WorldWideScience

Sample records for dwelling koreisha kyoju

  1. Study on individual care in nursing home. Part 2. Studies on social welfare institution for the elderly from the aspect of dwelling; Koreisha kyoju shisetsu ni okeru kobetsuteki kaigo ni kansuru kosatsu. Sumai toshiteno tokubetsu yogo rojin home no arikata ni kansuru kenkyu 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y.; Otaki, K.; Ohara, K. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)] Toyama, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1998-06-30

    This study pays attention to the relation between individual care and residents` activities in the social welfare institutions for the elderly (nursing homes) and aims to clarify the influence of building environment (nursing home as dwelling place) on individual care. Behaviors of care staffs and residents are surveyed in four nursing homes. The results of the analysis of the survey are as follows: The care staff`s activities are influenced not only by physical environment and also by the residents` activities. A single bed room is more effective than a multi-bed room for individual care. The small care unit is effective in building plan if the number of staffs is enough. The personal care activities which constitute the greater part of the care activities depend on the location of the residents. It is important to pay attention not only to arrange the common space but also how to use the common space. Spatial structure is required the consideration of the relative position of not only care rooms and resident rooms but also of care rooms and the space used by residents. 7 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. The Academic Profession and University Governance Participation in Japan: Focusing on the Role of Kyoju-kai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The dominant role of Kyoju-kai (the professoriate) in university governance in Japan is now facing a critical examination as part of university reforms in response to global competition. What are the determinants of the characteristics of participation in university governance by individual faculty members? In what way does the organizational…

  3. Situations of dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen; Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2006-01-01

    values and needs in differnet situations, lifestyles and stages. The study is based on information from users in new housing schemes in and around Copenhagen - 'open building' dwellings that reveal a variety of approaches to these problems? The analysis of the dwellings show that the architecture...... of the 'open dwelling' is dependent on three basic conditions: the static condition, the suitable condition and the situational condition. Each condition has its own powerful way of articulation. Our aim is to translate the observations of the projects in concepts and models that are applicable in new projects....

  4. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on soun...... exchanging experiences about constructions fulfilling different classes, reducing trade barriers, and finally increasing the sound insulation of dwellings.......Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...... insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...

  5. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  6. Sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  7. Toward comfort space and future city. ; System design for person and total system. Kaiteki kyoju kukan wo tsukuru. ; Ko to zentai no system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujigawa, M. (Takenaka Komuten Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-10-05

    This paper considered designs for the comfort space anf future city. The conception of amenity is not yet established but it means to view each environment with diverse senses of value. It may be sometimes necessary to coordinate requirements conflicting between individuals and from each standpoint. Any thermal environments can be represented by the discomfort index or PMV (Predicted Mean Value). But the POE (Post Occupancy Evaluation) is used to coordinate the overall design including other targets. Results obtained from interviews to multiple subjects are summarized to a network diagram by the repertory grid developing approach which is one of POE. A model house used in an intelligent building was made by modifying a part of existing facility and by using this approach, and the comprehensive satisfaction was improved. This approach was applied to a resort facility. In addition, a longitudinal urban idea which incorporates the urban infrastructure such as traffic facilities, waterworks and sewerage, shelf-like artificial ground is prepared and dwellings, offices and stores are constructed, was introduced. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...... of descriptors, number of classes, and class intervals occurred between national schemes. However, a proposal “acoustic classification scheme for dwellings” has been developed recently in the European COST Action TU0901 with 32 member countries. This proposal has been accepted as an ISO work item. This paper...

  9. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity....... Descriptors, range of quality levels, number of quality classes, class intervals, denotations and descriptions vary across Europe. The diversity is an obstacle for exchange of experience about constructions fulfilling different classes, implying also trade barriers. Thus, a harmonized classification scheme...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  10. Practicing the attentional Dwell Away?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus Mogens

    2007-01-01

    . The results suggest that the majority of subjects may learn to optimize their performance reducing the attentional dwell time effect substantially. Further, the reduction in the attentional dwell time effect seems to be closely linked to the ability of the subject to inhibit eye movements while performing......Studies of the time course of visual attention have identified a temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets: attending to one visual stimulus may lead to impairments in identifying a second stimulus presented about 200-500 ms later than the first. The phenomenon...... is known as the attentional dwell time (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro, 1994). Previous studies of attentional dwell time have all used naive subjects running few (

  11. Modelling of Attentional Dwell Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    into the temporal domain. In the neural interpretation of TVA (NTVA; Bundesen, Habekost and Kyllingsbæk, 2005), processing resources are implemented as allocation of cortical cells to objects in the visual field. A feedback mechanism is then used to keep encoded objects in VSTM alive. The proposed model...... of attentional dwell time extends these mechanisms by proposing that the processing resources (cells) already engaged in a feedback loop (i.e. allocated to an object) are locked in VSTM and therefore cannot be allocated to other objects in the visual field before the encoded object has been released...

  12. Dwelling Water Tanks in Diyarbakir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ceylan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this connection, the object of this study has been to identify and compare the microbiological contamination and residue chlorine levels in the main network water that is taken from the Dicle Dam and distributed in Diyarbakir Province Centre and in the tanks of dwellings that use this water as well as the effects of the maintenance, hygiene, and physical conditions of these tanks on microbiological contamination. METHODS: Water samples were taken from both the tank input side network water and tank output side tank waters of 200 dwellings with water tanks in Diyarbakir city centre (tank entrance network side water for 200 and tank output side tank water for 200 within the framework of the research study. RESULTS: Coliform bacteria were detected in 35% of the tank entrance side network water samples and in 52.0% percent of the tank output side water samples. Faecal coliform bacteria were not detected in tank entrance side network water samples, but they existed in 2.5% of the tank output side water samples. Free residue chlorine level was found to be over 0.2 ppm in 67% of tank entrance side network water samples and in 35% of the tank output side water samples. Coliform bacteria were detected in 95.5% of the tank entrance side network water samples, of which free residue chlorine level were below 0.2 ppm. Total germ growth was detected in 52.0% of the tank entrance side network water samples and in 67.5% of the tank output side water samples. The most frequently isolated bacteria both in tank entrance side network and tank output side water samples were found to be Bacillus spp. Bacillus type bacteria were found in 48% of tank entrance side network water samples and 57.5% of the tank output side water samples. Filamentous fungi were prevalent in 8% of all the samples examined within the study and the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi were Aspergillus spp (5.5% and Penicillum spp (2.5%. Water tanks of dwellings contain more

  13. Population and dwelling unit estimates from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C J

    1996-05-01

    "To increase the utility of satellite imagery as a source of cheap and current information for planning and managing cities some problems have to be resolved.... One answer is to adopt interpretation methods that use the increased information in a more detailed scene. This paper reports on attempts to measure the morphological patterns in an urban satellite scene and to use these for image interpretation. The interpretation task addressed is the estimation of residential dwelling units from the patterns discernible in high resolution satellite images of cities. The practical results include dwelling estimates that can be aggregated to any geographical unit of analysis, population estimates for cities and a dwelling density surface that can be categorised into any number of residential land-use classes."

  14. Indoor radon measurements in Turkey dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskın, H; Bingoldag, N Albayrak

    2015-12-01

    In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m(-3); the geometric mean was 57 Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3.

  15. 517 DWELLING DENSITY VARIABILITY ACROSS GOVERNMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    approach. This finding was supported by the results of a chi-square test which found that, at 95% ... of life. Key words: dwelling density, home spaces, housing units, multifamily apartments ... single interior space is typically referred to as a room ...

  16. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 700.55. (b) May include existing dwellings for resale, new construction, modular homes, mobile homes... person if, after he receives a replacement housing payment and any available housing assistance payments... supplemental income payments received from public agencies. If the person's monthly income pattern is...

  17. Sound classification of dwellings in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Turunen-Rise, Iiris

    1997-01-01

    A draft standard INSTA 122:1997 on sound classification of dwellings is for voting as a common national standard in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland) and in Estonia. The draft standard specifies a sound classification system with four classes A, B, C and D, where...... class C is proposed as the future minimum requirements for new dwellings. The classes B and A define criteria for dwellings with improved or very good acoustic conditions, whereas class D may be used for older, renovated dwellings in which the acoustic quality level of a new dwelling cannot reasonably...

  18. Yet one more dwell time algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Alexander; Rascher, Rolf

    2017-06-01

    The current demand of even more powerful and efficient microprocessors, for e.g. deep learning, has led to an ongoing trend of reducing the feature size of the integrated circuits. These processors are patterned with EUV-lithography which enables 7 nm chips [1]. To produce mirrors which satisfy the needed requirements is a challenging task. Not only increasing requirements on the imaging properties, but also new lens shapes, such as aspheres or lenses with free-form surfaces, require innovative production processes. However, these lenses need new deterministic sub-aperture polishing methods that have been established in the past few years. These polishing methods are characterized, by an empirically determined TIF and local stock removal. Such a deterministic polishing method is ion-beam-figuring (IBF). The beam profile of an ion beam is adjusted to a nearly ideal Gaussian shape by various parameters. With the known removal function, a dwell time profile can be generated for each measured error profile. Such a profile is always generated pixel-accurately to the predetermined error profile, with the aim always of minimizing the existing surface structures up to the cut-off frequency of the tool used [2]. The processing success of a correction-polishing run depends decisively on the accuracy of the previously computed dwell-time profile. So the used algorithm to calculate the dwell time has to accurately reflect the reality. But furthermore the machine operator should have no influence on the dwell-time calculation. Conclusively there mustn't be any parameters which have an influence on the calculation result. And lastly it should take a minimum of machining time to get a minimum of remaining error structures. Unfortunately current dwell time algorithm calculations are divergent, user-dependent, tending to create high processing times and need several parameters to bet set. This paper describes an, realistic, convergent and user independent dwell time algorithm. The

  19. Active and passive cooling methods for dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2018-01-01

    they might be applied, and what their energy needs are. Secondly, what scientific analysis has been carried out and what the major findings are. Thirdly, what their economic and technical feasibility of use at the stage of implementation and operation within a dwelling are. Then, either with the reviewed......In this document a review of three active as well as ten passive cooling methods suitable for residential buildings is carried out. The review firstly addresses how the various technologies cool the space according to the terms of the building heat balance, under what technical conditions...... studies or with a simulation modelling, an assessment of temperature drop of each cooling method within a standard-size dwelling is carried out. Also, a comparison of initial investment, energy consumption, maintenance, retrofitting and required space is done. Thereafter, with this information, a decision...

  20. Temporal Architecture: Poetic Dwelling in Japanese buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lazarin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heidegger’s thinking about poetic dwelling and Derrida’s impressions of Freudian estrangement are employed to provide a constitutional analysis of the experience of Japanese architecture, in particular, the Japanese vestibule (genkan. This analysis is supplemented by writings by Japanese architects and poets. The principal elements of Japanese architecture are: (1 ma, and (2 en. Ma is usually translated as ‘interval’ because, like the English word, it applies to both space and time.  However, in Japanese thinking, it is not so much an either/or, but rather a both/and. In other words, Japanese architecture emphasises the temporal aspect of dwelling in a way that Western architectural thinking usually does not. En means ‘joint, edge, the in-between’ as an ambiguous, often asymmetrical spanning of interior and exterior, rather than a demarcation of these regions. Both elements are aimed at producing an experience of temporality and transiency.

  1. Critical dwell time of switched linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun ZHANG; Chunwen LI

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the relation between the switching dwell time and the stabilization of switched linear control systems. First of all, a concept of critical dwell time is given for switched linear systems without control inputs, and the critical dwell time is taken as an arbitrary given positive constant for a switched linear control systems with controllable switching models. Secondly, when a switched linear system has many stabilizable switching models, the problem of stabilization of the overall system is considered. An on-line feedback control is designed such that the overall system is asymptotically stabilizable under switching laws which depend only on those of uncontrollable subsystems of the switching models. Finally, when a switched system is partially controllable (While some switching models are probably unstabilizable), an on-line feedback control and a cyclic switching strategy are designed such that the overall system is asymptotically stabilizable if all switching models of this uncontrollable subsystems are asymptotically stable. In addition,algorithms for designing switching laws and controls are presented.

  2. Uncertainty analysis of energy consumption in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Trine Dyrstad

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study of an energy estimation model that can be used to examine the uncertainty of predicted energy consumption in a dwelling. The variation and uncertainty of input parameters due to the outdoor climate, the building construction and the inhabitants are studied as a basis for further energy evaluations. The occurring variations of energy consumption in nominal similar dwellings are also investigated due to verification of the simulated energy consumption. The main topics are (1) a study of expected variations and uncertainties in both input parameters used in energy consumption calculations and the energy consumption in the dwelling, (2) the development and evaluation of a simplified energy calculation model that considers uncertainties due to the input parameters, (3) an evaluation of the influence of the uncertain parameters on the total variation so that the most important parameters can be identified, and (4) the recommendation of a simplified procedure for treating uncertainties or possible deviations from average conditions. 90 refs., 182 figs., 73 tabs.

  3. Modelling window opening behaviour in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyse data from two studies of window opening behaviour in residential buildings in Denmark. Based on measurements of indoor environment, weather and window opening behaviour in 15 dwellings, we propose a model that will predict window opening behaviour. The data...... showed that other factors than thermal effects impact the behaviour of the occupants. Some of these factors were included in the model. We present data from repeated questionnaire surveys that show that occupants tend to adjust heating setpoints, adjust clothing and operate windows when feeling thermally...

  4. The meaning of dwelling features: conceptual and methodological issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, H.C.C.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study is about the meaning of dwelling features. It relates the research areas of housing preferences and the meaning of a dwelling with each other and with aspects of the means-end approach as applied in marketing research. It results in a conceptual and methodological framework for studying t

  5. The joint choice of tenure, dwelling type and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Eduard; Kaplan, Sigal

    Real-estate market trends regarding housing preferences for tenure, dwelling type and size carry long term implications for cities’ spatial development and compactness. Much attention have been given to the impact of household demographics and socio-economic characteristics on joint housing choices...... that active versus home-oriented lifestyle plays an important role in housing preferences of tenure, dwelling type and size, while controlling for household socio-economic characteristics. The choice model employed for tenure and dwelling type coupled with dwelling unit size is the multinomial logit ordered...... regarding housing preferences, socio-economic characteristics, and activity patterns. The empirical findings show that the tendency of knowledge-workers to reside in owned large dwelling units, preferably single detached houses, increases with high engagement in home-oriented activities, while the tendency...

  6. The effect of masking in the attentional dwell time paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    A temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets has been identified in numerous studies of temporal visual attention. This effect is known as attentional dwell time and is maximal 200 to 500 ms after presentation of the first target (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro......, 1994). In most studies of attentional dwell time, two masked targets have been used. Moore et al. (1996) have criticised the masking of the first target when measuring the attentional dwell time, finding a shorter attentional dwell time when the first mask was omitted. In the presented work, the effect...... an impairment of the second target. Hence, the attentional dwell time may be a combined effect arising from attending to both the first target and its mask....

  7. Marostica passive solar dwelling, Marostica, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scudo, G. [DPPPE, Milano (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    This project consists of four separate buildings; three terraces comprising 24 dwellings in all, and one four-storey housing block containing 16 flats. The principal objective was to build low-cost housing in which innovative passive solar components could be incorporated at costs acceptable for public housing schemes (maximum 10% of the overall cost). An 'open-loop passive system', developed in Italy about 20 years ago by Barra-Costantini, was chosen. Warm air produced in the solar air panel circulates freely in the storage ceiling, into the rooms and back to the bottom of the air panel by gravity. The system supplies 30% of the net space-heating load. (author)

  8. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1999-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings.......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the dif-ficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  9. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1998-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the difficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  10. Wind turbine sound pressure level calculations at dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Leroux, Tony; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides calculations of outdoor sound pressure levels (SPLs) at dwellings for 10 wind turbine models, to support Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study. Manufacturer supplied and measured wind turbine sound power levels were used to calculate outdoor SPL at 1238 dwellings using ISO [(1996). ISO 9613-2-Acoustics] and a Swedish noise propagation method. Both methods yielded statistically equivalent results. The A- and C-weighted results were highly correlated over the 1238 dwellings (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r > 0.8). Calculated wind turbine SPLs were compared to ambient SPLs from other sources, estimated using guidance documents from the United States and Alberta, Canada.

  11. Occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2007-01-01

    Repeated surveys on occupant behaviour and indoor climate were carried out in Danish dwellings from September to October 2006 and again from February to March 2007. The summer survey comprised 933 respondents and the winter survey 636 respondents. The surveys were carried out by sending 5000...... heating had the largest effect on the proportion of dwellings with the heating on. The outdoor solar radiation and the perceived illumination had the largest effect on the proportion of dwellings with lights on. The most frequent reason listed for opening the windows in summer and winter was to obtain...

  12. Dwell time modulation restrictions do not necessarily improve treatment plan quality for prostate HDR brachytherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balvert, M.; Gorissen, B.L.; den Hertog, D.; Hoffmann, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Inverse planning algorithms for dwell time optimisation in interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy may produce solutions with large dwell time variations within catheters, which may result in undesirable selective high-dose subvolumes. Extending the dwell time optimisation model with a dwell

  13. Simplified hourly method to calculate summer temperatures in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Aggerholm, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method for hourly calculation of the operating temperature in order to evaluate summer comfort in dwellings to help improve building design. A simplified method was developed on the basis of the simple hourly method of the standard ISO 13790...... program for thermal simulations of buildings. The results are based on one year simulations of two cases. The cases were based on a low energy dwelling of 196 m². The transmission loss for the building envelope was 3.3 W/m², not including windows and doors. The dwelling was tested in two cases, a case...... for the fulfilment of summer comfort. Thus it is very important to address both opening areas and ventilation rates. The developed simplified method makes it possible to test whether or not a building design for a dwelling will prevent excess of the summer comfort limits set by the building regulations....

  14. Narrowing the definition of "dwelling" under the Fair Housing Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Karen

    2009-01-01

    .... Courts have applied the Fair Housing Act to any residence--defined by one court as "a temporary or permanent dwelling place, abode or habitation to which one intends to return as distinguished...

  15. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  16. Occurrence and Distribution of Cave Dwelling Frogs of Peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The life in subterranean caves always needs a high degree of biological adaptability, due to its unusual ecosystem. The cave dwelling species usually get selected from preadapted biological traits for cave life. The cave dwelling tendencies in frog are very uncommon. Majority of reported cave frogs usually prefer cave for temporary shelter. In India, the biospeleological inventory is still in its primary stage. Till date no serious attempt has been taken to understand the cave dwelling habitat for any frog in India. Inspite of it, in India time to time various reports on natural histories of anurans reveal its cave dwelling tendencies. On the basis of personal observations and available literature in this report I have documented the occurrences and distributions of five cave dwelling frogs of India. Common biological traits from all the established cave frogs, which could be referred as preadapted for cave life, have been discussed. Further, the possible threats and IUCN status of each discussed species has been highlighted.

  17. Indoor environmental quality in French dwellings and building characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Sarka; Ramalho, Olivier; Derbez, Mickaël; Ribéron, Jacques; Kirchner, Severine; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-03-01

    A national survey on indoor environmental quality covering 567 residences in mainland France was performed during 2003-2005. The measured parameters were temperature, relative humidity, CO2, and the indoor air pollutants: fourteen individual volatile organic compounds (VOC), four aldehydes and particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5. The measured indoor concentrations were analyzed for correlations with the building characteristics: type of dwelling, period of construction, dwelling location, type of ventilation system, building material, attached garage and retrofitting. The median night time air exchange rate (AER) for all dwellings was 0.44 h-1. The night time AER was higher in apartments (median = 0.49 h-1) than in single-family houses (median = 0.41 h-1). Concentration of formaldehyde was approximately 30% higher in dwellings built after 1990 compared with older ones; it was higher in dwellings with mechanical ventilation and in concrete buildings. The VOC concentrations depended on the building characteristics to various extents. The sampling season influenced the majority of the indoor climate parameters and the concentrations of the air pollutants to a higher degree than the building characteristics. Multivariate linear regression models revealed that the indoor-outdoor difference in specific humidity, a proxy for number of occupants and their indoor activities, remained a significant predictor for most gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The other strong predictors were outdoor concentration, smoking, attached garage and AER (in descending order).

  18. Sound classification of dwellings - Comparison of schemes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    National sound classification schemes for dwellings exist in nine countries in Europe, and proposals are under preparation in more countries. The schemes specify class criteria concerning several acoustic aspects, the main criteria being about airborne and impact sound insulation between dwellings......, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The quality classes reflect dierent levels of acoustical comfort. The paper presents and compares the sound classification schemes in Europe. The schemes have been implemented and revised gradually since the 1990es. However, due to lack of coordination....... The current variety of descriptors and classes also causes trade barriers. Thus, there is a need to harmonize concepts and other characteristics of the schemes....

  19. Measurements of radon in dwellings with CR-39 track detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, Benny

    1986-01-01

    A passive integrating dosemeter has been designed for measuring natural radiation in dwellings. The dosemeter contains one or two CR-39 track detectors to measure radon and three thermoluminescence dosemeters to measure external radiation. The dosemeter was investigated in a pilot study in 1983....../84, and it is now used in a nationwide survey of natural radiation in Danish dwellings. The characteristics of the dosemeter with respect to radon measurements are presented, and the radon monitoring results obtained in the pilot study are summarized...

  20. Occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2007-01-01

    invitations to a sample of the Danish housing stock. The addresses were obtained from a Danish register along with information on physical properties of each dwelling. Meteorological data was obtained from the Danish Meteorological Institute. The outdoor temperature, solar radiation and type of supplementary...

  1. Methods of radon remediation in Finnish dwellings; Asuntojen radonkorjauksen menetelmaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-12-01

    A study was made of remedial measures taken in dwellings with high indoor radon concentrations and the results obtained. The data regarding the remedial measures taken in 400 dwellings was obtained from a questionnaire study. The mean annual average indoor radon concentration before the remedies was 1.500 Bq/m{sup 3}, the concentration exceeding in nearly every house the action level of 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. After the measures were taken the mean indoor radon concentration was 500 Bq/m{sup 3}. The resulting indoor radon concentration was less than 400 Bq/m{sup 3} in 60 percent of the dwellings. The best results were achieved using sub-slab-suction and radon well. These methods effectively decrease both the flow of radon bearing air from soil into dwellings and the radon concentration of leakage air. Typical reduction rates in radon concentration were 70-95 percent. The action level was achieved in more than 70 percent of the houses. Sealing the entry routes and improvement of the ventilation resulted typically in reduction rates of 10-50 percent. The goal of the report is to give useful information for the house owners, the do-it-yourself-mitigators, the mitigation firms and the local authorities. The report includes practical guidance, price information and examples of remedial measures. (13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.).

  2. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  3. The spectrum of worry in the community-dwelling elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Golden, Jeannette

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we examine the prevalence and distribution of worry, its content, and its associations with quality of life and depression, based on a large sample of community-dwelling elderly. We will attempt to distinguish between pathological and non-pathological worry based on these associations.

  4. Forecasting Demand for KC-135 Sorties: Deploy to Dwell Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Without the predictability, structure, and rule sets that the AEF construct provides, individual crewmembers suffer a perceived unsystematic assignment to...Enablers. It explained why deploy to dwell ratio is more than a quality of life issue and outlined some of the risks of sustained high operations

  5. Depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged ≥60 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged ≥60 years in ... and environmental factors on the health status and quality of life in older persons living in ... nutritional status (p≤0.001), the inability to count on family (p=0.008) and ...

  6. Relationships between building characteristics and airtightness of Dutch dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramiana, C.N.; Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Building airtightness is an important parameter to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. By means of a literature study, as well as the use of empirical data on the specific leakage of more than 300 dwellings, this paper provides insights in the relationships between building airtightness and

  7. Evolutionary diversification of coral-dwelling gall crabs (Cryptochiridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, Sancia Esmeralda Theonilla van der

    2015-01-01

    Gall crabs (Crustacea : Cryptochiridae) are small, coral-dwelling crabs that live in obligate association with their host corals (Scleractinia), on which they rely for food and shelter. They have been recorded from shallow and deeper waters (over 500 m), but the majority of the species live in reef

  8. Interactions between higher plants and soil-dwelling organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyper, T.W.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers interactions between higher plants and soil-dwelling organisms, with sections on ecologically important biota in the rhizosphere, the soil community as cause and consequence of plant and community composition, specificity and selectivity, feedback mechanisms, soil communities and

  9. Predictive modelling of running and dwell times in railway traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kecman, P.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of running and dwell times is important for all levels of planning and control of railway traffic. The availability of historical track occupation data with a high degree of granularity inspired a data-driven approach for estimating these process times. In this paper we present

  10. Occupational therapy for community dwelling elderly people: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Jellema, S.; Bakker, E.B.; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Occupational therapy might play an important role in maintaining independent living for community dwelling elderly people. The aim of this systematic review is to determine whether occupational therapy improves outcome for people who are >/=60 years and are living independently. METHODS:

  11. A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, A.; Andersen, C.E.; Majborn, B.;

    1996-01-01

    basement/slab-on-grade foundation built on either fractured granitic basement rocks, or fractured limestone. Clayey till areas were also included in the profile in order to confirm earlier findings. Three areas representing these surface geologies were selected for indoor radon measurements with CR-39...... track detectors, and a total of 200 houses matching the profile underwent radon measurements during the winter 1994-95. The distribution of the measured radon concentrations were found in most cases to comply with log-normal distributions. Measurements in the living rooms of houses in each of the three......A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels has been employed to investigate possibly radon-prone areas in Denmark and to find houses suitable for radon mitigation studies. The profile is defined as dwellings which are single-family houses with slab-on-grade foundation or partly...

  12. Allotment Garden Dwellings: Exploring Tradition and Legal Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja LORBEK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 19th century, the removal of city walls and introduction of mass transport in European cities provided the opportunity to expand cities in green suburban areas. Colonies of small houses with garden plots and allotment gardens developed during this era thus represent a new type of settlement, where green infrastructure (gardens and allotment dwellings are closely intertwined. The gardens in these settlements were originally based on the notion of subsistence economy, providing food and emergency accommodation in periods of crisis. This paper examines the evolution of allotments and particularly allotment dwellings in Germany and Austria by matching the actual practices of gardeners with the formation of and changes in the legal framework. The legislation and zoning regulations, which were predominantly established after the fact, reveal an ongoing process of negotiation between informal practices and planning authorities.

  13. The research of the stock utilization plans in aged housing estate by remodeling of dwelling units -I By Experimental self-aide remodeling of dwelling units in Nishimuko housing estate

    OpenAIRE

    大坪, 明

    2009-01-01

    The students in 5 universities who learn architecture and pretended to be tenants implemented the experi-mental self-aid remodeling of dwelling units in a collective housing. Those dwelling units in the aged hous-ing estate were revived by them with a remarkable personality. This result proved that the aged dwelling unit stocks will be still utilized sufficiently. There will be many ways of continuing to use those remodeled dwell-ing units.

  14. Dwelling Buildings’ Energy Certification by Total Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Belindževa-Korkla, O; Krēsliņš, A; Borodiņecs, A

    2005-01-01

    One of the requirements of the Directive 2002/91/EC on the energy performance of buildings is introduction in the EU member countries of energy certification of buildings. It has to be implemented starting from 2006. In Latvia the energy certification scheme for dwelling buildings was developed in RTU in 2000 and successfully implemented in Ogre in 2002-2004. The existing buildings’ energy certification scheme takes into account only energy consumption of space heating and hot water supply. I...

  15. Vertical Distribution of Air Temperatures in Heated Dwelling Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Šikula, Ondřej

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents an experimental and theoretic research on one of factors influencing the indoor climate in dwelling rooms heated by heating systems, the vertical distribution of temperatures. The paper summarizes results from simulation of the room heated by a gas space heater and a plate radiator. Among main factors causing unfavorable distribution of temperatures in a room belong insufficient elimination of cold dropping airflows and high temperature of heating air. The paper presents...

  16. Increased gait unsteadiness in community-dwelling elderly fallers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Edelberg, H. K.; Mitchell, S. L.; Goldberger, A. L.; Wei, J. Y.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of gait unsteadiness are increased in community-dwelling elderly fallers. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, case-control study. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five community-dwelling elderly subjects older than 70 years of age who were capable of ambulating independently for 6 minutes were categorized as fallers (age, 82.2 +/- 4.9 yrs [mean +/- SD]; n = 18) and nonfallers (age, 76.5 +/- 4.0 yrs; n = 17) based on history; 22 young (age, 24.6 +/- 1.9 yrs), healthy subjects also participated as a second reference group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stride-to-stride variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of stride time, stance time, swing time, and percent stance time measured during a 6-minute walk. RESULTS: All measures of gait variability were significantly greater in the elderly fallers compared with both the elderly nonfallers and the young subjects (p < .0002). In contrast, walking speed of the elderly fallers was similar to that of the nonfallers. There were little or no differences in the variability measures of the elderly nonfallers compared with the young subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Stride-to-stride temporal variations of gait are relatively unchanged in community-dwelling elderly nonfallers, but are significantly increased in elderly fallers. Quantitative measurement of gait unsteadiness may be useful in assessing fall risk in the elderly.

  17. Dwelling Price Ranking versus Socioeconomic Clustering: Possibility of Imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleishman Larisa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the socioeconomic profile of various geographic units, it is common practice to use aggregated indices. However, the process of calculating such indices requires a wide variety of variables from various data sources available concurrently. Using a number of administrative databases for 2001 and 2003, this study examines the question of whether dwelling prices in a given locality can serve as a proxy for its socioeconomic level. Based on statistical and geographic criteria, we developed a Dwelling Price Ranking (DPR methodology. Our findings show that the DPR can serve as a good approximation for the socioeconomic cluster (SEC calculated by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics for years when the required data was available. As opposed to the SEC, the suggested DPR indicator can easily be calculated, thus ensuring a continuum of socioeconomic index series. Both parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses have been carried out in order to examine the additional social, demographic, location, crime and security effects that are exogenous to SEC. Complementary analysis on recently published SEC series for 2006 and 2008 show that our conclusions remain valid. The proposed methodology and the obtained findings may be applicable for different statistical purposes in other countries which possess dwelling transactions data.

  18. Factors Influencing Dwell Fatigue Cracking in Notches of Powder Metallurgy Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, T. P.; Telesman, J.; Ghosn, L.; Garg, A.; Gayda, J.

    2011-01-01

    The influences of heat treatment and cyclic dwells on the notch fatigue resistance of powder metallurgy disk superalloys were investigated for low solvus high refractory (LSHR) and ME3 disk alloys. Disks were processed to produce material conditions with varied microstructures and associated mechanical properties. Notched specimens were first subjected to baseline dwell fatigue cycles having a dwell at maximum load, as well as tensile, stress relaxation, creep rupture, and dwell fatigue crack growth tests at 704 C. Several material heat treatments displayed a bimodal distribution of fatigue life with the lives varying by two orders-of-magnitude, while others had more consistent fatigue lives. This response was compared to other mechanical properties, in search of correlations. The wide scatter in baseline dwell fatigue life was observed only for material conditions resistant to stress relaxation. For selected materials and conditions, additional tests were then performed with the dwells shifted in part or in total to minimum tensile load. The tests performed with dwells at minimum load exhibited lower fatigue lives than max dwell tests, and also exhibited early crack initiation and a substantial increase in the number of initiation sites. These results could be explained in part by modeling evolution of peak stresses in the notch with continued dwell fatigue cycling. Fatigue-environment interactions were determined to limit life for the fatigue cycles with dwells.

  19. Indoor air quality in typical temperate zone Australian dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S. B.; Cheng, M.; Galbally, I. E.; Keywood, M. D.; Lawson, S. J.; Powell, J. C.; Gillett, R.; Dunne, E.; Selleck, P. W.

    2012-07-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive study of indoor air quality in typical temperate zone Australian dwellings. Forty dwellings located over an 800 km2 area in the south-east of Melbourne with a range of ages, materials and structures representative of Australian dwellings were selected. A range of indoor air quality pollutants were sampled both inside and outside for one week each in Winter/Spring 2008 and Summer/Autumn 2009. Information was collected on house characteristics, the surrounding areas and occupant activities during the sampling. Weekly indoor averaged CO2 (536 ± 121 ppm), CO (0.3 ± 0.2 ppm), PM2.5 (8.4 ± 4.0 μg m-3), temperatures (21.2 ± 2.0 °C), water vapour mixing ratios (7.9 ± 1.3 g kg-1), benzene (1.3 ± 1.1 μg m-3), toluene (8.8 ± 7.9 μg m-3) and xylenes (6.2 ± 6.7 μg m-3) varied from 1.1 to approximately three times higher compared to the equivalent outdoors concentrations. Formaldehyde (12.2 ± 4.7 ppb), other carbonyls (7.9 ± 2.6 ppb) and total volatile organic compounds (181.1 ± 89.5 μg m-3) had indoor concentrations of factors between eight and 12 times higher compared to outdoor concentrations. Weekly averaged indoor ozone (0.7 ± 0.7 ppb), NO2 (8.4 ± 3.9 ppb) and PM10 (20.4 ± 8.1 μg m-3) were significantly lower than outdoors. Correlations and factor analysis showed the major influences on this indoor air quality were (a) dwelling age, whereby dwellings constructed in recent decades compared to older buildings were found to have increased concentrations of the highly elevated species formaldehyde, other carbonyls and total volatile organic compounds, and (b) combustion and cooking activities that increased the concentrations of multiple species including CO, CO2, NO2, H2O and particles. The indoor pollutant concentrations from this study were in general comparable with or lower than other Australian or overseas studies.

  20. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-01-01

    .... The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents' parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwelling elderly adults in China...

  1. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Gautam Kumar; Das, Projit Kumar

    2012-02-01

    It has been established that radon and its airborne decay products can present serious radiation hazards. A long term exposure to high concentration of radon causes lung cancer. Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon and its progeny. Taking this into account, an attempt has been made to estimate radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati using aluminium dosimeter cups with CR-39 plastic detectors. Results of preliminary investigation presented in this paper show that the mean concentration is 21.31 Bq m - 3.

  2. Estimation of radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Kumar Dey; Projit Kumar Das

    2012-02-01

    It has been established that radon and its airborne decay products can present serious radiation hazards. A long term exposure to high concentration of radon causes lung cancer. Besides, it is also known that out of the total radiation dose received from natural and man-made sources, 60% of the dose is due to radon and its progeny. Taking this into account, an attempt has been made to estimate radon concentration in dwellings in and around Guwahati using aluminium dosimeter cups with CR-39 plastic detectors. Results of preliminary investigation presented in this paper show that the mean concentration is 21.31 Bq m−3.

  3. Prevalence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedi, Vahid; Rezaei, Mohammad; Gharib, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment can be considered as an intermediate clinical state between normal cognitive aging and mild dementia. Elderly people with this impairment represent an at-risk group for the development of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its relationship with socio-demographic variables. In this analytical-descriptive study, 212 subjects admitted to Hamadan's day care centers were selected through simple random sampling method. To gather the data, MMSE was used as well as a questionnaire containing demographic variables. Data analysis was completed through SPSS-16. The sample consisted of 17.9% male, 59.4% of whom were married. According to the results, 96 cases (45.3%) suffered from mild (MMSE≥22), 110 cases (51.9%) from moderate (11≤MMSE≤21) and 6 cases (2.8%) from severe cognitive disorder (MMSE≤10). As findings revealed, factors such as age (Pv = 0.005, r = -0.491) and schooling (Pv cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults was of normal range. Hence, familial relations and social support can decrease mental status disorder.

  4. Relationships between indoor radon concentrations, thermal retrofit and dwelling characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignan, Bernard; Le Ponner, Eline; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-12-01

    A monitoring campaign was conducted on a sample of more than 3400 dwellings in Brittany, France from 2011 to 2014. The measurements were collected using one passive dosimeter per dwelling over two months during the heating season, according to the NF ISO 11665-8 (2013) standard. Moreover, building characteristics such as the period of construction, construction material, type of foundation, and thermal retrofit were determined using a questionnaire. The final data set consisted of 3233 houses with the measurement results and the questionnaire answers. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to explore the relationships between the indoor radon concentrations and building characteristics, particularly the thermal retrofit. The geometric mean of the indoor radon concentration was 155 Bq m(-3) (with a geometric standard deviation of 3). The houses that had undergone a thermal retrofit had a higher average radon concentration than those that had not, which may have been due to a decrease in air permeability of the building envelope following rehabilitation work that did not systematically include proper management of the ventilation. Other building characteristics, primarily the building material and the foundation type, were associated with the indoor radon concentration. The indoor radon concentrations were higher in older houses built with granite or other stone, with a slab-on-grade foundation and without any ventilation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution.

  6. Recoil-deposited Po-210 in radon dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, C.

    1990-12-31

    Short-lived decay products of Rn-222 plate out on all surfaces in a house containing radon gas. Following the subsequent alpha decays of the mother nuclei, the daughter products Pb-214 and Pb-210 are superficially and permanently absorbed. Due to its long half-life (22 y) the activity of absorbed Pb-210 accumulates in the surface. The activity of Pb-210, or its decay products, can thus reflect the past randon daughter and plate-out history of a house over several decades. Our results and experience from measurements of Po-210 and Rn-222 in 22 dwellings will be presented. In these studies the Po-210 surface activity of one plane glass sheet per dwelling (window panes were not used) has been determined and compared with the period of exposure times the mean radon concentration measured over a two-month period. Considering the large uncertainty in the integrated radon exposure estimate the surface {sup 210}Po correlates well (r=0.73) with the accumulated radon exposure. The {sup 210}Po activity of the glass samples has been measured non-destructively using an open-flow pulse ionization chamber and this detector has also been successfully applied in field exercises.

  7. Recoil-deposited Po-210 in radon dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, C.

    1990-01-01

    Short-lived decay products of Rn-222 plate out on all surfaces in a house containing radon gas. Following the subsequent alpha decays of the mother nuclei, the daughter products Pb-214 and Pb-210 are superficially and permanently absorbed. Due to its long half-life (22 y) the activity of absorbed Pb-210 accumulates in the surface. The activity of Pb-210, or its decay products, can thus reflect the past randon daughter and plate-out history of a house over several decades. Our results and experience from measurements of Po-210 and Rn-222 in 22 dwellings will be presented. In these studies the Po-210 surface activity of one plane glass sheet per dwelling (window panes were not used) has been determined and compared with the period of exposure times the mean radon concentration measured over a two-month period. Considering the large uncertainty in the integrated radon exposure estimate the surface {sup 210}Po correlates well (r=0.73) with the accumulated radon exposure. The {sup 210}Po activity of the glass samples has been measured non-destructively using an open-flow pulse ionization chamber and this detector has also been successfully applied in field exercises.

  8. Psychological and socioeconomic health of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuei-Min; Lin, Mei-Hui; Wang, Yueh-Chin; Li, Chun-Huw; Huang, Hsin-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Different dimensions of health are intertwined. The purposes of this study were: (1) to investigate the psychological and socioeconomic health status of community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan, and (2) to compare the psychological and socioeconomic health differences among people of different age groups, gender, marital status, and exercise habits. Using stratified random sampling, 384 Taiwanese community-dwelling older adults were recruited for this survey research. Based on the Health Model of Older Adults, seven constructs were measured: (1) psychological health: sleep quality, emotional health, cognitive functioning, and health promotion behaviors; (2) socioeconomic health: social engagement, social support, and financial status. Results showed that most participants were in a good state of psychological and socioeconomic health, except that 38.02% of them suffered from sleep disruptions, and the majority of them were not involved in any social group, nor engaged in any volunteer work. Young-old older adults had better psychological and socioeconomic health than middle-old and old-old older adults. Male older adults had better psychological health than female older adults; however, they had less social engagement and social support than female older adults. Married older adults and exercisers performed better in most of the psychological and socioeconomic health indicators than single/widowed older adults and non-exercisers.

  9. {sup 220}Rn and its progeny in dwellings of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang-Kyu [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: chang.kyu.kim@iaea.org; Kim, Young-Jae; Lee, Hwa-Yong; Chang, Byung-Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, P.O. Box 114, Yusong, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Tokonami, Shinji [Radon Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Concentrations of {sup 220}Rn and its progeny were measured in 450 dwellings from 2002 to 2004 using two kinds of simple passive {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn monitors, Radopot{sup TM} and {sup 220}Rn progeny monitor. The annual arithmetic mean (AM) and geometric mean (GM) of {sup 220}Rn concentrations were 40.4 and 10.7Bqm{sup -3}, respectively. The annual arithmetic mean (AM) of EEC{sub Tn} concentration was 0.89{+-}0.70Bqm{sup -3}, and the annual geometric mean (GM) was 0.60Bqm{sup -3} (95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.78Bqm{sup -3}). The concentrations of {sup 220}Rn in Korean-style houses built with mud block were about two times higher than those in apartments. The average annual effective dose due to inhalation exposure to {sup 220}Rn and its progeny in dwellings was 0.25mSvy{sup -1}.

  10. A comparative study of indoor radon concentrations between dwellings and schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapdan, E.; Altinsoy, N.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of radon concentrations between dwellings and the schools located in the same regions and to obtain related indoor average radon concentration dwelling-school correction factor for similar locations. The research has been carried out by determining indoor radon concentrations at schools and dwellings located at the same districts in the selected two separate research fields called The Former Adapazari region and The New Adapazari region in the city of Adapazari using a total of 81 Cr-39 passive radon detectors for 75 days. The average radon concentrations have been determined for the dwellings and the schools in 15 districts of the Former Adapazari region as 59.9 Bq m-3 and 57.1 Bq m-3, respectively. The results in 4 districts of the New Adapazari region were 63.5 Bq m-3 for the dwellings and 61.0 Bq m-3 for the schools. Moreover, the annual effective doses were calculated as 1.33 mSv/y and 1.41 mSv/y for the dwellings of Former Adapazari and New Adapazari, respectively. It was seen that the doses received in the dwellings are about four times the doses received in the schools. The indoor radon concentration dwelling-school correction factor was found to be 1.04±0.01 for the research area.

  11. Estimation of train dwell time at short stops based on track occupation event data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.; Daamen, W.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Train dwell time is one of the most unpredictable components of railway operations mainly due to the varying volumes of alighting and boarding passengers. For reliable estimations of train running times and route conflicts on main lines it is however necessary to obtain accurate estimations of dwell

  12. Dwell Notch Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Yamada, Y.; Ghosn, L. J.; Jayaraman, N.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the processes which govern dwell notch low cycle fatigue (NLCF) behavior of a powder metallurgy (P/M) ME3 disk superalloy. The emphasis was placed on the environmentally driven mechanisms which may embrittle the highly stressed notch surface regions and reduce NLCF life. In conjunction with the environmentally driven notch surface degradation processes, the visco-plastic driven mechanisms which can significantly change the notch root stresses were also considered. Dwell notch low cycle fatigue testing was performed in air and vacuum on a ME3 P/M disk alloy specimens heat treated using either a fast or a slow cooling rate from the solutioning treatment. It was shown that dwells at the minimum stress typically produced a greater life debit than the dwells applied at the maximum stress, especially for the slow cooled heat treatment. Two different environmentally driven failure mechanisms were identified as the root cause of early crack initiation in the min dwell tests. Both of these failure mechanisms produced mostly a transgranular crack initiation failure mode and yet still resulted in low NLCF fatigue lives. The lack of stress relaxation during the min dwell tests produced higher notch root stresses which caused early crack initiation and premature failure when combined with the environmentally driven surface degradation mechanisms. The importance of environmental degradation mechanisms was further highlighted by vacuum dwell NLCF tests which resulted in considerably longer NLCF lives, especially for the min dwell tests.

  13. The effect of coverplates on the dwell characteristics of silican carbide subject to KE impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickup, I.M.; Barker, A.K.; Elgy, I.D.; Peskes, G.J.J.M.; Voorde, M.J. van der

    2004-01-01

    The high ballistic efficiency of non-oxide ceramics such as silicon carbide against kinetic energy (KE) threats is largely due to penetrator dwell (the erosion of the tip of the rod prior to ceramic target penetration). This paper considers the effect of target surface conditions on the dwell charac

  14. Dwelling on Courtyards. Exploring the energy efficiency and comfort potential of courtyards for dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taleghani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island (UHI phenomenon and the dependency of buildings on
fossil fuels were the two main issues that formed this dissertation. UHI results in higher air temperatures in dense urban areas compared with their suburbs and rural surroundings. This phenomenon affects human health through thermal discomfort. Furthermore, in the Netherlands, it is estimated that by 2050 the air temperature could be up to 2.3°C warmer as compared to the period of 1981-2010. Besides, the energy consumption of buildings is responsible for 30 to 45% of CO2 emissions. 31% of this consumption belongs to residential buildings. Residential buildings can play a major role in reducing the CO2 emissions caused by fossil fuel consumption.One of the passive architectural design solutions is the courtyard building form. Courtyards have been used for thousands of years in different climates in the world. In hot climates they provide shading, in humid climates they cause a stack effect helping ventilation, in cold climates they break cold winds and protect their microclimate. In temperate climates (such as of the Netherlands, the thermal behaviour of courtyards has been studied less. In this dissertation, low-rise residential courtyard buildings were therefore studied among (and along different urban block types in the Netherlands.As the first step, computer simulations were done as a parametric study for indoor and outdoor thermal comfort. Field measurements were done in actual urban courtyards and in dwellings alongside urban courtyards in the Netherlands (and in a similar temperate climate in the US. A scale model experiment later followed the simulations. Some of these field measurements were used to validate the simulation models. These efforts answered the two main research questions:1 To what extent is a dwelling alongside an urban courtyard more efficient and thermally comfortable than other dwellings?2 To what extent do people have a more comfortable

  15. Dwell position inaccuracy in the Varian GammaMed HDR ring applicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robin L; Liu, Tianxiao

    2010-09-07

    Varian has issued two Product Notification Letters warning of known inaccuracies in dwell positions for their GammaMed HDR ring applicator. This inaccuracy was measured for two sets of applicators. Autoexposed radiographs were taken of the HDR source at different dwell positions and analyzed per Varian recommendations using tools within the BrachyVision treatment planning program. Comparison between programmed and actual dwell positions showed the actual positions shifted distally by an average of 0.34 cm (0.17 cm-0.59 cm) across all positions in all rings. A correction method was developed and tested. During planning, the tip of the ring was extrapolated distally beyond its actual position in the patient image set and a proximal offset of the same distance was applied to the dwell positions. A global shift of 0.3 mm corrected all but the most proximal actual dwell position to within +2 mm of the planned position.

  16. OPTIMAL DESIGNS AND CAPABILITY LIMITS OF SINGLE ROLLER-TO-CAM INDEXING MECHANISMS FOR THREE DWELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. K. S. TRIPATHI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the continuous contact single roller-to-cam indexing mechanism for optimal designs and capability limits, based on generic transmission and curvature constraint for three dwell periods. First of all, the paper determines the solutions of the problems associated with multiple dwells and then develops optimal designs for three maximum extent dwell periods with equal indexing angles with curvature and transmission constraints. Next, stipulating that the three dwell periods should be equal; iteration is done. This gives optimal designs for three equal maximized dwells with equal indexing periods with curvature and transmission constraints. Final information in the form of capability limits will be very helpful to those who search for various alternative indexing mechanisms for several applications of automatic and packaging industries.

  17. The practice of dwelling and the nature of decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Håkon; Baron, Nina

    2016-01-01

    There exists a political desire to make buildings more energy efficient and resilient to extreme weather. For existing private housing this is done through refurbishment and retrofitting. In response, various projects and policies aiming to influence decisions made by homeowners in relation...... of dwelling”. We see maintenance, refurbishment and reparations as part of an ongoing practice of dwelling. In this light, decision making is just one of many aspects that contribute to shaping the actions of homeowners when they invest time and money in their properties....... to refurbishment. Focus on decisions seems to be based on a perspective where actions are understood to be the result of isolated decisions. By means of case studies from Denmark and Norway we challenge this point of view. Based on a practice theoretical approach we argue that homeowners’ actions should be seen...

  18. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of some regions in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayrat, A.H. E-mail: akhayrat@yahoo.com; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman, X.; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-06-01

    Indoor radon survey in a total of 241 dwellings, distributed in some regions of Yemen was performed, using CR-39 based radon monitors. The objective of this radon survey is to get representative indoor radon data of three regions, namely Dhamar, Taiz and Hodeidah, situated at different altitudes above sea level. The radon concentrations varied from 3 to 270 Bq m{sup -3} with an average of 42 Bq m{sup -3}. It was found that the average radon concentration in the surveyed areas increases with altitudes. The highest average radon concentration of 59 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Dhamar city while the lowest average concentration of 8 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Hodeidah city.

  19. The relationship between sound insulation and acoustic quality in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1998-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings.......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the difficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  20. Dwelling habitus and urban out-migration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aner, Louise G.

    2016-01-01

    dwelling habitus” is central. By applying the analytical framework to the study of Danish middle-income families with children, their motives for out-migrating from Copenhagen are explored. Two broad categories of motives for moving are identified: the housing and the anti-urban. The housing motive...... is based on changes in housing needs during family formation and on the limited opportunities in the Copenhagen housing market. The anti-urban motive is based on a wish to bring up children in a non-urban milieu. The paper argues that an understanding of motives that focuses on the interrelationship......This paper examines young Danish families’ motives for leaving the city. By drawing on theories of Bourdieu and Giddens and combining them with a notion of place drawn from human geography, an analytical framework for studying people’s motives for moving is developed. In this framework the concept...

  1. International proposal for an acoustic classification scheme for dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic classification schemes specify different quality levels for acoustic conditions. Regulations and classification schemes for dwellings typically include criteria for airborne and impact sound insulation, façade sound insulation and service equipment noise. However, although important...... European countries have introduced classification schemes. The schemes typically include four classes. Comparative studies have shown significant discrepancies between countries due to national development of schemes. The diversity is an obstacle for exchange of construction experience for different...... classes, implying also trade barriers. Thus, a harmonized classification scheme would be useful, and the European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", running 2009-2013 with members from 32 countries, including three overseas...

  2. Localization of Dwell Fatigue Cracks in Ti-6242 Alloy Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhlin, S. I.; Kim, J.-Y.; Xie, B.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Zoofan, B.

    2003-03-01

    An in-situ ultrasonic guided wave technique is employed for real-time monitoring of crack initiation and evolution during dwell, cyclic fatigue and creep tests of Ti-6242 alloy samples. Ultrasonic signals are acquired continuously during the test at different levels of fatigue load using a high-speed data acquisition system. The initiation time and growth history of primary and multiple secondary cracks are assessed. Localization of the secondary cracks is performed by both the in-situ ultrasonic method and an ultrasonic immersion scanning method which we call "vertical C-scan" (VC scan). The VC scan is developed for imaging small cracks aligned normal to the fatigue sample axis. The fusion of ultrasonic and microradiographic images exhibits good agreement in crack location. Joint use of the three techniques provides location, shape, and size of the secondary cracks.

  3. Dwell Time Modelling and Optimized Simulations for Crowded Rail Transit Lines Based on Train Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of rail transit dwell time has potential benefits for both the users and the operators. Crowded passenger trains cause longer dwell times and may prevent some passengers from boarding the first available train that arrives. Actual dwell time and the process of passenger alighting and boarding are interdependent through the sequence of train stops and propagated delays. A comprehensive and feasible dwell time simulation model was developed and optimized to address the problems associated with scheduled timetables. The paper introduces the factors that affect dwell time in urban rail transit systems, including train headway, the process and number of passengers alighting and boarding the train, and the inability of train doors to properly close the first time because of overcrowded vehicles. Finally, based on a time-driven micro-simulation system, Shanghai rail transit Line 8 is used as an example to quantify the feasibility of scheduled dwell times for different stations, directions of travel and time periods, and a proposed dwell time during peak hours in several crowded stations is presented according to the simulation results.

  4. Dwell time modulation restrictions do not necessarily improve treatment plan quality for prostate HDR brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvert, Marleen; Gorissen, Bram L.; den Hertog, Dick; Hoffmann, Aswin L.

    2015-01-01

    Inverse planning algorithms for dwell time optimisation in interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy may produce solutions with large dwell time variations within catheters, which may result in undesirable selective high-dose subvolumes. Extending the dwell time optimisation model with a dwell time modulation restriction (DTMR) that limits dwell time differences between neighboring dwell positions has been suggested to eliminate this problem. DTMRs may additionally reduce the sensitivity for uncertainties in dwell positions that inevitably result from catheter reconstruction errors and afterloader source positioning inaccuracies. This study quantifies the reduction of high-dose subvolumes and the robustness against these uncertainties by applying a DTMR to template-based prostate HDR brachytherapy implants. Three different DTMRs were consecutively applied to a linear dose-based penalty model (LD) and a dose-volume based model (LDV), both obtained from literature. The models were solved with DTMR levels ranging from no restriction to uniform dwell times within catheters in discrete steps. Uncertainties were simulated on clinical cases using in-house developed software, and dose-volume metrics were calculated in each simulation. For the assessment of high-dose subvolumes, the dose homogeneity index (DHI) and the contiguous dose volume histogram were analysed. Robustness was measured by the improvement of the lowest D90% of the planning target volume (PTV) observed in the simulations. For (LD), a DTMR yields an increase in DHI of approximately 30% and reduces the size of the largest high-dose volume by 2-5 cc. However, this comes at a cost of a reduction in D90% of the PTV of 10%, which often implies that it drops below the desired minimum of 100%. For (LDV), none of the DTMRs were able to improve high-dose volume measures. DTMRs were not capable of improving robustness of PTV D90% against uncertainty in dwell positions for both models.

  5. Habitability issues for long-term habitation in space ship; Uchusen no kankyo to choki kyoju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, S. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Research Institute of Environmental Medicine

    1999-04-05

    The International Space Station which will start its actual operation in 2004, provides a big step for human beings to expand their habitation territory into space, since it should play a role as a junction port for future shuttle missions between our Earth and the lunar base and also for manned exploration toward Mars. In the present paper, cuurent status of environmental conditions of the space ship and some risks and difficulty which onboard crews may face during their long stay are viewed from biomedical points. (author)

  6. An Experimental Study of the Thermal Behavior of the Courtyard Style Cave Dwelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳峰; 刘亚; 刘加平

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the courtyard on moderating the hush climate and improving the thermal environment of the courtyard style cave dwelling, and the interaction amongst the ambient, the courtyard and its surrounding cave rooms were investigated. A field measurement was carried out in such a typical dwelling in the winter. The results presented in this paper prove the ability of this dwelling to transform an extreme winter environment outside cave rooms into a better outdoor community space and will be helpful for modern architects to seek a low cost housing solution with concern for sustainable development.

  7. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants. An Adaptive Thermal Comfort System is defined as the whole of passive and active comfort components of the dwelling that dynamically adapts its settings to varying user comfort demands and weather conditions (seasonal, diurnal and hourly depending on the aspects adapted, thus providing comfort only where, when and at the level needed by the user, to improve possibilities of harvesting the environmental energy (e.g. solar gain and outdoor air when available and storing it when abundant.In order to be able to create an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System to save energy knowledge is needed as to where, when, what kind and how much energy is needed to provide the thermal comfort. Therefore, this research aimed to gain insight in the dynamic behaviour of the weather and the occupant and the opportunities to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants answering the main research question; What are the most efficient strategies for delivering thermal comfort in the residential sector with respect to better energy performances and an increasing demand for flexibility in use and comfort conditions?To answer the main research question three steps were taken, which also represent the three parts of the research:1. The dynamic information of the factors influencing the thermal heat balance of the dwelling was gathered in order to determine their opportunities for adaptivity. A multidisciplinary approach to Thermal Comfort Systems is followed taking into account the dynamic of occupancy profiles, weather, building physics, HVAC and controls

  8. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants. An Adaptive Thermal Comfort System is defined as the whole of passive and active comfort components of the dwelling that dynamically adapts its settings to varying user comfort demands and weather conditions (seasonal, diurnal and hourly depending on the aspects adapted, thus providing comfort only where, when and at the level needed by the user, to improve possibilities of harvesting the environmental energy (e.g. solar gain and outdoor air when available and storing it when abundant.In order to be able to create an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System to save energy knowledge is needed as to where, when, what kind and how much energy is needed to provide the thermal comfort. Therefore, this research aimed to gain insight in the dynamic behaviour of the weather and the occupant and the opportunities to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants answering the main research question; What are the most efficient strategies for delivering thermal comfort in the residential sector with respect to better energy performances and an increasing demand for flexibility in use and comfort conditions?To answer the main research question three steps were taken, which also represent the three parts of the research:1. The dynamic information of the factors influencing the thermal heat balance of the dwelling was gathered in order to determine their opportunities for adaptivity. A multidisciplinary approach to Thermal Comfort Systems is followed taking into account the dynamic of occupancy profiles, weather, building physics, HVAC and controls

  9. Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander in Cincinnati, OH, USA. This dataset is associated with the following...

  10. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach for Estimation of Dwelling Times of Panama Metro Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Berbey Alvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Passenger flow modeling and station dwelling time estimation are significant elements for railway mass transit planning, but system operators usually have limited information to model the passenger flow. In this paper, an artificial-intelligence technique known as fuzzy logic is applied for the estimation of the elements of the origin-destination matrix and the dwelling time of stations in a railway transport system. The fuzzy inference engine used in the algorithm is based in the principle of maximum entropy. The approach considers passengers’ preferences to assign a level of congestion in each car of the train in function of the properties of the station platforms. This approach is implemented to estimate the passenger flow and dwelling times of the recently opened Line 1 of the Panama Metro. The dwelling times obtained from the simulation are compared to real measurements to validate the approach.

  11. Numerical Simulation Analysis and Ecological Evaluation on Wind Environment of Dwelling Groups in Severe Cold Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jin; Teng Shao

    2014-01-01

    The wind environment around residential building groups is increasingly concerned, while the dwelling groups as the elementary unit of planning design, its quality of surrounding wind environment will directly affect people’ s life. This study based on the climatic conditions of severe cold regions, selects four dwellings groups with different openings scale and position as the research objects, and then simulates and analyzes the wind speed distribution characteristics of each pattern. Meanwhile, it extracts the wind speed values of one hundred points of each pattern and applies the coefficient of uniformity method to the ecological evaluation. It has been found that grouping pattern of buildings has a dramatic effect on the resulting airflow behavior. Configurations that contain a T⁃shaped central space with small opened side can effectively prevent and contain airflow in the site offer. The interactive influence between layout of dwelling groups and wind environment are explored, so as to provide basis for the planning design of dwelling groups.

  12. Soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates of Rajapur Bay, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Thirtyfour species of soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates were recorded in Rajapur Bay at the proposed effluent discharge location of nuclear power plant. The fauna mainly composed of polychaetes (42.52%), molluscs (39.03%), crustaceans (7...

  13. Perceived Environmental Barriers to Outdoor Mobility and Feelings of Loneliness Among Community-Dwelling Older People.

    OpenAIRE

    Rantakokko, Merja; Iwarsson, Susanne; Vahaluoto, Satu; Portegijs, Erja; Viljanen, Anne; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-01-01

    We examined the association between perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility and loneliness among community-dwelling older people. In addition, we studied whether walking difficulties and autonomy in participation outdoors affected this association.

  14. Determinants of ventilation behavior in naturally ventilated dwellings: Identification and quantification of relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levie, D.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Hoes-van Oeffelen, E.C.M.; Hofstetter, H.; Janssen, S.A.; Spiekman, M.E.; Koene, F.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ventilation in dwellings is essential for well-being and health. However, insight in determinants of ventilation behavior is still limited. Aim: Identifying determinants of ventilation behavior and quantifying relationships. Secondly, identifying households characteristics associated wit

  15. Risk for falls among community-dwelling older people: systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Luís Manuel Mota; Marques-Vieira, Cristina Maria Alves; Caldevilla, Maria Nilza Guimarães Nogueira de; Henriques, Cristina Maria Alves Dias; Severino, Sandy Silva Pedro; Caldeira, Sílvia Maria Alves

    2017-02-23

    To identify the risk factors for falls of the community-dwelling elderly in order to update the Taxonomy II of NANDA International. A systematic literature review based on research using the following platforms: EBSCOHost®, CINAHL and MEDLINE, from December 2010 to December 2014. The descriptors used were (Fall* OR Accidental Fall) AND (Community Dwelling OR Community Health Services OR Primary health care) AND (Risk OR Risk Assessment OR Fall Risk Factors) AND (Fall* OR Accidental Fall) AND (Community Dwelling OR older) AND Nurs* AND Fall Risk Factors. The sample comprised 62 studies and 50 risk factors have been identified. Of these risk factors, only 38 are already listed in the classification. Two new categories of risk factors are proposed: psychological and socio-economical. New fall risk factors for the community-dwelling elderly have been identified, which can contribute to the updating of this nursing diagnosis of the Taxonomy II of NANDA International.

  16. Dwelling, house and home: towards a home-led perspective on dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Wim

    2011-08-01

    "Home" is well known from everyday experience, plays a crucial role in all kinds of narratives about human life, but is hardly ever systematically dealt with in the philosophy of medicine and health care. The notion of home is ambiguous, is often used in a metaphorical way, and is closely related to concepts such as house and dwelling. In this paper the phenomenon of home is explored by means of some phenomenological writings of Heidegger, Bollnow, Bachelard and Levinas. Common in their views is that being at home and dwelling mean something more fundamental than an activity we do along with other activities, such as working and travelling. Dwelling, building a house and being at home are fundamental aspects of human existence. Being human is dwelling. While exploring the relevance of this phenomenological perspective for medical theory and practice, the focus is on the care of people suffering from dementia.

  17. Effects of compound music program on cognitive function and QOL in community-dwelling elderly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fujita, Takaaki; Ito, Akemi; Kikuchi, Nana; Kakinuma, Tomohiro; Sato, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aimed to investigate the effect of structured interventions comprising music, physical exercise, and reminiscence therapy on cognitive function and quality of life of the community-dwelling elderly...

  18. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-01-01

    .... In total, 439 community-dwelling elderly Chinese adults aged 60-91 years completed the Personal and Parents' Parenting Style Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale...

  19. Stability analysis of switched cellular neural networks: A mode-dependent average dwell time approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuangxia; Cao, Jie; Cao, Jinde

    2016-10-01

    This paper addresses the exponential stability of switched cellular neural networks by using the mode-dependent average dwell time (MDADT) approach. This method is quite different from the traditional average dwell time (ADT) method in permitting each subsystem to have its own average dwell time. Detailed investigations have been carried out for two cases. One is that all subsystems are stable and the other is that stable subsystems coexist with unstable subsystems. By employing Lyapunov functionals, linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), Jessen-type inequality, Wirtinger-based inequality, reciprocally convex approach, we derived some novel and less conservative conditions on exponential stability of the networks. Comparing to ADT, the proposed MDADT show that the minimal dwell time of each subsystem is smaller and the switched system stabilizes faster. The obtained results extend and improve some existing ones. Moreover, the validness and effectiveness of these results are demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  20. The Application of Downdraught Cooling in Vernacular Skywell Dwellings in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, H.; Lv, A. M.

    2017-05-01

    Traditional skywell dwellings in the hot climate regions of China represent an important cultural heritage. Achieving indoor comfort meeting occupants’ expectations, can contribute to the preservation of this unique traditional architecture. Improvement of ventilation and indoor temperatures through natural, sustainable and low impact solutions is an opportunity in achieving building thermal comfort in these traditional dwellings. The existence of skywells provides a good opportunity for the incorporation of downdraught cooling with minor interventions, and thus by avoiding extensive ductwork, saving energy and improving indoor temperatures, it can contribute to the preservation of traditional dwellings. Applicability of downdraught cooling, the history of traditional ventilation solutions, layout and space features of skywell dwelling are discussed and the way of incorporating downdraught cooling as an alternative to air-conditioning into these buildings is investigated.

  1. Evaluation of doses and protection afforded by dwellings against atmospheric releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Grand, J.; Roux, Y. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire); Patau, J.P. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Faculte de Pharmacie)

    1985-01-01

    A computer program library allowing complete simulation of photon transport for a radioactive cloud surrounding a simplified dwelling and a human phantom are described. Results on radiation spectra, doses and protection factors are presented.

  2. Exercise and risk of injurious fall in home-dwelling elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Iinattiniemi, Sari; Jokelainen, Jari; Luukinen, Heikki

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between different types of physical exercise and the risk of subsequent fall-related injury. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of the home-dwelling elderly. METHODS: A population sample of home-dwelling subjects aged 85 years or older (n = 512) in northern Finland participated in the study. Baseline data were collected by home-nursing staff through postal questionnaires and clinical tests. Frequency and times of physical exercise--that is, walking exe...

  3. Impact of Interlayer Dwell Time on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nickel and Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B. K.; Beese, A. M.; Keist, J. S.; McHale, E. T.; Palmer, T. A.

    2017-09-01

    Path planning in additive manufacturing (AM) processes has an impact on the thermal histories experienced at discrete locations in simple and complex AM structures. One component of path planning in directed energy deposition is the time required for the laser or heat source to return to a given location to add another layer of material. As structures become larger and more complex, the length of this interlayer dwell time can significantly impact the resulting thermal histories. The impact of varying dwell times between 0 and 40 seconds on the microstructural and mechanical properties of Inconel® 625 and Ti-6Al-4V builds has been characterized. Even though these materials display different microstructures and solid-state phase transformations, the addition of an interlayer dwell generally led to a finer microstructure in both materials that impacted the resulting mechanical properties. With the addition of interlayer dwell times up to 40 seconds in the Inconel® 625 builds, finer secondary dendrite arm spacing values, produced by changes in the thermal history, correspond to increased yield and tensile strengths. These mechanical properties did not appear to change significantly, however, for dwell times greater than 20 seconds in the Inconel® 625 builds, indicating that longer dwell times have a minimal impact. The addition of interlayer dwell times in Ti-6Al-4V builds resulted in a slight decrease in the measured alpha lath widths and a much more noticeable decrease in the width of prior beta grains. In addition, the yield and tensile values continued to increase, nearly reaching the values observed in the rolled plate substrate material with dwell times up to 40 seconds.

  4. Dwell fatigue in two Ti alloys: An integrated crystal plasticity and discrete dislocation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zebang; Balint, Daniel S.; Dunne, Fionn P. E.

    2016-11-01

    It is a well known and important problem in the aircraft engine industry that alloy Ti-6242 shows a significant reduction in fatigue life, termed dwell debit, if a stress dwell is included in the fatigue cycle, whereas Ti-6246 does not; the mechanistic explanation for the differing dwell debit of these alloys has remained elusive for decades. In this work, crystal plasticity modelling has been utilised to extract the thermal activation energies for pinned dislocation escape for both Ti alloys based on independent experimental data. This then allows the markedly different cold creep responses of the two alloys to be captured accurately and demonstrates why the observed near-identical rate sensitivity under non-dwell loading is entirely consistent with the dwell behaviour. The activation energies determined are then utilised within a recently developed thermally-activated discrete dislocation plasticity model to predict the strain rate sensitivities of the two alloys associated with nano-indentation into basal and prism planes. It is shown that Ti-6242 experiences a strong crystallographic orientation-dependent rate sensitivity while Ti-6246 does not which is shown to agree with recently published independent measurements; the dependence of rate sensitivity on indentation slip plane is also well captured. The thermally-activated discrete dislocation plasticity model shows that the incorporation of a stress dwell in fatigue loading leads to remarkable stress redistribution from soft to hard grains in the classical cold dwell fatigue rogue grain combination in alloy Ti-6242, but that no such load shedding occurs in alloy Ti-6246. The key property controlling the behaviour is the time constant of the thermal activation process relative to that of the loading. This work provides the first mechanistic basis to explain why alloy Ti-6242 shows a dwell debit but Ti-6246 does not.

  5. [association Between Insomnia Symptoms, Daytime Napping, And Falls In Community-dwelling Elderly].

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,Alexandre Alves; Ceolim, Maria Filomena; Neri,Anita Liberalesso

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on associations between insomnia symptoms, daytime napping, and falls in community-dwelling elderly, using a population-based cross-sectional design and probability sample with 689 community-dwelling elders. The protocol consisted of self-reported and physical performance variables. The study used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis with statistical significance set at p < 0.05. Prevalence rates for insomnia symptoms and daytime napping were 49.9% (n = ...

  6. Distributed interactive communication in simulated space-dwelling groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Joseph V; Hienz, Robert D; Hursh, Steven R; Ragusa, Leonard C; Rouse, Charles O; Gasior, Eric D

    2004-03-01

    This report describes the development and preliminary application of an experimental test bed for modeling human behavior in the context of a computer generated environment to analyze the effects of variations in communication modalities, incentives and stressful conditions. In addition to detailing the methodological development of a simulated task environment that provides for electronic monitoring and recording of individual and group behavior, the initial substantive findings from an experimental analysis of distributed interactive communication in simulated space dwelling groups are described. Crews of three members each (male and female) participated in simulated "planetary missions" based upon a synthetic scenario task that required identification, collection, and analysis of geologic specimens with a range of grade values. The results of these preliminary studies showed clearly that cooperative and productive interactions were maintained between individually isolated and distributed individuals communicating and problem-solving effectively in a computer-generated "planetary" environment over extended time intervals without benefit of one another's physical presence. Studies on communication channel constraints confirmed the functional interchangeability between available modalities with the highest degree of interchangeability occurring between Audio and Text modes of communication. The effects of task-related incentives were determined by the conditions under which they were available with Positive Incentives effectively attenuating decrements in performance under stressful time pressure.

  7. Electron microscopic examination of uncultured soil-dwelling bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amako, Kazunobu; Takade, Akemi; Taniai, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2008-05-01

    Bacteria living in soil collected from a rice paddy in Fukuoka, Japan, were examined by electron microscopy using a freeze-substitution fixation method. Most of the observed bacteria could be categorized, based on the structure of the cell envelope and overall morphology, into one of five groups: (i) bacterial spore; (ii) Gram-positive type; (iii) Gram-negative type; (iv) Mycobacterium like; and (v) Archaea like. However, a few of the bacteria could not be readily categorized into one of these groups because they had unique cell wall structures, basically resembling those of Gram-negative bacteria, but with the layer corresponding to the peptidoglycan layer in Gram-negative bacteria being extremely thick, like that of the cortex of a bacterial spore. The characteristic morphological features found in many of these uncultured, soil-dwelling cells were the nucleoid being in a condensed state and the cytoplasm being shrunken. We were able to produce similar morphologies in vitro using a Salmonella sp. by culturing under low-temperature, low-nutrient conditions, similar to those found in some natural environments. These unusual morphologies are therefore hypothesized to be characteristic of bacteria in resting or dormant stages.

  8. Physiological ecology of the mangrove-dwelling varanid Varanus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James G; Christian, Keith; Green, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Some species of terrestrial lizards in wet-dry tropical climates reduce their body temperatures (T(b)'s) and activity and lower their metabolic rates during the dry season when food and water resources are scarce. However, semiaquatic lizards have access to water and presumably food throughout the year, so it is possible that they will not have the seasonal response seen in terrestrial species. We studied the thermal biology, energetics, and water flux of Varanus indicus, a semiaquatic, mangrove-dwelling varanid in tropical northern Australia. Although V. indicus remained active all year, they reduced their activity in the dry season, but not to the extent of terrestrial varanids. Varanus indicus field metabolic rates decreased by 38% in the dry season mostly as a result of the reduction in activity. Although food and water depletion are the driving forces behind decreases in dry season T(b) selection and energetics for many varanids, V. indicus appears not to be subject to these pressures to the same extent. Thermoregulatory indices indicate that V. indicus actively thermoregulate in the wet and dry seasons, but they do not fully exploit the available thermal resources. These lizards are unusual among varanid lizards in that their midday T(b)'s are relatively low (about 31 degrees C) despite the availability of thermal resources that would allow them to attain substantially higher T(b)'s.

  9. Neighborhood Environment and Falls among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklett, Emily Joy; Lohman, Matthew C; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-02-10

    Background: Falls present a major challenge to active aging, but the relationship between neighborhood factors and falls is poorly understood. This study examined the relationship between fall events and neighborhood factors, including neighborhood social cohesion (sense of belonging, trust, friendliness, and helpfulness) and physical environment (vandalism/graffiti, rubbish, vacant/deserted houses, and perceived safety walking home at night). Methods: Data were analyzed from 9259 participants over four biennial waves (2006-2012) of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative sample of adults aged 65 and older in the United States. Results: In models adjusting for demographic and health-related covariates, a one-unit increase in neighborhood social cohesion was associated with 4% lower odds of experiencing a single fall (odds ratio (OR): 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-0.99) and 6% lower odds of experiencing multiple falls (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90-0.98). A one-unit increase in the physical environment scale was associated with 4% lower odds of experiencing a single fall (OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93-0.99) and with 5% lower odds of experiencing multiple falls (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-1.00) in adjusted models. Conclusions: The physical and social neighborhood environment may affect fall risk among community-dwelling older adults. Findings support the ongoing need for evidence-based fall prevention programming in community and clinical settings.

  10. Sustainable Housing in Chilean Patagonia: From Greenhouse to Dwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Osorio Schmied

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The complete lack of a sustainable housing market in the cold and rainy context of Valdivia, Southern Chile (39°49’ S, 73°14’ W, draws the need to find an affordable solution for the construction of energy-efficient living spaces. A team of architects undertook the challenge, whilst acknowledging other environmental issues such as the use of recycled materials. Based on research, the greenhouse principle was the focus of the design, as it dealt with prevailing weather conditions in a more proper fashion, by maximising daylight and solar gains during the long, cold winter, and also by allowing small-scale farming all year round, amongst other features. The greenhouse was thought to perform more as an in-between space -in terms of temperature and lightning- to all common zones in a house (e.g., a doorway or a living room, rather than applying to each inhabited space, individually. The architects researched on the above qualities to see whether they applied to the new prototype or not. Both potential overheating -in the short warm season- and glare risks were taken into account, by conducting specific environmental assessments (e.g., natural lighting levels on both physical and virtual models. Keywords: Environmental design, sustainable dwellings, Southern Chile, extreme weather.

  11. FOLK DWELLING IN THE NOVEL OF IVAN BAHRIANYI "TYHROLOVY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGUSLAVSKAYA L. G.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The image of the national home contains a number of basic characteristics on the basis of which can be traced specifically to the national vision and principles of human connections with the material world. In the novel "Tyhrolovy" the uniqueness of this play lies in the fact that the “Ukrainian Khata” consolidated among the "alien" space. On the pages of the novel takes place already well-established, self-sufficient and organized life of an Ukrainian family that not only survived, but also learned new vital dimension. Folk housing in the context appears as the main object of maintaining tribal affiliation to the Ukrainian land. The purpose of the article. To perform the folk characteristic properties at home in the works of Ivan Bahrianyi. Conclusions. Roman "Tyhrolovy" Ivan Bahrianyi contains a number of significant parts filled with the symbols of tribal affiliation to the Ukrainian world. In particular, fully preserved and carefully restored in the family home of Sirko the guard function of these important components of the domestic home space, like images, embroidered towels, oven painted with flowers, carved cupboard. A combination feature of former agricultural world with the world of game is transmitted via the zoomorphic elements of the painting ovens ( former peace doves have become falcons and deploying a visual of the number of images that are typical for Ukrainian dwelling as the basic form of fixation of life and family development.

  12. Radon in Dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, Gustav (Aakerblom och Aakerblom HP, Skaerholmen (Sweden)); German, Olga; Soederman, Ann-Louise (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Stamat, Ivan; Venkov, Vladimir (Research Inst. of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    2009-02-15

    The National Radon Survey in the Republic of Kalmykia, Russian Federation during 2006-2007 was carried out in a cooperation project between the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Russian Institute of Radiation Hygiene (RIRH). In August 2006 SSI, RIRH, federal and local authorities carried out a field study in Kalmykia when radon daughter measurements (equilibrium equivalent radon concentrations in the air) and gamma radiation measurements were made in 103 buildings. Gamma spectrometry measurements were made at several sites. During the visit the cooperating parties devoted some time to the education of local authorities on radon related issues. During three months in the winter season 2006-2007, long term radon trace measurements were made in 525 randomly chosen dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia. The radon gas activity varied between 3 and 973 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 122 Bq/m3. In 19 of a total of 835 measurement points, the radon activity exceeded the maximum permitted value in Russia of 200 Bq/m3 of EERC. The year-round radon trace measurement were made in 20 houses in Elista, the capital of the Republic of Kalmykia, for comparison with the three-month measurements. The year-round measurements showed some higher values for the radon activity, and a correction factor of 0.85 was applied. Using data on the number of people living in detached houses and apartments, and applying the radon activities measured, the number of new lung cancer cases caused by radon was calculated to be 20 to 40 of the 100 new cases reported annually. The methods of construction of the dwellings in Kalmykia is greatly influenced by the history and culture. Most of them were built after World War II and there are only a few that are newly built because of the poor economic situation and the low population growth rate in the Republic. Most people live in detached houses, one-storied with 3-5 rooms, built directly on the ground or on coquina blocks or on a cast

  13. Risk factors of falls in community dwelling active elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuunainen, Eeva; Rasku, Jyrki; Jäntti, Pirkko; Pyykkö, Ilmari

    2014-02-01

    To search for measures to describe and relate to accidental falls in community dwelling elderly. A EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire based on a patient's otoneurological case history provided a general health related quality of life measure, a fall history for the last 3 months and force platform measures for 96 active elderly from a pensioner organization. On average, the elderly experienced 0.3 falls over the preceding three months. A fall was seen to cause a significant deterioration in the quality of life and vertigo and caused fear of falling. The postural instability correlated with falls. Vertigo was present among 42% and was most commonly characterized as episodic and rotatory in factorial analysis items relating to vertigo correlated to falls and balance complaints. Four factors were identified and three of these correlated with falls. Vestibular failure correlated to a fall occurring when a person was rising up; Movement intolerance correlated with falls due to slips and trips, and Near-syncope factor correlated to falls for other reasons. In posturography, the variable measuring critical time describing the memory based "closed loop" control of postural stability carried a risk for accidental fall with an odds ratio of 6. The variable measuring zero crossing velocity showed a high rate of velocity change around the neutral position of stance. Vertigo and poor postural stability were the major reasons for falls in the active elderly. In ageing, postural control is shifted towards open loop control (visual, proprioception, exteroception and vestibular) instead of closed loop control and is a factor that contributes to a fall. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radon concentrations in different types of dwellings in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, L; Koch, J; Riemer, T; Orion, I; Haquin, G

    2014-12-01

    The average radon concentration in Israeli dwellings was assessed by combining the results of a 2006 radon survey in single-family houses with the results of a 2011 radon survey in apartments of multistorey buildings. Both surveys were based on long-term measurements using CR-39 detectors. The survey in multistorey buildings was intended to assess the influence of recent practices in the local building industry on the radon concentrations. These practices include the use of building materials with higher concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the last 20 y than before, as well as the improvement in sealing techniques over that period. Another practice in place since the early 1990 s is the building of a shielded area in every apartment that is known as an RSS (residential secure space). The RSS is a room built from massive concrete walls, floor and ceiling that can be hermetically sealed and is intended to protect its residents from a missile attack. The influence of the above-mentioned features on radon concentrations was estimated by dividing the participating apartments into two groups: apartments in buildings >20 y, built using building materials with low concentrations of the natural radionuclides, regular sealing and without an RSS and apartments in buildings newer than 10 y, built using building materials with higher concentrations of the natural radionuclides, improved sealing and including an RSS. It was found that the average radon concentration in apartments in new buildings was significantly higher than in old buildings and the average radon concentration in single-family houses was significantly higher than in apartments in multistorey buildings. Doses due to indoor radon were estimated on the basis of the updated information included in the 2009 International Commission on Radiological Protection statement on radon.

  15. Ingredients for a Dutch radon action plan, based on a national survey in more than 2500 dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetsers, R C G M Ronald; Blaauboer, R O Roelf; Dekkers, S A J Fieke

    2016-12-01

    A new Euratom directive demands that Member States establish a national action plan for indoor radon. Important requirements are a national reference level for the radon concentration in dwellings, actions to identify dwellings with radon concentrations that might exceed this reference level and the encouragement of appropriate measures to reduce the radon concentrations in dwellings where these are high. This paper provides ingredients and recommendations for a national action plan for radon in dwellings, applicable to the Netherlands. The approach presented here, which may serve as a model for other countries or regions with a comparatively favourable indoor radon situation, is based on the analysis of radon data from a national survey in more than 2500 Dutch dwellings, built since 1930. The annual average activity concentration of radon in dwellings in the Netherlands equals 15.6 ± 0.3 Bq m(-3). The 50th and 95th percentiles were found to be 12.2 and 38.0 Bq m(-3), respectively. In 0.4 per cent of the dwellings we found values above 100 Bq m(-3). Radon concentrations showed correlations with type of dwelling, year of construction, ventilation system, soil type and smoking behaviour of inhabitants. The survey data suggest that it is feasible for the Netherlands to adopt a national reference level for radon in dwellings of 100 Bq m(-3), in line with recommendations by WHO and ICRP. We were able to predict dwellings with a moderate probability for radon concentrations above 100 Bq m(-3) by applying a combination of three selection criteria: location, type of dwelling and manner of ventilation. Of the existing 6.2 million dwellings in the Netherlands (built since 1930), approximately 23-24 thousand are suspected to exceed this level. Some 80% of these are found in the group of naturally ventilated single-family dwellings in either the southern part of Limburg (approx. 13 thousand) or the Meuse-Rhine-Waal river delta (approx. six thousand). This selected

  16. Anomalous indoor radon concentration in a dwelling in Qatif City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jarallah, M I; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2005-01-01

    An indoor radon survey was carried out recently in nine cities of Saudi Arabia using nuclear track detectors (NTD)-based passive radon detectors. The survey included Qatif City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, where 225 detectors were collected back successfully. It was found that the average indoor radon concentration in the dwellings was 22 +/- 15 Bq m(-3). However, one of the dwellings showed an anomalous radon concentration of 535 +/- 23 Bq m(-3). This finding led to a detailed investigation of this dwelling using active and passive techniques. In the active technique, an AlphaGUARD 2000 PRQ radon gas analyser was used. In the passive technique, CR-39 based passive radon detectors were used in all the rooms of the dwelling. Radon exhalation from the wall and the floor was also measured using the can technique. The active measurement confirms the passive one. Before placing the passive radon detectors in all the rooms of the two-storey building, the inhabitant was advised to ventilate his house regularly. The radon concentration in the different rooms was found to vary from 124 to 302 Bq m(-3). Radon exhalation from the floor and the wall of the room with the anomalous radon concentration was found to vary from 0.5 to 0.8 Bq m(-2) h(-1). These low radon exhalation rates suggest that the anomalous radon concentration is most probably due to underground radon diffusion into the dwelling through cracks and joints in the concrete floor.

  17. Antifungal activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil and thymol against moulds from damp dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segvić Klarić, M; Kosalec, I; Mastelić, J; Piecková, E; Pepeljnak, S

    2007-01-01

    To characterize antifungal activities of essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and pure thymol, as comparative substance, on different mould species isolated from damp dwellings. Fifty samples of wall scrapes were collected from damp dwellings in Zagreb, the capital of Croatia. The members of the following mould genera were recovered from the samples: Aspergillus (44%), Penicillium (18%) Alternaria, Ulocladium, Absidia and Mucor (8%) Cladosporium, Trichoderma and Rhizopus (6%), and Chaetomium (2%). Two strains of Stachybotrys chartarum were isolated from damp dwellings in Slovakia. Antifungal activities of the thyme essential oil, which contains p-cymene (36.5%), thymol (33.0%) and 1,8-cineole (11.3%) as main components, and pure thymol were determined by the dilution method and exposure to vaporous phase of the oil. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of both thymol and essential oil were bellow 20 microg ml(-1), except for Mucor spp. (50.20 microg ml(-1)). Thymol exhibited approximately three-times stronger inhibition than essential oil of thyme. The vaporous phase of the thyme essential oil (82 microg l(-1)) in glass chambers strongly suppressed the sporulation of moulds during 60 days of exposure. The thyme essential oil possesses a wide range spectrum of fungicidal activity. The vaporous phase of the oil exhibited long-lasting suppressive activity on moulds from damp dwellings. Essential oil of thyme and thymol could be used for disinfection of mouldy walls in the dwellings in low concentration.

  18. The impact of green areas on dwelling prices – the case of Poznań city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Trojanek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of urban green areas on dwelling prices in Poznań. Research Design & Methods: In order to identify the influence of the green spaces on dwelling prices, the hedonic method was used. In the analysis, transaction prices of residential units in Poznań were used. Findings: The application of the log-linear model allows to identify the percentage difference in the price of the same dwelling located with different distances to green areas. In case of this research, the results indicates that increase the distance from green area by one kilometer lowered the price of a dwelling by 3% in Poznań in years 2013-2015. Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to conduct research on impact of green areas on other types of properties. Different types of urban green areas may affect in different way. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying some aspects of influence of green areas on dwelling prices in Poland.

  19. Association between butyrylcholinesterase K variant and mild cognitive impairment in the Thai community-dwelling patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongthanaracht, Natsalil; Yanarojana, Somchai; Pinthong, Darawan; Unchern, Supeenun; Thithapandha, Amnuay; Assantachai, Prasert; Supavilai, Porntip

    2017-01-01

    To study the association of the butyrylcholinesterase K variant (BChE-K) and the plasma BChE activity with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Thai community-dwelling patients. One hundred patients diagnosed with MCI and 100 control subjects were recruited from the community-dwelling setting in Bangkok, Thailand. The genotype and allele distributions of the BChE-K were determined by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. The BChE activity was measured in plasma according to the Ellman's method. The BChE-K allele frequencies in the Thai community-dwelling patients were in accordance with other ethnics. The BChE-K allele frequency in the control subjects (12%) was higher than that of MCI patients (5.5%), suggesting a protective role of BChE-K for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients. The BChE-K homozygotes were significantly associated with lower BChE activity. Our results suggested that the BChE-K may be implicated as a protective factor for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients, although a further study with a large sample size is warranted to confirm this.

  20. An ELM-Based Approach for Estimating Train Dwell Time in Urban Rail Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jun Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dwell time estimation plays an important role in the operation of urban rail system. On this specific problem, a range of models based on either polynomial regression or microsimulation have been proposed. However, the generalization performance of polynomial regression models is limited and the accuracy of existing microsimulation models is unstable. In this paper, a new dwell time estimation model based on extreme learning machine (ELM is proposed. The underlying factors that may affect urban rail dwell time are analyzed first. Then, the relationships among different factors are extracted and modeled by ELM neural networks, on basis of which an overall estimation model is proposed. At last, a set of observed data from Beijing subway is used to illustrate the proposed method and verify its overall performance.

  1. Radon levels and doses in dwellings in two villages in Kosovo, affected by depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafezi, G; Gregoric, A; Vaupotic, J; Bahtijari, M; Kuqali, M

    2014-01-01

    The radon ((222)Rn) activity concentration in 15 dwellings in the Planej village and 10 dwellings in the Gorozhup village has been measured with the aim to complement the national radon survey and to compare the results of two different measurement techniques. The radon concentration has been measured in winter and spring using alpha scintillation cells and in winter, spring and summer by exposing solid-state nuclear track detectors. Both methods gave similar results. Radon concentrations in both villages were similar, ranging from 82 to 432 Bq m(-3); the value of 400 Bq m(-3) was exceeded only in two dwellings. The resulting annual effective doses ranged from 1.78 to 6.40 mSv, with the average values of 3.28 mSv in the Planej village and 3.87 mSv in the Gorozhup village.

  2. Sound classification of dwellings – A diversity of national schemes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    constructions fulfilling different classes. The current variety of descriptors and classes also causes trade barriers. Thus, there is a need to harmonize characteristics of the schemes, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing......Sound classification schemes for dwellings exist in ten countries in Europe, typically prepared and published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes intended to reflect different levels of acoustical comfort. The main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. This paper presents the sound classification schemes in Europe and compares the class criteria for sound insulation between dwellings. The schemes have been implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack...

  3. Sound classification of dwellings – A diversity of national schemes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. This paper presents the sound classification schemes in Europe and compares the class criteria for sound insulation between dwellings. The schemes have been implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack...... constructions fulfilling different classes. The current variety of descriptors and classes also causes trade barriers. Thus, there is a need to harmonize characteristics of the schemes, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing...... Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings....

  4. Risk factors for reinvasion of human dwellings by sylvatic triatomines in northern Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Walter

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study in Curaça, Bahia, Northeast Brazil was to explore possible factors associated with the infestation of human dwellings by Triatoma brasiliensis or Triatoma pseudomaculata, two sylvatic triatomine species. We use multiple logistic regression analysis to show how structural features of the peridomiciliary area combine with the number of animals and sociological factors to allow infestation of some dwellings. It is suggested that T. brasiliensis is associated with human activities, while T. pseudomaculata is associated with vegetation and animals. Peridomiciliary farm animals are a strong risk factor for triatomine infestation.

  5. A new cave-dwelling millipede of the genus Scutogona from central Portugal (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Chamaesomatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik; P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed.......A new cave-dwelling species of the genus Scutogona Ribuat, 1913, S. minor n. sp., is described from caves of Sicó karst in central Portugal. The classification and delimitation of Scutogona vis-à-vis related genera, in particular Meinerteuma Mauriès, 1982, is discussed....

  6. Development of a sine-dwell ground vibration test (GVT) system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available stream_source_info VanZyl_2006.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9765 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name VanZyl_2006.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Development of a Sine-Dwell Ground... vibration testing? • Basics of sine-dwell testing Getting the structure to vibrate in phase, and what then? • Excitation hardware Exciters are similar to speakers • Measurement system Force and response as complex numbers • Excitation control...

  7. Effect of music on pain for home-dwelling persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heeok

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of music on pain for home-dwelling persons with dementia. A quasiexperimental design was used. Fifteen subjects listened to their preferred music for 30 minutes before peak agitation time, for 2 days per week, followed by no music for 2 weeks. The process was repeated once. The finding of this study showed that mean pain levels after listening to music were significantly lower than before listening to the music (t=2.21, df=28; p music intervention to control pain for home-dwelling persons with dementia.

  8. Influence of isothermal transformation dwell on tensile and fatigue properties of austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vechet, S.; Hanzlikova, K. [Brno Univ. of Technology, Brno (Czech Republic); Kohout, J. [Military Academy in Brno, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    Two ADI heats transformed at temperatures of 400 and 380 C during temporal range from 2 minutes to 9 hours were studied in details, with emphasis on structure composition and mechanical properties (tensile and fatigue properties were determined). In the case of the shortest dwells the level of mechanical properties is influenced by martensite, which occurs in the structure as a result of subsequent cooling. UTS and yield stress increase slightly with the dwell of isothermal transformation while the values of elongation to fracture as well as of fatigue limit are very closely dependent on the amount of the retained austenite in the microstructure. (orig.)

  9. Impact of UK Building Regulations on design and thermal performance of dwellings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIM; D; 姚润明

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at the progressive impact of UK Building Regulations (Part L) on the energy consumption of dwellings with respect to thermal performance of the building envelope. It provides an overview of building legislation,highlighting progressive improvement in building elemental U-values and compliance methods. The focus centres on Building Regulations from 1965 to 2006,at a time when energy conservation has become an integral component of building control due to environmental concerns. Simulation software is used to compare energy consumption for 5 typical UK dwelling types through a series of case studies which illustrate the rate of impact over recent years.

  10. Nordic Standards for measurement of aircraft noise immission in residential areas and noise reduction of dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svane, Christian; Plovsing, Birger

    Quantification by measurement of aircraft noise in residential areas and air traffic noise reduction of dwellings suffer from sensibility to the measurement technique used. Around the Copenhagen Airport (200.000 opr./year) 3.500 families have been granted from 50% to 90% of sound insulation costs by the Danish Government. Based on experience from evaluation measurements carried out by the Danish Acoustical Institute, the authors have proposed standardized measurement methods for the outdoor aircraft noise in residential areas and for the noise reduction of dwellings. In 1989 both noise measurement methods were accepted as Nordic Standards (NORDTEST ACOU 074 and 075) by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

  11. 24 CFR 203.16 - Certificate and contract regarding use of dwelling for transient or hotel purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use of dwelling for transient or hotel purposes. 203.16 Section 203.16 Housing and Urban Development... use of dwelling for transient or hotel purposes. Every application filed with respect to insurance of... housing or any part thereof covered by the mortgage for transient or hotel purposes, together with...

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... A of Part 1924—Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments With slab...

  13. Systematic Literature Review of Randomized Control Trials Assessing the Effectiveness of Nutrition Interventions in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wong, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition interventions may play an important role in maintaining the health and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. To the authors' knowledge, no systematic literature review has been conducted on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in the community-dwelling older adult population. Design: Systematic literature…

  14. Sound classification of dwellings in the Nordic countries – Differences and similarities between the five national schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    In all five Nordic countries, sound classification schemes for dwellings have been published in national standards being implemented and revised gradually since the late 1990s. The national classification criteria for dwellings originate from a common Nordic INSTA-B proposal from the 1990s, thus...... having several similarities. In 2012, status is that number and denotations of classes for dwellings are identical in the Nordic countries, but the structures of the standards and several details are quite different. Also the issues dealt with are different. Examples of differences are sound insulation...... for classification of such buildings. This paper presents and compares the main class criteria for sound insulation of dwellings and summarizes differences and similarities in criteria and in structures of standards. Classification schemes for dwellings also exist in several other countries in Europe...

  15. Evaluation of number concentration quantification by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: microsecond vs. millisecond dwell times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Álvaro, Isabel; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Bolea, Eduardo; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Castillo, Juan R; Laborda, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The quality of the quantitative information in single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) depends directly on the number concentration of the nanoparticles in the sample analyzed, which is proportional to the flux of nanoparticles through the plasma. Particle number concentrations must be selected in accordance with the data acquisition frequency, to control the precision from counting statistics and the bias, which is produced by the occurrence of multiple-particle events recorded as single-particle events. With quadrupole mass spectrometers, the frequency of data acquisition is directly controlled by the dwell time. The effect of dwell times from milli- to microseconds (10 ms, 5 ms, 100 μs, and 50 μs) on the quality of the quantitative data has been studied. Working with dwell times in the millisecond range, precision figures about 5 % were achieved, whereas using microsecond dwell times, the suitable fluxes of nanoparticles are higher and precision was reduced down to 1 %; this was independent of the dwell time selected. Moreover, due to the lower occurrence of multiple-nanoparticle events, linear ranges are wider when dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs are used. A calculation tool is provided to determine the optimal concentration for any instrument or experimental conditions selected. On the other hand, the use of dwell times in the microsecond range reduces significantly the contribution of the background and/or the presence of dissolved species, in comparison with the use of millisecond dwell times. Although the use of dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs offers improved performance working in single-particle mode, the use of conventional dwell times (3-10 ms) should not be discarded, once their limitations are known.

  16. Performance of Counter Flow Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems in Dwellings Considering the Influence of Uncertainties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Cauberg, J.J.M.; Tenpierik, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Both critical and optimistic claims have been made regarding the performance of heat recovery ventilation systems (HRVS) in dwellings. Such arguments are raised partly because two key aspects are not fully clarified, i.e. the performance criteria and the influence of uncertainties. In the current pa

  17. Exploring robustness of energy performance of dwellings top occupant behaviour: renovation and post occupancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedir, M.; Harputlugil, G.U.; Itard, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the influence of occupant behaviour on the energy performance of dwellings, before and after renovation process. In this context, ‘ventilation control pattern’, ‘maintenance’, and ‘heating energy demand’ are selected as the key parameters of the study. The aim is to reveal

  18. Dwell in Possibility: PLAR and e-Portfolios in the Age of Information and Communication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith O.

    2011-01-01

    Emily Dickinson wrote, "I dwell in Possibility--A fairer House than Prose--More Numerous of Windows--Superior--for Doors" (p. 657). Dickinson's simple yet profound reference to the expansive nature of poetry over prose may be taken as a metaphor for the possibilities of information and communication technologies (ICTs) over written modes…

  19. Parental longevity correlates with offspring's optimism in two cohorts of community-dwelling older subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rius-Ottenheim, N.; Kromhout, D.; Craen, A.J.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Mast, van der R.C.; Zitman, F.G.; Westendorp, R.G.; Slagboom, E.; Giltay, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Dispositional optimism and other positive personality traits have been associated with longevity. Using a familial approach, we investigated the relationship between parental longevity and offspring’s dispositional optimism among community-dwelling older subjects. Parental age of death was assessed

  20. Micronutrient intakes and potential inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, ter S.; Verlaan, S.; Hemsworth, J.; Mijnarends, D.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Luiking, Y.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and low dietary intakes among community-dwelling older adults are associated with functional decline, frailty and difficulties with independent living. As such, studies that seek to understand the types and magnitude of potential dietary inadequacies might be beneficial fo

  1. Impact of Dwell Angle on the Electromagnetic Torque Ripplesof the Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bhuvaneswari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Switched reluctance motors (SRM are emerging as promising competitors to the vector-controlled induction motor (VCIM drives and permanent magnet (PM motor drives in the variable-speed drive market owing to their robust nature coupled with low cost, simplicity, and capabilityto operate in harsh environments. They are also suitable for nuclear and aerospace applicationsdue to their low inertia and capability to be fed from a dc supply through a simple power converter.The principle of torque production in SRM makes rotor position information mandatory foreffective control of the drive. The torque produced by any particular phase of the SRM isdependent upon the exciting current and the period during which the current is carried by thatphase winding. The conduction period of any particular phase is termed as dwell angle whenit is specified in terms of rotor angular position. In the present work, the SRM operation has beenanalysed in sensor mode and in sensor-less mode, paying special attention to the relationshipbetween dwell angle and output torque ripple. The performance has been studied for differentvalues of dwell angle and the resultant torque profile has been analysed. From the analysis, amethodology has been devised to deduce an appropriate value of dwell angle for minimising thetorque pulsations, given the values of speed and load torque, thus improving the performanceof the SRM drive.

  2. Pesticides in Urban Multiunit Dwellings: Hazard IdentificationUsing Classification and Regression Tree (CART) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many units in public housing or other low-income urban dwellings may have elevated pesticide residues, given recurring infestation, but it would be logistically and economically infeasible to sample a large number of units to identify highly exposed households to design interven...

  3. Ventilation behaviour and indoor air problems in different types of newly built dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, J.E.F. van; Phaff, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In four types of newly built single family dwellings and in apartments of a block of flats in the Netherlands, the behaviour and motivations of the occupants are studied with respect to their response to heating and ventilation, as well as their judgment on indoor air and climate variables such as t

  4. Ventilation behaviour and indoor air problems in different types of newly built dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, J.E.F. van; Phaff, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In four types of newly built single family dwellings and in apartments of a block of flats in the Netherlands, the behaviour and motivations of the occupants are studied with respect to their response to heating and ventilation, as well as their judgment on indoor air and climate variables such as

  5. Test-retest reliability of the safe driving behavior measure for community-dwelling elderly drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Woo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) is a self-report measurement tools that assesses the safe-driving behaviors of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SDBM among community-dwelling elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of sixty-one community-dwelling elderly were enrolled to investigate the reliability of the SDBM. The SDBM was assessed in two sessions that were conducted three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. That test-retest reliability of overall scores and three domain scores of the SDBM were statistically evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2.1)]. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify bivariate associations among the three domains of the SDBM. [Results] The SDBM demonstrated excellent rest-retest reliability for community-dwelling elderly drivers. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the three domains of person-vehicle (0.979), person-environment (0.944), and person-vehicle-environment (0.971) of the SDBM indicate high internal consistency. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM is a reliable measure for evaluating the safe- driving of automobiles by community-dwelling elderly, and is adequate for detecting changes in scores in clinical settings.

  6. Association between urogenital symptoms and depression in community-dwelling women aged 20 to 70 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, Carl Hulbert; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.; de Leeuw, J. Rob J.; Heintz, A. Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the association between urogenital symptoms and the occurrence of depressive symptoms. METHODS A random sample of 3200 community-dwelling women, aged 20 to 70 years, was invited to answer a questionnaire. A total of 2042 questionnaires (63.8%) were returned. Urogenital sympto

  7. Influence of overloads on dwell time fatigue crack growth in Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarimäki, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.saarimaki@liu.se [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Moverare, Johan [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Materials Technology, SE-61283 Finspång (Sweden); Eriksson, Robert; Johansson, Sten [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-26

    Inconel 718 is one of the most commonly used superalloys for high temperature applications in gasturbines and aeroengines and is for example used for components such as turbine discs. Turbine discs can be subjected to temperatures up to ∼700 °C towards the outer radius of the disc. During service, the discs might start to develop cracks due to fatigue and long dwell times. Additionally, temperature variations during use can lead to large thermal transients during start-up and shutdown which can lead to overload peaks in the normal dwell time cycle. In this study, tests at 550 °C with an overload prior to the start of each dwell time, have been performed. The aim of the investigation was to get a better understanding of the effects of overloads on the microstructure and crack mechanisms. The microstructure was studied using electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI). The image analysis toolbox in Matlab was used on cross sections of the cracks to quantify: crack length, branch length, and the number of branches in each crack. It was found that the amount of crack branching increases with an increasing overload and that the branch length decreases with an increasing overload. When the higher overloads were applied, the dwell time effect was almost cancelled out. There is a strong tendency for an increased roughness of the crack path with an increasing crack growth rate.

  8. Road traffic noise and annoyance: A quantification of the effect of quiet side exposure at dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Janssen, S.A.; Vos, H.; Salomons, E.M.; Zhou, H.; Berg, F. van den

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that residents may benefit from a "quiet side" to their dwellings. The influence of the level of road traffic noise exposure at the least exposed side on road traffic noise annoyance was studied in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Road traffic noise exposure was assessed at the

  9. Origins and Application of Postmodern Trends in Private Dwelling-Houses of Lithuania, 1987–1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aistė Galaunytė

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available On 28 September 1987, the resolution No. 264 On Further Development of Individual Housing in the Republic passed by the Central Committee of the Council of Ministers of the Lithuanian SSR restored the typological group of private dwelling-houses to Lithuanian towns after a break of nearly three decades. Post-modern trends in architecture that prevailed in western countries at that time reached Lithuania in the form of limited spectrum of architectural press. Architectural expression of individual dwelling-houses in Lithuania relied specifically on projects published in foreign magazines (mostly, of Japan, the U.S.A and Western Europe, and later – in the local periodicals. Different features of such analogous architecture were adapted in Lithuanian dwelling-houses in different ways: the spatial structure of the building was used and interpreted in ones, while in the others – only certain specific details, most often published in such professional press. Three groups of individual dwelling-houses were formed: the elite – benchmark-type, typical -adapted and self-taught architecture. They represented examples of architecture, which over the ten-year’s period were built in parallel and intense mode, until finally the economic conditions prevalent in the post-Soviet Lithuania led to the more practical approach to one’s housing, and the style of post-modernism became unfashionable in Lithuania just like in the remaining part of the world.

  10. Analysis of Energy Demand for Low-Energy Multi-Dwelling Buildings of Different Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrė Streckienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To meet the goals established by Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the energy performance of buildings, the topics of energy efficiency in new and old buildings must be solved. Research and development of new energy solutions and technology are necessary for increasing energy performance of buildings. Three low-energy multi-dwelling buildings have been modelled and analyzed in the presented study. All multi-dwelling houses are made of similar single-family house cells. However, multi-dwelling buildings are of different geometry, flat number and height. DesignBuilder software was used for simulating and determining heating, cooling and electricity demand for buildings. Three different materials (silicate, ceramic and clay concrete blocks as bearing constructions of external walls have been analyzed. To decrease cooling demand for buildings, the possibility of mounting internal or external louvers has been considered. Primary energy savings for multi-dwelling buildings using passive solar measures have been determined.

  11. Sound insulation between dwellings - Descriptors applied in building regulations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2010-01-01

    was carried out of legal sound insulation requirements in 24 countries in Europe. The comparison of requirements for sound insulation between dwellings revealed significant differences in descriptors as well as levels. This paper focuses on descriptors and summarizes the history of descriptors, the problems...

  12. Minimum Energy Dwelling (MED) workbook: an investigation of techniques and materials for energy conscious design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This workbook is based upon information gathered during the design phase of the Minimum Energy Dwelling. The objective of the project, sponsored by the Southern California Gas Co., Department of Energy, and Mission Viejo is to substantially reduce energy use by the incorporation of energy conservation and solar techniques in a single-family detached dwelling. The Project will demonstrate to builders, as well as to the general public, a number of technological innovations that can, at reasonable cost, be included in a dwelling design. The problem facing Southern California Gas Co., along with most other gas utilities, is ever-decreasing amounts of gas at increasing prices. The dwelling designed has approximately 1,150 ft/sup 2/, consistent with current home-building trends. Through the optimum use of energy-conserving appliances, insulation, window and wall shading, exterior coloring, and thermal mass, the yearly energy usage has been reduced by over 50%. Of the remaining 50% of the energy required for heating, cooling, and domestic hot water, the majority is supplied by the solar-energy system. Three hundred twenty square feet (270 effective) of evacuated tube collector are incorporated into the building structure. The hot water provided by the collectors is used to run an absorption chiller for cooling, the domestic hot water, and the heating system. The remaining energy requirements are met by an auxiliary natural gas energy system and a cool-air-economizer cycle.

  13. Determinants of non-compliance with herpes zoster vaccination in the community-dwelling elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstelten, Wim; van Essen, Gerrit A; Hak, Eelko

    2009-01-01

    As part of a series of studies on vaccine acceptance, we assessed determinants of compliance of the community-dwelling elderly with herpes zoster (HZ) vaccination in an existing influenza vaccination program. General practitioners (GPs) sent out a questionnaire to 1778 patients aged > or =65 years,

  14. Rural-Urban Differences in Preventable Hospitalizations among Community-Dwelling Veterans with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Joshua M.; Van Houtven, Courtney H.; Sleath, Betsy L.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Alzheimer's patients living in rural communities may face significant barriers to effective outpatient medical care. Purpose: We sought to examine rural-urban differences in risk for ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations (ACSH), an indicator of access to outpatient care, in community-dwelling veterans with dementia. Methods: Medicare…

  15. Dwell Time and Psychological Screening Outcomes Among Military Service Members With Multiple Combat Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    on mental health outcomes and should be exam- ined to identify key determinants of resilience. The issues of a dwell-titTie policy and whether certain...Gahm GA, Swanson RD, Duma SJ; Association between number of deployments to Iraq and niental health screening outcomes in US Army soldiers. J Clin

  16. Interactions between eutrophication and contaminants - partitioning, bioaccumulation and effects on sediment-dwelling organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylland, Ketil; Schaanning, Morten; Skei, Jens; Berge, John Arthur; Eriksen, Dag Oe.; Skoeld, Mattias; Gunnarsson, Jonas

    1997-12-31

    This report describes an experiment on the interactions between eutrophication and contaminants in marine sediments. The experiment was performed in 24 continuously flushed glass aquaria within which three sediment-dwelling species were kept in a marine sediment. A filter-feeder, blue mussel, was kept in downstream aquaria. The experiment combined three environmental factors: oxygen availability, the presence or absence of contaminants, the addition of organic matter. The objectives were: (1) to quantify differences in the partitioning of contaminants between sediment, pore water and biota as a result of the treatment, (2) to quantify effects of treatments and interactions between treatments on sediment-dwelling organisms, (3) to identify differences, if any, in the release of contaminants from the sediment as the result of treatments. All three contaminants bio accumulated to higher levels in sediments with increased levels of organic material. Feeding directly or indirectly appeared to be the major route for bioaccumulation of benzo(a)pyrene and mercury. Cadmium was also controlled by the concentration in pore water. Sediment in enriched aquaria released more contaminants than sediment with low organic content. Organic enrichment strongly affected growth in the three sediment-dwelling organisms. Growth was less affected by decreased oxygen availability. The presence of contaminants had little effect on the three sediment-dwelling species at the concentrations used in the experiment. 103 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. OYSTER GROUNDS, A SUPERIOR HABITAT FOR SMALL, SEDIMENT-DWELLING INVERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a programmatic effort to determine estuarine habitat values for ecological risk assessments, quantitative field studies of small, sediment-dwelling invertebrates were conducted in Willapa Bay, WA in July 1998 and Tillamook Bay, OR in July 1999. The six habitats includ...

  18. EFFECTS OF ON-BOTTOM OYSTER MARICULTURE ON SMALL, SEDIMENT-DWELLING INVERTEBRATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a programmatic effort to determine estuarine habitat values for ecological risk assessments, quantitative field studies of small ( 0.5 mm), sediment-dwelling invertebrates were conducted in Willapa Bay, WA in July 1998 and Tillamook Bay, OR in July 1999. The six habit...

  19. The step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Agnes; de Bruin, Eling D.; Bruins, Nienke; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women in order to investigate whether the relationship between these two spatio-temporal gait parameters changes with increasing age. Forty older women in four age groups, i.e. 64-69, 70-74, 75-

  20. The step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Agnes; de Bruin, Eling D.; Bruins, Nienke; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women in order to investigate whether the relationship between these two spatio-temporal gait parameters changes with increasing age. Forty older women in four age groups, i.e. 64-69, 70-74, 75-

  1. Survey of Occupant behavour and control of the indoor environment in Danish Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2007-01-01

    by sending out invitations to 5000 addresses in Denmark. The addresses were obtained from a Danish register along with information on physical properties of each dwelling. Meteorological data from the closest weather station was obtained from the Danish Meteorological Institute. Out of the three parameters...

  2. Prevention of legionella in dwellings and buildings; Legionellapreventie in woningen en gebouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Mil, R.; Van der Kooij, D.; Kolner, W.P.P.; Wessels, R.; Offinga, M.; Scheffer, W.; Van Wolferen, H.; Doldersum, R.; Van der Lugt, W.; Bertrand, F.; Nijlant, E.

    2011-04-15

    In 10 articles and 1 interview attention is paid to several aspects of Legionella in water heaters, mains, and sanitary installations in dwellings and other buildings. [Dutch] In 10 artikelen en 1 interview wordt aandacht besteed aan verschillende aspecten met betrekking tot legionella in sanitaire installaties, waterverwarmingsinstallaties, en waterleidingen in woningen en andere gebouwen.

  3. Comprehensive geriatric assessment : recognition of identified geriatric conditions by community-dwelling older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Marjon; Suijker, Jacqueline J; Bol, Wietske; Hoff, Eva; Ter Riet, Gerben; de Rooij, Sophia E; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Buurman, Bianca M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to study (i) the prevalence of geriatric conditions in community-dwelling older persons at increased risk of functional decline and (ii) the extent to which older persons recognise comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA)-identified conditions as relevant problems. METHODS: trained regis

  4. Indoor air quality in energy-efficient dwellings: levels and sources of pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbez, Mickaël; Wyart, Guillaume; Le Ponner, Eline; Ramalho, Olivier; Ribéron, Jacques; Mandin, Corinne

    2017-09-28

    Worldwide, public policies are promoting energy-efficient buildings and accelerating the thermal renovation of existing buildings. The effects of these changes on the indoor air quality (IAQ) in these buildings remain insufficiently understood. In this context, a field study was conducted in 72 energy-efficient dwellings to describe the pollutants known to be associated with health concerns. Measured parameters included the concentrations of 19 volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM2.5 ), radon, temperature and relative humidity. The air stuffiness index and night-time air exchange rate were calculated from the monitored carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentrations. Indoor and outdoor measurements were performed at each dwelling during one week in each of the two following seasons: heating and non-heating. Moreover, questionnaires were completed by the occupants to characterize the building, equipment, household and occupants' habits. Perspective on our results was provided by previous measurements made in low-energy European dwellings. Statistical comparisons with the French housing stock and a pilot study showed higher concentrations of terpenes, i.e., alpha-pinene and limonene, and hexaldehyde in our study than in previous studies. Alpha-pinene and hexaldehyde are emitted by wood or wood-based products used for the construction, insulation, decoration and furnishings of the dwellings, whereas limonene is more associated with discontinuous sources related to human activities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. 24 CFR 100.80 - Discriminatory representations on the availability of dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be unlawful, because of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national origin... rented, because of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national origin. (2... rental of dwellings because of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, familial status, or national...

  6. Micronutrient intakes and potential inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, ter S.; Verlaan, S.; Hemsworth, J.; Mijnarends, D.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Luiking, Y.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and low dietary intakes among community-dwelling older adults are associated with functional decline, frailty and difficulties with independent living. As such, studies that seek to understand the types and magnitude of potential dietary inadequacies might be beneficial fo

  7. Macronutrient intake and inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, ter S.J.; Verlaan, S.; Mijnarends, D.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Luiking, Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anorexia of ageing may predispose older adults to under-nutrition and protein energy malnutrition. Studies, however, report a large variation in nutrient inadequacies among community-dwelling older adults. Summary: This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the energy an

  8. Nutritional interventions in community-dwelling Alzheimer patients with (risk of) undernutrition : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogsma, Erika; van Asselt, Dieneke; van Steijn, Jolanda; Veeger, Nic; van Dusseldorp, Ingeborg; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight loss and undernutrition are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and associated with negative health outcomes. In the current guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of AD, no recommendations for treatment of (risk of) undernutrition in community-dwelling AD patients are

  9. Amount and type of alcohol consumption and missing teeth among community-dwelling older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Karen; Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To study if an association between total weekly intake of alcohol, type-specific weekly alcohol intake, alcoholic beverage preference, and the number of teeth among older people exists. Methods: A cross-sectional study including a total of 783 community-dwelling men and women aged 65...

  10. Fear of falling and changed functional ability following hip fracture among community-dwelling elderly people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesmark, Annette; Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Egerod, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to assess self-reported fear of falling (FOF) and functional ability among community-dwelling elderly people 3-6 months post hospital discharge after a hip fracture, to investigate the association between FOF and functional ability, and to explore the lived experience...

  11. Effects of Short-Term Training of Community-Dwelling Elderly with Modular Interactive Tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to test for the increased mobility, agility, balancing, and general fitness of community-dwelling elderly individuals as a result of short-term training involving playing with modular interactive tiles (Entertainment Robotics, Odense, Denmark) at two comm...

  12. Grouping patterns in a forest dwelling population of Pyrenean chamois.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero, J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal grouping in a population of Pyrenean chamois Rupicapra p. pyrenaica was studied by direct observation on the edge of their westernmost distribution. The whole area occupied by a population was surveyed by performing monthly fixed transects over one year. The size of 214 groups ranged from 1 to 54. Both size and composition were quite variable and differed between seasons and habitats. Groups were generally very small (45% of only one animal, median: 2; P75=4, which is characteristic of small and low density forest-dwelling populations. Groups appeared to depend strongly on the annual biological cycle, food distribution and vegetation cover. The spatial segregation between males and females was only evident in the summer, when solitary males mostly occupied the forest and females with kids lived on open pasturelands. All the general patterns on size and composition of the groups occurred in this population.

    [fr]
    Par la voie de l'observation directe nous avons étudié le grégarisme journalier chez une population d'isard (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica à la limite occidentale de l'aire de répartition de l'espèce. La surface complète occupée a été suivie par de trajets fixes mensuels durant un an. La taille des différents troupeaux a varié de là 54 individus. De même, la composition était également très variable et changeait d'une saison à l'autre ou d'un habitat à l'autre. De manière générale, les troupeaux étaient très petits (45% de seulement un animal, moyenne: 2 ; P75=5, c'est la caractéristique des petites populations, à basse densité et vivant en forêt. Les groupes étaient fortement conditionnés par le cycle annuel, la distribution des ressources alimentaires et le recouvrement végétal. La ségrégation spatiale entre mâles et femelles avait lieu seulement en été, moment où les mâles solitaires occupaient surtout la forêt tandis que les femelles avec les

  13. Association of day length and weather conditions with physical activity levels in older community dwelling people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles D Witham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people. METHODS: We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. We correlated seven day triaxial accelerometry data with daily weather data (temperature, day length, sunshine, snow, rain, and a series of potential effect modifiers were tested in mixed models: environmental variables (urban vs rural dwelling, percentage of green space, psychological variables (anxiety, depression, perceived behavioural control, social variables (number of close contacts and health status measured using the SF-36 questionnaire. RESULTS: 547 participants, mean age 78.5 years, were included in this analysis. Higher minimum daily temperature and longer day length were associated with higher activity levels; these associations remained robust to adjustment for other significant associates of activity: age, perceived behavioural control, number of social contacts and physical function. Of the potential effect modifier variables, only urban vs rural dwelling and the SF-36 measure of social functioning enhanced the association between day length and activity; no variable modified the association between minimum temperature and activity. CONCLUSIONS: In older community dwelling people, minimum temperature and day length were associated with objectively measured activity. There was little evidence for moderation of these associations through potentially modifiable health, environmental, social or psychological variables.

  14. Distance to faults as a proxy for radon gas concentration in dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard

    2016-02-01

    This research was done to demonstrate the usefulness of the local structural geology characteristics to predict indoor radon concentrations. The presence of geologic faults near dwellings increases the vulnerability of the dwellings to elevated indoor radon by providing favorable pathways from the source uranium-rich bedrock units to the surface. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analyses of variance by ranks were used to determine the distance where faults have statistically significant influence on indoor radon concentrations. The great-circle distance between the 640 spatially referenced basement radon concentration measurements and the nearest fault was calculated using the Haversine formula and the spherical law of cosines. It was shown that dwellings located less than 150 m from a major fault had a higher radon potential. The 150 m threshold was determined using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA on: (1) all the basement radon measurements dataset and; (2) the basement radon measurements located on uranium-rich bedrock units only. The results indicated that 22.8% of the dwellings located less than 150 m from a fault exceeded the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m(3) when using all the basement radon measurements dataset. This percentage fell to 15.2% for the dwellings located between 150 m and 700 m from a fault. When using only the basement radon measurements located on uranium-rich bedrock units, these percentages were 30.7% (0-150 m) and 17.5% (150 m-700 m). The assessment and management of risk can be improved where structural geology characteristics base maps are available by using this proxy indicator.

  15. Ventilation, indoor air quality, and human health and comfort in dwellings and day-care centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, R.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the study was to assess the actual ventilation and indoor air quality in the Finnish building stock (dwellings and day-care centers) with special reference to the existing guideline values. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate the occurrence of symptoms and perceptions among occupants (adult residents, children, workers) in relation to ventilation system, ventilation rate and dampness. The measurements of ventilation and indoor air quality in the dwellings and day-care centers included ventilation rate, CO{sub 2} concentration, and temperature and humidity. Self- and parent-administered questionnaires were distributed to the occupants inquiring their personal characteristics, occurrence of symptoms of interest, perceived indoor air quality and details of their home and work environments. Airflows and air change rates varied remarkably both in the dwellings and day-care centers. In the majority of the dwellings and day-care centers, the Finnish guideline values of ventilation rates were not achieved. No consistent associations were observed between the magnitude of mechanical ventilation rates and the occurrence of eye, respiratory, skin and general symptoms, that is, symptoms of sick building syndrome (SBS) among the day-care workers. The results indicate that there is much room for improvement in the ventilation and indoor air quality of Finnish dwellings and day-care centers. The control of ventilation, temperature and humidity and the prevention of water damage are important issues on which to concentrate in the future. There is need to improve the quality in all phases of construction: design, installation, adjustment, operation, and maintenance

  16. Water-related fixtures specially designed for the elderly and the handicapped; Koreisha shogaisha wo hairyoshita mizumawari setsubi kiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuguchi, R. [Toto Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2000-01-05

    Thanks to the energetic practice for 'New Gold Plan' made by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, various institutions such as 'Special nursing homes', 'Senior health centers' and 'Sickbeds for medical treatment' have been established. Even after the introduction of 'Public Nursing Insurance' in 2000, the special policy tentatively named 'Super Gold Plan' will be practiced, and we are going to have more complete institutions of such kind in the near future. We have been seeing the remarkable improvement of medical institutions recently, and it is said that the innovation of water-related fixtures has been taking a great part in their improvement. Then, this time, we would like to introduce the latest trends on water-related fixtures specially designed for medical institutions. (author)

  17. Improvement of thermal performance of envelopes for traditional wooden vernacular dwellings of Tujia Minority in Western Hunan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲; 石磊; 余志武

    2016-01-01

    Thermal performance of envelopes and indoor thermal environment were technologically improved for traditional wooden vernacular dwellings of Tujia Minority in Western Hunan, China, on the premise of protecting their conventional styles. Thermal insulation boards and wooden boards were added to the interior side of external walls of vernacular dwellings to form two layers of air cavities, so as to gain excellent thermal performance. The indoor temperature of such dwellings after reconstruction was apparently improved compared with the data before reconstruction both in winter and summer, which verified the feasibility and the effectiveness of the reconstruction technologies proposed.

  18. System Design for Demand Controlled Ventilation in Multi-Family Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into solutions for the system design of a centralized DCV system in multi-family dwellings. The design focused on simple and inexpensive solutions. A cost benefit estimate showed that the initial cost of implementing DCV in a system with an efficient heat...... are typically controlled by maintaining the static pressure at a fixed level at a selected point in the main duct. However, sustaining the static pressure at a fixed level at part load leads to throttling of all control components and thereby unnecessary energy consumption. Resetting the static pressure at part...... load reduces throttling and energy can be saved. A static pressure reset strategy was applied to a dwelling-specific DCV system where the airflow varied between three fixed rates. The system performance was evaluated for two diffusers. The annual electricity consumption was reduced by 20% to 30% when...

  19. The effectiveness of Pilates on balance and falls in community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Sharon; Pratt, Mary Lee; Calk Meadows, Emily; Thurmond, Stephanie; Wagner, Amy

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether Pilates is more effective than traditional strength and balance exercises for improving balance measures, balance confidence and reducing falls in community dwelling older adults with fall risk. Thirty-one participants with fall risk were randomly assigned to the Pilates group (PG) or the traditional exercise group (TG). Both groups participated in 12 weeks of exercise, 2 times/week for 1 h. There was significant improvement in the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale for both the PG (mean difference = 6.31, p Pilates and traditional balance programs are effective at improving balance measures in community dwelling older adults with fall risk, with the Pilates group showing improved balance confidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stochastic kinetics of a single headed motor protein: dwell time distribution of KIF1A

    CERN Document Server

    Garai, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    KIF1A, a processive single headed kinesin superfamily motor, hydrolyzes Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to move along a filamentous track called microtubule. The stochastic movement of KIF1A on the track is characterized by an alternating sequence of pause and translocation. The sum of the durations of pause and the following translocation defines the dwell time at the binding site on the microtubule. Using the NOSC model (Nishinari et. al. PRL, {\\bf 95}, 118101 (2005)), which captures the Brownian ratchet mechanism of individual KIF1A along with its biochemical cycle, we systematically derive an analytical expression for the dwell time distribution. In principle, our theoretical prediction can be tested by carrying out single-molecule experiments with adequate spatio-temporal resolution.

  1. Short- and long-term variability of radon progeny concentration in dwellings in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezáková, M; Navrátilová Rovenská, K; Tomásek, L; Holecek, J

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, repeated measurements of radon progeny concentration in dwellings in the Czech Republic are described. Two distinct data sets are available: one based on present measurements in 170 selected dwellings in the Central Bohemian Pluton with a primary measurement carried out in the 1990s and the other based on 1920 annual measurements in 960 single-family houses in the Czech Republic in 1992 and repeatedly in 1993. The analysis of variance model with random effects is applied to data to evaluate the variability of measurements. The calculated variability attributable to repeated measurements is compared with results from other countries. In epidemiological studies, ignoring the variability of measurements may lead to biased estimates of risk of lung cancer.

  2. Body Composition Outcomes of a Qigong Intervention Among Community-Dwelling Aging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Ying; Chen, Hsiao-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Aging causes various changes in body composition, which are critical implications for health and physical functioning in aging adults. The aim of this study was to explore the body composition outcomes of a qigong intervention among community-dwelling aging adults. This was a quasi-experimental study in which 90 participants were recruited. Forty-eight participants (experimental group) attended a 30-min qigong program 3 times per week for 12 weeks, whereas 42 participants (control group) continued performing their usual daily activities. The experimental group achieved a greater reduction in the fat mass percentage at the posttest, and exhibited increased fat-free mass, lean body mass percentage, and lean body mass to fat mass ratio compared with the controls. No difference between the two groups in body mass index, fat mass, and lean body mass was observed. These results indicated that the qigong intervention showed beneficial outcomes of body composition among community-dwelling aging adults.

  3. [Assertiveness and peripheral intravenous catheters dwell time with ultrasonography-guided insertion in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Ariane Ferreira Machado; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini; da Pedreira, Mavilde Luz Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Randomized controlled trial which aimed to verify whether the use of vascular ultrasound (VUS) increases assertiveness in the use of peripheral venous catheter in children, and the catheter dwell time, when compared to traditional puncture. Data were collected after approval of theethical merit. Children and adolescents undergoing VUS-guided peripheral intravenous (GVUS) or puncture guided by clinical assessment of the venous conditions(CG) were included in the study. Significance level was set at pAssertiveness was found in 73 (71.6%) GVUS catheters and in 84(71.8%) of the CG (p=0.970), and catheter dwell time presented a median of less than one day in both groups (p=0.121), showing nostatistically significant difference. VUS did not significantly influence the results of the dependent variables investigated. ClinicalTrials.govNCT00930254.

  4. Adaptive Output-Feedback Neural Control of Switched Uncertain Nonlinear Systems With Average Dwell Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the problem of adaptive neural tracking control via output-feedback for a class of switched uncertain nonlinear systems without the measurements of the system states. The unknown control signals are approximated directly by neural networks. A novel adaptive neural control technique for the problem studied is set up by exploiting the average dwell time method and backstepping. A switched filter and different update laws are designed to reduce the conservativeness caused by adoption of a common observer and a common update law for all subsystems. The proposed controllers of subsystems guarantee that all closed-loop signals remain bounded under a class of switching signals with average dwell time, while the output tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. As an application of the proposed design method, adaptive output feedback neural tracking controllers for a mass-spring-damper system are constructed.

  5. Predictors of participation in physical activity for community-dwelling elderly Italians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Marcellini, Fiorella

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses variables associated with community-dwelling older people's engagement in physical activity (PA). Data were examined using the results from the European ZINCAGE study on 306 community-dwelling Italians aged 65 years and over. The lifestyle questionnaire was used to evaluate the data. Levels of regular/non-regular PA were based on ≥ 1 h of weekly exercise. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the predictors of PA. Participants reported the time they had spent per week engaging in PA over the last year. Overall, 56.2% of them engaged in regular physical exercise. PA levels decreased in subjects with probable cognitive decline, depression and high perceived stress levels (p<0.001). Lower age, a lower body mass index (BMI), better health status, absence of depression, being married, were all associated with regular PA. The importance of monitoring PA in the elderly emerged, in particular in those having some certain social-demographic characteristics.

  6. Family and Friend Influence on Urban-Dwelling American Indian Adolescent Girl's Sexual Risk Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftner, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    Previous research with American Indian (AI) adolescent sexual risk behavior primarily focused on reservation-dwelling youth despite 70% of AIs living off Native lands. Using grounded theory methodology, I sampled 20 adolescent AI girls via talking circles and interviews to explore the perceptions of AI adolescent girls living in an urban, Midwest area about the influence of family and friends on their sexual behavior. Similar to research with other racial groups, participants cited their family and friends as a major influence. Five unique themes emerged related to family and friend influence. Urban-dwelling AI girls rely on their female family members and peers for information related to sex and receive varying messages from their networks of family and friends, which often overlap. AI youth have unique family groups yet have some similarities to other ethnic groups with regard to family and friend relationships that may allow for enhanced intervention development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Dyspnea in Community-Dwelling Older Persons: A Multifactorial Geriatric Health Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Brienne; Tinetti, Mary E; Van Ness, Peter H; Han, Ling; Leo-Summers, Linda; Newman, Anne B; Lee, Patty J; Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the associations between a broad array of cardiorespiratory and noncardiorespiratory impairments and dyspnea in older persons. Cross-sectional. Cardiovascular Health Study. Community-dwelling persons (N = 4,413; mean age 72.6, 57.1% female, 4.5% African American, 27.2% score ≥16; aOR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.26-3.23), and obesity (BMI ≥30; aOR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.67-2.55). Impairments with modest but still statistically significant associations with moderate to severe dyspnea included respiratory muscle weakness, diastolic cardiac dysfunction, grip weakness, anxiety symptoms, and use of cardiovascular and psychoactive medications (aORs = 1.31-1.71). In community-dwelling older persons, several cardiorespiratory and noncardiorespiratory impairments were significantly associated with moderate to severe dyspnea, akin to a multifactorial geriatric health condition. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Dampness in buildings and health. Building characteristics as predictors for dampness in 8681 Swedish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagerhed, L.; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Questionnaire data on 8681 dwellings included in the Swedish study "Dampness in Buildings and Health" have been analysed for associations between dampness indicators, perceptions of indoor air quality and building characteristics such as time of construction, type of ventilation and type of found...... of "Dry air" in 17.3 and 33.7% respectively. Older buildings and the use of natural ventilation were associated with increased frequency of dampness indicators as well as to increased frequencies of complaints on bad indoor air quality.......Questionnaire data on 8681 dwellings included in the Swedish study "Dampness in Buildings and Health" have been analysed for associations between dampness indicators, perceptions of indoor air quality and building characteristics such as time of construction, type of ventilation and type...

  9. The feeding habits of slope dwelling macrourid fishes in the eastern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Buckley, Troy W.; Hoff, Gerald R.

    2001-03-01

    The diet of slope dwelling macrourid fishes in the eastern North Pacific is poorly known. We collected several hundred stomach samples to investigate the feeding habits of Coryphaenoides acrolepis and Albatrossia pectoralis, the two dominant slope dwelling macrourids off the continental United States. Coryphaenoides acrolepis exhibited a pronounced ontogenetic shift in diet. Specimens 15 cm with scavenged food constituting approximately 20% of the weight of total prey and occurring in approximately 20% of fish 21-29 cm. Albatrossia pectoralis consumed primarily midwater fish and squid, and we believe that it feeds in the water column. There were significant differences between the diets of A. pectoralis and C. acrolepis suggesting some degree of niche separation between macrourid species on the continental slope of the eastern North Pacific. Both species are at the top of the food web on the upper continental slope and, because of their abundance, may exert significant pressures on their prey populations.

  10. Sediment Dwelling Benthos as Indicator Species for Pollution Monitoring of Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, 1993-1994 (NODC Accession 9900121)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A multifaceted study of the sediment dwelling benthos was conducted in Mamala Bay to identify suitable species as indicators of sewage enrichment. There are five...

  11. Malnutrition in a Sample of Community-Dwelling People with Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sheard, Jamie M; Susan Ash; Mellick, George D; Peter A Silburn; Graham K Kerr

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition results in poor health outcomes, and people with Parkinson's disease may be more at risk of malnutrition. However, the prevalence of malnutrition in Parkinson's disease is not yet well defined. The aim of this study is to provide an estimate of the extent of malnutrition in community-dwelling people with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of people with Parkinson's disease residing within a 2 hour driving radius of Brisbane, Australia. The Su...

  12. Risk of falling, fear of falling and functionality in community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Beatriz; Tomás, Mª Teresa; Quirino, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    Ageing among Portuguese population is leading to an increase in the proportion of elderly people. Age-related changes are responsible for high levels of disability, balance problems and high risk of falls, Physiotherapy can identify elderly in risk of falling and provide strategies to prevent falls in this population contributing to maintain functionality. The purpose of this study was to characterise the risk of falling in a sample of community-dwelling older adults and investigate the assoc...

  13. Manual of acceptable practices for energy conservation in one- and two-family dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, R.

    1981-08-01

    The manual describes some acceptable methods for meeting the energy conservation requirements of the Energy Conservation Code of the District of Columbia for one- and two-family dwellings. This document illustrates examples that meet these energy performance standards. Terms are defined and the five options available for determining compliance are discussed. Standards on air infiltration, HVAC equipment, and service water heating are given. (MCW)

  14. Survey of occupant behaviour and control of indoor environment in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Toftum, Jørn; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2009-01-01

    invitations to addresses obtained from a Danish register along with information on dwelling characteristics. Meteorological data was obtained from the Danish Meteorological Institute. Four control mechanisms (window open/closed, heating on/off, lighting on/off and solar shading in/ not in use) were analysed...... analyses form a basis for a definition of standard behaviour patterns which can be used to make calculation of energy consumption of buildings more accurate....

  15. Architecture of pure geometry: Dwellings houses of architects Stevan i Milena Tešić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janakova-Grujić Mare

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes part of work of Serbian's architects Stevan Tešić and Milena Veljković Tešić. The works have been designed and made in Italy from 2000 to 2008 and have been dedicated to dwellings houses. Following up developmental creative line, we can observe basic characteristics and particularity: urban sense, attitude to cultural and historical heritage and subject matter of works which is narrowly.

  16. Monitoring of Indoor Relative Humidity Levels in Residential Dwellings: A Sensor Network Application

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Lizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Indoor Air Quality is an increasing concern in the world today. The mere presence of people in a building or residence can significantly alter indoor air quality. Relative humidity over the range of normal indoor temperatures (66 - 80 degrees Farenheit) has been linked both directly and indirectly to various health and structural problems. The purpose of this project was to discover whether residential dwellings might benefit from an indoor humidification system. The project consisted of the dep...

  17. To the Problem of Designing Water Heating Solar Systems with Flat Collectors for Individual Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The variant of efficient combination of two renewable energy sources as a biogas system and a water heating solar system has been considered for power supply of individual dwellings. Criteria dependence has been suggested for determination of solar system power efficiency. Its legitimacy has been proved by an experiment. Power efficient solar system has been proposed with peculiar features of its designing and due account of energy flow distribution in technology of biogas production.

  18. Sedentary behavior and sleep efficiency in active community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, Kenneth M.; Ashe, Maureen C; Chris Lockhart; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated that aerobic exercise interventions have a positive impact on sleep efficiency in older adults. However, little work has been done on the impact of sedentary behavior (sitting, watching television, etc.) on sleep efficiency. Methods: 54 Community-dwelling men and women >65 years of age living in Whistler, British Columbia (mean 71.5 years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. Measures of sleep efficiency as well as averag...

  19. 普米族传统民居%The Traditional Dwellings of Pumi Nationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 唐文

    2012-01-01

    普米族是我国少数民族中人口较少的民族,主要居住在云南.从普米族的生活环境、宗教信仰、风俗文化等出发,研究普米族传统民居的布局,主要为正房、厢房和其他用房,还分析了根据普米族传统文化以及宗教信仰划分的传统民居中的各个空间,包括正房内部空间以及院落空间.普米族传统民居中最为主要的建筑形式为木楞房,井干式结构的壁体以及“闪片”屋顶体现出普米族传统民居质朴、粗犷、原生态等特点.通过对现状的分析总结,提出普米族传统民居的发展方向.%The Pumi nationality is one of the less of Chinese minorities which lives in Yunnan. Beginning with the living environment, religion, customs and culture of the Pumi nofionolity, the paper studies the layout form of the traditional dwellings which consist of principal room, wing room and others. Besides, to analyze the space of traditional dwellings according to culture and religion of Pumi nationality, include of principal room and courtyard. The timber-house which contains dry-type wall and "ShanpiarTroof ,is one of the Pumi traditional dwellings, and reflects the characteristics of which is rustic, straightforward, ecological. According to the status ,it put forward the direction of Pumi traditional dwellings.

  20. Monitoring of Indoor Relative Humidity Levels in Residential Dwellings: A Sensor Network Application

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Lizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Indoor Air Quality is an increasing concern in the world today. The mere presence of people in a building or residence can significantly alter indoor air quality. Relative humidity over the range of normal indoor temperatures (66 - 80 degrees Farenheit) has been linked both directly and indirectly to various health and structural problems. The purpose of this project was to discover whether residential dwellings might benefit from an indoor humidification system. The project consisted of the dep...

  1. A comparison between national scheme for the acoustic classification of dwellings in Europe and in the U.S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed through many schemes worldwide in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particula...... scheme may facilitate exchanging experiences about constructions fulfilling different classes, reducing trade barriers, and finally increasing the sound insulation of dwellings....

  2. Comparison of indoor radon and thoron concentrations in the urban and rural dwellings of Chhattisgarh state of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhar, M.S.K. [Department of Rural Technology, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur (C.G.) 495 009 (India)], E-mail: mskkhokhar@rediffmail.com; Kher, R.S. [Department of Physics, Government Science Postgraduate College, Bilaspur (C.G.) 495 006 (India); Rathore, V.B. [Department of Radiotherapy, Pt. J. N. M. Medical College, Raipur (C.G.) 492 001 (India); Pandey, S. [Department of Physics, St. Thomas Postgraduate College, Bhilai (C.G.) (India); Ramachandran, T.V. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2008-08-15

    In the frame of nationwide radon/thoron monitoring program, indoor radon/thoron and their progeny concentrations have been estimated for 210 dwellings situated in 8 towns (urban) and 9 villages (rural) of Chhattisgarh state of India. The measurement has been made on quarterly integrating cycle for one full year in each dwelling. Twin chamber dosimeter cup with LR-115 Type-II Solid State Nuclear Track Detector was used for the measurement of indoor radon/thoron concentration. The results show that the geometric mean of indoor thoron concentration in urban dwellings varies from 11.57 to 25.88Bqm{sup -3} with an overall geometric mean value of 16.65Bqm{sup -3}, while in rural dwellings it varies from 12.50 to 30.08Bqm{sup -3} with an overall geometric mean value of 19.00Bqm{sup -3}. The potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) levels of thoron in the urban and rural dwellings are found to be 2.58 and 4.57 mWL, respectively. Similarly, the geometric mean of indoor radon concentrations in urban dwellings is found to vary from 20.20 to 30.13Bqm{sup -3} with an overall geometric mean value of 25.28Bqm{sup -3}, while in rural dwellings it varies from 15.50 to 36.05Bqm{sup -3} with an overall geometric mean value of 27.32Bqm{sup -3}. The PAEC levels of radon in the urban and rural dwellings are found to be 1.50 and 1.87 mWL, respectively. The dose contribution of thoron and progeny in total inhalation dose has been found to be more than 20% in all the surveyed places that show the necessity to pay attention to the presence of thoron and progeny from public health point of view.

  3. Perceived indoor air quality and its relationship to air pollutants in French dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, S; Ramalho, O; Le Ponner, E; Derbez, M; Kirchner, S; Mandin, C

    2017-05-05

    Perception of indoor air quality (PIAQ) was evaluated in a nationwide survey of 567 French dwellings, and this survey was combined with measurements of gaseous and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5 ) indoor air pollutants and indoor climate parameters. The perception was assessed on a nine-grade scale by both the occupants of the dwellings and the inspectors who performed the measurements. The occupants perceived the air quality in their homes as more pleasant than the inspectors. The inspectors perceived the air quality as more unpleasant in dwellings in which the residents smoked indoors. Significant associations between PIAQ and indoor air pollutant concentrations were observed for both the inspectors and, to a lesser extent, the occupants. Introducing confounding parameters, such as building and personal characteristics, into a multivariate model suppressed most of the observed bivariate correlations and identified the tenure status of the occupants and their occupation as the parameters that most influenced their PIAQ. For the inspectors, perceived air quality was affected by the presence of smokers, the season, the type of ventilation, retrofitting, and the concentrations of acetaldehyde and acrolein. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Multicomponent exercise for physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soonhee; Hwang, Sujin; Klein, Aimee B.; Kim, Seok Hun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify whether a 4-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy community-dwelling elderly women were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a control group. Experimental subjects performed a multicomponent exercise program that consisted of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 4 weeks, whereas the control subjects did not perform any specific exercise. The subjects’ level of physical fitness was assessed prior to and after training using the Senior Fitness Test which assesses muscle strength, flexibility, dynamic balance/agility, aerobic endurance, and body composition. [Results] Subjects in the experimental group showed significant improvements in lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, dynamic balance/agility following training, but not in aerobic endurance or body composition. Significant group differences were shown in lower and upper body strength, lower body flexibility, and dynamic balance/agility. [Conclusion] The results suggest that a multicomponent training program that consists of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises is a relevant intervention for the improvement of the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. PMID:25931757

  5. Multicomponent exercise for physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soonhee; Hwang, Sujin; Klein, Aimee B; Kim, Seok Hun

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify whether a 4-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy community-dwelling elderly women were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a control group. Experimental subjects performed a multicomponent exercise program that consisted of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 4 weeks, whereas the control subjects did not perform any specific exercise. The subjects' level of physical fitness was assessed prior to and after training using the Senior Fitness Test which assesses muscle strength, flexibility, dynamic balance/agility, aerobic endurance, and body composition. [Results] Subjects in the experimental group showed significant improvements in lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, dynamic balance/agility following training, but not in aerobic endurance or body composition. Significant group differences were shown in lower and upper body strength, lower body flexibility, and dynamic balance/agility. [Conclusion] The results suggest that a multicomponent training program that consists of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises is a relevant intervention for the improvement of the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women.

  6. Diversity and role of cave-dwelling hematophagous insects in pathogen transmission in the Afrotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obame-Nkoghe, Judicaël; Leroy, Eric-Maurice; Paupy, Christophe

    2017-04-12

    The progressive anthropization of caves for food resources or economic purposes increases human exposure to pathogens that naturally infect cave-dwelling animals. The presence of wild or domestic animals in the immediate surroundings of caves also may contribute to increasing the risk of emergence of such pathogens. Some zoonotic pathogens are transmitted through direct contact, but many others require arthropod vectors, such as blood-feeding insects. In Africa, hematophagous insects often play a key role in the epidemiology of many pathogens; however, their ecology in cave habitats remains poorly known. During the last decades, several investigations carried out in Afrotropical caves suggested the medical and veterinary importance particularly of insect taxa of the Diptera order. Therefore, the role of some of these insects as vectors of pathogens that infect cave-dwelling vertebrates has been studied. The present review summarizes these findings, brings insights into the diversity of cave-dwelling hematophagous Diptera and their involvement in pathogen transmission, and finally discusses new challenges and future research directions.

  7. The relationships between serum fructosamine concentrations and lipid profiles in community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, You-Fan; Wei, Ye-Sheng

    2017-07-31

    We examined the epidemiological associations between serum fructosamine and dyslipidemia indices in community-dwelling adults. Clinical characteristics and lipid profiles were analyzed in 1352 community-dwelling adults. The demographic characteristics and laboratory results were grouped according to the quartiles of serum fructosamine concentrations in all eligible individuals. From the bottom to the top quartile of serum fructosamine, there were graded increases in age, total cholesterol (TC), fasting blood glucose (FBG), total protein (TP), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol/ high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP). Serum fructosamine was positive correlated with age, TC, FBG, TP, TG, TC/HDL-C and AIP in whole individuals. The positive correlations were then observed in both genders between serum fructosamine and TC, FBG, TP, TG. Two dominant factors were identified by principal component analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed that the two factors were associated with increased serum fructosamine with adjustment for gender, age, body mass index (BMI), FBG and TP. The similar results were observed in males, but not in females. Dyslipidemia tends to contribute to increased serum fructosamine concentrations in study population, suggesting that elevated serum fructosamine may herald an increased risk of cardiovascular disease among community-dwelling adults, especially in males.

  8. Prevalensi Sarkopenia pada Lansia di Komunitas (Community Dwelling berdasarkan Dua Nilai Cut-off Parameter Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitriana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, aging muscle mass loss, and function syndromes can lead to decreased quality of life and increased elderly mortality. The availability of various screening methods and operational definitions in different studies has produced different findings of sarcopenia prevalence. The purpose of this study was to discover the prevalence of sarcopenia in Indonesian community-dwelling elderly based on muscle mass measured by bioimpedance analysis, handgrip strength using hand dynamometer, and physical performance based on six minutes walking test with two different cut-off point parameters of sarcopenia, i.e. the cut-off point recommended by Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS and the cut-off point based on the reference used in Taiwan elderly population reference due to the lack of references for Indonesian elderly population. A cross-sectional study was conducted to 229 participants (71 men and 158 women from the community-dwelling elderly population between August and December 2014 in Bandung and Jatinangor. The results of the study showed that the sarcopenia prevalence in this study based on AWGS was 9.1% (7.4% in men and 1.7% in women while the prevalence based on the Taiwan reference revealed a prevalence of 40.6% (20.1% in men and 20.5% in women. This highly different prevalences shows the importance of defining a specific cut-off point for elderly population in community-dwelling Indonesia to get a more accurate sarcopenia prevalence.

  9. Mechanisms of dwell fatigue crack growth in an advanced nickel disc alloy RR1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu S.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RR1000 is one of an advanced class of nickel-based superalloys developed for disc applications. Under one hour dwell fatigue loading, complex crack growth behaviour has been observed especially in a coarse grained version of this alloy. At a temperature of 700 ∘C in air an increase of nearly two orders of magnitude in crack growth rates compared to baseline fatigue crack growth rates may be seen. However for certain microstructural conditions, cracks can also demonstrate retardation following initial acceleration. When using a direct current potential difference (d.c.p.d technique for monitoring crack growth, a damage zone of a few hundred microns is often measured ahead of a fast growing crack. Advanced characterisation techniques including SEM, ECCI and X-ray tomography have been adopted in the current study to understand the observed damage zone and retardation phenomenon. It is found that damage zones measured by d.c.p.d reflect brittle and non-uniform advance of the crack resulting from continuous dynamic or quasi-dynamic fracture of an oxide intrusion ahead of the crack tip during the dwell period. In contrast, cracking of the oxide intrusion is less frequent or even prevented during dwell periods associated with a retarded and slow growing crack. Crack tip stress relaxation plays an important role in dictating whether or not dynamic cracking of the oxide intrusion can be avoided.

  10. Radon levels and the expected population mortality in dwellings of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Alzimami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Internal exposure from inhalation of radon and its progeny is one of the most significant sources of natural radiation exposure of the population. Radon levels and radon equilibrium factor were measured in the dwellings of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia using passive technique. Calibrated CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors were used for radon measurements and the method of can and bare is adapted for the measurement of radon equilibrium factor. Passive measurements enable the accumulation of the result over a long period and cover a wide area. The probability of cancer induction and then the expected mortality was calculated based on different approaches. The results show that the overall weighted mean of annual effective dose for Al-Kharj resident is equal to 1.51 ± 0.8 mSv and The average expected mortality for residents in dwellings of Al-Kharj city is ranged from 0.596 ± 0.25 to 0.369 ± 0.15 death per 10,000 persons of ages from 40 to 70 years respectively. Also, the lifetime excess absolute risk (LEAR of the residents of the Al-Kharj city is equal to (2.06 ± 0.8 × 10−4. The effect of dwelling types, ventilation and construction materials on the expected mortality is discussed.

  11. Actual energy consumption in dwellings. The effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Santin, O.

    2010-10-19

    Residential buildings have continuously improved in energy efficiency, partly as a consequence of the introduction of energy regulations in many countries. Although better thermal properties and systems efficiency have lowered energy consumption for space heating in recent decades, substantial differences in energy consumption in similar dwellings are still being observed. These differences in consumption are thought to be caused by differences in occupancy patterns, by quality of construction and by rebound effects. This research addresses the effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behavior on energy consumption for space and water heating in dwellings built after the introduction of the energy performance regulations in the Netherlands. The results of this research show that improving the energy efficiency of buildings alone is not enough to decrease that energy consumption. The large differences found in the use of dwellings indicate that, especially in energy efficient houses, occupant behavior provides an opportunity for further reductions in the energy consumption for space heating which could boost the efforts to conserve energy worldwide.

  12. The Relationship of Sleep Duration with Obesity and Sarcopenia in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Meng-Yueh; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the relationship between sleep duration and obesity in elderly adults; however, little is known about the relationship of sleep duration and sarcopenia. We examined the relationship of sleep duration with obesity and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. A total of 488 community-dwelling adults (224 men and 264 women) aged ≥65 years were included in the analysis. Self-reported sleep duration and anthropometric data were collected. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated using the predicted equation from a bioelectrical impedance analysis measurement. Obesity and sarcopenia were defined according to the body mass index and the skeletal muscle mass index, respectively. The association between sleep duration and sarcopenia exhibited a U shape in older adults. Compared to adults with 6-8 h of sleep, adults with adults with ≥8 h of sleep had a nearly 2-fold increased risk of sarcopenia (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.01-3.54). Older adults with a sleep duration obesity (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.08-4.30). After gender stratification, the association between obesity and short sleep duration was more robust in women. There were significant associations of sleep duration with either obesity or sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. Gender differences in these associations were also observed.

  13. How to assess frailty and the need for care? Report from the Study of Health and Drugs in the Elderly (SHADES) in community dwellings in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Bravell, Marie Ernsth; Westerlind, Bjorn; Midlöv, Patrik; Ostgren, Carl-Johan; Borgquist, Lars; Lannering, Christina; Molstad, Sigvard

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about the need for care of elderly individuals in community dwellings and the factors affecting their needs and support is limited. The aim of this study was to characterize the frailty of a population of elderly individuals living in community dwellings in Sweden in relation to co-morbidity, use of drugs, and risk of severe conditions such as malnutrition, pressure ulcers, and falls. In 2008, 315 elderly individuals living in community dwellings were interviewed and examined as par...

  14. Tandem-ring dwell time ratio in Nigeria: dose comparisons of two loading patterns in standard high-dose-rate brachytherapy planning for cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT), the source dwell times and dwell positions are essential treatment planning parameters. An optimal choice of these factors is fundamental to obtain the desired target coverage with the lowest achievable dose to the organs at risk (OARs). This study evaluates relevant dose parameters in cervix brachytherapy in order to assess existing tandem-ring dwell time ratio used at the first HDR BT center in Nigeria, and compare it with an alternative s...

  15. SU-E-T-758: To Determine the Source Dwell Positions of HDR Brachytherapy Using 2D 729 Ion Chamber Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Syam [Malabar Cancer Centre, Kannur, Kerala (India); Sitha [University of Calicut, Calicut, Kerala (India)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Determination of source dwell positions of HDR brachytherapy using 2D 729 ion chamber array Methods: Nucletron microselectron HDR and PTW 2D array were used for the study. Different dwell positions were assigned in the HDR machine. Rigid interstitial needles and vaginal applicator were positioned on the 2D array. The 2D array was exposed for this programmed dwell positions. The positional accuracy of the source was analyzed after the irradiation of the 2D array. This was repeated for different dwell positions. Different test plans were transferred from the Oncentra planning system and irradiated with the same applicator position on the 2D array. The results were analyzed using the in house developed excel program. Results: Assigned dwell positions versus corresponding detector response were analyzed. The results show very good agreement with the film measurements. No significant variation found between the planned and measured dwell positions. Average dose response with 2D array between the planned and nearby dwell positions was found to be 0.0804 Gy for vaginal cylinder applicator and 0.1234 Gy for interstitial rigid needles. Standard deviation between the doses for all the measured dwell positions for interstitial rigid needle for 1 cm spaced positions were found to be 0.33 and 0.37 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. For intracavitory vaginal applicator this was found to be 0.21 for 1 cm spaced dwell positions and 0.06 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. Intracavitory test plans reproduced on the 2D array with the same applicator positions shows the ideal dose distribution with the TPS planned. Conclusion: 2D array is a good tool for determining the dwell position of HDR brachytherapy. With the in-house developed program in excel it is easy and accurate. The traditional way with film analysis can be replaced by this method, as the films will be more costly.

  16. Exercise rehabilitation on home-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease - a randomized, controlled trial. Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilvis Reijo S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Besides cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD leads to physical disability, need for help and permanent institutional care. The trials investigating effects of exercise rehabilitation on physical functioning of home-dwelling older dementia patients are still scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of intensive exercise rehabilitation lasting for one year on mobility and physical functioning of home-dwelling patients with AD. Methods During years 2008-2010, patients with AD (n = 210 living with their spousal caregiver in community are recruited using central AD registers in Finland, and they are offered exercise rehabilitation lasting for one year. The patients are randomized into three arms: 1 tailored home-based exercise twice weekly 2 group-based exercise twice weekly in rehabilitation center 3 control group with usual care and information of exercise and nutrition. Main outcome measures will be Guralnik's mobility and balance tests and FIM-test to assess physical functioning. Secondary measures will be cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms according to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, caregivers' burden, depression and health-related quality of life (RAND-36. Data concerning admissions to institutional care and the use and costs of health and social services will be collected during a two year follow-up. Discussion To our knowledge this is the first large scale trial exploring whether home-dwelling patients with AD will benefit from intense and long-lasting exercise rehabilitation in respect to their mobility and physical functioning. It will also provide data on cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Trial registration ACTRN12608000037303

  17. Semi-volatile organic compounds in the particulate phase in dwellings: A nationwide survey in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandin, Corinne; Mercier, Fabien; Ramalho, Olivier; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Gilles, Erwann; Blanchard, Olivier; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Glorennec, Philippe; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Sixty-six semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs)-phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), one pyrethroid, organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides, alkylphenols, synthetic musks, tri-n-butylphosphate and triclosan-were measured on PM10 filters collected over 7 days during a nationwide survey of 285 French dwellings, representative of nearly 25 million housing units. Thirty-five compounds were detected in more than half of the dwellings. PAHs, phthalates and triclosan were the major particle-bound SVOCs, with a median concentration greater than 1 ng m-3 for butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) (median: 1.6 ng m-3), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (46 ng m-3) and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) (7.9 ng m-3), and greater than 0.1 ng m-3 for triclosan (114 pg m-3), benzo(a)pyrene (138 pg m-3), benzo(b)fluoranthene (306 pg m-3), benzo(g,h,i)perylene (229 pg m-3), and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene (178 pg m-3). For most of the SVOCs, higher concentrations were found in the dwellings of smokers and during the heating season. The concentrations of banned SVOCs-namely, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides-were correlated. Permethrin, 4-tert-butylphenol and bisphenol-A showed no correlation with the other SVOCs and seemed to have their own specific sources. Most SVOCs were positively associated with PM10 concentration, suggesting that any factor that raises the mass of indoor airborne particles also increases the exposure to SVOCs through inhalation.

  18. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in community-dwelling adults with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, W Michael; Lamer, Tim J; Twyner, Channing

    2015-06-01

    The hyperalgesic effects of long-term opioid use in community-dwelling adults with chronic pain have not been widely reported. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine the associations between opioid use and heat pain (HP) perception in a sample of community-dwelling adults with chronic pain. The study cohort involved 187 adults (85 opioid and 102 nonopioid) with chronic pain consecutively admitted to an outpatient interdisciplinary pain treatment program. Heat pain perception was assessed using a validated quantitative sensory test method of levels. An effect of opioid use was observed for nonstandardized (P = 0.004) and standardized (P = 0.005) values of HP 5-0.5 in which values of the opioid group were lower (more hyperalgesic) compared with those of the nonopioid group. HP 5-0.5 is a measure of the slope of the line connecting HP 0.5 (HP threshold) and HP 5 (intermediate measure of HP tolerance). In univariable (P = 0.019) and multiple variable (P = 0.003) linear regression analyses (adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, work status, pain diagnosis, pain severity, depression, and pain catastrophizing), opioid use was associated with lower (more hyperalgesic) nonstandardized values of HP 5-0.5. Similarly, in univariable (P = 0.004) and multiple variable (P = 0.011) linear regression analyses (adjusted for work status, pain diagnosis, pain severity, depression, and pain catastrophizing), opioid use was associated with lower standardized values of HP 5-0.5. In this sample of community-dwelling adults, these observations suggest that long-term opioid use was associated with hyperalgesia independent of other clinical factors known to influence HP perception.

  19. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba urban area, Parana state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Schelin, Hugo R., E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Considering that radon and its progeny exposure is proved to be the main cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers and occupation-time at some commercial establishments and workplaces is equal or even bigger then at domiciles and dwelling, present study has been spread to the constructed closed environment and workplaces of commerce and productive sector. The measurements were performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of UTFPR in 2009 - 2011 when 120 detectors were installed at domiciles and workplaces of Curitiba, Parana St., Brazil. Experimental setup was based at CR-39 detectors that were installed in diffusion chambers protected with filters. In collaboration with CDTN/CNEN it was performed the calibration of CR-39 detectors at the NIRS in Japan. The exposure time was set to be of 100 days. Alpha particle track development was performed using 6.25M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and ethanol (2%) during 14 hours at 70 deg C. The counting was conducted using an optical microscope. Measured {sup 222}Rn activity levels in dwellings varied between 4.37 Bq/m{sup 3} and 320.82 Bq/m{sup 3} resulting at an average of 46.94 Bq/m{sup 3}. Indoor measurements at workplaces presented the variation of radon activity concentration between 3.08 Bq/m{sup 3} and 67.50 Bq/m{sup 3} resulting at the average of 34.51 Bq/m{sup 3}. Considering the recommendations of the World Health Organization, UNSCEAR and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) concerning the radon-in-air concentration inside the dwellings that can reach 200 Bq/m{sup 3} taking into account the occupation-time of 7000 hours/year, obtained results are within normal limits and no mitigation measures have to be performed. (author)

  20. Seismic vulnerability of dwellings at Sete Cidades Volcano (S. Miguel Island, Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gomes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the settlement of S. Miguel Island (Azores, in the XV century, several earthquakes caused important human losses and severe damages on the island. Sete Cidades Volcano area, located in the westernmost part of the island, was attained by strong seismic crises of tectonic and volcanic origin and major events reached a maximum historical intensity of IX (European Macroseismic Scale 1998 in this zone. Aiming to evaluate the impact of a future major earthquakes, a field survey was carried out in ten parishes of Ponta Delgada County, located on the flanks of Sete Cidades volcano and inside it is caldera. A total of 7019 buildings were identified, being 4351 recognized as dwellings. The total number of inhabitants in the studied area is 11429. In this work, dwellings were classified according to their vulnerability to earthquakes (Classes A to F, using the structure types table of the EMS-98, adapted to the types of constructions made in the Azores. It was concluded that 76% (3306 of the houses belong to Class A, and 17% (740 to Class B, which are the classes of higher vulnerability. If the area is affected by a seismic event with intensity IX it is estimated, that 57% (2480 to 77% (3350 of the dwellings will partially or totally collapse and 15% (652 to 25% (1088 will need to be rehabilitated. In this scenario, considering the average of inhabitants per house for each parish, 82% (9372 to 92% (10515 of the population will be affected. The number of deaths, injured and dislodged people will pose severe problems to the civil protection authorities and will cause social and economic disruption in the entire archipelago.

  1. Nutritional screening of older home-dwelling Norwegians: a comparison between two instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderhamn U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulrika Söderhamn, Bjørg Dale, Kari Sundsli, Olle SöderhamnCentre for Caring Research-Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, NorwayBackground: It is important to obtain knowledge about the prevalence of nutritional risk and associated factors among older home-dwelling people in order to be able to meet nutritional challenges in this group in the future and to plan appropriate interventions. The aim of this survey was to investigate the prevalence of home-dwelling older people at nutritional risk and to identify associated factors using two different nutritional screening instruments as self-report instruments.Methods: This study had a cross-sectional design. A postal questionnaire, including the Norwegian versions of the Nutritional Form for the Elderly (NUFFE-NO and Mini Nutritional Assessment – Short Form (MNA-SF, background variables, and health-related questions was sent to a randomized sample of 6033 home-dwelling older people in southern Norway. A total of 2106 (34.9% subjects were included in the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses.Results: When using the NUFFE-NO and MNA-SF, 426 (22.3% and 258 (13.5% older persons, respectively, were identified to be at nutritional risk. The risk of undernutrition increased with age. Several predictors for being at risk of undernutrition, including chronic disease/handicap and receiving family help, as well as protective factors, including sufficient food intake and having social contacts, were identified.Conclusion: Health professionals must be aware of older people's vulnerability to risk of undernutrition, perform screening, and have a plan for preventing undernutrition. For that purpose, MNA-SF and NUFFE-NO can be suggested for screening older people living at home.Keywords: aged, risk factors, undernutrition, screening

  2. Seismic vulnerability of dwellings at Sete Cidades Volcano (S. Miguel Island, Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A.; Gaspar, J. L.; Queiroz, G.

    2006-01-01

    Since the settlement of S. Miguel Island (Azores), in the XV century, several earthquakes caused important human losses and severe damages on the island. Sete Cidades Volcano area, located in the westernmost part of the island, was attained by strong seismic crises of tectonic and volcanic origin and major events reached a maximum historical intensity of IX (European Macroseismic Scale 1998) in this zone. Aiming to evaluate the impact of a future major earthquakes, a field survey was carried out in ten parishes of Ponta Delgada County, located on the flanks of Sete Cidades volcano and inside it is caldera. A total of 7019 buildings were identified, being 4351 recognized as dwellings. The total number of inhabitants in the studied area is 11429. In this work, dwellings were classified according to their vulnerability to earthquakes (Classes A to F), using the structure types table of the EMS-98, adapted to the types of constructions made in the Azores. It was concluded that 76% (3306) of the houses belong to Class A, and 17% (740) to Class B, which are the classes of higher vulnerability. If the area is affected by a seismic event with intensity IX it is estimated, that 57% (2480) to 77% (3350) of the dwellings will partially or totally collapse and 15% (652) to 25% (1088) will need to be rehabilitated. In this scenario, considering the average of inhabitants per house for each parish, 82% (9372) to 92% (10515) of the population will be affected. The number of deaths, injured and dislodged people will pose severe problems to the civil protection authorities and will cause social and economic disruption in the entire archipelago.

  3. National impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in single-family and small multifamily dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Balzer, R.A.; Faby, E.

    1993-05-01

    Since 1976, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has operated one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation -- the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. The program strives to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income persons in order to reduce their energy consumption, lower their fuel bills, increase the comfort of their homes, and safeguard their health. It targets vulnerable groups including the elderly, people with disabilities, and families with children. The most recent national evaluation of the impacts of the Program was completed in 1984 based on energy consumption data for households weatherized in 1981. DOE Program regulations and operations have changed substantially since then: new funding sources, management principles, diagnostic procedures, and weatherization technologies have been incorporated. Many of these new features have been studied in isolation or at a local level; however, no recent evaluation has assessed their combined, nationwide impacts to date or their potential for the future. In 1990, DOE initiated such an evaluation. This evaluation is comprised of three ``impact`` studies (the Single-Family Study, High-Density Multifamily Study, and Fuel-Oil Study) and two ``policy`` studies. Altogether, these five studies will provide a comprehensive national assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program as it existed in the 1989 Program Year (PY 1989). This report presents the results of the first phase of the Single-Family Study. It evaluates the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program as it has been applied to the largest portion of its client base -- low-income households that occupy single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and small (2- to 4-unit) multifamily dwellings. It is based upon a representative national sample that covers the full range of conditions under which the program was implemented in PY 1989.

  4. Predicting sarcopenia from functional measures among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michelle; Glenn, Jordan M; Binns, Ashley

    2016-02-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as age-related lean tissue mass (LTM) loss resulting in reduced muscular strength, physical function, and mobility. Up to 33 % of older adults currently are sarcopenic, with likely many more undiagnosed. The purpose of this investigation was to predict sarcopenia status from easily accessible functional measures of community-dwelling older adults. Forty-three community-dwelling older adults (n = 32 females and n = 11 males) participated in the present investigation. Inclusion criteria included ≥65 years of age, mini-mental state examination score ≥24, and no falls within previous 12 months. All subjects completed their appendicular skeletal mass (ASM) assessment via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and were categorized as either sarcopenic or non-sarcopenic. Physical assessments included 10-m usual walk, hand-grip (HG) strength, 6-min walk, 8-ft up-and-go, 30-s chair stand, 30-s arm curl, and sit-to-stand muscular power. A forward, stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that age, sex, weight, height, 10-m walk, HG, and sit-to-stand muscular power account for 96.1 % of the variance in ASM. The area under the curve was 0.92 for correctly identifying sarcopenic participants compared to their actual classification. This is the first prediction model used to identify sarcopenia based on parameters of demographic and functional fitness measures in community-dwelling older adults. The ability to accurately identify sarcopenia in older adults is imperative to their quality of life and ability to perform activities of daily living.

  5. Sex-specific differences in risk factors for sarcopenia amongst community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, L; Ding, Y Y; Leung, B P; Ismail, N H; Yeo, A; Yew, S; Tay, K S; Tan, C H; Chong, M S

    2015-12-01

    With considerable variation including potential sex-specific differential rate of skeletal muscle loss, identifying modifiable factors for sarcopenia will be pivotal to guide targeted interventions. This study seeks to identify clinical and biological correlates of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults, with emphasis on the role of anabolic and catabolic stimuli, and special reference to gender specificity. In this cross-sectional study involving 200 community-dwelling and functionally independent older adults aged ≥50 years, sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Comorbidities, cognitive and functional performance, physical activity and nutritional status were routinely assessed. Biochemical parameters included haematological indices, lipid panel, vitamin D level, anabolic hormones [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), free testosterone (males only)] and catabolic markers [inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) and myostatin]. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors for sarcopenia. Age was associated with sarcopenia in both genders. Malnutrition conferred significantly higher odds for sarcopenia in women (OR = 5.71, 95% CI 1.13-28.84.44, p = 0.035) while higher but acceptable range serum triglyceride was protective in men (OR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.52, p = 0.012). Higher serum myostatin independently associated with higher odds for sarcopenia in men (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.24, p = 0.041). Serum IGF-1 was significantly lower amongst female sarcopenic subjects, with demonstrable trend for protective effect against sarcopenia in multiple regression models, such that each 1 ng/ml increase in IGF-1 was associated with 1% decline in odds of sarcopenia in women (p = 0.095). Our findings support differential pathophysiological mechanisms for sarcopenia that, if corroborated, may have clinical utility in guiding sex-specific targeted

  6. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings and other buildings in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Talita de Oliveira [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br; Rocha, Zildete [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Quimica e Radioquimica]. E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Radon is a radioactive noble gas derived from the natural decay series of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 232}Th, which are present in rocks and soils. By diffusion and convection, radon migrates from the rocks and soils to the surface and through fissures, pipes and holes it may enter the dwellings and other buildings. Another important indoor radon source is the building material construction. Therefore, it may accumulate indoor environments with reduced ventilation rates. Radon progeny attach to the aerosol particle in the air. The attached and unattached radon progeny may deposit in the lungs and irradiate to the lung tissue as they decay. Radon has been recognized as a radiation hazard, that causes excess of lung cancer among underground miners and there is an evidence that radon is also a heath hazard in dwellings and other indoor environments. Radon accounts for about half of all human exposure to natural radiation. Radon concentration measurements were carried out in dwellings, schools and shopping centers in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte - RMBH. Most part of the inhabitants of the RMBH lives over the granitic gneissic complex, which has a variable depth out coming in some areas. For the radon concentration measurement continuous detectors, AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO, RAD7 and Pylon Lucas Cells were used and, for Potential Alpha Energy Concentration-PAEC measurement a solid state alpha spectroscope, the DOSEman PRO was used. The experiments showed that most results are below 50 Bqm{sup -3} (mean+3{sigma}). This value is bellowing the action levels of the USEPA, ICRP and others, which varies in the range from 148 to 200 Bqm{sup -3}. The values are in the low range, as it was expected for a tropical climate. (author)

  7. Dietary Modification Trial in Community-Dwelling Japanese Elderly: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoki, Chika; Tsuji, Taeko; Shikata, Yukina; Urade, Hana; Morimoto, Hideki; Nakajima, Shinya; Habu, Daiki

    2017-01-01

    Background This study examined the effects of 6-month nutrition education programs for community-dwelling elderly. Methods This study enrolled 50 community-dwelling elderly who regularly visit outpatient clinics. The programs had three goals: salt reduction, increase in dietary fiber, and adequate protein intake. Since it would be difficult for elderly to achieve all goals concurrently, a single goal was chosen by participants themselves. Anthropometric measurements, blood sampling, and assessment of dietary intake were performed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results The nutrition education program for salt reduction was well accepted by the participants and the amount of daily salt intake showed median value of 9.6 g at baseline, 8.0 g at 3 months and 8.1 g at 6 months (P = 0.005). The amount of dietary fiber intake only slightly increased after taking the nutrition program (median value of 13.4 g at baseline, 15.3 g at 3 months and 15.5 g at 6 months; P = 0.695), because of difficulties in introducing new food options to the diet. After taking the adequate protein intake program, participants showed small decreases in protein (a modification from 1.24 g/kg IBW to 1.20 g/kg IBW) and salt intake (8.2 to 7.3 g) at 3 months, but the effects were not sustained at 6 months. Conclusion This nutrition education program focusing on a single nutrient may serve as a strategy to successfully reduce salt intake and improve systolic blood pressure control in community-dwelling elderly individuals who regularly visit outpatient clinics. In our view, dietary and lifestyle habits should be taken into account as much as possible in nutrition education for elderly individuals. PMID:28611865

  8. Polypharmacy in a Belgian cohort of community-dwelling oldest old (80+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Maarten; Elseviers, Monique; Vaes, Bert; Degryse, Jan; Dalleur, Olivia; Vander Stichele, Robert; Van Bortel, Luc; Azermai, Majda

    2016-06-01

    Polypharmacy is highly prevalent among older people (65+), but little is known on the medication use of the oldest old (80+). This study explores the medication use of the Belgian community-dwelling oldest old in relation to their demographic, clinical and functional characteristics. Baseline data was used from the BELFRAIL study; a prospective, observational population-based cohort of Belgian community-dwelling patients (80+). General practitioners recorded clinical problems and medications. Medications were coded by the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification. Participants' (n = 503) mean age was 84.4 years (range 80-102) and 61.2% was female. Median chronic medication use was 5 (range 0-16). Polypharmacy (≥5 medications) was high (57.7%), with excessive polypharmacy (≥10 medications) in 9.1%. Most commonly used medication group were antithrombotics, but also benzodiazepines and antidepressants were frequently consumed. Demographics related to polypharmacy (univariate analysis) were female gender, low education and moderate alcohol use. Age, care dependency and cognitive impairment showed no association with polypharmacy. In multivariate analysis, the predominant association with polypharmacy was found for multimorbidity (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.5-2.1), followed by depression (OR 3.7, 95% CI 4.4-9.7) and physical activity (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-0.9). Polypharmacy was high among Belgian community-dwelling oldest old (80+). Determinants of polypharmacy were interrelated, but dominated by multimorbidity. On top of the burden of multimorbidity, polypharmacy was independently associated with less physical activity, and with depressive symptoms.

  9. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klocke, S.; Faakye, O.; Puttagunta, S.

    2014-10-01

    ​While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of CARB's multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  10. Challenges of Achieving 2012 IECC Air Sealing Requirements in Multifamily Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klocke, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-10-01

    While previous versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) have included provisions to improve the air tightness of dwellings, for the first time, the 2012 IECC mandates compliance verification through blower door testing. Simply completing the Air Barrier and Insulation Installation checklist through visual inspection is no longer sufficient by itself. In addition, the 2012 IECC mandates a significantly stricter air sealing requirement. In Climate Zones 3 through 8, air leakage may not exceed 3 ACH50, which is a significant reduction from the 2009 IECC requirement of 7 ACH50. This requirement is for all residential buildings, which includes low-rise multifamily dwellings. While this air leakage rate requirement is an important component to achieving an efficient building thermal envelope, currently, the code language doesn't explicitly address differences between single family and multifamily applications. In addition, the 2012 IECC does not provide an option to sample dwellings for larger multifamily buildings, so compliance would have to be verified on every unit. With compliance with the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements on the horizon, several of Consortium for Advanced Residential Building's (CARB’s) multifamily builder partners are evaluating how best to comply with this requirement. Builders are not sure whether it is more practical or beneficial to simply pay for guarded testing or to revise their air sealing strategies to improve compartmentalization to comply with code requirements based on unguarded blower door testing. This report summarizes CARB's research that was conducted to assess the feasibility of meeting the 2012 IECC air leakage requirements in 3 multifamily buildings.

  11. The Application of Gas Dwell Time Control for Rapid Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Forest Synthesis to Acetylene Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Matsumoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of carbon nanotube (CNT synthesis that remains an obstacle to realize industrial mass production is the growth efficiency. Many approaches have been reported to improve the efficiency, either by lengthening the catalyst lifetime or by increasing the growth rate. We investigated the applicability of dwell time and carbon flux control to optimize yield, growth rate, and catalyst lifetime of water-assisted chemical vapor deposition of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT forests using acetylene as a carbon feedstock. Our results show that although acetylene is a precursor to CNT synthesis and possesses a high reactivity, the SWCNT forest growth efficiency is highly sensitive to dwell time and carbon flux similar to ethylene. Through a systematic study spanning a wide range of dwell time and carbon flux levels, the relationship of the height, growth rate, and catalyst lifetime is found. Further, for the optimum conditions for 10 min growth, SWCNT forests with ~2500 μm height, ~350 μm/min initial growth rates and extended lifetimes could be achieved by increasing the dwell time to ~5 s, demonstrating the generality of dwell time control to highly reactive gases.

  12. The Application of Gas Dwell Time Control for Rapid Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Forest Synthesis to Acetylene Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Oshima, Azusa; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Yamada, Takeo; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji; Futaba, Don N.

    2015-01-01

    One aspect of carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis that remains an obstacle to realize industrial mass production is the growth efficiency. Many approaches have been reported to improve the efficiency, either by lengthening the catalyst lifetime or by increasing the growth rate. We investigated the applicability of dwell time and carbon flux control to optimize yield, growth rate, and catalyst lifetime of water-assisted chemical vapor deposition of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) forests using acetylene as a carbon feedstock. Our results show that although acetylene is a precursor to CNT synthesis and possesses a high reactivity, the SWCNT forest growth efficiency is highly sensitive to dwell time and carbon flux similar to ethylene. Through a systematic study spanning a wide range of dwell time and carbon flux levels, the relationship of the height, growth rate, and catalyst lifetime is found. Further, for the optimum conditions for 10 min growth, SWCNT forests with ~2500 μm height, ~350 μm/min initial growth rates and extended lifetimes could be achieved by increasing the dwell time to ~5 s, demonstrating the generality of dwell time control to highly reactive gases.

  13. A new small karst-dwelling species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Bauer, Aaron M; Yudha, Donan Satria

    2014-04-07

    A new small karst-dwelling species of the genus Cyrtodactylus is described from East Java and Special Province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Cyrtodactylus semiadii sp. nov. is a small species (SVL to 47.1 mm in females, 42.1 mm in males) distinguished from all other congeners by unique characters combination: short, robust, cylindrical tail, indistinct ventrolateral folds, absence of precloacal groove, absence of enlarged femoral scales, absence of precloacal and femoral pores and lack of enlarged median subcaudal scales. It is the third member of the genus recorded from Java. 

  14. Juvenile Thalassoma amblycephalum Bleeker (Labridae, Teleostei) dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Iwao, Kenji; Brolund, Thea Marie

    2006-01-01

    each) of the juvenile wrasse Thalassoma amblycephalum dwelling among the tentacles of the two sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor (clonal type), and Heteractis magnifica at a coral reef in southern Japan during 16 months in daylight hours. There are only two past records of this facultative association......, one from east Africa and one from Indonesia. The wrasse remained close to and was occasionally in physical contact with the host when foraging amongst the tentacles. When frightened, they took shelter among corals, away from the host anemone. The wrasse co-existed with the anemonefishes Amphiprion...

  15. Lead-based paint in dwellings: The potential for contamination of the home environment during renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskip, M J; Hutton, M

    1987-12-01

    The quantity and particle size characteristics of lead in dust released during three different paint removal techniques was determined under controlled conditions and in situ in a dwelling. Air-lead and deposited dust-lead levels were highest after sanding but 'burning-off' and 'hot-air' removal methods also produced significant contamination. The importance of dust particle-size and lead is discussed in relation to the potential hazard to home renovators via inhalation and to children via the 'hand-to-mouth' route.

  16. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Dwell Development, Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Challenge Home is one of 42 homes in a micro-community of ultra-modern, energy-efficient homes built by Dwell Development on an urban gray-field site in South Seattle. Every home will achieve a 5-Star Built Green rating from the regional master builders association and meet the criteria of the Northwest ENERGY STAR program, which is more strict than the national ENERGY STAR criteria. Also, the home won a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the "systems builder" category.

  17. Coalition Building for Health: A Community Garden Pilot Project with Apartment Dwelling Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Lynne K; Blood-Siegfried, Jane; Champagne, Mary; Al-Jumaily, Maha; Biederman, Donna J

    2015-01-01

    Refugees often experience compromised health from both pre- and post-migration stressors. Coalition theory has helped guide the development of targeted programs to address the health care needs of vulnerable populations. Using the Community Coalition Action Theory as a framework, a coalition was formed to implement a community garden with apartment-dwelling refugees. Outcomes included successful coalition formation, a community garden, reported satisfaction from all gardeners with increased vegetable intake, access to culturally meaningful foods, and evidence of increased community engagement. The opportunity for community health nurses to convene a coalition to affect positive health for refugees is demonstrated.

  18. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem with Flexible Dwell Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Joao Filipe Paiva; Larsen, Allan; van der Hurk, Evelien;

    times at important transfer points based on expected passenger ows. We introduce a compact mixed integer linear formulation of the SVSPSP-FDT able to address small instances. We also present a meta-heuristic approach to solve medium/large instances of the problem. The e ectiveness of the proposed......In this talk, we deal with a generalization of the well-known Vehicle Scheduling Problem(VSP) that we call Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem with Flexible Dwell Times (SVSPSP-FDT). The SVSPSP-FDT generalizes the VSP because the original timetables of the trips can...

  19. Religiousness/Spirituality and anger management in community-dwelling older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefford, Linda; Thomas, Sandra P; Callen, Bonnie; Groer, Maureen

    2014-04-01

    Mismanaged anger is associated with adverse health outcomes. This study examined whether dimensions of religiousness/spirituality could predict healthy anger management in a sample of 82 community-dwelling older Americans. A correlational research design was employed using the Deffenbacher Anger Scale and the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality. Higher scores on Forgiveness, Daily Spiritual Experiences, Religiousness/Spirituality as Coping, and Self-Ranking of Religiousness/Spirituality were correlated with healthier anger management; however forgiveness was the only significant predictor in the regression analysis. Interventions to facilitate forgiveness may promote healthy anger management and minimize the adverse health effects of mismanaged anger.

  20. Juvenile Thalassoma amblycephalum Bleeker (Labridae, Teleostei) dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Iwao, Kenji; Brolund, Thea Marie

    2006-01-01

    each) of the juvenile wrasse Thalassoma amblycephalum dwelling among the tentacles of the two sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor (clonal type), and Heteractis magnifica at a coral reef in southern Japan during 16 months in daylight hours. There are only two past records of this facultative association......, one from east Africa and one from Indonesia. The wrasse remained close to and was occasionally in physical contact with the host when foraging amongst the tentacles. When frightened, they took shelter among corals, away from the host anemone. The wrasse co-existed with the anemonefishes Amphiprion...

  1. To What Factors Do Rural-Dwelling Hispanics Attribute Depressive Symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsit V. Vahia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a retrospective chart review comparing rural-dwelling Caucasian and Hispanic outpatients’ attribution of depressive symptoms. Based on the data gathered at intake, Hispanics were more likely to attribute depression to curse/spell and supernatural causes, while Caucasians were more likely to attribute symptoms to hereditary factors or job stress. Among both groups, higher CESD score was associated with problems with significant others or how they got along with others. Among Hispanics, depression severity was additionally associated with problems related to job or finances. Our findings point to a consequential role for clinical inquiry into attributed causes of depressive symptoms.

  2. Commissioning of Varian ring & tandem HDR applicators: reproducibility and interobserver variability of dwell position offsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Ryan; Zhuang, Tingliang; Steffey, Beverly A; Song, Haijun; Craciunescu, Oana I

    2011-11-15

    Studies have shown that source dwells within Varian's HDR CT/MR compatible ring applicators can deviate from intended positions by several millimeters. Quantifying this offset is an important part of commissioning. The aims of this study were to: 1) determine the reproducibility of the offset, 2) study the interobserver variation in the offset's measurement, and 3) quantify the dosimetric impact of the offset. Offsets were measured for four ring applicators: two 30°, one 45°, and one 60°. Dwell positions were measured five times for each ring to determine the reproducibility of source positioning. Experiments were done to compare two separate source wires, as well as different time points within a single source wire's lifecycle. Data were analyzed by three independent observers. To quantify the dosimetric impact of the offset, a treatment plan was generated using BrachyVision. The dose to point A, and the D(2cc) metric for rectum and bladder were calculated with and without the offset. For the 45° and 60° rings, measured offsets were 3.0 mm and 3.6 mm, respectively. The 30° ring showed substantial variation in distal dwell positions (maximum difference between the five experiments of 2.9 mm). Subsequent testing of a replacement ring showed an offset of 2.4 mm that was more reproducible. Offsets varied less than 1 mm between different source wires, and changed less than 1 mm over the course of a source wire's lifecycle. When comparing observers, the average range in a measurement of a dwell position was 0. 5 mm (σ = 0.2 mm, max 1.3 mm). The offset resulted in dose variations to point A, bladder, and rectum of less than 1%, 2%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicate that Varian rings can show systematic and random offsets of more than 3 mm. Some can be considered defective and should be replaced. Each applicator should be individually commissioned and reproducibility should be confirmed with multiple tests.

  3. Finite-frequency model reduction of continuous-time switched linear systems with average dwell time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Da-Wei; Du, Xin

    2016-11-01

    This paper deals with the model reduction problem of continuous-time switched linear systems with finite-frequency input signals. The objective of the paper is to propose a finite-frequency model reduction method for such systems. A finite-frequency ? performance index is first defined in frequency domain, and then a finite-frequency performance analysis condition is derived by Parseval's theorem. Combined with the average dwell time approach, sufficient conditions for the existence of exponentially stable reduced-order models are derived. An algorithm is proposed to construct the desired reduced-order models. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by a numerical example.

  4. Economic analysis of a passive solar multiple family dwelling for upstate New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laquatra, J., Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The economic feasibility of passive solar energy as applied to a multiple family dwelling in three upstate New York cities, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse was studied. Specifically, two passive solar applications, a Trombe wall and direct gain system, for a nine unit structure were analyzed through the use of a solar economic performance code. city specific data, including climatological information, building construction costs, utility rates, and property taxes were used, as were various economic parameters to reflect economic conditions in general and specifically those of the solar systems' owners.

  5. Influence of User Behaviour on Indoor Environmental Quality and Heating Energy Consumptions in Danish Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo;

    Danish dwellings were analysed by means of logistic regression to infer the probability of adjusting the set-point of TRVs. Three different models of occupant’s interactions with heating controls were obtained and implemented in a building simulation tool. They were used to investigate how different...... probabilistic user patterns influence indoor climate quality and energy consumptions. The aim was to compare the obtained results with an actual/deterministic use of the simulation program. Since comfort categories are related to users’ expectations and the users’ impact is crucial on determining the energy...

  6. Economic analysis of a passive solar multiple-family dwelling for upstate New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laquatra, J. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the economic feasibility of passive solar energy as applied to a multiple-family dwelling in three upstate New York cities: Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse. Specifically, two passive solar applications - a Trombe wall and a direct-gain system - for a nine-unit structure designed by Total Environmental Action, Inc. were analyzed through the use of a solar economic performance code. City-specific data, including climatological information, building construction costs, utility rates, and property taxes were used, as were various economic parameters to reflect economic conditions in general and specifically those of the solar systems' owners.

  7. Urinary incontinence, mental health and loneliness among community-dwelling older adults in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stickley, Andrew; Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai

    2017-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence (UI) is associated with worse health among older adults. Little is known however, about its relation with loneliness or the role of mental health in this association. This study examined these factors among older adults in Ireland. Methods Data were analyzed from...... frequency of UI and activity limitations due to UI were both significantly associated with loneliness prior to adjustment for mental disorders, neither association remained significant after adjustment for both depression and anxiety. Conclusion UI is associated with higher odds for loneliness among older...... community-dwelling adults but this association is largely explained by comorbid mental health problems, in particular, depression....

  8. Chemical defense in the cave-dwelling millipede Brachydesmus troglobius Daday, 1889 (Diplopoda, Polydesmidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarov Slobodan E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The troglomorphic millipede Brachydesmus troglobius Daday, 1889 (Polydesmida: Polydesmidae secretes allomones from glands on both lateral surfaces of its body segments. The secretion was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis with electron and chemical ionization, and was shown to be composed of a mixture of benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, benzoylnitrile, benzoic acid and mandelonitrile benzoate. Hydrogen cyanide was qualitatively identified by the picric acid test. This is the first identification of these compounds in a cave-dwelling polydesmid.

  9. Output regulation of switched linear multi-agent systems: an agent-dependent average dwell time method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongwei; Zhao, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The output regulation problem of switched linear multi-agent systems with stabilisable and unstabilisable subsystems is investigated in this paper. A sufficient condition for the solvability of the problem is given. Owing to the characteristics of switched multi-agent systems, even if each agent has its own dwell time, the multi-agent systems, if viewed as an overall switched system, may not have a dwell time. To overcome this difficulty, we present a new approach, called an agent-dependent average dwell time method. Due to the limited information exchange between agents, a distributed dynamic observer network for agents is provided. Further, a distributed dynamic controller based on observer is designed. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.

  10. Ability to negotiate stairs predicts free-living physical activity in community-dwelling people with stroke: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Matar Abdullah; Dean, Catherine M; Ada, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Which clinical measures of walking performance best predict free-living physical activity in community-dwelling people with stroke? Cross-sectional observational study. 42 community-dwelling stroke survivors. Predictors were four clinical measures of walking performance (speed, automaticity, capacity, and stairs ability). The outcome of interest was free-living physical activity, measured as frequency (activity counts) and duration (time on feet), collected using an activity monitor called the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity. Time on feet was predicted by stairs ability alone (B 166, 95% CI 55 to 278) which accounted for 48% of the variance. Activity counts were also predicted by stairs ability alone (B 6486, 95% CI 2922 to 10 050) which accounted for 58% of the variance. The best predictor of free-living physical activity in community-dwelling people with stroke was stairs ability.

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Lower Extremity Subscale of the Fugl-Myer Assessment for Community-dwelling Hemiplegic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Choi, Yoo Im

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the lower extremity subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment lower extremity (FMA-LE) for community-dwelling hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects] The participants were 140 community-dwelling hemiplegic stroke patients. [Methods] To determine the psychometric properties of the FMA-LE, we examined construct validity, response characteristics, item discrimination, and internal consistency. [Results] Factor analysis of the FMA-LE revealed that the first factor explained 61.73% of the variance and provided evidence of unidimensionality. The FMA-LE did not show ceiling or floor effects; Cronbach's α was 0.935 (95% CI: 0.919-0.950). [Conclusion] Because the FMA-LE seems to be both valid and reliable, we conclude that it is appropriate for the measurement of the lower extremity motor impairment of community-dwelling hemiplegic stroke patients.

  12. Fission yeast mtr1p regulates interphase microtubule cortical dwell-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Carlier-Grynkorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The microtubule cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell polarity, motility and division. Microtubules inherently undergo dynamic instability, stochastically switching between phases of growth and shrinkage. In cells, some microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs and molecular motors can further modulate microtubule dynamics. We present here the fission yeast mtr1+, a new regulator of microtubule dynamics that appears to be not a MAP or a motor. mtr1-deletion (mtr1Δ primarily results in longer microtubule dwell-time at the cell tip cortex, suggesting that mtr1p acts directly or indirectly as a destabilizer of microtubules. mtr1p is antagonistic to mal3p, the ortholog of mammalian EB1, which stabilizes microtubules. mal3Δ results in short microtubules, but can be partially rescued by mtr1Δ, as the double mutant mal3Δ mtr1Δ exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant. By sequence homology, mtr1p is predicted to be a component of the ribosomal quality control complex. Intriguingly, deletion of a predicted ribosomal gene, rps1801, also resulted in longer microtubule dwell-time similar to mtr1Δ. The double-mutant mal3Δ rps1801Δ also exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant alone. Our study suggests a possible involvement of mtr1p and the ribosome complex in modulating microtubule dynamics.

  13. Evidence and mapping of extinction debts for global forest-dwelling reptiles, amphibians and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youhua; Peng, Shushi

    2017-03-01

    Evidence of extinction debts for the global distributions of forest-dwelling reptiles, mammals and amphibians was tested and the debt magnitude was estimated and mapped. By using different correlation tests and variable importance analysis, the results showed that spatial richness patterns for the three forest-dwelling terrestrial vertebrate groups had significant and stronger correlations with past forest cover area and other variables in the 1500 s, implying the evidence for extinction debts. Moreover, it was likely that the extinction debts have been partially paid, given that their global richness patterns were also significantly correlated with contemporary forest variables in the 2000 s (but the absolute magnitudes of the correlation coefficients were usually smaller than those calculated for historical forest variables). By utilizing species-area relationships, spatial extinction-debt magnitudes for the three vertebrate groups at the global scale were estimated and the hotspots of extinction debts were identified. These high-debt hotspots were generally situated in areas that did not spatially overlap with hotspots of species richness or high extinction-risk areas based on IUCN threatened status to a large extent. This spatial mismatch pattern suggested that necessary conservation efforts should be directed toward high-debt areas that are still overlooked.

  14. Measurements of indoor gamma radiation and radon concentrations in dwellings of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, Ferdoas S. [Physics Department, Girls College of Education in Riyadh, P.O. Box 27329, Riyadh 11417 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: ferdoasalsaleh@hotmail.com

    2007-07-15

    Indoor gamma radiation measurement at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia using TLD has been performed. Measurements were carried out from October 2004 to June 2005. The city was divided into five sectors, for four categories of bed rooms, living rooms, bathrooms and kitchens. The indoor gamma annual absorbed dose of Riyadh city is in the range from 303{+-}57 to 700{+-}38 {mu}Gy y{sup -1} with an average value of 455.1{+-}45 {mu}Gy y{sup -1}. The calculated corresponding annual effective dose to the adult population of the locations will vary from 212{+-}40 to 490{+-}27 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} with an average value of 318.57{+-}31 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}.{sup 222}Rn concentration was measured at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia to estimate effective annual dose to the public from {sup 222}Rn and its progeny. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations were measured using CR-39 detector. The range of annual mean {sup 222}Rn concentrations for all sites was 2-69 Bq m{sup -3} with an average of 18.4 Bq m{sup -3}. The effective annual dose was estimated to be 0.46 mSv y{sup -1}.

  15. Measurements of indoor gamma radiation and radon concentrations in dwellings of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Ferdoas S

    2007-07-01

    Indoor gamma radiation measurement at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia using TLD has been performed. Measurements were carried out from October 2004 to June 2005. The city was divided into five sectors, for four categories of bed rooms, living rooms, bathrooms and kitchens. The indoor gamma annual absorbed dose of Riyadh city is in the range from 303+/-57 to 700+/-38microGyy(-1) with an average value of 455.1+/-45microGyy(-1). The calculated corresponding annual effective dose to the adult population of the locations will vary from 212+/-40 to 490+/-27microSvy(-1) with an average value of 318.57+/-31microSvy(-1).(222)Rn concentration was measured at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia to estimate effective annual dose to the public from (222)Rn and its progeny. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured using CR-39 detector. The range of annual mean (222)Rn concentrations for all sites was 2-69Bqm(-3) with an average of 18.4Bqm(-3). The effective annual dose was estimated to be 0.46mSvy(-1).

  16. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-07-08

    Given the increasing elderly population worldwide, the identification of potential determinants of successful ageing is important. Many studies have shown that parenting style and mental resilience may influence mental health; however, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underpin this relationship. The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents' parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwelling elderly adults in China. In total, 439 community-dwelling elderly Chinese adults aged 60-91 years completed the Personal and Parents' Parenting Style Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Elderly adults whose parents preferred positive and authoritative parenting styles had higher levels of mental resilience and lower levels of depression and anxiety. Elderly adults parented in the authoritarian style were found to have higher levels of depression and anxiety, with lower mental resilience. The findings of this study provide evidence related to successful ageing and coping with life pressures, and highlight the important effects of parenting on mental health. The results suggest that examination of the proximal determinants of successful ageing is not sufficient-distal factors may also contribute to the 'success' of ageing by modifying key psychological dispositions that promote adaptation to adversity.

  17. Effects of compound music program on cognitive function and QOL in community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takaaki; Ito, Akemi; Kikuchi, Nana; Kakinuma, Tomohiro; Sato, Yoshihisa

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Interventions using music, physical exercise, and reminiscence therapy are widely used both for rehabilitation and care of the elderly. This study aimed to investigate the effect of structured interventions comprising music, physical exercise, and reminiscence therapy on cognitive function and quality of life of the community-dwelling elderly. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 15 community-dwelling elderly people who used a day-care center. Participants underwent sessions comprising the following three factors: 1) singing songs familiar to the elderly; 2) physical exercise to music; and 3) observation of historical pictures. Sessions were conducted once or twice per week, 30 to 40 min per day, for 10 weeks. Pre and post interventions of the Mini Mental State Examination, the Behavioral Rating Scale for the Elderly, and the SF-8 were compared. [Results] No significant difference was observed between pre- and post-intervention scores on the Mini Mental State Examination and the Behavioral Rating Scale for the Elderly. However, the post intervention physical component summary of SF-8 was significantly higher than the pre intervention summary. [Conclusion] This study suggests that interventions comprising music, physical exercise, and reminiscence therapy may contribute toward the improvement of elderly individuals' health-related quality of life, especially physical health.

  18. No association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of the associations between diet and depression have primarily focused on single nutrients or foods. Recently, dietary patterns representing a combination of foods have attracted more interest than individual nutrient. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among a community-dwelling population in Japan. Methods We examined the association between dietary patterns and the risk of depression among 791 Japanese community-dwelling individuals. Diet was assessed with a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ. Dietary patterns from 52 predefined food groups [energy-adjusted food (g/d] were extracted by principal component analysis. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D with a cut-off point of 16 was used to assess the prevalence of depression. Results A total of 97 subjects (12.3% were classified as having depression. Four dietary patterns were identified: “Healthy”, “Western”, “Bread and confectionery”, and “Alcohol and accompanying” dietary patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, the dietary patterns were not related to the risk of depression. Conclusions The present study failed to find associations between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by the lack of certain data, including employment physical activity and longitudinal observations. Potential associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were not completely ruled out. Future research exploring dietary patterns and depressive symptoms is warranted.

  19. Evaluation of the Iranian Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form in Community-dwelling Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Malek Mahdavi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was aimed to assess agreement and diagnostic accuracy of the Iranian version of Mini Nutritional Assessment short-form (MNA-SF against the original MNA, as a gold standard in community-dwelling elderly. Methods: The full MNA and 9-item MNA-SF comprising questions regarding clinical status, dietary assessment and self-perception of health status and nutri-tion together with mid-arm and calf circumference measurements without in-cluding the body mass index (BMI were completed for 205 volunteers aged 65 or older recruited from all over Markazi Province (Iran. Correlation, diagnostic accuracy and agreement between the MNA-SF and full MNA were calculated. Results: The MNA and the MNA-SF classified 45.4% and 64.4% of the sub-jects as malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Substantial agree-ment between the MNA-SF and full MNA was observed (Kappa=0.633. The MNA-SF correlated strongly with the full MNA (r=0.868, P<0.001. The MNA-SF showed high sensitivity (96.77% and negative predictive values (95.89%, relatively high specificity (62.5% and positive predictive values (68.18% and fair accuracy (Area under curve =0.796. Conclusion: Iranian MNA-SF seems to be an applicable screening tool for quick detection of malnutrition or at risk of malnutrition in community-dwelling elderly especially when BMI is unavailable.

  20. Benzodiazepines for insomnia in community-dwelling elderly: a review of benefit and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, R M

    1995-11-01

    To critically assess and summarize the beneficial effects of benzodiazepine therapy for insomnia in community-dwelling elders, a systematic search was undertaken to review all published clinical trials and sleep laboratory studies. The risk of injury for benzodiazepine users was also reviewed. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for assessing benefit. There are no studies regarding the long-term effectiveness of benzodiazepines for the treatment of sleep disorders in the elderly. In the sleep laboratory setting, triazolam 0.125 mg, flurazepam 15 mg, and estazolam 1 mg improved sleep latency by 27 to 30 minutes and increased total sleep time by 47 to 81 minutes for the first 2 to 3 nights of treatment, compared with baseline measurements taken while the patients were receiving placebo. In contrast to these modest short-term benefits, there is an association between the use of benzodiazepines with a long half-life, eg, flurazepam, diazepam, and chlordiazepoxide, and an increased risk of hip fracture in the elderly. Triazolam can cause rebound insomnia as well as anterograde amnesia. Clinicians should discontinue their prescribing of long-acting benzodiazepines for elderly patients with insomnia. More research is needed on the effects of nondrug interventions as well as on short- and intermediate-acting benzodiazepines, such as oxazepam and temazepam, to treat insomnia in community-dwelling elderly.

  1. Leisure activity participation as predictor of quality of life in Korean urban-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Hyun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Soo Hyun

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated participation in leisure activities in urban-dwelling elderly persons in Korea and its role in predicting quality of life. The participated activities over a 48-hour period were recorded by each participant, and amount of participated time for each activity was calculated. Correlational analysis examined the relationship between the degree of participation in domains of leisure activity and quality of life. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which leisure activity participation predicted quality of life. The results indicated that the participants spent the most time in "use of media". Quality of life showed a positive correlation with "use of media", "sports and outdoor leisure activity" and "hobby and other leisure activity". The results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis found that use of media, "religious activity", sports and outdoor leisure activity and hobby and other leisure activity significantly predicted quality of life after controlling for the effects of demographic variables. Of these variables, hobby and other leisure activity was the strongest predictor of quality of life. The results will augment treatment planning and activity management in enhancing quality of life by allied health professionals, especially occupational therapists. The findings are limited in that the sample consisted of urban-dwelling elderly primarily with a religious affiliation. It is recommended that a cross-cultural investigation using standard assessment measures be conducted to validate whether there is indeed similarities in time use and leisure activity participation in the elderly in different cultures.

  2. Operational energy in the life cycle of residential dwellings: The experience of Spain and Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Oscar [University of Rovira i Virgili, Environmental and Analysis Management Group (AGA), Department of Chemical Engineering, Av. Paisos Catalanes 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); University of Pamplona, Department of Industrial Engineering, Km 1 Via Bucaramanga, Pamplona, N de S (Colombia); Castells, Francesc [University of Pamplona, Department of Industrial Engineering, Km 1 Via Bucaramanga, Pamplona, N de S (Colombia); Sonnemann, Guido [University of Rovira i Virgili, Visiting Senior Research Fellow, AGA Group (AGA) (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been applied within the residential building sector of two buildings, one in each a developed (Spain) and a developing (Colombia) country. The main goal of this paper involves the environmental loads and also brings together the operational energy for activities during the operation phase such as HVAC, domestic hot water, electrical appliances, cooking and illumination. The present research compares two real scenarios: Situation 1, where 100% of the dwelling's energy is supplied with electricity only and Situation 2, where dwellings can be operated with natural gas plus electricity. The results for the environmental impacts using natural gas plus electricity show that of the Spanish environmental impacts air conditioning had the highest impact with approximately 27-42% due to the electricity used to power it. In Colombian results showed that electrical appliances had the highest environmental impacts in the same order of magnitude with approximately 60% and cooking had the best reduction of emissions due to the use of natural gas, from 10% down to less than 2%. The origin of the energy source used in each Country plays an important role to minimize environmental impacts, as was demonstrated by the environmental impacts of its use in Colombia where 78% of the electricity came from hydroelectric plants whereas in Spain it is more mixed, fossil fuels represented 55%, nuclear 18% and wind 9%. In summary, LCA has been applied because this methodology supports the decision making to concern environmental sustainability. (author)

  3. Occurrence patterns of coral-dwelling gall crabs (Cryptochiridae over depth intervals in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj M. van Tienderen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coral-associated invertebrates form a major part of the diversity on reefs, but their distribution and occurrence patterns are virtually unstudied. For associated taxa data are lacking on their distribution across shelves and environmental gradients, but also over various depths. Off Curaçao we studied the prevalence and density of coral-dwelling gall crabs (Cryptochiridae, obligate symbionts of stony corals. Belt transects (10 × 0.5m2 were laid out at 6, 12 and 18 m depth intervals at 27 localities. Twenty-one known host coral species were surveyed, measured, and the number of crab dwellings was recorded to study the influence of host occurrence, depth distribution, and colony size on the occurrence rates of three Atlantic gall crab species: Opecarcinus hypostegus, Troglocarcinus corallicola and Kroppcarcinus siderastreicola. The overall gall crab prevalence rate was 20.3% across all available host corals at all depths. The agariciid-associated species O. hypostegus was found to mostly inhabit Agaricia lamarcki and its prevalence was highest at deeper depths, following the depth distribution of its host. Kroppcarcinus siderastreicola, associated with Siderastrea and Stephanocoenia, inhabited shallower depths despite higher host availability at deeper depths. The generalist species T. corallicola showed no clear host or depth specialisation. These results show that the primary factors affecting the distribution and occurrence rates over depth intervals differed between each of the three Atlantic cryptochirid species, which in turn influences their vulnerability to reef degradation.

  4. Validation Analysis of a Geriatric Dehydration Screening Tool in Community-Dwelling and Institutionalized Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration is common among elderly people. The aim of this study was to perform validation analysis of a geriatric dehydration-screening tool (DST in the assessment of hydration status in elderly people. This tool was based on the DST proposed by Vivanti et al., which is composed by 11 items (four physical signs of dehydration and seven questions about thirst sensation, pain and mobility, with four questions extra about drinking habits. The resulting questionnaire was evaluated in a convenience sample comprising institutionalized (n = 29 and community-dwelling (n = 74 elderly people. Urinary parameters were assessed (24-h urine osmolality and volume and free water reserve (FWR was calculated. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the scale’s dimensionality and Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure the reliability of each subscale. Construct’s validity was tested using linear regression to estimate the association between scores in each dimension and urinary parameters. Two factors emerged from factor analysis, which were named “Hydration Score” and “Pain Score”, and both subscales showed acceptable reliabilities. The “Hydration Score” was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality in community-dwelling; and the “Pain Score” was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality, and positively associated with 24-h urine volume and FWR in institutionalized elderly people.

  5. Conceptualization and nursing implications of self-imposed activity limitation among community-dwelling elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guifang; Phillips, Linda R

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to explore, from a theoretical perspective, explanations for why some community-dwelling elders self-impose activity limitations (SIALs); to develop an integrated explanation for SIAL from a nursing perspective; and to identify some clinical implications of relevance to public health nursing practice. Activity limitation is an important risk factor for functional decline, morbidity, and mortality among community-dwelling elders. Many studies have focused on disease and environmental influences on activity limitations. The intrinsic processes associated with voluntary or SIAL in old age among otherwise physically and mentally capable elders are poorly understood and little studied. The conceptualization of SIAL provides nurses with an understanding of an understudied aging phenomenon and helps nurses understand how elders see activities related to their life priorities. The conceptual framework will facilitate future qualitative and quantitative study of SIAL, assist nurses in the development of a new gerontological nursing theory, and design of interventions for elders with activity limitations. Public health nurses with a better understanding of SIAL may be able to help elders improve or maintain their independence.

  6. Evidence and mapping of extinction debts for global forest-dwelling reptiles, amphibians and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youhua; Peng, Shushi

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of extinction debts for the global distributions of forest-dwelling reptiles, mammals and amphibians was tested and the debt magnitude was estimated and mapped. By using different correlation tests and variable importance analysis, the results showed that spatial richness patterns for the three forest-dwelling terrestrial vertebrate groups had significant and stronger correlations with past forest cover area and other variables in the 1500 s, implying the evidence for extinction debts. Moreover, it was likely that the extinction debts have been partially paid, given that their global richness patterns were also significantly correlated with contemporary forest variables in the 2000 s (but the absolute magnitudes of the correlation coefficients were usually smaller than those calculated for historical forest variables). By utilizing species-area relationships, spatial extinction-debt magnitudes for the three vertebrate groups at the global scale were estimated and the hotspots of extinction debts were identified. These high-debt hotspots were generally situated in areas that did not spatially overlap with hotspots of species richness or high extinction-risk areas based on IUCN threatened status to a large extent. This spatial mismatch pattern suggested that necessary conservation efforts should be directed toward high-debt areas that are still overlooked. PMID:28300200

  7. Recreational Trails Reduce the Density of Ground-Dwelling Birds in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bill

    2015-05-01

    Recreational disturbance associated with trails has been identified as one of the major factors causing a decline of native biodiversity within protected areas. However, despite the negative impacts that recreation can have on biodiversity, providing public access to nature is critical for the future of the conservation of biodiversity. As such, many protected area managers are looking for tools to help maintain a balance between public access and biodiversity conservation. The objectives of this study were to examine the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling bird communities in eastern North America, identify functional guilds which are particularly sensitive to recreational trails, and derive guidelines for trail design to assist in managing the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling birds. Trails within 24 publicly owned natural areas were mapped, and breeding bird communities were described with the use of point count surveys. The density of forest birds, particularly of those species which nest or forage on the ground, were significantly positively influenced by the amount of trail-free refuge habitat. Although management options to control trail use in non-staffed protected areas are limited, this study suggests that protected area managers could design and maintain a trail network that would minimize impacts on resident wildlife, while providing recreational opportunities for visitors, by designing their trail network to maximize the area of trail-free habitat.

  8. Developing a personal health record for community-dwelling older adults and clinicians: technology and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, Karen A; Westra, Bonnie L; Paitich, Nadine; Ekstrom, Dawn; Mehle, Susan C; Kaeding, Maggie; Abdo, Sajeda; Natarajan, Gowtham; Ruddarraju, Uday Kumar Raju

    2012-07-01

    To empower older consumers and improve health outcomes, a consumer-friendly personal health record (PHR) is needed. The purpose of this article was to evaluate PHR technology and content for older community-dwelling consumers. Specific aims were to: (a) develop a secure, web-based application for a PHR to enable interoperable exchanges of data between consumers and clinicians; (b) develop structured, evidence-based shared care plan content for the PHR using an interface terminology standard; and (c) validate the shared care plans with consumers. An interoperable web-based form was developed. The standardized PHR content was developed by expert panel consensus using the Omaha System problem list and care plans, and validated by consumer interviews. Evidence-based shared care plans for 21 problems common among community-dwelling older adults were developed and encoded with Omaha System terms for data capture in the PHR. An additional problem, Neighborhood-workplace safety, was identified by consumers and will be added to the care plans.

  9. Association of personality traits with elder self-neglect in a community-dwelling population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Wilson, Robert; Beck, Todd; McKinell, Kelly; Evans, Denis

    2011-08-01

    Elder self-neglect is an important public health issue. However, little is known about the association between personality traits and risk of elder self-neglect among community-dwelling populations. The objectives of this study are as follows: 1) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect and 2) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect severity. Population-based study conducted from 1993 to 2005 of community-dwelling older adults (N = 9,056) participating in the Chicago Health Aging Project (CHAP). Subsets of the CHAP participants (N = 1,820) were identified for suspected self-neglect by social services agency, which assessed the severity. Personality traits assessed included neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity, and information processing. Logistic and linear regressions were used to assess these associations. In the bivariate analyses, personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, information processing, and rigidity) were significantly associated with increased risk of elder self-neglect. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the above associations were no longer statistically significant. In addition, personality traits were not associated with increased risk of greater self-neglect severity. Furthermore, interaction term analyses of personality traits with health and psychosocial factors were not statistically significant with elder self-neglect outcomes. Neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity, and information processing were not associated with significantly increased risk of elder self-neglect after consideration of potential confounders.

  10. Association of Personality Traits with Elder Self-Neglect in a Community Dwelling Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Wilson, Robert; Beck, Todd; McKinell, Kelly; Evans, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Objective Elder self-neglect is an important public health issue. However, little is known about the association between personality traits and risk of elder self-neglect among community-dwelling populations. The objectives of this study are: 1) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect and 2) to examine the association of personality traits with elder self-neglect severity. Methods Population-based study conducted from 1993–2005 of community-dwelling older adults (N=9,056) participating in the Chicago Health Aging Project (CHAP). Subsets of the CHAP participants (N=1,820) were identified for suspected self-neglect by social services agency, which assessed the severity. Personality traits assessed included neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity and information processing. Logistic and linear regressions were used to assess these associations. Results In the bivariate analyses, personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, information processing, and rigidity) were significantly associated with increased risk of elder self-neglect. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the above associations were no longer statistically significant. In addition, personality traits were not associated with increased risk of greater self-neglect severity. Furthermore, interaction term analyses of personality traits with health and psychosocial factors were not statistically significant with elder self-neglect outcomes. Conclusion Neuroticism, extraversion, rigidity and information processing were not associated with significantly increased risk of elder self-neglect after consideration of potential confounders. PMID:21788924

  11. A comparison of contemporary and retrospective radon gas measurements in high radon dwellings in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, K.; McLaughlin, J.P. [University College Dublin (Ireland); Fenton, D.; Colgan, P.A. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland)

    2006-07-01

    Little correlations has been found between contemporary radon gas measurements made in the past and retrospective radon gas measurements in Irish dwellings. This would suggest that these two techniques would result in two significantly different cumulative radon exposure estimates. Contemporary radon gas measurements made a few years apart in the same room of a dwelling were found to be significantly different. None of these differences could be explained by known changes to the rooms themselves., such ventilation or structural alterations to the room. This highlights the limitations of the contemporary radon gas measurements as a surrogate measurement for use in residential radon epidemiology. The contemporary radon gas measurements made by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) and University College of Dublin (U.C.D.) do not cover the same exposure period as the retrospective estimates and so the accuracy of the retrospective measurements cannot be demonstrated. A weak correlation can be seen between the retrospective radon gas estimates and a combination of the two contemporary radon gas estimates. It is not unreasonable to expect improvement in the correlation if further contemporary radon gas measurements were made in these rooms. (N.C.)

  12. Characteristics of indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling while using air appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornnumpa, C; Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Kranrod, C

    2015-11-01

    Characteristics of radon and its progeny were investigated in different air conditions by turning four types of indoor air appliances on and off in a two-story concrete Japanese dwelling. The four appliances were air conditioner, air cleaner, gas heater and cooker hood. The measurements were done using two devices: (1) a Si-based semiconductor detector for continuous measurement of indoor radon concentration and (2) a ZnS(Ag) scintillation counting system for equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration. Throughout the entire experiment, the cooker hood was the most effective in decreasing indoor radon concentration over a long period of time and the less effective was the air conditioner, while the air cleaner and gas heater did not affect the concentration of radon. However, the results measured in each air condition will differ according to the lifestyles and activities of the inhabitants. In this study, indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling will be characterised by the different air conditions.

  13. Loss of connectivity among island-dwelling Peary caribou following sea ice decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Deborah A; Lecomte, Nicolas; Schaefer, James A; Olsen, Steffen M; Swingedouw, Didier; Côté, Steeve D; Pellissier, Loïc; Yannic, Glenn

    2016-09-01

    Global warming threatens to reduce population connectivity for terrestrial wildlife through significant and rapid changes to sea ice. Using genetic fingerprinting, we contrasted extant connectivity in island-dwelling Peary caribou in northern Canada with continental-migratory caribou. We next examined if sea-ice contractions in the last decades modulated population connectivity and explored the possible impact of future climate change on long-term connectivity among island caribou. We found a strong correlation between genetic and geodesic distances for both continental and Peary caribou, even after accounting for the possible effect of sea surface. Sea ice has thus been an effective corridor for Peary caribou, promoting inter-island connectivity and population mixing. Using a time series of remote sensing sea-ice data, we show that landscape resistance in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago has increased by approximately 15% since 1979 and may further increase by 20-77% by 2086 under a high-emission scenario (RCP8.5). Under the persistent increase in greenhouse gas concentrations, reduced connectivity may isolate island-dwelling caribou with potentially significant consequences for population viability.

  14. Physical performance measures that predict faller status in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, P G; Lacourse, M; Moldavon, R

    1992-01-01

    Falls are a leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries among the elderly. Accurate determination of risk factors associated with falls in older adults is necessary, not only for individual patient management, but also for the development of fall prevention programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical measures, such as the one-legged stance test (OLST), sit-to-stand test (STST), manual muscle tests (MMT), and response speed in predicting faller status in community-dwelling older adults (N = 94, age 60-89 years). The variables assessed were single-leg standing (as measured by OLST), STST, and MMT of 12 different muscle groups (hip flexors, hip abductors, hip adductors, knee flexors, knee extensors, ankle dorsiflexors, ankle plantarflexors, shoulder flexors, shoulder abductors, elbow flexors, elbow extensors, and finger flexors), and speed of response (as measured by a visual hand reaction and movement time task). Of the 94 older adults assessed, 28 (29.7%) reported at least one fall within the previous year. The discriminant analysis revealed that there were six variables that significantly discriminated between fallers and nonfallers. These variables included MMT of the ankle dorsiflexors, knee flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors, as well as time on the OLST and the STST. The results indicate that simple clinical measures of musculoskeletal function can discriminate fallers from nonfallers in community-dwelling older adults. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1992;16(3):123-128.

  15. Cardiac function and cognition in older community-dwelling cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Laura H P; Aly, Mohamed F A; Vuijk, Pieter J; de Boer, Karin; Kamp, Otto; van Rossum, Albert C; Scherder, Erik J A

    2017-04-17

    Cognitive deficits have been reported in older cardiac patients. An underlying mechanism for these findings may be reduced cardiac function. The relationship between cardiac function as represented by different echocardiographic measures and different cognitive function domains in older cardiac patients remains unknown. An older (≥70 years) heterogeneous group of 117 community-dwelling cardiac patients under medical supervision by a cardiologist underwent thorough echocardiographic assessment including left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac index, left atrial volume index, left ventricular mass index, left ventricular diastolic function, and valvular calcification. During a home visit, a neuropsychological assessment was performed within 7.1 ± 3.8 months after echocardiographic assessment; the neuropsychological assessment included three subtests of a word-learning test (encoding, recall, recognition) to examine one memory function domain and three executive function tests, including digit span backwards, Trail Making Test B minus A, and the Stroop colour-word test. Regression analyses showed no significant linear or quadratic associations between any of the echocardiographic functions and the cognitive function measures. None of the echocardiographic measures as representative of cardiac function was correlated with memory or executive function in this group of community-dwelling older cardiac patients. These findings contrast with those of previous studies. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  16. Functional ability, community reintegration and participation restriction among community-dwelling female stroke survivors in Ibadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzat, T K; Olaleye, O A; Akinwumi, O B

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is not gender-discriminatory. Yet, the subject of stroke among females has apparently not received significant attention from clinical researchers. The consequences of stroke include functional and psychosocial sequelae which may cause disability, hinder community reintegration and restrict participation. The inter-relationships among functional ability, community reintegration and participation restriction of community-dwelling, female stroke survivors in Ibadan were assessed in this descriptive study. Fifty-two community-dwelling female stroke survivors (mean age = 56.55±9.91 years) were surveyed using consecutive sampling technique. Their functional ability level was measured using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) while London Handicap Scale (LHS) was used to assess their participation restriction. Data were analyzed using Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient (rho) and Mann-Whitney U test at p = 0.05. Significantly positive correlations (preintegration (r = 0.54; p = 0.01) as well as between participation restriction and community reintegration (r = 0.34; p = 0.05). Individuals with left hemiplegia had significantly higher mean rank scores in functional ability (30.41) than those who had right hemiplegia (mean rank scores = 21.94). Functional ability which appears to be related to stroke laterality showed positive association with both community reintegration and participation restriction. This suggests that improving the functional ability of the stroke survivors may reduce participation restriction and enhance their reintegration into the community. A similar study which compares male and female stroke survivors in the same community is thus necessary.

  17. Depressive symptoms as a risk factor for disabling back pain in community-dwelling older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M Carrington; Williams, Christianna S; Concato, John; Tinetti, Mary E; Gill, Thomas M

    2003-12-01

    To determine whether the presence of depressive symptoms is an independent risk factor for disabling back pain in community-dwelling older persons. Prospective cohort study with a 12-month follow-up period. General community. Seven hundred forty-four members of a large health plan who were aged 70 and older and independent in bathing, walking, dressing, and transferring at baseline. The presence of depressive symptoms, defined as a score of 16 or greater on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, was documented during a comprehensive baseline assessment that also included information regarding participants' demographic, medical, and physical/cognitive status. The occurrence of disabling back pain was ascertained during monthly telephone interviews. Depressive symptoms were present in 153 (20.6%) participants at baseline. Over the 12-month follow-up period, 186 participants (25.0%) reported disabling back pain during 1 to 2 months and 91 (12.2%) during 3 or more months. After adjustment for potential confounders, the presence of depressive symptoms was independently associated with the occurrence of disabling back pain (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.3 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-4.4) for 1 to 2 months with disabling back pain; AOR=7.8 (95% CI=3.7-16.4) for 3 or more months with disabling back pain). The presence of depressive symptoms is a strong, independent, and highly prevalent risk factor for the occurrence of disabling back pain in community-dwelling older persons.

  18. Principles of formation of mobile dwelling of cluster type with application of additive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most acute problems of modern society are issues related to the globalization of mankind caused by the next small scientific and technological revolution that is taking place and the emerging transition to a post-industrial society. Some of their characteristic features of this society are: deterritoriality, weakening of functional-spatial ties between places of residence, the application of labor and recreation rights. The peculiarity of the emerging new architecture with the arrival of the postindustrial information society is becoming completely new approaches to the formation of cities and the human dwelling itself. The article deals with the application of additive technologies in the production of mobile residential objects of high factory readiness. The article describes the concept of the formation of a mobile dwelling cluster type based on the principles of the organization of intelligent self-adapting systems (Smart Development, gives examples of author’s developments in the field of cluster housing, with a description of the fundamental principles necessary for the possibility of further development and technical implementation.

  19. Emergy Evaluation of Dwelling Operation in Five Housing Units of Montreal Island, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Enrique Vega-Azamar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of cities and the environmental implications of high resource utilization by the domestic sector are growing concerns related to urban regions. Well-informed urban planning decision-making is an essential tool to help in the task and, for that, an important point to consider is the influence of parameters like residential density and housing typology on the intensity of resource utilization. Emergy synthesis, a life-cycle energy analysis methodological approach that considers the interaction of natural and human-made flows, was used to evaluate the environmental support for dwelling operational stage in five typical present-day housing units on the island of Montreal. As expected, resource utilization, measured as total emergy used, was positively correlated to housing unit size both with respect to number of occupants and dwelling size. Results suggest that variables affecting notably the intensity of resource utilization are per household income and per dweller habitable space and, while a higher income increased per capita emergy in all cases, increasing space availability per resident did not result in a decrease of empower density after 50 m2/person. Future work should consider lower and higher densities and analyses at the scale of blocks, neighborhoods and urban planning zones.

  20. The effect of latitudinal gradient on the species diversity of Chinese litter-dwelling thrips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the global distribution patterns of litter-dwelling thrips, a total 150 leaf litter samples were collected from 6 natural reserves located in three climatic regions, temperate, subtropical and tropical. The results showed the relative abundance of Thysanoptera was over 3.0% in 4 natural reserves from subtropical and tropical zone, and reached 5.9% in one tropical reserve, only less than Acarina and Collembola. In contrast it was only 0.3% in the warm temperate natural reserves, and no thrips were collected in a mid temperate reserve. The order on the average species numbers per plot of litter thrips was tropic > subtropics > temperate (n=25, p<0.05. Mean density of litter thrips per plots in the tropics and subtropics was significantly higher than that in the temperate region (n=25, p<0.05, but the average density was not significantly different between tropical and subtropical zones (n=25, p>0.05. The diversity of litter thrips in the tropics and subtropics was much higher than that in the temperate area based on comparsions of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H΄, Pielou eveness index (J, and Simpson dominance index (D. All of these results indicated that litter-dwelling thrips lived mainly in tropical and subtropical regions; meanwhile, species number and relative abundance increased with decreasing latitude.

  1. Distribution of dwell times of a ribosome: effects of infidelity, kinetic proofreading and ribosome crowding

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Ajeet K

    2010-01-01

    Ribosome is a molecular machine that polymerizes a protein where the sequence of the amino acid subunits of the protein is dictated by the sequence of codons (triplets of nucleotide subunits) on a messenger RNA (mRNA) that serves as the template. The ribosome is a molecular motor that utilizes the template mRNA strand also as the track. Thus, in each step the ribosome moves forward by one codon and, simultaneously, elongates the protein by one amino acid. We present a theoretical model that captures most of the main steps in the mechano-chemical cycle of a ribosome. The stochastic movement of the ribosome consists of an alternating sequence of pause and translocation; the sum of the durations of a pause and the following translocation is defined as the time of dwell of the ribosome at the corresponding codon. We present an analytical calculation of the distribution of the dwell times of a ribosome in our model. Our theoretical prediction is consistent with the experimental results reported in the literature.

  2. Distribution of dwell times of a ribosome: effects of infidelity, kinetic proofreading and ribosome crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajeet K; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2011-04-01

    Ribosome is a molecular machine that polymerizes a protein where the sequence of the amino acid residues, the monomers of the protein, is dictated by the sequence of codons (triplets of nucleotides) on a messenger RNA (mRNA) that serves as the template. The ribosome is a molecular motor that utilizes the template mRNA strand also as the track. Thus, in each step the ribosome moves forward by one codon and, simultaneously, elongates the protein by one amino acid. We present a theoretical model that captures most of the main steps in the mechanochemical cycle of a ribosome. The stochastic movement of the ribosome consists of an alternating sequence of pause and translocation; the sum of the durations of a pause and the following translocation is the time of dwell of the ribosome at the corresponding codon. We derive the analytical expression for the distribution of the dwell times of a ribosome in our model. Wherever experimental data are available, our theoretical predictions are consistent with those results. We suggest appropriate experiments to test the new predictions of our model, particularly the effects of the quality control mechanism of the ribosome and that of their crowding on the mRNA track.

  3. Beers versus STOPP criteria in polyharmacy community-dwelling older patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    10.7399/fh.2016.40.3.9706

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP using Beers (2012 version and STOPP (2008 version criteria in polypharmacy, community-dwelling, older patients. Methods: From the information collected in the invoicing data of the prescriptions and the electronic medical records, a sample was selected of 223 ≥ 65-year-old patients who were taking simultaneously 10 or more drugs per day. Beers and STOPP criteria were separately applied, and the results obtained with the two methods were compared. Results: A total of 141 (63.2% patients presented at least one Beers criterion. The two most frequently observed Beers criteria independent of diagnosis were the use of benzodiazepines and the use of non-COX-2-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. With regard to Beers criteria considering diagnosis, the most frequent were the use of anticholinergic drugs in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms or benign prostatic hyperplasia, and the use of benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, zolpidem or H2-antihistamines, in patients with dementia or cognitive impairment. A total of 165 (73.9% patients had at least one PIP according to the STOPP criteria. Duplicate drug classes and long-term use of long-acting benzodiazepines were the two most frequent STOPP criteria. Discussion: Our study identified a high frequency of PIP in polymedicated community-dwelling older patients. Simultaneous application of Beers and STOPP criteria represents a useful tool to improve prescribing in this population group.

  4. Health outcomes associated with polypharmacy in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Terri R; O'Leary, John; Towle, Virginia; Goldstein, Mary K; Trentalange, Mark; Martin, Deanna K

    2014-12-01

    To summarize evidence regarding the health outcomes associated with polypharmacy, defined as number of prescribed medications, in older community-dwelling persons. Systematic review of MEDLINE (OvidSP 1946 to May, Week 3, 2014). Community. Observational studies examining health outcomes according to number of prescription medications taken. Association between number of medications and health outcomes. Because of the importance of comorbidity as a potential confounder of the relationship between polypharmacy and health outcomes, articles were assessed regarding the quality of their adjustment for confounding. Of the 50 studies identified, the majority that were rated good in terms of their adjustment for comorbidity demonstrated relationships between polypharmacy and a range of outcomes, including falls, fall outcomes, fall risk factors, adverse drug events, hospitalization, mortality, and measures of function and cognition. However, a number of these studies failed to demonstrate associations, as did a substantial proportion of studies rated fair or poor. Data are mixed regarding the relationship between polypharmacy, considered in terms of number of medications, and adverse outcomes in community-dwelling older persons. Because of the challenge of confounding, randomized controlled trials of medication discontinuation may provide more-definitive evidence regarding this relationship than observational studies can provide. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Residents’ Experiences of Privacy and Comfort in Multi-Storey Apartment Dwellings in Subtropical Brisbane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Kennedy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dwellings in multi-storey apartment buildings (MSAB are predicted to increase dramatically as a proportion of housing stock in subtropical cities over coming decades. The problem of designing comfortable and healthy high-density residential environments and minimising energy consumption must be addressed urgently in subtropical cities globally. This paper explores private residents’ experiences of privacy and comfort and their perceptions of how well their apartment dwelling modulated the external environment in subtropical conditions through analysis of 636 survey responses and 24 interviews with residents of MSAB in inner urban neighbourhoods of Brisbane, Australia. The findings show that the availability of natural ventilation and outdoor private living spaces play important roles in resident perceptions of liveability in the subtropics where the climate is conducive to year round “outdoor living”. Residents valued choice with regard to climate control methods in their apartments. They overwhelmingly preferred natural ventilation to manage thermal comfort, and turned to the air-conditioner for limited periods, particularly when external conditions were too noisy. These findings provide a unique evidence base for reducing the environmental impact of MSAB and increasing the acceptability of apartment living, through incorporating residential attributes positioned around climate-responsive architecture.

  6. [Association between insomnia symptoms, daytime napping, and falls in community-dwelling elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alexandre Alves; Ceolim, Maria Filomena; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2013-03-01

    This study focused on associations between insomnia symptoms, daytime napping, and falls in community-dwelling elderly, using a population-based cross-sectional design and probability sample with 689 community-dwelling elders. The protocol consisted of self-reported and physical performance variables. The study used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis with statistical significance set at p insomnia symptoms and daytime napping were 49.9% (n = 339) and 62.8% (n = 432), respectively. 14.4% reported a single fall and 11.9% reported multiple falls. Falls were associated with female gender (OR = 7.73; 95%CI: 3.03-19.72), age > 80 (OR = 3.48; 95%CI: 1.54-7.85), napping (OR = 2.24; 95%CI: 1.24-4.05), and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.98; 95%CI: 1.11-3.53). The association between daytime napping and falls corroborates data from international research. Identifying modifiable risk factors may help programs to prevent falls in the elderly.

  7. Robust linear equation dwell time model compatible with large scale discrete surface error matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhichao; Cheng, Haobo; Tam, Hon-Yuen

    2015-04-01

    The linear equation dwell time model can translate the 2D convolution process of material removal during subaperture polishing into a more intuitional expression, and may provide relatively fast and reliable results. However, the accurate solution of this ill-posed equation is not so easy, and its practicability for a large scale surface error matrix is still limited. This study first solves this ill-posed equation by Tikhonov regularization and the least square QR decomposition (LSQR) method, and automatically determines an optional interval and a typical value for the damped factor of regularization, which are dependent on the peak removal rate of tool influence functions. Then, a constrained LSQR method is presented to increase the robustness of the damped factor, which can provide more consistent dwell time maps than traditional LSQR. Finally, a matrix segmentation and stitching method is used to cope with large scale surface error matrices. Using these proposed methods, the linear equation model becomes more reliable and efficient in practical engineering.

  8. Dwelling-mobility”: An existential theory of well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Todres

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we offer an existential theory of well-being that is guided by Heidegger's later writings on “homecoming”. We approach the question of what it is about the essence of well-being that makes all kinds of well-being possible. Consistent with a phenomenological approach, well-being is both a way of being-in-the-world, as well as a felt sense of what this is like as an experience. Drawing on Heidegger's notion of Gegnet (abiding expanse, we characterise the deepest possibility of existential well-being as “dwelling-mobility”. This term indicates both the “adventure” of being called into expansive existential possibilities, as well as “being-at-home-with” what has been given. This deepest possibility of well-being carries with it a feeling of rootedness and flow, peace and possibility. However, we also consider how the separate notions of existential mobility and existential dwelling as discrete emphases can be developed to describe multiple variations of well-being possibilities.

  9. Moisture conditions for organic and mineral-based insulation products used in exterior walls and attics in traditional Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2005-01-01

    and attics were insulated with cellulose, flax and mineral wool as thermal insulation. Exterior walls were constructed without PE vapour barriers while ceilings were constructed with PE vapour barriers. The investigation showed that for a typical Danish way to construct dwellings neither the moisture......On a Danish housing estate moisture sensors were installed in dwellings, partly in exterior walls and partly in attics. At each location sensors were installed within the insulation at two positions, one facing the outer cold side and the other facing the inner warm side. The exterior walls...... conditions in walls nor attics provide a risk or concern of mould growth in the thermal insulation....

  10. Associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Keitaro; Ihira, Hikaru; MIZUMOTO, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kotaro; Ishida, Toyoaki; Furuna, Taketo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects] A total of 304 Japanese community-dwelling older adults (70.3 ± 4.1 years; 113 males and 191 females) participated in this study. [Methods] Demographic characteristics, medical conditions, exercise habits, and health-related outcomes were assessed by face-to-face interviews and self-reported questionnaires. Older...

  11. Reduced Dwell-Fatigue Resistance in a Ni-Base Superalloy After Short-Term Thermal Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnqvist, Magnus; Viskari, Leif

    2014-06-01

    The effect of short-term thermal exposure on microstructure and dwell-fatigue resistance of Ni-base superalloy 718Plus was investigated. Contrary to previous studies performed after long-term exposure, an increase in the dwell-fatigue crack growth rate was observed, which was connected to a small increase in the size of the hardening precipitates. The proposed controlling mechanism was the stress relaxation rate at the crack tip, and based on this a schematic model for the development of the properties during exposure is presented.

  12. Study on constructive system of green cave dwelling in Loess Plateau-Interpretation with the "regional gene" theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This article reveals the inherent evolution adjusting mechanism of regional architecture by means of considering the concept and method of "regional gene" as the research approach of regional architecture construction system, and in the meanwhile establishes the "gene database" of regional architecture and optimum technology, on the basis of the principle of sustainable development and scientific evaluation system. In addition, this article chooses the planning of model villages of cave dwellings in Loess Plateau and the construction of ecological cave dwellings for case study to prove the feasibility of the research approach.

  13. Factors related to fear of falling among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Oanh Tran Thi; Jullamate, Pornchai; Piphatvanitcha, Naiyana; Rosenberg, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between age, gender, history of falls, balance and gait status, general health perception, activities of daily living and depression to fear of falling in community-dwelling older people in Danang, Vietnam. Fear of falling is a common and consequential psychosocial problem for older people and can lead to decreased quality of life. There is only limited research on fear of falling in Vietnam. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. One hundred fifty-three community-dwelling older people were recruited from seven communities of different districts in Danang. Data were collected using six instruments: a demographic questionnaire, the Fall Efficacy Scale-International, the General Health Perception questionnaire, the Barthel Activities of Daily Living, the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Timed Up and Go test. Data were analysed using descriptive and correlational statistics. The mean Fall Efficacy Scale-International score was 35, indicating a high level of fear of falling. ADLs, general health perception and Timed Up and Go were significantly and negatively related to fear of falling (rp  = -0·80, rsp  = -0·77 and rp  = -0·75, respectively). Age, depression and history of falls were significantly and positively related to fear of falling (rp  = 0·54, rp  = 0·45 and rs  = 0·39, respectively). Women were significantly more likely than men to have higher fear of falling (rpb  = -0·28). Fear of falling is more common in older people who are female, have a history of falls, have poor balance and gait status, have poor health perception, have greater ADL dependency, are depressed and, within the older people population, are older. Further research could examine additional correlates of fear of falling and develop/evaluate factor-specific intervention strategies to reduce fear of falling among community-dwelling older people. Understanding correlates of fear of falling among older Vietnamese people contributes to

  14. Geologic influence on indoor radon concentrations and gamma radiation levels in Norwegian dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundal, Aud Venche

    2003-09-01

    Indoor radon levels in 1618 Norwegian dwellings located in different geological settings were compared with geological information in order to determine potential correlations between geological factors and indoor radon concentrations in Norway and to establish whether geological information is useful in radon risk analysis. In two geographically limited areas, Kinsarvik and Fen, detailed geological and geochemical investigations were carried out in order to explain their elevated natural radiation environment. Significant correlations between geology and indoor radon concentrations in Norway are found when the properties of both the bedrock and the overburden are taken into account. Areas of high radon risk in Norway include 1) exposed bedrock with elevated levels of radium (mainly alum shale and granites) and b) highly permeable unconsolidated sediments derived from all rock types (mainly glaciofluvial and fluvial deposits) and moderately permeable sediments containing radium rich rock fragments (mainly basal till). More than 20 % of Norwegian dwellings located in the high-risk areas can be expected to contain radon levels exceeding 200 Bq/m3. The elevated radon risk related to penneable building grounds is illustrated in Kinsarvik where the highly permeable sediments and the large vadose zone underlying the Huse residential area enable the transport of radon from large volumes into the dwellings resulting in enhanced indoor radon concentrations. Subterranean air flows caused by temperature/pressure differences between soil air and atmospheric air and elevations differences within the Huse area are shown to strongly affect the annual variations in indoor radon concentrations. The marked contrasts in radon risk potential between different types of building grounds are clearly illustrated in the Fen area where outcrops of the radium rich Fen carbonatites represent areas of high radon risk while only low levels of both indoor radon concentrations and indoor gamma

  15. Factors Influencing Administration of Hepatitis B Vaccine to Community-Dwelling Teenagers Aged 12-18 with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to determine hepatitis B vaccination coverage rates among community-dwelling teenagers with an intellectual disability in Taiwan and to identify the possible influencing factors of their vaccination. The present paper was part of the results of the "2007 National Survey on Healthy Behaviors and Preventive Health Utilizations of…

  16. Reconstructing the depth of the permanent thermocline through the morphology and geochemistry of the deep dwelling planktonic foraminifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldmeijer, W.; Metcalfe, B.; Brummer, G.-J.A.; Ganssen, G.

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical and morphological characteristics of Globorotalia truncatulinoides, a deep dwelling planktonic foraminifer, have been used since the mid-1950s to infer (paleo)oceanographic conditions of the upper ocean. The coiling ratio has been linked to different water masses and stable oxygen isotop

  17. Measuring Animal Movements in a Natural Ecosystem: A Mark-Recapture Investigation Using Stream-Dwelling Snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Timothy W.

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, students measure and describe movements of animals in a natural ecosystem. Students mark stream-dwelling snails with nail polish, then search for these snails 1-7 days later. Distances and directions moved by recaptured snails are recorded. Simple statistical techniques are used to answer specific research questions and…

  18. Relationship between Central Arterial Stiffness and Insulin Resistance in Chinese Community-Dwelling Population without Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Insulin resistance (IR is a pathological condition present not only in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, but also in community-dwelling population without DM. Both central arterial stiffness and IR are closely correlated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The relationship between central arterial stiffness and IR has not been described in Chinese community-dwelling population without DM. The current analysis was designed to investigate the relationship between central arterial stiffness and IR in Chinese community-dwelling population without DM. Methods. There were 1150 participants fully assessed for not only homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR but also carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV. Results. Median age was 39 (18–80 years, and 69.7% were men. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that cfPWV was significantly related to HOMA-IR (P<0.05. Logistic regression analysis indicated that cfPWV was independently associated with HOMA-IR (P<0.05. Conclusions. This community-based analysis testified that the relationship between central arterial stiffness and IR was evident as early as during nondiabetic stage. Early interventions in Chinese community-dwelling population without DM to improve the IR are also important in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Validity and reliability of the safe driving behavior measure in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Choi, Yoo-Im; Hong, So-Young

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Driving is a vital component of recovery for stroke survivors facilitating restoration of their family roles and reintegration back into their communities and associations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) in community-dwelling self-drivers post-stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were sixty-seven community-dwelling self-drivers who had received a diagnosis of first stroke in the past twelve months. To investigate the validity and reliability of the SDBM, this study evaluated two sessions, held three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. Cronbach's alpha and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC (2.1)] were used to evaluate statistically concurrent validity and reliability of the overall and three domain scores. Pearson's correlations were used to quantify the bivariate associations among the three domains. [Results] The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the three domains of person-vehicle (0.989), person-environment (0.997), and person-vehicle-environment (0.968) of the SDBM indicated high internal consistency in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke, in addition to excellent rest-retest reliability. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM could be a reliable measure to evaluate automobile driving in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke.

  20. Characterization of effector mechanisms at the host: parasite interface during the immune response to tissue-dwelling intestinal nematode parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective immune response that develops following infection with many tissue dwelling intestinal nematode parasites is characterized by elevations in IL-4 and IL-13 and increased numbers of CD4+ T cells, granulocytes, and macrophages. These cells accumulate at the site of infection, and in many...

  1. Analysis of Deformation Substructures in a Notched LCF Sample Under Dwell Condition in a Ni-Based Superalloy (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    seen in these samples are indeed deformation-induced under dwell fatigue. Schokleys have been observed under creep deformation at intermediate...and the trailing Schokleys depending on the orientation of the grains with respect to the applied stress, the angle between the slip vector, or in

  2. Effects of Improvement on Selective Attention: Developing Appropriate Somatosensory Video Game Interventions for Institutional-Dwelling Elderly with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Ti; Chiang, I-Tsun; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Chang, Maiga

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop appropriate somatosensory video game interventions on enhancing selective attention of institutional-dwelling elderly with disabilities. Fifty-eight participants aged 65[approximately]92 were recruited and divided into four groups, 4-week and 8-week experimental and two control groups, for evaluating the…

  3. Theory-Driven Intervention Improves Calcium Intake, Osteoporosis Knowledge, and Self-Efficacy in Community-Dwelling Older Black Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, Oyinlola T.; Himburg, Susan P.; Newman, Frederick L.; Campa, Adriana; Dixon, Zisca

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of an osteoporosis education program to improve calcium intake, knowledge, and self-efficacy in community-dwelling older Black adults. Design: Randomized repeated measures experimental design. Setting: Churches and community-based organizations. Participants: Men and women (n = 110) 50 years old and older…

  4. Reconstructing the depth of the permanent thermocline through the morphology and geochemistry of the deep dwelling planktonic foraminifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldmeijer, W.; Metcalfe, B.; Brummer, G.-J.A.; Ganssen, G.

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical and morphological characteristics of Globorotalia truncatulinoides, a deep dwelling planktonic foraminifer, have been used since the mid-1950s to infer (paleo)oceanographic conditions of the upper ocean. The coiling ratio has been linked to different water masses and stable oxygen

  5. Feasibility and effectiveness of a walking program for community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, J.G.Z. van; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility and effect on aerobic fitness of a 1-yr, twice-weekly, group-based moderate-intensity walking program (MI-WP, n = 77) compared with a low-intensity activity program (LI-AP, n = 75) for community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty pa

  6. 12 CFR 226.36 - Prohibited acts or practices in connection with credit secured by a consumer's principal dwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... compensation or other monetary gain, or in expectation of compensation or other monetary gain, arranges... person meeting this definition, even if the consumer credit obligation is initially payable to such... dwelling, so long as the creditor adheres to a policy of selecting the most reliable appraisal, rather than...

  7. Nontarget effects of ivermectin residues on earthworms and springtails dwelling beneath dung of treated cattle in four countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffczyk, Adam; Floate, Kevin D.; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.; Düring, Rolf Alexander; Klockner, Andrea; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean Pierre; Salamon, Jörg Alfred; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The authorization of veterinary medicinal products requires that they be assessed for nontarget effects in the environment. Numerous field studies have assessed these effects on dung organisms. However, few studies have examined effects on soil-dwelling organisms, which might be exposed to veteri

  8. Application of Pole Walking to Day Service Centers for Use by Community-dwelling Frail Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Ota

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The effects of 3 months of pole walking on community-dwelling elderly day service users showed improved Physical Component Summary scores of higher QoL. However, there was no significant effect of physical functions due to the intervention.

  9. Rural Community-Dwelling Elders' Reports of Access to Care: Are There Hispanic versus Non-Hispanic White Disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Tyrone F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer reports can provide useful information about the dimensions of access in need of improvement for particular population subgroups. To determine if there are Hispanic versus non- Hispanic white disparities in rural elders' reports of their health care access. A telephone survey was conducted among 2,097 rural community-dwelling elders in…

  10. Weight loss and undernutrition in community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's dementia From population based studies to clinical management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogsma, E.; Asselt, D.; De Deyn, Peter

    Weight loss and undernutrition are commonly described in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and have been associated with various adverse outcomes. Therefore, it is important to know what the best approach is to community-dwelling AD patients with a risk of developing a poor nutritional status;

  11. Reconstructing the depth of the permanent thermocline through the morphology and geochemistry of the deep dwelling planktonic foraminifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldmeijer, W.; Metcalfe, B.; Brummer, G.-J.A.; Ganssen, G.

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical and morphological characteristics of Globorotalia truncatulinoides, a deep dwelling planktonic foraminifer, have been used since the mid-1950s to infer (paleo)oceanographic conditions of the upper ocean. The coiling ratio has been linked to different water masses and stable oxygen isotop

  12. Early Hospital Readmission is a Predictor of One-Year Mortality in Community-Dwelling Older Medicare Beneficiaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lum, H.D.; Studenski, S.A.; Degenholtz, H.B.; Hardy, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospital readmission within thirty days is common among Medicare beneficiaries, but the relationship between rehospitalization and subsequent mortality in older adults is not known. OBJECTIVE: To compare one-year mortality rates among community-dwelling elderly hospitalized Medicare bene

  13. Haliclona (Haliclona) Epiphytica n. sp. (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida), a seaweed-dwelling sponge from the Colombian Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zea, Sven; Weerdt, de Wallie H.

    1999-01-01

    Haliclona (Haliclona) epiphytica n.sp., a new species of seaweed-dwelling sponge of the family Chalinidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida) from the Colombian Caribbean, is described. As the only member of the subgenus Haliclona (hitherto referred to as the ‘oculata’ group by De Weerdt, 1989)

  14. Moisture conditions for organic and mineral-based insulation products used in exterior walls and attics in traditional Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2005-01-01

    and attics were insulated with cellulose, flax and mineral wool as thermal insulation. Exterior walls were constructed without PE vapour barriers while ceilings were constructed with PE vapour barriers. The investigation showed that for a typical Danish way to construct dwellings neither the moisture...

  15. Dwelling and Creative Imagination in Gaston Bachelard's Phenomenology: Returning to the Poetic Space of Education and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, James M.

    2017-01-01

    In response to the so-called crisis in contemporary education in the institutions of higher learning (USA)--the encroachment of corporatism and pervasion of standardization--there is a move to offset this dominance by reconceiving the university in terms of an intimate space of dwelling in learning and education. In light of this moribund…

  16. 7 CFR 1924.261 - Handling complaints involving dwellings covered by an independent or insured home warranty plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling complaints involving dwellings covered by an independent or insured home warranty plan. 1924.261 Section 1924.261 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... Complaints and Compensation for Construction Defects § 1924.261 Handling complaints involving...

  17. Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

  18. Influence of the bulk diffusion of rubidium and sodium atoms in glass on their surface dwell time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atutov, S. N.; Benimetskii, F. A.; Makarov, A. O.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the results of measurement of the surface potential and the dwell time of Rb and Na atoms on the surface of S-52 molybdenum glass. It is found that at temperatures below the glass transition temperature, the temperature dependence of the dwell time of Rb atoms is well described by the Arrhenius formula. The surface potentials for Rb and Na are measured to be 0.67 and 1.37 eV, respectively. At temperatures above the glass transition temperature, the dwell time of these atoms increases abnormally. The reason for this is that during impact of an atom on the surface of molten glass, it can penetrate into the volume of the window and then return by diffusion and desorb from the surface. In this case, the dwell time of the atom on the glass is determined by the diffusion time and can be very significant, despite the relatively low potential barrier at the surface and high temperature.

  19. Responses of litter-dwelling spiders and carabid beetles to varying levels and patterns of green-tree retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraj Halaj; Charles B. Halpern; Hoonbok Yi

    2008-01-01

    We studied effects of timber harvest with green-tree retention on litter-dwelling predatory arthropods (spiders and carabid beetles). Arthropods were sampled with pitfall traps at four experimental blocks in western Oregon and Washington. Within each block, arthropods were collected 5 to 7 years after treatment in five 13-ha harvest units including a control and four...

  20. Factors Influencing Administration of Hepatitis B Vaccine to Community-Dwelling Teenagers Aged 12-18 with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to determine hepatitis B vaccination coverage rates among community-dwelling teenagers with an intellectual disability in Taiwan and to identify the possible influencing factors of their vaccination. The present paper was part of the results of the "2007 National Survey on Healthy Behaviors and Preventive Health Utilizations of…

  1. Reference values of maximum walking speed among independent community-dwelling Danish adults aged 60 to 79 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, S; Holmestad-Bechmann, N; Pedersen, Trine B

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish reference values for maximum walking speed over 10m for independent community-dwelling Danish adults, aged 60 to 79 years, and to evaluate the effects of gender and age. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Danish companies and senior citizens clubs. PARTICIPANTS: Two ...

  2. Association between dwelling characteristics and concentrations of bacteria, endotoxin and fungi in settling dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Knudsen, Sofie; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    (Balasubramanian et al. 2012). Moisture has great influence on fungal growth and viability of bacteria. Likewise the temperature, ventilation rate and construction details reflected in the year of construction influence the moisture level in dwellings (Hägerhed-Engman, 2008; Ren et al. 2001; Bornehag et al. 2004...... to determine potential predictors that influence the presence of these microorganisms in homes. Fungi can grow on different indoor materials such as humid gypsum-boards. Fungal spores can upon exposure to airflow be aerosolised (Madsen et al. 2006). The size of the fungal spores in indoor air is usually below...... envelope (Frankel et al. 2012). Bacteria and bacterial endotoxins may enter buildings through the same pathways as fungi. However, a study of Madsen et al. (2012) has shown that concentrations of bacteria in indoor settled dust are significantly affected by presence of occupants. Endotoxins are present...

  3. Asynchronous H∞ filtering for linear switched systems with average dwell time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Hongbin; Wang, Gang; Dang, Chuangyin

    2016-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the H∞ filtering problem for a class of continuous-time linear switched systems with the asynchronous behaviours, where 'asynchronous' means that the switching of the filters to be designed has a lag to the switching of the system modes. By using the Lyapunov-like functions and the average dwell time technique, a sufficient condition is obtained to guarantee the asymptotic stability with a weighted H∞ performance index for the filtering error system. Moreover, the results are formulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities that are numerical feasible. As a result, the filter design problem is solved. Finally, an illustrative numerical example is presented to show the effectiveness of the results.

  4. [Individual reminiscence therapy improves self-esteem for Japanese community-dwelling older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Nobutake

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the effects of individual reminiscence therapy in Japanese community-dwelling older adults without dementia. Participants (twenty three men and fifty seven women, mean age = 82.6 yrs) were recruited from a community day-care center. They were randomly assigned to a reminiscence therapy group or a control group. Participants in the reminiscence group completed five or six weekly sessions (30-60 minutes) of individual reminiscence therapy. Participant's depression, life satisfaction, and self-esteem were assessed before and after the sessions. The results showed that the reminiscence group had a significant improvement in self-esteem. Thus individual reminiscence therapy can be a tool to maintain or improve self-esteem for Japanese older adults without dementia.

  5. Population dose from indoor gamma exposure in the dwellings around Kudankulam nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmanandhan, G M; Selvasekarapandian, S; Malathi, J; Khanna, D; Jose, M T; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2008-01-01

    To assess the population dose due to the natural background radiation around the upcoming Kudankulam nuclear power plant, a systematic investigation has been carried out by measuring the indoor gamma dose. In total, 159 dwellings have been selected around the Kudankulam nuclear power plant area i.e. in Radhapuram and Nanguneri taluk (sub-districts) for the measurement. The geometric mean value of indoor gamma dose rate is 305 +/- 48 nGy h(-1) and 273 +/- 50 nGy h(-1) in Radhapuram and Nanguneri taluks (sub-districts), respectively. The annual effective dose due to indoor gamma radiation to the population has been found to be 1.5 mSv and 1.36 mSv in Radhapuram and Nanguneri taluks, respectively.

  6. MEASUREMENT OF RADON, THORON AND THEIR PROGENY CONCENTRATIONS IN THE DWELLINGS OF PAURI GARHWAL, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Veena; Dutt, Sanjay; Yadav, Manjulata; Mishra, Rosaline; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that inhalation of radon, thoron and their progeny contributes more than 50 % of natural background radiation dose to human being. The time-integrated passive measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations were carried out in the dwellings of Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India. The measurements of radon and thoron concentrations were performed by LR-115 detector-based single-entry pin-hole dosemeter, while for the measurement of progeny concentrations, LR-115 deposition-based direct radon and thoron progeny sensors technique was used. The experimental techniques and results obtained are discussed in detail. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Feasibility of nurses measuring gait speed in older community-dwelling Emergency Department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Paula W; Evans, Dian Dowling; Clevenger, Carolyn K; Ardisson, Michelle; Hwang, Ula

    Gait speed assessment is a rapid, simple and objective measure for predicting risk of unfavorable outcomes which may provide better prognostic and reliable information than existing geriatric ED (Emergency Department) screening tools. This descriptive pilot project was designed to determine feasibility of implementing gait speed screening into routine nursing practice by objectively identifying patients with sub-optimal gait speeds. Participants included community-dwelling adults 65 years and older with plans for discharge following ED treatment. Patients with a gait speed <1.0 m/s were identified as "high-risk" for an adverse event, and referred to the ED social worker for individualized resources prior to discharge. Thirty-five patients were screened and nurse initiated gait speed screens were completed 60% of the time. This project demonstrates ED gait speed screening may be feasible. Implications for practice should consider incorporating gait speed screening into routine nursing assessment to improve provider ED decision-making and disposition planning.

  8. Personal factors predictive of health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Catipon, Terry; Hwang, Jengliang Eric

    2011-01-01

    We explored personal factors that can predict health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults. A convenience sample of 253 older adults was recruited to complete the Health Enhancement Lifestyle Profile (HELP), a comprehensive measure of health-promoting behaviors. Data were analyzed through univariate correlational/comparative statistics followed by stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine significant predictor variables for different aspects of health-related lifestyle. Personal health conditions, including the number of chronic diseases or impairments and self-rated health, were two strong predictors for the HELP (R2 = .571, p Leisure). When developing individualized plans for older adults in community settings, occupational therapists should consider the clients' strengths and vulnerabilities potentially derived from personal health factors and demographic attributes to yield more effective lifestyle interventions.

  9. Depression and Psychosocial Risk Factors among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Depression is the most common mental and emotional disorder that emerges in the late stages of life. It is closely associated with poor health, disability, mortality, and suicide. The study examines the risk factors of depression in late life, especially the psychosocial factors, among a sample comprising 162 community-dwelling Singaporean adults aged 65 years and above. An interview-based structured survey was conducted in multiple senior activity centers located in different parts of Singapore. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis show that 32.9% of the variance in geriatric depression can be explained by the three psychosocial factors, among which loneliness, perceived social support, and the emotional regulation component of resilience are significantly associated with depression in older adults. Large-scale studies should be conducted to confirm the findings of the present study, and to further examine the predictive effects of these psychosocial factors on depression among older adults.

  10. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in western New Mexico. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. Our surveys address many of the objectives that were set forth in the monument's natural resource management plan almost 20 years ago, but until this effort, those goals were never accomplished. From 2001 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM to document presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. For all taxonomic groups that we studied, we collected 'incidental' sightings on U.S. Forest Service lands adjacent to the monument, and in a few cases we did formal surveys on those lands. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and surrounding lands. We recorded 552 species at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and the surrounding lands (Table 1). We found no non-native species of reptiles, birds, or mammals, one non-native amphibian (American bullfrog), and 33 non-native plants. Particularly on lands adjacent to the monument we found that the American bullfrog was very abundant, which is a cause for significant management concern. Species of non-native plants that are of management concern include red brome, bufflegrass, and cheatgrass. For a park unit of its size and geographic location, we found the plant and vertebrate communities to be fairly diverse; for each taxonomic group we found representative species from a wide range of taxonomic orders and/or families. The monument's geographic location, with influences from the Rocky Mountain, Chihuahuan Desert, and Madrean ecological provinces, plays an important role in determining

  11. Factors associated with low life life satisfaction in community-dwelling elderly: FIBRA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Juliana Martins; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2013-12-01

    The objectives were to identify factors associated with decreased life satisfaction in community-dwelling elderly and describe such factors according to gender and age bracket. The study interviewed 2,472 elderly individuals 65 years or older without cognitive deficits suggestive of dementia, in probabilistic samples from seven Brazilian cities. All measures were self-reported except for functional performance, indicated by handgrip and gait speed. Women had more chronic diseases, worse functional performance, and greater social involvement when compared to men. The oldest participants showed worse functional performance and less social involvement when compared to the youngest. Low satisfaction was associated with three or more diseases, memory problems, low social involvement, low handgrip strength, and urinary incontinence. The authors conclude that health, functional performance, and social involvement interact with well-being, so interventions targeting these areas can favor quality of life for the elderly.

  12. Factors associated with low life life satisfaction in community-dwelling elderly: FIBRA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Martins Pinto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to identify factors associated with decreased life satisfaction in community-dwelling elderly and describe such factors according to gender and age bracket. The study interviewed 2,472 elderly individuals 65 years or older without cognitive deficits suggestive of dementia, in probabilistic samples from seven Brazilian cities. All measures were self-reported except for functional performance, indicated by handgrip and gait speed. Women had more chronic diseases, worse functional performance, and greater social involvement when compared to men. The oldest participants showed worse functional performance and less social involvement when compared to the youngest. Low satisfaction was associated with three or more diseases, memory problems, low social involvement, low handgrip strength, and urinary incontinence. The authors conclude that health, functional performance, and social involvement interact with well-being, so interventions targeting these areas can favor quality of life for the elderly.

  13. Zoning, accessory dwelling units, and family caregiving: issues, trends, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Phoebe S; Koenig, Teresa; Pynoos, Jon

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between zoning regulations and co-residential family caregiving in the United States. It first provides an overview of U.S. housing policies, especially zoning. We then describe major changes in family structure and composition in the United States with their implications for caregiving and discuss how multigenerational housing options, particularly accessory dwelling units (ADUs) in single-family homes, can help support family caregiving. After an overview of zoning policies and actions that inhibit ADU production, we document current trends, incorporating information from a small non-random study of ADU activity we conducted in 2004. Finally, we present recommendations for promoting more multigenerational housing as a supplement to other family support programs (e.g., dependent care assistance, family caregiver payments) and as a source of affordable, supportive housing for those families choosing co-residence as their eldercare solution.

  14. Concept of successful ageing among the community-dwelling oldest old in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Komata, Michiko; Hoshino, Akiko; Usui, Kanae; Katsura, Toshiki

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, increasing human longevity has forced society to rethink the notion of what constitutes 'successful ageing'. This study attempts to advocate a new concept of successful ageing that involves complete acceptance of the ageing process. Research was based on semi-structured interviews with 15 community dwelling oldest-old (aged 85 years and above) participants. The analysis was completed using a grounded theory approach. Successful ageing for the oldest old was grouped into six categories. Within these categories, we discovered the structure of successful ageing, which synthesises ideas from the adaptation process with those of physical and cognitive decreased function as well as spirituality. The oldest old in Japan work to arrive at a conclusion with their lives, all the while coping with the drawbacks of ageing, such as declining physical and cognitive functions. This resilient and flexible way of life makes their form of ageing an equally 'successful' one.

  15. Preventive home visits to older home-dwelling people in Denmark: are invitational procedures of importance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, A; Vass, M; Avlund, K

    2010-01-01

    Since 1998 all municipalities in Denmark have been required by law to offer two annual preventive home visits to all home-dwelling citizens aged 75 or over. The influence of invitational procedures on acceptance rates has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to describe and investigate...... whether different invitational procedures were associated with first preventive home visit acceptance rates. The study was based on secondary analyses of data from the Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits. Data were collected from 1998 to 2002. Of the 4060 participants in the main study......, 3245 reported receiving an offer for an identifiable preventive home visit, of whom 2399 (73.9%) provided complete data for the main analyses in the present study. Invitational procedures were categorised as: (1) a letter with a proposed date and time for the visit, (2) a visitor telephone call, and (3...

  16. Signature of the N=126 shell closure in dwell times of alpha-particle tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Kelkar, N G

    2016-01-01

    Characteristic quantities such as the penetration and preformation probabilities, assault frequency and tunneling times in the tunneling description of alpha decay of heavy nuclei are explored to reveal their sensitivity to neutron numbers in the vicinity of the magic neutron number $N$ = 126. Using realistic nuclear potentials, the sensitivity of these quantities to the parameters of the theoretical approach is also tested. An investigation of the region from $N=116$ to $N=132$ in Po nuclei reveals that the tunneling $\\alpha$ particle spends the least amount of time with an $N=126$ magic daughter nucleus. The shell closure at $N=126$ seems to affect the behaviour of the dwell times of the tunneling alpha particles and this occurs through the influence of the $Q$-values involved.

  17. Single-field sterile-scrub, preparation, and dwell for laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; McCutcheon, Stacey Paris; McCutcheon, John G; Charvonia, Beth E

    2012-01-01

    Type VII laparoscopic hysterectomy is classified as a "clean-contaminated" procedure because the surgery involves contact with both the abdominal and vaginal fields. Because the vulva has traditionally been perceived as a separate but contaminated field, operating room guidelines have evolved to require that surgeons gloved and gowned at the abdominal field either avoid contact with the urethral catheter, the uterine manipulator, and the introitus or change their gloves and even re-gown after any contact with those fields. In the belief that the perception of the vaginal field as contaminated stems from inadequate preoperative preparation instructions, we have developed a rigorous abdomino-perineo-vaginal field preparation technique to improve surgical efficiency and prevent surgical site infections. This thorough scrub, preparation, and dwell technique enables the entire abdomino-perineo-vaginal field to be safely treated as a single sterile field while maintaining a low rate of surgical site infection, and should be further investigated in randomized studies.

  18. Exposure to ultrafine particles in relation to indoor events and dwelling characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie; Kolarik, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) in homes is associated with health risks such as cardiovascular disease and/or respiratory problems. These risks are heightened by the long time that people spend indoors. Therefore reducing the particle concentration in homes leads to improved health among i....... Furthermore, the winter season was associated significantly with high UFP levels indoors. Results of our study also indicated that owning a pet, wood-type floors and floor levels close to the ground are associated with increased UFP levels....... occupants. The use of particle filtration units may be an effective way of reducing UFP indoors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between UFP concentrations and dwelling characteristics, estimate UFP removal rates indoors and to assess the effectiveness of installed particle filtration...

  19. Signature of the N = 126 shell closure in dwell times of alpha-particle tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, N. G.; Nowakowski, M.

    2016-10-01

    Characteristic quantities such as the penetration and preformation probabilities, assault frequency and tunneling times in the tunneling description of alpha decay of heavy nuclei are explored to reveal their sensitivity to neutron numbers in the vicinity of the magic neutron number N = 126. Using realistic nuclear potentials, the sensitivity of these quantities to the parameters of the theoretical approach is also tested. An investigation of the region from N = 116 to N = 132 in Po nuclei reveals that the tunneling α particle spends the least amount of time with an N = 126 magic daughter nucleus. The shell closure at N = 126 seems to affect the behavior of the dwell times of the tunneling alpha particles and this occurs through the influence of the Q-values involved.

  20. Sound insulation of dwellings - Legal requirements in Europe and subjective evaluation of acoustical comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2003-01-01

    insulation requirements in several European countries and (b) a review of investigations related to the subjective and/or objective evaluation. Based on the analysis of several investigations in the field and by laboratory simulations it is suggested how to estimate the degree of satisfaction with a specific......Acoustical comfort is a concept that can be characterised by absence of unwanted sound and by opportunities for acoustic activities without annoying other people. In order to achieve acoustical comfort in dwellings certain requirements have to be fulfilled concerning the airborne sound insulation...... against noise from neighbours the relationship is not so well understood. A comparison of sound insulation requirements in different countries shows that the sound insulation requirements differ considerably in terms of the concepts used, the frequency range considered and the level of requirement...

  1. Chair yoga: benefits for community-dwelling older adults with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyoung; McCaffrey, Ruth

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to examine whether chair yoga was effective in reducing pain level and improving physical function and emotional well-being in a sample of community-dwelling older adults with osteoarthritis. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to examine the effectiveness of chair yoga at baseline, midpoint (4 weeks), and end of the intervention (8 weeks). Although chair yoga was effective in improving physical function and reducing stiffness in older adults with osteoarthritis, it was not effective in reducing pain level or improving depressive symptoms. Future research planned by this team will use rigorous study methods, including larger samples, randomized controlled trials, and follow up for monitoring home practice after the interventions.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of abuse among community dwelling elderly of Guwahati City, Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anku Moni Saikia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of tremendous impact on health, elder abuse is still an underreported and unrecognized issue. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of abuse among community dwelling elderly and to identify the various risk factors. Materials and Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 randomly selected wards of Guwahati city. A total of 331 elderly (60 years and above were interviewed. Abuse was screened by Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S EAST. Results: The study revealed 9.31% prevalence. Neglect was the most common type of abuse reported. Age, sex, socioeconomic status, living status, and functional status were found to be significantly associated with abuse. Conclusion: Abuse is prevalent among elderly population.

  3. The power of power wheelchairs: Mobility choices of community-dwelling, older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, William Bennett; Hammell, Karen W; Luts, Anneli; Soles, Chelsea; Miller, William C

    2015-01-01

    Power wheelchairs are purported to have a positive effect on health, occupation, and quality of life. However, there is limited knowledge about what factors shape power wheelchair use decisions. A study was undertaken to understand the mobility choices of community-dwelling, power wheelchair users. A series of semi-structured qualitative interviews was conducted with 13 older adult power wheelchair users. Participants were interviewed at enrollment and four months later. Data analysis was informed by Bourdieu's theoretical constructs of habitus, capital, and field. Three main styles of power wheelchair use were identified: reluctant use, strategic use, and essential use, and each type is illustrated using an aggregate case study. These findings highlight the need to alter the power relationship that exists between prescribers and device users and to effect policy changes that enable people with physical impairments to make as wide a range of mobility choices as possible.

  4. Radioactivity of building materials and the gamma radiation in dwellings in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Ludmila Souza [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: ludmiga@yahoo.com.br; Rocha, Zildete [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Quimica e Radioquimica]. E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Building materials are known to contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). The radionuclides which contribute to the external exposure are 40 K and the gamma emitters members of the natural decay series {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th. Samples of the statistically more important buildings materials utilized in the Metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte were collected and their uranium and thorium concentration were determined by INAA. The gamma emitters were spectrometrically determined by solid state detectors HPGe in a very low background laboratory. A model room was used for calculating the indoor mean exposure in dwellings. Due to the lack of regulation for radioactivity in buildings in Brazil, the measured activity concentration was compared with those of other countries. A discussion about the utilization of building material containing TENORM industrial residues is presented. (author)

  5. Urinary Incontinence: Its Assessment and Relationship to Depression among Community-Dwelling Multiethnic Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Laganà

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Incontinence (UI affects many older adults. Some of its deleterious consequences include stress, major depression, diminished quality of life, sexual dysfunction, and familial discord. Of the various mental health problems identified in the literature as being comorbid with UI, the most notable one continues to be depression. Despite a wealth of research contributions on this topic, the available literature is underrepresentative of ethnic minority older women. Culture has been shown to have a significant impact on a woman’s perception of her own UI symptoms; this demonstrates the necessity for the recruitment of ethnically and culturally diverse samples when studying UI. In the present study, we determined the prevalence of UI among 140 community-dwelling, ethnically diverse older women (28.2%, discovered that our new UI screener is reliable, and did not find the UI-depression link to be significant. The clinical and research implications of our findings are discussed.

  6. The power of power wheelchairs: Mobility choices of community-dwelling, older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, WB; Hammell, KW; Luts, A; Soles, C; Miller, WC

    2015-01-01

    Background Power wheelchairs are purported to have a positive effect on health, occupation, and quality of life. However, there is limited knowledge about what factors shape power wheelchair use decisions. Aims/Objectives A study was undertaken to understand the mobility choices of community-dwelling, power wheelchair users. Methods A series of semi-structured qualitative interviews was conducted with 13 older adult power wheelchair users. Participants were interviewed at enrollment and four months later. Data analysis was informed by Bourdieu’s theoretical constructs of habitus, capital, and field. Results Three main styles of power wheelchair use were identified: reluctant use, strategic use and essential use, and each type is illustrated using an aggregate case study. Conclusion/Significance These findings highlight the need to alter the power relationship that exists between prescribers and device users and to effect policy changes that enable people with physical impairments to make as wide a range of mobility choices as possible. PMID:26027749

  7. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero C, M.E.; Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Saenz P, J.; Cano J, A.; Moreno B, A.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F. [Cento de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Cruz G, S. De la [Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Av. Politecnico Nacional 2714, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Lopez M, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  8. Association Between Social Participation and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiko Tomioka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%. Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens’ clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used. Results: After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001. A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens’ clubs among males. Conclusions: Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males.

  9. Social Frailty in Community-Dwelling Older Adults as a Risk Factor for Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Lee, Sanyoon; Doi, Takehiko; Nakakubo, Sho; Hotta, Ryo; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-11-01

    To determine social frailty status using simple questions and to examine the association between social frailty and disability onset among community-dwelling older adults. Prospective cohort study. Japanese community. A total of 4304 adults age ≥65 years living in the community participated in a baseline assessment from 2011 to 2012. They were followed monthly for incident certification of care needs during the 2 years after the baseline assessment. Care-needs certification in the national long-term care insurance system of Japan; a self-reported questionnaire including 7 items to define social frailty status, adjustment for several potential confounders such as demographic characteristics; and Kaplan-Meier survival curves for disability incidence by social frailty. During the 2 years, 144 participants (3.3%) were certified as requiring long-term care insurance in accordance with incident disability. Five of the 7 items in the self-reported questionnaire were significantly associated with disability incidence. In the adjusted model including potential covariates, participants who were defined as having social frailty (≥2/5) (hazard ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.00-2.74) and prefrailty (=1/5) (hazard ratio 1.53, 95% confidence interval 1.02-2.531), based on 5 items at the baseline assessment, had an increased risk of disability compared with nonfrail participants (=0/5). Social frailty, assessed using simple questions regarding living alone, going out less frequently compared with the prior year, visiting friends sometimes, feeling helpful to friends or family, and talking with someone every day, has a strong impact on the risk of future disability among community-dwelling older people. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurements of indoor radon concentration levels in dwellings in Bethlehem, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leghrouz, Amin A; Abu-Samreh, Mohammad M; Shehadeh, Ayah K

    2013-02-01

    Indoor radon level measurements were carried out in 42 dwellings in Bethlehem, Palestine, using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors. The measurements were performed during winter and spring seasons of the year 2010, for a period ranging from 97-118 d using a total of 100 detectors. The detectors were installed in living rooms, bedrooms, kitchens, and storage areas of 39 houses, as well as in three schools, selected randomly in the surveyed area. The results of indoor radon levels and the annual effective dose in houses were found to vary from 26 - 611 Bq m(-3) and 0.65 - 14.1 m Sv y(-1), with average values of 117.0 Bq m(-3) and 2.95 m Sv y(-1), respectively. The mean values of radon concentration levels in bedrooms, kitchens, living rooms, basements, and storage areas are, respectively, 106.5, 113.1, 101.5, and 164.2 Bq m(-3). The corresponding mean values of annual effective dose for the bedrooms, kitchens, living rooms, basements, and storage areas are 2.66, 2.83, 2.54, 14.1 m Sv y(-1), respectively. In schools, the radon levels are found to vary from 31 - 400 Bq m(-3) with an average value of 125.1 Bq m(-3). The average annual effective dose in schools is found to be 3.12 mSv y(-1). This value is higher than the assigned international value. In general, the results show that radon concentration levels in 83% of the investigated dwellings are lower than the indoor radon action level of 150 Bq m(-3) for the United States.

  11. Indoor radon concentration measurement in the dwellings of district Poonch (Azad Kashmir), Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Muhammad; Rahman, Said; Rahman, S U; Jabeen, Shahida; Shahzad, M Ikram; Rathore, Mumtaz H; Matiullah

    2010-02-01

    The present study deals with measurement of indoor radon concentrations in dwellings of the district Poonch of the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. In this context, CR-39-based box-type radon detectors were installed in drawing rooms and bedrooms of 80 selected houses and were exposed to indoor radon for 3 months. After exposure, the CR-39 detectors were etched for 9 h in 6 mol NaOH at 70 degrees C and the observed track densities were related to radon concentrations. Measured indoor radon concentrations in the studied area ranged from 27 +/- 6 to 169 +/- 4, 29 +/- 6 to 196 +/- 4 and 31 +/- 5 to 142 +/- 2 Bq m(-3) in the drawing rooms and 74 +/- 5 to 172 +/- 3, 32 +/- 6 to 191 +/- 4 and 27 +/- 5 to 155 +/- 2 Bq m(-3) in bedrooms of the Abbaspur, Hajira and Rawalakot regions of the district Poonch, respectively; whereas weighted average radon concentration ranged from 93 +/- 6 to 159 +/- 4, 33 +/- 5 to 118 +/- 3 and 31 +/- 6 to 155 +/- 5 Bq m(-3) in the dwellings of Abbaspur, Hajira and Rawalakot, respectively. Estimated doses due to the indoor radon ranged from 2.35 +/- 0.15 to 4.00 +/- 0.10, 0.83 +/- 0.08 to 2.98 +/- 0.08 and 0.78 +/- 0.15 to 3.91 +/- 0.13 mSv y(-1) for Abbaspur, Rawalakot and Hajira, respectively. Comparing the current indoor radon results with those of the Health Protection Agency UK and US EPA (i.e. 200 and 148 Bq m(-3)) limits, majority of the houses surveyed in the present study are within the safe limits.

  12. The Primitive Thylakoid-Less Cyanobacterium Gloeobacter Is a Common Rock-Dwelling Organism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mareš

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes, which are significant in biogeochemical cycles. The most primitive among living cyanobacteria, Gloeobacter violaceus, shows a unique ancestral cell organization with a complete absence of inner membranes (thylakoids and an uncommon structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. Numerous phylogenetic papers proved its basal position among all of the organisms and organelles capable of plant-like photosynthesis (i.e., cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of algae and plants. Hence, G. violaceus has become one of the key species in evolutionary study of photosynthetic life. It also numbers among the most widely used organisms in experimental photosynthesis research. Except for a few related culture isolates, there has been little data on the actual biology of Gloeobacter, being relegated to an "evolutionary curiosity" with an enigmatic identity. Here we show that members of the genus Gloeobacter probably are common rock-dwelling cyanobacteria. On the basis of morphological, ultrastructural, pigment, and phylogenetic comparisons of available Gloeobacter strains, as well as on the basis of three new independent isolates and historical type specimen, we have produced strong evidence as to the close relationship of Gloeobacter to a long known rock-dwelling cyanobacterial morphospecies Aphanothece caldariorum. Our results bring new clues to solving the 40 year old puzzle of the true biological identity of Gloeobacter violaceus, a model organism with a high value in several biological disciplines. A probable broader distribution of Gloeobacter in common wet-rock habitats worldwide is suggested by our data, and its ecological meaning is discussed taking into consideration the background of cyanobacterial evolution. We provide observations of previously unknown genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity, which we expect to be utilized by experimental and evolutionary researchers worldwide.

  13. Agroecological management of a soil-dwelling orthopteran pest in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nboyine, Jerry Asalma; Boyer, Stephane; Saville, David J; Wratten, Stephen David

    2016-11-28

    The efficacy of different combinations of undervine and inter-row treatments for managing a soil-dwelling orthopteran pest, weta (Hemiandrus sp.), in vineyards was investigated over 2 seasons. This insect damages vine buds, thus reducing subsequent grape yield. The undervine treatments comprised pea straw mulch, mussel shells, tick beans [Vicia faba Linn. var minor (Fab)], plastic sleeves on vine trunks (treated control) and control (no intervention), while inter-rows contained either the existing vegetation or tick beans. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 10 replicates. Data were collected on weta densities, damage to beans and components of yield. The latter were numbers of bud laid down per vine, shoots per bud, clusters per shoot, grape bunches per vine, bunch weight and yield. The undervine treatments significantly affected all variables except the number of shoots per bud. In contrast, none of the variables was significantly affected by the inter-row treatments or their interaction with undervine treatments, apart from weta density. At the end of the experiment, weta density in the shell treatment was about 58% lower than in the control. As a result, there was about 39% significant yield increase in that treatment compared to the control. Although the undervine beans and sleeves treatments increased yield, there were no reductions in weta density. With undervine beans, the insect fed on the bean plants instead of vine buds. Thus, yield in that treatment was approximately 28% higher than in the control. These results demonstrate that simple agroecological management approaches can reduce above-ground damage by soil-dwelling insects.

  14. Cat (Fel d 1) and dog (Can f 1) allergen levels in cars, dwellings and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesler, A; Ścigała, G; Łudzeń-Izbińska, B

    Pets are an important source of indoor allergens. The aim of the study was to compare cat and dog allergen levels in cars, schools and homes. The study was carried out in 17 cars, 14 classrooms and 19 dwellings located in the highly industrialized and urbanized region of Poland. Dust and air samples were analyzed for Fel d 1 and Can f 1 using a double monoclonal ELISA assay. The highest amounts of cat and dog allergens (Fel d 1: 1169 μg/g; Can f 1: 277 μg/g) were found in dwellings with pets. Allergen concentrations were correlated with the number of animals kept at home. Although concentrations on automobile seats were lower, Fel d 1 levels exceeded 8 μg/g in 23.5 % of cars and high levels of Can f 1 (>10 μg/g) were found in 17.6 % of cars. The study revealed that cars of pet owners may be reservoirs of cat and dog allergens even when animals are not transported in them. In schools, concentrations of pet allergens did not reach high levels, but the moderate levels of Fel d 1 (≥1-8 μg/g) and Can f 1 (≥2-10 μg/g) were detected in 42.9 and 7.1 % of the investigated classrooms. Concentrations of cat and dog allergen in schools were higher than in homes without pets. While airborne Fel d 1 and Can f 1 levels were found low, residential allergen concentrations in settled dust and air were correlated. The study results suggest that classrooms and cars of pet owners may be important sites of exposure to cat and dog allergens, though the highest concentrations of Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are found in homes of pet owners.

  15. Metabolic and adaptive immune responses induced in mice infected with tissue-dwelling nematode Trichinella zimbabwensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkoba, N.; Chimbari, M.J.; Kamau, J.M.; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-dwelling helminths are known to induce intestinal and systemic inflammation accompanied with host compensatory mechanisms to counter balance nutritional and metabolic deficiencies. The metabolic and immune responses of the host depend on parasite species and tissues affected by the parasite. This study investigated metabolic and immuno-inflammatory responses of mice infected with tissue-dwelling larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis and explored the relationship between infection, metabolic parameters and Th1/Th17 immune responses. Sixty (60) female BALB/c mice aged between 6 to 8 weeks old were randomly assigned into T. zimbabwensis-infected and control groups. Levels of Th1 (interferon-γ) and Th17 (interleukin-17) cytokines, insulin and blood glucose were determined as well as measurements of body weight, food and water intake. Results showed that during the enteric phase of infection, insulin and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in the Trichinella infected group accompanied with a reduction in the trends of food intake and weight loss compared with the control group. During systemic larval migration, trends in food and water intake were significantly altered and this was attributed to compensatory feeding resulting in weight gain, reduced insulin levels and increased IL-17 levels. Larval migration also induced a Th1/Th17 derived inflammatory response. It was concluded that T. zimbabwensis alters metabolic parameters by instigating host compensatory feeding. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that non-encapsulated T. zimbabwensis parasite plays a role in immunomodulating host Th1/Th17 type responses during chronic infection. PMID:27882304

  16. Indoor air pollutants, ventilation rate determinants and potential control strategies in Chinese dwellings: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Jun; Cao, Guangyu; Zhou, Xiang; Su, Xing

    2017-05-15

    After nearly twenty years of rapid modernization and urbanization in China, huge achievements have transformed the daily lives of the Chinese people. However, unprecedented environmental consequences in both indoor and outdoor environments have accompanied this progress and have triggered public awareness and demands for improved living standards, especially in residential environments. Indoor pollution data measured for >7000 dwellings (approximately 1/3 were newly decorated and were tested for volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements, while the rest were tested for particles, phthalates and other semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon) in China within the last ten years were reviewed, summarized and compared with indoor concentration recommendations based on sensory or health end-points. Ubiquitous pollutants that exceed the concentration recommendations, including particulate matter, formaldehyde, benzene and other VOCs, moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon, were found, indicating a common indoor air quality (IAQ) issue in Chinese dwellings. With very little prevention, oral, inhalation and dermal exposure to those pollutants at unhealthy concentration levels is almost inevitable. CO2, VOCs, humidity and radon can serve as ventilation determinants, each with different ventilation demands and strategies, at typical occupant densities in China; and particle reduction should be a prerequisite for determining ventilation requirements. Two directional ventilation modes would have profound impacts on improving IAQ for Chinese residences are: 1) natural (or window) ventilation with an air cleaner and 2) mechanical ventilation with an air filtration unit, these two modes were reviewed and compared for their applicability and advantages and disadvantages for reducing human exposure to indoor air pollutants. In general, mode 2 can more reliably ensure good IAQ for occupants; while mode 1 is more applicable due to its low

  17. Simplified Assessment of R3 Nominal Assurance Degree to Seismic Action of the Existing Masonry Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Broşteanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the assessment of the performance level of a building for a given seismic hazard level. Building performance level describes the expected seismic performance given by the computation of R3 Nominal Assurance Degree to Seismic Action of the Existing Masonry Dwellings and Monumental Buildings according to the Romanian Norm P100:1992 [1], modified on 1996 with the chapters 11 and 12, until the Part 3 of P100-1:2006 [2], will be performed for the Assessment and Strengthening Structural Design of the Seismic Vulnerable, Existing Buildings, in the frame of SR EN 1998-1:2004 EC8 [3]. The framing of damages into the potential risk degrees has a social and economic impact. Assessment and retrofitting of the existing buildings have represented a huge engineering challenge as a distinct problem versus a new building design. The performance level of a vulnerable existing building shows us the expected seismic performance level due to the classified damages, the pattern of cracks, the interruption of function, the economic losses and the needed interventions, all in function of the importance class of building on next life span of use. On recommends the computation of R (R3 Nominal Assurance Degree to Seismic Action of the Vulnerable Dwellings for the assessing and strengthening design, in comparison to both norms because of the bearing conventional seismic load computed by [1], will result less than the value which will be computed by the Part 3 of P100-1:2006, i.e. the norm P100:1992 is more severe. In the case of the breakable fracture probability of the existing structural masonry members, one recommends a bigger value of ? – reduction factor unless the given values by [1] for a new structure with a high ductility, especially for the deflections calibration on the same limit state.

  18. Sustainability based on LCM of residential dwellings: A case study in Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Oscar [Environmental and Analysis Management Group (AGA), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rovira i Virgili (URV), Av. dels Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Pamplona, Km 1 Via Bucaramanga, Pamplona N. de S. (Colombia); Bonnet, Cecile; Bruno, Joan Carles [Group of Applied Thermal Engineering (CREVER), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rovira I Virgili (URV), Av. dels Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Castells, Francesc [Environmental and Analysis Management Group (AGA), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rovira i Virgili (URV), Av. dels Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Life cycle management (LCM) can be applied to the whole construction process, thus making it possible to improve sustainability indicators and also minimize the environmental loads of the full building life cycle. To illustrate this, a case study has been carried out based on the application of the LCM approach to a typical Spanish Mediterranean house located in Barcelona with a total area of 160 m{sup 2} and a projected 50-year life span, which has been modeled according to the Spanish building technical code (CTE). The aim of this research is to use sustainability indicators in the pre-construction and operation (use and maintenance) phases and also to promote and support the adoption of the LCM within the construction industry. This paper concludes that regarding the significant environmental issue of climate change, there was a total emission of 2.34E03 kg CO{sub 2}-Eq/m{sup 2} per 50 years, of which about 90.5% was during the operation phase (use 88.9% and maintenance 1.7%) and the pre-construction phase account for a total of 9.5%. In terms of this dwelling's environmental loads, the operation phase is the most critical because of the high environmental loads from energy consumption for heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, electrical appliances and cooking. Additionally, the findings of this study state that the appropriate combination of building materials, improvement in behaviors and patterns of cultural consumption, and the application of government codes would enhance decision-making in the construction industry. Therefore, there is no doubt that applying LCM to the full building life cycle is very important for reducing environmental loads and thereby improving sustainability indicators. Finally, this research will help develop guidelines based on LCM for the construction industry to assist stakeholders in improving customer patterns during the dwelling life cycle. (author)

  19. Comprehensive assessment of nutritional status and associated factors in the healthy, community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizaka, Shinji; Tadaka, Etsuko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2008-03-01

    Malnutrition among the elderly has become a serious problem as their population increases in Japan. To approach the risk of malnutrition in the healthy, community-dwelling elderly is important for early prevention of malnutrition. The nutritional status and mutable associated factors with poor nutritional status specific to the healthy elderly were examined comprehensively. One hundred and thirty healthy elderly people from a senior college in Tokyo, Japan were eligible for this study. Nutritional status was evaluated by Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The demographic status and potential correlates with poor nutritional status, including the physical factors (mobility, cognitive impairment and oral status) and the psychosocial factors (depression, self-efficacy, attitudes toward health, instrumental activities of daily living, public health service knowledge, and difficulty and dissatisfaction with meal preparation) were investigated. The multiple linear regression analysis using a stepwise procedure adjusted for demographic status was performed to detect independent associated factors. There were 16 participants (12.6%) at risk of malnutrition. The independent associated factors with lower MNA scores were depression (beta = -0.27, P = 0.005), lower self-efficacy (beta = 0.25, P = 0.009), lower attitudes toward health scores (beta = 0.21, P = 0.02) and difficulty with meal preparation (beta = -0.18, P = 0.03). The prevalence of the healthy elderly at the initial risk of malnutrition was relatively high and should not be overlooked. The comprehensive geriatric screening and intervention including mental health, health management and life-situation will be important for the healthy, community-dwelling elderly.

  20. Metabolic and adaptive immune responses induced in mice infected with tissue-dwelling nematode Trichinella zimbabwensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Onkoba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-dwelling helminths are known to induce intestinal and systemic inflammation accompanied with host compensatory mechanisms to counter balance nutritional and metabolic deficiencies. The metabolic and immune responses of the host depend on parasite species and tissues affected by the parasite. This study investigated metabolic and immuno-inflammatory responses of mice infected with tissue-dwelling larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis and explored the relationship between infection, metabolic parameters and Th1/Th17 immune responses. Sixty (60 female BALB/c mice aged between 6 to 8 weeks old were randomly assigned into T. zimbabwensis-infected and control groups. Levels of Th1 (interferon-γ and Th17 (interleukin-17 cytokines, insulin and blood glucose were determined as well as measurements of body weight, food and water intake. Results showed that during the enteric phase of infection, insulin and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in the Trichinella infected group accompanied with a reduction in the trends of food intake and weight loss compared with the control group. During systemic larval migration, trends in food and water intake were significantly altered and this was attributed to compensatory feeding resulting in weight gain, reduced insulin levels and increased IL-17 levels. Larval migration also induced a Th1/Th17 derived inflammatory response. It was concluded that T. zimbabwensis alters metabolic parameters by instigating host compensatory feeding. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that non-encapsulated T. zimbabwensis parasite plays a role in immunomodulating host Th1/Th17 type responses during chronic infection.

  1. Spatiotemporal and variability gait data in community-dwelling elderly women from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata N. Kirkwood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Gait is an extremely complex motor task; therefore, gait data should encompass as many gait parameters as possible. Objective To provide reference values for gait measurements obtained from a Brazilian group of community-dwelling elderly females between the ages of 65 and 89 years and to apply the PCA-biplot to yield insight into different walking strategies that might occur during the aging process. Method 305 elderly community-dwelling females living in Brazil were stratified into four age groups: 65-69 years (N=103; 70-74 years (N=95; 75-79 years (N=77; and ≥80 years (N=30. Age, height, and BMI were assessed to describe the characteristics of the groups. Gait spatiotemporal and variability data were obtained using the GAITRite® system. Principal component analysis, followed by MANOVA and the PCA-biplot approach were used to analyze the data. Results 95% CI showed that only three components – rhythm, variability, and support - together explained 74.2% of the total variance in gait that were different among the groups. The older groups (75-79 and ≥80 years walked with lower than average velocity, cadence, and step length and were above average for the variables stance, step, swing, and double support time and the ≥80 year old group presented the highest gait variability compared to the other groups. Conclusion Aging is associated with decreased gait velocity and cadence and increased stance, step time, and variability, but not associated with changes in base of support. In addition, the PCA-biplot indicates a decline towards decreased rhythm and increased variability with aging.

  2. The Primitive Thylakoid-Less Cyanobacterium Gloeobacter Is a Common Rock-Dwelling Organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, Jan; Hrouzek, Pavel; Kaňa, Radek; Ventura, Stefano; Strunecký, Otakar; Komárek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes, which are significant in biogeochemical cycles. The most primitive among living cyanobacteria, Gloeobacter violaceus, shows a unique ancestral cell organization with a complete absence of inner membranes (thylakoids) and an uncommon structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. Numerous phylogenetic papers proved its basal position among all of the organisms and organelles capable of plant-like photosynthesis (i.e., cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of algae and plants). Hence, G. violaceus has become one of the key species in evolutionary study of photosynthetic life. It also numbers among the most widely used organisms in experimental photosynthesis research. Except for a few related culture isolates, there has been little data on the actual biology of Gloeobacter, being relegated to an “evolutionary curiosity” with an enigmatic identity. Here we show that members of the genus Gloeobacter probably are common rock-dwelling cyanobacteria. On the basis of morphological, ultrastructural, pigment, and phylogenetic comparisons of available Gloeobacter strains, as well as on the basis of three new independent isolates and historical type specimen, we have produced strong evidence as to the close relationship of Gloeobacter to a long known rock-dwelling cyanobacterial morphospecies Aphanothece caldariorum. Our results bring new clues to solving the 40 year old puzzle of the true biological identity of Gloeobacter violaceus, a model organism with a high value in several biological disciplines. A probable broader distribution of Gloeobacter in common wet-rock habitats worldwide is suggested by our data, and its ecological meaning is discussed taking into consideration the background of cyanobacterial evolution. We provide observations of previously unknown genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity, which we expect to be utilized by experimental and evolutionary researchers worldwide. PMID:23823729

  3. Determinants of health-related quality of life among community dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Pradeep P; Heng, Bee Hoon; Wong, Lai Yin; Ng, Charis W L

    2014-01-01

    This study determines the associations between self-reported chronic conditions, limitations in activities of daily living and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among community dwelling elderly in Singapore. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 4200 residents from 58 blocks of dwellings in Marine Parade housing estate between April and May 2011. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics; chronic disease profile, health screenings, healthcare utilisation, physical activity, activities of daily living (ADL) and functional ability and health related quality of life. Quality of life was assessed using European Quality of life 5 Domain (EQ-5D). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was used to identify independent predictors of health related quality of life. A total of 2454 respondents for included for analysis. Most of the respondents were females (57.2%) and aged between 65 and 74 years (48.5%). Among them, 79.1% of the respondents were Chinese. Approximately three-fourth (77.5%) of the survey respondents reported having at least one of the 13 chronic medical conditions; high blood pressure (57.7%), high blood cholesterol (51.6%), diabetes (22.9%) were the most commonly reported conditions. Independent predictors of HRQoL with greatest decrements in EQ-5D index and visual analog scores (VAS) were unemployment, self-reported depression, arthritis and osteoporosis and ADL limitations for activities such as "unable to shower", "unable to do housework" and elderly with depressive symptoms (GDS score≥5). The study had identified predictors of HRQoL in elderly Singapore residents and also provides community-based EQ-5D index and VAS scores associated with a wide variety of chronic conditions and ADL limitations.

  4. Risk of pneumonia associated with incident benzodiazepine use among community-dwelling adults with Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Heidi; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Koponen, Marjaana; Tanskanen, Antti; Lavikainen, Piia; Sund, Reijo; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2017-04-10

    Knowledge regarding whether benzodiazepines and similarly acting non-benzodiazepines (Z-drugs) are associated with an increased risk of pneumonia among older adults is lacking. We sought to investigate this association among community-dwelling adults with Alzheimer disease, a condition in which both sedative/hypnotic use and pneumonia are common. We obtained data on all community-dwelling adults with a recent diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in Finland (2005-2011) from the Medication use and Alzheimer disease (MEDALZ) cohort, which incorporates national registry data on prescriptions, reimbursement, hospital discharges and causes of death. Incident users of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs were identified using a 1-year washout period and matched with nonusers using propensity scores. The association with hospital admission or death due to pneumonia was analyzed with the Cox proportional hazards model and adjusted for use of other psychotropic drugs in a time-dependent manner. Among 49 484 eligible participants with Alzheimer disease, 5232 taking benzodiazepines and 3269 taking Z-drugs were matched 1:1 with those not taking these drugs. Collectively, use of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.42). When analyzed separately, benzodiazepine use was significantly associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (adjusted HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.07-1.54), whereas Z-drug use was not (adjusted HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.84-1.44). The risk of pneumonia was greatest within the first 30 days of benzodiazepine use (HR 2.09, 95% CI 1.26-3.48). Benzodiazepine use was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia among patients with Alzheimer disease. Risk of pneumonia should be considered when weighing the benefits and risks of benzodiazepines in this population. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  5. Quality of life of Nigerian informal caregivers of community-dwelling stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Onabajo, Grace; Ali, Aisha; Hamzat, Talhatu

    2013-12-01

    Caregivers play important roles in the collaborative efforts that characterize successful stroke rehabilitation, and their quality of life (QoL) may have implications for outcome of care. This study explored the QoL of caregivers of community-dwelling stroke survivors in north-eastern Nigeria. Fifty-nine caregivers of community-dwelling stroke survivors attending physiotherapy out-patients departments of two government hospitals in the city of Maiduguri participated in the study. Information on participants' age, gender, employment status, educational background, relationship with the stroke patient, and time after onset of stroke were obtained through interview, while their QoL was assessed with WHOQoLBREF questionnaire. Demographic and QoL data were summarized with descriptive statistics, and influence of caregivers and care recipients' factors on QoL was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Majority of caregivers were males (55.9%) and provided care for their parents (69.5%) who had suffered stroke within 1 year prior to study (72.9%). Mean scores on all QoL domains were above average with the physical domain recording the lowest scores. Caregivers' factors of age, educational background and employment, and duration poststroke onset were significantly associated with domains of QoL. Although QoL of stroke caregivers was fair across domains, the physical domain recorded the lowest mean scores. Older age, lack of formal education, unemployment and caring for stroke patients within the second year poststroke were associated with lower QoL scores. Information from this study may aid in identifying those caregivers who require support programmes and care the most. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  6. Estimation of the residential radon levels and the population annual effective dose in dwellings of Al-kharj, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Maghraby

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor radon levels and the annual effective dose are measured in Al-kharj city, Saudi Arabia dwellings using CR-39 detector. The dwellings are classified according their types (schools, homes and working area. The influence of some factors like number of floors and ventilation conditions on indoor radon levels, equilibrium factor and radon effective doses were studied. Can and bare method is used for determine the equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters. Based on the dosemetric approach and epidemiological determinations conversions convention for radon exposures, the annual effective doses are calculated and compared. The average radon concentration varies from 76 ± 38 Bq m−3 in work places to 114 ± 41 Bq m−3 in homes. About 77% of the studied dwellings give radon concentration in the range from 50 to 150 Bq m−3. The overall weighted mean of radon level is equal to 94 ± 41 Bq m−3 which about 2.5 times the global average. The equilibrium factor has a wide range from 0.1 to 0.6 with overall weighted average equal to 0.308 ± 0.13. The variety of living style, constructed materials and ventilation rates are responsible for this wide range and subsequently the obtained high uncertainty (42%. Homes showed larger annual effective dose (3.186 ± 0.75 mSv than other dwellings which locate in the range of the recommended action level but about three times the global average. The result shows that the ventilation condition is the major but not the only factor affects the results. Poor ventilated dwellings showed the maximum annual effective dose on the other hand the number of floor has insignificant difference.

  7. Defining Prolonged Dwell Time: When Are Advanced Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval Techniques Necessary? An Analysis in 762 Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Kush R; Laws, James L; Salem, Riad; Mouli, Samdeep K; Errea, Martin F; Karp, Jennifer K; Yang, Yihe; Ryu, Robert K; Lewandowski, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Despite growth in placement of retrievable inferior vena cava filters, retrieval rates remain low. Filters with extended implantation times present a challenge to retrieval, where standard techniques often fail. The development of advanced retrieval techniques has positively impacted retrieval of retrievable inferior vena cava filters with prolonged dwell times; however, there is no precise definition of the time point when advanced techniques become necessary. We aim to define prolonged retrievable inferior vena cava filters dwell time by determining the inflection point when the risk of standard retrieval technique failure increases significantly, necessitating advanced retrieval techniques to maintain overall technical success of retrieval. From January 2009 to April 2015, 762 retrieval procedures were identified from a prospectively acquired database. We assessed patient age/sex, filter dwell time, procedural technical success, the use of advanced techniques, and procedure-related adverse events. Overall retrieval success rate was 98% (n=745). When standard retrieval techniques failed, advanced techniques were used; this was necessary 18% of the time (n=138). Logistic regression identified that dwell time was the only risk factor for failure of standard retrieval technique (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.10; Ptechnique failure was 40.9%. Adverse events occurred at a rate of 2% (n=18; 15 minor and 3 major). The necessity of advanced techniques to maintain technical success of retrieval increases with dwell time. Patients with retrievable inferior vena cava filters in place beyond 7 months may benefit from referral to centers with expertise in advanced filter retrieval. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Policy Instruments to Improve Energy Performance of Existing Owner Occupied Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Colette Murphy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this thesis is to add knowledge to the role and impact of policy instruments in meeting energy performance ambition in the existing owner occupied housing stock. The focus was instruments available in the Netherlands in 2011 and 2012. These instruments represented the ‘on the ground’ efforts to meet climate change targets and many continue to do so today in the same or slightly altered forms. At international level there is a recognized need to keep global temperatures within the range of 1.5 - 2°C above pre-industrial levels (Carrington, 2016. At European level, the 2020 package contains a series of binding legislation to help the EU meet its more immediate climate and energy targets. 2020 targets include 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emission, 20% of EU energy obtained from renewable sources and 20% improvement in energy efficiency. 2020 targets for the Netherlands are a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a 14% increase in energy generation from renewable sources (Vringer et al., 2014. A raft of policies has been produced over the last number of decades from international to local level to orientate action towards targets. At European level the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD drives efforts at reducing energy among one of the biggest players, the building sector. By requiring a mandatory certificate at the point of sale and rent of buildings and making regulatory demands on existing buildings the EPBD upped the ante of what could be expected from the building sector, but especially the existing dwelling stock. National governments have already been tackling existing dwellings for decades propelled by the energy crisis and later by climate change policy. Information campaigns, subsidies, energy taxes, energy loans and tailored advice are among the instruments that have been available to homeowners to carry out works on their dwellings to reduce energy consumption. In recent

  9. Disability transitions after 30 months in three community-dwelling diagnostic groups in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about changes in disability over time among community-dwelling patients. Accordingly, this study sought to assess medium-term disability transitions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 300 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, chronic heart failure and stroke patients living at home in Madrid were selected from general practitioner lists. In 2009, disability was assessed after a mean of 30 months using the World Health Organisation (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0. Follow-up was completed using death registries. Losses to follow-up were due to: death, 56; institutionalisation, 9; non-location, 18; and non-participation, 17. Changes in WHODAS 2.0 scores and life status were described and analysed using Cox and multinomial regression. Disability at end of follow-up was imputed for 56 deceased and 44 surviving patients. RESULTS: Mean disability scores for 200 surviving patients at end of follow-up were similar to baseline scores for the whole group, higher than their own baseline scores, and rose by 16.3% when imputed values were added. The strongest Cox predictors of death were: age over 84 years, adjusted hazard ratios with 95%CI 8.18 (3.06-21.85; severe/complete vs. no/mild disability, 5.18 (0.68-39.48; and stroke compared to COPD, 1.40 (0.67-2.91. Non-participants and institutionalised patients had higher proportions with severe/complete baseline disability. A one-point change in baseline WHODAS 2.0 score predicted independent increases in risk of 12% (8%-15% for severe/complete disability or death. CONCLUSIONS: A considerably high proportion of community-dwelling patients diagnosed with COPD, CHF and stroke undergo medium-term changes in disability or vital status. The main features of the emerging pattern for this group appear to be as follows: approximately two-thirds of patients continue living at home with moderately reduced functional status; 1/3 die or worsen to severe/complete disability; and 1

  10. Factors influencing upstairs and downstairs radon levels in two-storey dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Groves-Kirkby, N.P. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom); Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Health (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Environmental radon exposure of residents of two-storey domestic premises is generally estimated on the basis of the measured radon concentrations in, and the relative occupancies of, the principal living-room and bed-room, assuming 45% and 55% occupancy of these two locations respectively. In practice, however, significant case-to-case variability exists, both in the relative periods that individuals spend in the upstairs and downstairs rooms of storey homes, and in the relative radon levels in these two areas. Moreover, while it is assumed that radon levels in upper storeys of multi-storey homes will be intrinsically lower than at ground level, this is not always the case, since radon exhalation from the materials from which the house is constructed may contribute significantly to indoor levels. While studies on radon level variability in the individual units in apartment blocks have been reported, the situation in two-storey low-rise dwellings appears not to have been considered. To investigate this, detailed extended measurements of radon concentrations were made in a set of thirty-four homes situated in areas of Northamptonshire known to exhibit high radon levels and declared a radon Affected Area by the United Kingdom (UK) National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1992. All homes were of typical UK construction of brick/block/stone walls under a pitched tile/slate roof. Approximately 50% of the sample were detached houses, the remainder being semidetached (duplex) or terraced (row-house). Around 25% of the sample possessed cellars, while 12% were single-storey dwellings. In two-storey homes, all monitored bedrooms were on the upper floor. Distribution of the ratios of bedroom/living-room radon levels in individual properties was left-skewed (mean 0.67, median 0.73, range 0.05 to 1.05). The mean is consistent with the outcome of early NRPB studies in England, while the variability depends principally on the characteristics of the property, and not on

  11. Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Community Dwelling Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaweh, Hadeel; Willen, Carin; Grimby-Ekman, Anna; Svantesson, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are important factors for optimal health in the elderly. Studying the association between PA and HRQoL is becoming more essential as the number of elderly people increases worldwide. This study assesses the association between PA and HRQoL among community dwelling elderly above 60 years old. Methods The study included 115 women and 61 men (mean age: 68.15 ± 6.74 years) recruited from the community and from public centers for the elderly. Data were collected using a background characteristics questionnaire (BCQ), a physical activity socio-cultural adapted questionnaire (PA-SCAQ), and the EuroQuol-5Dimensions-5Levels (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire. Between groups, comparisons were based on the PA-SCAQ by dividing the participants into three PA groups: low (n = 74), moderate (n = 85), and high (n = 17). Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed on the ordinal variables of the three PA groups to determine differences between the groups according to categorical variables such as gender, body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of comorbid conditions. Mann-Whitney U tests were performed on the ordinal variables of the EuroQuol-5Dimensions (EQ-5D), and the independent sample t-test was performed on the EQ visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between the EQ-5D and level of PA. Results Values in all dimensions of HRQoL were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the moderate and high PA groups compared with the low PA group. Significant correlations were recorded between the five dimensions of HRQoL and the level of PA (P < 0.001). The low PA group showed higher prevalence of hypertension (64%, P < 0.001) and diabetes (50%, P < 0.001). Conclusion There were strong associations between higher levels of PA and all dimensions of HRQoL. Therefore, adopting a PA lifestyle may contribute to better HRQoL among community dwelling elderly above 60

  12. Body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa and their seasonal shift in coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Xu, Guangjian; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Henglong

    2016-10-01

    Community-based assessment of protozoa is usually performed at a taxon-dependent resolution. As an inherent 'taxon-free' trait, however, body-size spectrum has proved to be a highly informative indicator to summarize the functional structure of a community in both community research and monitoring programs in aquatic ecosystems. To demonstrate the relationships between the taxon-free resolution of protozoan communities and water conditions, the body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa and their seasonal shift and environmental drivers were explored based on an annual dataset collected monthly from coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. Body sizes were calculated in equivalent spherical diameter (ESD). Among a total of 8 body-size ranks, S2 (19-27μm), S3 (28-36μm), S4 (37-50μm) and S5 (53-71μm) were the top four levels in frequency of occurrence, while rank S1 (13-17μm), S2 and S4 were the dominant levels in abundance. These dominants showed a clear seasonal succession: S2/S4 (spring)→S2/S4 (summer)→S4 (autumn)→S2 (winter) in frequency of occurrence; S1 (spring)→S4 (summer)→S2 (autumn)→S1 (winter) in abundance. Bootstrapped average analysis showed a clear seasonal shift in body-size spectra of the protozoa during a 1-year cycle, and the best-matching analysis demonstrated that the temporal variations in frequency of occurrence and abundance were significantly correlated with water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), alone or in combination with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients. Thus, the body-size spectra of biofilm-dwelling protozoa were seasonally shaped and might be used as a time and cost efficient bioindicator of water quality in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Frailty in community-dwelling older adults: association with adverse outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; Salvà, Antoni; Sánchez-Arenas, Rosalinda; Granados-García, Víctor; Cuadros-Moreno, Juan; Velázquez-Olmedo, Laura Bárbara; Cárdenas-Bahena, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Background The study of frailty is important to identify the additional needs of medical long-term care and prevent adverse outcomes in community dwelling older adults. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of frailty and its association with adverse outcomes in community dwelling older adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from April to September 2014. The population sample was 1,252 older adults (≥60 years) who were beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Mexico City. Data were derived from the database of the “Cohort of Obesity, Sarcopenia and Frailty of Older Mexican Adults” (COSFOMA). Operationalization of the phenotype of frailty was performed using the criteria of Fried et al (weight loss, self-report of exhaustion, low physical activity, slow gait, and weakness). Adverse outcomes studied were limitation in basic activities of daily living (ADLs), falls and admission to emergency services in the previous year, and low quality of life (WHOQOL-OLD). Results Frailty was identified in 20.6% (n=258), pre-frailty in 57.6% (n=721), and not frail in 21.8% (n=273). The association between frailty and limitations in ADL was odds ratio (OR) =2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–3.2) and adjusted OR =1.7 (95% CI 1.2–2.4); falls OR =1.6 (95% CI 1.2–2.1) and adjusted OR =1.4 (95% CI 1.0–1.9); admission to emergency services OR =1.9 (95% CI 1.1–3.1) and adjusted OR =1.9 (95% CI 1.1–3.4); low quality of life OR =3.4 (95% CI 2.6–4.6) and adjusted OR =2.1 (95% CI 1.5–2.9). Conclusion Approximately 2 out of 10 older adults demonstrate frailty. This is associated with limitations in ADL, falls, and admission to emergency rooms during the previous year as well as low quality of life. PMID:28721028

  14. Enhanced Diabetes Susceptibility in Community Dwelling Han Elders Carrying the Apolipoprotein E 3/3 Genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Xia Ban

    Full Text Available Despite Apolipoprotein E (ApoE being one of the main apolipoproteins in the blood, the association between its genotype and the high cholesterol or blood glucose levels commonly seen in clinical practice is inconclusive. Such research is also lacking in the Han population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between APOE genotype, diabetes, and plasma glucose and lipid levels. We included 243 community-dwelling elderly residents in this study. Participant APOE genotypes were assessed and were simultaneously tested for weight, height, blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and high- and low-density lipoprotein. In addition, gender, age, years of education, cognitive function, and medical history was recorded. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on APOE genotype: APOE ε2 group (ε2/ε2 and ε2/ε3, APOE ε3 group (ε3/ε3, and APOE ε4 group (ε2/ε4, ε3/ε4 and ε4/ε4. Comparisons between groups were conducted for the incidence of diabetes, high blood pressure, and dementia, as well as for differences in body-mass index, fasting plasma glucose, and blood lipids. The APOE ε3/ε3 genotype exhibited the highest frequency (70.4% among the subjects. Participants in the APOE ε3 group demonstrated significantly higher levels of fasting plasma glucose than those in the APOE ε2 and APOE ε4 groups (P<0.05. The APOE ε3 group had slightly higher abnormal fasting plasma glucose values than did the APOE ε2 group (P = 0.065. Furthermore, the APOE3 genotype was significantly correlated with both fasting plasma glucose level and glucose abnormality (P< 0.05 and trended toward statistically significant correlation with diabetes (P = 0.082. The correlation between APOE2 and low low-density lipoprotein levels also approached statistical significance (P = 0.052. Thus, elderly community dwelling residents of Han ethnicity carrying the APOE ε3/ε3 genotype might have higher plasma glucose levels and a higher occurrence of

  15. Self-report of healthcare utilization among community-dwelling older persons: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies T van Dalen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-reported data are often used for estimates on healthcare utilization in cost-effectiveness studies. OBJECTIVE: To analyze older adults' self-report of healthcare utilization compared to data obtained from the general practitioners' (GP electronic medical record (EMR and to study the differences in healthcare utilization between those who completed the study, those who did not respond, and those lost to follow-up. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among community-dwelling persons aged 70 years and above, without dementia and not living in a nursing home. Self-reporting questionnaires were compared to healthcare utilization data extracted from the EMR at the GP-office. RESULTS: Overall, 790 persons completed questionnaires at baseline, median age 75 years (IQR 72-80, 55.8% had no disabilities in (instrumental activities of daily living. Correlations between self-report data and EMR data on healthcare utilization were substantial for 'hospitalizations' and 'GP home visits' at 12 months intraclass correlation coefficient 0.63 (95% CI; 0.58-0.68. Compared to the EMR, self-reported healthcare utilization was generally slightly over-reported. Non-respondents received more GP home visits (p<0.05. Of the participants who died or were institutionalized 62.2% received 2 or more home visits (p<0.001 and 18.9% had 2 or more hospital admissions (p<0.001 versus respectively 18.6% and 3.9% of the participants who completed the study. Of the participants lost to follow-up for other reasons 33.0% received 2 or more home visits (p<0.01 versus 18.6 of the participants who completed the study. CONCLUSIONS: Self-report of hospitalizations and GP home visits in a broadly 'healthy' community-dwelling older population seems adequate and efficient. However, as people become older and more functionally impaired, collecting healthcare utilization data from the EMR should be considered to avoid measurement bias, particularly if the data will

  16. Association between physiological falls risk and physical performance tests among community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh DK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Devinder KA Singh,1 Sharmila GK Pillai,1 Sin Thien Tan,1 Chu Chiau Tai,1 Suzana Shahar2 1Physiotherapy Programme, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, 2Nutrition and Dietetics Programme, School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Physical performance and balance declines with aging and may lead to increased risk of falls. Physical performance tests may be useful for initial fall-risk screening test among community-dwelling older adults. Physiological profile assessment (PPA, a composite falls risk assessment tool is reported to have 75% accuracy to screen for physiological falls risk. PPA correlates with Timed Up and Go (TUG test. However, the association between many other commonly used physical performance tests and PPA is not known. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between physiological falls risk measured using PPA and a battery of physical performance tests.Methods: One hundred and forty older adults from a senior citizens club in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (94 females, 46 males, aged 60 years and above (65.77±4.61, participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were screened for falls risk using PPA. A battery of physical performance tests that include ten-step test (TST, short physical performance battery (SPPB, functional reach test (FRT, static balance test (SBT, TUG, dominant hand-grip strength (DHGS, and gait speed test (GST were also performed. Spearman’s rank correlation and binomial logistic regression were performed to examine the significantly associated independent variables (physical performance tests with falls risk (dependent variable.Results: Approximately 13% older adults were at high risk of falls categorized using PPA. Significant differences (P<0.05 were demonstrated for age, TST, SPPB, FRT, SBT, TUG between high and low falls risk group. A significant (P<0.01 weak correlation

  17. Psychometric properties of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure in home-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuntl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanne Tuntland,1,2 Mona Kristin Aaslund,1 Eva Langeland,2 Birgitte Espehaug,3 Ingvild Kjeken4,5 1Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; 2Centre for Care Research Western Norway, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway; 3Centre for Evidence-Based Practice, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway; 4National Advisory Unit on Rehabilitation in Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 5Department of Occupational Therapy, Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences,Oslo, Norway Background: The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM is an occupational therapy instrument designed to help participants identify, prioritize, and evaluate performance of important occupations.Objective: To investigate the validity, responsiveness, interpretability, and feasibility of the COPM when used by various health professions in home-dwelling older adults receiving reablement. Reablement is a new form of multidisciplinary home-based rehabilitation for older adults experiencing functional decline.Participants and methods: The sample of 225 participants, mean age 80.8 years, who were in need of rehabilitation for various health conditions were included in the study. Data collection was conducted at baseline and at 10 weeks follow-up. The COSMIN guidelines and recommendations for evaluating methodological quality were followed.Results: Content validity, construct validity, and feasibility were found to be adequate. Responsiveness, however, was moderate. Functional mobility was the most frequently prioritized occupational category of all. Regarding interpretability, the minimal important change was 3.0 points and 3.2 points for performance and satisfaction, respectively. The older adults reported that COPM was a useful and manageable instrument. The majority of the occupational therapists

  18. Energy savings in old dwellings in Algeria; Economie d'energie dans l'habitat ancien en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hassar, S.M.K. [Cite Nouvelle El Mokrani (CNERIB), Centre National d' Etudes et de Recherches Integrees du Batiment, Souidania, Alger (Algeria); Amirat, M. [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Alger (Algeria)

    2004-06-01

    Currently in Algeria, works are carried out to estimate the energy savings magnitude in the old dwellings. Therefore, the annual energy consumption of inhabited houses have been measured. A first study has concerned a multi-family residence, located near Algiers city. The survey showed that the energy consumption was similar of the one of an European residence. The measurements have shown that the heating of the residence, the cooking activities and the hot water production for domestic use represent more than 80% of the total energy balance. The part of the heating representing the half of the total energy consumption, modifications of the building envelope have been considered. Numerical simulations permitted to evaluate the influence of these modifications. The calculations showed that the energy consumption of the studied dwelling is reduced of about 25% if the envelope modifications are achieved. (author)

  19. Radon measurements by nuclear track detectors in dwellings in Oke-Ogun area, South-Western, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obed, R I; Ademola, A K; Ogundare, F O

    2012-03-01

    An indoor radon survey of a total of 77 dwellings randomly selected in 10 districts in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo state, South-western Nigeria was carried out using CR-39 detectors. The CR-39 detectors were placed in the bedrooms and living rooms and exposed for 6 months and then etched in NaOH 6.25 N solution at 90 °C for 3 h. Mean concentrations amount to 255 ± 47 and 259 ± 67 Bq m(-3) in the living rooms and bedrooms, respectively. The lowest radon concentration (77 ± 29 Bq m(-3)) was found in Igbeti, whereas the highest was found in Okeho (627 ± 125 Bq m(-3)). The annual exposure of dwellers was estimated to fall radon level in this part of the country may be attributed to its geographic location. The data presented here will serve as a baseline survey for radon concentration in dwellings in the area.

  20. A study on indoor environment contaminants related to dust mite in dwellings of allergic asthma patients and of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, M; Yang, B; Zhuang, Y J; Yanagi, U; Cheng, X J

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the pollution of dust mite allergens in the houses of 30 families and their infection to young allergic asthma patients in Shanghai. Medical records, family information, and dust samples were collected from the dwellings of 15 young allergic asthma patients and 15 healthy subjects. Der 1 allergen, which is a common allergen causing allergic asthma, was measured in collected dust samples using the Pharmacia Uni-CAP System. A significant correlation was found between the number of Der 1 allergens collected from floor surfaces and the number of Der 1 allergens collected from bed surfaces. Some factors influencing Der 1 allergen levels were found in this study. Relative humidity in dwellings was found to be most influential to the allergen levels. The findings suggested that traditional reduction methods for coarse particles, such as opening windows and periodic cleaning of beddings, may be effective in removing dust mite allergens.

  1. Transmission factors for the penetration of neutron and photon fluence into wood-frame dwellings, 1990 (TF90)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoades, W.A.; Lillie, R.A.; Emmett, M.B.

    1992-05-01

    An earlier study at Oak Ridge calculated radiation doses to persons inside reinforced concrete buildings during the exposure at Nagasaki. The ``DS86`` study conducted at several laboratories in the United States and Japan concentrated on persons inside wood-frame dwellings at both Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The present study is directed toward applying the general technical approach of the DS86. Numerous simplifications were indicated as a result of the earlier research, and the numerical results are represented as ``transmission factors`` relating radiation outside the dwellings to doses received by individuals within. An advantage of this method is that the transmission factors can be presented in tables that can be reviewed, inspected, and applied in a very tangible and straightforward manner.

  2. Transmission factors for the penetration of neutron and photon fluence into wood-frame dwellings, 1990 (TF90)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoades, W.A.; Lillie, R.A.; Emmett, M.B.

    1992-05-01

    An earlier study at Oak Ridge calculated radiation doses to persons inside reinforced concrete buildings during the exposure at Nagasaki. The DS86'' study conducted at several laboratories in the United States and Japan concentrated on persons inside wood-frame dwellings at both Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The present study is directed toward applying the general technical approach of the DS86. Numerous simplifications were indicated as a result of the earlier research, and the numerical results are represented as transmission factors'' relating radiation outside the dwellings to doses received by individuals within. An advantage of this method is that the transmission factors can be presented in tables that can be reviewed, inspected, and applied in a very tangible and straightforward manner.

  3. Cross-Sectional Study of the Characteristics of Reported Elder Self-Neglect in a Community-Dwelling Population: Findings from a Population-Based Cohort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Xin-Qi; Simon, Melissa; Evans, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Background: Elder self-neglect is an important public health issue. However, little is known about the characteristics of self-neglect and its association with social factors among community-dwelling populations. Objectives: (1...

  4. Advertisement : instructions for bidders, and specification for constructing a dwelling house and a stable at U.S. Fish Commission Station, Leadville, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides bidders and contractors the instructions for the bidding process and detailed specifications for a dwelling house and stable located at the...

  5. Shaking table model test and engineering practice of a new gypsum-adobe walls dwelling in Xinjiang autonomous region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tie-gang; HU Xin; YU Chang-xia

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new type of green building which suits for the construction of rural dwellings in Xinjiang, China. Results of the shaking table test on building model show that the single-layer gypsum-adobe structure has better seismic performance. And it also analyzes the construction features and engineering practice, which means that it is significant to extend this type of building to the drier regions in China.

  6. Development and Validation of the State-Trait Inventory of Cognitive Fatigue in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman-Paretsky, Melissa; Zemon, Vance; Foley, Frederick W; Holtzer, Roee

    2017-04-01

    To develop and validate a subjective measure of cognitive fatigue-the State-Trait Inventory of Cognitive Fatigue-in community-dwelling older adults. Scale development and test construction. Community-dwelling older adults enrolled in a longitudinal cohort aging study. Participants (N=175) were healthy, English-speaking, community-dwelling adults, age ≥65 years. Not applicable. State-Trait Inventory of Cognitive Fatigue total, cognitive fatigue, motivation, mental effort, and boredom summation scores for both state and trait forms. Principal component analysis yielded the expected 4 components for both state and trait forms: cognitive fatigue, mental effort, motivation, and boredom. All components had good reliability. There was good convergent validity as measured by the strong positive relation between cognitive fatigue and a subjective measure of general fatigue, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Greater subjective cognitive fatigue was associated with worse performance on measures thought to be more sensitive to aspects of executive functioning. This study developed and established the psychometric properties of a new instrument for the subjective measurement of cognitive fatigue for use in community-dwelling older adults. The State-Trait Inventory of Cognitive Fatigue's relatively brief administration time (<10min; mean, 5.6±2.9) and strong psychometric properties support its utility in both research and clinical settings. Future studies should establish the psychometric properties of this scale in other populations and examine its predictive utility for relevant clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution of ground-dwelling beetles (Coleoptera) across a forest-clearcut ecotone in Wolong Natural Reserve, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-DONG YU; TIAN-HONG LUO; JIAN YANG; HONG-ZHANG ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    The influence of edge effect on ground-dwelling beetles (Coleoptera) across a forest-clearcut ecotone was studied in Wolong Natural Reserve, southwestern China. During the field research, a total of 30 739 beetles were collected with pitfall traps along transects, which extending 100 m from the edge into the forest interior and 100 m into the clearcut. Of the collection, Carabidae comprised 92%, Staphylinidae 3%, Curculionidae 2%, and Tenebrionidae 2%, and these four families can be considered as abundant groups. Family richness, Shannon diversity and equitability display a significant decrease from forest interior, edge to clearcut. Based on the family composition and abundance, ground-dwelling beetles of the forest interior can be separated from those in the clearcut by Principal coordinate analysis ordination, and beetle assemblages in the forest edge were more similar to forest assemblages than to those found in the clearcut by cluster analysis. Seasonal dynamics of family richness showed a monotone peak in the middle season, with a highest value in the forest interior and a lowest value in the clearcut. Family abundance showed two peaks in the middle season, always with more individuals in the clearcut than in the forest interior or in the edge. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the cover of shrub and fitter were the two most important factors in determining family richness, Shannon diversity, equitability and abundance. Our results show that the forest edge and clearcut have obviously different composition and diversity of ground-dwelling beetles from forest interior at the family level. However, more edges have been formed due to increasing forest fragmentation (clearcutting or logging), so it is necessary to preserve large and intact forest to protect the diversity of ground-dwelling beetles in Wolong Natural Reserve.

  8. Effect of Dwell Time on the Mental Health of U.S. Military Personnel with Multiple Combat Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    government studies of health effects of the Gulf War. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148(4):315---323. 18. Lazarus RS, Folkman S . Stress , appraisal, and coping ...the theory behind the stress ---exhaustion model is based on stressor duration, lack of an adequate dwell time may prevent the service member from...second deployment.8 Other studies have also identified increases in mental health symp- toms, particularly symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder

  9. Investigation of the dwell period's influence on the fatigue crack growth of a titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefranc, P. [LMPM, UMR CNRS 6617, ENSMA, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); LMS, UMR CNRS 7649, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); SNECMA Groupe SAFRAN, 77550 Moissy Cramayel (France); Sarrazin-Baudoux, C. [LMPM, UMR CNRS 6617, ENSMA, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France)], E-mail: baudoux@lmpm.ensma.fr; Doquet, V. [LMS, UMR CNRS 7649, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Petit, J. [LMPM, UMR CNRS 6617, ENSMA, 86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France)

    2009-03-15

    The dwell effect, which is known to induce a reduction in the fatigue life of titanium alloys at room temperature, is related to early crack initiation. The present results support faster crack growth rates. The governing mechanisms are identified by mean of scanning electron microfractographic observations. The potential role of the atmosphere is examined through comparative testing performed in air and in high vacuum in order to distinguish the specific contributions of cold creep and environment assistance.

  10. Relationships between Depression, Lifestyle and Quality of Life in the Community Dwelling Elderly: A Comparison between Gender and Age Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Demura, Shinichi; Sato, Susumu

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the comprehensive relationships between depression and the characteristics of lifestyle and quality of life (QOL) of healthy, community dwelling elderly, and compare them according to gender and age groups. 1302 subjects (657 males and 645 females) were used for analysis. The investigators in this study were researchers working at universities in each prefecture. Data collection was conducted in a general delivery survey and interview setting or...

  11. Procedure for the characterization of radon potential in existing dwellings and to assess the annual average indoor radon concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignan, Bernard; Powaga, Emilie

    2014-11-01

    Risk assessment due to radon exposure indoors is based on annual average indoor radon activity concentration. To assess the radon exposure in a building, measurement is generally performed during at least two months during heating period in order to be representative of the annual average value. This is because radon presence indoors could be very variable during time. This measurement protocol is fairly reliable but may be a limiting in the radon risk management, particularly during a real estate transaction due to the duration of the measurement and the limitation of the measurement period. A previous field study defined a rapid methodology to characterize radon entry in dwellings. The objective of this study was at first, to test this methodology in various dwellings to assess its relevance with a daily test. At second, a ventilation model was used to assess numerically the air renewal of a building, the indoor air quality all along the year and the annual average indoor radon activity concentration, based on local meteorological conditions, some building characteristics and in-situ characterization of indoor pollutant emission laws. Experimental results obtained on thirteen individual dwellings showed that it is generally possible to obtain a representative characterization of radon entry into homes. It was also possible to refine the methodology defined in the previous study. In addition, numerical assessments of annual average indoor radon activity concentration showed generally a good agreement with measured values. These results are encouraging to allow a procedure with a short measurement time to be used to characterize long-term radon potential in dwellings.

  12. Effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls in community dwelling older people with disabling foot pain: randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Spink, Martin J; Menz, Hylton B.; Fotoohabadi, Mohammad R; Wee, Elin; Landorf, Karl B.; Hill, Keith D; Stephen R Lord

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention in preventing falls in community dwelling older people with disabling foot pain. Design Parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting University health sciences clinic in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 305 community dwelling men and women (mean age 74 (SD 6) years) with disabling foot pain and an increased risk of falling. 153 were allocated to a multifaceted podiatry intervention and 152 to routine pod...

  13. Vitamin D and Calcium supplementation prevents severe falls in elderly community dwelling residents: a pragmatic population-based 3-year intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Roj; Mosekilde, Leif; Foldspang, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: We evaluated the effect of two programs for the prevention of falls leading to acute hospital admission in a population of elderly community-dwelling Danish residents. Methods: This was a factorial, pragmatic, intervention study. We included 9605 community-dwelling city...... in severe falls (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.98; pfalls leading to acute hospitalization in communitydwelling elderly females in a northern European region known to be deficient in vitamin D....

  14. Effects of Reiki on anxiety, depression, pain, and physiological factors in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeson, Nancy E; Spross, Judith A; Lutz, Katherine; Peng, Cheng

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Reiki as an alternative and complementary approach to treating community-dwelling older adults who experience pain, depression, and/or anxiety. Participants (N = 20) were randomly assigned to either an experimental or wait list control group. The pre- and posttest measures included the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, Faces Pain Scale, and heart rate and blood pressure. The research design included an experimental component to examine changes in these measures and a descriptive component (semi-structured interview) to elicit information about the experience of having Reiki treatments. Significant differences were observed between the experimental and treatment groups on measures of pain, depression, and anxiety; no changes in heart rate and blood pressure were noted. Content analysis of treatment notes and interviews revealed five broad categories of responses: Relaxation; Improved Physical Symptoms, Mood, and Well-Being; Curiosity and a Desire to Learn More; Enhanced Self-Care; and Sensory and Cognitive Responses to Reiki.

  15. Malnutrition in a sample of community-dwelling people with Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie M Sheard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition results in poor health outcomes, and people with Parkinson's disease may be more at risk of malnutrition. However, the prevalence of malnutrition in Parkinson's disease is not yet well defined. The aim of this study is to provide an estimate of the extent of malnutrition in community-dwelling people with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of people with Parkinson's disease residing within a 2 hour driving radius of Brisbane, Australia. The Subjective Global Assessment (SGA and scored Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA were used to assess nutritional status. Body weight, standing or knee height, mid-arm circumference and waist circumference were measured. RESULTS: Nineteen (15% of the participants were moderately malnourished (SGA-B. The median PG-SGA score of the SGA-B group was 8 (4-15, significantly higher than the SGA-A group, U = 1860.5, p<.05. The symptoms most influencing intake were loss of appetite, constipation, early satiety and problems swallowing. CONCLUSIONS: As with other populations, malnutrition remains under-recognised and undiagnosed in people with Parkinson's disease. Regular screening of nutritional status in people with Parkinson's disease by health professionals with whom they have regular contact should occur to identify those who may benefit from further nutrition assessment and intervention.

  16. Sleep and Cognition in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenna S. Brewster

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in sleep and cognition occur with advancing age. While both may occur independently of each other, it is possible that alterations in sleep parameters may increase the risk of age-related cognitive changes. This review aimed to understand the relationship between sleep parameters (sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep duration, general sleep complaints and cognition in community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and older without sleep disorders. Systematic, computer-aided searches were conducted using multiple sleep and cognition-related search terms in PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. Twenty-nine manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. Results suggest an inconsistent relationship between sleep parameters and cognition in older adults and modifiers such as depressive symptoms, undiagnosed sleep apnea and other medical conditions may influence their association. Measures of sleep and cognition were heterogeneous. Future studies should aim to further clarify the association between sleep parameters and cognitive domains by simultaneously using both objective and subjective measures of sleep parameters. Identifying which sleep parameters to target may lead to the development of novel targets for interventions and reduce the risk of cognitive changes with aging.

  17. MEASUREMENT OF RADON CONCENTRATION IN DWELLINGS IN THE REGION OF HIGHEST LUNG CANCER INCIDENCE IN INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoliana, B; Rohmingliana, P C; Sahoo, B K; Mishra, R; Mayya, Y S

    2016-10-01

    Indoor radon/thoron concentration has been measured in Aizawl district, Mizoram, India, which has the highest lung cancer incidence rates among males and females in India. Simultaneously, radon flux emanated from the surrounding soil of the dwellings was observed in selected places. The annual average value of concentration of radon(thoron) of Aizawl district is 48.8(22.65) Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 1.25(1.58). Measured radon flux from the soil has an average value of 22.6 mBq m(-2) s(-1) These results were found to be much below the harmful effect or action level as indicated by the World Health Organisation. On the other hand, food habit and high-level consumption of tobacco and its products in the district have been found to increase the risk of lung cancer incidence in the district. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Chemically mediated group formation in soil-dwelling larvae and pupae of the beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Wataru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

    2014-09-01

    Many insects form groups through interactions among individuals, and these are often mediated by chemical, acoustic, or visual cues and signals. In spite of the diversity of soil-dwelling insects, their aggregation behaviour has not been examined as extensively as that of aboveground species. We investigated the aggregation mechanisms of larvae of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus, which live in groups in humus soil. In two-choice laboratory tests, 2nd- and 3rd-instar larvae gathered at conspecific larvae irrespective of the kinship. The ablation of maxillae, which bear chemosensilla, abolished aggregation behaviour. Intact larvae also exhibited aggregation behaviour towards a larval homogenate. These results suggest that larval aggregation is mediated by chemical cues. We also demonstrated that the mature larvae of T. dichotomus built their pupal cells close to a mesh bag containing a conspecific pupal cell, which indicated that larvae utilize chemical cues emanating from these cells to select the pupation site. Thus, the larvae of T. dichotomus may use chemical cues from the conspecifics in two different contexts, i.e. larval aggregation and pupation site selection. Using conspecific cues, larvae may be able to choose suitable locations for foraging or building pupal cells. The results of the present study highlight the importance of chemical information in belowground ecology.

  19. A systematic review and comparison of functional assessments of community-dwelling elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedl, Katie J; Wilson, Lindsay S; Fine, Julie

    2016-03-01

    To provide advanced practice nurses in primary care with information about self-reported functional assessments and physical performance-based functional assessments of geriatric patients living alone within the community at greatest risk of functional decline. Databases searched include CINAHL, Healthsource: Nursing/Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Cochrane Library, and National Clearinghouse Guidelines. The review was limited to English, research, and the years 2000-2014. Key search words included geriatric, community-dwelling, functional assessment, activities and instrumental activities of daily living, Barthel Index, Katz Index, Lawton Scale, Vulnerable Elders Survey, Timed Up and Go Test, Gait Speed Test, Functional Reach Test, and primary care. Forty-three million individuals, age 65 and older, are currently living in the United States with numbers expected to double by 2050. Nurse practitioners will be at the forefront of assessing for functional decline and can use tools such as the Barthel Index and Gait Speed Test to improve elderly outcomes. Self-reported functional questionnaires and physical functional performance tests can quickly be completed in the office to track the risk of functional decline over time. Interventions, such as physical therapy or other community resources, can be initiated when needed to reduce negative outcomes of functional decline. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  20. L’habitation maya The Mayan Dwelling: Spaces, Boundaries and a Few Passageways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helios Figuerola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En ce début de recherche qui met en œuvre informations archéologiques, épigraphiques et ethnologiques, nous proposons certains arguments montrant une continuité linguistique et conceptuelle de l’habitation maya en tant qu’espace délimité. Les frontières visibles et invisibles qui ferment ou fractionnent son espace temporairement ou durablement semblent assez similaires dans les diverses régions et époques envisagées. À travers l’accueil des personnes étrangères à l’intérieur du groupe domestique, nous voyons en outre apparaître des séries de frontières séparant des lieux internes, tout autant qu’elles sont des lieux de passage.In this preliminary research, which makes use of archaeological, epigraphic and ethnological information, we present certain arguments showing a linguistic and conceptual continuity in the Mayan dwelling as a delimited space. The visible and invisible boundaries that temporarily or permanently enclose or divide up its space seem quite similar in the various regions and periods considered. Through their way of welcoming outsiders into the domestic group, a series of boundaries appear, which also serve as passage ways.

  1. Seasonal variation in indoor radon concentrations in dwellings in six districts of the Punjab province, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faheem, Munazza; Mati, N; Matiullah [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2007-12-15

    An indoor radon measurement survey has been carried out in six districts of the Punjab province. These included Gujranwala, Gujrat, Hafizabad, Sialkot, Narowal and Mandibahauddin districts. In each district, 40 representative houses were chosen and indoor radon levels were measured in these dwellings in autumn, winter, spring and summer seasons using CR-39 based NRPB radon dosimeters. After exposure to radon, the CR-39 detectors were etched in 25% NaOH at 80 {sup 0}C and track densities were related to radon concentration levels. From the observed data, average radon concentration levels and a seasonal correction factor were calculated. The average {sup 222}Rn concentration level was found to vary from 40 {+-} 15 to 160 {+-} 32 Bq m{sup -3} and 38 {+-} 17 to 141 {+-} 26 Bq m{sup -3} in the bedrooms and living rooms of the houses surveyed, respectively. The annual mean effective dose received by the occupants has been calculated using ICRP (1993 Ann. ICRP 23) and UNSCEAR (2000 Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation (New York: United Nations)); it varied from 1.2 to 1.7 mSv and from 1.8 to 2.4 mSv, respectively. (note)

  2. Seasonal variation in indoor radon concentrations in dwellings in six districts of the Punjab province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Munazza; Mati, N; Matiullah

    2007-12-01

    An indoor radon measurement survey has been carried out in six districts of the Punjab province. These included Gujranwala, Gujrat, Hafizabad, Sialkot, Narowal and Mandibahauddin districts. In each district, 40 representative houses were chosen and indoor radon levels were measured in these dwellings in autumn, winter, spring and summer seasons using CR-39 based NRPB radon dosimeters. After exposure to radon, the CR-39 detectors were etched in 25% NaOH at 80 degrees C and track densities were related to radon concentration levels. From the observed data, average radon concentration levels and a seasonal correction factor were calculated. The average 222Rn concentration level was found to vary from 40 +/- 15 to 160 +/- 32 Bq m(-3) and 38 +/- 17 to 141 +/- 26 Bq m(-3) in the bedrooms and living rooms of the houses surveyed, respectively. The annual mean effective dose received by the occupants has been calculated using ICRP (1993 Ann. ICRP 23) and UNSCEAR (2000 Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation (New York: United Nations)); it varied from 1.2 to 1.7 mSv and from 1.8 to 2.4 mSv, respectively.

  3. Anxiety symptoms in 74+ community-dwelling elderly: associations with physical morbidity, depression and alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Forlani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Anxiety among community-dwelling older adults has not been studied sufficiently. The aims of this cross-sectional population-based study were to estimate the point prevalence of clinically relevant anxiety symptoms and to describe their socio-demographic and clinical features, with particular focus on the association with somatic illnesses. METHODS: Three-hundred-sixty-six non-demented older adults (mean age 83.7±6.2, range 74-99 years from the Faenza Project (Northern Italy were assessed using the Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination-Revised (CAMDEX-R and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory short form (GAI-sf. Multi-adjusted regression analyses were used to estimate Odds Ratio (OR and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI. RESULTS: Clinically relevant anxiety symptoms occurred in one out of five participants (point prevalence 21.0% and were significantly associated with depression (OR 5.6 per rank; 95% CI: 3.1-10.1, physical morbidity (OR 3.5 per illness; 95% CI: 1.0-11.9 and female gender (OR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.4-5.5. Further, there were significant associations with a consumption of alcohol exceeding 1 alcoholic unit/day. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety symptoms are very common in older subjects, especially when medically ill. Depression and alcohol consumption often co-occur with late-life anxiety symptoms, thus requiring special attention in daily clinical practice.

  4. Financial Strain Is Associated with Malnutrition Risk in Community-Dwelling Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between financial strain, or difficulty acquiring necessities, and malnutrition risk in a community dwelling sample of frail and nonfrail women aged 70–79 in the Women’s Health and Aging Study (n=679. Malnutrition risk was measured with a modified version of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF and defined as a score <11, financial strain was measured by (1 sufficiency of money on a monthly basis and (2 adequacy of income for food, and income was measured by ordinal categories. Mean (SD modified MNA-SF score was 12.2 (1.80, and 14.7% of women had malnutrition risk. Women who usually did not have enough money to make ends meet had more than four-fold increased odds of malnutrition risk (OR=4.54; 95% CI: 2.26, 9.14 compared to their counterparts who had some money left over each month. This was only slightly attenuated after control for income and education, (OR=4.08; 95% CI: 1.95, 8.52 remaining robust. These results show an association between financial strain and malnutrition risk, independent of income, in older women. Self-reported financial strain may be preferable to income as a screener for malnutrition risk in older adults in clinical and research settings.

  5. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean body mass in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsdottir, Olof G; Arnarson, Atli; Ramel, Alfons; Jonsson, Palmi V; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-08-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is important to maintain physical function during aging. We hypothesized that dietary protein intake and leisure-time physical activity are associated with LBM in community-dwelling older adults. To test the hypothesis, participants (n = 237; age, 65-92 years) did 3-day weighed food records and reported physical activity. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Protein intake was 0.98 ± 0.28 and 0.95 ± 0.29 g/kg body weight in male and female participants, respectively. Protein intake (in grams per kilogram of body weight) was associated with LBM (in kilograms); that is, the differences in LBM were 2.3 kg (P protein intake, respectively. Only a minor part of this association was explained by increased energy intake, which follows an increased protein intake. Our study shows that dietary protein intake was positively associated with LBM in older adults with a mean protein intake higher than the current recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg per day. Leisure-time physical activity, predominantly consisting of endurance type exercises, was not related to LBM in this group.

  6. [Prevalence and associated factors of falls in community-dwelling elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavedán Santamaría, Ana; Jürschik Giménez, Pilar; Botigué Satorra, Teresa; Nuin Orrio, Carmen; Viladrosa Montoy, Maria

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of falls and to identify their associated factors in community-dwelling elderly. A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Primary Health Care, Lleida. Six hundred and forty people aged 75 and older were included, in possession of a health card and living in single-family houses, through random sampling. Main measurements Data source comes from the survey of frailty in Lleida (FRALLE Survey). The variables used were the occurrence of falls, sociodemographic factors, health status, quality of life related to health and fear of falling. The prevalence of falls was 25.0% (95% CI 24.8-25.1). After multivariate analysis, basic disability (OR=2.17; 95% CI 1.32-3.58), depressive symptoms (OR=1.67; 95% CI 1.07-2.59) and fear of falling (OR=2.53; 95% CI 1.63-3.94) were the only factors independently associated with falls in the last year. One out of 4 older people reported at least a fall in the last year. This study demonstrates that fear of falling, depressive symptoms and basic disability are independent variables associated with previous falls. These 3 factors can lead to a flattering spiral of falling and may be potential targets for effective functioning in the context of falls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of a cationic surfactant (DODMAC) in sediment dwelling freshwater invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, S.D.W. [Atkins Ltd, Chilbrook, Oasis Business Park, Eynsham, Oxford, OX29 4AH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sean.comber@atkinsglobal.com; Rule, K.L. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Conrad, A.U. [Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, SEPA Corporate Office, Erskine Court Castle Business Park, Stirling FK9 4TR (United Kingdom); Hoess, S. [ECOSSA, Thierschstrasser 43, 80538 Muenchen (Germany); Webb, S.F. [Procter and Gamble, Temselaan 100, Strombeek-Bever B1853 (Belgium); Marshall, S. [Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DODMAC, CAS No. 107-64-2) is the principal active component of Di(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethylammonium chloride (DHTDMAC, CAS No. 61789-80-8), a cationic surfactant formerly used principally in laundry fabric softeners. After discharge to water, DODMAC partitions strongly to sediment, therefore the assessment of the effects of DODMAC to benthic organisms is essential in any risk assessment. Chronic toxicity studies were conducted with Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaete), Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaete) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode). NOECs were greater than 5738, 1515 and 1351 mg/kg dw, respectively, even for sub-lethal effects. Measurement of the route of uptake of DODMAC by L. variegatus demonstrated the relative importance of uptake via ingestion (86%) compared with direct contact with the sediment and via pore water (14%). The overall tendency of DODMAC to bioaccumulate, however, was low with measured accumulation factors of 0.22 and 0.78 for L. variegatus and T. tubifex, respectively. - The cationic surfactant, DODMAC, exhibits low bioavailability and toxicity to sediment dwelling organisms, with uptake dominated by ingestion.

  8. Perceived racial discrimination and mental health in low-income, urban-dwelling whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Kelly M; Thorpe, Roland J; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and the presence of anxiety and depression in a sample of low-income, urban-dwelling whites. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional survey of low-income whites living in an inner-city neighborhood in the mid-Atlantic United States. Perceived racial discrimination was reported by 39 percent of participants. Rates of depression in the population exceed prevalence rates in the general U.S. population. Those who perceived racial discrimination and were bothered by it experienced significantly greater odds of being depressed (OR = 2.78, 95% CI 1.60-4.82) and had higher anxiety scores (b = 2.02, SE 0.55, p = 0.000) than those who did not perceive racial discrimination. Low-income, urban white populations have been largely ignored in public health research. This study demonstrates that perceived racial discrimination is common in poor urban whites. Further, exposure to discrimination that is perceived as a stressor is associated with mental illness.

  9. Routes of uptake of diclofenac, fluoxetine, and triclosan into sediment-dwelling worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maja V; Marshall, Stuart; Gouin, Todd; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the route and degree of uptake of 2 ionizable pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and fluoxetine) and 1 ionizable compound used in personal care products (triclosan) into the sediment-dwelling worm Lumbriculus variegatus. Studies were done on complete worms ("feeding") and worms where the head was absent ("nonfeeding") using (14) C-labeled ingredients. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAF), based on uptake of (14) C, for feeding worms increased in the order fluoxetine (0.3) triclosan (9), which is correlated with a corresponding increase in log octanol-water partition coefficient. Biota sediment accumulation factor estimates are representative of maximum values because the degree of biotransformation in the worms was not quantified. Although no significant differences were seen between the uptake of diclofenac and that of fluoxetine in feeding and nonfeeding worms, uptake of the more hydrophobic antimicrobial, triclosan, into the feeding worms was significantly greater than that in the nonfeeding worms, with the 48-h BSAF for feeding worms being 36% higher than that for the nonfeeding worms. The results imply that dietary uptake contributes to the uptake of triclosan, which may be a result of the high hydrophobicity of the compound. Models that estimate exposure of ionizable substances may need to consider uptake from both the water column and food, particularly when assessing risks from dynamic exposures to organic contaminants.

  10. Improving nursing students' assessment of fall risk in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Susan K

    2016-12-09

    Nationally, approximately one third of older adults fall each year. Falls and resulting injury result in decreased mobility, functional impairment, loss of independence, and increased mortality. Utilization of evidence-based protocols by health care providers to identify older adults at risk of falling is limited, and rates of participation by older adults in prevention activities is low. Because of nursing's increasing role in caring for older adults, development of fall prevention education for nursing students would result in increased awareness of the need for fall prevention in community-dwelling older adults and increased access of older adults to falls risk assessment. There is a need to extend research to inform teaching and learning strategies for fall prevention. After pretesting, a convenience sample of 52 undergraduate nursing students and 22 graduate nursing students completed an online education program and performed a falls risk assessment on an older adult. After completing the clinical assignment, students completed a posttest and self-efficacy survey. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistical tests. Results revealed an increase in knowledge and student self-reporting of efficacy of fall risk assessment skills for the older adult population. This study suggests that nursing students acquired the necessary knowledge and self-efficacy for assessing fall risk of older adults through the combination of an online learning module and participating in actual fall risk assessment of an older adult.

  11. Cooperative action of KIF1A Brownian motors with finite dwell time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriola, David; Casademunt, Jaume

    2014-03-01

    We study in detail the cooperative action of small groups of KIF1A motors in its monomeric (single-headed) form within an arrangement relevant to vesicle traffic or membrane tube extraction. It has been recently shown that under these circumstances, the presence of a finite dwell time in the motor cycle contributes to remarkably enhance collective force generation [D. Oriola and J. Casademunt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 048103 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.048103]. We analyze this mechanism in detail by means of a two-state noise-driven ratchet model with hard-core repulsive interactions. We obtain staircase-shaped velocity-force curves and show that motors self-organize in clusters with a nontrivial force distribution that conveys a large part of the load to the central motors. Under heavy loads, large clusters adopt a synchronic mode of totally asymmetric steps. We also find a dramatic increase of the collective efficiency with the number of motors. Finally, we complete the study by addressing different interactions that impose spatial constraints such as rigid coupling and raft-induced confinement. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that the specificity of KIF1A to axonal vesicular transport may be deeply related to its high cooperativity.

  12. Sarcopenia: Prevalence and associated factors based on different suggested definitions in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hunkyung; Hirano, Hirohiko; Edahiro, Ayako; Ohara, Yuki; Watanabe, Yutaka; Kojima, Narumi; Kim, Miji; Hosoi, Erika; Yoshida, Yuko; Yoshida, Hideyo; Shinkai, Shoji

    2016-03-01

    The age-related loss of muscle mass and/or strength and performance, sarcopenia, has been associated with geriatric syndromes, morbidity and mortality. Although sarcopenia has been researched for many years, currently there is a lack of consensus on its definition. Some studies define sarcopenia as low muscle mass alone, whereas other studies have recently combined low muscle mass, strength and physical performance suggested by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, as well as the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. The arbitrary use of various available sarcopenia definitions within the literature can cause discrepancies in the prevalence and associated risk factors. The application of population-specific cut-off values in any sample population can be problematic, particularly among different ethnicities. Using commonly used cut-off points to define sarcopenia, including solely muscle mass and combined definitions, on a community-dwelling elderly Japanese population, the prevalence of sarcopenia ranged from 2.5 to 28.0% in men and 2.3 to 11.7% in women, with muscle mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 7.1-98.0% in men and 19.8-88.0% in women measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Body mass index was the most prominent related factor for sarcopenia across the definitions in this Japanese sample. However, other associated hematological and chronic condition factors varied depending on the definition. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Efficiency of Portable Antennas for Detecting Passive Integrated Transponder Tags in Stream-Dwelling Salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banish, Nolan P; Burdick, Summer M; Moyer, Katherine R

    2016-01-01

    Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE]) are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6) or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8) and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species.

  14. Correlation between dental and nutritional status in community-dwelling elderly Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Kikutani, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Mineka; Tsuga, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Misaka; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation between dental and nutritional status among community-dwelling elderly Japanese people. The subjects were 182 elderly individuals, aged 65-85 years, who voluntarily participated in a health seminar at Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine. These subjects were divided into two groups according to the occlusion. The subjects in the retained contact group were those who had retained molar occlusion with natural teeth. The lost contact group were those who retained molar occlusion with removable partial dentures. Anthropometric variables such as body mass index (BMI) were collected and dietary intake was assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). No statistical difference in BMI or intake of macronutrients was found between these two occlusal groups. The lost contact group reported significantly lower consumption of vegetables and higher consumption of confectionaries (foods rich in sugar) than did the retained contact group (P < 0.05), and therefore had significantly lower intake of vitamin C and dietary fiber (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that natural tooth contact loss in the posterior region affect the intake of vitamins and dietary fiber. . © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Nostoc thermotolerans sp. nov., a soil-dwelling species of Nostoc (Cyanobacteria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suradkar, Archana; Villanueva, Chelsea; Gaysina, Lira A; Casamatta, Dale A; Saraf, Aniket; Dighe, Gandhali; Mergu, Ratnaprabha; Singh, Prashant

    2017-05-01

    A filamentous, soil-dwelling cyanobacterial strain (9C-PST) was isolated from Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, India, and is described as a new species of the genus Nostoc. Extensive morphological and molecular characterization along with a thorough assessment of ecology was performed. The style of filament orientation, type and nature of the sheath (e.g. distribution and visibility across the trichome), and vegetative and heterocyte cell dimensions and shape were assessed for over one year using both the laboratory grown culture and the naturally occurring samples. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed 94 % similarity with Nostocpiscinale CENA21 while analyses of the secondary structures of the 16S-23S ITS region showed unique folding patterns that differentiated this strain from other species of Nostoc. The level of rbcl and rpoC1 gene sequence similarity was 91 and 94 % to Nostocsp. PCC 7524 and Nostocpiscinale CENA21, respectively, while the nifD gene sequence similarity was found to be 99 % with Nostocpiscinale CENA21. The phenotypic, ecological, genetic and phylogenetic observations indicate that the strain 9C-PST represents a novel species of the genus Nostoc with the name proposed being Nostoc thermotolerans sp. nov. according to the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants.

  16. The Scaling of the RMS with Dwell Time in NANOGrav Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Handzo, Emma; Lommen, Andrea N; Perrodin, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs) are collections of well-timed millisecond pulsars that are being used as detectors of gravitational waves (GWs). Given current sensitivity, projected improvements in PTAs and the predicted strength of the GW signals, the detection of GWs with PTAs could occur within the next decade. One way we can improve a PTA is to reduce the measurement noise present in the pulsar timing residuals. If the pulsars included in the array display uncorrelated noise, the root mean square (RMS) of the timing residuals is predicted to scale as $\\mathrm{T}^{-1/2}$, where T is the dwell time per observation. In this case, the sensitivity of the array can be increased by increasing T. We studied the 17 pulsars in the five year North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) data set to determine if the noise in the timing residuals of the pulsars observed was consistent with this property. For comparison, we performed the same analysis on PSR B1937+21, a pulsar that is known to dis...

  17. Swarming behaviour associated with group cohesion in tree-dwelling bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naďo, Ladislav; Kaňuch, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Group living of social species increases the individual survival rate and enhances optimal exploitation of resources within their environment. Groups of cryptic tree-dwelling bats perform frequent roost switching on relatively long distances, whereas groups are temporarily disintegrated during foraging that precedes moving into new roost. In this study, we attempted to elucidate a mechanism in which group members can select new roost from a large set of potential roosting sites without disintegration of the whole group. Exploring the activity at the front of the tree hollows, recorded by automatic infrared monitors, we found that the swarming activity of Leisler's bats was performed during the whole night and was concentrated before the civil twilight at occupied roosts. A generalized linear model revealed significant positive association between the group size and swarming activity while season had negative but smaller effect. As bats swarmed the whole night also at sites that were less occupied or even unoccupied, we suggest that members of a bat colony selected new roost from a potentially larger set of available roosting sites. Thus, we propose a possible signalling role of swarming as a threshold behaviour that ensures group cohesion during roost switching.

  18. Habitat Effects on the Breeding Performance of Three Forest-Dwelling Hawks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Heidi; Valkama, Jari; Tomppo, Erkki; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss causes population declines, but the mechanisms are rarely known. In the European Boreal Zone, loss of old forest due to intensive forestry is suspected to cause declines in forest-dwelling raptors by reducing their breeding performance. We studied the boreal breeding habitat and habitat-associated breeding performance of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). We combined long-term Finnish bird-of-prey data with multi-source national forest inventory data at various distances (100-4000 m) around the hawk nests. We found that breeding success of the goshawk was best explained by the habitat within a 2000-m radius around the nests; breeding was more successful with increasing proportions of old spruce forest and water, and decreasing proportions of young thinning forest. None of the habitat variables affected significantly the breeding success of the common buzzard or the honey buzzard, or the brood size of any of the species. The amount of old spruce forest decreased both around goshawk and common buzzard nests and throughout southern Finland in 1992-2010. In contrast, the area of young forest increased in southern Finland but not around hawk nests. We emphasize the importance of studying habitats at several spatial and temporal scales to determine the relevant species-specific scale and to detect environmental changes. Further effort is needed to reconcile the socioeconomic and ecological functions of forests and habitat requirements of old forest specialists.

  19. Dwell in Possibility: PLAR and e-Portfolios in the Age of Information and Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith O. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emily Dickinson wrote, “I dwell in Possibility—A fairer House than Prose—More Numerous of Windows—Superior—for Doors” (Johnson, 1961, p. 657. Dickinson’s simple yet profound reference to the expansive nature of poetry over prose may be taken as a metaphor for the possibilities of information and communication technologies (ICTs over written modes of expression. Whether we identify with this analogy or not, what we can say today with some certainty is that the advent of ICTs has impacted prior learning assessment and recognition (PLAR by expanding the potential for knowledge acquisition, expression, and delivery.The purpose of this article is to examine the potential of experiential learning e-portfolios to promote connections between several different types of learning – academic, workplace, and web-based. The author contends that this type of PLAR enables undergraduate adult learners to not only articulate and equate experiential learning to academic knowledge but also, and most importantly, to demonstrate knowledge visually and audibly through the utilization of ICTs. Two pilot case studies of e-portfolio development are described to support the author’s position.

  20. Dominance in a ground-dwelling ant community of banana agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carval, Dominique; Cotté, Violaine; Resmond, Rémi; Perrin, Benjamin; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    In tropical ecosystems, ants represent a substantial portion of the animal biomass and contribute to various ecosystem services, including pest regulation and pollination. Dominant ant species are known to determine the structure of ant communities by interfering in the foraging of other ant species. Using bait and pitfall trapping experiments, we performed a pattern analysis at a fine spatial scale of an ant community in a very simplified and homogeneous agroecosystem, that is, a single-crop banana field in Martinique (French West Indies). We found that the community structure was driven by three dominant species (Solenopsis geminata, Nylanderia guatemalensis, and Monomorium ebeninum) and two subdominant species (Pheidole fallax and Brachymyrmex patagonicus). Our results showed that dominant and subdominant species generally maintained numerical dominance at baits across time, although S. geminata, M. ebeninum, and B. patagonicus displayed better abilities to maintain dominance than P. fallax and N. guatemalensis. Almost all interspecific correlations between species abundances, except those between B. patagonicus and N. guatemalensis, were symmetrically negative, suggesting that interference competition prevails in this ground-dwelling ant community. However, we observed variations in the diurnal and nocturnal foraging activity and in the daily occurrence at baits, which may mitigate the effect of interference competition through the induction of spatial and temporal niche partitioning. This may explain the coexistence of dominant, subdominant, and subordinate species in this very simplified agroecosystem, limited in habitat structure and diversity.

  1. Factors influencing detection of eDNA from a stream-dwelling amphibian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Arkle, Robert S.; Waits, Lisette P.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) methods for detecting and estimating abundance of aquatic species are emerging rapidly, but little is known about how processes such as secretion rate, environmental degradation, and time since colonization or extirpation from a given site affect eDNA measurements. Using stream-dwelling salamanders and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis, we conducted three experiments to assess eDNA: (i) production rate; (ii) persistence time under different temperature and light conditions; and (iii) detectability and concentration through time following experimental introduction and removal of salamanders into previously unoccupied streams. We found that 44–50 g individuals held in aquaria produced 77 ng eDNA/h for 2 h, after which production either slowed considerably or began to equilibrate with degradation. eDNA in both full-sun and shaded treatments degraded exponentially to 2) and when samples were collected within 5 m of the animals. Concentrations of eDNA detected were very low and increased steadily from 6–24 h after introduction, reaching 0.0022 ng/L. Within 1 h of removing salamanders from the stream, eDNA was no longer detectable. These results suggest that eDNA detectability and concentration depend on production rates of individuals, environmental conditions, density of animals, and their residence time.

  2. Correlate of self-care and self-neglect among community-dwelling older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardan, Homa; Hamid, TengkuAizan; Redzuan, Ma’rof; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of self-neglect among the elderly is expected to rise with a rapid increase in the growth of the older population. However, self-neglect in the elderly and the factors related to it are not fully understood due to the limited research in the area, lack of consensus in the definition of the concept, and limited instrumentation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between selected socio-demographic factors on self-care and self-neglect among older persons living in the community. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey design with cluster sampling was adopted for the study. Data were gathered from 201 older persons aged 60 years and over in the state of Selangor, Malaysia, through face-to-face interviews in their homes with a team of trained enumerators. A new instrument was developed to measure self-neglect. Results: The internal consistency of the new instrument showed a reliability of 0.90. A significant bivariate relationship was noted between self-care and self-neglect. The socio-demographic factors were also reported between self-care and self-neglect. Conclusions: The new instrument of elder self-neglect (ESN) could be used to measure self-neglect in a community dwelling. The need to increase the self-care skills and the capacity of self-care among older adults is crucial in order to reduce self-neglect and enhance their well-being. PMID:25949256

  3. Quality improvement: single-field sterile scrub, prep, and dwell for laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; McCutcheon, Stacey Paris; McCutcheon, John G; Charvonia, Beth E

    2013-05-01

    The vulva and vaginal interior are considered a contaminated surgical area, and current OR guidelines require surgeons who are gloved and gowned at the abdominal field to avoid contact with the urethral catheter, the uterine manipulator, and the introitus or to change their gloves and even regown if contact occurs. It is our belief that the perception of the vaginal field as contaminated reflects a lack of specific standards for the preoperative cleansing of the deeper vagina and a lack of preoperative prep instructions for the combined fields. We developed a comprehensive single-field prep technique designed to improve surgical efficiency and prevent contamination of the sterile field. Combining a methodical scrub, prep, and dwell, this technique allows the entire abdomino-perineovaginal field to be treated as a single sterile field for laparoscopic procedures. Our surgical site infection rate of 1.8% when using this single-field prep technique and the subsequent surgical treatment of the abdominal, vaginal, and perineal fields as a single sterile field is well within reported norms.

  4. Surveying Europe’s Only Cave-Dwelling Chordate Species (Proteus anguinus) Using Environmental DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, Orsolya; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Gál, Júlia Tünde; Jelić, Dušan

    2017-01-01

    In surveillance of subterranean fauna, especially in the case of rare or elusive aquatic species, traditional techniques used for epigean species are often not feasible. We developed a non-invasive survey method based on environmental DNA (eDNA) to detect the presence of the red-listed cave-dwelling amphibian, Proteus anguinus, in the caves of the Dinaric Karst. We tested the method in fifteen caves in Croatia, from which the species was previously recorded or expected to occur. We successfully confirmed the presence of P. anguinus from ten caves and detected the species for the first time in five others. Using a hierarchical occupancy model we compared the availability and detection probability of eDNA of two water sampling methods, filtration and precipitation. The statistical analysis showed that both availability and detection probability depended on the method and estimates for both probabilities were higher using filter samples than for precipitation samples. Combining reliable field and laboratory methods with robust statistical modeling will give the best estimates of species occurrence. PMID:28129383

  5. Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Deborah M; Gasquoine, Philip G; Weimer, Amy A

    2015-05-01

    Bilingualism has been reported to delay the age of retrospective report of first symptom in dementia. This study determined if the age of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia occurred later for bilingual than monolingual, immigrant and U.S. born, Hispanic Americans. It involved a secondary analysis of the subset of 81 bi/monolingual dementia cases identified at yearly follow-up (1998 through 2008) using neuropsychological test results and objective diagnostic criteria from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging that involved a random sampling of community dwelling Hispanic Americans (N = 1789). Age of dementia diagnosis was analyzed in a 2 × 2 (bi/monolingualism × immigrant/U.S. born) ANOVA that space revealed both main effects and the interaction were non-significant. Mean age of dementia diagnosis was descriptively (but not significantly) higher in the monolingual (M = 81.10 years) than the bilingual (M = 79.31) group. Overall, bilingual dementia cases were significantly better educated than monolinguals, but U.S. born bilinguals and monolinguals did not differ significantly in education. Delays in dementia symptomatology pertaining to bilingualism are less likely to be found in studies: (a) that use age of clinical diagnosis vs. retrospective report of first dementia symptom as the dependent variable; and (b) involve clinical cases derived from community samples rather than referrals to specialist memory clinics.

  6. Life Cicle Assesments of Three Dwellings in Andalusia (Spain: the Significance of the Regional Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García Martínez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the developed countries, the construction sector now accounts for 20 to 40% of the total energy consumption. This sector is a key factor in national economies, and it not only represents a critical consumption of resources, but also creates the built environment. These are some of the reasons why researchers around the world have recently developed procedures to determine the environmental impacts of whole buildings. In this context, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is a useful tool to analyze buildings from the environmental point of view. This article shows the results obtained by applying the LCA methodology to three residential buildings. Each studied dwelling is located in different urban context and is different from a typological and constructive point of view. This article discusses the importance of the choice for a building location and selection of source materials relating to the total environmental impact. All the studied buildings were designed and built by researchers from the Architecture School of Seville.

  7. White matter hyperintensities are an independent predictor of physical decline in community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jacqueline J J; Delbaere, Kim; Close, Jacqueline C T; Sachdev, Perminder; Wen, Wei; Brodaty, Henry; Lord, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    Ageing is associated with physical disability, but little is known about the influence of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on physical function decline in older people. To investigate the role of WMHs as a predictor of decline in physical function in cognitively intact older people. 287 community-dwelling people aged 70-90 years underwent the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA) and assessments of total and regional WMH volumes, cognitive function and comorbidities. Participants underwent reassessment of the PPA 12 months later, and those in the top quartile for increases in PPA scores over the year were regarded as having declined physically. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that people with WMH volumes in the 4th quartile showed greater physical decline (odds ratio 3.02, 95% confidence interval 1.02-8.95) while controlling for age, baseline physical function, general health, physical activity and cognitive function. Subsequent univariate analyses indicated that WMHs in the deep fronto-parietal and periventricular parieto-occipital regions had the strongest associations with physical decline. These findings indicate that WMHs are an independent predictor of decline in physical function and suggest that interventions that focus on preventing the development or progression of white matter lesions may help preserve physical function in older people. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Analysis of Circumstance Influence Factors on HMBR for Wastewater Reclamation in Dwelling District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常颖; 汪永辉; 薛罡; 郭美芳; 王宝贞

    2003-01-01

    Circumstance influence factors on Hybrid Membrane Bio-Reactor (HMBR) process for the wastewater reclamation in dwelling district was analyzed. The main characteristic of this process is that sludge and nitrified effluent can be recycled automatically, which simplifies the operation of system and is beneficial to get the high removal of organics and nitrogen. Based on the analysis of circumstance influence factors, it is recommended that water temperature of about 20°, influent pH of 6 ~7 and DO of 1.0 mg/L - 1. 5 mg/L in the aerobic compartment. Under these conditions, COD, BODs,NH+4-N, and TN were removed effectively in HMBR and the average removal efficiencies were 94.5%,99.3%, 99.4% and 84.7%, respectively. SS and coliforms were both below the detection limits in the permeate of UF membrane module, and turbidity was less than 1NTU.The treated effluent meets the Miscellaneous Domestic Water Quality Standard (CJ25.1 - 89), and can be reused multipurposely such as watering of green belts, cleaning and toilet flushing water after disinfection.

  9. Efficiency of portable antennas for detecting passive integrated transponder tags in stream-dwelling salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banish, Nolan P.; Burdick, Summer M.; Moyer, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours. Models indicate support for length and species and minor support for percent boulder, large woody debris, and percent cobble as parameters important for describing variation in detection efficiency, although 95% confidence intervals for estimates were large. The odds of detecting brown trout (1.5 ± 2.2 [mean ± SE]) are approximately four times as high as bull trout (0.4 ± 1.6) or redband trout (0.3 ± 1.8) and species-specific differences may be related to length. Our reported detection efficiency for brown trout falls within the range of other studies, but is the first reported for bull trout and redband trout. Portable antennas may be a relatively unbiased way of redetecting varying sizes of all three salmonid species.

  10. Potentially Inappropriate Medication in Community-Dwelling Primary Care Patients who were Screened Positive for Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wucherer, Diana; Eichler, Tilly; Hertel, Johannes; Kilimann, Ingo; Richter, Steffen; Michalowsky, Bernhard; Thyrian, Jochen René; Teipel, Stefan; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) in older people is a risk factor for adverse drug effects. This risk is even higher in older people with dementia (PWD). Objective: Our study aimed to determine (1) the prevalence of PIM among primary care patients who were screened positive for dementia and (2) the sociodemographic and clinical variables associated with the use of PIM. Methods: DelpHi-MV (Dementia: life- and person-centered help in Mecklenburg–Western Pomerania) is a general practitioner-based, cluster-randomized, controlled intervention study to implement and evaluate an innovative concept of collaborative dementia care management in Germany. The comprehensive baseline assessment includes a home medication review. The present analyses are based on the data from 448 study participants (age 70+, DemTect benzodiazepines, and analgetics. The most frequently prescribed PIMs were amitriptyline, etoricoxib, and doxazosin. (2) Use of a PIM was significantly associated with a diagnosis of a mental or behavioral disorder. Conclusions: The prescription rate of PIMs for community-dwelling PWD was comparable with the rates found for the general population of older people in Germany (20–29%). Antidepressants with anticholinergic properties and long-acting benzodiazepines were the most prescribed PIMs, despite having an unfavorable benefit-risk ratio. This high prevalence of PIM prescriptions in a vulnerable population of PWD indicates that standard care for dementia should include careful medication review and management. PMID:27716668

  11. An overview of the Mediterranean cave-dwelling horny sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Renata; Cadeddu, Barbara; Ledda, Fabio; Pronzato, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The present synthesis focuses on the so called 'horny sponges' recorded from marine caves of the Mediterranean Sea. The main aim is to provide a list of all recorded species, diagnostic keys to their identification up to family and genus level, and exhaustive, formally uniform descriptions at the species level contributing to sharing of information on the faunistics and taxonomy of Mediterranean cave-dwelling species, including habitat preferences. The majority of species was recorded in 105 Mediterranean marine caves hosting four orders of horny sponges belonging to 9 families, 19 genera and 40 species. Species endemic to the Mediterranean Sea harboured in marine caves are 14 with an endemicity value of 35%. For each species morphological descriptions are supported by illustrations both original and from the literature, including the diagnostic traits of the skeleton by light and scanning electron microscopy giving further characterization at the specific level. A detailed map together with a list of all caves harbouring horny sponges is also provided with geographic coordinates.

  12. Impact Analysis of Dwell Angles on Current Shape and Torque in Switched Reluctance Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Fatima Ghousia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of torque ripple is the main target in research for designing a variable drive system with switched reluctance motors (SRM for higher torque density and better efficiency. This ripple is due to the transition of excitation current between the adjacent phases. Precise control of turn-on and turn off angle is required to smooth the torque. In this paper, the effects of selecting the turn-on and turn-off angles are simulated in detail. It is observed that with the extended turn-on and turn off angles, the precise selection of turn-on and turn off angle can alter the shape of the excitation current in the stator coil and its point of overlapping with the adjacent coil. Therefore the transition between different phases can be smoothed out. The impact of this alteration on the excitation current and torque ripple as a function of different parameters of dwell angle is studied in detail in this paper. It is found that a sinusoidal current shape can also be obtained with the proper selection of these parameters.

  13. Toward a better understanding of loneliness in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Judith M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to explore the meaning of loneliness in community-dwelling older adults and to understand their daily practices in coping with loneliness. The sample consisted of 8 women and 4 men. Interviews were conducted with the 12 participants utilizing several tools, including 3 separate interview guides and the UCLA Loneliness Scale, Version 3 (Russell, 1996). A critical finding was that many participants experienced loneliness as a result of disrupted meaningful engagement, due to age-related changes, as well as other losses, including death of spouse, retirement, and giving up the car. Two paradigm cases and themes representing the loneliness and coping experience emerged. Participant coping practices with loneliness included reaching out to others, helping those in need, and seeking companionship with pets. Many older adults are at risk for loneliness because of declining health and other age-related losses that prevent them from remaining engaged in meaningful relationships. Health care professionals can screen for loneliness to identify those at risk and can intervene to help older adults maintain connections. Recommendations for those caring for lonely older adults include active listening, vision and hearing screenings, transportation needs, pet therapy, volunteering, and engagement in social activities.

  14. Current status and trends in oral health in community dwelling older adults: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossioni, Anastassia E

    2013-01-01

    To record the available current national and regional data on the oral health of community-dwelling (living in their own homes, not institutionalised) older people globally and discuss the future trends considering existing dangers and opportunities. A literature search on tooth loss, dental decay and periodontal disease in the elderly was performed using available databases and electronic sources. The findings revealed that the updated national data are scarce in many parts of the world, particularly in Africa, Asia and South America, and direct comparisons are not always possible due to methodological variations. The available information may indicate that dental disease in older adults worldwide is more prevalent compared to younger age groups, with significant variation between countries and regions. Tooth loss is currently more common in the developed countries, while dental decay and periodontal disease are more widespread globally. There are important threats for further deterioration of the oral status among older adults in many developed and less developed areas due to existing sociodemographic and economic risk factors. National studies should be undertaken to record the specific oral problems of the elderly in each area. It is also necessary to develop gerodontology study programmes globally at the undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing education levels which will enhance dentists' knowledge, skills and attitudes towards oral care in the older population, and will promote opportunities for further research and development of relevant policies.

  15. [Chronic diseases, functional ability, social involvement and satisfaction in community-dwelling elderly: the Fibra study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Juliana Martins; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2013-12-01

    The scope of this article is to describe variations in the measurement of chronic diseases, functional ability, social involvement and satisfaction with respect to memory, problem solving, social relationships, environment, health services and transportation. This is done according to gender, age and income. It analyzes correlations between social involvement and functional ability in independent community dwelling-elderly aged 65 and above. 2,472 seniors without cognitive deficit, from probabilistic samples of seven Brazilian locations, were submitted to self-reported measurement concerning all variables, with the exception of grip strength and gait speed assessed by objective tests. Mean age was 72.2 ± 5.5 years and mean income was 3.9 ± 4.9 MW; 65.7% were women, who had more diseases, worse functional performance and greater social involvement than men; those aged 80 and above and the poorest participants had worse functional performance and less social involvement. Correlations were observed between functional ability and social involvement. Level of income was related to satisfaction concerning memory, problem solving, health and transport services. Health, functionality and satisfaction interact in old age, influencing patterns of activity and social involvement.

  16. Falls in the community-dwelling older adult: A review for primary-care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A Soriano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Theresa A Soriano1, Linda V DeCherrie2, David C Thomas11The Samuel Bronfman Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA; 2Brookdale Department of Geriatrics and Adult Development, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USAAbstract: Falls in the elderly are an important independent marker of frailty. Up to half of elderly people over 65 experience a fall every year. They are associated with high morbidity and mortality and are responsible for greater than 20 billion dollars a year in healthcare costs in the United States. This article presents a review and guide for the primary care provider of the predisposing and situational risk factors for falls; comprehensive assessment for screening and tailored intervention; and discussion of single and multicomponent measures for fall prevention and management in the older person living in the community. Interventions for the cognitively impaired and demented elderly will also be addressed.Keywords: falls, elderly, community-dwelling, review

  17. Effects of coded-wire-tagging on stream-dwelling Sea Lamprey larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Swink, William D.; Dawson, Heather A.; Jones, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of coded wire tagging Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus larvae from a known-aged stream-dwelling population were assessed. Tagged larvae were significantly shorter on average than untagged larvae from 3 to 18 months after tagging. However, 30 months after tagging, the length distribution of tagged and untagged larvae did not differ and tagged Sea Lampreys were in better condition (i.e., higher condition factor) and more likely to have undergone metamorphosis than the untagged population. The reason why tagged larvae were more likely to metamorphose is not clear, but the increased likelihood of metamorphosis could have been a compensatory response to the period of slower growth after tagging. Slower growth after tagging was consistent across larval size-classes, so handling and displacement from quality habitat during the early part of the growing season was likely the cause rather than the tag burden. The tag effects observed in this study, if caused by displacement and handling, may be minimized in future studies if tagging is conducted during autumn after growth has concluded for the year.

  18. Fitness, Balance Efficacy, and Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related declines in postural control and physical fitness are strong risk factors for falls in older adults. Balance efficacy has been utilized to identify poor postural control, reduced physical function, and fall risk. However, it is not clear as to whether balance efficacy is truly a better predictor of functional fitness outcomes or postural control. Distinguishing these associations is an important step in the future derivation of physiotherapeutic programming to remediate acute and chronic decline. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to partition which measures are more associated with balance efficacy, fitness, or postural control. One hundred eleven community-dwelling older adults participated and were asked to complete the Balance Efficacy Scale (BES, a functional fitness measure (the Senior Fitness Test [SFT], and a measure of postural control (the Sensory Organization Test [SOT].We found that the SFT was more significantly associated with balance efficacy (R2 = .37 than the SOT (R2 = .08 in older adults. Overall, aerobic endurance, functional mobility in the SFT, and the vestibular score on the SOT were significantly associated with balance efficacy. We concluded that clinicians utilizing the BES as a preliminary screen should recommend physiotherapy follow-up activities that build endurance (walking, lower extremity functional mobility (sit-to-stand, and vestibular function (head movement while walking. Understanding the links between a preliminary screening tool and the physiological needs of the patient will allow for targeted activities to be prescribed.

  19. Neighborhood food environment and obesity in community-dwelling older adults: individual and neighborhood effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchno, Rachel; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Gupta, Adarsh K

    2014-05-01

    We tested hypotheses about the relationship between neighborhood-level food sources and obesity, controlling for individual-level characteristics. Data (collected November 2006-April 2008) derived from a random-digit-dial sample of 5688 community-dwelling adults aged 50 to 74 years residing in 1644 census tracts in New Jersey. Using multilevel structural equation models, we created latent constructs representing density of fast-food establishments and storefronts (convenience stores, bars and pubs, grocery stores) and an observed indicator for supermarkets at the neighborhood level, simultaneously modeling obesity and demographic characteristics (age, gender, race, education, household income) at the individual level. When we controlled for individual-level age, gender, race, education, and household income, densities of fast-food establishments and storefronts were positively associated with obesity. Supermarkets were not associated with obesity. Because people living in neighborhoods with a higher density of fast food and storefronts are more likely to be obese, these neighborhoods may be optimal sites for interventions.

  20. Cellular Telephones Measure Activity and Lifespace in Community-Dwelling Adults: Proof of Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Ana Katrin; Witbrodt, Bradley C.; Hoarty, Carrie A.; Carlson, Richard H.; Goulding, Evan H.; Potter, Jane F.; Bonasera, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe a system that uses off-the-shelf sensor and telecommunication technologies to continuously measure individual lifespace and activity levels in a novel way. DESIGN Proof of concept involving three field trials of 30, 30, and 21 days. SETTING Omaha, Nebraska, metropolitan and surrounding rural region. PARTICIPANTS Three participants (48-year-old man, 33-year-old woman, and 27-year-old male), none with any functional limitations. MEASUREMENTS Cellular telephones were used to detect in-home position and in-community location and to measure physical activity. Within the home, cellular telephones and Bluetooth transmitters (beacons) were used to locate participants at room-level resolution. Outside the home, the same cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) technology were used to locate participants at a community-level resolution. Physical activity was simultaneously measured using the cellular telephone accelerometer. RESULTS This approach had face validity to measure activity and lifespace. More importantly, this system could measure the spatial and temporal organization of these metrics. For example, an individual’s lifespace was automatically calculated across multiple time intervals. Behavioral time budgets showing how people allocate time to specific regions within the home were also automatically generated. CONCLUSION Mobile monitoring shows much promise as an easily deployed system to quantify activity and lifespace, important indicators of function, in community-dwelling adults. PMID:21288235

  1. An overview of the Mediterranean cave-dwelling horny sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Manconi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present synthesis focuses on the so called ‘horny sponges’ recorded from marine caves of the Mediterranean Sea. The main aim is to provide a list of all recorded species, diagnostic keys to their identification up to family and genus level, and exhaustive, formally uniform descriptions at the species level contributing to sharing of information on the faunistics and taxonomy of Mediterranean cave-dwelling species, including habitat preferences. The majority of species was recorded in 105 Mediterranean marine caves hosting four orders of horny sponges belonging to 9 families, 19 genera and 40 species. Species endemic to the Mediterranean Sea harboured in marine caves are 14 with an endemicity value of 35%. For each species morphological descriptions are supported by illustrations both original and from the literature, including the diagnostic traits of the skeleton by light and scanning electron microscopy giving further characterization at the specific level. A detailed map together with a list of all caves harbouring horny sponges is also provided with geographic coordinates.

  2. Creep-Environment Interactions in Dwell-Fatigue Crack Growth of Nickel Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Kimberly; Dahal, Jinesh; Sun, Yaofeng; Ghonem, Hamouda

    2014-05-01

    A multi-scale, mechanistic model is developed to describe and predict the dwell-fatigue crack growth rate in the P/M disk superalloy, ME3, as a function of creep-environment interactions. In this model, the time-dependent cracking mechanisms involve grain boundary sliding and dynamic embrittlement, which are identified by the grain boundary activation energy, as well as, the slip/grain boundary interactions in both air and vacuum. Modeling of the damage events is achieved by adapting a cohesive zone (CZ) approach which considers the deformation behavior of the grain boundary element at the crack tip. The deformation response of this element is controlled by the surrounding continuum in both far field (internal state variable model) and near field (crystal plasticity model) regions and the intrinsic grain boundary viscosity which defines the mobility of the element by scaling up the motion of dislocations into a mesoscopic scale. This intergranular cracking process is characterized by the rate at which the grain boundary sliding reaches a critical displacement. A damage criterion is introduced by considering the grain boundary mobility limit in the tangential direction leading to strain incompatibility and failure. Results of simulated intergranular crack growth rate using the CZ model are generated for temperatures ranging from 923 K to 1073 K (650 °C to 800 °C), in both air and vacuum. These results are compared with those experimentally obtained and analysis of the model sensitivity to loading conditions, particularly temperature and oxygen partial pressure, are presented.

  3. Tooth loss and dental caries in community-dwelling older adults in northern Manhattan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E.; Ue, Frances V.; Borrell, Luisa N.; De La Cruz, Leydis D.; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Bodnar, Stephanie; Marshall, Stephen; Lamster, Ira B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine tooth loss and dental caries by sociodemographic characteristics from community-based oral health examinations conducted by dentists in northern Manhattan. Background The ElderSmile programme of the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine serves older adults with varying functional capacities across settings. This report is focused on relatively mobile, socially engaged participants who live in the impoverished communities of Harlem and Washington Heights/Inwood in northern Manhattan, New York City. Materials and Methods Self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and health and health care information were provided by community-dwelling ElderSmile participants aged 65 years and older who took part in community-based oral health education and completed a screening questionnaire. Oral health examinations were conducted by trained dentists in partnering prevention centres among ElderSmile participants who agreed to be clinically screened (90.8%). Results The dental caries experience of ElderSmile participants varied significantly by sociodemographic predictors and smoking history. After adjustment in a multivariable logistic regression model, older age, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic race/ethnicity, and a history of current or former smoking were important predictors of edentulism. Conclusion Provision of oral health screenings in community-based settings may result in opportunities to intervene before oral disease is severe, leading to improved oral health for older adults. PMID:21718349

  4. Correlates of well-being among caregivers of long-term community-dwelling stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankner, Rachel; Bachner, Yaacov G; Ginsberg, Gary; Ziv, Arnona; Ben David, Hadar; Litmanovitch-Goldstein, Dalit; Chodick, Gabriel; Balicer, Ran; Tanne, David; Greenberg, Dan

    2016-12-01

    Although caregiving for stroke survivors is usually long-term, most studies on caregivers have generally involved only the first year following the event. We assessed and compared the long-term level of well-being measures among stroke survivors and their caregivers at more than 1 year following the stroke event and examined the associations between well-being, survivors' characteristics, and caregiver burden. We interviewed a convenience sample of 51 community-dwelling stroke survivors, at least 1 year after the last stroke event, and their primary caregivers. Disability of survivors was assessed using the Barthel index and the modified Rankin Scale; health-related quality of life by the SF-36 questionnaire; and depression and anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. Caregivers filled the SF-36 questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale questionnaire, and the Zarit Burden Interview, which assesses caregiver burden. Caregivers reported low levels of health-related quality of life and high levels of burden, anxiety, and depression. Caregivers' anxiety level was higher than that of the survivors (7.7±5.1 vs. 5.8±4.5, respectively; P=0.02). Anxiety was the only characteristic of caregivers that was associated with overall caregiver burden. Our study suggests that there is a spillover effect of the disease on stroke patients' primary caregivers. Intervention programs for caregivers should focus on their mental state and address their specific needs.

  5. A model to predict evaporation rates in habitats used by container-dwelling mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Healy, Sean P; Hamilton, George C

    2011-05-01

    Container-dwelling mosquitoes use a wide variety of container habitats. The bottle cap is often cited as the smallest container habitat used by container species. When containers are small, the habitat conditions can greatly affect evaporation rates that in turn can affect the species dynamics within the container. An evaporation rate model was adapted to predict evaporation rates in mosquito container habitats. In both the laboratory and field, our model was able to predict actual evaporation rates. Examples of how the model may be applied are provided by examining the likelihood of Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes aegypti (L.), and Culex pipiens pipiens (L.) completing their development within small-volume containers under typical environmental conditions and a range of temperatures. Our model suggests that under minimal direct sunlight exposure, both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus could develop within a bottle cap before complete evaporation. Our model shows that under the environmental conditions when a plastic field container was sampled, neither Ae. albopictus or Cx. p. pipiens could complete development in that particular container before the water evaporated. Although rainfall could replenish the habitat, the effects of evaporation would increase larval density, which could in turn further decrease developmental rates.

  6. Housing Prices and General Economic Conditions: An Analysis of Chinese New Dwelling Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongyu; SHEN Yue

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the interaction between housing prices and general economic conditions in China for the period of 1986-2002. The empirical results indicate that housing prices in China are predictable by market fundamentals, which could explain most of the variations in housing prices. The results of Granger causality tests confirm that unemployment rate, total population, changes in construction costs, changes in the consumer price index (CPI) are all Granger causalities of housing prices, with feedback effects observed to affect the vacancy rate of new dwellings, changes in CPI, and changes in per capita disposable income of urban households. Studies with impulse response functions further illustrate these relationships in terms of the degree of the impact on housing prices from the determinants and the feedbacks. The findings indicate that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between housing prices and market fundamentals in China and it is the identified fundamentals that drive housing prices up, rather than a bubble.

  7. Metabolic Syndrome and 16-year Cognitive Decline in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Linda K.; Laughlin, Gail A.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; von Mühlen, Denise

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine whether metabolic syndrome is associated with accelerated cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS Longitudinal study of 993 adults (mean 66.8 ± 8.7 years) from the Rancho Bernardo Study. Metabolic syndrome components, defined by 2001 NCEP-ATP III criteria, were measured in 1984–87. Cognitive function was first assessed in 1988–92. Cognitive assessments were repeated approximately every four years, for a maximum 16-year follow-up. Mixed-effects models examined longitudinal rate of cognitive decline by metabolic syndrome status, controlling for factors plausibly associated with cognitive function (diabetes, inflammation). RESULTS Metabolic syndrome was more common in men than women (14% vs. 9%, p=0.01). In women, metabolic syndrome was associated with greater executive function and long term memory decline. These associations did not differ by inflammatory biomarker levels. Diabetes did not alter the association of metabolic syndrome with long-term recall but modified the association with executive function: metabolic syndrome was associated with accelerated executive function decline in diabetic women only. Metabolic syndrome was not related to rate of decline on any cognitive measure in men. CONCLUSIONS Metabolic syndrome was a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline, but only in women. Prevention of metabolic syndrome may aid in maintenance of cognitive function with age. PMID:22285865

  8. Zoogeography of South American Forest-Dwelling Bats: Disjunct Distributions or Sampling Deficiencies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrício Adriano da Rocha

    Full Text Available Many forest-dwelling bats are purported to be widespread in South America, although records are scant from the vast diagonal belt of dry ecosystems that straddles the continent, implying possible sampling deficiencies. Here, we investigate this possibility in the case of four species of bat (Centronycteris maximiliani, Lampronycteris brachyotis, Peropteryx kappleri and Trinycteris nicefori, evaluating whether their disjunct present-day distributions reflect their true zoogeographic characteristics or the subsampling of intermediate zones. We use environmental niche modelling (ENM in an ensemble approach, combining four different modeling techniques, and using niche descriptors based on climatic and remote sensing data, to estimate the potential distribution of the four species. The models indicate that all four species have disjunct distributions in the Amazon and Atlantic forest biomes. The one possible exception is P. kappleri, which the models indicated might potentially occur in humid forest enclaves in western Brazil and eastern Bolivia. The present-day distribution of the species may date back to the Plio-Pleistocene, when the forested biomes of South America were more extensive and connected. Further studies of different chiropteran lineages may provide additional insights into the historic processes of faunal interchange between the Amazon and Atlantic forest biomes.

  9. MEASUREMENT OF RADON, THORON AND THEIR PROGENY IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF DWELLING IN ALMORA DISTRICT OF KUMAUN HIMALAYAN REGION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuldeep; Semwal, Poonam; Pant, Preeti; Gusain, G S; Joshi, Manish; Sapra, B K; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    The indoor concentrations of radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their daughter products were measured in the dwellings of Almora district in Kumaun Himalaya, India using pin-hole dosemeters and deposition progeny sensors. The measurements were made in the residential houses built of mud, stone with cement plaster and cemented house during winter season. Average [geometric mean (GM) values] radon and thoron concentrations for all dwellings were found to be 99.82 and 79.70 Bq m(-3), respectively, while average equilibrium equivalent radon concentration and equilibrium equivalent thoron concentration (measured for the first time for this region) were measured at 35.22 and 2.52 Bq m(-3), respectively. Radon concentration (GM values) was found to be 110.73, 97.00 and 93.85 Bq m(-3) for mud houses, stone with cemented plaster houses and cemented houses, respectively. On the other hand, thoron concentration values were 87.10, 75.79 and 75.68 Bq m(-3) for cemented houses, mud houses and stone with cemented plaster houses, respectively. Interpretations have been made on the basis of measured radon/thoron and progeny concentration values with respect to the difference of construction material of the dwellings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Avoidance, biomass and survival response of soil dwelling (endogeic) earthworms to OECD artificial soil: potential implications for earthworm ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brami, C; Glover, A R; Butt, K R; Lowe, C N

    2017-05-01

    Soil dwelling earthworms are now adopted more widely in ecotoxicology, so it is vital to establish if standardised test parameters remain applicable. The main aim of this study was to determine the influence of OECD artificial soil on selected soil-dwelling, endogeic earthworm species. In an initial experiment, biomass change in mature Allolobophora chlorotica was recorded in Standard OECD Artificial Soil (AS) and also in Kettering Loam (KL). In a second experiment, avoidance behaviour was recorded in a linear gradient with varying proportions of AS and KL (100% AS, 75% AS + 25% KL, 50% KS + 50% KL, 25% AS + 75% KL, 100% KL) with either A. chlorotica or Octolasion cyaneum. Results showed a significant decrease in A. chlorotica biomass in AS relative to KL, and in the linear gradient, both earthworm species preferentially occupied sections containing higher proportions of KL over AS. Soil texture and specifically % composition and particle size of sand are proposed as key factors that influenced observed results. This research suggests that more suitable substrates are required for ecotoxicology tests with soil dwelling earthworms.

  11. A study of indoor radon levels in rural dwellings of Ezine (Canakkale, Turkey) using solid-state nuclear track detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgün, Y; Altinsoy, N; Sahin, S Y; Ataksor, B; Celebi, N

    2008-01-01

    Indoor radon activity level and radon effective dose (ED) rate have been carried out in the rural dwellings of Ezine (Canakkale) during the summer season using Radosys-2000, a complete set suitable to radon concentration measurements with CR-39 plastic alpha track detectors. The range of radon concentration varied between 9 and 300 Bq m(-3), with an average of 67.9 (39.9 SD) Bq m(-3). Assuming an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 and 0.4 for the equilibrium factor of radon indoors, it has been found that the 222Rn ED rate in the dwellings studied ranges from 0.4 to 5.2 mSv y(-1), with an average value of 1.7 (1.0) mSv y(-1). There is a possibility that low radon concentrations exist indoors during the summer season in the study area because of relatively high ventilation rates in the dwellings. A winter survey will be needed for future estimation of the annual ED.

  12. A study of indoor radon levels and radon effective dose in dwellings of some cities of Gezira State in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzain Abd-Elmoniem Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to natural sources of radiation, especially 222Rn and its short-lived daughter products has become an important issue throughout the world because sustained exposure of humans to indoor radon may cause lung cancer. The indoor radon concentration level and radon effective dose rate were carried out in the dwellings of Medani, El Hosh, Elmanagil, Haj Abd Allah, and Wad Almahi cities, Gezira State - Central Sudan, in 393 measurements, using passive integrated solid-state nuclear track devices containing allyl diglycol carbonate plastic detectors. The radon concentration in the corresponding dwellings was found to vary from (57 ± 8 Bq/m3 in Medani to 41 ± 9 Bq/m3 in Wad Almahi, with an average of 49 ± 10 Bq/m3. Assuming an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 and 0.4 for the equilibrium factor of radon indoors, we found that the annual effective dose rate from 222Rn in the studied dwellings ranges from 1.05 to 1.43 mSv per year and the relative lung cancer risk for radon exposure was 1.044%. In this research, we also correlated the relationship of radon concentration and building age. From our study, it is clear that the annual effective dose rate is larger than the “normal” background level as quoted by UNSCEAR, lower than the recommended action level of ICRP, and less than the maximum permissible dose defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  13. Estimation of prevalence of sarcopenia by using a new bioelectrical impedance analysis in Chinese community-dwelling elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hai, Shan; Cao, Li; Zhou, Jianghua; Liu, Ping; Dong, Bi-Rong

    2016-12-28

    The aim of the present study was to validate the usefulness of the new octapolar multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for assessment of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) by comparing it with that of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in Chinese community-dwelling elderly according to Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition. A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities of Chengdu, China. A total of 944 community-dwelling elderly adults aged ≥60 years were included. ASM was measured by using DXA as a criterion method to validate a standing eight-electrode multifrequency BIA (InBody 720), followed by a further estimation of the prevalence of sarcopenia according the AWGS definition. In the Bland-Altman analysis, no significant difference was found between DXA and BIA based on the ASM measurements. The prevalence of AWGS-defined sarcopenia was 12.5% in the elderly women and 8.2% in the elderly men. BIA is suitable for body composition monitoring (ASM) in elderly Chinese as a fast, noninvasive, and convenient method; therefore, it may be a better choice in large epidemiological studies in the Chinese population. The prevalence of AWGS-defined sarcopenia was approximately 10.4% and increased with age in the Chinese community-dwelling elderly in this study.

  14. Radon and thoron levels, their spatial and seasonal variations in adobe dwellings - a case study at the great Hungarian plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba; Horváth, Ákos; Holm, Óskar; Kocsy, Gábor; Csige, István; Szabó, Péter; Homoki, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Radon and thoron isotopes are responsible for approximately half of the average annual effective dose to humans. Although the half-life of thoron is short, it can potentially enter indoor air from adobe walls. Adobe was a traditional construction material in the Great Hungarian Plain. Its major raw materials are the alluvial sediments of the area. Here, seasonal radon and thoron activity concentrations were measured in 53 adobe dwellings in 7 settlements by pairs of etched track detectors. The results show that the annual average radon and thoron activity concentrations are elevated in these dwellings and that the proportions with values higher than 300 Bq m(-3) are 14-17 and 29-32% for radon and thoron, respectively. The calculated radon inhalation dose is significantly higher than the world average value, exceeding 10 mSv y(-1) in 7% of the dwellings of this study. Thoron also can be a significant contributor to the inhalation dose with about 30% in the total inhalation dose. The changes of weather conditions seem to be more relevant in the variation of measurement results than the differences in the local sedimentary geology. Still, the highest values were detected on clay. Through the year, radon follows the average temperature changes and is affected by the ventilation, whereas thoron rather seems to follow the amount of precipitation.

  15. Comparisons of the allergenic mite prevalence in dwellings and certain outdoor environments of the Upper Silesia (southwest Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarz, Krzysztof; Senczuk, Liliana; Maniurka, Hanna; Cichecka, Ewelina; Peszke, Magdalena

    2007-12-01

    The occurrence of allergenic mites (pyroglyphid house-dust mites, acarid and glycyphagid storage mites and others) in dwellings and in synanthropic outdoor sites in a densely populated urban area was investigated. A total of 335 house dust samples were collected from dwellings at 7 different locations in Upper Silesia (Poland), including 84 samples from dwellings of Katowice. Mites were found in 188 of the samples examined (56.1%). A total of 4410 mite specimens were isolated and identified, including 4212 members of the family Pyroglyphidae (95.51%). Among them, Dermatophagoides farinae was predominant (75.3%), followed by D. pteronyssinus (18.6%) and Euroglyphus maynei (1.5%). Moreover, litter soiled with communal wastes was sampled. All 86 samples contained mites. A total of 7547 mite specimens were isolated including 6050 mites known as allergenic (80.5%). Among the astigmatid mites two acarids were dominant: Tyrophagus silvester and T. longior (28.7% and 25.1% of all mites). It should be stressed that 6 of the acarid mite species or genera found in outdoor environments are typical domestic mites (T. putrescentiae), or they have been collected from house dust samples (T. longior, Tyrolichus casei, Thyreophagus entomophagus, Mycetoglyphus fungivorus and Rhizoglyphus robini). The litter of synanthropic sites can therefore form a substantial source of infestation.

  16. Comparison of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale to predict falls in community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yong-Jin; Kim, Gyoung-Mo

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the predictive properties of Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales, in a group of independently-functioning community dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety-seven community-dwelling older adults (male=39, female=58) who were capable of walking independently on assessment were included in this study. A binary logistic regression analysis of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale scores was used to investigate a predictive model for fall risk. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted for each, to determine the cut-off for optimal levels of sensitivity and specificity. [Results] The overall prediction success rate was 89.7%; the total Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale scores were significant in predicting fall risk. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined that a cut-off score of 40 out of 56 on the Berg Balance Scale produced the highest sensitivity (0.82) and specificity (0.67), and a cut-off score of 22 out of 40 on the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale produced the highest sensitivity (0.85) and specificity (0.65) in predicting faller status. [Conclusion] The Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales can predict fall risk, when used for independently-functioning community-dwelling older adults.

  17. The relation between social network site usage and loneliness and mental health in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, S; Peek, S T M; Wouters, E J M

    2015-09-01

    Loneliness is expected to become an even bigger social problem in the upcoming decades, because of the growing number of older adults. It has been argued that the use of social network sites can aid in decreasing loneliness and improving mental health. The purpose of this study was to examine whether and how social network sites usage is related to loneliness and mental health in community-dwelling older adults. The study population included community-dwelling older adults aged 60 and over residing in the Netherlands (n = 626) collected through the LISS panel (www.lissdata.nl). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, adjusted for potentially important confounders, were conducted in order to investigate the relation between social network sites usage and (emotional and social) loneliness and mental health. More than half of the individuals (56.2%) reported to use social network sites at least several times per week. Social network sites usage appeared unrelated to loneliness in general, and to emotional and social loneliness in particular. Social network sites usage also appeared unrelated to mental health. Several significant associations between related factors and the outcomes at hand were detected. In this sample, which was representative for the Dutch population, social network sites usage was unrelated to loneliness and/or mental health. The results indicate that a simple association between social network site usage and loneliness and mental health as such, cannot automatically be assumed in community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Perceived social determinants of health among older, rural-dwelling adults with early-stage cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Meghan K; Burke, Lora E; Baernholdt, Marianne; Hu, Lu; Nilsen, Marci L; Lingler, Jennifer H

    2017-01-01

    Limited access to resources and delayed detection of subtle cognitive changes may negatively impact the long-term cognitive health of rural-dwelling adults. This study explored perceived social determinants of health among older, rural-dwelling adults with early-stage cognitive impairment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with older, rural-dwelling adults with early-stage cognitive impairment and their care partners. Thematic content analysis was performed. Participants ( n = 9) were 73.7 ± 6.0 years of age with 14.2 ± 3.1 years of education; care partners ( n = 10) were 70.9 ± 7.4 years of age with 15.6 ± 2.3 years of education. Data analysis revealed six themes: Staying active, Eating well, Living with cognitive changes, Living rural, Connecting with neighbors and community, and Relying on children. Dyads' depictions of perceived social determinants of health focused on the adoption of a healthy lifestyle, description of relationships, and advantages of living in a rural area. Emergent themes may be used to promote adoption of self-management and prevention behaviors, particularly lifestyle changes.

  19. Evidence for the Treatment of Osteoporosis with Vitamin D in Residential Care and in the Community Dwelling Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. A. Geddes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vitamin D is common treatment for osteoporosis. Both age >70 years and living in residential care are associated with increased fracture risk. Community dwelling elderly are a heterogeneous group who may have more similatiry with residential care groups than younger community dwelling counterparts. Aims. To review the evidence for cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol tretment of osteoporosis in either community dwelling patients aged ≥70 years of age, or redidential care patients. Secondly endpoints were changes in bone mineral denisty, and in bone turnover markers. Methods. We performed a literature search using search terms for osteoporosis and vitamin D. Treatment for at least one year was required. Results. Only one residential care study using cholecalciferol, showed non-vertebral and hip fracture reduction in vitamin D deficient subjects. In the community setting one quasi randomised study using ergocalciferol showed reduction in total but not hip or non-vertebral fracture, and a second randomised study showed increased hip fracture risk. Three studies reported increases in hip bone mineral denisty. Discussion. A minority of studies demonstrated a fracture benefit form vitamin D and one suggested possible harm in a community setting. Current practice should be to only offer this treatment to subjects identified as deficient.

  20. Geosites of Lithuania as an environment for dwelling of specific biota: geo- and biodiversity interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga; Jukoniene, Ilona; Prigodina Lukosiene, Ingrida

    2016-04-01

    Surface of Lithuania and surrounding countries is sculptured by five glaciations, which left behind morainic tills and melt water deposits, modified by erosion and later used for agriculture or overgrown by wild meadows or forests. The glaciations also left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields that are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and surrounding countries. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Though sparse, but of high scientific value, Devonian, Permian, Triassic and Jurassic outcrops and quarries of Lithuania are variably protected. Quaternary scientists attempted to use single erratic boulders, their fields and abundances in tills to imply glacier dynamics. Some erratics came from known localities in Scandinavia and are called indicator boulders because they show the source and directions of ice sheet movements. Huge single boulders (e.g. 7 m long and 6 m high Puntukas, Anyksciai Regional Park) and wild boulder fields are natural monuments and attractive sites for visitors. Outcrops and quarries of Devonian dolomites and gypsium, Permian limestones and Jurassic sandstones widely used for a scientific research are parts of the protected geo-diversity in the Venta and Birzai regional parks, N and NW Lithuania. On the other hand, a large part of the c. 700 species of lichenized and allied fungi and of c. 500 bryophytes known in Lithuania are confined to natural or semi-natural (quarries) rocky habitats. Eight rock-dwelling lichen and nine bryophyte species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them are known from 1-2 localities or are thought to be extinct now. Besides, the recent investigations of dolomite quarries revealed them to be habitats for 7 bryophyte, 8 lichenized and lichenicolous species, previously unknown for Lithuania. One new lichenicolous species was discovered (Khodosovtsev et al., 2012). Some of the newfinds are rare or absent

  1. New challenges for energy certification of dwellings - we keep on learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, Dries; Vekemans, Guy [VITO (Belgium )

    2007-07-01

    In many European countries energy certification of existing dwellings is in an early stage of application. What have we learnt till now? Four main issues arise: how can we make the procedures less expensive and thus more acceptable for society, how can we nevertheless assure quality, how can we further improve the training of experts and finally what to do with the large amount of building and energy data resulting from energy certification?These issues are addressed on the basis of recent (2005-2006) field experience in Belgium. Over 300 energy experts have been trained in the last 2 years, feed-back information was evaluated. In addition the quality of the audits was controlled by several at random on-site check ups. Since the number of audits performed is limited, a quality evaluation is not yet possible, but certainly worthwhile in the near future, also with respect to experiences in other countries.At the same time the cost of the audits was very high and strongly dependant from expert to expert. This was a major drawback for the implementation. Therefore an analysis is on-going in which the balance between cost and accuracy is re-evaluated. Some time-saving tools are discussed.Finally a concept has been developed to process the large amount of valuable data resulting from the energy certification. Data from energy certification can be highly valuable for other studies and government policy programs. This last issue is being developed in the framework of an EIE-project called DATAMINE.

  2. Nationwide study of antipsychotic use among community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer's disease in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Marja-Liisa; Bell, J Simon; Lavikainen, Piia; Lönnroos, Eija; Sulkava, Raimo; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2011-12-01

    Antipsychotics continue to be widely used in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia despite their limited effectiveness and well-known risks, including increased mortality. Our aim was to investigate the national pattern of antipsychotic use among community-dwelling persons with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Finland. The Social Insurance Institution of Finland (SII) identified all persons with a verified diagnosis of AD in Finland on 31 December 2005. A control for each person with AD, matched in terms of age, sex and region of residence, was also identified. Data on reimbursed drug purchases in 2005 were extracted from the Finnish National Prescription Register. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the use of antipsychotics. The study population comprised 28,089 matched pairs of persons with and without AD (mean age 80.0 years, SD 6.8, 32.2% men). The annual prevalence of antipsychotic use was higher among persons with than without AD (22.1% vs. 4.4%, adjusted OR = 5.91; 95% CI 5.91-6.31). Among persons with AD, the prevalence of antipsychotic use was similar across all age groups. Of the antipsychotic users, 85.2% with AD and 51.3% without AD purchased second generation antipsychotics. Most antipsychotic prescriptions - 67.8% in the AD and 62.9% in the non-AD group - were generated in primary care situations. One-fifth of persons with AD used antipsychotic drugs. Antipsychotic use was six times more prevalent among persons with AD than without AD. Most antipsychotics were prescribed by primary care physicians.

  3. Weight loss and rapid cognitive decline in community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Maria E; Secher, Marion; Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Andrieu, Sandrine; Nourhashemi, Fati; Rolland, Yves; Vellas, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Weight loss is a frequent complication of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a strong predictor of adverse outcomes in patients suffering from this disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether weight loss was a predictor of rapid cognitive decline (RCD) in AD. Four hundred fourteen community-dwelling ambulatory patients with a diagnosis of probable AD and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score between 10 and 26 from the REAL.FR (REseau sur la maladie d'ALzheimer FRançais) cohort were studied and followed up during 4 years. Patients were classified in 2 groups according to weight loss defined by a loss of 4% or more during the first year of follow-up. RCD was defined as the loss of 3 points or more in MMSE over 6 months. The incidence of RCD was determined among both groups over the last 3 years of follow-up. MMSE, Katz's Activity of Daily Living scale, Mini-Nutritional Assessment scale, co-morbidities, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, medication, level of education, living arrangement, and caregiver's burden were assessed every 6 months. Eighty-seven patients (21.0%) lost 4% or more of their initial weight during the first year. The incidence of RCD for all patients was 57.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 51.6-64.8) per 100 person-year (median follow-up of 15.1 months). In Cox proportional hazards models, after controlling for potential confounders, weight loss was a significant predictor factor of RCD (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.04-2.17). In conclusion, weight loss predicted RCD in this cohort. Whether the prevention of weight loss (by improving nutritional status) impacts cognitive decline remains an open question.

  4. Relation of Late-Life Social Activity With Incident Disability Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patricia A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Bennett, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. We tested the hypothesis that a higher level of social activity was associated with decreased risk of incident disability in older adults. Methods. Data came from older adults in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal cohort study of aging. Analyses were restricted to persons without clinical dementia and reporting no need for help performing any task in the particular functional domain assessed. Participants were followed for an average of 5.1 years (SD = 2.5). Social activity, based on 6 items (visiting friends or relatives; going to restaurants, sporting events, or playing games; group meetings; church/religious services; day or overnight trips; unpaid community/volunteer work), was assessed at baseline. Disability in basic activities of daily living, mobility disability, and instrumental activities of daily living was assessed annually. Proportional hazard models adjusted for age, sex, and education were used to examine the association between social activity and incident disability. Fully adjusted models included terms for depression, vascular diseases and risk factors, body mass index, social networks, and self-reported physical activity. Results. In fully adjusted models, among 954 persons without baseline disability, the risk of developing disability in activities of daily living decreased by 43% (hazard ratio = 0.57, 95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.71) for each additional unit of social activity. Social activity was also associated with decreased risk of developing mobility disability (hazard ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval = 0.54, 0.88) and disability in instrumental activities of daily living (hazard ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval = 0.55, 0.93). Conclusions. Social activity is associated with a decreased risk of incident disability in activities of daily living, mobility, and instrumental activities of daily living, among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:21300745

  5. Ontogenetic shifts in terrestrial reliance of stream-dwelling brown trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on terrestrial reliance of brown trout (Salmo trutta and compared it to the potential prey available (macrozoobenthos and drifting invertebrates in three temperate rivers (Galicia, NW Spain, with special emphasis on variations in terrestrial energy intake through the ontogeny of brown trout. Additionally, we paid particular attention to individual variation of terrestrial resource use within and between age classes. Prey items were grouped in four categories: i aquatic invertebrates; ii imagoes of aquatic invertebrates; iii terrestrial invertebrates; and iv fish prey. Next, energy composition was measured according to dry weight-energy equations for each individual in line with above-mentioned prey categories. Our findings illustrate that terrestrial invertebrates appeared to be scarce in the environment, whereas aquatic food resources were rather abundant and accessible. The use of terrestrial invertebrates tended to increase with age, but with a high degree of inter-individual variation in resource use. In fact, the individual reliance of brown trout on terrestrial invertebrates may vary considerably (between 0% and 76.9%. Besides, the frequency of terrestrial foragers, i.e., individuals with terrestrial invertebrates in their stomachs, increased with age, except in one population which had the maximum value in the age-2 class. The acquisition of terrestrial invertebrates thus appears to be a process strongly dependent upon the actual food availability in the environment, but with a high degree of individual variance in resource use within the same age class. Finally, we discuss that terrestrial invertebrates may largely contribute to cover the energy intake of the species, highlighting the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and thereby the importance of riparian canopy cover as a key factor for food supply of stream-dwelling salmonids species.

  6. Comparison of two balance training programs on balance in community dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Walia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired balance has been associated with an increased risk for falls and a resulting increase in the mortality rate of elder people. Thus, balance-training interventions have an important place in fall prevention. This study was designed with the purpose of identifying the appropriate balance-training program for community dwelling elderly adults with an active lifestyle. A sample of 70 elderly adults were randomly allocated into two groups: group 1 (n=35 received general balance and mobility exercise; group 2 (n=35 received specific balance strategy training. The intervention consisted of 5 sessions/week for 4 weeks. The outcome measures were Timed up and go test (TUGT and Berg balance scale (BBS. An inter-group (2-way mixed model analysis of co-variance and intra-group (repeated measures analysis was done to find the change in balance scores. After the intervention, the TUGT scores in group 1 were, mean=10.38 s, standard deviation (SD=1.59 s and in group 2 were, mean=9.27 s, SD=1.13 s. Post training, BBS scores for group 1 were, mean=54.69, SD=1.13, and for group 2 were, mean=55.57, SD =0.56. There was a significant group × time effect for TUGT and BBS score. All the subjects showed significant changes in balance scores after balance training interventions. The subjects who participated in the specific balance-strategy training significantly improved their functional mobility, as shown on the TUGT, compared to the general training group.

  7. Measurements of indoor 222RN activity in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Del Claro, Flávia; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F. N.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy

    2014-11-01

    The present work describes the results of systematic measurements of radon (222Rn) in residential environments and workplaces in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba (Paraná State, Brazil) during the period 2004-2012. For radon in air activity measurements, polycarbonate Track Etch Detectors CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers protected by borosilicate glass fiber filters, were used. After being exposed in air, the CR-39 detectors were submitted to a chemical etching in a 6.25 M NaOH solution at 70 °C for 14 h. The alpha particle tracks were identified and manually counted with an optical microscope, and with the results of previously performed calibrations, the indoor activity concentration of 222Rn was calculated. The calibration of CR-39 and the alpha particle tracks chemical development procedures were performed in collaboration the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, Japan). The major part of indoor 222Rn concentration in residences was found to be below 100 Bq/m3. In the case of working places, all measurements of 222Rn concentrations were below 100 Bq/m3. These values are considered within the limits set by international regulatory agencies, such as the US EPA and ICRP, which adopt up to 148 and 300 Bq/m3 as upper values for the reference levels for radon gas activity in dwellings, respectively. The latest value of 300 Bq/m3 for radon activity in air is proposed by ICRP considering the upper value for the individual dose reference level for radon exposure of 10 mSv/yr.

  8. Gait patterns in a community-dwelling population aged 50 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, V J A; van der Geest, J N; Hoogendam, Y Y; Hofman, A; Breteler, M M B; Ikram, M A

    2013-04-01

    Poor gait is an important risk factor for falls and associated with higher morbidity and mortality. It is well established that older age is associated with worse gait, but it remains unclear at what age this association is first seen. Moreover, previous studies focused mainly on normal walking, but gait also encompasses turning and tandem walking. In a large study of community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons we investigated the association of age with gait, focusing on normal walking, turning and tandem walking. In 1500 persons aged 50 years and over, we measured gait using an electronic walkway. Participants performed normal walks, turning and a tandem walk. With principal components analysis of 30 variables we summarized gait into five known gait factors: Rhythm, Variability, Phases, Pace and Base of Support; and uncovered two novel gait factors: Tandem and Turning. The strongest associations with age were found for Variability (difference in Z-score -0.29 per 10 years increase (95% confidence interval: -0.34; -0.24)), Phases (-0.31 per 10 years (-0.36; -0.27)) and Tandem (-0.25 per 10 years (-0.30; -0.20)). Additionally, these factors already showed association with the youngest age groups, from 55 to 60 years of age and older. Our study shows that Variability, Phases and Tandem have the strongest association with age and are the earliest to demonstrate a poorer gait pattern with higher age. Future research should further investigate how these gait factors relate with gait-related diseases in their earliest stages.

  9. Sarco-Osteoporosis: Prevalence and Association with Frailty in Chinese Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jiao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to apply AWGS criteria to estimate the prevalence of sarco-osteoporosis and investigate its relationship with frailty, in a sample of 316 community-dwelling Chinese older people. Regression analysis was performed using frailty as the dependent variable. The results showed that the prevalence rate of sarco-osteoporosis was 10.4% in older men and 15.1% in older women. ≧80 years old (OR 4.8; 95% CI, 3.05–10.76; P=0.027, women (OR 2.6; 95% CI, 1.18–2.76; P=0.036, and higher level of comorbidity (OR 3.71; 95% CI, 1.61–10.43; P=0.021 were independently associated with the likelihood of being sarco-osteoporosis. In the frail group, sarco-osteoporosis occurred in 26.3% of men, in 38.5% of women, and in lower proportion in the prefrail (13.6% of men; 16.2% of women and nonfrail group (1.6% of men; 1.9% of women (P<0.05, resp.. Furthermore, the likelihood of being frail/prefrail was substantially higher in the presence of sarco-osteoporosis (OR 4.16; 95% CI, 2.17–17.65; P=0.019 in men; and OR 4.67; 95% CI, 2.42–18.86; P=0.007 in women. The results indicate that patients with sarco-osteoporosis are more likely to be ≧80 yrs with higher burden of comorbidities and to have frailty/prefrailty, especially for women.

  10. Grey matter correlates of susceptibility to scams in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke Han, S; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; James, Bryan D; Fleischman, Debra A; Bennett, David A

    2016-06-01

    Susceptibility to scams is a significant issue among older adults, even among those with intact cognition. Age-related changes in brain macrostructure may be associated with susceptibility to scams; however, this has yet to be explored. Based on previous work implicating frontal and temporal lobe functioning as important in decision making, we tested the hypothesis that susceptibility to scams is associated with smaller grey matter volume in frontal and temporal lobe regions in a large community-dwelling cohort of non-demented older adults. Participants (N = 327, mean age = 81.55, mean education = 15.30, 78.9 % female) completed a self-report measure used to assess susceptibility to scams and an MRI brain scan. Results indicated an inverse association between overall grey matter and susceptibility to scams in models adjusted for age, education, and sex; and in models further adjusted for cognitive function. No significant associations were observed for white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, or total brain volume. Models adjusted for age, education, and sex revealed seven clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, left middle temporal, left orbitofrontal, right ventromedial prefrontal, right middle temporal, right precuneus, and right dorsolateral prefrontal regions. In models further adjusted for cognitive function, results revealed three significant clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, right hippocampal, and right middle temporal regions. Lower grey matter concentration in specific brain regions may be associated with susceptibility to scams, even after adjusting for cognitive ability. Future research is needed to determine whether grey matter reductions in these regions may be a biomarker for susceptibility to scams in old age.

  11. Fall risks assessment among community dwelling elderly using wearable wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Soangra, Rahul; Frames, Chris

    2014-06-01

    Postural stability characteristics are considered to be important in maintaining functional independence free of falls and healthy life style especially for the growing elderly population. This study focuses on developing tools of clinical value in fall prevention: 1) Implementation of sensors that are minimally obtrusive and reliably record movement data. 2) Unobtrusively gather data from wearable sensors from four community centers 3) developed and implemented linear and non-linear signal analysis algorithms to extract clinically relevant information using wearable technology. In all a total of 100 community dwelling elderly individuals (66 non-fallers and 34 fallers) participated in the experiment. All participants were asked to stand-still in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) condition on forceplate with one wireless inertial sensor affixed at sternum level. Participants' history of falls had been recorded for last 2 years, with emphasis on frequency and characteristics of falls. Any participant with at least one fall in the prior year were classified as faller and the others as non-faller. The results indicated several key factors/features of postural characteristics relevant to balance control and stability during quite stance and, showed good predictive capability of fall risks among older adults. Wearable technology allowed us to gather data where it matters the most to answer fall related questions, i.e. the community setting environments. This study opens new prospects of clinical testing using postural variables with a wearable sensor that may be relevant for assessing fall risks at home and patient environment in near future.

  12. Reduced flexibility associated with metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Vin Chang

    Full Text Available The ageing process may lead to reductions in physical fitness, a known risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate cross-sectional and combined associations of metabolic syndrome with body composition and physical fitness in a community based geriatric population.A total of 628 community-dwelling elders attending a geriatric health examination were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III criterion with Asian cutoff of waist girth was adopted in this study. Body composition was obtained using bioimpedance analysis, and physical fitness was evaluated through the measurement of muscle strength (handgrip force, lower extremity muscle endurance (sit-to-stand test, flexibility (sit-and-reach test, and cardiorespiratory endurance (2-minute step test. Multivariable logistic regression and correlation analysis were performed to determine the association of metabolic syndrome with body composition and functionality variables.Metabolic syndrome was associated with increased skeletal muscle index (SMI (odds ratio (OR, 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.25-2.07 and decreased flexibility (OR, 0.97, 95% CI, 0.95-0.99 compared with those without metabolic syndrome. When body mass index was accounted for in the analysis, the association of SMI with metabolic syndrome was reduced. Waist circumference was positively correlated with SMI but negatively correlated with flexibility, whereas high density lipoprotein was positively correlated with flexibility but negatively correlated with SMI.Reduced flexibility was positively associated with metabolic syndrome independent of age, gender, body composition, and functionality measurements in a community based geriatric population. Significant associations between metabolic syndrome with muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in the

  13. Controlled whole-body vibration training reduces risk of falls among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; King, George A; Dillon, Loretta; Su, Xiaogang

    2015-09-18

    The primary purpose of this study was to systematically examine the effects of an 8-week controlled whole-body vibration training on reducing the risk of falls among community-dwelling adults. Eighteen healthy elderlies received vibration training which was delivered on a side alternating vibration platform in an intermittent way: five repetitions of 1 min vibration followed by a 1 min rest. The vibration frequency and amplitude were 20 Hz and 3.0mm respectively. The same training was repeated 3 times a week, and the entire training lasted for 8 weeks for a total of 24 training sessions. Immediately prior to (or pre-training) and following (or post-training) the 8-week training course, all participants' risk of falls were evaluated in terms of body balance, functional mobility, muscle strength and power, bone density, range of motion at lower limb joints, foot cutaneous sensation level, and fear of falling. Our results revealed that the training was able to improve all fall risk factors examined with moderate to large effect sizes ranging between 0.55 and 1.26. The important findings of this study were that an 8-week vibration training could significantly increase the range of motion of ankle joints on the sagittal plane (6.4° at pre-training evaluation vs. 9.6° at post-training evaluation for dorsiflexion and 45.8° vs. 51.9° for plantar-flexion, pvibration training paradigm for fall prevention among older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The ecological and geographic context of morphological and genetic divergence in an understorey-dwelling bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela M Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Advances in understanding the process of species formation require an integrated perspective that includes the evaluation of spatial, ecological and genetic components. One approach is to focus on multiple stages of divergence within the same species. Species that comprise phenotypically different populations segregated in apparently distinct habitats, in which range is presently continuous but was putatively geographically isolated provide an interesting system to study the mechanisms of population divergence. Here, we attempt to elucidate the role of ecology and geography in explaining observed morphological and genetic variation in an understorey-dwelling bird endemic to southeastern Africa, where two subspecies are recognized according to phenotype and habitat affinity. We carried out a range-wide analysis of climatic requirements, morphological and genetic variation across southeast Africa to test the hypothesis that the extent of gene flow among populations of the brown scrub-robin are influenced by their distinct climatic niches. We recovered two distinct trends depending on whether our analyses were hierarchically structured at the subspecies or at the within subspecies level. Between subspecies we found pronounced morphological differentiation associated with strong reproductive isolation (no gene flow between populations occupying divergent climatic niches characterized by changes in the temperature of the warmest and wettest month. In contrast, within subspecies, we recovered continuous morphological variation with extensive gene flow among populations inhabiting the temperate and sub-tropical forests of southern Africa, despite divergence along the climate axis that is mainly determined by minimum temperature and precipitation of the coldest months. Our results highlight the role of niche divergence as a diversifying force that can promote reproductive isolation in vertebrates.

  15. Preventive home visits to older home-dwelling people in Denmark: are invitational procedures of importance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmann, A; Vass, M; Avlund, K

    2010-11-01

    Since 1998 all municipalities in Denmark have been required by law to offer two annual preventive home visits to all home-dwelling citizens aged 75 or over. The influence of invitational procedures on acceptance rates has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to describe and investigate whether different invitational procedures were associated with first preventive home visit acceptance rates. The study was based on secondary analyses of data from the Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits. Data were collected from 1998 to 2002. Of the 4060 participants in the main study, 3245 reported receiving an offer for an identifiable preventive home visit, of whom 2399 (73.9%) provided complete data for the main analyses in the present study. Invitational procedures were categorised as: (1) a letter with a proposed date and time for the visit, (2) a visitor telephone call, and (3) a letter with encouragement to phone the visitor for appointment (letter without a proposed date). Covariates included sex, age, experience with preventive interventions, functional ability, self rated health, social relations and psychosocial characteristics. Statistical analyses included chi-square tests, and bi- and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Different invitational procedures were associated with first preventive home visit acceptance rates. Significantly more men (75.1%) than women (62.8%) declined the first preventive home visit regardless of the invitational procedure. Compared to 'letter with a proposed date', men had an odds ratio of 1.78 (95% CI: 1.16-2.74) for declining visits when 'telephone call' was used and an odds ratio 2.81 (95% CI: 1.79-4.40) when 'letter without a proposed date' was used as the invitational procedure. In women the odds ratios were 1.23 (95% CI: 0.91-1.68) and 1.87 (95% CI: 1.37-2.55), respectively.

  16. Functional and cognitive changes in community-dwelling elderly: Longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina S. Figueiredo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between aging and increased life expectancy in the overall population likely contributes to a higher frequency rate and incidence of illnesses and functional disabilities. Physical dependence and cognitive impairment might hinder the performance of activities and result in an overload of care duties for the patient's family and the healthcare system. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the functional and cognitive changes exhibited by the elderly over a 6-month period. METHOD: This longitudinal and observational study was conducted in a sample of 167 elderly people, who were selected from the database of the Network of Studies on Frailty in Brazilian Elderly, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG. The participants submitted to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Katz Index, Lawton and Brody's scale and responded to items on Advanced Activities of Daily Living (AADLs. We analyzed the data using multivariate regression models. RESULTS: The participants' functional capacity exhibited reduced performance of specific instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs, p=0.002, and basic activities of daily living (BADLs, p=0.038. Living alone (odds ratio (OR, 2.53; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.09-5.87 and work status (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.18-5.41 were associated with changes in the IADLs. The scores in the AADL scale (p=0.163 and MMSE (p=0.059 did not exhibit any significant difference during the study period. The participants with better cognitive function were more independent in their performance of AADLs and IADLs. CONCLUSION: The results depict specific patterns of loss and stability of functional capacity in community-dwelling elderly.

  17. [Homebound status and life space among Japanese community-dwelling elderly in an urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Shibui, Yu; Kawashima, Takako; Kano, Noriko; Toratani, Akiko; Tachibana, Reiko; Shibuta, Keiko; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2011-10-01

    To examine the relationship between homebound status and physical, mental, social and life space factors among community-dwelling elderly in an urban area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a mail-in self-administered questionnaire between July and September 2009. The target population comprised 149,991 community residents, aged 65 years and over, living in Setagaya Ward, Tokyo, as of April 2009. "Homebound" was defined as going out (leaving the home) only once a week or less. The respondents were further identified as "type 1" or "type 2" homebound; type 1 included those with a low frequency of outings and low mobility level, and type 2 included those with a low frequency of outings despite having a high mobility level. Questionnaire items encompassed frequency of outings and demographic data, as well as physical, mental, social and life space factors. A total of 103,684 questionnaires were included in the analysis (valid response rate: 69.1%). Among the participants, 3.7% were found to be type 1 homebound and 4.5% were type 2. The older the age group, the higher was the proportion of both types of homebound. Physical and social factors were associated with type 1 homebound, and physical, mental and social factors with type 2. Moreover, regarding the life space factor, poor physical accessibility of the home was associated with type 2 homebound, and less space utilization in daily life was associated with both types. It is important for homebound reduction among the elderly to address the physical, mental and social factors that affect homebound status. In addition, assessing the current home environment and expanding the daily living space could also be strategies to reduce homebound prevalence among the elderly. Collaboration with the housing and public transportation sectors is needed to plan a comprehensive homebound reduction strategy.

  18. Population genetics of self-incompatibility in a clade of relict cliff-dwelling plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jose L; Brennan, Adrian C; Mejías, José A

    2016-01-01

    The mating systems of species in small or fragmented populations impact upon their persistence. Small self-incompatible (SI) populations risk losing S allele diversity, responsible for the SI response, by drift thereby limiting mate availability and leading to population decline or SI system breakdown. But populations of relict and/or endemic species have resisted these demographic conditions over long periods suggesting their mating systems have adapted. To address a lack of empirical data on this topic, we studied the SI systems of three relict cliff-dwelling species of Sonchus section Pustulati (Asteraceae): S. masguindalii, S. fragilis and S. pustulatus in the western Mediterranean region. We performed controlled pollinations within and between individuals to measure index of SI (ISI) expression and identify S alleles in multiple population samples. Sonchus masguindalii and S. pustulatus showed strong SI (ISI = 0.6-1.0) compared to S. fragilis (ISI = 0.1-0.7). Just five S alleles were estimated for Spanish S. pustulatus and a moderate 11-15 S alleles for Moroccan S. pustulatus and S. fragilis, respectively. The fact that autonomous fruit set was generally improved by active self-pollination in self-compatible S. fragilis suggests that individuals with weak SI can show a wide range of outcrossing levels dependent on the degree of self or outcross pollen that pollinators bear. We conclude that frequent S allele dominance interactions that mask the incompatibility interactions of recessive S alleles leading to higher mate availability and partial breakdown of SI leading to mixed mating, both contribute to reproductive resilience in this group.

  19. Computer-adaptive balance testing improves discrimination between community-dwelling elderly fallers and nonfallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardasaney, Poonam K; Ni, Pengsheng; Slavin, Mary D; Latham, Nancy K; Wagenaar, Robert C; Bean, Jonathan; Jette, Alan M

    2014-07-01

    To build an item response theory-based computer adaptive test (CAT) for balance from 3 traditional, fixed-form balance measures: Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), and dynamic gait index (DGI); and to examine whether the CAT's psychometric performance exceeded that of individual measures. Secondary analysis combining 2 existing datasets. Community based. Community-dwelling older adults (N=187) who were aged ≥65 years (mean age, 75.2±6.8y, 69% women). Not applicable. The BBS, POMA, and DGI items were compiled into an initial 38-item bank. The Rasch partial credit model was used for final item bank calibration. CAT simulations were conducted to identify the ideal CAT. CAT score accuracy, reliability, floor and ceiling effects, and validity were examined. Floor and ceiling effects and validity of the CAT and individual measures were compared. A 23-item bank met model expectations. A 10-item CAT was selected, showing a very strong association with full item bank scores (r=.97) and good overall reliability (.78). Reliability was better in low- to midbalance ranges as a result of better item targeting to balance ability when compared with the highest balance ranges. No floor effect was noted. The CAT ceiling effect (11.2%) was significantly lower than the POMA (40.1%) and DGI (40.3%) ceiling effects (Pbalance CAT showed excellent accuracy, good overall reliability, and excellent validity compared with individual measures, being the only measure to discriminate between fallers and nonfallers. Prospective examination, particularly in low-functioning older adults and clinical populations with balance deficits, is recommended. Development of an improved CAT based on an expanded item bank containing higher difficulty items is also recommended. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oily Fish Intake and Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: The Atahualpa Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Gillman, Jennifer; Zambrano, Mauricio; Ha, Jung-eun

    2016-02-01

    Due to their high content of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, oily fish consumption is likely associated with a better cognitive performance. However, information on this association is controversial, with some studies showing a positive effect while others showing no association. We aimed to assess the effects of oily fish consumption on cognitive performance in a population of frequent fish consumers living in rural coastal Ecuador. Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years were identified during a door-to-door survey and evaluated by the use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Oily fish servings per week were calculated in all participants. We estimated whether fish intake correlated with MoCA scores in generalized multivariate linear models adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, edentulism and symptoms of depression. Out of 330 eligible persons, 307 (93%) were enrolled. Mean MoCA scores were 19 ± 4.8 points, and mean oily fish consumption was 8.6 ± 5.3 servings per week. In multivariate analyses, MoCA scores were related to fish servings (β 0.097, 95% CI 0.005-0.188, p = 0.038). Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing showed an inflection point in the total MoCA score curve at four fish servings per week. However, predictive margins of the MoCA score were similar across groups below and above this point, suggesting a direct linear relationship between oily fish intake and cognitive performance. Simple preventive measures, such as modifying dietary habits might be of value to reduce the rate of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults living in underserved populations.

  1. Relationship between tooth loss and mortality in 80-year-old Japanese community-dwelling subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torisu Takehiro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Findings from several studies suggest associations between tooth loss and health outcomes, including malnutrition, poor quality of life, and mortality, in older individuals. However, limited information is available regarding whether those associations remain true in very elderly subjects after adequately considering confounding factors such as sex and smoking status. Herein, we determined whether the number of teeth in 80-year-old subjects is an independent predictor of mortality. Methods We initially contacted 1282 80-year-old community-dwelling individuals born in 1917, of whom 697 responded and participated in a baseline study, with follow-up examinations conducted 4 and 5.5 years later. Data from interviews and medical and oral examinations were obtained, and oral health was determined according to the number of teeth remaining in the oral cavity. Results A total of 108 and 157 subjects died in 4 years and 5.5 years, respectively, after the baseline study. Tooth loss was significantly associated with mortality at age 85.5, but not at age 84, after adjusting for potential confounders. When the analysis was stratified by sex, we found a stronger association in females in follow-up examinations conducted at both 4- and 5.5 years. On the other hand, the effect of tooth loss on mortality was not significantly different between smokers and non-smokers. Conclusion Tooth loss is a significant predictor of mortality independent of health factors, socio-economic status, and lifestyle in octogenarians, with a stronger association in females.

  2. Does smart home technology prevent falls in community-dwelling older adults: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pietrzak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls in older Australians are an increasingly costly public health issue, driving the development of novel modes of intervention, especially those that rely on computer-driven technologies.Objective: The aim of this paper was to gain an understanding of the state of the art of research on smart homes and computer-based monitoring technologies to prevent and detect falls in the community-dwelling elderly.Method: Cochrane, Medline, Embase and Google databases were searched for articles on fall prevention in the elderly using pre-specified search terms. Additional papers were searched for in the reference lists of relevant reviews and by the process of ‘snowballing’. Only studies that investigated outcomes related to falling such as fall prevention and detection, change in participants’ fear of falling and attitudes towards monitoring technology were included.Results: Nine papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The following outcomes were observed: (1 older adults’ attitudes towards fall detectors and smart home technology are generally positive; (2 privacy concerns and intrusiveness of technology were perceived as less important to participants than their perception of health needs and (3 unfriendly and age-inappropriate design of the interface may be one of the deciding factors in not using the technology.Conclusion: So far, there is little evidence that using smart home technology may assist in fall prevention or detection, but there are some indications that it may increase older adults’ confidence and sense of security, thus possibly enabling aging in place. 

  3. Predictors of outcomes following reablement in community-dwelling older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntland, Hanne; Kjeken, Ingvild; Langeland, Eva; Folkestad, Bjarte; Espehaug, Birgitte; Førland, Oddvar; Aaslund, Mona Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Background Reablement is a rehabilitation intervention for community-dwelling older adults, which has recently been implemented in several countries. Its purpose is to improve functional ability in daily occupations (everyday activities) perceived as important by the older person. Performance and satisfaction with performance in everyday life are the major outcomes of reablement. However, the evidence base concerning which factors predict better outcomes and who receives the greatest benefit in reablement is lacking. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the potential factors that predict occupational performance and satisfaction with that performance at 10 weeks follow-up. Methods The sample in this study was derived from a nationwide clinical controlled trial evaluating the effects of reablement in Norway and consisted of 712 participants living in 34 municipalities. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate possible predictors of occupational performance (COPM-P) and satisfaction with that performance (COPM-S) at 10 weeks follow-up based on the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Results The results indicate that the factors that significantly predicted better COPM-P and COPM-S outcomes at 10 weeks follow-up were higher baseline scores of COPM-P and COPM-S respectively, female sex, having a fracture as the major health condition and high motivation for rehabilitation. Conversely, the factors that significantly predicted poorer COPM-P and COPM-S outcomes were having a neurological disease other than stroke, having dizziness/balance problems as the major health condition and having pain/discomfort. In addition, having anxiety/depression was a predictor of poorer COPM-P outcomes. The two regression models explained 38.3% and 38.8% of the total variance of the dependent variables of occupational performance and satisfaction with that performance, respectively. Conclusion The results indicate that diagnosis, functional level

  4. Loneliness and all-cause mortality in community-dwelling elderly Singaporeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Loneliness is a significant risk factor for mortality among older adults. There are several pathways through which loneliness may operate to increase mortality risk, ranging from biological responses and individual perceptions to social interactions and environmental factors. The proportion of single older (65+ person households has doubled in the last ten years in Singapore. Yet little is understood about the relationship between loneliness, social isolation, and mortality risk among older adults, in Singapore and in Asian contexts in general. Objective: To assess the impact of loneliness and social isolation on the risk of all-cause mortality over a four-year period, controlling for demographic characteristics and health status at baseline. Methods: We used data from a longitudinal survey of community-dwelling Singaporean elderly (N=4,522. Loneliness was assessed using the UCLA three-item loneliness scale. Unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate mortality risk. Results: In the final adjusted model, living arrangements and social networks outside the household were not associated with all-cause mortality. Loneliness increased the risk of all-cause mortality; those sometimes lonely and mostly lonely were 44.0Š (p=0.005 and 39.0Š (p=0.059 more likely to die compared to those not lonely. Conclusions: Loneliness is associated with higher mortality risks among Singaporean elderly. Mental health among the older population is a major public health concern and community interventions are needed to more efficiently identify, raise awareness of, and increase care for the lonely elderly in the community.

  5. Correlates of excessive daytime sleepiness in community-dwelling older adults: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Camila Astolphi; Soares, Wuber Jefferson de Souza; Bilton, Tereza Loffredo; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Ferrioll, Eduardo; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) imposes a wide range of adverse health-related outcomes in older people, such as disability, which impair everyday activities and may increase the risk of fall. Few studies have explored EDS in Brazilian older people living in the community who are typically cared in primary health services. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of EDS and its sociodemographic, physical and mental health correlates among community-dwelling older adults. This is an exploratory, population-based study derived from Frailty in Brazilian Older Adults (FIBRA) study including adults aged 65 years and older. Participants with a score ≥ 11 points on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were considered as having excessive daytime sleepiness. A structured, multidimensional questionnaire was used to investigate sociodemographic, physical and mental health, and self-rated health variables. The sample was composed of 776 older adults, of whom 21% (n = 162) presented excessive daytime sleepiness. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that EDS is associated with obesity (OR = 1.50; 95%CI 1.02 - 2.20), urinary incontinence (OR = 1.53; 95%CI 1.01 - 2.31), poor self-rated health (OR = 1.54; 95%CI 1.06 - 2.24), and depression symptoms (OR = 1.49; 95%CI 1.00 - 2.20). Our results suggest that healthcare professionals should identify older adults with EDS and implement intervention strategies to minimize the negative impact of the co-occurrence of this condition with obesity, depression and urinary incontinence over health and quality of life.

  6. Lipid peroxidation and depressed mood in community-dwelling older men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Milaneschi

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that cellular damage caused by oxidative stress is associated with late-life depression but epidemiological evidence is limited. In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α, a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, and depressed mood in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults. Participants were selected from the Health, Aging and Body Composition study, a community-based longitudinal study of older persons (aged 70-79 years. The present analyses was based on a subsample of 1027 men and 948 women free of mobility disability. Urinary concentration of 8-iso-PGF2α was measured by radioimmunoassay methods and adjusted for urinary creatinine. Depressed mood was defined as a score greater than 5 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale and/or use of antidepressant medications. Depressed mood was present in 3.0% of men and 5.5% of women. Depressed men presented higher urinary concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α than non-depressed men even after adjustment for multiple sociodemographic, lifestyle and health factors (p = 0.03, Cohen's d = 0.30. This association was not present in women (depressed status-by-sex interaction p = 0.04. Our study showed that oxidative damage may be linked to depression in older men from a large sample of the general population. Further studies are needed to explore whether the modulation of oxidative stress may break down the link between late-life depression and its deleterious health consequences.

  7. Toxicity of silicon carbide nanowires to sediment-dwelling invertebrates in water or sediment exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ritts, Andrew; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

    2011-01-01

    Silicon carbide nanowires (SiCNW) are insoluble in water. When released into an aquatic environment, SiCNW would likely accumulate in sediment. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of SiCNW to four freshwater sediment-dwelling organisms: amphipods (Hyalella azteca), midges (Chironomus dilutus), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), and mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea). Amphipods were exposed to either sonicated or nonsonicated SiCNW in water (1.0 g/L) for 48 h. Midges, mussels, and oligochaetes were exposed only to sonicated SiCNW in water for 96 h. In addition, amphipods were exposed to sonicated SiCNW in whole sediment for 10 d (44% SiCNW on dry wt basis). Mean 48-h survival of amphipods exposed to nonsonicated SiCNW in water was not significantly different from the control, whereas mean survival of amphipods exposed to sonicated SiCNW in two 48-h exposures (0 or 15% survival) was significantly different from the control (90 or 98% survival). In contrast, no effect of sonicated SiCNW was observed on survival of midges, mussels, or oligochaetes. Survival of amphipods was not significantly reduced in 10-d exposures to sonicated SiCNW either mixed in the sediment or layered on the sediment surface. However, significant reduction in amphipod biomass was observed with the SiCNW either mixed in sediment or layered on the sediment surface, and the reduction was more pronounced for SiCNW layered on the sediment. These results indicated that, under the experimental conditions, nonsonicated SiCNW in water were not acutely toxic to amphipods, sonicated SiCNW in water were acutely toxic to the amphipods, but not to other organisms tested, and sonicated SiCNW in sediment affected the growth but not the survival of amphipods.

  8. The ecological and geographic context of morphological and genetic divergence in an understorey-dwelling bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ângela M; Lloyd, Penn; Dean, W Richard J; Brown, Mark; Bowie, Rauri C K

    2014-01-01

    Advances in understanding the process of species formation require an integrated perspective that includes the evaluation of spatial, ecological and genetic components. One approach is to focus on multiple stages of divergence within the same species. Species that comprise phenotypically different populations segregated in apparently distinct habitats, in which range is presently continuous but was putatively geographically isolated provide an interesting system to study the mechanisms of population divergence. Here, we attempt to elucidate the role of ecology and geography in explaining observed morphological and genetic variation in an understorey-dwelling bird endemic to southeastern Africa, where two subspecies are recognized according to phenotype and habitat affinity. We carried out a range-wide analysis of climatic requirements, morphological and genetic variation across southeast Africa to test the hypothesis that the extent of gene flow among populations of the brown scrub-robin are influenced by their distinct climatic niches. We recovered two distinct trends depending on whether our analyses were hierarchically structured at the subspecies or at the within subspecies level. Between subspecies we found pronounced morphological differentiation associated with strong reproductive isolation (no gene flow) between populations occupying divergent climatic niches characterized by changes in the temperature of the warmest and wettest month. In contrast, within subspecies, we recovered continuous morphological variation with extensive gene flow among populations inhabiting the temperate and sub-tropical forests of southern Africa, despite divergence along the climate axis that is mainly determined by minimum temperature and precipitation of the coldest months. Our results highlight the role of niche divergence as a diversifying force that can promote reproductive isolation in vertebrates.

  9. Relationship between subjective assessment of oral health and medical expenses in community-dwelling elderly persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Eriko; Moriya, Shingo; Murata, Ayumi; Muramatsu, Masumi; Kashiwazaki, Haruhiko; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Notani, Kenji; Inoue, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The increasing medical expenses of elderly persons in Japan’s rapidly ageing society have become a major concern. It is therefore important to elucidate the factors associated with such escalation. Here, we focused on the relationship between subjective self-assessment of oral health, as an index of general health, and medical expenses (excluding dental repair) under the hypothesis that oral health contributes to general medical expenses. Several studies have shown that oral health status is correlated with general health status among elderly persons. We speculated that oral health status might show a relation with medical costs among elderly persons. However, few studies have investigated this relationship to date. Materials and Methods Participants were 259 elderly subjects (range: 65–84 years; 120 men, 139 women) residing independently. Subjective assessment of oral health was evaluated by their responses (‘Good’, ‘Not good’ and ‘Not at all good’) on a survey questionnaire. The correlation between subjective assessment of oral health and medical expenditure was analysed using Spearman’s rank method, the Mann–Whitney U-test and the Kruskal–Wallis test. Medical expenses were used as the dependent variable in multinomial logistic regression analysis with background and intraoral factors as independent variables. Results A slight yet statistically significant correlation was observed between subjective assessment of oral health and outpatient treatment fees. Conclusion The findings revealed that subjective assessment of oral health is significantly and independently related to the medical expenses of community-dwelling elderly persons after adjusting for social background, living environment and physical factors. PMID:21306431

  10. Density-Dependent Effects of an Invasive Ant on a Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, M; Sim, D A; Lester, P J

    2015-02-01

    It is frequently assumed that an invasive species that is ecologically or economically damaging in one region, will typically be so in other environments. The Argentine ant Linepithema humile (Mayr) is listed among the world's worst invaders. It commonly displaces resident ant species where it occurs at high population densities, and may also reduce densities of other ground-dwelling arthropods. We investigated the effect of varying Argentine ant abundance on resident ant and nonant arthropod species richness and abundance in seven cities across its range in New Zealand. Pitfall traps were used to compare an invaded and uninvaded site in each city. Invaded sites were selected based on natural varying abundance of Argentine ant populations. Argentine ant density had a significant negative effect on epigaeic ant abundance and species richness, but hypogaeic ant abundance and species richness was unaffected. We observed a significant decrease in Diplopoda abundance with increasing Argentine ant abundance, while Coleoptera abundance increased. The effect on Amphipoda and Isopoda depended strongly on climate. The severity of the impact on negatively affected taxa was reduced in areas where Argentine ant densities were low. Surprisingly, Argentine ants had no effect on the abundance of the other arthropod taxa examined. Morphospecies richness for all nonant arthropod taxa was unaffected by Argentine ant abundance. Species that are established as invasive in one location therefore cannot be assumed to be invasive in other locations based on presence alone. Appropriate management decisions should reflect this knowledge. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF SELF-REPORTED AGE AT MENOPAUSE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heather F.; Northington, Gina M.; Kaye, Elise M.; Bogner, Hillary R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. METHOD Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of the age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall of age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. RESULTS One hundred and forty three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) of women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994 while 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among women with surgical menopause, women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.15, 0.91]) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years from menopause. CONCLUSIONS Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause. PMID:21971208

  12. Measuring what matters in delivering services to remote-dwelling Indigenous mothers and infants in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Malinda; Rumbold, Alice R; Kildea, Sue; Bar-Zeev, Sarah J; Kruske, Sue; Dunbar, Terry; Barclay, Lesley

    2012-08-01

    In the Northern Territory, 64% of Indigenous births are to remote-dwelling mothers. Delivering high-quality health care in remote areas is challenging, but service improvements, informed by participative action research, are under way. Evaluation of these initiatives requires appropriate indicators. Few of the many existing maternal and infant health indicators are specifically framed for the remote context or exemplify an Indigenous consumer perspective. We aimed to identify an indicator framework with appropriate indicators to demonstrate improvements in health outcomes, determinants of health and health system performance for remote-dwelling mothers and infants from pregnancy to first birthday. We reviewed existing indicators; invited input from experts; investigated existing administrative data collections and examined findings from a record audit, ethnographic work and the evaluation of the Darwin Midwifery Group Practice. Northern Territory. About 660 potentially relevant indicators were identified. We adapted the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework and populated the resulting framework with chosen indicators. We chose the indicators best able to monitor the impact of changes to remote service delivery by eliminating duplicated or irrelevant indicators using expert opinion, triangulating data and identifying key issues for remote maternal and infant health service improvements. We propose 31 indicators to monitor service delivery to remote-dwelling Indigenous mothers and infants. Our inclusive indicator framework covers the period from pregnancy to the first year of life and includes existing indicators, but also introduces novel ones. We also attempt to highlight an Indigenous consumer. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  13. Exercise rehabilitation on home-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease--a randomized, controlled trial. Study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkala, Kaisu H; Raivio, Minna M; Laakkonen, Marja-Liisa; Tilvis, Reijo S; Kautiainen, Hannu; Strandberg, Timo E

    2010-10-06

    Besides cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD) leads to physical disability, need for help and permanent institutional care. The trials investigating effects of exercise rehabilitation on physical functioning of home-dwelling older dementia patients are still scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of intensive exercise rehabilitation lasting for one year on mobility and physical functioning of home-dwelling patients with AD. During years 2008-2010, patients with AD (n = 210) living with their spousal caregiver in community are recruited using central AD registers in Finland, and they are offered exercise rehabilitation lasting for one year. The patients are randomized into three arms: 1) tailored home-based exercise twice weekly 2) group-based exercise twice weekly in rehabilitation center 3) control group with usual care and information of exercise and nutrition. Main outcome measures will be Guralnik's mobility and balance tests and FIM-test to assess physical functioning. Secondary measures will be cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms according to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, caregivers' burden, depression and health-related quality of life (RAND-36). Data concerning admissions to institutional care and the use and costs of health and social services will be collected during a two year follow-up. To our knowledge this is the first large scale trial exploring whether home-dwelling patients with AD will benefit from intense and long-lasting exercise rehabilitation in respect to their mobility and physical functioning. It will also provide data on cost-effectiveness of the intervention. ACTRN12608000037303.

  14. Supervision of care networks for frail community dwelling adults aged 75 years and older: protocol of a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verver, Didi; Merten, Hanneke; Robben, Paul; Wagner, Cordula

    2015-08-25

    The Dutch healthcare inspectorate (IGZ) supervises the quality and safety of healthcare in the Netherlands. Owing to the growing population of (community dwelling) older adults and changes in the Dutch healthcare system, the IGZ is exploring new methods to effectively supervise care networks that exist around frail older adults. The composition of these networks, where formal and informal care takes place, and the lack of guidelines and quality and risk indicators make supervision complicated in the current situation. This study consists of four phases. The first phase identifies risks for community dwelling frail older adults in the existing literature. In the second phase, a qualitative pilot study will be conducted to assess the needs and wishes of the frail older adults concerning care and well-being, perception of risks, and the composition of their networks, collaboration and coordination between care providers involved in the network. In the third phase, questionnaires based on the results of phase II will be sent to a larger group of frail older adults (n=200) and their care providers. The results will describe the composition of their care networks and prioritise risks concerning community dwelling older adults. Also, it will provide input for the development of a new supervision framework by the IGZ. During phase IV, a second questionnaire will be sent to the participants of phase III to establish changes of perception in risks and possible changes in the care networks. The framework will be tested by the IGZ in pilots, and the researchers will evaluate these pilots and provide feedback to the IGZ. The study protocol was approved by the Scientific Committee of the EMGO+institute and the Medical Ethical review committee of the VU University Medical Centre. Results will be presented in scientific articles and reports and at meetings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  15. Lateral and "vertico-lateral" cave dwellings in Haddej and Guermessa: characteristic geocultural heritage of Southeast Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhchim, Nouri; Ben Fraj, Tarek; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Southeast Tunisia is known for different types of cave dwellings developed for centuries on the Matmata-Dahar plateau. Their shaping takes into account the geological and geomorphological context of the sites. They thus provide an interesting example of geoheritage on which was developed an important cultural and architectural heritage. Most of these sites are now not more used and partly abandoned. An interdisciplinary research - crossing geomorphological and archaeological approaches - was carried out in two sites: Haddej and Guermessa. Haddej site belongs to the Matmata area and its surroundings located in the northern part of the plateau. It is characterized by cave dwellings dug vertically and then laterally in the Quaternary wind silt accumulations (loess) filling the valleys that dissect the plateau surface. The latter corresponds to the back of a monoclinic structure cuesta.Guermessa site belongs to the Tataouine region, located in the southern part of the plateau. It is characterized by troglodyte dwellings dug laterally in alternations of limestone, clay, marl and dolomite layers of Cenomanian and Turonian age. These alternations are the backbone of buttes still partially attached to the front of the cuesta. Both sites offer favourable conditions for geomorphological study. They exhibit a wide range of structural landforms within the monoclinic structure, and their surroundings present a variety of shapes and Quaternary formations allowing the study of the geomorphological and palaeoenvironmental changes that happened during the Quaternary in this now arid region. These geosites were assessed using the method developed by the University of Lausanne (Reynard et al. 2015), which allowed us to assign them a strong scientific, aesthetic, cultural, educational and tourist value. Proposals for their tourist promotion were then proposed taking into account the lack of maintenance that reduces their cultural and tourist value. Reference Reynard E., Perret A

  16. An improved automated procedure for informal and temporary dwellings detection and enumeration, using mathematical morphology operators on VHR satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerowicz, Małgorzata; Kemper, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Every year thousands of people are displaced by conflicts or natural disasters and often gather in large camps. Knowing how many people have been gathered is crucial for an efficient relief operation. However, it is often difficult to collect exact information on the total number of the population. This paper presents the improved morphological methodology for the estimation of dwellings structures located in several Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) Camps, based on Very High Resolution (VHR) multispectral satellite imagery with pixel sizes of 1 meter or less including GeoEye-1, WorldView-2, QuickBird-2, Ikonos-2, Pléiades-A and Pléiades-B. The main topic of this paper is the approach enhancement with selection of feature extraction algorithm, the improvement and automation of pre-processing and results verification. For the informal and temporary dwellings extraction purpose the high quality of data has to be ensured. The pre-processing has been extended by including the input data hierarchy level assignment and data fusion method selection and evaluation. The feature extraction algorithm follows the procedure presented in Jenerowicz, M., Kemper, T., 2011. Optical data are analysed in a cyclic approach comprising image segmentation, geometrical, textural and spectral class modeling aiming at camp area identification. The successive steps of morphological processing have been combined in a one stand-alone application for automatic dwellings detection and enumeration. Actively implemented, these approaches can provide a reliable and consistent results, independent of the imaging satellite type and different study sites location, providing decision support in emergency response for the humanitarian community like United Nations, European Union and Non-Governmental relief organizations.

  17. Parish classification or dwelling coordinate for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology - A comparative study using Geographical Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondel, Martin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)], E-mail: Martin.Tondel@amm.gu.se; Lindgren, Peter [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Garvin, Peter [Division of Social Medicine and Public Health Science, Department of Health and Society, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Persson, Bodil [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Background:: Two previous epidemiological studies on the incidence of total malignancies in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident have shown consistently increased risks. The first study used an analogue map on {sup 137}Cs from 1986 to classify individuals in terms of the parish they lived in. In the second study, dwelling coordinates were matched to a digital map from the year 2000 to assess the individual exposure. To establish the accuracy of the exposure assessment using the larger unit of parish, instead of coordinates, we decided to compare the methods. Methods:: On the analogue map eleven isolines on the deposition of {sup 137}Cs (kBq/m{sup 2}) were used to classify all individuals in each of the 450 parishes. Using the digital map, by contrast, each dwelling with its inhabitants could be matched to {sup 137}Cs deposition at a coordinate level. A population-weighted average of {sup 137}Cs deposition was calculated for each parish. In total, 1,126,960 individuals and 450 parishes were included and analysed into six different exposure categories. Results:: Using the new parish exposure index, 111 out of the 450 parishes were reclassified as a result of the increased resolution of the digital map (86 parishes) or unequal distribution of the population compared with the deposition (25 parishes). Seventy-five per cent of the parishes remained in the same exposure category as on the analogue map. Conclusion:: Using dwelling coordinates for exposure assessment may not always be superior to parish classification. Nor is it always a cost-effective way of estimating the exposure, especially if the exposure in a parish is relatively homogenous or if parishes can be merged into broader categories with little intra-parish difference.

  18. Sarcopenia as a Risk Factor for Cognitive Deterioration in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A 1-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Shu; Yamada, Minoru; Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nozaki, Yuma; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Hirata, Hinako; Yamaguchi, Moe; Tasaka, Seishiro; Matsushita, Tomofumi; Matsubara, Keisuke; Tsuboyama, Tadao; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this 1-year prospective study was to determine whether sarcopenia is an independent risk factor of cognitive deterioration in community-dwelling older adults. One-year prospective study. Japanese community. A total of 131 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older participated in this study. We defined sarcopenia using the diagnostic algorithm recommended by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia, and the participants were classified into the sarcopenia and normal groups according to this definition. The participants' cognitive functions were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) during pre- and postdata collection (after 1 year). The rate of change in pre- and post-MMSE scores during the follow-up term was significantly different between the 2 groups (normal group, -0.32 ± 8.39%; sarcopenia group, -5.86 ± 5.16%; P = .002). The analysis of covariance, adjusted for demographic data and the pre-MMSE scores, showed a significant change in the MMSE scores between the normal and sarcopenia group (F = 9.30, P = .003). Furthermore, in the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the cognitive function was significantly more likely to deteriorate (defined as a loss of at least 2 points of MMSE) in the sarcopenia group during the follow-up term (odds ratio: 7.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.53-40.5). Sarcopenia was identified as an independent risk factor of cognitive deterioration in community-dwelling older adults during the 1-year study period. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Sarcopenia in Suburb-dwelling Older Chinese Using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peipei; Kang, Li; Guo, Qi; Wang, Jiazhong; Zhang, Wen; Shen, Suxing; Wang, Xiuyang; Dong, Renwei; Ma, Yixuan; Shi, Yu; Shi, Zhiyang; Li, Hongquan; Li, Chen; Ma, Yige; Wang, Liancheng; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-04-01

    Sarcopenia is a common condition in older people. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in an elderly Chinese suburb-dwelling population. This study was conducted on 1,069 Chinese suburb-dwelling participants aged ≥60 years to evaluate sarcopenia using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, as well as medical conditions, were considered independent variables to determine factors associated with sarcopenia using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.4% in men and 11.5% in women. Age was a significant factor in both sexes. In addition, presence of sarcopenia was inversely associated with BMI for both sexes. The odds ration and 95% confidence interval for factors statistically significantly associated with sarcopenia were 5.04 (1.70-14.89) and 2.36 (1.06-5.25) for diabetes in males and females, respectively; 10.60 (1.75-64.24) for daily consumption of alcohol (daily drinkers), 5.58 (2.13-14.59) for peptic ulcer in female (not statistically significant in males). The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criterion is useful for defining sarcopenia, and our data suggest that the prevalence of sarcopenia in the general elderly suburb-dwelling Chinese population is high. Moreover, we find that high body mass index is inversely associated with the likelihood of being sarcopenic and that several others factors such as diabetes, peptic ulcer, and drinking habits increase the prevalence of sarcopenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Complex interaction between symptoms, social factors, and gender in social functioning in a community-dwelling sample of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Rodriguez, F; Ochoa, S; Autonell, J; Usall, J; Haro, J M

    2011-12-01

    Social functioning (SF) is the ultimate target aimed in treatment plans in schizophrenia, thus it is critical to know what are the factors that determine SF. Gender is a well-established variable influencing SF, yet it is not known how social variables and symptoms interact in schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether the interaction between social variables and symptoms is different in men compared to women. Our aim is to test whether social variables are better predictors of SF in community-dwelled individuals with schizophrenia, and whether men and women differ in how symptoms and social variables interact to impact SF. Community-dwelling individuals with schizophrenia (N = 231) were randomly selected from a register. Participants were assessed with symptom measures (PANSS), performance-based social scale (LSP), objective social and demographic variables. Stratification by gender and stepwise multivariate regression analyses by gender were used to find the best-fitting models that predict SF in both gender. Men had poorer SF than women in spite of showing similar symptom scores. On stepwise regression analyses, gender was the main variable explaining SF, with a significant contribution by disorganized and excitatory symptoms. Age of onset made a less marked, yet significant, contribution to explain SF. When the sample was stratified by gender, disorganized symptoms and 'Income' variable entered the model and accounted for a 30.8% of the SF variance in women. On the other hand, positive and disorganized symptoms entered the model and accounted for a 36.1% of the SF variance in men. Community-dwelling men and women with schizophrenia differ in the constellation of variables associated with SF. Symptom scores still account for most of the variance in SF in both genders.