiotic preparation group (PP group) it was 31.8 ± 0.7 (in MTT). After supplementation of the feed with the probiotic preparation, the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were decreased in a statistically significant manner.

  17. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF) LABORATORY GERMANIUM OXIDE USE ON RECYCLE TRANSFERS TO THE H-TANK FARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.; Laurinat, J.

    2011-08-15

    When processing High Level Waste (HLW) glass, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. Therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream feed stream, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. This strategy is known as 'feed forward statistical process control.' The DWPF depends on chemical analysis of the feed streams from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) where the frit plus adjusted sludge from the SRAT are mixed. The SME is the last vessel in which any chemical adjustments or frit additions can be made. Once the analyses of the SME product are deemed acceptable, the SME product is transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) and onto the melter. The SRAT and SME analyses have been analyzed by the DWPF laboratory using a 'Cold Chemical' method but this dissolution did not adequately dissolve all the elemental components. A new dissolution method which fuses the SRAT or SME product with cesium nitrate (CsNO{sub 3}), germanium (IV) oxide (GeO{sub 2}) and cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) into a cesium germanate glass at 1050 C in platinum crucibles has been developed. Once the germanium glass is formed in that fusion, it is readily dissolved by concentrated nitric acid (about 1M) to solubilize all the elements in the SRAT and/or SME product for elemental analysis. When the chemical analyses are completed the acidic cesium-germanate solution is transferred from the DWPF analytic laboratory to the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) where the pH is increased to {approx}12 M to be released back to the tank farm and the 2H evaporator. Therefore, about 2.5 kg/yr of GeO{sub 2}/year will be diluted into 1.4 million gallons of recycle. This 2.5 kg/yr of GeO{sub 2} may increase to 4 kg/yr when improvements are

  18. DOWNSTREAM IMPACTS OF SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION VIA ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION ON DWPF PROCESSING OF SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE - 9382

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Hay, M; Daniel McCabe, D

    2009-01-14

    The SRS sludge that was to become a major fraction of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) contained a large fraction of H-Modified PUREX (HM) sludge, containing a large fraction of aluminum compounds that could adversely impact the processing and increase the vitrified waste volume. It is beneficial to reduce the non-radioactive fraction of the sludge to minimize the number of glass waste canisters that must be sent to a Federal Repository. Removal of aluminum compounds, such as boehmite and gibbsite, from sludge can be performed with the addition of NaOH solution and heating the sludge for several days. Preparation of SB5 involved adding sodium hydroxide directly to the waste tank and heating the contents to a moderate temperature through slurry pump operation to remove a fraction of this aluminum. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with demonstrating this process on actual tank waste sludge in our Shielded Cells Facility. This paper evaluates some of the impacts of aluminum dissolution on sludge washing and DWPF processing by comparing sludge processing with and without aluminum dissolution. It was necessary to demonstrate these steps to ensure that the aluminum removal process would not adversely impact the chemical and physical properties of the sludge which could result in slower processing or process upsets in the DWPF.

  19. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Amanda Billings, A; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-11-10

    Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) is predominantly a combination of H-modified (HM) sludge from Tank 11 that underwent aluminum dissolution in late 2007 to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and aluminum being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Purex sludge transferred from Tank 7. Following aluminum dissolution, the addition of Tank 7 sludge and excess Pu to Tank 51, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB5 qualification. SB5 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of a Pu/Be stream from H Canyon), DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass chemical durability evaluation. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernatant) and concentration (decanting of supernatant) of the Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF CPC simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. This includes a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid is added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and remove mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit is added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters for the CPC processing were based on work with a non radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and Product Consistency Test (PCT) evaluation of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This work is controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) , and analyses are guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R

  20. DWPF CATALYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION PROGRAM - REVIEW OF CURRENT STATUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.

    2009-07-10

    Significant progress has been made in the past two years in improving the understanding of acid consumption and catalytic hydrogen generation during the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processing of waste sludges in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). This report reviews issues listed in prior internal reviews, describes progress with respect to the recommendations made by the December 2006 external review panel, and presents a summary of the current understanding of catalytic hydrogen generation in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, are historically known catalysts for the conversion of formic acid into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Rh, Ru, and Pd are present in the DWPF SRAT feed as by-products of thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U in the original waste. Rhodium appears to become most active for hydrogen as the nitrite ion concentration becomes low (within a factor of ten of the Rh concentration). Prior to hydrogen generation, Rh is definitely active for nitrite destruction to N{sub 2}O and potentially active for nitrite to NO formation. These reactions are all consistent with the presence of a nitro-Rh complex catalyst, although definite proof for the existence of this complex during Savannah River Site (SRS) waste processing does not exist. Ruthenium does not appear to become active for hydrogen generation until nitrite destruction is nearly complete (perhaps less nitrite than Ru in the system). Catalytic activity of Ru during nitrite destruction is significantly lower than that of either Rh or Pd. Ru appears to start activating as Rh is deactivating from its maximum catalytic activity for hydrogen generation. The slow activation of the Ru, as inferred from the slow rate of increase in hydrogen generation that occurs after initiation, may imply that some species (perhaps Ru itself) has some bound nitrite on it. Ru, rather than Rh, is primarily responsible for the

  1. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a ``Late Wash` facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  2. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-09-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours

  3. Results of Hg speciation testing on DWPF SMECT-8, OGCT-1, AND OGCT-2 samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-22

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team. The sixteenth shipment of samples was designated to include a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) sample from Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 738 processing and two Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT) samples, one following Batch 736 and one following Batch 738. The DWPF sample designations for the three samples analyzed are provided. The Batch 738 ‘End of SME Cycle’ SMECT sample was taken at the conclusion of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) operations for this batch and represents the fourth SMECT sample examined from Batch 738. Batch 738 experienced a sludge slurry carryover event, which introduced sludge solids to the SMECT that were particularly evident in the SMECT-5 sample, but less evident in the ‘End of SME Cycle’ SMECT-8 sample.

  4. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT05- AND KT06-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2011-01-03

    This report is the second in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. The KT05-series glasses were selected, fabricated, and characterized to further study glass compositions where iron titanate crystals had been previously found to form. The intent was to better understand the mechanisms and compositions that favored the formation of crystals containing titanium. Formation of these crystalline phases was confirmed. Increased Na{sub 2}O concentrations had little if any impact on reducing the propensity for the formation of the iron titanate crystalline phases. Other physical properties of these glasses were not measured since the intent was to focus on crystallization. Additional studies are suggested to investigate the potential impacts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K{sub 2}O on crystallization in glasses with high TiO{sub 2} concentrations. The KT06-series glasses were selected, fabricated, and characterized to further study glass compositions that, while broader than the current projections for DWPF feeds with SCIX material, are potential candidates for future processing (i.e., the compositions are acceptable for processing by the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) with the exception of the current TiO{sub 2} concentration constraint). The chemical compositions of these glasses matched well with the target values. The chemical durabilities of all the glasses were acceptable relative to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark. Minor crystallization was identified in some of the slowly cooled glasses, although this crystallization did not impact chemical durability. Several of the KT06-series compositions had durability values that, while acceptable, were not accurately predicted by the current durability models

  5. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT05- AND KT06-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2011-01-03

    This report is the second in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. The KT05-series glasses were selected, fabricated, and characterized to further study glass compositions where iron titanate crystals had been previously found to form. The intent was to better understand the mechanisms and compositions that favored the formation of crystals containing titanium. Formation of these crystalline phases was confirmed. Increased Na{sub 2}O concentrations had little if any impact on reducing the propensity for the formation of the iron titanate crystalline phases. Other physical properties of these glasses were not measured since the intent was to focus on crystallization. Additional studies are suggested to investigate the potential impacts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K{sub 2}O on crystallization in glasses with high TiO{sub 2} concentrations. The KT06-series glasses were selected, fabricated, and characterized to further study glass compositions that, while broader than the current projections for DWPF feeds with SCIX material, are potential candidates for future processing (i.e., the compositions are acceptable for processing by the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) with the exception of the current TiO{sub 2} concentration constraint). The chemical compositions of these glasses matched well with the target values. The chemical durabilities of all the glasses were acceptable relative to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark. Minor crystallization was identified in some of the slowly cooled glasses, although this crystallization did not impact chemical durability. Several of the KT06-series compositions had durability values that, while acceptable, were not accurately predicted by the current durability models

  6. DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have

  7. Interim glycol flowsheet reduction/oxidation (redox) model for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-08

    Control of the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of glasses containing high concentrations of transition metals, such as High Level Waste (HLW) glasses, is critical in order to eliminate processing difficulties caused by overly reduced or overly oxidized melts. Operation of a HLW melter at Fe+2/ΣFe ratios of between 0.09 and 0.33, a range which is not overly oxidizing or overly reducing, helps retain radionuclides in the melt, i.e. long-lived radioactive 99Tc species in the less volatile reduced Tc4+ state, 104Ru in the melt as reduced Ru+4 state as insoluble RuO2, and hazardous volatile Cr6+ in the less soluble and less volatile Cr+3 state in the glass. The melter REDOX control balances the oxidants and reductants from the feed and from processing additives such as antifoam. Currently, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is running a formic acid-nitric acid (FN) flowsheet where formic acid is the main reductant and nitric acid is the main oxidant. During decomposition formate and formic acid releases H2 gas which requires close control of the melter vapor space flammability. A switch to a nitric acid-glycolic acid (GN) flowsheet is desired as the glycolic acid flowsheet releases considerably less H2 gas upon decomposition. This would greatly simplify DWPF processing. Development of an EE term for glycolic acid in the GN flowsheet is documented in this study.

  8. Impact of glycolate anion on aqueous corrosion in DWPF and downstream facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-15

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternate reductant in the preparation of high level waste for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). During processing, the glycolic acid may not be completely consumed with small quantities of the glycolate anion being carried forward to other high level waste (HLW) facilities. The impact of the glycolate anion on the corrosion of the materials of construction (MoC) throughout the waste processing system has not been previously evaluated. A literature review had revealed that corrosion data were not available for the MoCs in glycolic-bearing solutions applicable to SRS systems. Data on the material compatibility with only glycolic acid or its derivative products were identified; however, data were limited for solutions containing glycolic acid or the glycolate anion.

  9. REAL WASTE TESTING OF SLUDGE BATCH 5 MELTER FEED RHEOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.; Stone, M.

    2010-03-17

    Clogging of the melter feed loop at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has reduced the throughput of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing. After completing a data review, DWPF attributed the clogging to the rheological properties of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) project. The yield stress of the SB5 melter feed material was expected to be high, based on the relatively high pH of the SME product and the rheological results of a previous Chemical Process Cell (CPC) demonstration performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  10. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics discussed include: Information collected during testing, equipment, materials, design basis, feed tubes, and an evaluation of the performance of various components. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

  11. Improved mixing and sampling systems for vitrification melter feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the methods used and results obtained during the progress of the study of waste slurry mixing and sampling systems during fiscal year 1977 (FY97) at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU). The objective of this work is to determine optimal mixing configurations and operating conditions as well as improved sampling technology for defense waste processing facility (DWPF) waste melter feeds at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Most of the research on this project was performed experimentally by using a tank mixing configuration with different rotating impellers. The slurry simulants for the experiments were prepared in-house based on the properties of the DOE sites` typical waste slurries. A sampling system was designed to withdraw slurry from the mixing tank. To obtain insight into the waste mixing process, the slurry flow in the mixing tank was also simulated numerically by applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The major parameters investigated in both the experimental and numerical studies included power consumption of mixer, mixing time to reach slurry uniformity, slurry type, solids concentration, impeller type, impeller size, impeller rotating speed, sampling tube size, and sampling velocities. Application of the results to the DWPF melter feed preparation process will enhance and modify the technical base for designing slurry transportation equipment and pipeline systems. These results will also serve as an important reference for improving waste slurry mixing performance and melter operating conditions. These factors will contribute to an increase in the capability of the vitrification process and the quality of the waste glass.

  12. TO THE QUESTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FEED PREPARATION AND DISTRIBUTION AT SMALL BUSINESSES COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priporov I. E.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A complete balanced feed mixture includes sunflower cake, silage, beet fodder and roughage that have nutritional value. For preparation and their distribution it is necessary to have the following facilities under provided with reducing energy intensity and improving the qualitative indicators of processes: for the grinding of sunflower cake and beet fodder we need disk shredder plate with a knife, which makes a shock-centrifugal effect on them; silage and roughage – bearnie in which the cylindrical beater with knives and rotary blade rotor with paired cutting knives, respectively, which perform shock-centrifugal influence on them; for dispensing sunflower cake and beet fodders required automatic volumetric dispensers batch cookers operating on open cycle with the working body of the belt; silage and roughage – automatic volumetric dispensers batch cookers operating on open cycle with disc and drum working body, respectively; to mix sunflower cake – universal, mobile rotary mixer with blades periodic operation portion short-term and multi-stage batch mixing in which the material makes circular motions with a high speed of circulation; beet fodder, roughage – universal, mobile paddle mixers with blades of valencianos form of the periodic portion short-term and multi-stage batch mixing in which the material performs a stochastic motion of particles; silage – universal mobile paddle mixers periodic action of short-term and multi-stage batch mixing in which the material makes circular motions with a high speed of circulation of the blades of valencianos form; for distribution of silage and beet fodder – mobile, been feeders with mechanical loading of the feed ration in which the trays with the milling devices; sunflower cake and roughage – mobile, rotary and conveyor feeders with mechanized loading of the feed ration in which the front rotor with a horizontal axis of rotation and the conveyor of the milling devices, respectively

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J.

    2011-11-14

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently received a deposit sample from the Melter Primary Off Gas System (POG) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This sample was composed of material that had been collected while the quencher was in operation January 27, 2011 through March 31, 2011. DWPF requested, through a technical assistance request, characterization of the melter off-gas deposits by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The purpose of the Melter Off-Gas System is to reduce the amount of radioactive particles and mercury in the gases vented to the atmosphere. Gases emitted from the melter pass through the primary film cooler, quencher, Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT), Steam Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), a condenser, a high efficiency mist eliminator, and a high efficiency particulate air filter, before being vented to the Process Vessel Vent System. The film coolers cool the gases leaving the melter vapor space from {approx}750 C to {approx}375 C, by introducing air and steam to the flow. In the next step, the quencher cools the gas to about 60 C by bringing the condensate from the OGCT in contact with the effluent (Figure 1). Most of the steam in the effluent is then condensed and the melter vapor space pressure is reduced. The purpose of the OGCT is to collect and store the condensate formed during the melter operation. Condensate from the OGCT is circulated to the SAS and atomized with steam. This atomized condensate is mixed with the off-gas to wet and join the particulate which is then removed in the cyclone. The next stage incorporates a chilled water condenser which separates the vapors and elemental mercury from the off-gas steam. Primary off-gas deposit samples from the DWPF melter have previously been analyzed. In 2003, samples from just past the film cooler, from the inlet of the quencher and inside the quencher were analyzed at SRNL. It was determined that the samples were a

  14. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics include: melter overview, design basis, materials, vessel configuration, insulation, refractory configuration, electrical isolation, electrodes, riser and pour spout heater design, dome heaters, feed tubes, drain valves, differential pressure pouring, and melter test results. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

  15. DWPF SIMULANT CPC STUDIES FOR SB7B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.

    2011-11-01

    Lab-scale DWPF simulations of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) processing were performed. Testing was performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory - Aiken County Technology Laboratory (SRNL-ACTL). The primary goal of the simulations was to define a likely operating window for acid stoichiometry for the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). In addition, the testing established conditions for the SRNL Shielded Cells qualification simulation of SB7b-Tank 40 blend, supported validation of the current glass redox model, and validated the coupled process flowsheet at the nominal acid stoichiometry. An acid window of 105-140% by the Koopman minimum acid (KMA) equation (107-142% DWPF Hsu equation) worked for the sludge-only flowsheet. Nitrite was present in the SRAT product for the 105% KMA run at 366 mg/kg, while SME cycle hydrogen reached 94% of the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle limit in the 140% KMA run. The window was determined for sludge with added caustic (0.28M additional base, or roughly 12,000 gallons 50% NaOH to 820,000 gallons waste slurry). A suitable processing window appears to be 107-130% DWPF acid equation for sludge-only processing allowing some conservatism for the mapping of lab-scale simulant data to full-scale real waste processing including potentially non-conservative noble metal and mercury concentrations. This window should be usable with or without the addition of up to 7,000 gallons of caustic to the batch. The window could potentially be wider if caustic is not added to SB7b. It is recommended that DWPF begin processing SB7b at 115% stoichiometry using the current DWPF equation. The factor could be increased if necessary, but changes should be made with caution and in small increments. DWPF should not concentrate past 48 wt.% total solids in the SME cycle if moderate hydrogen generation is occurring simultaneously. The coupled flowsheet simulation made more hydrogen in the SRAT and SME cycles than the sludge-only run with the

  16. Product/Process (P/P) Models For The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF): Model Ranges And Validation Ranges For Future Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-25

    Radioactive high level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it is poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to guarantee, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository.

  17. Literature search for offsite data to improve the DWPF melter off-gas model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-05-04

    This report documents the literature search performed and any relevant data that may help relax some of the constraints on the DWPF melter off-gas model. The objective of this task was to look for outside sources of technical data to help reduce some of the conservatism built in the DWPF melter off-gas model.

  18. DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have

  19. Organics Characterization Of DWPF Alternative Reductant Simulants, Glycolic Acid, And Antifoam 747

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Wiedenman, B. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Crump, S. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Papathanassiu, A. E. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, W. K. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, I. L. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The present study examines the fate of glycolic acid and other organics added in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as part of the glycolic alternate flowsheet. Adoption of this flowsheet is expected to provide certain benefits in terms of a reduction in the processing time, a decrease in hydrogen generation, simplification of chemical storage and handling issues, and an improvement in the processing characteristics of the waste stream including an increase in the amount of nitrate allowed in the CPC process. Understanding the fate of organics in this flowsheet is imperative because tank farm waste processed in the CPC is eventually immobilized by vitrification; thus, the type and amount of organics present in the melter feed may affect optimal melt processing and the quality of the final glass product as well as alter flammability calculations on the DWPF melter off gas. To evaluate the fate of the organic compounds added as the part of the glycolic flowsheet, mainly glycolic acid and antifoam 747, samples of simulated waste that was processed using the DWPF CPC protocol for tank farm sludge feed were generated and analyzed for organic compounds using a variety of analytical techniques at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These techniques included Ion Chromatography (IC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. A set of samples were also sent to the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for analysis by NMR Spectroscopy at the University of Maryland, College Park. Analytical methods developed and executed at SRNL collectively showed that glycolic acid was the most prevalent organic compound in the supernatants of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products examined. Furthermore, the studies suggested that commercially available glycolic acid contained minor amounts

  20. GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESSING CELL WITH MATRIX SIMULANTS AND SUPERNATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.

    2012-05-07

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current DWPF flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the CPC since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT and QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

  1. GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SLUDGE AND SUPERNATE SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2012-08-28

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

  2. RECOVERY ASSESSMENT OF DAILY AND LABOUR ACTIVITIES (FOOD PREPARING AND FEEDING IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danelina Vacheva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria is in a leading position concerning morbidity and mortality rate from cerebrovascular disease (CVD. The goal of this research was to examine, follow up and assess the recovery and the ability for food preparation and feeding in patients with CVD.Materials and methods: Sixty one patients were included in the research. All of them underwent physical rehabilitation program, based on their individual status. The program included: kinesitherapy, labour-therapy [(occupational therapy (OT and activities of daily life (ADL]; electrotherapy. The patients were assessed twice: in the beginning and at the end of the rehabilitation course. They self evaluated the basic parameters nevertheless which of the limbs was particularly affected. Wilcoxon rank test was used for the statistical analysis of non parametrical data and distribution. Results and analysis: At the end of the rehabilitation course the Wilcoxon’s curves were found shifted to the right, which confirmes improvement of the main parameter (self independence in the main task set to be fulfilled, no matter which limb was paretic.Conclusion: Early initiation of the rehabilitation course including labour activities and elements of ADL, given as instructions is essential for achieving better results in the rehabilitation of patients with CVD and for enhancing the self service ability. Functional OT stimulates the independence of patients and facilitates their recovering to independent everyday life and social activities.

  3. Life cycle assessment of animal feeds prepared from liquid food residues: a case study of rice-washing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Akifumi; Ishida, Mitsuyoshi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Tatsugawa, Kenji; Ijiri, Satoru; Kawashima, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption of three methods used to produce animal feed from concentrated rice-washing water (CRW) and disposing of the rice-washing water through wastewater treatment. Four scenarios were compared using LCA: (i) producing concentrated liquid feed by centrifugation (CC) of CRW with wastewater treatment and discharge of the supernatant, (ii) producing concentrated liquid feed by heating evaporation (HC) of CRW, (iii) producing dehydrated feed by dehydration (DH) of CRW, and (iv) wastewater treatment and discharge of nonconcentrated rice-washing water (WT). The functional unit (FU) was defined as 1 metric ton of rice washed for cooking or processing. Our results suggested that the energy consumptions of CC, HC, DH, and WT were 108, 322, 739, and 242 MJ per FU, respectively, and the amounts of GHG emissions from CC, HC, DH, and WT were 6.4, 15.8, 45.5, and 22.5 kg of CO equivalents per FU, respectively. When the produced feed prepared from CRW was assumed to be transported 200 km to farms, CC and HC still emitted smaller GHGs than the other scenarios, and CC consumed the smallest amount of energy among the scenarios. The present study indicates that liquid feed production from CRW by centrifugation has a remarkably reduced environmental impact compared with the wastewater treatment and discharge of rice-washing water.

  4. Melt Rate Improvement for DWPF MB3: Melt Rate Furnace Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.E.

    2001-07-24

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) would like to increase its canister production rate. The goal of this study is to improve the melt rate in DWPF specifically for Macrobatch 3. However, the knowledge gained may result in improved melting efficiencies translating to future DWPF macrobatches and in higher throughput for other Department of Energy's (DOE) melters. Increased melting efficiencies decrease overall operational costs by reducing the immobilization campaign time for a particular waste stream. For melt rate limited systems, a small increase in melting efficiency translates into significant hard dollar savings by reducing life cycle operational costs.

  5. ISOLOK VALVE ACCEPTANCE TESTING FOR DWPF SME SAMPLING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.; Hera, K.; Coleman, C.; Jones, M.; Wiedenman, B.

    2011-12-05

    Evaluation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) cycle time identified several opportunities to improve the CPC processing time. Of the opportunities, a focus area related to optimizing the equipment and efficiency of the sample turnaround time for DWPF Analytical Laboratory was identified. The Mechanical Systems & Custom Equipment Development (MS&CED) Section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated the possibility of using an Isolok{reg_sign} sampling valve as an alternative to the Hydragard{reg_sign} valve for taking process samples. Previous viability testing was conducted with favorable results using the Isolok sampler and reported in SRNL-STI-2010-00749 (1). This task has the potential to improve operability, reduce maintenance time and decrease CPC cycle time. This report summarizes the results from acceptance testing which was requested in Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0036 (2) and which was conducted as outlined in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNL-RP-2011-00145 (3). The Isolok to be tested is the same model which was tested, qualified, and installed in the Sludge Receipt Adjustment Tank (SRAT) sample system. RW-0333P QA requirements apply to this task. This task was to qualify the Isolok sampler for use in the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) sampling process. The Hydragard, which is the current baseline sampling method, was used for comparison to the Isolok sampling data. The Isolok sampler is an air powered grab sampler used to 'pull' a sample volume from a process line. The operation of the sampler is shown in Figure 1. The image on the left shows the Isolok's spool extended into the process line and the image on the right shows the sampler retracted and then dispensing the liquid into the sampling container. To determine tank homogeneity, a Coliwasa sampler was used to grab samples at a high and low location within the mixing tank. Data from

  6. Final Report - Engineering Study for DWPF Bubblers, VSL-10R1770-1, Rev. 0, dated 12/22/10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Joseph, I.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W. K.; Diener, G. A.; Pegg, I. L.; Callow, R. A.

    2013-11-13

    The objective of this work was to perform an engineering assessment of the impact of implementation of bubblers to improve mixing of the glass pool, and thereby increase throughput, in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the melter and off-gas system. Most of the data used for this evaluation were from extensive melter tests performed on non-SRS feeds. This information was supplemented by more recent results on SRS HLW simulants that were tested on a melter system at VSL under contracts from ORP and SRR. Per the work scope, the evaluation focused on the following areas: Glass production rate; Corrosion of melter components; Power requirements; Pouring stability; Off-gas characteristics; Safety and flammability.

  7. ELIMINATION OF THE CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF POUR STREAM SAMPLE AND THE GLASS FABRICATION AND TESTING OF THE DWPF SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-11

    A recommendation to eliminate all characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification sample was made by a Six-Sigma team chartered to eliminate non-value-added activities for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) sludge batch qualification program and is documented in the report SS-PIP-2006-00030. That recommendation was supported through a technical data review by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is documented in the memorandums SRNL-PSE-2007-00079 and SRNL-PSE-2007-00080. At the time of writing those memorandums, the DWPF was processing sludge-only waste but, has since transitioned to a coupled operation (sludge and salt). The SRNL was recently tasked to perform a similar data review relevant to coupled operations and re-evaluate the previous recommendations. This report evaluates the validity of eliminating the characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification samples based on sludge-only and coupled operations. The pour stream sample has confirmed the DWPF's ability to produce an acceptable waste form from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) blending and product composition/durability predictions for the previous sixteen years but, ultimately the pour stream analysis has added minimal value to the DWPF's waste qualification strategy. Similarly, the information gained from the glass fabrication and PCT of the sludge batch qualification sample was determined to add minimal value to the waste qualification strategy since that sample is routinely not representative of the waste composition ultimately processed at the DWPF due to blending and salt processing considerations. Moreover, the qualification process has repeatedly confirmed minimal differences in glass behavior from actual radioactive waste to glasses fabricated from simulants or batch chemicals. In

  8. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your Newborn ... giving up the breast. previous continue About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formula is a nutritious alternative ...

  9. DWPF Hydrogen Generation Study-Form of Noble Metal SRAT Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C

    2005-09-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, has requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL, investigate the factors that contribute to hydrogen generation to determine if current conservatism in setting the DWPF processing window can be reduced. A phased program has been undertaken to increase understanding of the factors that influence hydrogen generation in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell, CPC. The hydrogen generation in the CPC is primarily due to noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid with a minor contribution from radiolytic processes. Noble metals have historically been added as trim chemicals to process simulations. The present study investigated the potential conservatism that might be present from adding the catalytic species as trim chemicals to the final sludge simulant versus co-precipitating the noble metals into the insoluble sludge solids matrix. Two sludge simulants were obtained, one with co-precipitated noble metals and one without noble metals. Co-precipitated noble metals were expected to better match real waste behavior than using trimmed noble metals during CPC simulations. Portions of both sludge simulants were held at 97 C for about eight hours to qualitatively simulate the effects of long term storage on particle morphology and speciation. The two original and two heat-treated sludge simulants were then used as feeds to Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank, SRAT, process simulations. Testing was done at relatively high acid stoichiometries, {approx}175%, and without mercury in order to ensure significant hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation rates were monitored during processing to assess the impact of the form of noble metals. The following observations were made on the data: (1) Co-precipitated noble metal simulant processed similarly to trimmed noble metal simulant in most respects, such as nitrite to nitrate conversion, formate destruction, and pH, but differently with respect to hydrogen generation: (A

  10. Results Of Hg Speciation Testing On DWPF SMECT-1, SMECT-3, And SMECT-5 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team. The thirteenth shipment of samples was designated to include Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) from Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Batch 736 and 738 samples. Triplicate samples of each material were prepared for this shipment. Each replicate was analyzed for seven Hg species: total Hg, total soluble (dissolved) Hg, elemental Hg [Hg(0)], ionic (inorganic) Hg [Hg(I) and Hg(II)], methyl Hg [CH3Hg-X, where X is a counter anion], ethyl Hg [CH3CH2-Hg-X, where X is a counter anion], and dimethyl Hg [(CH3)2Hg]. The difference between the total Hg and total soluble Hg measurements gives the particulate Hg concentration, i.e. Hg adsorbed to the surface of particulate matter in the sample but without resolution of the specific adsorbed species. The average concentrations of Hg species in the aqueous samples derived from Eurofins reported data corrected for dilutions performed by SRNL are tabulated.

  11. Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2004-12-31

    This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW/DWPF/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6/4/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus should be on catalytic hydrogen generation, not on hydrogen generation by radiolysis. The secondary objective was to develop scope for follow-up experimental and analytical work. The majority of this report provides a summary of past hydrogen generation work with radioactive and simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste sludges. The report also includes some work done with Hanford waste sludges and simulants. The review extends to idealized systems containing no sludge, such as solutions of sodium formate and formic acid doped with a noble metal catalyst. This includes general information from the literature, as well as the focused study done by the University of Georgia for the SRS. The various studies had a number of points of universal agreement. For example, noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, catalyze hydrogen generation from formic acid and formate ions, and more acid leads to more hydrogen generation. There were also some points of disagreement between different sources on a few topics such as the impact of mercury on the noble metal catalysts and the identity of the most active catalyst species. Finally, there were some issues of potential interest to SRS that apparently have not been systematically studied, e.g. the role of nitrite ion in catalyst activation and reactivity. The review includes studies covering the period from about 1924-2002, or from before the discovery of hydrogen generation during simulant sludge processing in 1988 through the Shielded Cells qualification testing for Sludge Batch 2. The review of prior studies is followed by a

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE HANFORD CONNECTOR GASKET REPLACEMENT TOOLING FOR DWPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krementz, D.; Coughlin, Jeffrey

    2009-05-05

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to develop tooling and equipment to remotely replace gaskets in mechanical Hanford connectors to reduce personnel radiation exposure as compared to the current hands-on method. It is also expected that radiation levels will continually increase with future waste streams. The equipment is operated in the Remote Equipment Decontamination Cell (REDC), which is equipped with compressed air, two master-slave manipulators (MSM's) and an electro-mechanical manipulator (EMM) arm for operation of the remote tools. The REDC does not provide access to electrical power, so the equipment must be manually or pneumatically operated. The MSM's have a load limit at full extension of ten pounds, which limited the weight of the installation tool. In order to remotely replace Hanford connector gaskets several operations must be performed remotely, these include: removal of the spent gasket and retaining ring (retaining ring is also called snap ring), loading the new snap ring and gasket into the installation tool and installation of the new gasket into the Hanford connector. SRNL developed and tested tools that successfully perform all of the necessary tasks. Removal of snap rings from horizontal and vertical connectors is performed by separate air actuated retaining ring removal tools and is manipulated in the cell by the MSM. In order install a new gasket, the snap ring loader is used to load a new snap ring into a groove in the gasket installation tool. A new gasket is placed on the installation tool and retained by custom springs. An MSM lifts the installation tool and presses the mounted gasket against the connector block. Once the installation tool is in position, the gasket and snap ring are installed onto the connector by pneumatic actuation. All of the tools are located on a custom work table with a pneumatic valve station that directs compressed air to the desired

  13. REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES IN DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.; Bannochie, C.

    2011-12-20

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that the waste producer 'shall report the curie inventory of radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115.' As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type all radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and contribute greater than 0.01 percent of the total curie inventory from the time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial list of radionuclides to be reported is based on the design-basis glass identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report. However, it is required that the list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that meet the 'greater than 0.01% of the curie inventory' criterion. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, and U-238; and Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete list of reportable radionuclides must also include these sets of U and Pu isotopes - and the U and Pu isotopic mass distributions must be identified. The DWPF receives HLW sludge slurry from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 40. For Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), the waste in Tank 40 contained a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) material transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. This sludge blend is also referred to as Macrobatch 8. Laboratory analyses of a Tank 40 sludge sample were performed to quantify the concentrations of pertinent radionuclides in the SB7a waste. Subsequently

  14. Description of DWPF reference waste form and canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    This document describes the reference waste form and canister for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The facility is planned for location at the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, SC, and is scheduled for construction authorization during FY-1983. The reference canister is fabricated of 24-in.-OD 304L stainless steel pipe with a dished bottom, domed head, and lifting and welding flanges on the head neck. The overall canister length is 9 ft 10 in., with a wall thickness of 3/8-in. (schedule 20 pipe). The canister length was selected to reduce equipment cell height in the DWPF to a practical size. The canister diameter was selected to ensure that a filled canister with its shipping cask could be accommodated on a legal-weight truck. The overall dimensions and weight appear to be generally compatible with preliminary assessments of repository requirements. The reference waste form is borosilicate glass containing approximately 28 wt % sludge oxides with the balance glass frit. Borosilicate glass was chosen because of its high resistance to leaching by water, its relatively high solubility for nuclides found in the sludge, and its reasonably low melting temperature. The glass frit contains approximately 58% SiO/sub 2/ and 15% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/. This composition results in a low average leachability in the waste form of approximately 5 x 10/sup -9/ g/cm/sup 2/-day based on /sup 137/Cs over 365 days in 25/sup 0/C water. The canister is filled with 3260 lb of glass which occupies about 85% of the free canister volume. The filled canister will generate approximately 425 watts when filled with oxides from 5-year-old sludge and 15-year-old supernate from the Stage 1 and Stage 2 processes. The radionuclide content of the canister is about 150,000 curies, with a radiation level of 2 x 10/sup 4/ rem/hour at 1 cm.

  15. Feed dilution-based design of a thickener for refuse slurry of a coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Banisi; M. Yahyaei [Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran). Mining Engineering Group

    2008-10-15

    Thickening is the most widely applied dewatering technique in mineral processing. Thickeners are used to increase the concentration of suspensions by sedimentation, accompanied by the release of a clear liquid. As the particles get finer the thickening process encounters difficulty due to a significant change in the particles settling behavior. The batch settling tests of coal refuse of a coal washing plant that contained 91% particles smaller than 38 {mu}m and 0.6% coarser than 75 {mu}m showed that the optimum feed percent solids that provided highest flux (solids handling capacity) was 4%. The flux of the pulp with the plant solids concentration (i.e., 10% by weight) was 60% lower than that of the pulp with 4% solids. A thickener with a diameter of 22 m based on the dilution of feed from solids concentration of 10% to 4% was designed. Monitoring of the thickener performance for a period of one month in the plant indicated that an average feed rate of 25t/h (dry solids) with solids concentration of 10% could be thickened to an underflow concentration of 26.5% with a clear water overflow. It was found that the key component of the successful operation of the thickener is the dilution of the feed, without dilution the overflow loses its clarity and the system ceases to operate under predetermined conditions. Based on the results of established CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) studies, a feeding system that efficiently dissipated the energy of the incoming flow and a staged flocculant addition regime were utilized in the design and operation of the thickener. 23 refs.

  16. EVALUATION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DWPF HIGHER CAPACITY CANISTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Estochen, E.; Jordan, J.; Kesterson, M.; Mckeel, C.

    2014-08-05

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is considering the option to increase canister glass capacity by reducing the wall thickness of the current production canister. This design has been designated as the DWPF Higher Capacity Canister (HCC). A significant decrease in the number of canisters processed during the life of the facility would be achieved if the HCC were implemented leading to a reduced overall reduction in life cycle costs. Prior to implementation of the change, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to conduct an evaluation of the potential impacts. The specific areas of interest included loading and deformation of the canister during the filling process. Additionally, the effect of the reduced wall thickness on corrosion and material compatibility needed to be addressed. Finally the integrity of the canister during decontamination and other handling steps needed to be determined. The initial request regarding canister fabrication was later addressed in an alternate study. A preliminary review of canister requirements and previous testing was conducted prior to determining the testing approach. Thermal and stress models were developed to predict the forces on the canister during the pouring and cooling process. The thermal model shows the HCC increasing and decreasing in temperature at a slightly faster rate than the original. The HCC is shown to have a 3°F ΔT between the internal and outer surfaces versus a 5°F ΔT for the original design. The stress model indicates strain values ranging from 1.9% to 2.9% for the standard canister and 2.5% to 3.1% for the HCC. These values are dependent on the glass level relative to the thickness transition between the top head and the canister wall. This information, along with field readings, was used to set up environmental test conditions for corrosion studies. Small 304-L canisters were filled with glass and subjected to accelerated environmental testing for 3 months. No evidence of

  17. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Durability-Composition Models and the Applicability of the Associated Reduction of Constraints (ROC) Criteria for High TiO2 Containing Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Trivelpiece, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Radioactive high level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the DWPF since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it has been poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than relying on statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to determine, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository.

  18. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2011-10-03

    the targeted values. The results for the SB7b glasses fabricated with Frit 418 showed an apparent trend of increasing sulfate retention with increasing Na{sub 2}O additions to the 5/25/11 sludge projection. This trend appears contradictory to other recent studies of sulfate retention in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) type glasses. Additional apparent contradictions to this trend were found in the data collected in the present study. Overall, the results for the SB7b sulfate study glasses with Frit 418 and the 5/25/11 projection with Na{sub 2}O additions showed that subtle changes in this complex glass composition impacted the degree of sulfate retention. These results do however provide confidence that a 0.6 wt % sulfate limit in glass is warranted for Frit 418 with the SB7b compositions evaluated in this study. The results for the SB7b glasses fabricated with Frit 702 are consistent with those of the previous SB7a study in that Frit 702 allowed for higher sulfate retention as compared to Frit 418 for the same sludge compositions. It is recommended that the DWPF implement a sulfate concentration limit of 0.6 wt % in glass for SB7b processing with Frit 418. If a higher than projected sulfate concentration is measured when SB7b processing begins (i.e., if a sulfate concentration higher than 0.6 wt % becomes necessary to achieve targeted waste loadings), DWPF should consider a transition to Frit 702. The sulfate limit could likely be raised to 0.8 wt % by transitioning to this frit. However, if DWPF considers transitioning from Frit 418 to Frit 702, additional glasses should be fabricated to confirm this higher limit due to the issues with incorrect B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations for some of the glasses made with Frit 702 in this study. There are several factors other than sulfate retention that must also be carefully considered prior to changing frit compositions.

  19. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding Print ... a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  20. Preparation of feeding obturators for infants with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, O O

    1995-01-01

    Clefts of the lip and palate are the commonest congenital craniofacial malformations in children. Sucking is impaired in infants born with complete clefts of the lip and palate. Feeding obturators improve feeding thereby contributing to weight gain and a thriving state of health, a prerequisite for surgical repair of the defects. A pediatric dentist may be required to fabricate the obturator. A method for constructing the appliance is presented. The severity of the clefts varies so much that stock trays are not always useful for the impression of the infant's maxillary arch. A preliminary impression is taken by introducing a thermoplastic impression material with the index and middle fingers as the tray. A model is produced from which a custom tray is constructed. The final maxillary impression is taken using an irreversible hydrocolloid with the child in an upright position. An obturator is constructed on the stone model by sprinkling soft autopolymerizing acrylic resin on the palate extending well into the mucobuccal fold area. The cured appliance is trimmed and polished prior to insertion.

  1. Preparation and effects of nano mineral particle feeding in livestock: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Sarathi Swain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nano minerals are widely used in diversified sectors including agriculture, animal, and food systems. Hence, their multiple uses provoke the production of nanomaterials at the laboratory level, which can be achieved through physical, chemical or biological methods. Every method is having its own merits and demerits. But keeping all in mind, chemical methods are more beneficial, as uniform nano-sized particles can be produced, but the use of corrosive chemicals is the main demerits. When it comes to environmental issues, biological methods are better as these are free from corrosive chemicals, but maintaining the culture media is the disadvantage. For animal feeding, chemical methods are mostly followed to produce nano minerals as it is cheap and less time consuming. These nano minerals also showed their significant effects even at lower doses of recommendations than the conventional mineral sources. These nano minerals have significant growth promoting, immuno-modulatory, antibacterial effects than the conventional counterparts. They also alter the rumen fermentation pattern on supplementation in the animal feeds. Apart from these, nano minerals are reported to enhance the reproduction in the livestock and poultry.

  2. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Hanford Missions Programs; Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Process Technology Programs; Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development; Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  3. Material compatibility evaluation for DWPF nitric-glycolic acid-literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-06-01

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid.

  4. Discrete event simulation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analytical laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, K.L.

    1992-02-01

    A discrete event simulation of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analytical laboratory has been constructed in the GPSS language. It was used to estimate laboratory analysis times at process analytical hold points and to study the effect of sample number on those times. Typical results are presented for three different simultaneous representing increasing levels of complexity, and for different sampling schemes. Example equipment utilization time plots are also included. SRS DWPF laboratory management and chemists found the simulations very useful for resource and schedule planning.

  5. Evaluation of high-level waste vitrification feed preparation chemistry for an NCAW simulant, FY 1994: Alternate flowsheets (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.D.; Merz, M.D.; Wiemers, K.D.; Smith, G.L.

    1996-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste stored in tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site will be pretreated to concentrate radioactive constituents and fed to the vitrification plant A flowsheet for feed preparation within the vitrification plant (based on the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) design) called for HCOOH addition during the feed preparation step to adjust rheology and glass redox conditions. However, the potential for generating H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} during treatment of high-level waste (HLW) with HCOOH was identified at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Studies at the University of Georgia, under contract with Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and PNL, have verified the catalytic role of noble metals (Pd, Rh, Ru), present in the waste, in the generation of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}. Both laboratory-scale and pilot-scale studies at SRTC have documented the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} generation phenomenal Because H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} may create hazardous conditions in the vessel vapor space and offgas system of a vitrification plant, reducing the H{sub 2} generation rate and the NH{sub 3} generation to the lowest possible levels consistent with desired melter feed characteristics is important. The Fiscal Year 1993 and 1994 studies were conducted with simulated (non-radioactive), pre-treated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW). Neutralized current acid waste is a high-level waste originating from the plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) plant that has been partially denitrated with sugar, neutralized with NaOH, and is presently stored in double-shell tanks. The non-radioactive simulant used for the present study includes all of the trace components found in the waste, or substitutes a chemically similar element for radioactive or very toxic species. The composition and simulant preparation steps were chosen to best simulate the chemical processing characteristics of the actual waste.

  6. Differences in the composition of organic impurities in ground and surface waters. Consequences for the preparation of boiler feed water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, S.A. [DOC-Labor Dr. Huber, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    It is generally accepted that current limits for total organic carbon (TOC) in the pharmaceutical industry (500 ppb) and semiconductor industry (10-25 ppb) should be regarded as precautionary measures and do not necessarily reflect true scientific evidence. For the power industry the situation is different. Here, recommended TOC-limits for boiler feed waters (in 1999: VGB: 200 ppb; EPRI: 100 ppb) are based on scientific and empirical data. The oxidation of, say, 50 ppb TOC to carbon dioxide in the water/steam cycle will increase steam condensate conductivity by 0.48 {mu}{sup S}/cm (values may depend on literature source, here [1]), a value which is not acceptable as it desensitizes the detection of leaks in cooling water heat exchangers. Apart from this indirect effect of TOC there is also evidence for direct negative effects of TOC on steel materials. Even small amounts of organic acids, which are produced as intermediates in the TOC oxidation process, may locally lower the pH down to levels [2] where erosion corrosion of boiler tubes can take place. It was also found that carbon is enriched in stress corrosion cracks of turbine materials [3]. The present paper will discuss the ''TOC-issue'' in boiler feed water preparation. Most of the results can be applied also to other industries, e.g. semiconductor, chemical or pharmaceutical. (authors)

  7. Efficacy Study of Metho-Chelated Organic Minerals preparation Feeding on Milk Production and Fat Percentage in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somkuwar A.P.1

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the effect of feeding different mineral based formulation on dairy cow production performance, namely milk yield and fat percentage. The trial was conducted with dairy cows across various stages of lactation (Early, Mid and Late stage with 30 cows per stage. The experimental treatments included: Bestmin Gold (Metho-chelated organic minerals, given 30 gms per day, Inorganic mineral preparation (Inorg. Mineral, @ 50 gms/day/ cow and control. The study lasted from 0 to 40 days. Milk yield and fat percentage of cows were measured individually on Days 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40. The Bestmin Gold treated group (Metho-chelated organic minerals improved the milk yield, net gain in milk and the milk fat percentage of animals across the various stages of lactation as compared to in control and inorganic mineral treated group of animals. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 19-21

  8. Final Report - Glass Formulation Development and Testing for DWPF High AI2O3 HLW Sludges, VSL-10R1670-1, Rev. 0, dated 12/20/10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work described in this Final Report is to develop and identify glass frit compositions for a specified DWPF high-aluminum based sludge waste stream that maximizes waste loading while maintaining high production rate for the waste composition provided by ORP/SRS. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale, vertical gradient furnace, and confirmation tests on the DM100 melter system. The DM100-BL unit was selected for these tests. The DM100-BL was used for previous tests on HLW glass compositions that were used to support subsequent tests on the HLW Pilot Melter. It was also used to process compositions with waste loadings limited by aluminum, bismuth, and chromium, to investigate the volatility of cesium and technetium during the vitrification of an HLW AZ-102 composition, to process glass formulations at compositional and property extremes, and to investigate crystal settling on a composition that exhibited one percent crystals at 963{degrees}C (i.e., close to the WTP limit). The same melter was selected for the present tests in order to maintain comparisons between the previously collected data. The tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including formation of secondary phases and partitioning. Specific objectives for the melter tests are as follows: Determine maximum glass production rates without bubbling for a simulated SRS Sludge Batch 19 (SB19). Demonstrate a feed rate equivalent to 1125 kg/m{sup 2}/day glass production using melt pool bubbling. Process a high waste loading glass composition with the simulated SRS SB19 waste and measure the quality of the glass product. Determine the effect of argon as a bubbling gas on waste processing and the glass product including feed processing rate, glass redox, melter emissions, etc.. Determine differences in feed processing and glass characteristics for SRS SB19 waste simulated by the co-precipitated and direct

  9. Mixing process in the preparation of feed pellets at technological conditions rational parametres choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Shentsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixing of ingredients – the most important process step in the manufacture of fodder pellets. The technology involves using molasses (warmed to 30–40 °C as a binder. In its composition is administered a mixture of salts of trace elements (copper sulfate, zinc sulfate, cobalt carbonate, potassium iodide, ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate, sodium selenite, vitamins, salt, magnesium oxide, feed limestone, mono calcium phosphate and lime. Research on the development of feed pellets were carried out in laboratory conditions using experimental equipment. Mixer-reactor created the conditions for heating and temperature control of mass be mixed due to the occurring chemical reaction between water contained in the molasses, and the presence of oxides of calcium and magnesium. The choice of rational parameters of the mixing process upon receipt of fodder pellets allows to provide the high quality product with minimal energy costs. The ranges of the input information factors selected with the aid of a central rotatable uniforms-planning allowed with 56 experiments in a third-multiple replication to obtain the regression equation adequately describing the mixing process. The main factors were: the content of molasses, %; the content of calcium oxide, %; frequency of rotation of the stirrer, rpm; the content of salt in the recipe, %; the temperature of blending, °C. Output factors – productivity, kg/h; energy consumption, kWh; homogeneity of mixing, %. In the result of experiments impact factors and mathematical model of the process that allows to define output parameters within chosen ranges of variation of input factors are obtained. Greatest influence – the content of molasses in the product, the lowest – content of salt in the recipe. Efficiency of mixing hard distributed components pertaining to the most important biologically active substances was evaluated. Content (% of entered of vitamins and minerals in the pellets did not differ

  10. Melt Rate Improvement for DWPF MB3: Foaming Theory and Mitigation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D.K.

    2001-07-24

    The objective of this research is to enhance the basic understanding of the role of glass chemistry, including the chemical kinetics of pre-melting, solid state reactions, batch melting, and the reaction pathways in glass and/or acid addition strategy changes on the overall melting process for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Macrobatch 3 (MB3).

  11. Literature review: Assessment of DWPF melter and melter off-gas system lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-30

    A glass melter for use in processing radioactive waste is a challenging environment for the materials of construction (MOC) resulting from a combination of high temperatures, chemical attack, and erosion/corrosion; therefore, highly engineered materials must be selected for this application. The focus of this report is to review the testing and evaluations used in the selection of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), glass contact MOC specifically the Monofrax® K-3 refractory and Inconel® 690 alloy. The degradation or corrosion mechanisms of these materials during pilot scale testing and in-service operation were analyzed over a range of oxidizing and reducing flowsheets; however, DWPF has primarily processed a reducing flowsheet (i.e., Fe2+/ΣFe of 0.09 to 0.33) since the start of radioactive operations. This report also discusses the materials selection for the DWPF off-gas system and the corrosion evaluation of these materials during pilot scale testing and non-radioactive operations of DWPF Melter #1. Inspection of the off-gas components has not been performed during radioactive operations with the exception of maintenance because of plugging.

  12. Literature review: Assessment of DWPF melter and melter off-gas system lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-30

    A glass melter for use in processing radioactive waste is a challenging environment for the materials of construction (MOC) resulting from a combination of high temperatures, chemical attack, and erosion/corrosion; therefore, highly engineered materials must be selected for this application. The focus of this report is to review the testing and evaluations used in the selection of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), glass contact MOC specifically the Monofrax® K-3 refractory and Inconel® 690 alloy. The degradation or corrosion mechanisms of these materials during pilot scale testing and in-service operation were analyzed over a range of oxidizing and reducing flowsheets; however, DWPF has primarily processed a reducing flowsheet (i.e., Fe2+/ΣFe of 0.09 to 0.33) since the start of radioactive operations. This report also discusses the materials selection for the DWPF off-gas system and the corrosion evaluation of these materials during pilot scale testing and non-radioactive operations of DWPF Melter #1. Inspection of the off-gas components has not been performed during radioactive operations with the exception of maintenance because of plugging.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANTIFOAM TRACKING SYSTEM AS AN OPTION TO SUPPORT THE MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY CONTROL STRATEGY AT THE DWPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.; Lambert, D.

    2014-08-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in the development and implementation of an additional strategy for confidently satisfying the flammability controls for DWPF’s melter operation. An initial strategy for implementing the operational constraints associated with flammability control in DWPF was based upon an analytically determined carbon concentration from antifoam. Due to the conservative error structure associated with the analytical approach, its implementation has significantly reduced the operating window for processing and has led to recurrent Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and Melter Feed Tank (MFT) remediation. To address the adverse operating impact of the current implementation strategy, SRR issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to SRNL requesting the development and documentation of an alternate strategy for evaluating the carbon contribution from antifoam. The proposed strategy presented in this report was developed under the guidance of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and involves calculating the carbon concentration from antifoam based upon the actual mass of antifoam added to the process assuming 100% retention. The mass of antifoam in the Additive Mix Feed Tank (AMFT), in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), and in the SME is tracked by mass balance as part of this strategy. As these quantities are monitored, the random and bias uncertainties affecting their values are also maintained and accounted for. This report documents: 1) the development of an alternate implementation strategy and associated equations describing the carbon concentration from antifoam in each SME batch derived from the actual amount of antifoam introduced into the AMFT, SRAT, and SME during the processing of the batch. 2) the equations and error structure for incorporating the proposed strategy into melter off-gas flammability assessments

  14. ELABORATING THE TECHNOLOGY OF FEEDING THE MILKING SHEEP DURING THE PERIOD OF COUPLING PREPARATION AND COUPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIU NEACSU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies made on sheep specialized on milk production watched to establishfodder ratios and the technology of foddering the sheep in the second milkingperiod and preparation for coupling. The witness lot was fed with green mass bygrazing, at the 2nd lot it was used the pasture + 200 g concentratedfodders/animal/day, and at the 3rd lot, the pasture + 400 g fodders/animal/day.The consumption of dry substance/animal/day was similar at the 1st and 2nd lots,that of 1.57-1.51 kg, and at the 3rd lot of 1.68 kg, bigger with 7-11% beside theother two lots. The intensity and synchronization of the heat periods were with 32-61% better in the case of the sheep that were supplementary fed. Thesupplementation of grazing with concentrated fodders had a positive influenceupon the body weight of the sheep, at the 3rd lot the body weight of the sheep inthe beginning of coupling being superior with 11.40% comparatively to the weightat lambs’ weaning. The average milk production per lactation was of 138.9-153.8liters, being bigger with 10.7% at the 2nd and 3rd lots, comparatively to the 1st lot.The chemical composition of milk had a content of dry substance of 18.95-19.05%,6.31-6.41% proteins and 6.99-7.24% fats.

  15. Effects of an exogenous enzyme preparation on microbial protein synthesis, enzyme activity and attachment to feed in the Rumen Simulation Technique (Rusitec).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; McAllister, T A; Rode, L M; Beauchemin, K A; Morgavi, D P; Nsereko, V L; Iwaasa, A D; Yang, W

    2001-03-01

    The effects of an exogenous enzyme preparation, the application method and feed type on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis were investigated using the rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). Steam-rolled barley grain and chopped alfalfa hay were sprayed with water (control, C), an enzyme preparation with a predominant xylanase activity (EF), or autoclaved enzyme (AEF) 24 h prior to feeding, or the enzyme was supplied in the buffer infused into the Rusitec (EI). Microbial N incorporation was measured using (15NH4)2SO4 in the buffer. Spent feed bags were pummelled mechanically in buffer to segregate the feed particle-associated (FPA) and feed particle-bound (FPB) bacterial fractions. Enzymes applied to feed reduced neutral-detergent fibre content, and increased the concentration of reducing sugars in barley grain, but not alfalfa hay. Ruminal cellulolytic bacteria were more numerous with EF than with C. Disappearance of DM from barley grain was higher with EF than with C, but alfalfa was unaffected by EF. Treatment EF increased incorporation of 15N into FPA and FPB fractions at 24 and 48 h. In contrast, AEF reduced the 24 h values, relative to C; AEF and C were similar at 48 h. Infused enzyme (EI) did not affect 15N incorporation. Xylanase activity in effluent was increased by EF and EI, compared to C, but not by AEF. Xylanase activity in FPA was higher at 48 h than at 24 h with all treatments; it was higher with EF than C at 24 and 48 h, but was not altered by AEF or EI. Applying enzymes onto feeds before feeding was more effective than dosing directly into the artificial rumen for increasing ruminal fibrolytic activity.

  16. DWPF FLOWSHEET STUDIES WITH SIMULANTS TO DETERMINE MCU SOLVENT BUILD-UP IN CONTINOUS RUNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D; Frances Williams, F; S Crump, S; Russell Eibling, R; Thomas02 White, T; David Best, D

    2006-05-25

    The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) facility and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) are scheduled to begin processing salt waste in fiscal year 2007. A portion of the streams generated in these salt processing facilities will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to be incorporated in the glass matrix. Before the streams are introduced, a combination of impact analyses and research and development studies must be performed to quantify the impacts on DWPF processing. The Process Science & Engineering (PS&E) section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 to evaluate the impacts on DWPF processing. Simulant Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet studies have been performed using previous composition and projected volume estimates for the ARP sludge/monosodium titanate (MST) stream. Initial MCU incorporation testing for the DWPF flowsheet indicated unacceptable levels of Isopar{reg_sign}L were collecting in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) condenser system and unanticipated quantities of modifier were carrying over into the SRAT condenser system. This work was performed as part of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) flowsheet testing and was reported by Baich et al. Due to changes in the flammability control strategy for DWPF for salt processing, the incorporation strategy for ARP changed and additional ARP flowsheet tests were necessary to validate the new processing strategy. The last round of ARP testing included the incorporation of the MCU stream and identified potential processing issues with the MCU solvent. The identified issues included the potential carry-over and accumulation of the MCU solvent components in the CPC condensers and in the recycle stream to the Tank Farm. Solvent retention in the DWPF condensers contradicts the DWPF solvent control strategy. Therefore, DWPF requested SRNL to perform additional MCU flowsheet studies to better

  17. System appraisal of decentralized utilization of biogas versus feed into natural gas networks. An evaluation of methods for biogas preparation and feeding; Systemvergleich dezentrale Biogasnutzung versus Biogaseinspeisung in Erdgasnetze. Eine Bewertung von Verfahren zur Biogasaufbereitung und Einspeisung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinen, Joerg; Stichtenoth, Jan [RWE Energy AG, Dortmund (Germany); Erich, Egon [IUTA e.V., Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    Feeding of biogas into natural gas distribution networks is an option for expanding the use of regenerable energy sources. In view of the still experimental character of biogas preparation, in particular, a concluding evaluation on energy and process-engineering criteria remains to be submitted. This article describes the various methods of biogas preparation using process-engineering simulations. The mass-flows and energy-flows and methane losses in the individual processes are examined and the specific advantages and disadvantages of the various procedures derived. The article concludes with a comparative assessment of biogas feeding and decentralized biogas-fueled power generation on the basis of an efficiency and cost model. (orig.)

  18. Formulation and preparation on Hanford Waste Treatment Plan direct feed low activity waste effluent management facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  19. Formulation and preparation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant direct feed low activity waste Effluent Management Facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  20. Effects of Feeding of Two Potentially Probiotic Preparations from Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Performance and Faecal Microflora of Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Paula; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Méndez, Jesús; Rodríguez, Isabel; Fuciños, Clara; Guerra, Nelson P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of two probiotic preparations, containing live lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis CECT 539 and Lactobacillus casei CECT 4043) and their products of fermentation (organic acids and bacteriocins), as a replacement for antibiotics in stimulating health and growth of broiler chickens. The effects of the supplementation of both preparations (with proven probiotic effect in weaned piglets) and an antibiotic (avilamycin) on body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed consumption efficiency (FCE), relative intestinal weight, and intestinal microbiota counts were studied in 1-day posthatch chickens. The experiments were conducted with medium-growth Sasso X44 chickens housed in cages and with nutritional stressed Ross 308 broiler distributed in pens. Consumption of the different diets did not affect significantly the final coliform counts in Sasso X44 chickens. However, counts of lactic acid bacteria and mesophilic microorganisms were higher in the animals receiving the two probiotic preparations (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, although no differences in BWG were observed between treatments, Ross 308 broilers receiving the probiotic Lactobacillus preparation exhibited the lowest FCE values and were considered the most efficient at converting feed into live weight. PMID:22666137

  1. Effects of Feeding of Two Potentially Probiotic Preparations from Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Performance and Faecal Microflora of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fajardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of two probiotic preparations, containing live lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis CECT 539 and Lactobacillus casei CECT 4043 and their products of fermentation (organic acids and bacteriocins, as a replacement for antibiotics in stimulating health and growth of broiler chickens. The effects of the supplementation of both preparations (with proven probiotic effect in weaned piglets and an antibiotic (avilamycin on body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI, feed consumption efficiency (FCE, relative intestinal weight, and intestinal microbiota counts were studied in 1-day posthatch chickens. The experiments were conducted with medium-growth Sasso X44 chickens housed in cages and with nutritional stressed Ross 308 broiler distributed in pens. Consumption of the different diets did not affect significantly the final coliform counts in Sasso X44 chickens. However, counts of lactic acid bacteria and mesophilic microorganisms were higher in the animals receiving the two probiotic preparations (P<0.05. In the second experiment, although no differences in BWG were observed between treatments, Ross 308 broilers receiving the probiotic Lactobacillus preparation exhibited the lowest FCE values and were considered the most efficient at converting feed into live weight.

  2. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Durability-Composition Models and the Applicability of the Associated Reduction of Constraints (ROC) Criteria for High TiO2 Containing Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Trivelpiece, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Radioactive high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has successfully been vitrified into borosilicate glass in the DWPF since 1996. Vitrification requires stringent product/process (P/P) constraints since the glass cannot be reworked once it has been poured into ten foot tall by two foot diameter canisters. A unique “feed forward” statistical process control (SPC) was developed for this control rather than relying on statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the DWPF melter is controlled prior to vitrification. In SQC, the glass product would be sampled after it is vitrified. Individual glass property-composition models form the basis for the “feed forward” SPC. The models transform constraints on the melt and glass properties into constraints on the feed composition going to the melter in order to determine, at the 95% confidence level, that the feed will be processable and that the durability of the resulting waste form will be acceptable to a geologic repository. The DWPF SPC system is known as the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). One of the process models within PCCS is known as the Thermodynamic Hydration Energy Reaction MOdel (THERMO™). The DWPF will soon be receiving increased concentrations of TiO2-, Na2O-, and Cs2O-enriched wastes from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The SWPF has been built to pretreat the high-curie fraction of the salt waste to be removed from the HLW tanks in the F- and H-Area Tank Farms at the SRS. In order to validate the existing TiO2 term in THERMO™ beyond 2.0 wt% in the DWPF, new durability data were developed over the target range of 2.00 to 6.00 wt% TiO2 and evaluated against the 1995 durability model. The durability was measured by the 7-day Product Consistency Test. This study documents the adequacy of the existing THERMO™ terms. It is recommended that the modified THERMO™ durability models and

  3. Statistical Review of Data from DWPF's Process Samples for Batches 19 Through 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.B.

    1999-04-06

    The measurements derived from samples taken during the processing of batches 19 through 30 at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) affords an opportunity for review and comparisons. This report has looked at some of the statistics from these data. Only the data reported by the DWPF lab (that is, the data provided by the lab as representative of the samples taken) are available for this analysis. In some cases, the sample results reported may be a subset of the sample results generated by the analytical procedures. A thorough assessment of the DWPF lab's analytical procedures would require the complete set of data. Thus, the statistics reported here, specifically, as they relate to analytical uncertainties, are limited to the reported data for these samples, A fell for the consistency of the incoming slurry is the estimation of the components of variation for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipts. In general, for all of the vessels, the data from batches after 21 show smaller batch-to-batch variation than the data from all the batches. The relative contributions of batch-to-batch versus residual, which includes analytical, are presented in these analyses.

  4. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    retention of mercury in the slurry. Both recovery of mercury in the offgas system and removal (segregation + recovery) from the slurry correlate with slurry consistency. Higher slurry consistency results in better retention of Hg in the slurry (less segregation) and better recovery in the offgas system, but the relationships of recovery and retention with consistency are sludge dependent. Some correlation with slurry yield stress and acid stoichiometry was also found. Better retention of mercury in the slurry results in better recovery in the offgas system because the mercury in the slurry is stripped more easily than the segregated mercury at the bottom of the vessel. Although better retention gives better recovery, the time to reach a particular slurry mercury content (wt%) is longer than if the retention is poorer because the segregation is faster. The segregation of mercury is generally a faster process than stripping. The stripping factor (mass of water evaporated per mass of mercury stripped) of mercury at the start of boiling were found to be less than 1000 compared to the assumed design basis value of 750 (the theoretical factor is 250). However, within two hours, this value increased to at least 2000 lb water per lb Hg. For runs with higher mercury recovery in the offgas system, the stripping factor remained around 2000, but runs with low recovery had stripping factors of 4000 to 40,000. DWPF data shows similar trends with the stripping factor value increasing during boiling. These high values correspond to high segregation and low retention of mercury in the sludge. The stripping factor for a pure Hg metal bead in water was found to be about 10,000 lb/lb. About 10-36% of the total Hg evaporated in a SRAT cycle was refluxed back to the SRAT during formic acid addition and boiling. Mercury is dissolved as a result of nitric acid formation from absorption of NO{sub x}. The actual solubility of dissolved mercury in the acidic condensate is about 100 times higher than

  5. Evaluation of HWVP feed preparation chemistry for an NCAW simulant -- Fiscal year 1993: Effect of noble metals concentration on offgas generation and ammonia formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patello, G.K.; Wiemers, K.D.; Bell, R.D.; Smith, H.D.; Williford, R.E.; Clemmer, R.G.

    1995-03-01

    The High-Level Waste Vitrification Program is developing technology for the Department of Energy to immobilize high-level and transuranic wastes as glass for permanent disposal. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting laboratory-scale melter feed preparation studies using a HWVP simulated waste slurry, Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW). A FY 1993 laboratory-scale study focused on the effects of noble metals (Pd, Rh, and Ru) on feed preparation offgas generation and NH{sub 3} production. The noble metals catalyze H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} production, which leads to safety concerns. The information gained from this study is intended to be used for technology development in pilot scale testing and design of the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility. Six laboratory-scale feed preparation tests were performed as part of the FY 1993 testing activities using nonradioactive NCAW simulant. Tests were performed with 10%, 25%, 50% of nominal noble metals content. Also tested were 25% of the nominal Rh and a repeat of 25% nominal noble metals. The results of the test activities are described. 6 refs., 28 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING ARP PRODUCT SIMULANT AND SB4 TANK 40 SLUDGE SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D; John Pareizs, J; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Stone, M; Damon Click, D; Erich Hansen, E; Kim Crapse, K; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-14

    in this experiment, no vitrification of the SME product was completed. The results from this experiment were compared to the results from experiment SC-1, a similar experiment with SB4 sludge without added ARP product. This report documents: (1) The preparation and subsequent composition of the ARP product. (2) The preparation and subsequent compositional characterization of the SRAT Receipt sample. Additional details will be presented concerning the noble metal concentration of the ARP product and the SRAT receipt sample. Also, calculations related to the amount of formic and nitric acid added during SRAT processing will be presented as excess formic acid will lead to additional hydrogen generation. (3) Highlights from processing during the SRAT cycle and SME cycle (CPC processing). Hydrogen generation will be discussed since this was the prime objective for this experiment. (4) A comparison of CPC processing between SC-1 (without ARP simulant) and SC-5. This work was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP)6, and analyses were guided by an Analytical Sample Support Matrix (ASSM)7. This Research and Development (R&D) was completed to support operation of DWPF.

  7. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION KT07-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2011-01-12

    This report is the third in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility is also considered in the study. The KT07-series glasses were selected to evaluate any potential impacts of noble metals on their properties and performance. The glasses characterized thus far for the SCIX study have not included noble metals since they are not typically tracked in sludge batch composition projections. However, noble metals can act as nucleation sites in glass melts, leading to enhanced crystallization. This crystallization can potentially influence the properties and performance of the glass, such as chemical durability, viscosity, and liquidus temperature. The noble metals Ag, Pd, Rh, and Ru were added to the KT07-series glasses in concentrations based on recent measurements of Sludge Batch 6, which was considered to contain a high concentration of noble metals. The KT04-series glasses were used as the baseline compositions. After fabrication, the glasses were characterized to determine their homogeneity, chemical composition, durability, and viscosity. Liquidus temperature measurements are also underway but were not complete at the time of this report. The liquidus temperature results for the KT07-series glasses, along with several of the earlier glasses in the SCIX study, will be documented separately. All of the KT07-series glasses, both quenched and slowly cooled, were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction. Chemical composition measurements showed that all of the glasses met their targeted compositions. The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results showed that all of the glasses had chemical durabilities that were far better than that of the Environmental Assessment benchmark glass

  8. Water soluble decontamination coating for Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, C.L.

    1986-12-17

    Water soluble sodium borate glass coating was successfully codeveloped by Clemson University (Dr. H.G. Lefort) and Du Pont as an alternative decontamination process to frit slurry blasting of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters. Slurry blasting requires transport of abrasive slurries, might cause galling by entrapped frit particles, and could result in frit slurry freezeup in pumps and retention basins. Contamination can be removed from precoated canisters with a gentle hot water rinse. Glass waste spilled on a coated canister will spall off spontaneously during canister cooling. A glass coating appears to prevent transfer of contamination to the Canister Decontamination Cell (CDC) guides and cradle. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  9. Tank 42 sludge-only process development for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.P.

    2000-03-22

    Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the development of a sludge-only process for Tank 42 sludge since at the current processing rate, the Tank 51 sludge has been projected to be depleted as early as August 1998. Testing was completed using a non-radioactive Tank 42 sludge simulant. The testing was completed under a range of operating conditions, including worst case conditions, to develop the processing conditions for radioactive Tank 42 sludge. The existing Tank 51 sludge-only process is adequate with the exception that 10 percent additional acid is recommended during sludge receipt and adjustment tank (SRAT) processing to ensure adequate destruction of nitrite during the SRAT cycle.

  10. Determination Of Reportable Radionuclides For DWPF Sludge Batch 7B (Macrobatch 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L.; Diprete, D. P.

    2012-12-17

    The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. Twenty-seven radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB7b. Each of these radionuclides has a half-life greater than ten years and contributes more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis at some point from production through the 1100 year period between 2015 and 3115. For SB7b, all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time during the 1100- year period between 2015 and 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. The radionuclide measurements made for SB7b are the most extensive conducted to date. Some method development/refinement occurred during the conduct of these measurements, leading to lower detection limits and more accurate measurement of some isotopes than was previously possible.

  11. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6 QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Pickenheim, B.; Bannochie, C.; Billings, A.; Bibler, N.; Click, D.

    2010-10-01

    Prior to initiating a new sludge batch in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is required to simulate this processing, including Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation, waste glass fabrication, and chemical durability testing. This report documents this simulation for the next sludge batch, Sludge Batch 6 (SB6). SB6 consists of Tank 12 material that has been transferred to Tank 51 and subjected to Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD), Tank 4 sludge, and H-Canyon Pu solutions. Following LTAD and the Tank 4 addition, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided SRNL a 3 L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB6 qualification. Pu solution from H Canyon was also received. SB6 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of Pu from H Canyon), DWPF CPC simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass characterization and chemical durability evaluation. The following are significant observations from this demonstration. Sludge settling improved slightly as the sludge was washed. SRNL recommended (and the Tank Farm implemented) one less wash based on evaluations of Tank 40 heel projections and projections of the glass composition following transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40. Thorium was detected in significant quantities (>0.1 wt % of total solids) in the sludge. In past sludge batches, thorium has been determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS), seen in small quantities, and reported with the radionuclides. As a result of the high thorium, SRNL-AD has added thorium to their suite of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) elements. The acid stoichiometry for the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing of 115%, or 1.3 mol acid per liter of SRAT receipt slurry, was adequate to accomplish some of the goals of SRAT processing: nitrite was destroyed to below 1,000 mg/kg and mercury was removed to

  12. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  13. Impact of water fluoride concentration on the fluoride content of infant foods and drinks requiring preparation with liquids before feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohoori, Fatemeh V; Moynihan, Paula J; Omid, Narges; Abuhaloob, Lamis; Maguire, Anne

    2012-10-01

    To measure the fluoride (F) content of infant foods and drinks requiring reconstitution with liquids prior to consumption and to determine the impact of water F concentration on their F content, as consumed, by measuring F content before and after preparation. In total, 58 infant powdered formula milks, dry foods and concentrated drinks were prepared with deionized water (pasta and rice', 'breakfast cereals', 'savoury meals' and 'powdered infant formula milks' were 0.38, 0.26, 0.18, 0.16 and 0.15 μg/g, respectively. The corresponding mean F concentrations were 0.97, 1.21, 0.86, 0.74 and 0.91 μg/g, respectively, when the same samples were prepared with fluoridated water. Although some nonreconstituted infant foods/drinks showed a high F concentration in their dry or concentrated forms, the concentration of F in prepared foods/drinks primarily reflected the F concentration of liquid used for their preparation. Some infant foods/drinks, when reconstituted with fluoridated water, may result in a F intake in infants above the suggested optimum range (0.05-0.07 mg F/kg body weight) and therefore may put infants at risk of developing dental fluorosis. Further research is necessary to determine the actual F intake of infants living in fluoridated and nonfluoridated communities using reconstituted infant foods and drinks. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Analysis Of The Sludge Batch 7b (Macrobatch 9) DWPF Pour Stream Glass Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C.; Crawford, C. L.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-11-18

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9), in January 2012. SB7b is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and the SB7b material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7b was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Form Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Two pour stream glass samples were collected while processing SB7b. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where one was analyzed and the other was archived. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: The sum of oxides for the official SB7b pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%); The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7b is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7b pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7b Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample; As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the SB7b pour stream sample; The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7b pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.8 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass; The measured density of the SB7b pour stream glass was 2.70 g/cm{sup 3}; The Fe{sup 2+}/ΣFe ratio of the SB7b pour stream samples was 0.07.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER AND STEAM ATOMIZED SCRUBBER DEPOSIT SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N

    2007-06-06

    This report summarizes the results from the characterization of deposits from the inlets of the primary off-gas Quencher and Steam Atomized Scrubber (SAS) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), as requested by a technical assistance request. DWPF requested elemental analysis and compound identification to help determine the potential causes for the substance formation. This information will be fed into Savannah River National Laboratory modeling programs to determine if there is a way to decrease the formation of the deposits. The general approach to the characterization of these samples included x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) The deposits are not high level waste glass from the DWPF melt pool based on comparison of the compositions of deposits to the composition of a sample of glass taken from the pour stream of the melter during processing of Sludge Batch 3. (2) Chemical composition results suggest that the deposits are probably a combination of sludge and frit particles entrained in the off-gas. (3) Gamma emitters, such as Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-154, Am-241, and Am-243 were detected in both the Quencher and SAS samples with Cs-137 having the highest concentration of the gamma emitters. (4) No evidence existed for accumulation of fissile material (U-233, U-235, and Pu-239) relative to Fe in either deposit. (5) XRD results indicated both samples were primarily amorphorous and contained some crystals of the iron oxides, hematite and magnetite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4})), along with sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}). The other main crystalline compound in the SAS deposit was mercurous chloride. The main crystalline compound in the Quencher deposit was a uranium oxide compound. These are all sludge components. (6) SEM analysis of the Quencher deposit revealed crystalline uranium compounds within the sample

  16. Effect of feeding CLA on plasma and granules fatty acid composition of eggs and prepared mayonnaise quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Proctor, Andrew; Gilley, Alex D; Cho, Sungeun; Martin, Elizabeth; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2016-04-15

    Eggs rich in trans, trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are significantly more viscous, have more phospholipids containing linoleic acid (LA), and more saturated triacylglycerol species than control eggs. However, the fatty acid (FA) composition of yolk plasma and granule fractions are unreported. Furthermore, there are no reports of mayonnaise rheological properties or emulsion stability by using CLA-rich eggs. Therefore, the objectives were (1) compare the FA composition of CLA-rich yolk granules and plasma, relative to standard control and LA-rich control yolks, (2) compare the rheological properties of mayonnaise prepared with CLA-rich eggs to control eggs and (3) compare the emulsion stability of CLA-yolk mayonnaise. CLA-rich eggs and soy control eggs were produced by adding 10% CLA-rich soy oil or 10% of control unmodified soy oil to the hen's diet. The eggs were used in subsequent mayonnaise preparation. CLA-yolk mayonnaise was more viscous, had greater storage modulus, resisted thinning, and was a more stable emulsion, relative to mayonnaise prepared with control yolks or soy control yolks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. DWPF nitric-glycolic flowsheet chemical process cell chemistry. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    The conversions of nitrite to nitrate, the destruction of glycolate, and the conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate were modeled for the Nitric-Glycolic flowsheet using data from Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulant runs conducted by SRNL from 2011 to 2015. The goal of this work was to develop empirical correlations for these variables versus measureable variables from the chemical process so that these quantities could be predicted a-priori from the sludge composition and measurable processing variables. The need for these predictions arises from the need to predict the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of the glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. This report summarizes the initial work on these correlations based on the aforementioned data. Further refinement of the models as additional data is collected is recommended.

  18. Phase II of a Six sigma Initiative to Study DWPF SME Analytical Turnaround Times: SRNL's Evaluation of Carbonate-Based Dissolution Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) and the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are participating in a Six Sigma initiative to improve the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory. The Six Sigma initiative has focused on reducing the analytical turnaround time of samples from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) by developing streamlined sampling and analytical methods [1]. The objective of Phase I was to evaluate the sub-sampling of a larger sample bottle and the performance of a cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) digestion method. Successful implementation of the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} fusion method in the DWPF would have important time savings and convenience benefits because this single digestion would replace the dual digestion scheme now used. A single digestion scheme would result in more efficient operations in both the DWPF shielded cells and the inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) laboratory. By taking a small aliquot of SME slurry from a large sample bottle and dissolving the vitrified SME sample with carbonate fusion methods, an analytical turnaround time reduction from 27 hours to 9 hours could be realized in the DWPF. This analytical scheme has the potential for not only dramatically reducing turnaround times, but also streamlining operations to minimize wear and tear on critical shielded cell components that are prone to fail, including the Hydragard{trademark} sampling valves and manipulators. Favorable results from the Phase I tests [2] led to the recommendation for a Phase II effort as outlined in the DWPF Technical Task Request (TTR) [3]. There were three major tasks outlined in the TTR, and SRNL issued a Task Technical and QA Plan [4] with a corresponding set of three major task activities: (1) Compare weight percent (wt%) total solids measurements of large volume samples versus peanut vial samples. (2) Evaluate Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3

  19. 1/6TH SCALE STRIP EFFLUENT FEED TANK-MIXING RESULTS USING MCU SOLVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this task was to determine if mixing was an issue for the entrainment and dispersion of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) solvent in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT). The MCU strip effluent stream containing the Cs removed during salt processing will be transferred to the DWPF for immobilization in HLW glass. In lab-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing, mixing of the solvent in the dilute nitric acid solution proved problematic, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to perform scaled SEFT mixing tests to evaluate whether the problem was symptomatic of the lab-scale set-up or of the solvent. The solvent levels tested were 228 and 235 ppm, which represented levels near the estimated DWPF solvent limit of 239 ppm in 0.001M HNO{sub 3} solution. The 239 ppm limit was calculated by Norato in X-CLC-S-00141. The general approach for the mixing investigation was to: (1) Investigate the use of fluorescent dyes to aid in observing the mixing behavior. Evaluate and compare the physical properties of the fluorescent dyed MCU solvents to the baseline Oak Ridge CSSX solvent. Based on the data, use the dyed MCU solvent that best approximates the physical properties. (2) Use approximately a 1/6th linear scale of the SEFT to replicate the internal configuration for DWPF mixing. (3) Determine agitator speed(s) for scaled testing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (4) Perform mixing tests using the 1/6th SEFT and determine any mixing issues (entrainment/dispersion, accumulation, adhesion) through visual observations and by pulling samples to assess uniformity. The mixing tests used MCU solvent fabricated at SRNL blended with Risk Reactor DFSB-K43 fluorescent dye. This dyed SRNL MCU solvent had equivalent physical properties important to mixing as compared to the Oak Ridge baseline solvent, blended easily with the MCU solvent, and provided an excellent visual aid.

  20. DWPF FLOWSHEET STUDIES WITH SIMULANT TO DETERMINE THE IMPACT OF NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT ON THE CPC PROCESS AND GLASS FORMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.; Hay, M.; Stone, M.

    2011-06-29

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS), a new strip acid, and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) will be deployed. The NGS is comprised of four components: 0.050 M MaxCalix (extractant), 0.50 M Cs-7SB (modifier), 0.003 M guanidine-LIX-79, with the balance ({approx}74 wt%) being Isopar{reg_sign} L. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing with the next generation solvent and mMST was required to determine the impact of these changes in 512-S and Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) operations, as well as Chemical Process Cell (CPC), glass formulation activities, and melter operations. Because of these changes, experimental testing with the next generation solvent and mMST is required to determine the impact of these changes. A Technical Task Request (TTR) was issued to support the assessments of the impact of the next generation solvent and mMST on the downstream DWPF flowsheet unit. The TTR identified five tasks to be investigated: (1) CPC Flowsheet Demonstration for NGS; (2) Solvent Stability for DWPF CPC Conditions; (3) Glass Formulation Studies; (4) Boron Volatility and Melt Rate; and (5) CPC Flowsheet Demonstration for mMST.

  1. Novel use of the wild species Cephalaria joppensis for silage preparation and its nutritive value for feeding lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, J; Weinberg, Z G; Chen, Y; Miron, D; Raviv, Y; Bloch, A; Yosef, E; Nikbahat, M; Zenou, A; Daklo, M; Nashef, K; Kushnir, U

    2012-08-01

    , neutral detergent fiber and cellulose digestibility were slightly higher in the cows fed W-S-TMR and this was reflected in a small increase in their milk and energy-corrected milk yield (36.5 and 31.4 kg/cow per day, respectively) compared with cows fed CJ-S-TMR (35.5 and 30.4 kg/cow per day, respectively). Results demonstrate that direct-cut CJ used as is, or CJ silage can be included and ensiled in TMR bales for feeding productive ruminants as a substitute for wheat silage. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B (MACROBATCH 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L.; Diprete, D. P.

    2014-05-01

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that “The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115”. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu- 242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to

  3. Determination Of Reportable Radionuclides For DWPF Sludge Batch 7B (Macrobatch 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L.; DiPrete, D. P.

    2013-08-22

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that “The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115”. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to

  4. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B (MACROBATCH 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L.; Diprete, D. P.

    2014-05-01

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that “The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115”. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu- 242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to

  5. Inorganic analyses of volatilized and condensed species within prototypic Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canistered waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1992-06-30

    The high-level radioactive waste currently stored in carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The canistered waste will be sent to a geologic repository for final disposal. The Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) require the identification of any inorganic phases that may be present in the canister that may lead to internal corrosion of the canister or that could potentially adversely affect normal canister handling. During vitrification, volatilization of mixed (Na, K, Cs)Cl, (Na, K, Cs){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, (Na, K, Cs)BF{sub 4}, (Na, K){sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} and (Na,K)CrO{sub 4} species from glass melt condensed in the melter off-gas and in the cyclone separator in the canister pour spout vacuum line. A full-scale DWPF prototypic canister filled during Campaign 10 of the SRS Scale Glass Melter was sectioned and examined. Mixed (NaK)CI, (NaK){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, (NaK) borates, and a (Na,K) fluoride phase (either NaF or Na{sub 2}BF{sub 4}) were identified on the interior canister walls, neck, and shoulder above the melt pour surface. Similar deposits were found on the glass melt surface and on glass fracture surfaces. Chromates were not found. Spinel crystals were found associated with the glass pour surface. Reference amounts of the halides and sulfates were found retained in the glass and the glass chemistry, including the distribution of the halides and sulfates, was homogeneous. In all cases where rust was observed, heavy metals (Zn, Ti, Sn) from the cutting blade/fluid were present indicating that the rust was a reaction product of the cutting fluid with glass and heat sensitized canister or with carbon-steel contamination on canister interior. Only minimal water vapor is present so that internal corrosion of the canister, will not occur.

  6. Integration of SWPF into the DWPF Flowsheet: Gap Analysis and Test Matrix Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-12-10

    Based on Revision 19 of the High Level Waste (HLW) System Plan, it is anticipated that the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will be integrated into the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet in October 2018 (or with Sludge Batch 11 (SB11)). Given that, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has requested a technical basis be developed that validates the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for use during the processing of the SWPF-based coupled flowsheet or that leads to the refinements of or modifications to the models that are needed so that the models may be used during the processing of the SWPF-based coupled flowsheet. To support this objective, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has completed three key interim activities prior to validation of the current or development of refined PCCS models over the anticipated glass composition region for SWPF processing. These three key activities include: (1) defining the glass compositional region over which SWPF is anticipated to be processed, (2) comparing the current PCCS model validation ranges to the SWPF glass compositional region from which compositional gaps can be identified, and (3) developing a test matrix to cover the compositional gaps.

  7. 从副产锌泥制备饲料级氧化锌%Preparation of feed grade zinc oxide from byproduct zinc oxide mud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田伟军

    2011-01-01

    Technology process for preparation of feed grade zinc oxide with by-product zinc oxide mud from formaldehyde sulphoxylate production was studied. Process includes pulping, purifying, filtering, washing, drying, and calcining. Influences of purifying conditions, calcining temperature, and time on product quality were emphatically investigated. Results showed the best process conditions were as follows:adopting deionized water to make pulp, using H2O2 solution with mass fraction of 27.5 % to remove tiny formaldehyde sulphoxylate, employing zinc powder to replace heavy metals, then taking sodium sulfide as precipitator to eliminate the remained trace heavy metals ,and controlling the calcining temperature at 900 ℃ and calcining time for 4 h. Under those conditions the purity of the obtained feed grade zinc oxide reached 99.5% and its quality has met the first grade requirement in Standard of HG/T 2792-1996.%研究了以次硫酸氢钠甲醛副产锌泥为原料,经化浆、净化、过滤、洗涤、干燥、煅烧制备饲料级氧化锌的工艺过程,重点考察了制备工艺中除杂条件以及煅烧温度和煅烧时间对产品质量的影响.结果表明:采用去离子水化浆,采用质量分数为27.5%的过氧化氢水溶液氧化除去少量次硫酸氢钠甲醛,以锌粉置换出重金属,再用硫化钠作沉降剂除去剩余的微量的重金属,控制煅烧温度为900℃、煅烧时间为4 h,可制备出纯度达到99.5%的饲料级氧化锌产品.经检测,制备的氧化锌符合HG/T 2792-1996一等品标准.

  8. Efficacy of in-feed preparations of an anticoccidial, multienzyme, prebiotic, probiotic, and herbal essential oil mixture in healthy and Eimeria spp.-infected broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, M; Aysul, N; Küçükyilmaz, K; Aypak, S; Ege, G; Catli, A U; Aksit, H; Cöven, F; Seyrek, K; Cinar, M

    2014-02-01

    The efficacies of 5 widely used dietary supplements were investigated on performance indices, fecal oocyst excretion, lesion score, and intestinal tract measurements in healthy and Eimeria spp.-infected birds by using a comparative model. This study included 2,400 sexed Ross 308 broiler chicks that were equally divided in 2 groups: the infected group, experimentally infected with oocysts of mixed Eimeria spp. at 14 d of age, and the healthy controls. The birds in both groups were further divided equally into 6 groups, of which one was fed a basal diet and served as control without treatment and the other 5 served as experimental treatments. These 5 groups were fed 5 diets containing preparations of 60 mg/kg of anticoccidial salinomycin (SAL), 1 g/kg of multienzyme (ENZ), 1 g/kg of probiotic (PRO), 1 g/kg of prebiotic (PRE), and 40 mg/kg of an herbal essential oil mixture (EOM). Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) showed significant improvement in the infected animals, which indicates that dietary supplemental regimens with SAL, ENZ, PRO, and PRE initiated in 1-d-old chicks reduced adverse effects after challenge with coccidiosis; however, chicks that were administered EOM failed to show such improvement. Uninfected chickens showed significant improvement in FCR with supplements SAL, PRE, and EOM, which signifies significant (P small intestines, whereas supplementation with SAL or EOM alone was effective (P excretion compared with the control treatment. The data indicated that use of these subtherapeutically efficacious supplements (except EOM) in broiler production can lessen the depression in growth due to coccidial challenge.

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS WITH TANK 40 AND H CANYON NEPTUNIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Stone, M

    2009-04-28

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) from Tank 40. SB5 contains the contents of Tank 51 from November 2008, qualified by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the heel in Tank 40 remaining from Sludge Batch 4. Current Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) plans are to (1) decant supernatant from Tank 40 to remove excess liquid caused by a leaking slurry pump and (2) receive a Np stream from H Canyon It should be noted that the Np stream contains significant nitrate requiring addition of nitrite to Tank 40 to maintain a high nitrite to nitrate ratio for corrosion control. SRNL has been requested to qualify the proposed changes; determine the impact on DWPF processability in terms of hydrogen generation, rheology, etc.; evaluate antifoam addition strategy; and evaluate mercury stripping. Therefore, SRNL received a 3 L sample of Tank 40 following the transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40 (Tank Farm Sample HTF-40-08-157 to be used in testing and to perform the required Waste Acceptance Product Specifications radionuclide analyses). Based on Tank Farm projections, SRNL decanted a portion* of the sample, added sodium nitrite, and added a Np solution from H Canyon representative of the Np to be dispositioned to Tank 40 (neutralized to 0.6 M excess hydroxide). The resulting material was used in a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) demonstration -- a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle. Preliminary data from the demonstration has been reported previously. This report includes discussion of these results and additional results, including comparisons to Tank Farm projections and the SB5 demonstration.

  10. Miscibility Evaluation Of The Next Generation Solvent With Polymers Currently Used At DWPF, MCU, And Saltstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F.

    2013-04-17

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, funded the development of an enhanced Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. This effort lead to the development of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) with Tris (3,7-dimethyl octyl) guanidine (TiDG). The first deployment target for the NGS solvent is within the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the new chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the affected facility. This report provides the calculated data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers known to be used or present in the MCU, Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Saltstone facilities that will be exposed to the NGS showed that TiDG could selectively affect the elastomers and some thermoplastics to varying extents, but the typical use of these polymers in a confined geometry will likely prevent the NGS from impacting component performance. The polymers identified as of primary concern include Grafoil® (flexible graphite), Tefzel®, Isolast®, ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) rubber, nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and fluorocarbon rubber (FKM). Certain polymers like NBR and EPDM were found to interact mildly with NGS but their calculated swelling and the confined geometry will impede interaction with NGS. In addition, it was found that Vellumoid (cellulose fibers-reinforced glycerin and protein) may leach protein and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) may leach plasticizer (such as Bis-Ethylhexyl-Phthalates) into the NGS solvent. Either case

  11. THE IMPACT OF THE MCU LIFE EXTENSION SOLVENT ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION EFFORTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D; Edwards, T

    2011-03-24

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NG-CSSX), a new strip acid, and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing with the next generation solvent and mMST is required to determine the impact of these changes in 512-S operations as well as Chemical Process Cell (CPC), Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass formulation activities, and melter operations at DWPF. To support programmatic objectives, the downstream impacts of the boric acid strip effluent (SE) to the glass formulation activities and melter operations are considered in this study. More specifically, the impacts of boric acid additions to the projected SB7b operating windows, potential impacts to frit production temperatures, and the potential impact of boron volatility are evaluated. Although various boric acid molarities have been reported and discussed, the baseline flowsheet used to support this assessment was 0.01M boric acid. The results of the paper study assessment indicate that Frit 418 and Frit 418-7D are robust to the implementation of the 0.01M boric acid SE into the SB7b flowsheet (sludge-only or ARP-added). More specifically, the projected operating windows for the nominal SB7b projections remain essentially constant (i.e., 25-43 or 25-44% waste loading (WL)) regardless of the flowsheet options (sludge-only, ARP added, and/or the presence of the new SE). These results indicate that even if SE is not transferred to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), there would be no need to add boric acid (from a trim tank) to compositionally compensate for the absence of the boric acid SE in either a sludge-only or ARP-added SB7b flowsheet. With respect to boron volatility, the Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessments also

  12. CATALYTIC INTERACTIONS OF RHODIUM, RUTHENIUM, AND MERCURY DURING SIMULATED DWPF CPC PROCESSING WITH HYDROGEN GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D

    2008-10-09

    Simulations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) vessels were performed as part of the ongoing investigation into catalytic hydrogen generation. Rhodium, ruthenium, and mercury have been identified as the principal elemental factors affecting the peak hydrogen generation rate in the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) for a given acid addition. The primary goal of this study is to identify any significant interactions between the three factors. Noble metal concentrations were similar to recent sludge batches. Rh ranged from 0.0026-0.013% and Ru ranged from 0.010-0.050% in the dried sludge solids, while initial Hg ranged from 0.5-2.5 wt%. An experimental matrix was developed to ensure that the existence of statistically significant two-way interactions could be determined without confounding of the main effects with the two-way interaction effects. The nominal matrix design consisted of twelve SRAT cycles. Testing included: a three factor (Rh, Ru, and Hg) study at two levels per factor (eight runs), two duplicate midpoint runs, and two additional replicate runs to assess reproducibility away from the midpoint. Midpoint testing can identify potential quadratic effects from the three factors. A single sludge simulant was used for all tests. Acid addition was kept effectively constant except to compensate for variations in the starting mercury concentration. Six Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed to supplement the SME hydrogen generation database. Some of the preliminary findings from this study include: (1) Rh was linked to the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate in the first two hours after acid addition in preliminary statistical modeling. (2) Ru was linked conclusively to the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate in the last four hours of reflux in preliminary statistical modeling. (3) Increasing the ratio of Hg/Rh shifted the noble metal controlling the maximum SRAT hydrogen generation rate from

  13. DWPF saltstone study: Effects of thermal history on leach index and physical integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orebaugh, E.G.

    1992-11-18

    This report summarizes the observations made during the curing and testing of DWPF simulated saltstones which have been cured under isothermal conditions in sealed glass envelopes at temperatures from room temperature to 95[degrees]C. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of curing at and around temperatures representing conditions created within large pours of grout. There appears to be no difference in the leaching resistance of samples cured at the same temperature for varying times to 1 year. Curing at higher temperatures decreases the effective diffusivity of this waste formulation. These results are encouraging in that leaching resistance for samples near the expected maximum vault temperature (55[degrees]C) show effective diffusion coefficients (D[sub effective] [approximately]10[sup [minus]8] cm[sup 2]/sec) that agree with previous work and values that are believed to adequately protect the groundwater. The isothermal conditions of these tests simulate the nearly adiabatic conditions existing near the centerline of the monolith. The elevated temperatures due to hydration heat decrease over long times. This has been simulated by a series (1X) of staged isothermal cures. Since modeling indicated it would take nearly two years for emplaced grout to cool to near ambient temperatures, accelerated (2X) cooling curves were also tested. Specimens cured under these staged-isothermal conditions appear to be no different from specimens cured under isothermal conditions for the same time at the maximum temperature. The unexpected generation of nitrous oxide within saltstone creates internal stresses which cause fracturing when exposed to leaching conditions. Such fracturing is not considered significant for saltstone emplaced in engineered vaults for disposal.

  14. DWPF Flowsheet Studies with Simulants to Determine Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit Solvent Partitioning and Verify Actinide Removal Process Incorporation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C

    2006-04-21

    The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) facility and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) are scheduled to begin processing salt waste in fiscal year 2007. A portion of the streams generated in the salt processing facilities will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to be incorporated in the glass matrix. Before the streams are introduced, a combination of impact analyses and research and development studies must be performed to quantify the impacts on DWPF processing. The Process Science & Engineering (PS&E) section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 to evaluate the impacts on DWPF processing. Simulant Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet studies have been performed using previous composition and projected volume estimates for the ARP sludge/monosodium titanate (MST) stream. Due to changes in the flammability control strategy for DWPF for salt processing, the incorporation strategy for ARP has changed and additional ARP flowsheet tests were necessary to validate the new processing strategy. The last round of ARP testing included the incorporation of the MCU stream and identified potential processing issues with the MCU solvent. The identified issues included the potential carry-over and accumulation of the MCU solvent components in the CPC condensers and in the recycle stream to the Tank Farm. Therefore, DWPF requested SRNL to perform additional MCU flowsheet studies to better quantify the organic distribution in the CPC vessels. The previous MCU testing used a Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) simulant since it was anticipated that both of these facilities would begin salt processing during SB4 processing. The same sludge simulant recipe was used in this round of ARP and MCU testing to minimize the number of changes between the two phases of testing so a better comparison could be made. ARP and MCU stream simulants were made for this phase of testing

  15. On the role of the mouth and gut in the control of saccharin and sugar intake: a reexamination of the sham-feeding preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-06-01

    Adult female rats, each fitted with a gastric fistula, were tested for their "normal-feeding" (fistula closed) and "sham-feeding" (fistula open) response to saccharin and sugar solutions under a variety of conditions. When hungry, rats consumed no more of a 0.2% saccharin solution with their fistula open than they did with their fistula closed. Increasing or decreasing the saccharin concentration did not increase the amount of solution sham fed, but adding a small amount of glucose (3%) to the saccharin solution did increase the amount sham fed. Thirsty rats, unlike hungry, significantly increased their 0.2% saccharin solution intake when tested with an open fistula. When tested with a 32% glucose solution, hungry rats consumed up to six times more solution with their fistula open than with their fistula closed. The hungry rats also sham fed significantly more of the 32% glucose solution than of the 0.2% saccharin solution or 0.2% saccharin + 3% glucose solution. Sham-feeding of a 32% sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels, but blocking this effect by adding acarbose, a drug that inhibits sucrose digestion, did not reduce the amount of solution sham fed. Several possible explanations for the differential sham-feeding response to saccharin and sugar solutions are discussed.

  16. The influence of supplement feed preparation on the fatty acid composition of carp and Chironomidae larvae in a semi-intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine how extruded and pelleted feed affects the fatty acid composition of carp meat and Chironomidae larvae, two-month-old carp specimens were set in two fishponds (L1 and L2. The fatty acid composition of extruded and pelleted feed is characterized by a significantly higher content of ω-3 fatty acids and higher ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acids ratio (ω-3/ω-6 in extruded (11.34±0.12% and 0.315±0.005, respectively compared to pelleted feed (7.72±0.08%, 0.180±0.001, respectively. The fatty acid composition of carp meat is characterized by higher ω-3 fatty acid content and ω-3/ω-6 in carp fed with extruded feed (L1, 6.98±0.53% and 0.295±0.022, respectively compared to carp fed with extruded feed (L2, 5.46±0.07% and 0.232±0.009, respectively. Chironomidae larvae from the fishpond L2 had significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid content (8.22±0.89%, and therefore higher ω-3/ω-6 (0.81±0.09 in comparison to Chironomidae from the L1 fishpond where these parameters were 4.48±0.06% and 0.21±0.01, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31075 i br. 173040

  17. Detection of aristolochic acids I and II in "Chiniy-trèf", a traditional medicinal preparation containing caterpillars feeding on Aristolochia trilobata L. in Martinique, French West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachet, Xavier; Langrand, Jerome; Bottai, Cecile; Dufat, Hanh; Locatelli-Jouans, Corinne; Nossin, Emmanuel; Boucaud-Maitre, Denis

    2016-05-01

    "Chiniy-trèf" is a traditional medicinal preparation used in Martinique, French West Indies, for the prevention of all kinds of attempted poisoning and hex. It is produced by the maceration in alcohol (mostly rum) of larvae (caterpillars) of the butterfly Battus polydamas ssp. cebriones, feeding on the leaves of Aristolochia trilobata. Aristolochic acids I and II that are well-known nephrotoxic and carcinogenic substances were identified on two samples of "chiniy-trèfl" by chromatographic methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING POST ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION TANK 51 SLUDGE SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Erich Hansen, E; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M

    2008-04-28

    The remaining contents of Tank 51 from Sludge Batch 4 will be blended with Purex sludge from Tank 7 to constitute Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) has completed caustic addition to Tank 51 to perform low temperature Al dissolution on the H-Modified (HM) sludge material to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and Al being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) has also completed aluminum dissolution tests using a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry through funding by DOE EM-21. This report documents assessment of downstream impacts of the aluminum dissolved sludge, which were investigated so technical issues could be identified before the start of SB5 processing. This assessment included washing the aluminum dissolved sludge to a Tank Farm projected sodium concentration and weight percent insoluble solids content and DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing using the washed sludge. Based on the limited testing, the impact of aluminum dissolution on sludge settling is not clear. Settling was not predictable for the 3-L sample. Compared to the post aluminum dissolution sample, settling after the first wash was slower, but settling after the second wash was faster. For example, post aluminum dissolution sludge took six days to settle to 60% of the original sludge slurry height, while Wash 1 took nearly eight days, and Wash 2 only took two days. Aluminum dissolution did impact sludge rheology. A comparison between the as-received, post aluminum dissolution and washed samples indicate that the downstream materials were more viscous and the concentration of insoluble solids less than that of the starting material. This increase in viscosity may impact Tank 51 transfers to Tank 40. The impact of aluminum dissolution on DWPF CPC processing cannot be determined because acid addition for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle was under-calculated and thus

  19. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT01, KT02, KT03, AND KT04-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-01

    Four series of glass compositions were selected, fabricated, and characterized as part of a study to determine the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. The KT01 and KT02-series of glasses were chosen to allow for the identification of the influence of the concentrations of major components of the glass on the retention of TiO{sub 2}. The KT03 series of glasses was chosen to allow for the identification of these influences when higher Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ZrO{sub 2} concentrations are included along with TiO2. The KT04 series of glasses was chosen to investigate the properties and performance of glasses based on the best available projections of actual compositions to be processed at the DWPF (i.e., future sludge batches including the SCIX streams).

  20. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT01, KT02, KT03, AND KT04-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-01

    Four series of glass compositions were selected, fabricated, and characterized as part of a study to determine the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. The KT01 and KT02-series of glasses were chosen to allow for the identification of the influence of the concentrations of major components of the glass on the retention of TiO{sub 2}. The KT03 series of glasses was chosen to allow for the identification of these influences when higher Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ZrO{sub 2} concentrations are included along with TiO2. The KT04 series of glasses was chosen to investigate the properties and performance of glasses based on the best available projections of actual compositions to be processed at the DWPF (i.e., future sludge batches including the SCIX streams).

  1. 利用马铃薯淀粉生产的废水及废渣发酵制备蛋白饲料%The Preparation of Fermented Protein Feed from Waste Water and Wastes of Potate Starch Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辉; 李虹; 冯雷; 张露; 宋国勇

    2011-01-01

    Microorganism fermentation method was used to produce high value-added protein feed from waste-water and wastes of potato starch production. This can lower COD content in waste-water and comprehensive utilized the potato starch processing wastes. A yeast strain was screened in our laboratory, and the optimum preparation conditions of protein feed was determined as: 20% wastes in waste-water(W/V) , natural pH, 28℃, inoculation amount 10% , cultivation time 72 h. In the optimum condition, protein content of the protein feed production was 37.40% and waste-water COD decreased 72.29%.%以马铃薯淀粉生产的废水及废渣为原料,采用微生物发酵的方法,制备高附加值的蛋白饲料,同时降低废水的COD值,达到综合利用的目的。经试验筛选得到1株酵母,并确定了蛋白饲料的制各条件:废水中薯渣添加量20%、pH自然、温度28℃、接种量10%、发酵时间72h。在适宜条件下,制备的蛋白饲料蛋白含量达37.40%,废水COD降低72.29%。

  2. Porosity, mechanical properties, residual stresses of supersonic plasma-sprayed Ni-based alloy coatings prepared at different powder feed rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. C.; Xu, B. S.; Wu, Y. X.; Xuan, F. Z.; Tu, S. T.

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of powder feed rate (PFR) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the supersonic plasma-sprayed Ni-Cr-B-Si-C coatings. The microstructure, porosity and mechanical properties of the coatings and the residual stresses at the coating surfaces were experimentally determined. Results showed that the variations of porosity, elastic moduli and micro-hardness of the coatings followed Weibull distribution. From the statistical trend, the porosity of the coating increased with increasing PFR. However, the elastic modulus and the micro-hardness of the coating decreased and reached local minima and then increased with increasing PFR. Elastic modulus could be generally considered to be an increasing function of micro-hardness. The mean value of the elastic modulus of the coating calculated from Weibull plot was almost proportional to the square root of the mean value of the micro-hardness of the coating. Moreover, with increasing PFR, the residual stress at the coating surface, which was mainly governed by the elastic modulus of the coating, decreased to a local minimum and then increased.

  3. REMOTE IN-CELL SAMPLING IMPROVEMENTS PROGRAM AT THESAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzolf, A

    2007-11-26

    Remote Systems Engineering (RSE) of the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) in combination with the Defense Waste Processing Facility(DWPF) Engineering and Operations has evaluated the existing equipment and processes used in the facility sample cells for 'pulling' samples from the radioactive waste stream and performing equipment in-cell repairs/replacements. RSE has designed and tested equipment for improving remote in-cell sampling evolutions and reducing the time required for in-cell maintenance of existing equipment. The equipment within the present process tank sampling system has been in constant use since the facility start-up over 17 years ago. At present, the method for taking samples within the sample cells produces excessive maintenance and downtime due to frequent failures relative to the sampling station equipment and manipulator. Location and orientation of many sampling stations within the sample cells is not conducive to manipulator operation. The overextension of manipulators required to perform many in-cell operations is a major cause of manipulator failures. To improve sampling operations and reduce downtime due to equipment maintenance, a Portable Sampling Station (PSS), wireless in-cell cameras, and new commercially available sampling technology has been designed, developed and/or adapted and tested. The uniqueness of the design(s), the results of the scoping tests, and the benefits relative to in-cell operation and reduction of waste are presented.

  4. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT08, KT09, AND KT10-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2011-04-26

    This report is the fourth in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is also considered in the study. The KT08-series of glasses was designed to evaluate any impacts of the inclusion of uranium and thorium in glasses containing the SCIX components. The KT09-series of glasses was designed to study the effect of increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K{sub 2}O concentrations on the propensity for crystallization of titanium containing phases in high TiO{sub 2} concentration glasses. Earlier work on the KT05-series glasses recommended that the impact of these two components be studied further. Increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations have been shown to improve the properties and performance of high waste loading glasses, and K{sub 2}O has been reported to improve the retention of TiO{sub 2} in silicate glasses. The KT10-series of compositions was designed to evaluate any impacts of the SCIX components at concentrations 50% higher than currently projected.a The glasses were fabricated in the laboratory and characterized to identify crystallization, to verify chemical compositions, to measure viscosity, and to measure durability. Liquidus temperature measurements for the KT10-series glasses are underway and will be reported separately. All but one of the KT08-series glasses were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD). One of the slowly cooled glasses contained a small amount of trevorite, which had no practical impact on the durability of the glass and is typically found in DWPF-type glasses. The measured Product Consistency Test (PCT) responses for the KT08-series glasses are well predicted by the DWPF models. The viscosities of the KT08-series glasses were generally

  5. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT08, KT09, AND KT10-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2011-04-26

    This report is the fourth in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is also considered in the study. The KT08-series of glasses was designed to evaluate any impacts of the inclusion of uranium and thorium in glasses containing the SCIX components. The KT09-series of glasses was designed to study the effect of increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K{sub 2}O concentrations on the propensity for crystallization of titanium containing phases in high TiO{sub 2} concentration glasses. Earlier work on the KT05-series glasses recommended that the impact of these two components be studied further. Increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations have been shown to improve the properties and performance of high waste loading glasses, and K{sub 2}O has been reported to improve the retention of TiO{sub 2} in silicate glasses. The KT10-series of compositions was designed to evaluate any impacts of the SCIX components at concentrations 50% higher than currently projected.a The glasses were fabricated in the laboratory and characterized to identify crystallization, to verify chemical compositions, to measure viscosity, and to measure durability. Liquidus temperature measurements for the KT10-series glasses are underway and will be reported separately. All but one of the KT08-series glasses were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD). One of the slowly cooled glasses contained a small amount of trevorite, which had no practical impact on the durability of the glass and is typically found in DWPF-type glasses. The measured Product Consistency Test (PCT) responses for the KT08-series glasses are well predicted by the DWPF models. The viscosities of the KT08-series glasses were generally

  6. Effects of feeding a Moringa oleifera rachis and twig preparation to dairy cows on their milk production and fatty acid composition, and plasma antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Si, Bingwen; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhou, Chaolong; Diao, Qiyu

    2017-06-30

    We determined how supplementing the diet of lactating, multiparous Holstein dairy cows with a preparation of Moringa oleifera rachises and twigs affected their milk production and quality and the levels of plasma antioxidants. We found that milk yield increased in cows receiving the 6% (w/w) moringa supplement compared with that of the control. Addition of the moringa supplement increased the concentration of milk fat and decreased the somatic cell count in the milk. However, protein, glucose and total solid and urea nitrogen concentrations in the milk were the same for all treatments. The concentration of glutathione peroxidase increased for cows fed the moringa supplement compared with the control. The percentages of total unsaturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid increased in the milk of cows fed the moringa supplement compared with those of the controls. Addition of the moringa supplement into the diet of lactating multiparous cows improved milk production and health status and modified milk fatty acid profile positively. The results suggested that moringa supplement could be used as a diet supplement for producing high quality and healthier milk. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. DWPF saltstone study: Effects of thermal history on leach index and physical integrity. Part 2, Final report: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orebaugh, E.G.

    1992-11-18

    This report summarizes the observations made during the curing and testing of DWPF simulated saltstones which have been cured under isothermal conditions in sealed glass envelopes at temperatures from room temperature to 95{degrees}C. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of curing at and around temperatures representing conditions created within large pours of grout. There appears to be no difference in the leaching resistance of samples cured at the same temperature for varying times to 1 year. Curing at higher temperatures decreases the effective diffusivity of this waste formulation. These results are encouraging in that leaching resistance for samples near the expected maximum vault temperature (55{degrees}C) show effective diffusion coefficients (D{sub effective} {approximately}10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec) that agree with previous work and values that are believed to adequately protect the groundwater. The isothermal conditions of these tests simulate the nearly adiabatic conditions existing near the centerline of the monolith. The elevated temperatures due to hydration heat decrease over long times. This has been simulated by a series (1X) of staged isothermal cures. Since modeling indicated it would take nearly two years for emplaced grout to cool to near ambient temperatures, accelerated (2X) cooling curves were also tested. Specimens cured under these staged-isothermal conditions appear to be no different from specimens cured under isothermal conditions for the same time at the maximum temperature. The unexpected generation of nitrous oxide within saltstone creates internal stresses which cause fracturing when exposed to leaching conditions. Such fracturing is not considered significant for saltstone emplaced in engineered vaults for disposal.

  8. THE USE OF DI WATER TO MITIGATE DUSTING FOR ADDITION OF DWPF FRIT TO THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.

    2010-07-21

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) presently is in the process to determine means to reduce water utilization in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process, thus reducing effluent and processing times. The frit slurry addition system mixes the dry frit with water, yielding approximately a 50 weight percent slurry containing frit and the other fraction water. This slurry is discharged into the SME and excess water is removed via boiling. To reduce this water load to the SME, DWPF has proposed using a pneumatic system in conveying the frit to the SME, in essence a dry delivery system. The problem associated with utilizing a dry delivery system with the existing frit is the generation of dust when discharged into the SME. The use of water has been shown to be effective in the mining industry as well in the DOE complex to mitigate dusting. The method employed by SRNL to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting in dry powders was effective, between a lab and bench scale tests. In those tests, it was shown that as high as five weight percent (wt%) of water addition was required to mitigate dust from batches of glass forming minerals used by the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford, Washington. The same method used to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting was used in this task to determine the quantity of water to mitigate this dusting using as-received frit. The ability for water to mitigate dusting is due to its adhesive properties as shown in Figure 1-1. Wetting the frit particles allows for the smaller frit particles (including dust) to adhere to the larger frit particles or to agglomerate into large particles. Fluids other than water can also be used, but their adhesive properties are different than water and the quantity required to mitigate dusting is different, as was observed in reference 1. Excessive water, a few weight percentages greater than that required to mitigate dusting can cause the resulting material not to flow. The primary

  9. USE OF FEED YEAST IN FEEDING OF STURGEON (ACIPENSERINAE SPECIES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the use of feed yeast preparations in feeding of sturgeon species (Acipenserinae. Findings. The review of scientific works demonstrated that feed yeast in the feeding of sturgeons have been used as a source of vitamins and complete protein, the nutritional value of which is significantly higher than in the proteins of plant origin and are similar to the proteins of animal origin. In addition, a unit of yeast protein mass is significantly lower than in the feeds of animal origin. Moreover, based on the content of B group vitamins, feed yeast produced from the grain-potato spent wash exceed fish meal and meat-and-bone meal. The article highlights the peculiarities of the technological process of the production of different feed yeast species, amino acid and fatty acid composition of their preparations, basic physical and chemical parameters of their composition. The examples of feed yeast formulas for sturgeon species based on feed yeast preparations are presented. It was shown that sturgeon species, especially on early stages of their ontogenesis, could effectively use the feed yeast nucleotides. Thus, the latters can be an effective substitute of live zooplanktonic organisms. While the production of some feed yeast preparations (paprin, eprin was stopped in 1990s due to a number of social-economic reasons, the works on the creation of their full analogues was continued later. Currently, the trends of the development of world aquaculture anticipates the return to the use of yeast in fish feeding. Therefore, the interest of the agrarians of Ukraine in yeast lately increased and their use in agricultural sector increased by 2-2.5 times. Practical value. The array of the summarized information will be important for scientists who study the peculiarities of feeding of sturgeon species, because the data about the use of yeast as sources of complete protein in fish feeds is important in a constant search for the

  10. Nitric-glycolic flowsheet reduction/oxidation (redox) model for the defense waste processing facility (DWPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Trivelpiece, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ramsey, W. G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-14

    Control of the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of glasses containing high concentrations of transition metals, such as High Level Waste (HLW) glasses, is critical in order to eliminate processing difficulties caused by overly reduced or overly oxidized melts. Operation of a HLW melter at Fe+2/ΣFe ratios of between 0.09 and 0.33, retains radionuclides in the melt and thus the final glass. Specifically, long-lived radioactive 99Tc species are less volatile in the reduced Tc4+ state as TcO2 than as NaTcO4 or Tc2O7, and ruthenium radionuclides in the reduced Ru4+ state are insoluble RuO2 in the melt which are not as volatile as NaRuO4 where the Ru is in the +7 oxidation state. Similarly, hazardous volatile Cr6+ occurs in oxidized melt pools as Na2CrO4 or Na2Cr2O7, while the Cr+3 state is less volatile and remains in the melt as NaCrO2 or precipitates as chrome rich spinels. The melter REDOX control balances the oxidants and reductants from the feed and from processing additives such as antifoam.

  11. Nutritional composition analysis of spent white Hypsizygus marmoreus substrate and technological conditions optimization for fermentation feed preparation%白玉菇菌糠分析及其发酵饲料制备工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗茂春; 柯志君; 邱丰艳; 林标声

    2014-01-01

    研究不同生长阶段白玉菇菌糠的营养成分及其发酵饲料的制备工艺条件。结果表明,白玉菇第3潮采摘后菌糠营养成分最为丰富,粗蛋白含量最高、粗纤维含量最低,是一种潜在的动物饲料原料来源。通过响应面分析法中Plackett-Burman试验设计,筛选出对白玉菇菌糠发酵效果影响显著因素作正交试验。结果表明,白玉菇菌糠发酵饲料制备最佳工艺条件为白玉菇菌糠��玉米粉8��1、发酵温度30℃、乳酸菌��酵母菌1��2、菌液接种量2.5%。发酵后,白玉菇菌糠粗蛋白、无氮浸出物显著提高,粗纤维显著降低。此外,菌糠香味明显改善、pH下降、乳酸含量提高,菌糠感官品质得到较大改善。%This article aims to analysis the nutritional composition of spent white Hypsizygus marmoreus substrate in different growth stage and optimize its technological conditions for fermentation feed preparation. The results showed that the spent white Hypsizygus marmoreus substrate after third tide picking had the most abundant nutritional, and it had the highest crude protein content, the lowest crude fiber content, which was a potential source of animal feed raw materials. The Plackett-Burman design of response surface methodology was used to select the factors for further orthogonal test, and these factors significant influence spent white Hypsizygus marmoreus substrate fermentation. The orthogonal test results reveled that the optimal technological conditions for fermentation feed preparation of spent white Hypsizygus marmoreus substrate included spent white Hypsizygus marmoreus substrate:corn flour 8:1, fermentation temperature 30℃, lactic acid bacteria:yeast 1:2, inoculum size 2.5%. After fermentation, the crude protein and nitrogen free extract in spent white Hypsizygus marmoreus substrate was increased significantly, the crude fiber was decreased significantly. In addition, the sensory

  12. Catalytic Behaviour of CuO-CeO2 Systems Prepared by Different Synthetic Methodologies in the CO-PROX Reaction under CO2-H2O Feed Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Cecilia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available CuO-CeO2 catalysts, with 6 wt % of Cu, have been synthesised by different preparation methods (calcination of nitrate precursors, thermal urea-nitrate combustion, freeze-drying method, using polymethyl metacrylate PMMA microspheres as template and precipitation using NaOH or the decomposition of urea as precipitating agents. The obtained materials have been characterised by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Raman spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption at −196 °C, H2 thermoprogrammed reduction (H2-TPR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The catalysts displayed high dispersion of copper oxide, obtaining CO conversion values of 90–100% at 115 °C in the CO preferential oxidation in excess of hydrogen (CO-PROX and maintaining this activity even after 48 h of time on stream. The incorporation of CO2 and H2O in the feed stream (simulating a PROX unit caused a decrease in the CO conversion, except for the catalyst synthesised using PMMA microspheres as a template which maintained a CO conversion of 95% at 115 °C. This catalyst exhibits an excellent catalytic performance, also under real operating conditions, thanks to many and concomitant factors, such as the very small CeO2 particle size (5.6 nm, the surface being rich in copper (atomic ratio Cu/Ce = 0.35 that is easily reducible, and the peculiar morphology and porosity of the material.

  13. Turning Mealtimes into Learning Opportunities: Integrating Feeding Goals into IEPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Deborah A.; Thompson, Stacy D.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors use scenarios to describe three students with different individual needs related to feeding, as well as other developmental domains. Feeding difficulties affect students in multiple ways and addressing feeding-related skills on IEPs can include grocery shopping, food preparation, and placing food orders in various…

  14. Turning Mealtimes into Learning Opportunities: Integrating Feeding Goals into IEPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Deborah A.; Thompson, Stacy D.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors use scenarios to describe three students with different individual needs related to feeding, as well as other developmental domains. Feeding difficulties affect students in multiple ways and addressing feeding-related skills on IEPs can include grocery shopping, food preparation, and placing food orders in various…

  15. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  16. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  17. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A What's in this article? All About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Challenges All About Formula Feeding Formula Feeding Challenges Making a Choice en español Lactancia materna versus lactancia artificial Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed their ...

  18. Some thoughts about infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickse, R G

    1983-12-01

    This article summarizes the nutritional considerations, impact on infection and immunity, and psychosocial aspects of the breast versus bottle feeding debate and concludes with guidelines for reorganizing government health services to promote breastfeeding. Its aim is to encourage reappraisal on the part of physicians of the direct implications of infant feeding for the health and well-being of people in all societies, but especially in developing countries. As a result of widespread abandonment of breastfeeding in developing countries, marasmus and infant diarrhea have increased. Although the biologic advatages of breast over bottle feeding are indisputable, the social and economic advantages are more difficult to quantify. Many Third World women curtail breastfeeding to meet the conditions of employment; however, the economic advantages of artificial feeding diminish as one descends down the pay scale. The counterproductive trend toward bottle feeding has been compounded by adoption of this method on the part of the educated elite in Third World countries, including medical and nursing professionals, thus conferring on it as status associated with progress and affluence. The present trend can be reversed only if communities are convinced of the advantages of breastfeeding and make adjustments to facilitate this practice. Preparation for motherhood must be viewed as an integral function of the health care system, with emphasis placed on the nutrition of pregnant and lactating women, preparation for breastfeeding, and the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. Obstetric units must actively discourage the removal of infants from their mothers or routine artificial feeding. In addition, facilities must be provided at workplaces for breastfeeding, the working day should be modified to allow brestfeeding, maternity leaves should be extended, and appropriate payments should be made to nursing mothers. The nutrition needs of infants must be viewed as a shared

  19. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg

  20. Determination of virginiamycin in feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragheb, H S; Black, L J; Waisner, D L

    1979-05-01

    Virginiamycin was extracted from the feed by ethanol-pH 2.5 phosphate buffer (1 + 1). The pH during extraction was adjusted (when necessary) to between 4 and 5. Sample dilutions and the standard dose response line were prepared to contain ethanol pH 6 phosphate buffer (2 + 8), and the test organism was Sarcina lutea. Three feeds (a poultry ration, a swine finishing ration, and a swine starter ration) showed virginiamycin recovery of 88.8--108.9% when standard solutions were added at concentrations of 4.54--90.8 g/ton. The coefficient of variation (4--20%) was larger for low potency feeds (10 g/ton) compared to the higher feeds (100 g/ton). Similarly, excellent recovery was obtained when the swine starter feed was fortified by a commercial premix. Amprolium, roxarsone, and monensin can be present at 20 times the concentration of virginiamycin with little or no interference in the antibiotic determination. Lasalocid at 10 times the concentration of virginiamycin caused a slightly positive bias (recovery, 107.4%).

  1. Fermented liquid feed - Feed processing has a big impact on microbial degradation of free lysine during fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2010-01-01

    ) pelleted (83 °C) diet; treatment 2) mash, non-heated diet. The feed was mixed with water (1:2.75, w/w) and incubated at  25 °C. The number of Enterobacteriaceae was higher in liquid feed prepared with the mash than with the pelleted feed immediately after feed and water were added to the mixture but after...

  2. Broiler short-term feed preferences measured with SRAbox, a new feed choice procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagneau, A M; Bessonneau, D; Bouchot, C; Lescoat, P; Picard, M; Lessire, M

    2006-04-01

    Three dietary compositions and 3 methods of pellet preparation were used in different choice situations to improve our understanding of the factors perceived by broiler chickens in the physical structure of their diet. Within the same visual field, broiler chickens were offered 8 microfeeders containing different pelleted feeds that could be reached from the same position of the bird. Chickens were daily tested during 5-min tests following a 45-min period of feed withdrawal, after adaptation to individual cages and experimental feeders. Two feeds (4 microfeeders/feed in alternate positions) were weighed prior to and after the test. Behavior of the chickens was videotaped during the test to count the number of pecks given to each microfeeder. In a first experiment, 2 feeds of distinct composition were either steam or cold-pelleted. The tests of choice were repeated daily from 22 to 25 and from 35 to 38 d of age on 96 male broiler chickens. Significant preferences were measured from the first test. Similar preferences were measured when chickens received the same choice or alternating choices from one test to another. Differences of feed intake between 2 feeds during 5 min were significantly correlated to differences of number of pecks (R2 = 0.85). In most cases, preferences were established within the first minute of pecking. Steam pellets were significantly preferred to cold pellets for one feed composition but not for the other. Preferences for compositions were consistent whatever the pellet preparation and probably associated with the color of the feeds. A second experiment confirmed that 38-d-old broiler chickens seemed to prefer light colors. Short-term preferences of a chicken for a feed were rather influenced by physical characteristics of feed particles (size, color, hardness) than by the origin of raw materials. Feed pecking may change because of feed composition itself, because of its consequences on color or texture cues, or both.

  3. Sludge batch 9 (SB9) acceptance evaluation. Radionuclide concentrations in tank 51 SB9 qualification sample prepared at SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB9 material is currently in Tank 51 and has been washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF processing and is currently being processed as Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB9 Washed Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from a three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-15-81) taken on July 23, 2015. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of Savannah River Remediation (SRR) it was then adjusted per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40.

  4. Sludge batch 9 (SB9) accepance evaluation: Radionuclide concentrations in tank 51 SB9 qualification sample prepared at SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB9 material is currently in Tank 51 and has been washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF processing and is currently being processed as Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB9 Washed Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from a three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-15-81) taken on July 23, 2015. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of Savannah River Remediation (SRR) it was then adjusted per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. This final slurry now has a compositioniv expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40.

  5. Minimum TI4085D interlock setpoint at 1.0 GPM sludge-only feed rate and 14,000 ppm TOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.S.

    1996-11-05

    DWPF-Engineering requested that SRTC determine the minimum indicated melter vapor space temperature that must be maintained in order to minimize the potential for off-gas flammability during a steady sludge-only feeding operation at 1.0 GPM containing 14,000 ppm total organic carbon. The detailed scope of this request is described in the technical task request, HLW-DWPF-TTR-960092 (DWPT Activity No. DWPT-96-0065). In response to this request, a dynamic simulation study was conducted in which the concentration of flammable gases was tracked throughout the course of a simulated 3X off-gas surge using the melter off-gas (MOG) dynamics model. The results of simulation showed that as long as the melter vapor space temperature as indicated on TI4085D is kept at 570 degrees C or higher, the peak concentration of combustible gases in the melter off-gas system is not likely to exceed 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL). The minimum TI4085D of 570 degrees C is valid only when the air purges to FIC3221A and FIC3221B are maintained at or above 850 and 250 lb/hr, respectively. All the key bases and assumptions along with the input data used in the simulation are described in the attached E-7 calculation note.

  6. HLW flowsheet material balance for DWPF rad operation with Tank 51 sludge and ITP Cycle 1 precipitate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-04-19

    This document presents the details of the Savannah River Plant Flowsheet for the Rad Operation with Tank Sludge and ITP Cycle 1 Precipitate. Topics discussed include: material balance; radiolysis chemistry of tank precipitates; algorithm for ESP washing; chemistry of hydrogen and ammonia generation in CPC; batch sizes for processing feed; and total throughput of a streams during one cycle of operation.

  7. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') document. ...

  8. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  9. Jejunostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000181.htm Jejunostomy feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... vomiting Your child's stomach is bloated Alternate Names Feeding - jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum ...

  10. Nasogastric feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000182.htm Nasogastric feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... the nose. It can be used for all feedings or for giving a person extra calories. It ...

  11. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for your child. These guidelines on breastfeeding and bottle feeding can help you make the decision that's right ... formula is a nutritious alternative to breast milk. Bottle feeding can offer more freedom and flexibility for moms, ...

  12. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring ... babies who are born prematurely, as are many twins and higher order multiples. Breast milk is easier ...

  13. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  14. Economy in the feeding of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, E; Delaney, J; Dwyer, J T

    1977-02-01

    The food costs of various infant feeds were examined with focus on how these vary and the cost differences between different feeding patterns in the 1st year of life. The objectives were: 1) to compare prices for branded commercial milk-based products with other types of formulas and breast milk, and with each other according to source of supply, 2) to compare prices of different sources of Beikost (foods other than milk or formulas) used in feeding babies and how these vary by form (home made versus various types of commercially prepared products) and among brands, 3) to review total annual costs of 5 different hypothetical feeding patterns and actual patterns; and 4) to summarize factors other than price which may be significant in the economics and efficiency of infant feeding. National price survey data on a large number of commercial products from several companies producing food for infants were made available for this study. In addition, during June 1976 price surveys were conducted in several large supermarkets, small grocery stores, and drugstores in the Boston area to furnish information on local price differentials. The least expensive acceptable food for an infant was found to be a home made evaporated milk formula. While food costs were quite low, the formula must be prepared, and preparation time was slightly longer than it was with pre-mixed products. Whole milk was the most inexpensive milk-based feed but was undesirable for infant feeding, at least in the early months of life. On a moderate cost diet which supplies the extra nutrients required for lactation primarily from animal resources, lactation ranked in the middle from the standpoint of food cost. The various commercial milk-based feeds were nearly twice the cost of evaporated milk formulas. Concentrated formulas were least expensive, followed by powdered, with ready-to-feed products being the most expensive. Costs of breast feeding for a year ranged from $156 to $281, depending on the diet

  15. Technical inventions that enabled artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Artificial feeding of infants, called hand-feeding, was unsafe well into the 19th century. This paper aims to identify technical innovations which made artificial feeding less dangerous. In rapid succession from 1844 to 1886, the vulcanization of rubber, production of rubber teats, cooling machines for large-scale ice production, techniques for milk pasteurization, evaporation and condensation, and packing in closed tins were invented or initiated. Remarkably, most of these inventions preceded the discovery of pathogenic bacteria. The producers of proprietary infant formula made immediate use of these innovations, whereas in the private household artificial feeding remained highly dangerous - mostly because of ignorance about bacteria and hygiene, and partly because the equipment for safe storage, transport, preparation and application of baby food was lacking.

  16. Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which will help with the transition from the bottle . continue Feeding Safety Never leave your baby unattended while eating ... or turn away from the breast or the bottle. With solid foods, your baby may ... you do the actual feeding. This is good preparation for the toddler years ...

  17. Is gastric sham feeding really sham feeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-03-01

    Rats were fitted with gastric cannulas, food deprived, and allowed to drink a sugar solution that drained out of the opened cannula; i.e., the rats sham-fed. Although this procedure is thought to prevent absorption of ingested food, it was found that the sham feeding of a 32% glucose or sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels. The addition of acarbose, a drug that inhibits the digestion of sucrose, to the 32% sucrose solution blocked the blood glucose rise, as did closing the pylorus with an inflatable pyloric cuff. Neither the drug nor the cuff, however, reduced the amount of sucrose solution consumed. These findings indicate that gastric sham feeding does not necessarily prevent the digestion and absorption of food, although absorption is not essential for the appearance of a vigorous sham-feeding response. Nevertheless the possibility that neural or hormonal feedback from the stomach contributes to the sham-feeding response cannot be excluded, and until this issue is resolved the results of gastric sham-feeding studies should be interpreted with caution.

  18. Complex Feeding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miles PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Where swallowing difficulties are chronic or progressive, or a patient is palliative, tube feeding is often not deemed appropriate. Instead, patients continue to eat and drink despite the risks of pneumonia and death. There is currently little evidence to guide clinical practice in this field often termed “risk feeding.” This qualitative study investigated staff, patient, and family member perceptions of risk feeding practices in one New Zealand hospital. Method: Twenty-nine staff members and six patients and/or their family were interviewed. Results: Thematic analysis revealed four global themes: supporting practice, communication, complexity of feeding decisions, and patient and family-centered care. Staff described limited education and organizational policy around risk feeding decisions. Communication was considered a major factor in the success. Conclusion: Feeding decisions are complex in the hospital environment. The themes identified in this study provide a foundation for hospital guideline development and implementation.

  19. Environmental persistence of porcine coronaviruses in feed and feed ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro, Fernando; Urriola, Pedro E.; Shurson, Gerald C.; Goyal, Sagar M.

    2017-01-01

    Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV), Porcine Delta Corona Virus (PDCoV), and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV) are major threats to swine health and contaminated feed plays a role in virus transmission. The objective of our study was to characterize inactivation of PEDV, PDCoV, and TGEV in various feed ingredient matrices. Samples of complete feed, spray dried porcine plasma, meat meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, corn, soybean meal, and corn dried distillers grains with solubles were weighed (5 g/sample) into scintillation vials and inoculated with 1 mL of PEDV, PDCoV, or TGEV. Samples were incubated at room temperature for up to 56 days. Aliquots were removed at various time points followed by preparing serial 10-fold dilutions and inoculating in cell cultures to determine the amount of surviving virus. Inactivation kinetics were determined using the Weibull model, which estimates a delta value indicating the time necessary to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. Delta values of various ingredients were compared and analyzed as to their nutrient composition. Soybean meal had the greatest delta value (7.50 days) for PEDV (P < 0.06) as compared with all other ingredients. High delta values (P < 0.001) were observed in soybean meal for PDCoV (42.04 days) and TGEV (42.00 days). There was a moderate correlation between moisture content and the delta value for PDCoV (r = 0.49, P = 0.01) and TGEV (r = 0.41, P = 0.02). There was also a moderate negative correlation between TGEV survival and ether extract content (r = -0.51, P = 0.01). In conclusion, these results indicate that the first log reduction of PDCoV and TGEV takes the greatest amount of time in soybean meal. In addition to this, moisture and ether content appear to be an important determinant of virus survival in feed ingredients. PMID:28542235

  20. Post-pyloric feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva Niv; Zvi Fireman; Nachum Vaisman

    2009-01-01

    Postpyloric feeding is an important and promising alternative to parenteral nutrition. The indications for this kind of feeding are increasing and include a variety of clinical conditions, such as gastroparesis, acute pancreatitis, gastric outlet stenosis, hyperemesis (including gravida), recurrent aspiration, tracheoesophageal fistula and stenosis in gastroenterostomy. This review discusses the differences between pre- and postpyloric feeding, indications and contraindications, advantages and disadvantages, and provides an overview of the techniques of placement of various postpyloric devices.

  1. Infant feeding: formula, solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barness, L A

    1985-04-01

    This article discusses and evaluates current formulas, traces their continual improvement (based largely on new information on breast milk composition), and then discusses the question of supplemental feedings.

  2. Danger of zooplankton feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, H.; Colin, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton feed in any of three ways: they generate a feeding current while hovering, cruise through the water or are ambush feeders. Each mode generates different hydrodynamic disturbances and hence exposes the grazers differently to mechanosensory predators. Ambush feeders sink slowly and ther......Zooplankton feed in any of three ways: they generate a feeding current while hovering, cruise through the water or are ambush feeders. Each mode generates different hydrodynamic disturbances and hence exposes the grazers differently to mechanosensory predators. Ambush feeders sink slowly...

  3. Methods of Off-Gas Flammability Control for DWPF Melter Off-Gas System at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Iverson, D.C.

    1996-05-02

    Several key operating variables affecting off-gas flammability in a slurry-fed radioactive waste glass melter are discussed, and the methods used to prevent potential off-gas flammability are presented. Two models have played a central role in developing such methods. The first model attempts to describe the chemical events occurring during the calcining and melting steps using a multistage thermodynamic equilibrium approach, and it calculates the compositions of glass and calcine gases. Volatile feed components and calcine gases are fed to the second model which then predicts the process dynamics of the entire melter off-gas system including off-gas flammability under both steady state and various transient operating conditions. Results of recent simulation runs are also compared with available data

  4. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  5. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  6. Feeding biology of Cerambycids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack

    2017-01-01

    There are more than 36,000 species of Cerambycidae recognized throughout the world (see Chapter 1), occurring on all continents except Antarctica (Linsley 1959). Given such numbers, it is not surprising that cerambycids display great diversity in their feeding habits. Both adults and larvae are almost exclusively phytophagous. Some adults appear not to feed at all,...

  7. Creep Feeding Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf. Milk from a lactating beef cow furnishes only about 50 percent of the nutrients that a 3-4 month-old calf needs for maximum growth.

  8. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ... write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Common illnesses ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Family health & safety ') ...

  9. Challenges in measuring feed efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term feed efficiency is vague, and is defined differently by people. Historically, feed efficiency has been defined as the feed:gain (F:G) ratio or the inverse (G:F). Indexes have been developed to rank animals for feed efficiency. These indexes include residual feed intake (RFI) and residual...

  10. Feeding Baby: Hmong, Laotian, Vietnamese, Bosnian, Arabic, Somali, Nuer, Russian, Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    These three guides provide information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Arabic, Somali, Spanish, Hmong, Laotian, Vietnamese, and Nuer on feeding infants. Topics covered include breastfeeding advantages and techniques, self-care by breastfeeding mothers, bottle feeding techniques, formula preparation, frequency of feeding, beginning solid foods,…

  11. Fermented liquid feed for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Missotten, Joris; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël

    2010-01-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviat...

  12. Low-level waste feed staging plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, P.J.; Grams, W.H.; McConville, C.M.; L. W. Shelton, L.W.; Slaathaug, E.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The `Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan` was updated to reflect the latest requirement in the Tank Waste Remediation Privatization Request for Proposals (RFP) and amendments. The updated plan develops the sequence and transfer schedule for retrieval of DST supernate by the management and integration contractor and delivery of the staged supernate to the private low-activity waste contractors for treatment. Two DSTs are allocated as intermediate staging tanks. A transfer system conflict analysis provides part of the basis for determining transfer system upgrade requirements to support both low-activity and high-level waste feed delivery. The intermediate staging tank architecture and retrieval system equipment are provided as a planning basis until design requirements documents are prepared. The actions needed to successfully implement the plan are identified. These include resolution of safety issues and changes to the feed envelope limits, minimum order quantities, and desired batch sizes.

  13. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... sign in | my dashboard | sign out our cause health topics stories & media research & professionals get involved Search ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  15. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & ...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a question? ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... hear about breakthroughs for babies and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is ... and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  20. Breast feeding in IMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A; Depondt, E; Evans, S; Daly, A; Hendriksz, C; Chakrapani A, A; Saudubray, J-M

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding has proven benefits for many infants with inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) but, with the exception of phenylketonuria, there are few reports in other conditions. A questionnaire, completed by dietitians and clinicians from 27 IMD centres from 15 countries (caring for a total of over 8000 patients with IMDs on diet) identified breast feeding experience in IMD. Successful, demand breast feeding (in combination with an infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids) was reported in 17 infants with MSUD, 14 with tyrosinaemia type I, and 5 with homocystinuria. Eighty-nine per cent were still breast fed at 16 weeks. Fewer infants with organic acidaemias were demand breast fed (7 with propionic acidaemia; 6 with methylmalonic acidaemia and 13 with isovaleric acidaemia) (usually preceded by complementary feeds of a protein-free infant formula or infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids). Only 12 infants with urea cycle disorders were given demand breast feeds, but this was unsuccessful beyond 8 days in CPS deficiency. Further work is needed in developing guidelines for feeding and for clinical and biochemical monitoring for breast-fed infants with IMDs.

  1. Preparation of feruloyl esterase and application in feed of broiler%阿魏酸酯酶的制备及在肉鸡饲料中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨道秀; 许文江; 王林林; 蔡婀娜; 李夏兰

    2013-01-01

    为了降低饲料中非淀粉多糖质量抗营养因子,提高肉鸡对饲料养分的利用,本文研究了固态发酵阿魏酸酯酶的工艺及其对饲料养分利用率的影响。结果表明:在麦麸与麦糟质量比为2∶8、蛋白胨与酵母粉质量比为2∶4、含水量为40%、接种量为10%、培养时间为6天、培养温度为33℃条件下,阿魏酸酯酶的酶活达到了29.49 U/g,较未优化前提高了5.11倍。将浓缩后的酶液与溢多酶AF831添加入肉鸡饲料中,发现添加溢多酶及阿魏酸酯酶可以提高干物质、粗蛋白、粗灰分、酸性洗涤纤维等利用率,但作用不明显,对中性洗涤纤维改善效果极显著(P<0.01)。%To reduce non-starch polysaccharides anti-nutritional factor in feed and promote intake of nutrient,the solid-state fermentation technology of feruloyl esterase (FAE) and the influence on nutrient utilization rate were studied. Under optimized conditions of 2∶8 of the ratio for wheat bran and brewers’ spent grain (BSG),2∶4 of the ratio for peptone and yeast,40%of water content,10%of inoculum,6 days of incubation and 33 ℃ of incubation temperature,the activity of FAE was improved to five times compared to unoptimized conditions and the maximum activity was 29.49 U/g. The combination of FAE and Yiduoli enzyme was mixed in feed for broiler. FAE and Yiduoli enzyme could improve the utilization of dry matter,crude protein,crude ash,acidic detergent fiber,but the improvement was limited. The utilization of neutral detergent fiber increased markedly (P<0.01).

  2. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  3. Preparation of yolk-shell structured copper oxide@silica oxide spheres and their application in high performance electrochemical sensing of Formoterol fumarate residues in swine feed and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tian; Shi, Zhaoxia; Hu, Danyang; Lv, Zhen; Sun, Junyong; Liu, Yanming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report a facile route to synthesize yolk-shell structured copper oxide@silica oxide (CuO@SiO2) spheres and their application to construct an electrochemical Formoterol fumarate (FF) sensor. The CuO@SiO2 was characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Further, FF was electrocatalytically oxidized at the CuO@SiO2 film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), which led to a sensitive determination of FF. The oxidation current of FF was linear with concentration in the range of 0.030-10 μM and the detection limit was found to be 5.0 nM (S/N = 3). The observed analytical parameters such as wide linear range, low detection limit and short response time were superior to previously reported FF sensors. Finally, it was demonstrated that the proposed sensor could be used for the selective determination of FF present in swine feed and tissues.

  4. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  5. Process for the preparation of aromatic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, N.J.; Biesbroek, Arnold; Heeres, André; Heeres, Hero

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are prepared from a feed stream comprising biomass or a mixture of biomass and synthetic polymer in a process, comprising: a) subjecting the feed stream to a pyrolysis treatment in the presence of a cracking catalyst to yield a vaporous fraction comprising hydrocarbons with

  6. Feeding of newborns and infants (cultural aspects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, V R; Desai, A B

    1970-07-01

    A total of 435 mothers in the postnatal ward of the Civil Hospital in Ahmedabad, India were interviewed to determine the cultural beliefs and traditional practices influencing the feeding of newborns and infants. A thorough physical and neurological examination of the newborns was conducted. All newborns and mothers were followed for a period varying from 3-7 days to detect any complications either in the newborn or the mother related to feeding patterns. The various methods of feeding were observed. In most of the cases the deciding factor to giving the 1st feed was the cry of the baby. As a 1st feed, various liquid preparations were used by the mothers. 66.2% of the mothers offered boiled water as a 1st feed. In the postnatal ward boiled water is an easily available preparation for newborns and is usually provided by the ward sister whenever the mother requests it. In most of the cases the mother herself was the initiator. 40.3% of the mothers began supplementing breast milk with milk or solid food before the age of 1 year, and 18% by the age of 1 1/2 years. 27.3% of the mothers kept their children on breast milk only until the age of 1 year, and 12.7% until the age of 2 years. 46.5% of the mothers did not give milk at all during infancy and childhood. The most common age for introducing solid food was 1-1 1/2 (61.4%); only 10.2% of the mothers introduced solid food during the 1st year of life. The various sweet carbohydrate preparations used as 1st feed are known as "Galthuthi." 25.9% of the mothers gave "Galthuthi" to their newborns during the 1st 3 days of life and 16.9% of the mothers used it as a 1st feed. Most mothers were giving it as a custom or community tradition. The infants exposed to "Galthuthi" are exposed to gastrointestinal infections. The common practice of giving fresh milk as a prelacteal feed during the 1st 3 days of life appears to be harmful to subsequent breastfeeding. It seems that prelacteal feed is not harmful as long as it is given in a

  7. 早产儿/低出生体质量儿经口喂养准备评估量表的编制及信效度测定%Formulation and validity and reliability testing of oral feeding preparation scale for premature baby or low birth weight infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 陆美英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To design the oral feeding preparation scale for premature baby or low birth weight infant, and test its validity and reliability. Methods We utilized method of literature review, consulted experts, and combined with clinical experience to protocol the clause of initial scale. A total of 114 premature babies had been chosen to survey. The scale was evaluated by program analysis, exploratory factor analysis, correlation analysis, internal consistency testing, split-half reliability analysis, content validity, etc. Results The initial clauses were 14, and after discussions, program analysis, exploratory factor analysis, we deleted 3 clauses and added 1. The exploratory factor distilled 5 common factors;its cumulative contribution rate reached 77. 639%, and correlation coefficient of each dimension was 0. 443-0. 999; Cronbach′s α coefficient and split-half coefficient maintained 0. 778 and 0. 880. The outcome scale of different oral feeding ways had statistical significance (P<0. 05), and had some certain differentiate validity. Conclusions The validity of oral feeding preparation scale for premature babies or low birth weight infant is good, which can be the measure tool for assessment of premature babies or low birth weight infant′s oral feeding preparation.%目的:自制评价早产儿/低出生体质量儿经口喂养准备评估量表,并进行信效度检验。方法采用文献回顾法,咨询专家,结合临床经验,拟定初量表条目。选取114例早产儿进行预调查。采用项目分析、探索性因子分析、相关性分析、内部一致性检验、折半信度分析、内容效度等对量表进行评价。结果初步形成14个条目,经反复探讨和项目分析、探索性因子分析后删除3个条目,增加1个条目。探索性因子分析提取了5个公因子,累积贡献率为77.639%,各维度相关系数为0.443~0.999, Cronbach′sα系数及折半系数分别为0.778,0.880,不同经口喂养结局量表分数

  8. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double......-lumen duodenal perfusion/aspiration techniques over 6 hours. Subjects were assigned to no feeding (n = 7), duodenal feeding with a polymeric diet (n = 7) or low-fat elemental diet (n = 6), mid-distal jejunal feeding (n = 11), or intravenous feeding (n = 5). All diets provided 40 kcal/kg ideal body weight/d and 1...

  9. Preparation of Styrene-isoprene-styrene Thermoplastic Elastomer by Three Times Feeding Method of Reactive Extrusion%采用反应挤出三次加料法合成苯乙烯/异戊二烯/苯乙烯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单东; 杨龙; 王继铭; 郑安呐

    2014-01-01

    Styrene/isoprene/styrene ( SIS ) triblock thermoplastic elastomer was polymerized by three times feeding method using a co-rotating intermeshing twin screw extruder as the reactor and n-butyllithium as the initiator. 1 H NMR spectra show that the polyisoprene block of the copolymer is mainly composed of 1,4-polyi-soprene structure. The molecule chains of the copolymers were degraded using hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by osmium tetroxide, the segments of polystyrene after oxidization were characterized by gel permeation chroma-tography( GPC) cooperating with the multi-angle laser light scattering( MALLS) instrument. It was found that the copolymers consisted of polystyrene-polyisoprene-polystyrene( PS-PI-PS) three blocks. Cooperated with the survey of dynamic mechanical analysis(DMA) and transmission electron microscope(TEM) photographs, it was confirmed that styrene/isoprene/styrene( SIS) had two phase separation structure. Tensile testing showed the relationship between tensile strength of the copolymer with styrene content.%以同向啮合双螺杆挤出机为反应器,采用苯乙烯和异戊二烯为聚合单体,以正丁基锂为引发剂,采用三次加料法合成苯乙烯/异戊二烯/苯乙烯(SIS)三嵌段热塑性弹性体。氢核磁共振(1H NMR)谱分析结果表明,共聚物中聚异戊二烯嵌段以1,4-结构为主。采用四氧化锇催化双氧水氧化降解聚合物分子链,利用凝胶渗透色谱对氧化降解后的聚苯乙烯碎片进行分析,证明共聚物分子为(聚苯乙烯-聚异戊二烯-聚苯乙烯)( PS-PI-PS)三嵌段结构。动态力学分析( DMA)及透射电子显微镜( TEM)分析结果表明, SIS具有两相分离结构。拉伸试验结果表明,共聚物拉伸强度与苯乙烯含量有关。

  10. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, L.; KITZINGER, Jenny; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media.\\ud Design: Content analysis.\\ud Subjects: Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999.\\ud Setting: UK mass media.\\ud Main outcome measures: Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes.\\ud Results: Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in...

  11. Korea: Nutrition and Feeding of Korean Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-03-01

    03-1959 1 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Korea : Nutrition and Feeding of Korean Armed Force 5b. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Support and Korean officers and officials concerned with nutrition and feeding, Mr. Kim Chung Yul, Minister for National Defense , made a formal...2. Annex 1, prepared by the Acting UNC Economic Coordinator, sets forth the effect of the above shift on Korean Economy and the ROK defense effort

  12. SUNFLOWER HUSKS AS A SOURCE OF FUNCTIONAL FEED ADDITIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Khusid S. B.; Gneush A. N.; Nesterenko E. E.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the results of the complex feed additive based on sunflower husk, enriched with beer wort with the addition of pumpkin pulp. We have studied the chemical composition of sunflower husk, which is the secondary resource of the processing plant raw material, selected methods of enrichment of this raw material with the help of fungi Trichoderma harzianum. Cellulolytic enzyme preparations on the basis of fungi of the genus Trichoderma for use in agriculture and animal feed pro...

  13. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely affected.

  14. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Cu

  15. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely affected.

  16. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  17. [History of complementary feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, D

    2010-12-01

    Complementary feeding, which embraces all solid and liquid foods other than breast milk or infant formula, is strongly influenced by cultural, familial and economic factors. For many times, there was a strong taboo on the use of colostrum ("the white blood") during the first week after delivery, sometimes even the first month. Therefore, the newborn baby received complementary foods as gruel, or panada. However, in the Greek civilization, wet nurses were asked by contract to breastfeed exclusively for the first 6 months and to start complementary feeding thereafter. From the sixteenth century onwards, many writers deplored the practice of giving gruel and panada during the first six months before the teeth erupted. In 1921, a Swedish pediatrician, Jundell, reported for the first time that starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age was associated with a better growth and resistance to infections. The recommendation of the World Health Organization to start complementary feeding after a 6-month period of exclusive breastfeeding is often in contradiction with the habits of the populations to propose very early other food sources than breast milk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  19. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Cu

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic Breastfeeding ... healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  1. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  2. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in genetically lean and obese pigs, and showed that feed intake is ... apportionment of consumed energy towards protein and ..... alia, genetic potential for protein deposition and its ... The content and dietary balance of feed nutrients, such as ...

  3. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  4. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Ganai, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Haidar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal’s production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial by­products, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken. PMID:28507415

  5. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly distributed diurnal feeding patterns. However, differences in feeding patterns resulting from feed presentation did not persist after 8 wk of age, when all calves were fed a mixed ration. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Feed the dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Bajde, Domen

    2016-01-01

    MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian communicat......MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian...

  7. Live feeds in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Dhert, Ph.; Sorgeloos, P

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two decades intensive larviculture of several fish and shellfish species has expanded into a multimillion dollar industry. Although much progress has been made in identifying the dietary requirements of the larvae of various aquaculture species, the mass culture of their early larval stages still requires the use of live feeds. Selected either through trial and error approaches or because of their convenience in mass production and use, hatcheries are relying today on three grou...

  8. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  9. Residual Feed Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sainz, Roberto D.; Paulino, Pedro V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Low rates of return on investment for livestock operations are a fact of life. Producers have little impact on the market price for their cattle; therefore management must be focused on the things producers can actually do something about. For many years, genetic selection programs have focused on production (output) traits, with little attention given to production costs (inputs). Recently, this view has begun to change, and the efficiency of conversion of feed (i.e., t...

  10. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk, vi...

  11. Coupling between crossed dipole feeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Lessow, H.

    1974-01-01

    as a function of orientation and feeding network properties. The antennas are used as feeds for a parabolic reflector, and the effect of coupling on the secondary fields is analyzed. Especially significant is the polarization loss and it may, to some extent, be reduced by a proper choice of feeding network....

  12. Food Safety Information RSS feed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is an RSS Feed of Food Safety information that’s produced in real-time by the CDC. This RSS feed is the integration of two other XML feeds, one from the USDA's...

  13. Multiple part feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present experience from a real-world demonstration of autonomous industrial mobile manipulation (AIMM) based on the mobile manipulator "Little Helper" performing multiple part feeding at the pump manufacturer Grundfos A/S. Design/methodology/approach - Th......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present experience from a real-world demonstration of autonomous industrial mobile manipulation (AIMM) based on the mobile manipulator "Little Helper" performing multiple part feeding at the pump manufacturer Grundfos A/S. Design....../methodology/approach - The necessary AIMM technologies exist at a mature level - the reason that no mobile manipulators have yet been implemented in industrial environments, is that research in the right applications have not been carried out. We propose a pragmatic approach consisting of: a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile...... manipulator system design ("Little Helper"), a suitable and comprehensive industrial application (multiple part feeding), and a general implementation concept for industrial environments (the "Bartender Concept"). Findings - Results from the three days of real-world demonstration show that "Little Helper...

  14. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2010-08-18

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of

  15. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM - PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2009-03-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that come in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter off-gas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of

  16. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  17. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  18. Analysis of self-feeding in children with feeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Kristi M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Roane, Henry S; Volkert, Valerie M; Stewart, Victoria; Kadey, Heather J; Groff, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated a method for increasing self-feeding with 3 children with a history of food refusal. The children never (2 children) or rarely (1 child) self-fed bites of food when the choice was between self-feeding and escape from eating. When the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed an identical bite of food, self-feeding was low (2 children) or variable (1 child). Levels of self-feeding increased for 2 children when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of the same food. For the 3rd child, self-feeding increased when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of a less preferred food. The results showed that altering the contingencies associated with being fed increased the probability of self-feeding, but the specific manipulations that produced self-feeding were unique to each child.

  19. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Swallowing Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children What are ... children with feeding and swallowing disorders ? What are feeding and swallowing disorders? Feeding disorders include problems gathering ...

  20. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How To Feed Your Baby Either breast- or bottle-feeding works well for babies with heart problems, but ... do best with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is ...

  1. Effect of feeding fermented liquid feed and fermented grain on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canibe, N; Højberg, O; Badsberg, J H; Jensen, B B

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the microbial and nutritional characteristics of dry feed, liquid feed containing fermented liquid cereal grains, and fermented liquid feed, and their effect on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance, 120 piglets from 40 litters were used and housed in pens with 5 animals in each. The 3 dietary treatments (all nonheated and nonpelleted diets) were: a dry meal diet (DRY); a fermented, liquid cereal grain feed (FLG); and a fermented liquid feed (FLF). The FLG diet was prepared by storing the dietary cereals (barley and wheat) and water (1:2.5, wt/wt) in a closed tank at 20 degrees C and adding the remaining dietary ingredients immediately before feeding. The FLF diet was prepared by storing compound feed and water (1:2.5, wt/wt) in a closed tank at 20 degrees C. Three times daily, 50% of the fermented cereals or compound feed and water stored in the tanks was removed and replaced with an equal amount of fresh cereals or feed and water. On d 14, 1 piglet from each pen was killed and samples from the gastrointestinal tract were obtained. The pH of the fermented cereals was 3.85 (SD = 0.10), that of the FLG diet was 5.00 (SD = 0.18), and the pH of the FLF diet was 4.45 (SD = 0.11). The dietary concentration of lysine (g/16 g of N) pointed to a decreased concentration in the FLF (5.46, SD = 0.08) compared with the DRY (6.01) and FLG (6.21, SD = 0.27) diets, and the concentration of cadaverine was greater in the FLF diet (890 mg/kg, SD = 151.3) than in the DRY (32 mg/kg) or FLG (153 mg/kg, SD = 18.7) diets. Fermenting only the cereal component of the diet (FLG) promoted the growth of yeasts to a greater extent than fermenting the whole diet (FLF). Terminal RFLP profiles of diets and digesta from the stomach and midcolon showed differences among dietary groups. The number of yeasts able to grow at 37 degrees C in the stomach and caudal small intestine was greatest in the FLG group compared with the other 2 dietary groups (P Feeding liquid feed

  2. Re-feeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadaba, A; Paine, J; Adlard, R; Dilkes, M

    2001-09-01

    The effect of a therapeutically administered high calorie diet in a severely malnourished patient is discussed in this case report. In patients with advanced head and neck cancer prolonged periods of malnutrition prior to admission are frequently encountered. This case report highlights the need to constantly monitor the electrolyte and vitamin levels during the early stages of instituting enteral or parenteral nutrition. By vigilant monitoring and a high index of suspicion re-feeding syndrome or severe hypophosphataemia and its associated complications can be avoided.

  3. Feeding the Beast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Anders; Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of fear, we argue, this predisposes people to vote for anti-immigration parties. Our analysis highlights the position of anti-immigration parties; hence, the Sweden Democrats (SD) in Sweden and the Danish People’s Party (DPP) in Denmark. We use frame analysis to detect recurrent frames in the media debate...... as such plays a similar role and provides the DPP with an identity. We conclude that we are confronted with a two-faced beast that feeds on perceptions of the people as ultimately afraid of what are not recognized as native goods....

  4. Food and feed enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Rühl, Martin; Zorn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Humans have benefited from the unique catalytic properties of enzymes, in particular for food production, for thousands of years. Prominent examples include the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, as well as bakery and dairy products. The chapter reviews the historic background of the development of modern enzyme technology and provides an overview of the industrial food and feed enzymes currently available on the world market. The chapter highlights enzyme applications for the improvement of resource efficiency, the biopreservation of food, and the treatment of food intolerances. Further topics address the improvement of food safety and food quality.

  5. Preliminary low-level waste feed staging plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, P.J.

    1996-02-05

    A Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan was prepared. The plan supports the Phase I privatization effort by providing recommendations that may influence the technical content of the final request for proposal, and the interface control documents for the turnover of two double-shell tanks (DST) to the private contractors for use as feed tanks and the transfer of supernate to these tanks. Additionally, the preliminary schedule of feed staging activities will be useful to both RL and the private bidders during the contract negotiation period. A revised feed staging plan will be issued in August 1996 reflecting anticipated changes in the request for proposal, resolution of issues identified in this report, and completion of additional work scope.

  6. Fermented and nonfermented liquid feed to growing pigs: effect on aspects of gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canibe, N; Jensen, B B

    2003-08-01

    The effect of feeding dry feed (DF), nonfermented liquid feed (NFLF), and fermented liquid feed (FLF) to growing pigs on aspects of gastrointestinal ecology and on performance was investigated. Nonfermented liquid feed was prepared by mixing feed and water at a ratio of 1:2.5 immediately before feeding. Fermented liquid feed was prepared by mixing feed and water in the same ratio as NFLF, and stored in a tank at 20 degrees C for 4 d, after which half the volume was removed twice daily at each feeding and replaced with the same volume of feed and water mixture. A total of 60 pigs (initial BW of 30.7 kg) from 20 litters was used. Twenty pigs, housed individually, were allotted to each of the diets and fed restrictively. Five pigs from each diet were sacrificed at an average BW of 112 kg and digesta from the gastrointestinal tract (GI-tract) was obtained to examine variables describing some aspects of the gastrointestinal ecology. Fermented liquid feed contained high levels of lactic acid bacteria (9.4 log cfu/g) and lactic acid (approximately 169 mmol/kg), low levels of enterobacteria (liquid feed contained 7.2 log cfu/g of lactic acid bacteria, and 6.2 log cfu/g of enterobacteria, which indicated that fermentation had started in the feed. The pigs fed FLF had the lowest levels of enterobacteria along the GI-tract (Fermented liquid feed caused a decrease in gastric pH from 4.4 and 4.6 for DF and NLF, to 4.0 (P = 0.003), and increased numerically the gastric concentration of lactic acid (P = 0.17) from 50 to 60 mmol/kg in the DF and NFLF treatments to 113 mmol/kg in the FLF treatment. The animals fed NFLF showed the highest weight gain (995 g/d) and feed intake (2.14 kg/d), and those fed FLF the lowest values (weight gain, 931 g/d; feed intake, 1.96 kg/d; P = 0.003 for weight gain, and P feed intake). The results from the present study indicate that feeding FLF as prepared here may be a valid feeding strategy to decrease the levels of enterobacteria in the GI-tract of

  7. Pap, gruel, and panada: early approaches to artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper collects information on artificial infant feeding published before 1860, the year when commercial formula became available. We have extensive artifactual evidence of thousands of feeding vessels since the Bronze Age. Special museum collections can be found in London, Paris, Cologne, Fécamp, Toronto, New Mexico, and elsewhere. The literature on the use of animal milk for infant feeding begins with Soranus in the 2nd century CE. Literature evidence from the very first printed books in the 15th century proves that physicians, surgeons, midwives, and the laity were aware of the opportunities and risks of artificial infant feeding. Most 17th to 19th century books on infant care contained detailed recipes for one or several of the following infant foods: pap, a semisolid food made of flour or bread crumbs cooked in water with or without milk; gruel, a thin porridge resulting from boiling cereal in water or milk, and panada, a preparation of various cereals or bread cooked in broth. During the 18th century, the published opinion on artificial feeding evolved from health concerns to a moral ideology. This view ignored the social and economic pressures which forced many mothers to forego or shorten breast-feeding. Bottle-feeding has been common practice throughout history.

  8. SUNFLOWER HUSKS AS A SOURCE OF FUNCTIONAL FEED ADDITIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusid S. B.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of the complex feed additive based on sunflower husk, enriched with beer wort with the addition of pumpkin pulp. We have studied the chemical composition of sunflower husk, which is the secondary resource of the processing plant raw material, selected methods of enrichment of this raw material with the help of fungi Trichoderma harzianum. Cellulolytic enzyme preparations on the basis of fungi of the genus Trichoderma for use in agriculture and animal feed production is often obtained when the surface method of cultivation. These drugs are cheap and contain a significant number of related hydrolytic enzymes, 29 such as amylase, protease, pectinase and hemicellulase, which are also important and valuable to the consumer. As a vitamin component of the feed additive we have selected a pumpkin pulp, which is a valuable feed for livestock and poultry is a source of carotene, fat and nitrogenous substances. We have also developed elements of technology for complex feed additive. We have created a comprehensive feed additive which can be used in the composition of diets in the feeding of farm animals and poultry

  9. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  10. Oxytocin, feeding and satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy eSabatier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin neurones have a physiological role in food intake and energy balance. Central administration of oxytocin is powerfully anorexigenic, reducing food intake and meal duration. The central mechanisms underlying this effect of oxytocin have become better understood in the past few years. Parvocellular neurones of the paraventricular nucleus project to the caudal brainstem to regulate feeding via autonomic functions including the gastrointestinal vago-vagal reflex. In contrast, magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei release oxytocin from their dendrites to diffuse to distant hypothalamic targets involved in satiety.The ventromedial hypothalamus, for example, expresses a high density of oxytocin receptors but does not contain detectable oxytocin nerve fibres. Magnocellular neurones represent targets for the anorexigenic neuropeptide α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. . In addition to homeostatic control, oxytocin may also have a role in reward-related feeding. Evidence suggests that oxytocin can selectively suppress sugar intake and that it may have a role in limiting the intake of palatable food by inhibiting the reward pathway.

  11. Infant feeding practices in the first six months of life among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    reduce the prevalence of mixed feeding and hence the ... fectious diseases such as pneumonia (75%) and diarrhea. (40%), diseases .... prepared the formula using bottled or boiled water but most of them ..... Effects of Early,. Abrupt Weaning ...

  12. INCORPORATION OF MONO SODIUM TITANATE AND CRYSTALLINE SILICOTITANATE FEEDS IN HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-23

    Four series of glass compositions were selected, fabricated, and characterized as part of a study to determine the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. All of the glasses studied were considerably more durable than the benchmark Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The measured Product Consistency Test (PCT) responses were compared with the predicted values from the current DWPF durability model. One of the KT01-series and two of the KT03-series glasses had measured PCT responses that were outside the lower bound of the durability model. All of the KT04 glasses had durabilities that were predictable regardless of heat treatment or compositional view. In general, the measured viscosity values of the KT01, KT03, and KT04-series glasses are well predicted by the current DWPF viscosity model. The results of liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) measurements for the KT01-series glasses were mixed with regard to the predictability of the T{sub L} for each glass. All of the measured T{sub L} values were higher than the model predicted values, although most fell within the 95% confidence intervals. Overall, the results of this study show a reasonable ability to incorporate the anticipated SCIX streams into DWPF-type glass compositions with TiO{sub 2} concentrations of 4-5 wt % in glass.

  13. Enteral tube feeding for individuals with cystic fibrosis: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation evidence-informed guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberg, Sarah Jane; Hempstead, Sarah E; McDonald, Catherine M; Powers, Scott W; Wooldridge, Jamie; Blair, Shaina; Freedman, Steven; Harrington, Elaine; Murphy, Peter J; Palmer, Lena; Schrader, Amy E; Shiel, Kyle; Sullivan, Jillian; Wallentine, Melissa; Marshall, Bruce C; Leonard, Amanda Radmer

    2016-11-01

    Nutrition is integral to the care of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Better nutritional status is associated with improved pulmonary function. In some individuals with CF, enteral tube feeding can be useful in achieving optimal nutritional status. Current nutrition guidelines do not include detailed recommendations for enteral tube feeding. The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation convened an expert panel to develop enteral tube feeding recommendations based on a systematic review of the evidence and expert opinion. These guidelines address when to consider enteral tube feeding, assessment of confounding causes of poor nutrition in CF, preparation of the patient for placement of the enteral feeding tube, management of the tube after placement and education about enteral feeding. These recommendations are intended to guide the CF care team, individuals with CF, and their families through the enteral tube feeding process.

  14. Growth of bacteria in enteral feeding solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, A

    1985-08-01

    Solutions of Clinifeed ISO, Triosorbon, Vivonex Standard (full- and half-strength) and Vivonex HN were experimentally contaminated with two strains each of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella aerogenes, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae at concentrations of 10(2)-10(3) organisms/ml. Samples were incubated at 4, 25 or 37 degrees C and viable counts were made at 0, 4, 8 and 24 h. No increase in numbers of any of the organisms was observed in any of the feeds during 24 h at 4 degrees C. All organisms multiplied rapidly in Clinifeed ISO and in Triosorbon at 25 and 37 degrees C. There was less rapid growth in half-strength Vivonex Standard at 25 degrees C, although at 37 degrees C all strains multiplied rapidly except for the two S. aureus strains, the growth of which was inhibited in half-strength Vivonex Standard at both 25 and 37 degrees C. In full-strength Vivonex Standard at 25 degrees C, only P. aeruginosa showed any increase in numbers during 24 h, whereas P. aeruginosa, K. aerogenes and E. cloacae all multiplied at 37 degrees C. None of the test organisms multiplied in full strength Vivonex HN at any of the temperatures studied. The results of the study show that bacteria survive and may multiply even in feeds with low pH and high osmolarity, and emphasise the importance of strict hygiene during the preparation and handling of all enteral feeds.

  15. Transition feeding of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    The transition period from late gestation to early lactation is rather short, but it is nonetheless of major importance for the productivity of high-prolific sows. The transition period, here defined as the last 10 d of gestation and the first 10 d of lactation, encompasses substantial changes...... for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... practices do not acknowledge these changes. Development of new feeding strategies specifically adapted for the transition sow is likely of importance to match the rapid changes in nutrient requirements....

  16. Prey perception in feeding-current feeding copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Florian Couespel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey concentrati...

  17. Aquaculture and feeding ecology: Feeding behaviour in turbot larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora

    challenging for larval rearing. After the start of exogenous feeding, another intense and likely critical period of change occurs in the early life stages of fish. This stage is the metamorphosis, during which the larvae transform organs and body morphology to become juveniles. Compared to other teleosts...... metamorphosis in flatfish species is often unsuccessful, resulting in different types of abnormal development. The objective of this thesis was to analyse the feeding behaviour of the flatfish species turbot (Psetta maxima L.) larvae during the two crucial life periods, 1) first feeding and 2) metamorphosis....... To analyse whether these two periods are critical for the correct development and survival of turbot, feeding behaviours of larvae during the period of first feeding and during the first stages of metamorphosis was studied using video recordings. This provided qualitative and quantitative descriptions...

  18. Level of Aflatoxin in Some Fish Feeds from Fish Farming Processes, Feed Factories and Imported Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    ALTUĞ, Gülşen

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins that are toxic metabolites for human and animals were determined in some fish feed. Eighty-five unit samples taken from "fish farming processes", "feed factories" and "imported feeds" in 1998, 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. In the analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique were used. Consequently, aflatoxin levels above 20 ppb were detected in 20 samples and from 21.2 to 42.4...

  19. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  20. Technological foundations of processing tomato pomace in feed additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yegorov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Search for new types of alternative raw material for the efficient development of poultry industry and problem of waste disposal of canning industry made it necessary to develop a method of processing tomato pomace in feed additives. Materials and methods. Sampling, preparation and testing were carried out by general and specific organ oleptic and physical-technological methods of assessment and analysis of the properties of raw materials and finished products. Results. Incorporation of tomato pomace in the feed additive reduces the cost of raw materials and expenses associated with moistening of the mixture before extrusion and incorporation of chalk feed will solve the problem of calcium imbalance of laying hens. It was found that extrusion process has improved the physical properties of feed additive and showed the possibility of its use as a feed component: moisture content decreased by 34.5 %, the angle of repose increased by 11.4 %, flowability decreased by 39.7 % and bulk density decreased by 32.3 %. Conclusions. The resulting feed additive will solve the problem of diversification of raw materials, waste, calcium imbalance of laying hens and reduce expenses on compound animal feedstuff production.

  1. Fermented liquid feed reduces susceptibility of broilers for Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heres, L; Engel, B; van Knapen, F; de Jong, M C M; Wagenaar, J A; Urlings, H A P

    2003-04-01

    The presence of Salmonella in chickens is a problem because poultry meat is recognized as a source of human salmonellosis. Fermented feed has characteristics like a high number of lactobacilli and high concentration of lactic acid, which could make chickens less susceptible for infection with Salmonella. Fermented feed might therefore prevent the colonization of chickens with Salmonella. Two studies were performed to quantify the effect of fermented liquid feed on the susceptibility of broilers for Salmonella. The fermented feed was prepared by fermenting a dry broiler feed supplemented with 1.4 parts of water. Lactobacillus plantarum was used for fermentation. The fermented liquid feed (FLF) contained 10(9) to 10(10) cfu lactobacilli per gram, and the pH was 4. Individually housed control chickens and FLF-fed chickens were inoculated with 10(2) to 10(7) cfu Salmonella enteritidis (SE). Colonization was estimated by cloacal swabs and quantitative caecal culture. The proportion of SE-shedding chickens was decreased in FLF-fed chickens. FLF-fed chickens required a longer time after inoculation or a higher inoculation dose to get the same proportion of infected chickens in comparison with dry feed-fed chickens. The level of cecal colonization with Salmonella in the ceca was not different at the end of the experimental period. The results indicate that FLF can hamper the introduction of Salmonella in broiler flocks because the chickens are less susceptible for infection. Fermented liquid feed might therefore be a new hurdle in the strategy to control Salmonella in chicken flocks.

  2. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or manure... additives, and feed supplements in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. ...

  3. Schistosome feeding and regurgitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Skelly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that infect >200 million people worldwide, causing the chronic, debilitating disease schistosomiasis. Unusual among parasitic helminths, the long-lived adult worms, continuously bathed in blood, take up nutrients directly across the body surface and also by ingestion of blood into the gut. Recent proteomic analyses of the body surface revealed the presence of hydrolytic enzymes, solute, and ion transporters, thus emphasising its metabolic credentials. Furthermore, definition of the molecular mechanisms for the uptake of selected metabolites (glucose, certain amino acids, and water establishes it as a vital site of nutrient acquisition. Nevertheless, the amount of blood ingested into the gut per day is considerable: for males ∼100 nl; for the more actively feeding females ∼900 nl, >4 times body volume. Ingested erythrocytes are lysed as they pass through the specialized esophagus, while leucocytes become tethered and disabled there. Proteomics and transcriptomics have revealed, in addition to gut proteases, an amino acid transporter in gut tissue and other hydrolases, ion, and lipid transporters in the lumen, implicating the gut as the site for acquisition of essential lipids and inorganic ions. The surface is the principal entry route for glucose, whereas the gut dominates amino acid acquisition, especially in females. Heme, a potentially toxic hemoglobin degradation product, accumulates in the gut and, since schistosomes lack an anus, must be expelled by the poorly understood process of regurgitation. Here we place the new observations on the proteome of body surface and gut, and the entry of different nutrient classes into schistosomes, into the context of older studies on worm composition and metabolism. We suggest that the balance between surface and gut in nutrition is determined by the constraints of solute diffusion imposed by differences in male and female worm morphology. Our conclusions have

  4. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  5. Feed palatability and the alternative protein sources in shrimp feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutima Tantikitti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Feed palatability in carnivorous aquaculture species, shrimps in particular, has been crucially related to the presence of compounds acting as attractants that are commonly associated with the prey components under wild conditions. Thus a nutritionally adequate and organoleptically-pleasing diet is essential to achieve satisfactory intake and growth in shrimps. Historically, fishmeal has been an essential dietary component of intensive shrimp cultures because of its nutrient composition and compounds of high attractability. However, in recent years the fishmeal supplies have been dwindling due to over hunting, a diminishing natural fish-stock, elevating prices and market volatility. This has led to search for cheaper sources of suitable protein as fishmeal substitutes. To improve the palatability of diets, various substances have been investigated for their effectiveness in aqua-feed including natural feed ingredients and synthetic flavor substances. For crustacean, attractants characteristically are of low molecular weight, water and ethanol soluble, and amphoteric or basic compounds that are released from potential prey items. Compounds such as free amino acids, especially taurine, hydroxyproline, glycine, arginine, glutamic acid and alanine have been identified to stimulate feeding in shrimps. The same has been identified with organic acids, nucleotides and nucleosides, betaine, and some small peptides. Palatability also has been associated with animal’s past experience with the feed. Understanding the factors that regulate feed palatability is therefore primary for successful shrimp culture.

  6. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  7. Feeding profiles of tame moose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the feeding profiles of tame moose. 3 moose were observed for 99 hours while in natural range, each bite plant species, browse conditions and size...

  8. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  9. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  10. The new Israeli feed safety law: challenges in relation to animal and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, Shimon; Elad, Dani; Cuneah, Olga; Shimshoni, Jakob A

    2017-03-01

    The Israeli feed safety legislation, which came to prominence in the early 1970s, has undergone a major change from simple feed safety and quality regulations to a more holistic concept of control of feed safety and quality throughout the whole feed production chain, from farm to the end user table. In February 2014, a new law was approved by the Israeli parliament, namely the Control of Animal Feed Law, which is expected to enter into effect in 2017. The law is intended to regulate the production and marketing of animal feed, guaranteeing the safety and quality of animal products throughout the production chain. The responsibility on the implementation of the new feed law was moved from the Plant Protection Inspection Service to the Veterinary Services and Animal Health. In preparation for the law's implementation, we have characterized the various sources and production lines of feed for farm and domestic animals in Israel and assessed the current feed safety challenges in terms of potential hazards or undesirable substances. Moreover, the basic requirements for feed safety laboratories, which are mandatory for analyzing and testing for potential contaminants, are summarized for each of the contaminants discussed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. 钼负载量对FCC干气和混合C4组合进料制丙烯催化剂反应性能的影响%INFLUENCE OF MoO3 CONTENT ON THE CATALYTIC PERFORMANCE OF CATALYST FOR PREPARING PROPENE FROM COMBINED FEED OF FCC DRY GAS AND MIXED C4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞新迎; 李春义

    2011-01-01

    基于提高烯烃利用率和增产丙烯的目的,在C4烯烃裂解制丙烯工艺中,将FCC干气和混合C4按一定比例混合后作为进料.采用初湿浸渍法向ZSM-5分子筛催化剂中引入MoO3,以实现裂解反应与歧化反应的耦合.采用X射线衍射技术(XRD)、Py-FTIR光谱及BET技术对MoO3/ZSM-5-Al2O3催化剂进行表征.结果表明,钼的引入对催化剂的酸性质、表面性质和孔分布均存在一定的影响.将固定床微反结果与钼负载量相关联,在反应温度为450℃、干气和混合C4体积比为4、原料气体积空速为120 min(-1)的条件下,发现钼的引入有利于乙烯和2-丁烯间歧化反应的发生,在一定范围内有利于丙烯收率的提高,丙烯收率在销负载量(ω)为4%时最大,约为27.85%.%In order to enhance the utilization of olefins and to produce more propene,FCC dry gas was introduced as partial feed in the process of preparing propene from mixed C4. A series of ZSM-5 zeolite catalysts loaded with various MoO3 contents were prepared by incipient wetness procedure to realize the coupling of cracking reactions and metathesis reactions. The MoO3/ZSM-5/Al2O3 catalysts were characterized by XRD, Py-FTIR and BET method to study the effect of MoO3 content on the catalyst performance. Test results showed that the acidity, surface property and pore structure of the catalyst were affected by the loading of MoO3. Based on correlating the evaluation results of fixed bed microreactor and the MoO3 contents,it was found that under the conditions of a reaction temperature of 450 ℃ ,a dry gas/mixed C4 volume ratio of 4 and a GHSV of 120 min-1, MoO3/ZSM-5/Al2O3 catalyst with suitable MoO3 content was in favor of promoting metathesis reactions between ethene and 2-butene,and thus the propene yield was increased. A maximum propene yield of 27.85 % was obtained over a catalyst with a MoO3 content of 4%.

  12. Application of the HWVP measurement error model and feed test algorithms to pilot scale feed testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.L.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of the feed preparation subsystem in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is to provide, for control of the properties of the slurry that are sent to the melter. The slurry properties are adjusted so that two classes of constraints are satisfied. Processability constraints guarantee that the process conditions required by the melter can be obtained. For example, there are processability constraints associated with electrical conductivity and viscosity. Acceptability constraints guarantee that the processed glass can be safely stored in a repository. An example of an acceptability constraint is the durability of the product glass. The primary control focus for satisfying both processability and acceptability constraints is the composition of the slurry. The primary mechanism for adjusting the composition of the slurry is mixing the waste slurry with frit of known composition. Spent frit from canister decontamination is also recycled by adding it to the melter feed. A number of processes in addition to mixing are used to condition the waste slurry prior to melting, including evaporation and the addition of formic acid. These processes also have an effect on the feed composition.

  13. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  14. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruminants are capable of converting low-quality food, when they are complementes with high-energy source. Through the use of regional agricultural residues is possible to conduct more economical production systems, since energetic foods have high cost in animal production. There is very abundant availability of residues in agroforestry activities worldwide, so that if a small fraction of them were used with appropriate technical criteria they could largely meet the needs of existing herds in the world and thus meet the demands of consumption of protein of animal origin. The Southwest Region of São Paulo State has large area occupied by reforestation and wide availability of non-timber forest residues, which may represent more concentrated energetic food for ruminant production. This experiment aimed to evaluate the acceptability of ground pine (20, 30 and 40%, replacing part of the energetic food (corn, present in the composition of the concentrate and was performed at the Experimental Station of Itapetininga - Forest Institute / SMA, in the dry season of 2011. It were used four crossbred steers, mean 18 months old, average body weight of 250 kg, housed in a paddock provided with water ad libitum and covered troughs for supplementation with the experimental diet. The adjustment period of the animals was of 07 days and the measurement of the levels of consumption, physiological changes, acceptability and physiological parameters were observed during the following 25 days. The concentrate supplement was formulated based on corn (76.2%, Soybean Meal (20%, urea (2%, Ammonium sulfate (0.4%, calcite (1.4%, Mineral Core (1% and finely ground Pine Cone, replacing corn. In preparing food, the formulas were prepared to make them isoproteic/energetic, containing the following nutrient levels: 22% Crude Protein (CP and 79% of Total Nutrients (TDN. The animals received the supplement in three steps for each level of cone replaced, being offered in the

  15. High Sodium Simulant Testing To Support SB8 Sludge Preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J. D.

    2012-09-19

    Scoping studies were completed for high sodium simulant SRAT/SME cycles to determine any impact to CPC processing. Two SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having sodium supernate concentration of 1.9M at 130% and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Both of these failed to meet DWPF processing objectives related to nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Another set of SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having a sodium supernate concentration of 1.6M at 130%, 125%, 110%, and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Only the run at 110% met DWPF processing objectives. Neither simulant had a stoichiometric factor window of 30% between nitrite destruction and excessive hydrogen generation. Based on the 2M-110 results it was anticipated that the 2.5M stoichiometric window for processing would likely be smaller than from 110-130%, since it appeared that it would be necessary to increase the KMA factor by at least 10% above the minimum calculated requirement to achieve nitrite destruction due to the high oxalate content. The 2.5M-130 run exceeded the DWPF hydrogen limits in both the SRAT and SME cycle. Therefore, testing of this wash endpoint was halted. This wash endpoint with this minimum acid requirement and mercury-noble metal concentration profile appears to be something DWPF should not process due to an overly narrow window of stoichiometry. The 2M case was potentially processable in DWPF, but modifications would likely be needed in DWPF such as occasionally accepting SRAT batches with undestroyed nitrite for further acid addition and reprocessing, running near the bottom of the as yet ill-defined window of allowable stoichiometric factors, potentially extending the SRAT cycle to burn off unreacted formic acid before transferring to the SME cycle, and eliminating formic acid additions in the frit slurry.

  16. [Feeding and aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Zaplana, Isabel; Maestre González, Elena

    2013-06-01

    Aging is characterized by an increase in relative population of 65 years and older, and can say that, in our country, it is a phenomenon demographic, political, social and health. Several studies have shown that the nutritional status of the general population and the elderly, in particular, is a valid indicator to predict longevity and quality of life of this group of people. The World Health Organization (who) pointed out that the elderly population is a group nutritionally very vulnerable as a result of anatomical and physiological changes associated with aging. Between 35-40 of the elderly has some kind of altered nutrition or malnutrition: protein or protein-energy malnutrition, selective deficiency of vitamins and minerals, inadequate water intake, obesity, etc. The best way to promote the quality of life and prevent disease is a proper diet, also called healthy eating, adapted to the special circumstances which older persons may present without forgetting gastronomy is not incompatible with health. In this article, some tips are also available for preparing and cooking food, as well as culinary strategies to introduce them in the daily menu.

  17. Newborn First Feed and Prelacteal Feeds in Mansoura, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%. The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0% and mother’s/mother in law’s advice (58.3%. The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father’s education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education.

  18. Feed preference in pigs: relationship with feed particle size and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solà-Oriol, D; Roura, E; Torrallardona, D

    2009-02-01

    In previous studies, we observed important differences in the feed preferences of pigs resulting from changes in only 1 dietary ingredient. The present experiment was conducted to study the relationship between the feed preference values of feeds reported previously and their particle size and texture characteristics. The effect of individual feed ingredients was studied when added to a common basal diet. In addition to the basal diet, which included rice, a soybean meal product containing 56% CP, sunflower oil, and wheat bran, a total of 126 diets were studied. Of these, 63 were prepared by replacing the rice in the basal diet with another cereal, 29 by replacing the soybean product with different protein sources, 19 by replacing the sunflower oil with different lipid sources, and 6 by replacing the wheat bran with different fiber sources. Cereals were studied at inclusion rates of 150, 300, and 600 g x kg(-1); protein sources were studied at 50, 100, and 200 g x kg(-1); lipids were studied at 15, 30, and 100 g x kg(-1); and fiber sources were studied at 65 and 130 g x kg(-1). The particle size profile of all the diets was determined by using a 9-screen sieve shaker. The geometric mean particle size, particle size uniformity, number of particles per gram, surface area (cm(2) x g(-1)), and percentage of fine (passing through a 250-microm sieve) and coarse particles (remaining in a 2,000-microm sieve) were calculated. The texture properties (hardness, fragility, chewing work, and adhesiveness) of the feeds were also determined by using a texture analyzer. The Pearson correlation coefficients of these variables with feed preference were as follows: geometric mean particle size (r = 0.07; P = 0.45), particle size uniformity (r = 0.16; P = 0.07), number of particles per gram (r = -0.05; P = 0.61), surface area (r = -0.07; P = 0.46), percentage of coarse particles (r = 0.04; P = 0.65), percentage of fine particles (r = -0.12; P = 0.19), hardness (r = -0.21; P = 0

  19. Feeding of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC to growing sheep: 2. Growth rate and feed efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Lubis

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of yeast and or filamentous fungi as feed additive to ruminants has been of interest since the late 1980’s. Two fungi species have been commercially produced in the United States, (1 Yea-Sacc containing living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and (2 Amaferm bearing Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract. It has been demonstrated and proven that the cultures can enhance rumen development and function in young ruminants. This paper concerns the use of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC as feed additive for young-growing male ‘Garut’ sheep. The A. oryzae was cultured in a media made of mineral-enriched ‘onggok’ flour, a material of tapioca processing waste. The AOFC was prepared gradually by incubating the fungus at room temperature (26 – 300C for 5 days, dried at 400C and ground. The AOFC was added to a commercial concentrate (GT-03 at 0, 5 and 10% (w/w levels, as treatment C0 (control, C1, and C2, respectively. Fifteen growing ‘Garut’ sheep were used and the concentrate feed treatments were randomly allotted based on a randomized block design. Drinking water was available at all time. The amount of feed offered (chopped King grass and concentrates and their refusals were weighed daily and live-weight of sheep was measured once a week in the morning. Daily feces was collected and weighed in the last 10 days of the 14-week experimental period. All feed and fecal samples were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, total fiber (NDF, and ash. AOFC supplementation resulted in higher weight gains (P<0.05, which were 94.81; 122.08; and 140.52 g/d for C0, C1, and C2 treatments, respectively. Dry and organic matter, as well as protein intake was also significantly increased by inclusion of AOFC into concentrate diet (P<0.05. The increment in nutrient intake was from increased consumption of concentrates, and not from King grass, however, there was no effect of AOFC supplementation on feed efficiency.

  20. Complementary feeding patterns in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A V

    2012-10-01

    There are far too many children in the world who suffer from under-nutrition and growth faltering, with life time consequences such as reduced work capacity, increased infections, impaired intellectual performance and an increased risk of non communicable diseases later in life. These changes occur early in life, and consequently, complementary feeding has been receiving increased attention in the international nutrition community. In India, common problems relate not only to insufficient breastfeeding, but also to detrimental feeding practices. Only about 20% of children aged 6-23 months were fed according to the three recommended Infant and Child Feeding practices. The most common types of solid or semi-solid foods fed to both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding children under 3 years of age were foods made from grains and roots. These complementary feeding practices were found to be significantly associated with poor socioeconomic status, undesirable socio-cultural beliefs, maternal illiteracy, and ignorance. Although many initiatives have been carried out in India to promote Infant and Young Child Feeding, the progress in reducing the number of undernourished children in India over the last decade has been slow and modest. Equally, with the growing evidence and interest in the role of infant nutrition in the development of over nutrition and non-communicable disease, it is important to plan appropriate complementary feeding interventions that result in optimal growth. Contact opportunities with parents, specifically mothers, must be used for counseling through multiple communication channels such as local media, in order to constantly educate the population with consistent and simple messages on child feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Difluoromethane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, A.; Sandt, E.J.A.; Van Bekkum, H.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9401574 (A) The invention relates to a method for preparing difluoromethane, wherein dichlorodifluoromethane or monochlorodifluoromethane is brought into contact with hydrogen in the presence of palladium on activated carbon, wherein the loading of the palladium on the activated c

  2. 9 CFR 89.5 - Feeding pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding pens. 89.5 Section 89.5... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.5 Feeding pens. (a) Stock pens and other enclosures for feeding, watering, and... same time, (2) properly designed facilities for feeding and watering the livestock, (3) reasonably...

  3. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including stereoty

  4. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  5. In vitro ruminal fermentation of treated alfalfa silage using ruminal inocula from high and low feed-efficient lactating cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to assess the effect of two additives on alfalfa silage and on in vitro ruminal fermentation when using ruminal inocula prepared from high feed-efficient (HE) and low feed-efficient (LE) lactating cows. Second and third cut alfalfa was harvested at 40% bloom stage, treated with con...

  6. Feeding the Monster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  7. China's Feed Companies Eye Safety Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's feed companies in China are looking to strengthen safety control substantially according to the highest international standard.The first step will be improving the feed safety control in the pre-mixture and compound feed production.The next step will be extending this control to the whole feed supply chain, covering feed ingredients and services like transport and storage.Besides, a joint program will be defined in cooperation with GMP+ International.

  8. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P < .0001). All 3 EFS handling techniques displayed low bacterial growth. RTH was superior in bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs. Since not all pediatric formulas are available in RTH, we conclude that refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  9. Occurrence and identification of yeast species in fermented liquid feed for piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Bjørklund, Marina Kryger; Canibe, Nuria;

    2011-01-01

    The major objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and identity of yeast species in fermented liquid feed (FLF) used for feeding piglets. In total, 40 different Danish farms were included in the analysis. The preparation and composition of FLF was found to be very heteroge......The major objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and identity of yeast species in fermented liquid feed (FLF) used for feeding piglets. In total, 40 different Danish farms were included in the analysis. The preparation and composition of FLF was found to be very...... typing techniques. The predominant yeast species in the FLF samples were found to be Candida milleri (58.4%), Kazachstania exigua (17.5%), Candida pararugosa (6.40%) and Kazachstania bulderi (5.09%). No clear separation between isolates of C. milleri and Candida humilis could be obtained based...

  10. An efficient petiole-feeding bioassay for introducing aqueous solutions into dicotyledonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Meng-Han; Gresshoff, Peter M; Ferguson, Brett J

    2011-01-01

    Introducing bioactive molecules into plants helps establish their roles in plant growth and development. Here we describe a simple and effective petiole-feeding protocol to introduce aqueous solutions into the vascular stream and apoplast of dicotyledonous plants. This 'intravenous feeding' procedure has wide applicability to plant physiology, specifically with regard to the analysis of source-sink allocations, long-distance signaling, hormone biology and overall plant development. In comparison with existing methods, this technique allows the continuous feeding of aqueous solutions into plants without the need for constant monitoring. Findings are provided from experiments using soybean plants fed with a range of aqueous solutions containing tracer dyes, small metabolites, radiolabeled chemicals and biologically active plant extracts controlling nodulation. Typically, feeding experiments consist of (i) generating samples to feed (extracts, solutions and so on); (ii) growing recipient plants; (iii) setting up the feeding apparatus; and (iv) feeding sample solutions into the recipient plants. When the plants are ready, the feeding procedure can take 1-3 h to set up depending on the size of experiment (not including preparation of materials). The petiole-feeding technique also works with other plant species, including tomato, chili pepper and cabbage plants, as demonstrated here.

  11. Floral arrangements and hummingbird feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, F Reed; Mercier, Theresa; Wolf, Larry L

    1983-05-01

    The influence of simulated inflorescence design on feeding behavior of 3 male Eugenes fulgens (Rivoli's hummingbird) and one female Lampornis clemenciae (Bluethroated hummingbird) was studied in the laboratory using artificial flowers. Five two-dimensional and three three-dimensional arrangements provided constant rewards per artificial flower. Visits to two-dimensional arrangements had more flower visits per feeding bout, proportionally more flower revisits, and shorter time between flowers than visits to three-dimensional arrangements. This suggests inflorescence design may influence pollen movement by hummingbirds.

  12. Priming the dairy cow for lactation: a review of dry cow feeding strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Friggens, Nicolas; Andersen, Jens; Larsen,Torben; Aaes, Ole; Dewhurst, Richard

    2004-01-01

    International audience; This paper reviews important aspects of dry cow feeding with emphasis placed on the preparation of the cow for the subsequent lactation. A number of feeding strategies, which have been proposed in recent years, are examined, alongside considerations of the effects of dry period length, levels of body reserves at calving and parity. A number of studies have reported the effect of varying the length of the dry period (in the range 0 to 70 days) on subsequent production a...

  13. Design bases: Bauxite-sulfuric acid feed facilities 100-K Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etheridge, E.L.

    1993-06-10

    This document defines the objective, bases, and functional requirements governing the preparation of detail design of the bauxite-sulfuric acid feed facilities to be installed in the 183-KE and KW buildings. These facilities will produce the chemical coagulant used in the treatment of Columbia River water in the water plants; they will replace existing liquid alum feed systems. The treated water will be used as reactor coolant.

  14. Role of the World Health Organization in the Promotion of Breast-Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Sterken, Elisabeth

    1990-01-01

    In response to the global decline in breast-feeding initiation and duration rates, the World Health Organization has produced several documents to assist governments and health professionals to reverse the trend. The WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes addresses the detrimental influence of promotional methods by the infant formula industry. The recent WHO/UNICEF statement Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Breast-feeding has been prepared to increase the awarenes...

  15. Impact of acetic acid concentration of fermented liquid feed on growth performance of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Anni Øyan; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2010-01-01

    of microbial metabolites, namely acetic acid, possibly in combination with low feed pH, has been suggested to be determinant in reducing feed intake by impairing palatability. However, this hypothesis has never been investigated. A study was carried out to determine the impact of increasing levels of acetic...... acid in FLF on feed intake of weaners. Three experimental FLF diets were prepared to contain varying levels of acetic acid (30, 60, and 120 mM). Twenty piglets per treatment, weaned at 4 weeks of age and housed individually, were fed the experimental diets during six weeks starting at weaning. Feed...... intake and body weight were registered weekly. The results showed that high acetic acid concentration in FLF, accompanied by a slight lower pH level, tended to decrease feed intake without affecting body weight gain. This discrepancy could partly be explained by the difficulty in measuring accurately...

  16. How Prepared is Prepared Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-Levy; Macleod; Rickert

    1996-10-01

    A 17-year-old female was in the final stage in treatment of right unilateral cleft lip and palate. She had undergone a number of previous surgeries. Hearing and speech were good on evaluation, and her social and family situation were deemed excellent. After preparatory orthodontics she underwent a Lefort I maxillary advancement. Surgery was successful and she was admitted into postoperative recovery. However, the lack of adequate preoperative preparation caused traumatic reaction from the patient and her parents: anxiety over appearance, crying, refusal of oral fluids and oral care, refusal of analgesia, and refusal to mobilize. The patience and persistence of hospital staff slowly overcame all adversities and the patient moved on to full and successful recovery, but this case prompted changes in preoperative procedures and involvement of patients and their families in postoperative meal selection, planing, and preparation.

  17. Local feed resources for poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    In poultry ‘no input’, ‘low input’ and commercial production can be distinguished. ‘No input’ implies scavenging poultry with some kitchen waste or crop residues as supplemental feed. Input is negligible and economic efficiency is high, provided there is any output. Commercial production is capital

  18. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were ap......:10.1038/ejcn.2013.165....

  19. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  20. Food and feed safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Paoletti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The general principles for safety and nutritional evaluation of foods and feed and the potential health risks associated with hazardous compounds are described as developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and further elaborated in the

  1. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  2. Child feeding and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  3. [Current views on breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, R

    1983-07-01

    One of the greatest advantages of feeding exclusively breast-milk is the continuous provision of immunoglobulin A, especially during the first days of life, and of leucocytes with macrophage function as well as unspecific, antiinfectious agents like lactoferrin, lysozyme and neuraminic acid. It seems, that the organism is protected against allergic reactions at the mucosa level of the small intestine caused by the penetration of "foreign" protein by feeding exclusively breast-milk especially during the first weeks and months of life. During the first months of the infant's life an increased supply of iron results from the higher content of iron in breast-milk as compared to cow's milk, and the better absorption of the iron from breast-milk. Just because of this (the better provision with iron from natural food) solid foods should not be added to the infant's diet before 6 months of age. One of the disadvantages of breast-feeding is the passage of unwanted substances from breast-milk to the infant. First of all the chlorinated hydrocarbons have to be mentioned within this context. However, a decreasing tendency can be assumed according to recent investigations. An increasing tendency in breast-milk, though not confirmed, seems possible only for the polychlorinated biphenyls. Nevertheless, for the pediatrician no reason to advise against breast-feeding results from the unwanted admixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons in breast-milk. One should rather vigorously propagate to feed as many children as possible exclusively with breast-milk over a period of 4 to 6 months.

  4. PROBIOTIC TRILAKTOBAKT IN FEEDING OF QUAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshchayev A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During experiments on quail it was found that use of Trilaktobaktis probiotic is characterized with the activation of major types of metabolism, including protein –by increase the total protein content (5.17% and mineral – by increase serum calcium and phosphorus (2.71 and 19.5%, respectively; by decrease of cholesterol content (10.6%. Probiotic stimulates erythro and hematopoiesis in quail: increase of the number of erythrocytes by 2.93% and hemoglobin by 2.57% was marked. Preparation enhances nonspecific resistance by increasing lysozyme and serum bactericidal activity by 47.4% and 149.6%.Besides, use of Trilaktobaktin diets increases digestibility of organic substance (5.74%, raw protein (3.95% and raw fiber (4.83%. Probiotics use in the diet of quail improves nitrogen digestion by 5.3%, calcium and phosphorus – by 1.4%. Under the influence of probiotics content of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteriain chyme of quail increases by 46.2%.Use of Trilaktobaktin quail breeding increases safety and live weight gain by 6.0% and 6.9%, reduces the cost of feeds to produce 1 kg of body weight by 7.4%, and carcass yield reaches 66.4%, providing 100% output of first category carcasses. Use of Trilaktobakt feed additive has a positive effect on the quality of meat products. Thus, carcass output was 57.1% and the amount of fat decreased by 14.4% (pectoral muscles and 12.7% (leg muscles relative to the control. At the same time protein content in the thoracic and leg muscles increased by 7.5% and 10.7%

  5. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2012-11-06

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  6. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  7. Fabrication and analysis of nano-structured thermal spraying feeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Xiong-lin; MA Shi-ning; LI Chang-qing

    2004-01-01

    A kind of thermal spray nanostructured Al2O3 and TiO2 feeds fabricating technology was investigated.Agglomerated nanogranules prepared by spray drying were heat treated in order to be dense, and there were two sintering technologies used, i.e. high temperature electric furnace sintering and high velocity flame sintering, respectively. The results indicate feeds phase components using high temperature electric furnace sintering at 1 200 ℃,1 300 ℃ and 1 400 ℃ do not change, and grain sizes of nano-Al2O3 and TiO2 grow little at 1 200 ℃ and 1 300 ℃,while grain sizes of nano-Al2O3 and TiO2 grow obviously, and the grain size of nano-TiO2 is larger than 100 nm at 1400 ℃. Phase components of the feeds using high velocity flame sintering change, where α-Al2O3 changes to γ-Al2O3 and rutile TiO2 changes to brookite TiO2, though grain size of nano-Al2O3 does not grow and is less than 100 nm because cooling velocity is too quick. Compared with these two heat treatment technology, the technology using electric furnace to treat nanostructured Al2O3 and TiO2 feeds is more suitable.

  8. Advanced Illness: Feeding Tubes and Ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the feedings may be difficult. There is some debate, for example, about whether feeding tubes actually extend ... pneumonia cannot, but people can now get a vaccination to prevent many kinds of viral pneumonia. Aspiration ...

  9. Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Year-Old Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk KidsHealth > For Parents > Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids ... When can I start giving my baby cow's milk? Before their first birthday, babies still need the ...

  10. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000712.htm Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  11. Live feed culture - Problems and perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The importance of live feed in aquaculture is stressed. Organisms currently cultured as live feed are microalgae, turbellarians, tanaidaceans, annelids, brine shrimps, fairy shrimps, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods. Their culture methods...

  12. Evaluation of Streptomyces as a Probiotic Feed for the Growth of Ornamental Fish Xiphophorus helleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Dhevendaran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Streptomyces as a probiotic feed for the growth of ornamental fish Xiphophorus helleri has been investigated. The Streptomyces strains used as probiotics were isolated from the marine sponges, namely Callyspongia diffusa, Mycale mytilorum, Tedania anhelans and Dysidea fragilis. Seven probiotic feeds were prepared and their effects were compared with those of control diet containing no probiotics. After 50 days of feeding trials, the growth parameters, namely absolute growth rate, specific growth rate, relative growth rate and feed conversion efficiency were found to be significantly (p<0.05 higher in groups that received probiotic feed additive than in the control, whereas feed conversion ratio was lower. The fish fed with probiotic feed showed significant improvement in length than the fish fed with control feed. Thus it was found that in addition to being effective antibiotic agents against harmful pathogens, Streptomyces could also promote the growth of fish effectively. Marine Actinobacteria, particularly Streptomyces, could thus be a promising probiotic in aquaculture.

  13. Effects of processing, particle size and moisturizing of sorghum-based feeds on pellet quality and broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia Garcia; Santos, Fabiana Ramos; Oliveira, Luana Martins Schaly; Oliveira, Nayanne Rodrigues; Moura Júnior, Fábio Ataides; Silva, Maura Regina Sousa; Cordeiro, Deibity Alves; Minafra, Cibele Silva

    2017-09-18

    This study aimed to assess the effect of pelleted and expanded sorghum-based feeds prepared with different moisture levels and particle size of ingredients on metabolizable energy, ileal digestibility of amino acids and broiler performance. The experiment was performed with 720 male broiler chicks of the Cobb strain, with treatments of six replications, with 15 birds each; they were arranged in a completely randomized design and 2 × 2 × 2 factorial scheme (pelleted or expanded feed processing, 0.8% or 1.6% moisture addition in the mixer, and particle size of 650 or 850 microns). Higher pellet quality (pellets, % and PDI) was obtained in expanded diets and inclusion of 1.6% moisture. The particle size of 850 microns increased the PDI of final diet. All studied treatments had no significant effect on weight gain and broiler carcass and cut yields. Lower FC occurred for birds fed pelleted feed at 42 d. The highest AME and AMEn values of feed in the initial rearing phase (10 to 13 days) were observed in birds fed pelleted feed or for feed prepared with 1.6% moisture. The highest ileal digestibility coefficients of amino acids were obtained with the consumption of pelleted feed prepared with a particle size of 650 microns and 1.6% moisture. Pelleted feed prepared with a milling particle size of 650 microns and 1.6% moisture provided increased ileal digestibility of amino acids and AMEn in the starter period. However, the expanded feed improved pellet quality and feed conversion of broilers at 42 days of age. We conclude that factors such as moisture, particle size and processing affect the pellet quality, and therefore should be considered when attempting to optimize broiler performance.

  14. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Kotlukov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6: 170–175

  15. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  16. Immunostimulatory effect of artificial feed supplemented with indigenous plants on Clarias gariepinus against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vipin Kumar; Rani, Kumari Vandana; Sehgal, Neeta; Prakash, Om

    2013-12-01

    The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts of Ficus benghalensis (prop-root) and Leucaena leucocephala (pod seed) was evaluated by measurement of zone of inhibition against pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. Control artificial feed and artificial feed supplemented with 5% powder of F. benghalensis and L. leucocephala were prepared. Juvenile Clarias gariepinus were divided into four groups, acclimatized to laboratory conditions and fed with respective feeds for 20 days prior to the experiment. Immunomodulatory response of supplementary feed was studied by challenging the fish intraperitoneally at weekly intervals, with A. hydrophila. One set of fish, not challenged with A. hydrophila was used as a negative control, to analyze any detrimental effect of supplementary feed, while positive control, comprised of challenged fish fed with non-supplemented feed. Other two groups of fish were challenged with A. hydrophila and fed with respective supplementary feeds. Blood was collected on weekly intervals for four weeks and serum samples were analyzed to evaluate the damage of fish by A. hydrophila through liver function tests. The increase in the levels of Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) in positive control group indicated the damage of liver & kidney. However the levels did not change significantly in fish fed with supplementary feeds when compared to negative control group. Nitric oxide, SOD, ALP and lipid peroxidase indicated lower stress levels in these fish compared to positive control. Fish fed with supplementary feed showed increased lysozyme activity and phagocytic index indicating an increase in non-specific immune response. The immunoglobulin levels of in serum were analyzed by homologous sandwich ELISA, which showed higher antibody production in fish fed with supplementary feed. The current study suggests conclusively, immunostimulatory role of F. benghalensis (prop

  17. Institutional feeding of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Not only is there a high prevalence of malnutrition among the elderly admitted to hospital and other institutions, but nutritional status seems to decline during admission, not only as a result of disease but also problems with catering and feeding policies, which are not well-geared to the needs of the sick. This results in high food wastage rates and inadequate macro- and micronutrient intakes to meet requirements. In the elderly, decreased portion size and increased energy, protein and micronutrient density have been shown to be effective in decreasing wastage and improving intake. Other strategies for improving intake are reviewed, including a better environment, a reduction in drugs causing anorexia, help with eating, and less interruption of meals by procedures and ward rounds. Targets for nutritional intake and aims of feeding are reviewed.

  18. [Updating enteral feeding by catheter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, T; Planas, M

    2005-12-01

    Intestinal nutrition can be administered orally or by means of a catheter; the latter method is the focus of this article. The authors' objective is to provide up-to-date information in a succinct manner about the enteral feeding technique. The authors hope health professionals know the advantages as well as the inconveniences of the latest intestinal nutrition advances regarding access ways and the means to administer these. Intestinal nutrition formulas will not be dealt with in this article. However, a health professional should know that there is a wide variety of diets available depending on the complexity of macronutrients included in a diet, the quantity of proteins in a mixture, and that these are designed, in addition to feeding, to treat the specific pathological process a patient suffers from, such as diabetes of cancer.

  19. Bacterial contamination of blenderized whole food and commercial enteral tube feedings in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M M; Sorreda-Esguerra, P; Santos, E E; Platon, B G; Castro, C G; Idrisalman, E R; Chen, N R; Shott, S; Comer, G M

    2001-12-01

    Hospital-prepared tube feedings from four Philippine acute-care hospitals were analysed for microbial contamination. Two feedings were prepared on three separate days at each hospital. The tube feedings were either blended natural whole foods or a reconstituted commercial powdered nutritional product. Samples of each feeding were collected for coliform count and standard plate count at the time of preparation and at 1, 2 and 4 h after preparation after maintenance at room temperature (26-31 degrees C). At the time of preparation, mean coliform and standard plate counts for all samples were 10.3 most probable number per gram (MPN/g) and 7.4x10(4)colony-forming units per gram (cfu/g), respectively. Nine of 24 samples (38%) had coliform counts greater than 10 MPN/g, and 22/24 (92%) samples had standard plate counts greater than 10(3) cfu/g. There were significant increases in mean coliform and standard plate counts over 4 h (P=0.0005 and P=0.008, respectively). At 4 h after preparation, the mean coliform and standard plate counts were 18.2 MPN/g and 2.1x10(5) cfu/g, respectively. At this time, 18/24 (75%) samples had coliform counts greater than 10 MPN/g and 20/24 (83%) samples had standard plate counts greater than 10(5) cfu/g. The results of this study show that the microbial quality of the majority of the hospital-prepared enteral tube feedings analysed were not within published guidelines for safety.

  20. PRODUCTS OF PROCESSING OF RAPESEED IN FEEDING OF FARM ANIMALS AND POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Коnоnеnко S. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic conditions of the import substitution, special importance is given to the search for new feed sources, methods of preparing them for feeding, the use of biologically active substances and enzymes. At the forefront of feed production is rape as breeding work with this culture has showed positive results. Currently, selectionists have bred yellow double-zero "00" varieties of rapeseeds free of erucic acid of "Canole" type, that have low glucosinolate level. The development of new and modern technology standards are required for preparation them for feeding, since they are fundamentally different from the previously used rapeseed varieties and have fewer restrictions for feeding to different types of farm animals and poultry. The article presents a fairly lengthy and reasoned review of the literature of a large number of authors on the topic, as well as given rapeseed market analysis, rational and advanced methods of preparing rapeseed processed products for feeding to young and adult animals. Much attention is paid to the use of a variety of biologically active substances and enzymes, which improve digestion and absorption of nutrients from rations with rapeseed processingproducts, increase productivity and reduce feed costs per unit of production. The use of processing products of rapeseed improves the profitability of livestock production. Feeding of rapeseedcake to cattle increases the protein content and volatile fatty acids in the rumen content, increases the number of infusoria and decreases ammonia levels. The inclusion of rape forage in diets of farm animals and poultry improves hematological parameters. Products of rapeseed processing of the varieties with low glucosinolatesa1re recommended for the rations of farm animals and poultry depending on the species, age and physiological state

  1. Prenatal office practices regarding infant feeding choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusdieker, Lois B; Dungy, Claibourne I; Losch, Mary E

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the obstetric care providers' roles in breast-feeding promotion during prenatal care. A questionnaire addressing breast-feeding issues was sent to family practitioners (FP), obstetric-gynecologists (OB/GYN), and nurse midwives (NM) in Iowa, USA. All NM, 97% of FP, and 85% of OB/GYN reported asking infant feeding preference-usually only at the first prenatal visit. NM (73%) were most likely to provide extensive breast-feeding counseling. OB/GYN (68%) and FP physicians (90%) reported doing their own breast-feeding counseling. Breast examinations targeting future breast-feeding problems were done in 82% to 84% of patients. NM practices shared more information supportive of breast-feeding. Nearly all providers offered prenatal classes, but only 41% of FP offered breast-feeding classes. Free formula samples were available in 73% of FP, 54% of OB/GYN, and 36% NM offices. Pamphlets on formula feeding and also breast-feeding were readily available. Overall NM (64%) reported being strong breast-feeding advocates compared to only 13% of FP and 7% of OB/GYN. In conclusion, little promotion of breast-feeding occurs in most prenatal practice settings.

  2. Feeding and Swallowing Dysfunction in Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Brown, Linda; Copeland, Sara; Dailey, Scott; Downey, Debora; Petersen, Mario Cesar; Stimson, Cheryl; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Children with genetic syndromes frequently have feeding problems and swallowing dysfunction as a result of the complex interactions between anatomical, medical, physiological, and behavioral factors. Feeding problems associated with genetic disorders may also cause feeding to be unpleasant, negative, or even painful because of choking, coughing,…

  3. A malfunctioning nasogastric feeding tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Cereda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A critical point of nasogastric feeding tube placement, potentially resulting in an unsafe and/or non-effective operation of the device, is the monitoring of its proper placement into the stomach. A properly obtained and interpreted radiograph is currently recommended to confirm placement. We reported the case of a 68-year-old demented woman referred for complicated dysphagia. A nasogastric tube was blindly inserted and its placement was confirmed by the radiologist. Enteral nutrition was initiated but the patient began to vomit immediately. After reviewing the radiograph it was understood that a gastric loop in the tube and its tip pointing upwards did not allow a safe infusion of the feeding formula. It is not enough having the radiologist reporting that a nasogastric feeding tube is placed in the stomach; the inclusion in the report of specific warnings on any potential cause of malfunctioning of the device should be considered. The presence of a gastric loop should be taken into account as a cause of potential malfunctioning.

  4. Analysis of feeding preference experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C H; Renaud, P E

    1989-03-01

    Published studies of consumer feeding preferences using foods that experience autogenic change in mass, numbers, area, etc., on the time scale of a feeding trial fail to employ appropriate statistical analyses to incorporate controls for those food changes occurring in the absence of the consumer. The studies that run controls typically use them to calculate a constant "correction factor", which is subtracted prior to formal data analysis. This procedure constitutes a non-rigorous suppression of variance that overstates the statistical significance of observed differences. The appropriate statistical analysis for preference tests with two foods is usually a simple t-test performed on the between-food differences in loss of mass (or numbers, area, etc.) comparing the results of experimentals with consumers to controls without consumers. Application of this recommended test procedure to an actual data set illustrates how low replication in controls, which is typical of most studies of feeding preference, inhibits detection of an apparently large influence of previous mechanical damage (simulated grazing) in reducing the attractiveness of a brown alga to a sea urchin.

  5. Sustainable production of green feed from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Miron V; Vidruk, Roxana; Herskowitz, Moti

    2014-03-01

    Carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form hydrocarbons was conducted on two iron-based catalysts, prepared according to procedures described in the literature, and on a new iron spinel catalyst. The CO2 conversion measured in a packed-bed reactor was limited to about 60% because of excessive amounts of water produced in this process. Switching to a system of three packed-bed reactors in series with interim removal of water and condensed hydrocarbons increased CO2 conversion to as much as 89%. The pure spinel catalyst displayed a significantly higher activity and selectivity than those of the other iron catalysts. This process produces a product called green feed, which is similar in composition to the product of a high-temperature, iron-based Fischer–Tropsch process from syngas. The green feed can be readily converted into renewable fuels by well-established technologies.

  6. Parent-reported feeding and feeding problems in a sample of Dutch toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with the

  7. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2017-02-01

    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  8. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  9. Feeding difficulties in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Morag J; Parr, Jeremy R; Sullivan, Peter B

    2012-12-01

    Feeding difficulties are common in children with cerebral palsy and have an effect on growth, nutritional state, general health, social interaction and behaviour and developmental outcomes. Many factors have an effect on feeding ability. Identification of these factors and amelioration of their impact on feeding difficulties is essential to promote adequate growth and nutrition. Appropriate assessment and management is best achieved by a multiprofessional team skilled in the care of children with cerebral palsy and feeding impairments. Feeding difficulties must be considered within the wider context of family and social circumstance.

  10. Infant feeding practices in a poor district of Santo Domingo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclennan, J D; Spady, D W

    1994-01-01

    During August-December 1989, in the Dominican Republic, local health promoters interviewed 103 primary caretakers and took anthropometric measurements from 103 children aged 3 years and under during home visits in three poor neighborhoods of Los Alcarrizos (Alto de Chavon, Barrio Landia, and Pueblo Nuevo) to examine infant feeding practices. 95% of the mothers had started breast feeding. The median duration of breast feeding was 7.5 months. Almost 33% had quit breast feeding by 3 months. Perception of insufficient milk was the leading reason for early discontinuation of exclusive breast feeding. The local pharmacies in all three communities offered powdered milk. About 25% of mothers began using breast milk substitutes within the first week. A non-infant formula milk powder was the most commonly used breast milk substitute. 30% of mothers stored prepared milk for later feeds, as long as half a day. Only 13% of households had a refrigerator. The most frequently used first weaning foods were orange juice, lime juice, and beans. 76% of mothers had used or were currently using baby bottles. 95% of them reported washing the bottle in boiling water. The median age of introducing the baby bottle was 3 days. Only 44% of mother covered prepared food during storage. The most commonly eaten foods among children aged at least 1 year were milk, beans, rice, and citrus fruits. Yet the children did not eat all these foods daily. 18% of 1-2 year olds and 13% of 2-3 year olds did not eat meats and alternatives regularly. 7% of 1-2 year olds and 10% of 2-3 year olds did not eat fruits and vegetables regularly. 4% of 1-2 year olds and 3% of 2-3 year olds did not eat breads and cereals regularly. About 14% of all children were not consuming any milk at the time of the survey. These findings will be used to refine nutrition education programs in the district to make them more effective.

  11. Cue-Based Feeding in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten, Cynthia H

    In NICU settings, caring for neonates born as early as 23 weeks gestation presents unique challenges for caregivers. Traditionally, preterm infants who are learning to orally feed take a predetermined volume of breast milk or formula at scheduled intervals, regardless of their individual ability to coordinate each feeding. Evidence suggests that this volume-driven feeding model should be replaced with a more individualized, developmentally appropriate practice. Evidence from the literature suggests that preterm infants fed via cue-based feeding reach full oral feeding status faster than their volume-feeding counterparts and have shorter lengths of stay in the hospital. Changing practice to infant-driven or cue-based feedings in the hospital setting requires staff education, documentation, and team-based communication.

  12. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    a Supplemental LAW feed simulant has previously been prepared, this feed composition differs from that simulant because those tests examined only the fully soluble aqueous solution at room temperature, not the composition formed after evaporation, including the insoluble solids that precipitate after it cools. The conceptual flow sheet for Supplemental LAW immobilization has an option for removal of {sup 99}Tc from the feed stream, if needed. Elutable ion exchange has been selected for that process. If implemented, the stream would need filtration to remove the insoluble solids prior to processing in an ion exchange column. The characteristics, chemical speciation, physical properties, and filterability of the solids are important to judge the feasibility of the concept, and to estimate the size and cost of a facility. The insoluble solids formed during these tests were primarily natrophosphate, natroxalate, and a sodium aluminosilicate compound. At the elevated temperature and 8 M [Na+], appreciable insoluble solids (1.39 wt%) were present. Cooling to room temperature and dilution of the slurry from 8 M to 5 M [Na+] resulted in a slurry containing 0.8 wt% insoluble solids. The solids (natrophosphate, natroxalate, sodium aluminum silicate, and a hydrated sodium phosphate) were relatively stable and settled quickly. Filtration rates were in the range of those observed with iron-based simulated Hanford tank sludge simulants, e.g., 6 M [Na+] Hanford tank 241-AN-102, even though their chemical speciation is considerably different. Chemical cleaning of the crossflow filter was readily accomplished with acid. As this simulant formulation was based on an average composition of a wide range of feeds using an integrated computer model, this exact composition may never be observed. But the test conditions were selected to enable comparison to the model to enable improving its chemical prediction capability.

  13. ART CCIM Phase II-A Off-Gas System Evaluation Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg; Jay Roach

    2009-01-01

    This test plan defines testing to be performed using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) engineering-scale cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system for Phase II-A of the Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) CCIM Project. The multi-phase ART-CCIM Project is developing a conceptual design for replacing the joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) with a cold crucible induction melter. The INL CCIM test system includes all feed, melter off-gas control, and process control subsystems needed for fully integrated operation and testing. Testing will include operation of the melter system while feeding a non-radioactive slurry mixture prepared to simulate the same type of waste feed presently being processed in the DWPF. Process monitoring and sample collection and analysis will be used to characterize the off-gas composition and properties, and to show the fate of feed constituents, to provide data that shows how the CCIM retrofit conceptual design can operate with the existing DWPF off-gas control system.

  14. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequat...... predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling....

  15. Breast feeding and infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G V; Calvert, L J; Kanto, W P

    1978-04-01

    Breast feeding is a management problem requiring knowledge of the physiology of lactation, maternal and infant nutritional requirements, and specifics such as drugs which enter the milk. The job of the physician is to allay anxiety; this helps establish the let-down reflex and increases milk production. "Caking," mastitis and even abscesses are not indications for weaning. Rest, warm compresses and frequent nursing are indicated. Breast-fed infants have less tendency to obesity than those who are bottle-fed. Early solid foods in the diet are not needed.

  16. Organic vegetable proteins and oil in feed for organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Jokumsen, Alfred

    not allow addition of artificial amino acids to the feed, and optimization of the amino acid profile of organically based diets must therefore derive from the protein sources alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the digestibility and growth performance of organic vegetable dietary ingredients......The demand for organic trout is increasing, stressing the need for organic, vegetable feed ingredients as replacement for fish meal, as the principles of organic aquaculture encourage the development of feed that do not deplete global fish stocks. In addition, the organic code of practice does...... as replacement for fish meal and fish oil in feed for organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Six iso-energetic and iso- nitrogenous diets were prepared, comprising a fish meal and fish oil based control diet and three diets in which the inclusion of fish meal was gradually reduced from 59 to 35...

  17. Growth performance, feed digestibility, body composition, and feeding behavior of high- and low-residual feed intake fat-tailed lambs under moderate feed restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei Sharifabadi, H; Naserian, A A; Valizadeh, R; Nassiry, M R; Bottje, W G; Redden, R R

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of moderate feed restriction on productivity of lambs classified on the basis of phenotypic expression of residual feed intake (RFI). In Exp. 1, 58 fat-tailed Kurdi ram lambs (32.1 ± 4.2 kg BW) were individually fed, ad libitum, a pelleted diet (35% alfalfa hay and 65% concentrate). Feed intake and ADG were determined for a 6-wk period and 3 feed efficiency measures including RFI, G:F, and partial efficiency of maintenance (PEM) were calculated. The lambs were sorted based on RFI and the 16 highest RFI (RFI ≥ mean + 0.5 SD) and 16 lowest RFI (RFI ≤ mean - 0.5 SD) lambs were subjected to body composition (BC) and DM digestibility (DMD) analysis. Feeding behavior traits (FB) were also evaluated for 24 h using a regular 5-min interval observation method. The high- and low-RFI lambs (14 lambs/RFI group) so classified in Exp. 1 were used in Exp. 2. Half of the lambs in each RFI group were randomly selected to be fed ad libitum or 85% of ad libitum (restricted feeding), which resulted in 4 experimental groups: 1) ad libitum high-RFI, 2) feed restricted high-RFI, 3) ad libitum low-RFI, and 4) feed restricted low-RFI. The lambs were fed the same diet as Exp. 1, and growth efficiency during a 6-wk test period as well as BC, DMD, and FB were also determined in Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, the low-RFI lambs consumed 14% ( feed than high-RFI lambs. Differences were also observed between high- and low-RFI groups for G:F ( = 0.01), RFI ( 0.72), and FB ( > 0.24). In Exp.2, the restriction feeding regime negatively affected ADG ( feed restriction condition. No effects of feed restriction on DMD ( = 0.87) and BC ( > 0.05) were observed. The lambs fed at the restricted level of intake presented a greater time ( feeding events were decreased ( feed restriction, no interaction ( > 0.05) was detected between RFI phenotype and feeding regime for FB. In summary, feeding high-RFI lambs at 85% of ad libitum level improved G:F with no effect

  18. Infant feeding: beyond the nutritional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselia A.P. Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. Source of data: A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. Synthesis of data: The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Conclusion: Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families.

  19. Infant feeding: beyond the nutritional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Giselia A P; Costa, Karla A O; Giugliani, Elsa R J

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  20. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  1. Aflatoxin Toxicity Reduction in Feed by Enhanced Binding to Surface-Modified Clay Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Zartman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal feeding studies have demonstrated that clay additives, such as bentonites, can bind aflatoxins in ingested feed and reduce or eliminate the toxicity. Bentonite deposits are found throughout the world and mostly consist of expandable smectite minerals, such as montmorillonite. The surfaces of smectite minerals can be treated with organic compounds to create surface-modified clays that more readily bind some contaminants than the untreated clay. Montmorillonites treated with organic cations, such as hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA and phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA, more effectively remove organic contaminants, such as benzene and toluene, from water than untreated clay. Similarly, montmorillonite treated with PTMA (Kd = 24,100 retained more aflatoxin B1 (AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than untreated montmorillonite (Kd = 944. Feed additives that reduced aflatoxin toxicity in animal feeding studies adsorbed more AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than feed additives that were less effective. The organic cations HDTMA and PTMA are considered toxic and would not be suitable for clay additives used in feed or food, but other non-toxic or nutrient compounds can be used to prepare surface-modified clays. Montmorillonite (SWy treated with choline (Kd = 13,800 and carnitine (Kd = 3960 adsorbed much more AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than the untreated clay (Kd = 944. A choline-treated clay prepared from a reduced-charge, high-charge montmorillonite (Kd = 20,100 adsorbed more AfB1 than the choline-treated high-charge montmorillonite (Kd = 1340 or the untreated montmorillonite (Kd = 293. Surface-modified clay additives prepared using low-charge smectites and nutrient or non-toxic organic compounds might be used to more effectively bind aflatoxins in contaminated feed or food and prevent toxicity.

  2. Effects from Feeding Ways during Preparing Li[Li0.2Co0.13Ni0.13Mn0.54]O2 by Carbonate Co-precipitation Method%碳酸盐共沉淀法制备Li[Li0.2Co0.13Ni0.13Mn0.54]O2中加料方式对产物性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜柯; 赵军峰; 王伟刚; 黄霞; 曹雁冰; 胡国荣; 彭忠东

    2012-01-01

    采用碳酸钠和碳酸氢铵作为沉淀剂和络合剂,在水溶液中共沉淀Mn2+、Ni2+和Co2+以获得混合过渡金属元素的碳酸盐沉淀前驱体Mn0.675Ni01625Co1625CO3.并进一步合成高容量锂离子电池正极材料Li[Li0.2Co0.13Ni013Mn0.54]O2.考察了3种不同加料方式对共沉淀前驱体的结构、形貌和元素比例的影响,以及对最终产物的结构、形貌和电化学性能的影响.%The precursor of Mn0.675Ni0.1625Co0.1625CO3 has been synthesized by a carbonate co-precipitation method, which was used to prepare a high capacity cathode material Li [Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 for lithium ion batteries. Three kinds of raw materials feeding ways during co-precipitation process were compared. The chemical and physical properties of the precursor and Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 have been systematically studied.

  3. Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials - trend analysis of monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; de Jong, Jacob

    2017-03-02

    This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time, for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring program and from representatives of the feed industry in the period 2007-2013 were used. Data covered the concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in The Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML), set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90(th) percentile concentrations of each of these elements per feed material or compound feed were investigated. Based on the results, monitoring for cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic should focus on feed material of mineral origin, feed material of marine origin, especially fish meal, seaweed and algae as well as feed additives belonging to the functional groups of (i) trace elements (notably cupric sulphate, zinc oxide and manganese oxide for arsenic) and (ii) binders and anti-caking agents. Mycotoxin binders are a new group of feed additives that also need attention. For complementary feed it is important to make a proper distinction between mineral and non-mineral feed because the ML in the latter group is usually lower. In seaweed/algae products a relatively large number of samples contained arsenic concentrations that exceeded the ML. Forage crops in general do not need high priority in monitoring programs, although for arsenic grass meal still needs attention.

  4. Changes in portal blood metabolites and insulin with feeding steers twice daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, L E; Wangsness, P J; Kavanaugh, J F; Griel, L C; Gahagan, J H

    1977-03-01

    Four Holstein steers surgically prepared with a device for sampling from the portal vein were used to examine changes in concentrations of metabolites and insulin in portal blood with scheduled meals. The animals were fed a complete mixed ration (3.4 kcal/g digestible energy) twice daily at three intakes. Blood was sampled at 30, 15, 10, and 5 min before feeding and at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after feeding began. Average intakes of food at 30 min for the three intakes were 0 (control), 889 g (restricted), and 1425 g (fed). Packed cell volume increased rapidly within 15 min of initiation of the meal in fed steers, but the maximum change from pre-feeding was 6.6%. Insulin increased within 5 min with the restricted intake and at 15 min in fed steers. Portal volatile fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate also increased within 15 min of initiation of the meal in fed steers, and glucose tended to decrease after feeding. Certain metabolites and insulin of portal bood changed rapidly with feeding. Additional studies are required to establish any role of these blood components in the short-term control of feed intake in steers consuming concentrate feeds.

  5. Brazilian infant and preschool children feeding: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santos Mello

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the feeding profile of Brazilian infants and preschool children aged 6 months to 6 years, based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of food and nutrient intake. Data source This review analyzed studies carried out in Brazil that had food survey data on infants and preschool children. The search was limited to publications from the last 10 years included in the LILACS and MEDLINE electronic databases. Data summary The initial search identified 1480 articles, of which 1411 were excluded after the analysis of abstracts, as they were repeated or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 69 articles assessed in full, 31 articles contained data on food survey and were selected. Only three studies concurrently assessed children from different Brazilian geographical regions. Of the assessed articles, eight had qualitative data, with descriptive analysis of food consumption frequency, and 23 had predominantly quantitative data, with information on energy and nutrient consumption. Conclusions The articles assessed in this review showed very heterogeneous results, making it difficult to compare findings. Overall, the feeding of infants and preschool children is characterized by low consumption of meat, fruits, and vegetables; high consumption of cow's milk and inadequate preparation of bottles; as well as early and high intake of fried foods, candies/sweets, soft drinks, and salt. These results provide aid for the development of strategies that aim to achieve better quality feeding of Brazilian infants and preschoolers.

  6. Feed grain improvement through biopreservation and bioprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Olstorpe, Matilda

    2008-01-01

    Fermentation is an environmentally friendly method to improve feed quality. Fermented liquid feed and airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain systems that are of increasing importance in agricultural practice were studied. Both rely on spontaneous microbial developments with poorly understood population dynamics, resulting in unpredictable final quality. Temperature, fermentation time and ingredients affected final properties of the feed. Molecular-based species identification showed that ...

  7. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  8. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  9. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported.

  10. Fur animal botulism hazard due to feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllykoski, J; Lindström, M; Bekema, E; Pölönen, I; Korkeala, H

    2011-06-01

    To assess the botulism hazard in fur animal feed production, 236 fur animal feed components and feed samples were analysed for Clostridium botulinum by detecting BoNT-encoding genes (botA, botB, botC, botE or botF) by PCR and for sulphite-reducing clostridia (SRC) by iron sulphite agar. The quality of the hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) -based in-house control system (IHCS) was evaluated with respect to botulism risk in feed plants (n=32). The overall prevalence of C. botulinum was 13% in different feed components and 5% in feed. The estimated MPN count of C. botulinum in feed components was 6.4 × 10(3)/kg at the highest and was shown to poorly correlate with SRC count. The critical control points in IHCSs were variable, and control limits were improperly set in most feed-producing plants. C. botulinum possesses a persistent safety hazard for fur animals by feed production, and control practices should be reassessed.

  11. Successful breast feeding: the mother's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M J; Morse, J M; Prowse, M

    1985-05-01

    A content analysis of 141 articles on breast feeding by discipline revealed differences in the factors considered necessary for breast feeding success and in the criteria used to determine success. Whereas medical articles focused on maternal factors prenatally and infant health post-natally, or the length of time breast feeding was maintained, lay articles focused on the relationship of the mother with her infant (the nursing couple) and the mother's ability to manage breast feeding within the family context. The implications of this discrepancy for nursing practice and research are discussed.

  12. Does explicit expectation really affect preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbach, Valentin J; Schwager, Sabine; Frensch, Peter A; Gaschler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Expectation enables preparation for an upcoming event and supports performance if the anticipated situation occurs, as manifested in behavioral effects (e.g., decreased RT). However, demonstrating coincidence between expectation and preparation is not sufficient for attributing a causal role to the former. The content of explicit expectation may simply reflect the present preparation state. We targeted this issue by experimentally teasing apart demands for preparation and explicit expectations. Expectations often originate from our experience: we expect that events occurring with a high frequency in the past are more likely to occur again. In addition to expectation, other task demands can feed into action preparation. In four experiments, frequency-based expectation was pitted against a selective response deadline. In a three-choice reaction time task, participants responded to stimuli that appeared with varying frequency (60, 30, 10%). Trial-by-trial stimulus expectations were either captured via verbal predictions or induced by visual cues. Predictions as well as response times quickly conformed to the variation in stimulus frequency. After two (of five) experimental blocks we forced participants by selective time pressure to respond faster to a less frequent stimulus. Therefore, participants had to prepare for one stimulus (medium frequency) while often explicitly expecting a different one (high frequency). Response times for the less frequent stimulus decreased immediately, while explicit expectations continued to indicate the (unchanged) presentation frequencies. Explicit expectations were thus not just reflecting preparation. In fact, participants responded faster when the stimulus matched the trial-wise expectations, even when task demands discouraged their use. In conclusion, we argue that explicit expectation feeds into preparatory processes instead of being a mere by-product.

  13. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  14. "Spoon-feeding" an AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Mainetti, Deborah; Colpi, Monica; Lodato, Giuseppe; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Evans, Phil; Moretti, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) occur when a star, passing too close to a massive black hole, is ripped apart by tidal forces. A less dramatic event occurs if the star orbits just outside the tidal radius, resulting in a mild stripping of mass. Thus, if a star orbits a central black hole on one of these bound eccentric orbits, weaker outbursts will occur recurring every orbital period. Thanks to five Swift observations, we observed a recent flare from the close by (92 Mpc) galaxy IC 3599, where a possible TDE was already observed in December 1990 during the Rosat All-Sky Survey. By light curve modeling and spectral fitting, we account for all these events as the non-disruptive tidal stripping of a single star into a 9.5 yr highly eccentric bound orbit. This is the first example of periodic partial tidal disruptions, possibly spoon-feeding the central black hole.

  15. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  16. A cultural understanding of Chinese immigrant mothers' feeding practices. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S L; Van Hook, Jennifer; Thompson, Darcy A; Jones, Shelby S

    2015-04-01

    Differences in parental feeding practices revealed across and within different ethnic/cultural groups indicate that cultural examinations of feeding practices in understudied non-European-American populations require urgent attention. China ranks as the second largest source country for children in foreign-born U.S. households. Contrary to the stereotype of slender Asians, Chinese-American young children are at high risk for obesity but have not received sufficient attention from researchers and practitioners dealing with parental feeding practices and childhood obesity. The present study aimed to understand food-related parenting practices among Chinese immigrants in the U.S. using qualitative focus groups. Twenty-two mothers with preschool aged children participated in a discussion regarding parent-child food-related interactions and feeding practices. A thematic approach was adopted to analyze the focus group data following five stages of framework analysis. Thirteen key themes of feeding practices were identified, including 9 that are in existing feeding measures (pre-exiting practices) and 4 practices that have not been documented or emphasized in previous feeding measures (culturally-emphasized practices), including regulating healthy routines and food energy, spoon-feeding, using social comparison to pressure the child to eat, and making an effort to prepare/cook specific foods. Through the use of an emic approach and meaning-centered evidence, the complexities of parent-child interactions and unique nuances of parental feeding in this understudied population were revealed. Our findings can guide future development of culturally-appropriate measurement and inform intervention programs to promote the healthy development of Chinese-American children.

  17. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouilhet, L; Monteville, R; Molette, C; Lague, M; Cornuez, A; Canario, L; Ricard, E; Gilbert, H

    2016-09-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (-5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (-5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (-0.08, P = 0.03 and -0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter. © The

  18. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  19. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  20. Reduction of Ochratoxin A in Chicken Feed Using Probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Śliżewska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins present in fodders may evoke health problems of animals and people. The data published by FAO in 2001 show that 25% of raw materials are contaminated with mycotoxins, while their type and concentration are to a great extent dependable on the climatic zone. Biological detoxification of mycotoxins by the use of microorganisms is one of the well-known strategies for the management of mycotoxins in foods and feeds. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of spontaneous fermentation and that with the use of probiotic bacteria and yeast on ochratoxin A (OTA concentration and the microbiota pattern during fermentation. The probiotic preparation is a natural product containing bacteria resistant to gastric juice and bile: [i]Lactobacillus paracasei [/i]LOCK 0920, [i]Lactobacillus brevis[/i] LOCK 0944, [i]Lactobacillus plantarum[/i] LOCK 0945, as well as live yeasts [i]Saccharomyces cerevisiae[/i] LOCK 0140 of high fermenting capacity. After 6-hour fermentation with the probiotic, in feed with a low concentration of ochratoxin A (1 mg/kg the amount of ochratoxin A decreased by 73%. In the case of high a concentration (5 mg/kg the decrease in ochratoxin A was lower at about 55%. This tendency was sustained during the following hours of incubation (12[sup] th [/sup] and 24 [sup]th[/sup] hours. The application of probiotic bacteria and yeasts resulted in the reduction of aerobic spore forming bacteria. It can be concluded that the probiotic preparation containing bacteria of Lactobacillus strains and yeasts [i]Saccharomyces cerevisiae[/i] used in the study was conducive to detoxification of ochratoxin A added to a feed.

  1. Reduction of ochratoxin A in chicken feed using probiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins present in fodders may evoke health problems of animals and people. The data published by FAO in 2001 show that 25% of raw materials are contaminated with mycotoxins, while their type and concentration are to a great extent dependable on the climatic zone. Biological detoxification of mycotoxins by the use of microorganisms is one of the well-known strategies for the management of mycotoxins in foods and feeds. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of spontaneous fermentation and that with the use of probiotic bacteria and yeast on ochratoxin A (OTA) concentration and the microbiota pattern during fermentation. The probiotic preparation is a natural product containing bacteria resistant to gastric juice and bile: Lactobacillus paracasei LOCK 0920, Lactobacillus brevis LOCK 0944, Lactobacillus plantarum LOCK 0945, as well as live yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae LOCK 0140 of high fermenting capacity. After 6-hour fermentation with the probiotic, in feed with a low concentration of ochratoxin A (1 mg/kg) the amount of ochratoxin A decreased by 73%. In the case of high a concentration (5 mg/kg) the decrease in ochratoxin A was lower at about 55%. This tendency was sustained during the following hours of incubation (12th and 24th hours). The application of probiotic bacteria and yeasts resulted in the reduction of aerobic spore forming bacteria. It can be concluded that the probiotic preparation containing bacteria of Lactobacillus strains and yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in the study was conducive to detoxification of ochratoxin A added to a feed.

  2. OUTCOME OF EARLY ORAL FEEDING AFTER ELECTIVE COLONIC ANASTOMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Outcome of early oral feeding after elective colonic anastomosis . STUDY DESI G N: Descriptive case series . PLACE & DURATION OF STUDY : Department of Surgery Mata Gujari Medical C ollege, Kishanganj, Bihar, India. From June 2012 - March 2014. METHODOLOGY: De tailed preoperative ev aluation of the selected patients was done. Patients with malignancies, heart disease, poor general conditions, distal loop obstructions were excluded from the series. In selected patient’s proper history, physical examination and base line investigations were done. Limited bowel preparation was done in all the patients. Postope ratively 15 - 50 ml of sips was allowed 2 hourly after recovery form anesthesia . Free oral fluid intake was allowed on postoperative day - 1 , semisolids on day - 2 and day - 3 as tolerated and full oral diet allowed on day - 4. In case of two episodes of vomiting and absence of bowel sounds , patients were kept nil by mouth and nasogastric tube was inserted . RESULTS : Total 68 pat ients were selected, out of which 46(67.64% were males and 22(32.36% females (M.F2.09 : 1 . The age range was from 28 year to 76 year wi th mean age of 47.5 +2.4 year . Passage of first flatus was observed between 2 to 6 days (mean 2.8 days , and the time of first passage of stool was 3 - 8 days (mean 4.6 days. Twelve (17.64% patients did not tolerate feeding . Intolerance to feed results into vomiting and abdominal distension. Postoperative complications included wound infection (10.29% , electrolyte imbalance (4.41%, respiratory tract infections (2.94%, anastigmatic leaks (1.47% and wound dehiscence (1.47% . The hospital stay was 3 - 8 day ( M ean 5.4 day . CONCLUSION : Early oral feeding after elective colonic surgery was safe and well tolerated by majority of the patients.

  3. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Plant. Information contained in this document consists solely of a machine drawing and parts list and purchase orders with specifications of equipment used in the development of the melter.

  4. Neurogenic inflammation in the upper digestive tract of the mule duck: effect of a chemical algogen and force-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servière, J; Carriere, M; Duvaux-Ponter, C; Guy, G; Roussel, S

    2011-12-01

    1.The objectives were to quantify the presence of neurogenic inflammation in 4 regions of the upper digestive tract of anaesthetised ducks (post-pharynx, pseudo-crop, transition between the pseudo-crop and the proventriculus, and proventriculus) after application of HCl stimulation of up to 4 M in the pseudo-crop. 2.The second objective was to quantify the presence of neurogenic inflammation in the same digestive tract regions as mentioned above during 4 feeding periods of foie gras production (rearing, preparation to force-feeding, and second and last meals of the force-feeding period). 3. Extravasation increased above a HCl stimulation threshold of 2 M. Furthermore, more extravasation was observed in the proventriculus compared to the other regions (P forced meal, compared with the rearing period (P force-feeding. 5.Such a kinetic could be indicative of a relative mildness of the irritant components associated with this feeding practice.

  5. Evaluation of dry feeding and liquid feeding to lactating sows under high temperature environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J S; Jin, S S; Jung, S W; Fang, L H; Kim, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Liquid feeding system has been introduced to domestic swine farms, but negative cognition about liquid feeding system has been remained for feed waste decay related with poor management and microbial contamination. For these reasons, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding method in lactating sows. A total of 30 mixed-parity (average 4.13) lactating sows (Yorkshire × Landrace) with an initial BW of 218.8 ± 19.5kg was used in a 3 week trial. Sows were allotted to 1 of 2 treatments in a completely randomized design by their body weight, backfat thickness, parity and alive litter weight. One of treatments was dry feeding and the other was liquid feeding (water to feed ratio, 1:1). Experimental diets contained 3265 kcal ME/kg, 12.6 % CP, 5.76 % EE, 1.09 % total lysine, 0.25 % total methionine, as fed basis. Dry feeding treatment had high body weight loss rather than liquid feeding treatment (P = 0.04). Dry feeding treatment had tendency to increase litter weight at 21d of lactation (P = 0.06) and litter weight gain (P = 0.04) during lactation period (0-3 week). Sows fed dry feeding method made milk containing high content of casein and total solid rather than sows fed liquid feeding method (P = 0.04). In addition, dry feeding treatment had tendency to higher content of milk fat, protein and solid not fat on 21d of lactation (P = 0.07). Sows fed dry feeding type also showed higher milk energy content in milk of 21d lactation (P = 0.05). Furthermore, liquid feeding treatment showed high occurrence in feed waste during lactation period (P sows under high temperature environment like lactating barn.

  6. Hematological profile of beef cattle with divergent residual feed intake, following feed deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo da Costa Gomes; Renata Farinelli de Siqueira; Michael Alan Ballou; Tiago Roberto Stella; Paulo Roberto Leme

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the hematological profiles of steers and bulls, according to residual feed intake (RFI), after feed deprivation. Twenty‑month‑old Nellore steers and bulls were fed feedlot diets for 70 and 56 days, respectively. RFI was calculated as the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake. More and less efficient steers and bulls, according to RFI, were subjected to 24 hours of food deprivation. Blood was sampled prior to a...

  7. CULTIVATION OF CLADOCERAN (CLADOCERA FOR INCREASING PROVISION OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO WITH NATURAL FEEDS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tuchapska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Natural feeds are important in pond fish diet because they contain all nutrients necessary for fish growth and development. The share of natural feeds in fish diet has great effect on fish growth and immunity, assimilation of artificial feeds. The main way of assured procurement of natural feeds for fish feeding at different stages of their development is artificial cultivation of aquatic organisms. However, cultivation of natural feeds is not virtually performed in aquaculture enterprises of Ukraine, therefore an analysis of available data on zooplankton cultivation is important for looking for optimal and economically profitable methods of enrichment of pond fish diet with natural feeds. Methodology. Methods of cladoceran cultivation were the object of the study, material for the study – literature data on ways and methods of zooplankton cultivation. Findings. Cultivation of various species of zooplankton is performed for feeding of pond fish on different life stages. Main object of cultivation in aquaculture is Daphnia magna Straus, juvenile forms of which are consumed by fish larvae, while adult organisms are the most valuable for yearlings and older fish. The efficiency of hydrobiont cultivation highly depends on the selected object, containers, where cladocerans are cultivated, optimum conditions, peculiarities of water supply, species, and application of fertilizers and feeds. Originality. The highest production of zooplankton can be obtained when cultivating D. magna in tanks with continuous flow and in net cages installed in ponds under condition of ensuring requirements of the culture in bacterial and algae feeds (due to application of fertilizers and feeding with feeds and microalgae taking into account their presence in water, which is in the tank-cultivator. Practical value. Simplicity of the methods and high efficiency of zooplankton cultivation for preparation of pond fish juveniles is the basis of its wide use in

  8. Insumos utilizados en la preparación de alimentos en producción porcina y su potencial de contaminación por dioxinas en la carne Feed materials used in the preparation of food in pork production and its potential for dioxin contamination in the meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Samsing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó la contribución de los diversos insumos utilizados en la alimentación de los cerdos, como fuente de contaminación de dioxinas, furanos y bifenilos policlorados similares a dioxinas (DL-PCBs de la carne, considerando las variaciones dietarias durante la recría, crianza y engorda. Las materias primas o insumos fueron separadas en diferentes categorías, elaborándose un conjunto de datos con los resultados de análisis mediante el bioensayo EROD/H4IIE (determinación de la actividad de 7-Etoxiresorufina -O-detilasa en la línea celular de hepatoma de rata H4IIE. Además se establecieron dos dietas tipo utilizadas en Chile, considerando los porcentajes de incorporación de materias primas, los cuales varían a lo largo del ciclo productivo del cerdo. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de la información contenida en el conjunto de datos, caracterizándose el comportamiento de las observaciones. Se propuso un modelo de transferencia, en que la carga corporal de dioxinas aumenta en forma proporcional al consumo de alimentos contaminados. Como resultados se obtuvo la media de contaminación más alta, expresada como equivalentes tóxicos de 2,3,7,8-tetraclorodibenzo-p-dioxina derivados del bioensayo EROD/H4IIE (TCDD-EQ/g, en las materias primas de origen mineral, con 16,21 pg TCDD-EQ/g, seguido por las mezclas de ácidos grasos (2,03 pg TCDD-EQ/g. Las concentraciones medias más bajas de contaminación se presentaron en las premezclas (0,29 pg TCDD-EQ/g y los aceites vegetales (0,35 pg TCDD-EQ/g. Respecto del modelo de transferencia, al evaluar la contribución de los diferentes insumos al total de contaminación de la ración, las materias primas de origen vegetal fueron las que más aportaron, debido al alto porcentaje en que éstas se incorporan en las dietas tipo. El segundo mayor aporte fue el de las materias primas de origen mineral.This study assessed the contribution of various feed ingredients used in

  9. Feeding problems in healthy young children: prevalence, related factors and feeding practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banchaun Benjasuwantep

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and factors related to feeding problems among normal children, and the differences in feeding practices between those with and without feeding problems. Caregivers of 402 healthy children aged between one and four years of age were interviewed by pediatricians involved in the research. Data included the child’s medical history, food intake within a day, and feeding behaviors and practices. Parental socio-economic and demographic information, as well as information on parental education and occupation, and their concerns about feeding their children, was collected. Physical examination and anthropometric measurements were taken. The percentage of children identified as having feeding problems was 26.9%. The first child of a family had an increased risk of having feeding problems [P=0.032, odds ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval (95%CI 1.04-2.71]. Children with feeding problems were fed less frequently, were less likely to be fed at their own table or at the family table, and had mealtimes longer than 30 min when compared with children without feeding problems (P=0.015, 0.004 and 0.025, respectively. The results highlight that feeding problems in normally developing children are common. During consultations about feeding issues, pediatricians should focus on families with a first child. Topics such as frequency of meals per day, duration of meal-times, and appropriate places for feeding should be discussed.

  10. The environmental impacts of the production of concentrated feed: the case of pig feed in Bretagne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, H.M.G.; Petit, J.; Sanders, J.

    2005-01-01

    Pig production systems often depend to a large extent on concentrated feed imported from outside the farm. This study used the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method to assess major environmental impacts associated with the production and on-farm delivery of concentrated feed for pigs. Feed composition

  11. The environmental impacts of the production of concentrated feed: the case of pig feed in Bretagne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, H.M.G.; Petit, J.; Sanders, J.

    2005-01-01

    Pig production systems often depend to a large extent on concentrated feed imported from outside the farm. This study used the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method to assess major environmental impacts associated with the production and on-farm delivery of concentrated feed for pigs. Feed composition

  12. Genetic parameters for feed intake and feed efficiency in growing dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, S.; Eekelen, van E.A.M.; Vos, H.; Nieuwhof, G.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Feed intake and feed efficiency are of importance in cattle breeding programmes. A divergent selection experiment on feed intake was carried out during three generations. Young performance-tested bulls were selected on high or low dry matter roughage intake. The effective phenotypic selection

  13. Leptin mediates discriminate response to feed restriction in feed efficient pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic mechanisms that control feed efficiency (FE) and feed intake are not well understood. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of FE, in which low RFI designates high FE. Transcriptional profiling coupled with serum metabolite analyses were used to identify genes and pathways that respond to ...

  14. An overview of methodologies, proficiencies, and training resources for controlled feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Marlene M; Ershow, Abby G; Clevidence, Beverly A

    2003-06-01

    Dietary intervention studies of human beings produce valuable information regarding dietary effects on biological processes and risk factors for chronic diseases. Using the well-controlled feeding approach, participants consume only foods that have been precisely prepared in a research kitchen, whereas in behavioral counseling studies, participants self-select their foods within guidelines. Because controlled feeding studies meticulously control experimental diets, they are intellectually and logistically challenging to conduct. They afford exciting opportunities for dietetic professionals in designing protocols, developing budgets, and collaborating in multidisciplinary research teams. Research dietitians use food composition data and chemical analysis of menus to prepare research diets with precision. They determine the energy requirements of subjects and adjust diets as required, most often for weight maintenance, throughout the study. All people involved in research must be attentive to the ethical treatment of the study participants while motivating them to adhere to the protocol requirements. Dietitians possess many of these skills, but may require training specific to well-controlled feeding studies. Information related to the conduct of controlled feeding studies has recently become more accessible. We provide an overview of well-controlled feeding study methodologies, proficiencies for planning and implementing these studies, and training resources.

  15. Diagnostics of the BIOMASS feed array prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Pivnenko, Sergey; Pontoppidan, Kennie Nybo

    2013-01-01

    The 3D reconstruction algorithm is applied to the prototype feed array of the BIOMASS synthetic aperture radar, recently measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility in Denmark. Careful analysis of the measured feed array data has shown that the test support structure...

  16. 78 FR 75515 - Veterinary Feed Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 514 and 558 RIN 0910-AG95 Veterinary Feed... Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend its animal drug regulations regarding veterinary feed directive (VFD..., Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-220), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl., Rockville,...

  17. 75 FR 15387 - Veterinary Feed Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 514, and 558 Veterinary Feed Directive... relating to veterinary feed directive (VFD) drugs. FDA's VFD regulation, which became effective on January... CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-230), Food and Drug Administration,...

  18. Quality assurance for animal feed analysis laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balthrop, J.; Brand, B.; Cowie, R.A.; Danier, J.; Boever, de J.L.; Jonge, de L.H.; Jackson, F.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Piotrowski, C.

    2011-01-01

    Every sector of the livestock industry, the associated services and the wellbeing of both animals and humans are influenced by animal feeding. The availability of accurate, reliable and reproducible analytical data is imperative for proper feed formulation. Only reliable analysis can lead to the gen

  19. 9 CFR 3.129 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.129 Section 3.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.129 Feeding. (a) The food shall be wholesome,...

  20. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eissen, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively

  1. Coplanar waveguide feed for microstrip patch antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. L.; Williams, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide (CPW) loop is shown to be an effective low VSWR feed for microstrip antennas. The low VSWR transition between the CPW and the antenna is obtained without the use of a matching circuit, and it is relatively insensitive to the position of the antenna and the feed.

  2. Parental perceptions of childhood feeding problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lucy; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Watkins, Beth; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    Previous research suggests that parental report of children's feeding corresponds with their child's nutritional intake (Cooke et al., 2006; Ekstein et al., 2010). The current study aimed to determine whether there is a relationship between parental report of children's feeding problems and their child's nutritional intake in a non-clinical population and, in addition, to establish whether parental anxiety (Cooke et al., 2003) can predict whether parental report of feeding problems correspond with the child's intake. Sixty-one parents of children aged two to seven years completed the parent report measure; the Behavioural Paediatric Feeding Assessment Scale as well as a food diary detailing their child's intake, which was analysed using CompEAT nutritional software. They also completed the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Previous findings of an association between parent report of feeding problems and child's intake (Cooke et al., 2006) were not replicated. However, an association was found between parents' anxiety and their reports of feeding problems. Parental anxiety was also found to independently predict whether parent report of feeding problems matched the child's intake. Findings highlight the importance of a multifactorial approach to understanding childhood feeding difficulties. This requires replication with a clinical sample.

  3. Analysis of phenolic compounds for poultry feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds have generated significant interest recently as feed additives that can impart bioactive characteristics such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal properties to a feed formulation [1-2]. Such natural compounds may offer some preventive benefit to the routine administra...

  4. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  5. Physiological basis for residual feed intake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herd, R. M; Arthur, P. F

    2009-01-01

    ...{at}dpi.nsw.gov.au Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency that is independent of level of production, such as size and growth rate in beef cattle, and thus is a useful new trait for studying the physiological mechanisms...

  6. EVALUATION OF THE MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION OF HOSPITAL-MADE ENTERAL FEEDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHIA ROSSI ROLIM LOPES

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: The quality of enteral feeding formulations prepared at hospital, which are intended for feeding children with malnutrition and diarrhoea, was investigated. A total of eight freshly prepared samples and ten frozen samples were analised. Five of the frozen samples were thawed in the hospital, and the other five in the laboratory, in similar conditions, i. e. in water bath at 50ºC. The freshly prepared samples showed mesophilic aerobic bacteria count varying between 10 to 104 CFU/ml. The presence of total coliform (three samples, fecal coliform (two samples and B. cereus (one sample was also detected. The samples thawed in the laboratory showed a satisfactory quality whilst the formulations thawed in hospital showed higher mesophiles counts and improper counts of S. aureus (two samples and B. cereus (one sample. These results were probably due to a erroneous manipulation of some untrained personnel and emphasize the importance to keep a permanent quality control to avoid the occurrence of contamination, specially for feeding formulations intended for populations at high risk. KEYWORDS: Enteral feeding; bacterial contamination; control.

  7. Robotic milking: Feeding strategies and economic returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Cabrera, Victor

    2017-02-16

    Cows in herds equipped with conventional milking parlors follow a structured, consistent, and social milking and feeding routine. Furthermore, in most cases cows in conventional herds receive all their nutrients from a total mixed ration, whereas in herds equipped with robotic or automatic milking systems (AMS) a fraction of their nutrients is provided during milking, mainly as a means to attract cows to the milking system. In this regards, AMS present both a challenge and an opportunity for feeding cows. The main challenge resides in maintaining a minimum and relatively constant milking frequency in AMS. However, milking frequency is dependent on many factors, including the social structure of the herd, the farm layout design, the type of traffic imposed to cows, the type of flooring, the health status of the cow (especially lameness, but also mastitis, metritis, among others), the stage of lactation, the parity, and the type of ration fed at the feed bunk and the concentrate offered in the AMS. Uneven milk frequency has been associated with milk losses and increased risk of mastitis, but most importantly it is a lost opportunity for milking the cow and generating profit. On the other hand, the opportunity from AMS resides in the possibility of milking more frequently and feeding cows more precisely or more closely to their nutrient needs on an individual basis, potentially resulting in a more profitable production system. But, feeding cows in the parlor or AMS has many challenges. On one side, feeding starchy, highly palatable ingredients in large amounts may upset rumen fermentation or alter feeding behavior after milking, whereas feeding high-fiber concentrates may compromise total energy intake and limit milking performance. Nevertheless, AMS (and some milking parlors, especially rotary ones) offer the possibility of feeding the cows to their estimated individual nutrient needs by combining different feeds on real time with the aim of maximizing profits rather

  8. Estimation of costs for control of Salmonella in high-risk feed materials and compound feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wierup

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Feed is a potential and major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal-derived food chain. This is given special attention in the European Union (EU efforts to minimize human food-borne Salmonella infections from animal-derived food. The objective of this study was to estimate the total extra cost for preventing Salmonella contamination of feed above those measures required to produce commercial feed according to EU regulation (EC No 183/2005. The study was carried out in Sweden, a country where Salmonella infections in food-producing animals from feed have largely been eliminated. Methods: On the initiative and leadership of the competent authority, the different steps of feed production associated with control of Salmonella contamination were identified. Representatives for the major feed producers operating in the Swedish market then independently estimated the annual mean costs during the years 2009 and 2010. The feed producers had no known incentives to underestimate the costs. Results and discussion: The total cost for achieving a Salmonella-safe compound feed, when such a control is established, was estimated at 1.8–2.3 € per tonne of feed. Of that cost, 25% relates to the prevention of Salmonella contaminated high-risk vegetable feed materials (mainly soybean meal and rapeseed meal from entering feed mills, and 75% for measures within the feed mills. Based on the feed formulations applied, those costs in relation to the farmers’ 2012 price for compound feed were almost equal for broilers and dairy cows (0.7%. Due to less use of protein concentrate to fatten pigs, the costs were lower (0.6%. These limited costs suggest that previous recommendations to enforce a Salmonella-negative policy for animal feed are realistic and economically feasible to prevent a dissemination of the pathogen to animal herds, their environment, and potentially to human food products.

  9. Disproportionate mosquito feeding on aggregated hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppa, Ivo M; Moore, Jerrilynn; Caillouët, Kevin A; Wesson, Dawn M

    2011-11-01

    Despite the importance of per-capita feeding rates for mosquito-borne transmission dynamics, the relationship between host aggregation and per-capita feeding rates remains poorly characterized. We conducted indoor experiments to investigate how Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) mosquitoes distribute their blood feeding on variably aggregated domestic chickens (Callus gallus domesticus L.) (one chicken vs. a flock of seven to nine birds). Mosquitoes were always more likely to feed on the larger chicken group; yet, the single chicken tended to be fed on at a higher per-capita rate. When 10 chickens were available the feeding intensity was 4.5 times higher for the single chicken compared with the flock. We conclude that more highly aggregated hosts may experience lower exposure to mosquito bites than less aggregated hosts.

  10. Emerging Risk Identification Support : Preparing for present and future hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, M.M.J. van

    2013-01-01

    Food and feed companies need to be well-prepared for hazards resulting from their products and production processes. TNO has developed a unique Emerging Risk Identification Support service (ERIS ) that identifies new and unexpected hazards and helps stakeholders make well-considered decisions at an

  11. Emerging Risk Identification Support : Preparing for present and future hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, M.M.J. van

    2013-01-01

    Food and feed companies need to be well-prepared for hazards resulting from their products and production processes. TNO has developed a unique Emerging Risk Identification Support service (ERIS ) that identifies new and unexpected hazards and helps stakeholders make well-considered decisions at an

  12. Simulated Waste for Leaching and Filtration Studies--Laboratory Preparation Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Harry D.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-10-27

    This report discusses the simulant preparation procedure for producing multi-component simulants for leaching and filtration studies, including development and comparison activities in accordance with the test plan( ) prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0 (Smith 2006). A fundamental premise is that this approach would allow blending of the different components to simulate a wide variety of feeds to be treated in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For example, a given feed from the planned feed vector could be selected, and the appropriate components would then be blended to achieve a representation of that particular feed. Using the blending of component simulants allows the representation of a much broader spectrum of potential feeds to the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP).

  13. Joint estimation for curves for weight, feed intake, rate of gain, and residual feed intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Just

    2013-01-01

    Rate of gain and feed efficiency are very important traits in most breeding programs for growing farm animals. Rate of gain (GAIN) is usually expressed over a certain age period and feed efficiency is often expressed as residual feed intake (RFI), defined as observed feed intake (FI) minus expected...... feed intake based on live weight (WGT) and GAIN. In any case the basic traits recorded are always WGT and FI and other the traits are derived from these records. A bivariate longitudinal random regression model were employed on 9284 individual longitudinal records of WGT and FI from 2827 bulls of six...

  14. Decision Points: The factors influencing the decision to feed in the medicinal leech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eGaudry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The decision to feed is a complex task that requires several small independent choices. Am I hungry? Where do I look for food? Is there something better I’d rather be doing? When should I stop? With all of these questions, it is no wonder that decisions about feeding depend on several sensory modalities and that the influences of these sensory systems would be evident throughout the nervous system. The leech is uniquely well suited for studying these complicated questions due to its relatively simple nervous system, its exceptionally well-characterized behaviors and neural circuits, and the ease with which one can perform semi-intact preparations to study the link between physiology and decision-making. We will begin this review by discussing the cellular substrates that govern the decision to initiate and to terminate a bout of feeding. We will then discuss how feeding temporarily blocks competing behaviors from being expressed while the animal continues to feed. Then we will review what is currently known about how feeding affects long-term behavioral choices of the leech. Finally, we conclude with a short discussion of the advantages of the leech’s decision-making circuit’s design and how this design might be applicable to all decision circuits.

  15. Feeding Problems in Children with Cerebral Palsy and the Effect of Feeding Problems on Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Tarsuslu Şimşek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine of feeding problems and the effect of feeding problems on growth in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Materials and Methods: The study was included 278 children who have cerebral palsy. Socio-demographic data and clinical characteristics and feeding problems of the children were recorded. Gross motor function levels and anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, knee length, upper arm length, mid upper arm area, arm and thigh circumferences, arm and forearm length, tibia length, triceps and subscapular skin-fold thickness were taken. Results: Average age of the children was 8.50±4.49 years. 130 (46.8% of the children have had feeding problems and 148 (53.2% have had no feeding problems. Feeding problems were more in children with moderate and severe disability then mild disability (p<0.05. Most common feeding problems were difficulty in swallowing, vomiting, aspiration, difficulty in chewing, slaver and difficulty in holding of food in mouth. There was a significant different between weight, height, body weight, height, knee length, upper arm length, mid upper arm area, arm and thigh circumferences, upper extremities length (arm and forearm length, tibia length, triceps and subscapular skin-fold thickness in children who have feeding problems and have not feeding problem (p<0.05. Conclusions: Periodic anthropometric measurements is most important factors in early determine of feeding problems and feeding deficiency in children with CP and should be considered in the process of rehabilitation.

  16. Demand-feeding rhythms and feeding-entrainment of locomotor activity rhythms in tench (Tinca tinca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M J; Pascual, M; Madrid, J A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2005-03-31

    Tench (Tinca tinca) has been described as a strictly nocturnal species whose locomotor activity rhythms, albeit strongly synchronised by light, have an endogenous nature. Aside from light, a number of other environmental factors, such as mealtime, can act as circadian system synchronisers in fish; however, there is a scarcity of information on tench feeding rhythms. This study describes daily self-feeding rhythms in tench, and analyses the role of feeding time on synchronisation of locomotor activity rhythms. Tench were able to operate string sensor-activated self-feeders, and they displayed a strictly nocturnal behavior, both under indoor and outdoor conditions. Locomotor activity remained strictly nocturnal irrespective of whether tench were fed only during the scotophase (D-feeding) or the photophase (L-feeding). However, no statistically significant differences were detected between both groups in terms of food intake or growth performance. Furthermore, unlike L-feeding, D-feeding elicited a clear anticipatory activity (FAA). When tench were given the possibility of feeding at both times of the day, they showed a clear preference for D-feeding. Finally, in fish exposed to constant darkness (DD), feeding time acted as a true zeitgeber and FAA was observed. When animals were fasted under DD conditions, locomotor activity free-run and 6 out of 12 individuals yielded significant results in the periodogram analysis. Under DD, fish resynchronised when regular food was resumed, with some tench displaying FAA. The obtained results indicated the existence of a feeding-entrainable oscillator (FEO) in tench.

  17. Material awareness on natural feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Plagens-Rotman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Natural breastfeeding is the only proper way to feed newborns and infants because it ensures their proper development. Breastfeeding enhances health and protects against the development of many diseases in childhood and adulthood. The primary benefits of breastfeeding include reduced incidences of infection in the respiratory system as well as a reduction in gastrointestinal and systemic infections. The benefits of breastfeeding also include decreased inflammation and improved immunity to disease in the infant. Further benefits of breastfeeding are reduced incidences of type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. objective. The aim of the study was to assess the degree of knowledge on maternal breastfeeding among current expecting mothers. materials and method. The study comprtisded 147 mothers hospitalized in the Gynecology-Obstetrics Hospital University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland, during late July – August 2012. results. For 139 (93.88% of the surveyed women, breastfeeding was a priority regarding the health of the child. Respondents most often used professional literature in order to gain knowledge about breastfeeding (63.27%. The least popular way of acquiring knowledge was through the media (27.21%. conclusions. Analysis of the collected material on the surveyed women showed that women have a diverse range of knowledge about breastfeeding. Currently, breastfeeding is required to be promoted and supported by midwives, paediatricians and other health professionals.

  18. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Jiacai; Guo, Jiao; Chen, Lei; Qi, Desheng; Zhang, Niya

    2016-06-01

    Between 2012 and 2014, 2528 feed ingredient and complete feed samples were collected from central China. Numbers of 2083, 255 and 190 samples were analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON), respectively, by high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with UV or fluorescence detection. The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 33.9%, 90.2% and 77.4%, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for AFB1 ranged from 13.1% to 97.1%. Cottonseed meal presented the most serious contamination by AFB1. ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 50% to 100%, indicating serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. This study demonstrates that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feeds in central China is serious and differs over the years. Feeds are mostly contaminated with ZEN, followed by DON and AFB1.

  19. The effect of combined preparation, probiotic and phytase on performance parameters and vitality of weaned piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FESTIM SHYTAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A combined preparation with probiotic Schaumalac F 80M BONVITAL 4b 1841 (2,5 x 1010 KBE Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134 and phytase was supplemented to a basal ration with 4%. The effects on growth performance on thirty five weaned piglets/each group were studied for thirty days experimental period. The supplementation of combined preparation improved slightly Daily Weight Gain (DWG, Feed Consumption (FC and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, kg feed/kg weight gain. At the end of experimental period, daily weight gain was increased 6% more and feed conversion ratio was decreased 3.4%, compared to the control group or without supplementation. The results indicate that the combined preparation may be less suppressive to the Escherichia coli. Overall a positive effect of the probiotic and phytase on growth performance was observed.

  20. A self-paced oral feeding system that enhances preterm infants' oral feeding skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C; Fucile, S; Schanler, R J

    2015-06-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have difficulty transitioning to independent oral feeding, be they breast- or bottle-feeding. We developed a 'self-paced' feeding system that eliminates the natural presence of the positive hydrostatic pressure and internal vacuum build-up within a bottle during feeding. Such system enhanced these infants' oral feeding performance as monitored by overall transfer (OT; % ml taken/ml prescribed), rate of transfer (RT; ml/min over an entire feeding). This study hypothesizes that the improvements observed in these infants resulted from their ability to use more mature oral feeding skills (OFS). 'Feeders and growers' born between 26-29 weeks gestation were assigned to a control or experimental group fed with a standard or self-paced bottle, respectively. They were monitored when taking 1-2 and 6-8 oral feedings/day. OFS was monitored using our recently published non-invasive assessment scale that identifies 4 maturity levels based on infants' RT and proficiency (PRO; % ml taken during the first 5 min of a feeding/total ml prescribed) during bottle feeding. Infants oral feeding outcomes, i.e., OT, RT, PRO, and OFS maturity levels were enhanced in infants fed with the self-paced vs. standard bottle (p ≤ 0.007). The improved oral feeding performance of VLBW infants correlated with enhanced OFS. This study is a first to recognize that VLBW infants' true OFS are more mature than recognized. We speculate that the physical properties inherent to standard bottles that are eliminated with the self-paced system interfere with the display of their true oral feeding potential thereby hindering their overall oral feeding performance.

  1. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-05-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during

  2. Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision. PMID:25024606

  3. Gastroenteric tube feeding: techniques, problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-07-14

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision.

  4. Practical Recommendations on Supplemental Feeding Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of a national consensus document describing in detail modern approaches to feeding infants, pediatricians keep on giving most diverse recommendations on the time of supplemental feeding introduction. The article presents a brief historical review, as well the modern view on the issue of introduction of supplemental feeding to children. In the previous century, it was common both in Russia and most European countries to introduce supplemental feeding to children at the age of 2 or even 1.5 months. In 2002, the World Health Organization put forward an initiative in support of breastfeeding and recommended not to introduce supplemental feeding before the age of 6 months. A certain “golden mean” has apparently been achieved on the basis of results of studies and a longterm discussion among the specialists in feeding from different countries — all scientific communities and national recommendations of most countries define the optimal age for supplemental feeding introduction as “from 4 (completed months to 6 (completed months” with certain individual approach. 

  5. Poultry offal meal in broiler chicken feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edney Pereira da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An outstanding feature of poultry production that provides animal protein yield for human feeding is its short production cycle. This characteristic has a linear relationship with waste production. Increasing the inclusion of this residue in diets in the near future is desirable in step with the growth of poultry production since it offers a better environmental and nutritional alternative to current methods. We evaluated the effects on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens produced by the inclusion of poultry offal meal (POM in their feed. Treatments consisted of a control diet (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max and four diets with inclusion of 30, 60, 90 and 120 g kg-1 of POM. The diets were formulated based on the level of digestible amino acid once categorized as isocalcic, isophosphoric, isosodic, isoenergetic and isonutritive for protein, methionine+cystine, lysine and threonine. The feed's electrolytes were corrected so that each diet had the same electrolytic balance. The variables analyzed were feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, body weight, carcass yield, chicken cut yield and abdominal fat. Feed intake was not affected by the quantities of POM added. The weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield and noble cuts presented quadratic responses to the treatments. Abdominal fat increased linearly. The performance of the poultry, and carcass characteristics were maximized by the inclusion of 53 and 65 g kg-1, respectively, of POM in the diet, and the inclusion of 120 g kg-1 of POM provided greater disposition of abdominal fat.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL FEED ADDITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysenko Y. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The new feed additives for animals based on milk whey, enriched with sprouting wheat, barley, maize grains and lactic-acid bacterium have been presented in this article. This study explores the possibility of combining the prebiotics ability of milk whey and sprouting grains with feed probiotic attributes of microbe to enhance gut health of animals and digestibility of the feed. Twelve variants of products were tested in the study using the microbial and physical-chemical approaches. All the assays showed high count of microorganism and high content of reducing sugar. The results of investigation indicate that selected feed additive show high quality. An additional point is that it contains useful organic acids (lactic, acetic and propionic acids and 2,1×109 colony-forming unit of probiotics microorganism that hold the concentration for 4 months. There are not yeast, must, coliform bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus in the developed functional feed product. It contributes to the normalization of the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of animal, suppression of conditionally pathogenic and putrefactive microflora. The elaborated feed component will help to provide combined feed companies with accessible high-quality raw material

  7. Air flow exploration of abrasive feed tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shijin; Li, Xiaohong; Gu, Yilei

    2009-12-01

    An abrasive water-jet cutting process is one in which water pressure is raised to a very high pressure and forced through a very small orifice to form a very thin high speed jet beam. This thin jet beam is then directed through a chamber and then fed into a secondary nozzle, or mixing tube. During this process, a vacuum is generated in the chamber, and garnet abrasives and air are pulled into the chamber, through an abrasive feed tube, and mixes with this high speed stream of water. Because of the restrictions introduced by the abrasive feed tube geometry, a vacuum gradient is generated along the tube. Although this phenomenon has been recognized and utilized as a way to monitor nozzle condition and abrasive flowing conditions, yet, until now, conditions inside the abrasive feed line have not been completely understood. A possible reason is that conditions inside the abrasive feed line are complicated. Not only compressible flow but also multi-phase, multi-component flow has been involved in inside of abrasive feed tube. This paper explored various aspects of the vacuum creation process in both the mixing chamber and the abrasive feed tube. Based on an experimental exploration, an analytical framework is presented to allow theoretical calculations of vacuum conditions in the abrasive feed tube.

  8. Dielectric rod feed for compact range reflector

    CERN Document Server

    Balabukha, Nikolay P; Shapkina, Natalia E

    2014-01-01

    A dielectric rod feed with a special radiation pattern of a tabletop form used for the compact range reflector is developed and analyzed. Application of this feed increases the size of the compact range quiet zone generated by the reflector. The feed consists of the dielectric rod made of polystyren, the rod is inserted into the circular waveguide with a corrugated flange. The waveguide is excited by the H11-mode. The rod is covered by the textolite biconical bushing and has a fluoroplastic insert in the vicinity of the bushing. Mathematical modeling was used to obtain the parameters of the feed for the optimal tabletop form of the radiation pattern. The problem of the electromagnetic radiation was solved for metal-dielectric bodies of rotation by method of integral equations with further solving of the problem of the synthesis for feed parameters. The dielectric rod feed was fabricated for the X-frequency range. Feed amplitude and phase patterns were measured in the frequency range 8.2-12.5 GHz. Presented re...

  9. Effects of feeding level and access to rooting material on behaviour of growing pigs in situations with reduced feeding space and delayed feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2010-01-01

    Seventy-two pigs, housed in groups of four, were allocated to either (1) ad libitum feeding with access to wood chip, (2) restrictive feeding with access to wood chip or (3) restrictive feeding without access to wood chip. The effects of feeding level (treatment 1 vs. 2) and access to wood chip (...

  10. Factors associated with infant feeding practices and nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with infant feeding practices and nutritional status among children ... and practices on infant feeding, socio-demographic factors that influence choice of ... refusal by the child to breastfeed or feeding on complementary food.

  11. Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old KidsHealth > For ... help with the transition from the bottle . continue Feeding Safety Never leave your baby unattended while eating ...

  12. Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest formula more slowly, so if you're bottle-feeding, your baby may have fewer feedings than a ... pour out. Also, resist the urge to finish feeding the bottle when your baby shows those signs of being ...

  13. Dissection of Koch's residual feed intake: implications for selection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aggrey, Samuel E; Rekaya, Romdhane

    2013-01-01

    For 50 yr, residual feed intake (RFI) has remained a black box even though many researchers have touted it as a more biological estimate of efficiency of feed utilization than feed conversion ratio (FCR...

  14. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...

  15. Behavioral Management of Feeding Disorders of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Alan H

    2015-01-01

    Feeding disorders, characterized by suboptimal intake and/or lack of age-appropriate eating habits, are common and may be seen in up to 45% of children. Feeding disorders are a significant concern to both the affected families and to the providers who treat them. Fortunately, there are well-established behavioral treatments which have been shown to be highly efficacious. This article provides an overview of behavioral assessment and treatment of pediatric feeding disorders, provides guidance in treatment planning, and provides information which may be useful in considering if additional psychological consultation may be beneficial.

  16. About Animal Husbandry and Feed Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Animal Husbandry and Feed Science is published to introduce the research achievements of animal husbandry and veterinary workers to the world,enhance their chances to participate in international academic exchange,and promote development of animal husbandry and veterinary.In 2009,Wu Chu(USA-China)Science&Culture Media Co.(Cranston,USA)and Anhui Wuchu Science,Technology and Culture Communication Co.,Ltd(Hefei,China)issued the journal Animal Husbandry and Feed Science(ISSN 1943-9911).The main content is basic theory and applied research about animal husbandry,veterinary,feed science and other related fields.The journal covers many research areas

  17. Effect of selection for residual feed intake on feeding behavior and daily feed intake patterns in Yorkshire swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J M; Cai, W; Dekkers, J C M

    2011-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency defined as the difference between observed and predicted feed intake based on average requirements for growth and maintenance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of selection for decreased RFI on feeding behavior traits and to estimate their relationships with RFI. Three data sets from the 4th and 5th generations of a selection experiment with a line selected for reduced RFI (LRFI) and a randomly selected control line (CTRL) were analyzed. Lines were mixed in pens of 16 and evaluated for feeding behavior traits obtained from a single-space electronic feeder over a growing period of ~3 mo before ~115 kg. The following traits were evaluated as averages over the entire test period and over the first and second half of the test period: number of visits per day and hour; occupation time per day, visit, and hour; feed intake (FI) per day, visit, and hour; and FI rate per visit. Models used included fixed effects of line and feeder, covariates of on-test age and FI per day, and random effects of pen, on-test group, sire, and litter. Repeated measures models were used to analyze feeding patterns during the day. The LRFI pigs had significantly less FI per day than CTRL pigs for all 3 data sets. With adjustment for FI per day, line differences of all traits were in the same direction for all 3 data sets but differed in significance and size. Feed intake per visit and hour and visits per day and hour did not differ between lines, but the trend was for LRFI pigs to have fewer visits, in particular during peak eating times. The LRFI pigs had a greater feeding rate and less occupation time per day, visit, and hour than CTRL pigs, but this was not significant for all data sets. Correlations of RFI with FI per day and visit and visits per day were positive. Average daily gain was positively correlated with FI per day and visit and occupation time per visit but negatively correlated with visits per day

  18. Responsive Feeding: Strategies to Promote Healthy Mealtime Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Hurley, Kristen M

    2017-01-01

    Responsive feeding is a derivative of responsive parenting that has been applied to infant and young child feeding. With a theoretical basis in the reciprocal interactions between parents and children, responsive feeding is particularly relevant during complementary feeding as young children progress from an exclusively milk-based liquid diet to the family diet and self-feeding. The period of complementary feeding includes multiple developmental changes that may threaten a successful transition and lead to growth and feeding problems. In spite of high rates of global childhood underweight, stunting, overweight, and obesity, and the inclusion of responsive feeding in the World Health Organization's Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, there have been few intervention trials of responsive feeding. The aim of this chapter is to examine how parents and young children navigate the progression in feeding, with an emphasis on complementary feeding, and to address the following topics: (1) navigating the progression of feeding development, (2) provision of responsive feeding, (3) preventing or resolving growth and feeding problems, (4) responsive feeding research, and (5) strategies to promote healthy mealtime interactions. To advance responsive feeding research and practice, clarity is needed in both measurement and intervention strategies, guided by the reciprocity between parent and child interactions inherent in the theoretical basis of responsive feeding. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Using feed additives as a way to improve growth performance in weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festim Shytaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A combined probiotic preparation of 1x109 CFU/kg, Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134 and 2x109 CFU/kg Saccharomyces cerevisiae E 1703 was supplemented to a basal diet with 1g/kg feed. The effects on growth performance, on thirty weaned piglets (28 days were studied for six weeks experimental period. At the end of experimental period the supplementation of combined probiotic improved slightly Daily Weight Gain (DWG g/day (2.7% and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, kg feed/kg weight gain (4.4%. Because of the high coefficient of variations the differences were not significant. Based on the achieved results in the present investigations, it could be concluded that the utilization of probiotis led to an improvement of the production parameters in pigs, especially under the extensive farm conditions.

  20. UPLC-MS/MS method for determination of selected pyrrolizidine alkaloids in feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolechová, Martina; Cáslavský, Josef; Pospíchalová, Markéta; Kosubová, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Alkaloids known as secondary metabolites are grouped by typical structural characteristics into large families such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) comprising more than 350 individual heterocyclic compounds. The PAs present a serious health risk to human and livestock; hence there is a need for methods that allow these dangerous plant toxins to be determined. In this study, a fast, reliable and sensitive approach is proposed to identify and quantify PAs in feed samples. PAs including monocrotaline, senkirkine, senecionine, seneciphylline and retrorsine were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Sample preparation was based on a modified QuEChERS approach. The mean recovery, precision, matrix effects and limits of quantification were assessed for three matrices within the method validation. The presented method was used to inspect 41 various feed samples, where the presence of PAs was expected. Roughages and feed for rabbits contained the highest levels of PAs, in general.

  1. Clear double layer Bioplast feeding plate for neonates with cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, R Burcu Nur; Mutlu, Meltem; Germec-Cakan, Derya

    2015-01-01

    An infant with cleft palate was referred to cleft clinic of the Orthodontic Department. The mother was concerned to feed the child because of the escape of milk from the nose. Intraoral examination revealed a large palatal cleft extending from hard to soft palate involving uvula. The impression was taken and dental cast obtained. A 3 mm soft and afterward a 1 mm hard Bioplast plate was pressed using Biostar device (Scheu-Dental Gmbh, Iserlohn, Germany) on the model. Finally, a hole was prepared on the anterior part to put a thread through it. The infant tolerated the plate immediately and encounters no difficulties during feeding. The inlaying soft Bioplast plates eliminate the risk of tissue irritation, whereas the covering hard Bioplast plate supplies endurance. The fabrication of the clear Bioplast feeding plate is easy and less time-consuming compared with acrylic plates and may be recommended in crowded and overloaded cleft centers.

  2. USE OF BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA IN THE FEEDING OF STURGEON JUVENILES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the technological and biological characteristics of the use of brine shrimp (Artemia in the feeding of sturgeon juvenilse (Acipenseridae. To highlight the common biotechnological bases of the enrichment of brine shrimp with biologically active substances necessary for the full development of sturgeon juveniles. Findings. The review of scientific papers showed that the technology is the use of brine shrimp in the feeding of sturgeon speices not only had not lost its relevance in aquaculture, but also continued to evolve in response to new challenges. The review contains a description of the peculiarities of the biological structure of brine shrimp eggs and methods of their quality assessment in the field. It describes the nutritional characteristics of Artemia. It is shown that brine shrimp is the best food organism for the use in the feeding of sturgeon fingerlings. The calculation scheme for Artemia decapsulation and incubation is provided. The main technological stages of of the preparation of shrimps before their use in feeding – activation, hydration, decapsulation, incubation, dehydration were described. The effect of brine shrimp nauplia enriched with biologically active substances enriched brine shrimp on sturgeon juveniles was highlighted. Practical value. Fish farm owners search for cost-effective, easy to use, and available food that is preferred by sturgeon juveniles (Acipenseridae. Brine shrimp nauplii obtained from cysts can be readil used to feed fish just after one-day incubation. Instar I (the nauplii that just hatched and contain large yolk reserves in their body and instar II nauplii (the nauplii after first moult and with functional digestive tracts are more widely used in aquaculture, because they are easy for operation, rich in nutrients, and small, which makes them suitable for feeding fish larvae as live feed or after drying. The generalized information will be important for

  3. Nutritional status, complementary feeding practices and feasible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-03

    Feb 3, 2012 ... and wasting, feeding patterns, water use and sanitation patterns, and identify feasible .... followed by diarrhoea (17%) and coughing (4%). Older children ..... Strategy for improved nutrition of children and women in developing ...

  4. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo; Broek, van den Egon; Kittler, J.; Petrou, M.; Nixon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation is introduced, starting from the inverse of the distance transformation. The prohibitive computational cost of a naive implementation of traditional Euclidean Distance Transformation, is tackled by three operations: restriction of both the number o

  5. How to Build an RSS 20 Feed

    CERN Document Server

    Woodman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The little orange feed icons are everywhere on the web. From search engines to shopping sites to blogs, Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2.0) has become one of the hottest web technologies going. RSS 2.0 is a powerful - yet surprisingly easy - way to distributing timely content to a web-based audience. This Short Cut will give you the hands-on knowledge you need to build an RSS 2.0 feed. Along the way you'll learn not only the mechanics of building a feed, but industry-accepted best practices for creating feeds that perform well in various situations. Are you ready? Roll up your sleeves, c

  6. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  7. MODERN PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING PREMATURE BABIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. V. Surzhik

    2012-01-01

    .... Adequate feeding is one of the fundamental factors of premature babies nursing. To ensure a premature baby with all necessary components for power saving in breast milk intake, breast milk fortifiers...

  8. Premigratory feeding patterns in the American Avocet

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study aiming to identify feeding methods of the American Avocet, characterize such method and determine the type preference and success. Relatively little is known...

  9. Food preferences during complementary feeding period among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food preferences during complementary feeding period among nursing mothers ... transition between breastfeeding and family diets being mostly implicated. ... of nursing mothers attending the immunization clinic at a secondary health care ...

  10. The feeding behaviour of the redbilled oxpecker

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1981-04-22

    Apr 22, 1981 ... Suidae and Hippopotamidae with a nearly hairless skin, this feeding method is lacking. In the Equidae and Bovini with relatively short or few hairs, it had a relatively low ..... of Saldanha Bay polluted by fish factory effluent.

  11. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  12. Hydrodynamics of Microbial Filter-Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Dolger, Julia; Kiorboe, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Microbial filter-feeders form an important group of plankton with significance to the aquatic food webs. While the concept of filter-feeding is straightforward, our quantitative understanding of microbial filter-feeding leaves a lot to be desired. As a model organism, we focus on the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis. We quantify the feeding flow using particle tracking, and demonstrate that hydrodynamic theory underestimates the observed clearance rate by an order of magnitude. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. To resolve the paradox we argue that D. grandis and other choanoflagellates must have so far unbeknownst morphological features. Specifically, we suggest a flagellar vane that connects the flagellum to the filter, as known in choanocytes of sponges, creating a radically different, and order of magnitude more capable, pumping mechanism. The Centre for Ocean Life is a VKR Centre of Excellence supported by the Villum Foundation.

  13. Nutrition and feeding of organic poultry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ... information on organic standards in certain countries; IFOAM and the Soil Association for their advice; and the Brill Corporation, Norcross, Georgia, USA, for the gift of the Brill Feed Formulati...

  14. Maternal feeding practices associated with food neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cin Cin; Holub, Shayla C

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined the associations between children's and mother's food neophobia and parental feeding practices. Eighty-five mothers of 3- to 12-year old children (M=5.7 years; 52% girls) completed a questionnaire online about food neophobia and feeding practices. Mothers with children high in food neophobia used more restriction for health and less monitoring. Mothers with food neophobic children and mothers who were themselves food neophobic also reported that they do not make healthy foods readily available for their children. Mothers high in food neophobia also used more restriction for weight. This study is a starting point for understanding the link between neophobia and feeding practices, but future longitudinal work is needed in order to determine direction of effects. However, interventions could be created to help parents understand the importance of feeding practices for promoting children's food acceptance.

  15. Fewer Advanced Alzheimer's Patients on Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160456.html Fewer Advanced Alzheimer's Patients on Feeding Tubes Practice dropped by half ... organizations -- is declining, a new study finds. One Alzheimer's expert who reviewed the new findings was heartened ...

  16. 6. EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING PRACTICE IN ZAMBIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    mother, knowledge on benefits of breast feeding and support from spouse. ... water, formula milk, cereals or porridge, vegetables and fruits. .... professionals were different from the findings of. 14 ... Health (MOH), Tropical Disease Research.

  17. About Animal Husbandry and Feed Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Animal Husbandry and Feed Science is published to introduce the research achievements of animal husbandry and veterinary workers to the world,enhance their chances to participate in international academic exchange,and promote

  18. ESTIMATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN FEED INGREDIENTS AND COMPOUND POULTRY FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3230 samples of feed ingredients of vegetable and animal origin and commercially available compound poultry feed received over a period of 5 years at Feed Testing Laboratory of the Institute were tested for Aflatoxin B1 contents (ppb . In all feed ingredients and compound feed stuffs, minimum level of aflatoxin B1 was 13 ppb and maximum level was found to be 78 ppb. No correlation of aflatoxin levels with month of collection of the year which are subject to variation in temperature and humidity could be detected. Mean values of aflatoxin concentration in feed stuffs such as rice, rice polish, wheat bran, wheat bread, maize, fish meal, blood meal, bone meal, guar meal, corn gluten 30%, corn gluten 60%, sun flower meal, soyabean meal and cotton seed meal were found to be higher than safe level of 20 ppb recommended by FDA.

  19. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T C Cox

    Full Text Available At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  20. Mothers who formula feed: their practices, support needs and factors influencing their Infant feeding decision

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to 6 months postpartum, aimed to advance our understanding of maternal formula feeding practices, their reasons for deciding to formula feed, sources of feeding information and perceived support needs; insights into infant formula milk consumption patterns in relation to current feeding guidelines are also provided. In summary, the vast majority of infants at 6 weeks were provided with formula milk (n = 368; 81.8%). Positive maternal perceptions of formula feeding were among the most frequently reported reasons underlying mothers’ decision to formula feed (e.g. convenience, 17.3%). Potential public health concerns over the large formula milk volumes consumed by infants (mean 205ml\\/kilogram\\/day) relative to infant feeding guidelines (150ml\\/kilogram\\/day) were raised from this study. Some mothers continue to add solid foods to infant bottle feeds at 6 weeks (3.8%) and 6 months (6%), a non-recommended feeding practice posing a choking risk for infants. Crucially, this study highlights the need to provide greater support and information to mothers who decide to formula feed postpartum including practical information on sterilisation and formula reconstitution. While breastfeeding promotion and research continues to be a public health priority in Ireland, addressing the support and information needs of mothers who formula feed, an underrepresented and understudied population in the literature, also needs to be considered to ensure optimal health and safety for their infants.

  1. Concoction of Fine Feed From Sugarcane by-Product and Beef Cattle Feeding Evaluation%甘蔗副产物调配精饲料及肉牛饲养评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆鹏; 蚁细苗; 农皓; 常国炜; 韦志坚; 谭文兴; 梁达奉

    2015-01-01

    利用甘蔗副产物废糖蜜、酵母废液粉全部或部分替代价格高且收购难的玉米粉等原料,木薯渣替代啤酒渣作糟渣类饲料,调配肉牛精饲料,同时添加甘蔗副产物甘蔗梢叶、蔗渣作粗饲料进行肉牛饲养试验。根据饲养期间各实验组牛的采食量、日增重情况以及饲料效益核算等方面评价所调配日粮精饲料配方的可行性。实验结果表明,酵母废液粉替代精料中50%的玉米粉时,喂养效果与原精料相当。%In this paper, beef cattle feed was concocted by using sugarcane by-product (molasses, yeast liquid and powder) to substitute all or part of flour mix feed which is expensive and hard to purchase, cassava dregs to substitute beer sludge on the other hand; sugarcane by-products (sugar cane tip leaves, bagasse) was also used to prepare roughage beef cattle feed. The feasibility of the fine feed formulation was evaluated by beef cattle breeding experiment and the cattle feed intake, daily gain and feed efficiency as the evaluating index. The results showed that the concocted feed can achieve commensurate feeding effect with the original fine feed when liquid yeast powder substitute 50% corn flour of fine feed.

  2. A Limited Survey of Aflatoxins and Zearalenone in Feed and Feed Ingredients from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Nisar, Sonia; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Jinap, Selamat; Malik, Noeen

    2016-10-01

    This work presents current information on the presence of aflatoxins (AFs) and zearalenone (ZEN) in feed and feed ingredients from Punjab, Pakistan. The 105 samples tested were concentrated feed, i.e., cotton seed meal (18 samples) and soybean meal (14), and feed ingredients, i.e., crushed corn (17), crushed wheat (15), barley (17). and poultry feed (24). Samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. Analysis revealed that 69 of 105 samples were contaminated with AFs, and the highest mean concentrations of AFB1 (6.20 μg/kg) and total AFs (9.30 μg/kg) were found in poultry feed samples. The mean total AF concentrations ranged from the limit of quantification to 165.5 μg/kg. However, 75 of the 105 samples were positive for ZEN. The highest mean concentration (19.45 μg/kg) was found in poultry feed samples. The mean ZEN concentrations were 0.15 to 145.30 μg/kg. The prevalence of AFs and ZEN was high in feed and feed ingredients and needs urgent attention.

  3. Patterns of synchrony for feed-forward and auto-regulation feed-forward neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Manuela A D; Dias, Ana Paula S; Ferreira, Flora

    2017-01-01

    We consider feed-forward and auto-regulation feed-forward neural (weighted) coupled cell networks. In feed-forward neural networks, cells are arranged in layers such that the cells of the first layer have empty input set and cells of each other layer receive only inputs from cells of the previous layer. An auto-regulation feed-forward neural coupled cell network is a feed-forward neural network where additionally some cells of the first layer have auto-regulation, that is, they have a self-loop. Given a network structure, a robust pattern of synchrony is a space defined in terms of equalities of cell coordinates that is flow-invariant for any coupled cell system (with additive input structure) associated with the network. In this paper, we describe the robust patterns of synchrony for feed-forward and auto-regulation feed-forward neural networks. Regarding feed-forward neural networks, we show that only cells in the same layer can synchronize. On the other hand, in the presence of auto-regulation, we prove that cells in different layers can synchronize in a robust way and we give a characterization of the possible patterns of synchrony that can occur for auto-regulation feed-forward neural networks.

  4. Improving aquaculture feed in Bangladesh: From feed ingredients to farmer profit to safe consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Mamun-Ur-Rashid, M.; Belton, B.; Phillips, M; Rosentrater, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Use of manufactured feeds in aquaculture in Bangladesh has grown rapidly over the last five years. More than 1 million tonnes of commercially formulated feeds and 0.3-0.4 million tonnes of farm-made feeds were produced in 2012, and sectoral growth is projected to increase substantially over the medium term. This working paper summarizes findings from a study, conducted as part of the WorldFish/USAID “Feed the Future-Aquaculture†project in 2012, assessing the current status of the aquacult...

  5. Feed Assist”- An Expert System on Balanced Feeding for Dairy Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.B Angadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate feeding is the major factor for low livestock productivity in India. In dairying, feed cost is a major input and feeding practices has to be improved to ensure profits. Still the small scale farmers are following traditional feeding practices and fail to address the complexities involved in ration formulation. To address the complexities in ration balancing based on the nutrient requirements for different categories of livestock, nutrient composition of wide range of feed resources and the cost - a number of expert systems have been developed. However existing expert systems have not been widely used by majority of small farmers due to lack of awareness, access and basic skills required to operate. To address these limitations, “Feed Assist” a farmer friendly expert system for balanced feeding of dairy animals at least cost has been developed using linear programming. “Feed Assist” does not require much expertise to operate and enables the farmers to formulate least cost rations for different categories of livestock using locally available feed resources.

  6. Density of simulated americium/curium melter feed solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1997-09-22

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to Oak Ridge National Laboratory and use in heavy isotope production programs. Prior to vitrification, a series of in-tank oxalate precipitation and nitric/oxalic acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Following nitric acid dissolution and oxalate destruction, the solution will be denitrated and evaporated to a dissolved solids concentration of approximately 100 g/l (on an oxide basis). During the Am/Cm vitrification, an airlift will be used to supply the concentrated feed solution to a constant head tank which drains through a filter and an in-line orifice to the melter. Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70{degrees} C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0.0007 g/cm3/{degree} C from an average value of 1.2326 g/cm{sup 3} at 20{degrees} C to an average value of 1.1973g/cm{sup 3} at 70{degrees} C.

  7. Baboon feeding ecology informs the dietary niche of Paranthropus boisei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele A Macho

    Full Text Available Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%-80% of their tissues' δ(13C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. boisei and the nutritional value of C4 foods, taking into account scaling issues between the volume of food consumed and body mass, and P. boisei's food preference as inferred from dento-cranial morphology. Underlying the models are empirical data for Papio cynocephalus dietary ecology. Paranthropus boisei only needed to spend some 37%-42% of its daily feeding time (conservative estimate on C4 sources to meet 80% of its daily requirements of calories, and all its requirements for protein. The energetic requirements of 2-4 times the basal metabolic rate (BMR common to mammals could therefore have been met within a 6-hour feeding/foraging day. The findings highlight the high nutritional yield of many C4 foods eaten by baboons (and presumably hominins, explain the evolutionary success of P. boisei, and indicate that P. boisei was probably a generalist like other hominins. The diet proposed is consistent with the species' derived morphology and unique microwear textures. Finally, the results highlight the importance of baboon/hominin hand in food acquisition and preparation.

  8. Energy use in the animal-feeds industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.

    1980-05-01

    Fuel and electricity use in the animal feeds industry is discussed. Data were collected by postal survey and by detailed energy survey from plant records. Energy conservation measures are discussed. Large energy savings are unlikely in lucerne pellet production but significant savings in imported fuel oil could be made by conversion to coal or other indigenous fuels. When heat pump technology has improved it may be economically feasible to use a heat pump to recover heat from the dryer outlet air and use it to preheat the incoming air stream. Electricity savings are unlikely in feed mills but the boiler fuel consumption can by reduced by better situation of boilers and upgrading of steam reticulation systems. Energy consumption in dog biscuit factories can be reduced by similar methods to those suggested in the biscuit baking industry report, in particular conversion to direct gas heating (where available) and waste heat recovery for hot water production offer potential savings. Methods used to manufacture processed animal foods differ between factories and a general list of conservation measures could not be prepared. Useful savings are likely by reduced baseload boiler fuel consumption and waste heat recovery for hot water production.

  9. Preparing for Multiple Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video Games, and the Internet Preparing for Multiple Births KidsHealth > For Parents > Preparing for Multiple Births Print ... a combination of both. The Risks of Multiple Births The most common risk involved with multiple births ...

  10. THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT FROM WILD THYME ON COLORADO POTATO BEETLE FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts prepared from fresh and dry matter of wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L. on feeding adults and larvae of Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Dry extracts were prepared at concentration of 2%, 5% and 10%, while the fresh plant at concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Feeding intensity assessment was conducted by dipping leaves of potato in respective solutions of the extracts and determining the mass of food consumed by adults and larvae, and changes of larvae body weight once daily. In addition, absolute deterrence index and palatability index were calculated. The results of the experiment showed that for an efficient limitation of the feeding adult Colorado potato beetles, an extract from dry matter of wild thyme with a concentration of at least 10% should be used. L4 larvae appear to be considerably more susceptible to the effect of T. serpyllum extract. In their case, an efficient limitation of the feeding, as well as body weight gain can be obtained using extracts from both dry and fresh matter, at concentrations of over 5% for dry matter and over 20% for fresh matter. With the increase of extract concentration, the value of the calculated palatability index decreases, and the deterrence index value increases.

  11. Thesis Preparation Manual

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    "This Thesis Preparation Manual has been written to provide you with format and procedure guidance for preparing and processing your thesis at the Naval Postgraduate School. It covers both unclassified and classified theses. All theses and thesis technical reports must be prepared in accordance with these guidelines. Please note that this manual is not written in the thesis format." form the Foreword

  12. Reciprocating Feed System Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewek, Mary (Technical Monitor); Blackmon, James B.; Eddleman, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The reciprocating feed system (RFS) is an alternative means of providing high pressure propellant flow at low cost and system mass, with high fail-operational reliability. The RFS functions by storing the liquid propellants in large, low-pressure tanks and then expelling each propellant through two or three small, high-pressure tanks. Each RFS tank is sequentially filled, pressurized, expelled, vented, and refilled so as to provide a constant, or variable, mass flow rate to the engine. This type of system is much lighter than a conventional pressure fed system in part due to the greatly reduced amount of inert tank weight. The delivered payload for an RFS is superior to that of conventional pressure fed systems for conditions of high total impulse and it is competitive with turbopump systems, up to approximately 2000 psi. An advanced version of the RFS uses autogenous pressurization and thrust augmentation to achieve higher performance. In this version, the pressurization gases are combusted in a small engine, thus making the pressurization system, in effect, part of the propulsion system. The RFS appears to be much less expensive than a turbopump system, due to reduced research and development cost and hardware cost, since it is basically composed of small high- pressure tanks, a pressurization system, and control valves. A major benefit is the high reliability fail-operational mode; in the event of a failure in one of the three tank-systems, it can operate on the two remaining tanks. Other benefits include variable pressure and flow rates, ease of engine restart in micro-gravity, and enhanced propellant acquisition and control under adverse acceleration conditions. We present a system mass analysis tool that accepts user inputs for various design and mission parameters and calculates such output values payload and vehicle weights for the conventional pressure fed system, the RFS, the Autogenous Pressurization Thrust Augmentation (APTA) RFS, and turbopump systems

  13. Evaluation of the municipal school feeding program of Olinda – Pernambuco

    OpenAIRE

    Dixis Figueroa Pedraza; Sonia Lúcia Lucena Sousa de Andrade; Jailma Santos Monteiro; Pedro Israel Cabral de Lira

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive study performed in Olinda town, Northeast Brazil, in 2002, to diagnose the status of the Municipal School Feeding Program. The studied population consisted of a probabilistic sample of 646 students, representing 25% of the municipal schools. Information was gathered applying coded questionnaires addressed to build 4 study profiles: school, snack preparers, students and food consumption. The capacity to process the school meals was evaluated as average; being the items kitchen ar...

  14. Interaction during feeding times between mothers and malnourished children under two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Chuproski Saldan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to understand the relations between mothers and malnourished children at feeding times. It is an exploratory study with qualitative data analysis. Data collection was performed at home by means of participant observation with eight mother-child dyads and three grandmothers. Based on the thematic analysis, the following themes emerged: food and interaction; day-to-day care of the child. The families' life situation was unfavorable. Mothers and grandmothers were responsible for preparing family meals, feeding and child care. The mother-child relationships were permeated by gestures of affection, slaps, scolding, and threats during feeding and there were cases of negligence, physical and psychological violence in daily care. Some mothers and grandmothers spoke quietly and cared for the child to be fed and cleaned while others mothers showed little patience for dealing with the child and they became easily irritated. Mothers' life stories were marked by adverse events and most of them faced emotional problems that could have repercussions in relationships with children at feeding times and in daily care. The mother-child interactions at home do not always favor feeding and responsive care, which may further worsen the nutritional status of these children.

  15. Detection of ruminant meat and bone meal in feeds by sandwich ELISA with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takayuki; Kato, Masatoshi; Endo, Kiwamu; Kotoura, Satoshi; Takeda, Zenya

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive and reproducible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using two monoclonal antibodies directed against a synthetic peptide with an amino-acid sequence related to the C-terminus of bovine myoglobin and the whole molecule of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-denatured bovine myoglobin was adapted for detecting bovine myoglobin in contaminated feeds. The ELISA employed bovine meat extract of a known myoglobin concentration as a calibration standard and had an limit of detection (LOD) of 3.54 ng/ml and an limit of quantification (LOQ) of 11.0 ng/ml corresponding to 0.022% and 0.067% (wt/wt) bovine meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) mixed in 20-fold-diluted feed extracts, respectively. A cut-off threshold of 20.6 ng/ml bovine myoglobin was set to simplify ELISA and facilitate quick assessment of test results without a tedious calibration process. The ELISA was able to detect bovine MBM in artificially prepared model feeds, mixed botanical feeds, mixed botanical feeds with skimmed milk, fish meal, pork meal and pork/chicken meal at 0.1% (wt/wt). It was also able to detect sheep MBM in test feeds, but showed no reactivity to swine MBM, chicken MBM, skimmed milk or gelatine of bovine origin. The advantages of this method are the quick and easy extraction protocol of proteins from test feeds, using 100 mM sodium sulphide and 0.6% sodium dodecyl sulphate in the extraction solution and the effective detection of bovine and sheep MBM at 0.1% (wt/wt).

  16. Stockpiles and food availability in feeding facilities after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozue, Miho; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Sako, Kazuko; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo

    2014-01-01

    Food stockpiles and methods of ensuring food availability after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 have been studied. Questionnaires were sent to 1911 registered dietitians and general dietitians who were members of the Japan Dietetic Association in August 2012. Four hundred thirty-five dietitians (22.8%) completed the questionnaire about work involved in feeding facilities, types and administration of meals, and food stockpiles. Methods of ensuring food availability, preparation, and accommodating food for special dietary uses were recorded for the three-day period immediately following the earthquake, and the period from 4 days to one month after the earthquake. Three days after the earthquake, differences in administration of meals at feeding facilities providing three meals daily, food stockpiles, organization, contactable facilities, and how to contact them for food items were assessed. Sixty-nine percent of all feeding facilities in this study had stockpiles of food before the Great East Japan Earthquake. Administration of meals in feeding facilities and the possibility of contact with cooperative feeding facilities were found to correlate positively with ensuring the availability of food groups. Food scores were higher in facilities providing three meals daily by direct administration of meals and with accessible public administrators, cooperative facilities and suppliers, and facilities that were contactable by landline telephone, mobile phone, fax or email. The necessity for natural disaster-readiness through continuous stockpiling food at feeding facilities is confirmed. Each prospective feeding facility must be required to plan its stockpiles, their turnover and replaceability to maximise food security in the face of disaster.

  17. A comparative study of cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed and feed ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haggblom Per

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal feed as a source of infection to food producing animals is much debated. In order to increase our present knowledge about possible feed transmission it is important to know that the present isolation methods for Salmonella are reliable also for feed materials. In a comparative study the ability of the standard method used for isolation of Salmonella in feed in the Nordic countries, the NMKL71 method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis was compared to the Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis method (MSRV and the international standard method (EN ISO 6579:2002. Five different feed materials were investigated, namely wheat grain, soybean meal, rape seed meal, palm kernel meal, pellets of pig feed and also scrapings from a feed mill elevator. Four different levels of the Salmonella serotypes S. Typhimurium, S. Cubana and S. Yoruba were added to each feed material, respectively. For all methods pre-enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW were carried out followed by enrichments in the different selective media and finally plating on selective agar media. Results The results obtained with all three methods showed no differences in detection levels, with an accuracy and sensitivity of 65% and 56%, respectively. However, Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate-novobiocin broth (MKTTn, performed less well due to many false-negative results on Brilliant Green agar (BGA plates. Compared to other feed materials palm kernel meal showed a higher detection level with all serotypes and methods tested. Conclusion The results of this study showed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the investigated cultural methods were equivalent. However, the detection levels for different feed and feed ingredients varied considerably.

  18. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed Soheil; Modirsaneii, Mehrdad; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi. Materials and Methods: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e. Tehran, Alborz and Qom in Iran from October 2014 to January 2015. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA) and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and incubated at 28 °C for 7–10 days. Purified fungal colonies were identified by a combination of macro- and microscopic morphological criteria. For determining the rate of fungal contamination, samples were cultured on SDA and colony forming units (CFUs) were calculated. Results: A total of 384 fungal isolates belonging to 7 genera of filamentous fungi and yeasts were obtained from corn (124 isolates), soybean meal (92 isolates), and feed before (72 isolates), and after pelleting (96 isolates). The most prominent fungal isolate in corn, soybean meal and feed before pelleting (feed as mash form) was Fusarium but in feed after pelleting was Aspergillus. Among 5 Aspergillus species isolated, potentially aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates was predominant in corn (46.6%), soybean meal (72.7%) and poultry finished feed (75%). CFUs results indicated that 9/22 corn samples (40.9%), none of 22 soybean meal samples, 19/41 finished feed (46.3%) were contaminated higher than the standard limit. Conclusions: Our results indicated that corn, soybean meal and finished feed of poultry feed mill are contaminated with various fungal genera by different levels sometimes higher that the standard limits. Contamination with potentially mycotoxigenic fungi especially Aspergillus

  19. Low-income mothers' feeding goals predict observed home mealtime and child feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, M H; Miller, A L; Appugliese, D P; Kaciroti, N; Rosenblum, K L; Lumeng, J C

    2016-11-01

    Mothers' goals are important for health behavior change, and engagement in child obesity interventions. It is unknown if maternal feeding goals are associated with observed home mealtime or feeding practices. The objective of this study was to examine the association of four common feeding goals (restrict junk food, promote fruit or vegetable intake, promote autonomy in eating and prevent obesity) with mothers' observed home mealtime and feeding practices. Low-income mothers (N = 265) of children (mean child age 70.8 months) participated in a semi-structured interview about child feeding. A coding scheme was developed and reliably applied to identify mothers' feeding goals from transcripts. Mothers' observed home mealtime and feeding practices were reliably coded from home mealtimes and a laboratory eating protocol. Mothers completed a questionnaire and reported demographics. Participant weights and heights were obtained. Regression models were used to test the association of each feeding goal with observed maternal practices, controlling for covariates. The goal of restricting junk food was associated with the child always eating at a table (OR 2.87, 95% CI (1.39-5.96) p = 0.005), but not with the mother restricting junk food. The goal of promoting fruit or vegetable intake was associated with observationally promoting vegetables (OR 1.41, 95% CI (1.09-1.84), p = 0.01). The goals of promoting autonomy and preventing obesity were not associated with any observed maternal home mealtime or feeding practices. While mothers' goals to restrict junk food and promote fruit or vegetable intake were associated with observed home mealtime and feeding practices, promoting autonomy and preventing obesity were not. Increased understanding of why low-income mothers may not translate certain feeding goals into practices may inform childhood obesity interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted...