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Sample records for duto na amazonia

  1. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-07-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that

  2. Identificação dos parâmetros de design de dutos de luz solar através do emprego da simulação computacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Escajadillo Toledo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Os dutos de luz solar podem reduzir o consumo de energia gasta em iluminação, como também melhorar o conforto visual nos ambientes. Para a previsão do desempenho lumínico destes sistemas, recomenda-se a utilização de simulações computacionais, como o programa Troplux. O presente artigo tem como objetivo determinar os parâmetros de design para os dutos de luz solar através da simulação computacional. O método aplicado neste trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas. Na primeira etapa foi comparado o desempenho luminoso de três modelos virtuais de dutos de luz solar, com características ópticas iguais, mas com geometrias diferentes, visando identificar a geometria de duto mais eficiente. Na segunda etapa foi simulado o desempenho do duto de luz eleito, tendo como referência as especificações da CIE (Comissão Internacional de Iluminação para os tipos de céu e incidência solar. Os resultados das simulações foram então empregados para identificar os principais parâmetros de design para o os dutos de luz solar.

  3. Identificação dos parâmetros de design de dutos de luz solar através do emprego da simulação computacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Escajadillo Toledo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Os dutos de luz solar podem reduzir o consumo de energia gasta em iluminação, como também melhorar o conforto visual nos ambientes. Para a previsão do desempenho lumínico destes sistemas, recomenda-se a utilização de simulações computacionais, como o programa Troplux. O presente artigo tem como objetivo determinar os parâmetros de design para os dutos de luz solar através da simulação computacional. O método aplicado neste trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas. Na primeira etapa foi comparado o desempenho luminoso de três modelos virtuais de dutos de luz solar, com características ópticas iguais, mas com geometrias diferentes, visando identificar a geometria de duto mais eficiente. Na segunda etapa foi simulado o desempenho do duto de luz eleito, tendo como referência as especificações da CIE (Comissão Internacional de Iluminação para os tipos de céu e incidência solar. Os resultados das simulações foram então empregados para identificar os principais parâmetros de design para o os dutos de luz solar.

  4. Avaliação da perfuração na soldagem em operação pelo processo MIG/MAG de dutos de alta resistência e baixa espessura

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    Aldo S. Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o desenvolvimento de reparo em dutos com pequena espessura (3,0 e 3,2 mm, fabricados em aços de alta resistência (API 5L X70 e em tubo ASTM 106 Grau B de forma a minimizar o risco de perfuração. Para o experimento, foi construída uma bancada de testes com ajuste variável de vazão e pressão do fluido, a saber, vazões de 20 l/min, 40 l/min e 80 l/min e pressões de 2 bar e 5 bar. Foram realizadas soldagens na direção longitudinal sobre tubos contendo água como fluido interno, utilizando-se o processo semiautomático MIG/MAG (GMAW com posterior avaliação do aspecto da menor penetração do cordão. Desta forma, foram empregadas duas técnicas de soldagem, puxando e empurrando a poça de fusão, assim como os modos de transferência metálica em curto circuito ou em corrente pulsada. No estudo das condições limites para a ocorrência de perfuração foram pesquisados parâmetros de soldagem em função de condições específicas de vazão e de pressão. A temperatura interna da parede da tubulação foi determinada através de uma solução analítica para a transferência de calor na soldagem. Os resultados mostraram que para o processo MIG/MAG com corrente pulsada e com a técnica empurrando a poça de fusão, mantidas todas as outras variáveis de soldagem fixas, há pequena penetração do cordão de solda. Além disso, os níveis de energia de soldagem para a ocorrência da perfuração revelaram-se superiores aos obtidos na literatura para o processo SMAW, indicando o processo como robusto e apropriado para soldagem de reparo em operação.

  5. Desmatamento na Amazônia: dinâmica, impactos e controle Deforestation in Amazonia: dynamics, impacts and control

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    Philip M. Fearnside

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O desmatamento na Amazônia procede a um alto ritmo por várias razões, muitas das quais dependem de decisões do governo. O desmatamento leva à perda de serviços ambientais, que têm um valor maior que os usos pouco sustentáveis que substituem a floresta. Estes serviços incluem a manutenção da biodiversidade, da ciclagem de água e dos estoques de carbono que evitam o agravamento do efeito estufa. Retroalimentações entre as mudanças climáticas e a floresta, por meio de processos tais como os incêndios florestais, a mortalidade de árvores por seca e calor e a liberação de estoques de carbono no solo, representam ameaças para o clima, a floresta e a população brasileira. Eventos recentes indicam que o desmatamento pode ser controlado, tendo a vontade política, pois os processos subjacentes dependem de decisões humanas.Deforestation in Amazonia proceeds at a rapid rate for various reasons, many of which depend on government decisions. Deforestation causes losses of environmental services that are more valuable than the short-lived uses that replace the forest. These services include maintenance of biodiversity, of water cycling and of the stocks of carbon that avoid further intensification of the greenhouse effect. Feedbacks between climatic changes and the forest through such processes as forest fires, tree mortality from drought and heat and the release of carbon stocks in the soil represent dangers for the climate, the forest and the Brazilian population. Recent events indicate that deforestation can be controlled, given the political will, because the underlying processes depend on human decisions.

  6. The inspection of equipment in the Amazon region: from ACFM to electronic PIG in Urucu; A inspecao de equipamentos na Amazonia: do ACFM ao pig instrumentado em Urucu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac-Culloch, Joao Nazareth Lafayette de Mello [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Unidade de Servicos de Sondagem Auto-Elevatoria; Beuren, Jair; Quadrado, Flavio Emir; Dunham, Paulo Cezar da Costa Lino [PETROBRAS S.A., Manaus, AM (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Unidade de Negocio da Bacia do Solimoes

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the historical evolution of the activity of equipment inspection of the PETROBRAS/UN-BSOL, in which the developments of a motivation program of the personnel from the effort developed for the certification of inspectors since the techniques more known most modern for the examination of installations and equipment was of great importance. PETROBRAS was introduced in the ACFM by TSC-Technical Software Consultants, during NDT (Non Destructive Test) Congress in 1994. PETROBRAS/UN-BSOL was the first unit to acquire the last equipment, called Amigo. In 2002 has qualified three professionals to ACFM level I. Nowadays, five inspectors level I and one level II and the technique has been used through inspections in several equipment with very well satisfactory. The Duto de Coleta de oleo de LUC de 10in and the Duto de Coleta de gas de LUC de 14in had been inspected with the PIG using the technique of Magnetic flux leakage (MFL), being that in the first one it was used Quantitative Smart PIG (High Resolution) and in as it was used Qualitative Smart PIG (Low Resolution). The results show that, despite the raised cost of the High Resolution PIG, this still is indicated for in-line inspection of pipelines of the UN-BSOL. (author)

  7. Global warming in Amazonia: impacts and Mitigation Aquecimento Global na Amazônia: impactos e Mitigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Martin Fearnside

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has potentially catastrophic impacts in Amazonia, while at the same time maintenance of the Amazon forest offers one of the most valuable and cost-effective options for mitigating climate change. We know that the El Niño phenomenon, caused by temperature oscillations of surface water in the Pacific, has serious impacts in Amazonia, causing droughts and forest fires (as in 1997-1998. Temperature oscillations in the Atlantic also provoke severe droughts (as in 2005. We also know that Amazonian trees die both from fires and from water stress under hot, dry conditions. In addition, water recycled through the forest provides rainfall that maintains climatic conditions appropriate for tropical forest, especially in the dry season. What we need to know quickly, through intensified research, includes progress in representing El Niño and the Atlantic oscillations in climatic models, representation of biotic feedbacks in models used for decision-making about global warming, and narrowing the range of estimating climate sensitivity to reduce uncertainty about the probability of very severe impacts. Items that need to be negotiated include the definition of "dangerous" climate change, with the corresponding maximum levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Mitigation of global warming must include maintaining the Amazon forest, which has benefits for combating global warming from two separate roles: cutting the flow the emissions of carbon each year from the rapid pace of deforestation, and avoiding emission of the stock of carbon in the remaining forest that can be released by various ways, including climate change itself. Barriers to rewarding forest maintenance include the need for financial rewards for both of these roles. Other needs are for continued reduction of uncertainty regarding emissions and deforestation processes, as well as agreement on the basis of carbon accounting. As one of the countries most subject to impacts of

  8. Amazonia and Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael; Bustamante, Mercedes; Gash, John; Silva Dias, Pedro

    Amazonia and Global Change synthesizes results of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) for scientists and students of Earth system science and global environmental change. LBA, led by Brazil, asks how Amazonia currently functions in the global climate and biogeochemical systems and how the functioning of Amazonia will respond to the combined pressures of climate and land use change, such as • Wet season and dry season aerosol concentrations and their effects on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis • Increasing greenhouse gas concentration, deforestation, widespread biomass burning and changes in the Amazonian water cycle • Drought effects and simulated drought through rainfall exclusion experiments • The net flux of carbon between Amazonia and the atmosphere • Floodplains as an important regulator of the basin carbon balance including serving as a major source of methane to the troposphere • The impact of the likely increased profitability of cattle ranching. The book will serve a broad community of scientists and policy makers interested in global change and environmental issues with high-quality scientific syntheses accessible to nonspecialists in a wide community of social scientists, ecologists, atmospheric chemists, climatologists, and hydrologists.

  9. Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle from south-western Amazonia Infecção por Anaplasma marginale em bovinos na Amazônia Sul Ocidental, Brasil

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    Luciana Gatto Brito

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides the first epidemiological data regarding infection by Anaplasma marginale in cattle reared in south-western Brazilian Amazonia. One simple procedure was adapted for the extraction of DNA from blood clots collected in seven microregions of Rondônia State and two mesoregions of Acre State. PCR method was used to asses the frequency of A. marginale infections in 4 to12-month-old cattle. The cattle infection was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using the specific primer "msp5" for A. marginale. The DNA amplifications revealed that the mean frequency of A. marginale infection was 98.6% (1,627/1,650 in samples from Rondonia, and 92.87% (208/225 in samples from Acre. The high frequency of A. marginale infections in 4 to 12-month-old cattle indicate a situation of enzootic stability in the studied areas and are comparable to those detected by immunodiagnosis in different endemic regions in Brazil. The DNA extraction of clotted blood method described here can be used for epidemiological studies on anaplasmosis and other bovine hemoparasites.O presente estudo fornece os primeiros dados epidemiológicos relativos a infecção por Anaplasma marginale em bovinos criados na Amazônia Sul Ocidental brasileira. Foi adaptado um procedimento simples para a extração de DNA a partir de coágulos sanguíneos coletados em sete microrregiões do estado de Rondônia e duas mesoregiões do estado do Acre. A técnica da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR foi aplicada para avaliar a freqüência da infecção por A. marginale em bovinos com idade entre 4 e 12 meses. Após a extração do DNA de cada amostra, a infecção nos bovinos foi investigada pela amplificação do gene "msp5" de A. marginale. As técnicas de amplificação do DNA revelaram que a freqüência de infecção por A. marginale foi de 98,6% (1.627/1.650 nas amostras provenientes de Rondônia e de 92,87% (208/225 nas amostras do Acre. A alta freqüência da

  10. Amanteigamento por aspersão térmica na soldagem em operação de dutos de pequena espessura: estabilidade e penetração do arco voltaico Buttering by thermal spraying in welding in-service repair of pipes with small thickness: arc stability and penetration

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    Nilceu Novicki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho reúne resultados promissores sobre uma via alternativa de reparo em dutos e tubulações em operação com pequena espessura remanescente, envolvendo a recuperação prévia da parede do tubo por amanteigamento por processos de aspersão térmica. Avaliou-se a instabilidade apresentada pelo arco voltaico e alteração do perfil da zona fundida quando da deposição de solda por eletrodos revestidos sobre chapas de aço carbono previamente amanteigadas, com camadas de composição similar, pelos processos de aspersão térmica a chama e a arco-elétrico. Os resultados permitiram correlacionar a estabilidade do arco com o nível de oxidação das camadas aspergidas.( Medidas de temperatura do revestimento aspergido mostraram que, desde que o processo de aspersão ocorra de forma ininterrupta até a espessura final do revestimento, a temperatura superficial é crescente com a espessura do depósito, o que resulta num maior teor de óxidos, associado tanto à uma instabilidade do cordão como à uma maior penetração da poça fundida. Difratogramas de raios-X nas camadas aspergidas e análises do teor de oxigênio na zona fundida dos cordões de solda comprovaram a influência desse elemento na alteração do perfil da zona fundida. Como alternativa ao uso de ar comprimido, foi avaliada sua substituição pelo argônio como gás de arraste, verificando-se efeitos muito benéficos - redução significativa da penetração e boa estabilidade do arco voltaico - admite-se que advindos da redução da oxidação da camada aspergida pelo efeito protetor do gás inerte. A avaliação dos resultados permitiu estabelecer critérios de soldagem com menor risco de perfuração se comparados a uma condição sem revestimento prévio por aspersão térmica.This work brings promising results about an alternative way of welding in-service repair of pipes with low reminiscent thickness, which involves a previous buttering coating of the pipe wall by

  11. Fires in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Anderson, Liana O.; Lima, André; Arai, Egidio

    2016-11-01

    Fire has been used since the first humans arrived in Amazonia; however, it has recently become a widely used instrument for large-scale forest clearance. Patterns of fire incidence in the region have been exacerbated by recent drought events. Understanding temporal and spatial fire patterns as well as their consequences for forest structure, species composition, and the carbon cycle is critical for minimising global change impacts on Amazonian ecosystems and people. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the state of our knowledge on the spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidence in Amazonia, depicting the historical fire usage in the region, their relationship with land use and land cover, and their responses to climate seasonality and droughts. We subsequently focus on the impacts of fire, by quantifying the extent of burnt forests during major droughts and describing the main impacts on forest structure, composition, and carbon stocks. Finally, we present an overview of modelling initiatives for forecasting fire incidence in the region. We conclude by providing a comprehensive view of the processes that influence fire occurrence, potential feedbacks, and impacts in Amazonia. We also highlight how key areas within fire ecology must be improved for a better understanding of the long-term effect of fire on the Amazon forest 'biome'.

  12. Amazonia. Violencias, resistencias, propuestas

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La Amazonia, ese vasto territorio en América del Sur, alberga sobre todo dos dicotomías, la abundancia y la violencia; se debate permanentemente entre la vida y la muerte. Durante mucho tiempo la inmensa selva amazónica ha sido vista como una reserva de recursos naturales donde el capital hace “sus compras” a conveniencia. La misma complejidad de ese territorio hace necesarias nuevas perspectivas y varias propuestas de salida a su posible devastación. Ese territorio tiene vida propia y es gen...

  13. An Amazonia Symposium: Mixed Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Gloria; Shand, Hope

    1978-01-01

    Reporting on the second symposium on "Amazonia: Extinction or Survival" (Madison, Wisconsin, 1978), this article summarizes papers presented on colonization, health, education, law, etc., and presents the symposium's six resolutions. (JC)

  14. Aspectos silviculturais da castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa em sistemas agroflorestais na Amazônia Central Silvicultural aspects of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa in agroforestry systems in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Régis Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o desempenho da castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa em sistemas agroflorestais implantados em ecossistema de terra firme na Amazônia Central. Foram avaliados 3 sítios de sistemas agroflorestais multi-estratificados, implantados em 1992, em áreas de pastagens degradadas, situadas no km 54 da BR-174, no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, em Manaus (AM. Os sistemas foram implantados após o processo tradicional de derruba e queima da vegetação secundária estabelecida em pastagens submetidas por 6 anos ao pastejo intensivo e abandonadas por 4 anos, em média, ao processo de regeneração natural. O desempenho da espécie com 12 anos de idade foi avaliado por meio do diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, da altura total, da taxa de sobrevivência e das variáveis morfométricas "Diâmetro da Copa", "Proporção de Copa", "Grau de Esbeltez", "índice de Saliência", "índice de Abrangência" e "Forma de Copa". Os indivíduos atingiram altura total média de 20,9 m e DAP de 37,9 cm, com incremento médio anual de 1,74 m e 3,16cm, respectivamente. A porcentagem média de sobrevivência foi de 78%, cuja mortalidade foi relacionada às ventanias e raios. Os resultados indicaram a eficiência dessa espécie para reabilitar áreas degradadas e confirmaram-na como uma espécie adequada para formar sistemas agroflorestais.This study evaluated the development of Brasil nut (Bertholletia excelsa in agroforestry systems established on non-flooding plateaus in Central Amazonia. Three multi-strata agroforestry systems established in 1992 in degraded pastures, located at the Experiment Station of Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, BR-174 highway, km 54, Manaus, Amazonas, were evaluated. The area had been intensively managed as pasture for six years, then abandoned for four years, and reopened with traditional slash and burn practices to plant the agroforestry systems. Species development was evaluated with measurements of

  15. Controle ativo de ruído aplicado a dutos com propagação de modos acústicos de alta ordem via particionamento axial

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Eider Lúcio de

    2012-01-01

    O controle ativo de ruído (CAR) aplicado a dutos onde existe a propagação de ondas planas tem sido alvo de vários estudos. Aplica-se, nesses casos, o controle ativo monocanal. Nos dutos com grandes seções transversais, a propagação acústica se dá com a presença dos modos de alta ordem. Nesses dutos é necessário o controle multicanal, o que leva o sistema CAR a utilizar muitos sensores e atuadores, resultando num projeto bastante complexo. Este trabalho procura aplicar uma metod...

  16. Características hidrológicas do solo saturado na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke - Amazônia central Hydrological characterists of the satured soil in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve - central Amazonia

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    Juan Daniel Villacis Fajardo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, investigaram-se a porosidade e condutividade hidráulica da zona saturada do solo, buscando entender como essas variáveis físicas afetam os processos hidrológicos em uma área de floresta primária, sob pressão urbana, na Amazônia central. O experimento foi realizado na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, localizada ao norte da cidade de Manaus, AM. No igarapé Bolívia foi instalado um posto fluviométrico (régua linimétrica e linígrafo; no local, foram instalados quatro piezômetros na zona ripária, perpendicular ao curso do igarapé. A porosidade variou no perfil do solo, alcançando valores acima de 0,40 cm³/cm³. Os valores médios de condutividade hidráulica saturada ou infiltração básica (K foram elevados e variaram de 89,5 ± 12,8 a 279,5 ± 9,0 mm/h. O nível d'água no igarapé oscilou entre 65 e 141 cm, no período de observação (novembro de 2005 a outubro de 2007. O piezômetro da camada profunda do solo, distante do curso d'água, variou entre 166,2 e 304,9 cm. As condutividades hidráulicas do solo saturado foram maiores nos pontos mais distantes do curso d'água, tanto na camada superficial quanto na profunda, determinando o comportamento hidrológico do lençol freático no local.This study investigated the porosity and the hydraulic conductivity on the saturated zone of the soil trying to understand how these physical variables affect the hydrological processes, in an area of primary forest under urban pressure, in Central Amazonia. The experiment was carried out in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, located on the north of the city of Manaus - AM. One water measurement station (water level scale was installed in the Igarapé Bolívia and four piezometers were installed in the site, the latter on the riparian zone, perpendicular to the course of the stream. The porosity varied in the soil profile, reaching values above 0.40 cm³/cm³. The mean values for the saturated hydraulic conductivity or basic

  17. Use of sewage from a treatment plant for recovery degraded area due to implantation of LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gases) pipeline in the Amazon; Uso de lodo de estacao de tratamento de efluente para recuperacao de area degradada pela implantacao de GLP (Gas Liquefeito de Petroleo) - duto na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frade, Amadeu F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Liany do V. [OAS, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Pipelines construction possess characteristics that become them singulars in its conception and its implantation and therefore demanding that the services of support reach the same level of the challenge of these enterprises. Among these services the management of effluent is distinguished due to the high demand of technique-operational and Legal requirements. In this context destination of sewage from the STP (Sewage treatment plant) in remote areas with high requirement of environmental responsibility as the Amazonian forest demands additional cares. This work aim to evaluate an alternative to destination of this residue. For the execution of this work the removed sewage was prepared and incorporated to the soil that will receive plants for the restoration of degraded areas (RDA). The evaluation of the effect of this alternative was based on the analysis of agronomies aspects and quantitative analyses of cost X benefits between the conventional destination (CD) and the application in the RDA. In the conditions carried through until the moment we have: I-Parcel that had received the sewage had gotten better average development; II-Economically apply the sewage in RDA is more advantageous than the CD; III-Qualitatively the global impact in the environment of the alternative is minor who the CD. (author)

  18. Políticas de Saúde, Pluralidade Terapêutica e Identidade na Amazônia Health Policies, Therapeutic Plurality and Identity in Indigenous Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pérez Gil

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste trabalho é realizar uma comparação entre os campos terapêuticos vivenciados por dois grupos pano: os Yaminawa (Departamento do Ucayali, Peru e os Yawanawa (Acre, Brasil. Essa comparação levanta questões relevantes, na medida em que ambos os grupos, apesar de sua proximidade cultural, se encontram inseridos em realidades nacionais, sociais e políticas diferentes. As diferenças existentes não se limitam a questões derivadas de duas políticas oficiais de saúde distintas, mas estão diretamente associadas às particularidades dos respectivos contextos sociais regionais. A comparação dessas situações mostra que o tipo de relação que as sociedades envolventes e os Estados estabelecem com as populações indígenas, assim como os aspectos identitários derivados dela, são fatores importantes na constituição do habitus terapêutico desses grupos. Esse aspecto é exemplificado no texto por meio de uma reflexão sobre diferenças existentes entre as práticas, de cada um dos grupos, relativas à alimentação dos recém-nascidos e ao uso dos recursos da biomedicina em relação ao parto e o controle da natalidade.The purpose of this paper is to make a comparison between the therapeutic fields that form part of the daily experience of two Panoan groups: Yaminawa people (Ucayali, Peruvian Amazon and Yawanawa people (Acre, Brazilian Amazon. This comparison raises some interesting questions, as both groups, in spite of their cultural and linguistic relatedness, are inserted in different national, social and political contexts. The existing differences observed are not limited to questions stemming from two different state health policies; rather, they are directly associated with the particularities of their respective social and regional contexts. A comparison of these situations demonstrates that the relationship that the State establishes with indigenous societies, as well as the identity aspects deriving from it

  19. Mercado de terras e trajetórias tecnológicas na Amazônia Land market and technological trajectories in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Costa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A dinâmica da economia rural na Amazônia tem sido observada através do fenômeno do desmatamento e avaliada basicamente pelos riscos ambientais e desigualdades distributivas a ela associadas. Este artigo indica possibilidades de mudanças ao mesmo tempo que demonstra os obstáculos a superar. Partindo da observação da economia agrária da região como totalidade em movimento, situa os fundamentos dessa evolução em seis trajetórias tecnológicas, explicitando as assimetrias de capacidade demonstradas entre as mesmas no contexto de suas relações com as instituições presentes. Entre estas, dispensa foco especial nas mediações que garantem a produção e o mercado de terras em relação ao qual indica providências de política que o contenha em dois momentos: no seu processo de produção, momento da transformação do ativo específico "Florestas Originárias" em "Terras com Mata" e no momento da legitimação do produto final em "Terras de Pasto" e "Terras para Lavoura".The dynamics of the rural economy in the Amazon has been observed through the phenomenon of deforestation and evaluated primarily by environmental risks and inequalities in distribution. The article indicates possibilities of change and, at the same time, demonstrates the obstacles to overcome. Starting from the observation of the agrarian economy of the region as a totality in motion, it establishes the foundation of the development on six technological trajectories, explaining the asymmetries of capacity between them in the context of their relations with institutions. Among these, special focus is led to the mediations that ensure production and land market. Regarding the latter, the article indicates policy measures to constrain it.

  20. Florística e fitossociologia de uma floresta de vertente na Amazônia Central, Amazonas, Brasil Floristic and phytosociology of a slope forest in Central Amazonia, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo florístico e fitossociológico de árvores, palmeiras e lianas com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP >10 cm, em uma floresta de vertente na Amazônia Central (2º35'45" S e 60º12'40" W, foi realizado empregando-se 20 parcelas de 50 x 10 m, distribuídas em dois transectos paralelos de 500 x 10 m. Foram registrados 771 indivíduos, pertencentes a 50 famílias, 120 gêneros e 239 espécies. Das espécies amostradas, 44% são "localmente raras". Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae, Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae e Chrysobalanaceae constituíram as cinco famílias com maior riqueza de espécies e número de indivíduos. Dos 771 indivíduos amostrados, mais de 65% apresentaram DAP > 20 cm. As espécies Eschweilera bracteosa e Protium apiculatum apresentaram os maiores valores de IVI. Cerca de 83% das espécies encontram-se distribuídas aleatoriamente no hectare amostrado. O índice de diversidade Shannon-Wiener foi de 5,01 nats.indivíduo-1, com uniformidade de 0,91, valores altos no contexto de levantamentos semelhantes na região. A heterogeneidade edáfica e topográfica da área, as taxas de recrutamento de novos indivíduos e de espécies "localmente raras" à comunidade local, podem ter contribuído para as altas dissimilaridade (36,2% e diversidade florísticas documentadas neste estudo.The floristic and phytosociological study of trees, palms and lianas with diameter at breast height (DBH >10 cm in a forest slope in Central Amazonia (2º35'45 "S and 60º12'40" W was carried out using 20 plots of 50 x 10 m, distributed in two parallel transects of 500 x 10 m. A total of 771 plants were registered, belonging to 50 families, 120 genera and 239 species. Of the sampled species, 44% are locally rare. Families with the most species and number of individuals were Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae, Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Chrysobalanaceae. More than 65% of the sampled plants had DBH > 20 cm. Eschweilera bracteosa and Protium apiculatum were the most

  1. dos hoteis de selva na Amazonia, Brasil

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    Adriana Gomes de Moraes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the challenge of desvelar of that it forms the hoteleiros enterprises they manage its ambient action without causing great impacts in one of biggest ecosystems of the world, the Amazonian forest, was tried to know in this research the forms of ambient management of the located hotels of forest in the legal Amazônia. The norteadora question of the research was to know that type of ambient management is made by the hotels of selva?Foi used as instrument of collection of data the questionnaire, that if subdividiui in four great subjects to be searched. The first one was relative questions to the planning of the place, according to to the profile of the customer, third to the room and the relative questions architecture the building subject relative questions to the energy resources and infrastructure of the public services. As result of this analysis was concluded that two of three hotels searched are practising management ambient of form less impactante, since type of construction adopted until services offered to guests, or either shows objective that its hotel is coadjuvante for customer that visits this type of place, that stops it does not import luxury, comfort and amenities, more yes contact with the fauna and flora and way of life of the natives

  2. Climate change patterns in Amazonia and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai; Sinha, Ashish; Cruz, Francisco W; Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R Lawrence; d'Horta, Fernando M; Ribas, Camila C; Vuille, Mathias; Stott, Lowell D; Auler, Augusto S

    2013-01-01

    Precise characterization of hydroclimate variability in Amazonia on various timescales is critical to understanding the link between climate change and biodiversity. Here we present absolute-dated speleothem oxygen isotope records that characterize hydroclimate variation in western and eastern Amazonia over the past 250 and 20 ka, respectively. Although our records demonstrate the coherent millennial-scale precipitation variability across tropical-subtropical South America, the orbital-scale precipitation variability between western and eastern Amazonia exhibits a quasi-dipole pattern. During the last glacial period, our records imply a modest increase in precipitation amount in western Amazonia but a significant drying in eastern Amazonia, suggesting that higher biodiversity in western Amazonia, contrary to 'Refugia Hypothesis', is maintained under relatively stable climatic conditions. In contrast, the glacial-interglacial climatic perturbations might have been instances of loss rather than gain in biodiversity in eastern Amazonia, where forests may have been more susceptible to fragmentation in response to larger swings in hydroclimate.

  3. Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

  4. Using termite nests as a source of organic matter in agrosilvicultural production systems in Amazonia Uso de ninhos de cupin como fonte de matéria orgânica em sistemas de produção agrosilviculturais na Amazônia

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    L. S. Batalha

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of two annual crops, okra (Abelmoschus escutentus and egg-plant (Solatium melongena and one perennial crop, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, a native forest tree of Amazonia under different treatments with organic manure derived from termite nest material of wood-feeding Nasutitermes species was tested (randomized block design. The use of 25-100 g of nest material gave no significant increase in okra productivity, and 25-200 g gave no significant response in andiroba. The combined use of NPK with 200 g of nest material gave a significant higher production in egg-plant (total number and total fresh weight of fruits when compared to the control (without fertilizer and to the treatment with NPK only.The results suggest the possibility to use termite nest material to enhance crop production in Amazonia, particularly in combination with low amounts of mineral fertilizer. Research lines for further investigations are outlined.Foi avaliado crescimento de duas espécies agriculturais anuais, quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus e berinjela (Solatium melongena, e de uma espécie perene, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, uma árvore nativa da Amazônia sob diferentes tratamentos com matéria orgânica derivada de material de cupinzeiro de espécies xilófagas de Nasutitermes (desenho de bloco randomizado. O uso de 25-100 g de material de termiteiro não levou a um incremento significativo da produtividade em quiabo, e 25-200 g não resultou numa resposta significativa em andiroba. O uso combinado de NPK com 200 g de ninho de cupim resultou numa produção significantemente maior em S. melongena (número total e peso fresco total de frutos se comparado com o controle (sem fertilizante nenhum e com o tratamento de NPK apenas. Os resultados sugerem a possibilidade de usar material de cupinzeiro para melhorara produção agrossilvicultural na Amazônia, especialmente em combinação com pequenas quantidades de fertilizante mineral Linhas de pesquisa para futuras

  5. Non-Official Roads Dilemma in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Arima, Eugenio; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Caldas, Marcellus; Brandao, Amintas de O., Jr.; Araujo de Souza, Francisco Kennedy; Walker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of this millennium, "non-official" roads predominate in Amazonia. The opening of these roads, a phenomenon that has not been studied in depth, represents a major dilemma - it generates environmental and social impacts, but it helps to reduce the isolation of the communities in Amazonia and to improve the quality of life for those rural populations. The combined positive and negative aspects of this dilemma mean that it is a matter of crucial importance for the government at last to do a proper job in building these roads; if this is disregarded, in the future, the environment and the Brazilians living in that region will be at risk.

  6. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, C.R.; Denevan, W.M.; Heckenberger, M.J.; Braga Junqueira, A.; Neves, E.G.; Teixeira, W.G.; Woods, W.I.

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Am

  7. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, C.R.; Denevan, W.M.; Heckenberger, M.J.; Braga Junqueira, A.; Neves, E.G.; Teixeira, W.G.; Woods, W.I.

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Am

  8. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R.; Denevan, William M.; Heckenberger, Michael J.; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G.; Teixeira, Wenceslau G.; Woods, William I.

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest. PMID:26202998

  9. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna incl

  10. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Denevan, William M; Heckenberger, Michael J; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G; Teixeira, Wenceslau G; Woods, William I

    2015-08-07

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest.

  11. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L. sn

  12. Use of AFLPS to distinguish landraces of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes in brazilian Amazonia Uso de AFLPS para discriminar raças primitivas de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes na Amazônia brasileira

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    Charles R. Clement

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the first inhabitants of western Amazonia domesticated pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae or peach palm for its fruits, today it is widely planted for its heart-of-palm. Like other domesticates, pejibaye presents a complex hierarchy of landraces developed before the conquest of the Americas. The existence of three landraces (Pará, Solimões, Putumayo was proposed along the Amazonas and Solimões Rivers, Brazil, based on morphological characteristics. There are some questions remaining about the intermediate landrace being an artifact of the morphometric analysis. AFLPs were used to evaluate the relationships among samples of these putative landraces. DNA was extracted from 99 plants representing 13 populations maintained in the Pejibaye Germplasm Bank, Manaus, AM; six primer combinations generated 245 markers via PCR, which were scored in an ABI Prism 310 sequencer and analyzed with GeneScan Software; Jaccard similarities were estimated and a dendrogram was generated with UPGMA. Two groups of plants were observed in the dendrogram instead of three, and were similar at 0.795. Each group contained two subgroups, similar at 0.815. One group (n=41 contained 73% Pará landrace plants, with one subgroup (n=22 containing 91% Pará, and the other (n=19 containing 53% Pará. The other group (n=58 contained 53% Solimões and 40% Putumayo landrace plants, with one subgroup (n=21 containing 52% Solimões and 43% Putumayo, and the other (n=35 containing 57% Solimões and 37% Putumayo. The first group confirmed the Pará landrace. The second group suggested that the Solimões landrace does not exist, but that the Putumayo landrace extends along the Solimões River to Central Amazonia.Os primeiros povos da Amazônia ocidental domesticaram a pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae por seu fruto, embora hoje seja muito plantada por seu palmito. Como outros cultivos domesticados, a pupunha apresenta uma hierarquia complexa de raças primitivas

  13. Sobrevivência de espécies arbóreas plantadas em clareiras causadas pela colheita de madeira em uma floresta de terra firme no município de Paragominas na Amazônia brasileira Survival of seedlings planted in gaps after harvesting in a terra firme rain forest in Paragominas region in the Brazilian Amazonia

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    Jaqueline Macêdo Gomes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a sobrevivência de mudas plantadas em 400 clareiras causadas por exploração florestal de impacto reduzido, em floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Oriental. Foram plantadas 3.818 mudas de 17 espécies, das quais apenas Schizolobium amazonicum não ocorre na área de estudo. A distância entre as mudas plantadas foi de aproximadamente 5m. As avaliações ocorreram em 2005 e 2006. Com base na sobrevivência das mudas aos 11 meses após o plantio, as espécies indicadas para o enriquecimento de clareiras são: Schizolobium amazonicum, Cedrela odorata, Jacaranda copaia, Manilkara huberi, Astronium gracile, Pouteria bilocularis, Tabebuia impetiginosa,Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens, Cordia goeldiana, Parkia gigantocarpa, Simarouba amara, Sterculia pilosa, Laetia procera, Dinizia excelsa e Schefflera morototoni. Estudos sobre a taxa de crescimento, em períodos mais longos, são necessários para confirmar a utilização dessas espécies em plantios de enriquecimento de clareiras oriundas de exploração florestal, como alternativa para aumentar a produtividade e o valor econômico das florestas naturais manejadas na Amazônia brasileira.Survival of seedlings planted in 400 gaps created by reduced impact logging in a terra firme forest in the Eastern Amazonia was evaluated. 3,818 seedlings from 17 species occurring in the study area, except for Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá, which is rare in natural forests of Paragominas region, were planted in the gaps. Spacing of planted seedlings was 5m. According to survival of seedlings during 11 months after planting, the species Schizolobium amazonicum, Cedrela odorata, Jacaranda copaia, Manilkara huberi, Astronium gracile, Pouteria bilocularis, Tabebuia impetiginosa,Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens, Cordia goeldiana, Parkia gigantocarpa, Simarouba amara, Sterculia pilosa, Laetia procera, Dinizia excelsa and Schefflera morototoni can be suggested for enriching in gaps created by reduced impact logging

  14. Preliminary study of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infection in Manaus Hospital, Amazonia Region, Brazil Estudo preliminar das infeccões por Staphylococcus aureus na comunidade de um Hospital em Manaus, Região do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Jesus M. Egido

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is considered a public health problem with a strong potential for dissemination and high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this study we describe bacteriological and epidemiological characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus in Manaus (Amazon region. During the one-year study period (2000-2001, sixteen cases of acute pyogenic multiple abscess were evaluated. Community-acquired S. aureus was identified as causative agent in 10 (62.5% patients. The strains tested with antimicrobials by discs diffusion method, exhibited a high rate of sensitivity to cephalexin (100%, erythromycin (90%. Oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was 90%. No isolate was resistant to Vancomycin. To our knowledge, no series of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus in Manaus hospital has been published. Our partial results showed a high rate of antimicrobial sensitivity among community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus in the hospital of Tropical Medicine Institute of Manaus, Amazon Region.O Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina é considerado como um problema na saúde publica por seu grande potencial de disseminação e altas porcentagens de morbidade e mortalidade. No estudo descrevemos as características bacteriológicas e epidemiológicas do Staphylococcus aureus na cidade de Manaus. No período de um ano (2000-2001 avaliou-se dezesseis casos de abscessos piogênicos múltiplos. Em 10 (62,5% doentes o agente causal foi identificado como Staphylococcus aureus adquirido na comunidade O estudo das bacterias isoladas frente aos diferentes antimicrobianos, seguindo o método de difusão em disco, mostrou boa sensibilidade a cefalexina (100% e eritromicina (90%. Noventa porcento dos Staphylococcus aureus isolados foram sensíveis ao oxacilina. Nenhum dos isolados mostrou ser resistente a Vancomicina. Não temos informações sobre publicações dos Staphylococcus aureus adquiridos na comunidade em hospitais de Manaus

  15. Trabalho Degradante e Geração de Energia Hidrelétrica na Amazônia | Degradation of Work and Hydro-Electric Power Generation in Amazonia

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    José Alves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Introdução: O Brasil nas duas últimas décadas tem passado por intensos processos políticos e econômicos, devido sua intensa inserção tardia na mundialização do capital a partir do neoliberalismo e, na última década, por conta do novo modelo de desenvolvimento econômico com base no Novo Desenvolvimentismo. É nesse contexto que o setor elétrico nacional passou por profundas transformações, como a privatização e outros mecanismos de Parcerias Público-Privada (PPP. O Complexos Hidrelétrico Madeira, localizado no estado do Rondônia, na região Amazônica, se insere nesse tipo de empreendimento PPP, para a construção de duas grandes Usinas Hidrelétricas (UHE - Jirau e Santo Antonio -, consideradas modelos na retomada de projetos de infraestrutura no país, e na introdução da da Amazônia como a nova fronteira hidroenergética nacional. É nesse quadro que nosso objeto de pesquisa se insere, tendo como recorte a UHE de Jirau, no estado de Rondônia. Metodologia/Desenvolvimento: Para a análise do trabalho degradante na UHE de Jirau, a pesquisa respalda-se teórico-metodologicamente nos conflitos e sua espacialidade no território, sendo que esse movimento é capturado pelas lentes da geografia crítica comprometida com a emancipação dos sujeitos que trabalham e estão subordinados aos ditames do capital. Assim, a pesquisa qualitativa e o trabalho de campo são centrais para o processo investigativo e é por onde apreendemos a degradação do trabalho e as especificidades quanto aos expedientes do trabalhador migrante, que se deslocam de todo o território nacional, em especial dos estados da região Norte e Nordeste do país; tráfico de pessoas e trabalho escravo; superexploração e intensificação do processo de trabalho, com vistas ao cumprimento de metas e patamares de produtividade pré-estabelecidos pelo consórcio, além da jornada de trabalho prolongada por horas

  16. Ocorrência de linhagens humana e silvestre de Schistosoma mansoni, na pré-amazônia: I - estudo em moluscos Occurrence of wild and human strains of Schistosoma mansoni in lower Amazonia: I - study in moluscs

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    Othon de Carvalho Bastos

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram isoladas na região da Baixada Maranhense (Brasil, linhagens humana (H e silvestre(S de Schistosoma mansoni a partir de miracídios eclodidos de ovos encontrados em fezes de doentes humanos autóctones da Região e de fígados de roedores silvestres naturalmente infectados. Biomphalaria glabrata, descentes de caramujos coletados no campo, foram expostos, isoladamente, aos miracídios H e S, mantidos isolados em moluscário e observados durante 100 dias. Moluscos normais foram mantidos nas mesmas condições de ambiente em que foram submetidos os infectados e tomados como controle da experiência. Foram anotados os indices de infecção dos moluscos, as datas da eliminação de cercárias, quantidade de larvas eliminadas e mortalidade dos moluscos. Os dados sugeriram melhor adaptação do esquistossomo da linhagem H à B. glabrata. A linhagem S, por sua vez, foi três vezes mais virulenta do que a linhagem H. Estes dados foram comparados com os encontrados na literatura especializada e verificado diversidades nos comportamentos parasitológicos das linhagens em estudo, quando comparados com os encontrados nas linhagens H e S oriundas do Vale do Rio Paraíba do Sul, no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil.The wild (W and human (H strains of Schistosoma mansoni were isolated in the Lowland Region of the Maranhão State (Brazil. The snail progenies from Biomphalaria glabrata collected from that region were exposed to the W miracidia, obtained from livers of wild rodents, and H miracidia from eggs in human stools. A control gruop of normal snails was kept in the same conditions as the infected one. The date of the elimination of cercariae, the quantity of eliminated larvae, the infection index of the moluscs and the mortality rate of the snails were recorded. These data suggested better adaptation of the H strain to B. glabrata. The W strain presented three times more virulence to snails than the H strain. These results were compared with published

  17. Bees visitors of three species of Clusia (Clusiaceae flowers in Central Amazonia Abelhas visitantes de flores de três espécies de Clusia (Clusiacea na Amazônia Central

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    Ana Claudia Kaminski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations on bees visitors to three species of Clusia (Clusiaceae flowers in the Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil were made during three two-week periods. The three species of Clusia, namely C. grandiflora, C. panapanari and C. insignis, presented variations regarding the species of bee visitors. A total of 23 bee species visited the three species of Clusia. The Euglossini and Meliponinae bees were the most frequent visitors of the Clusia flowers. Bee collecting behavior of floral resources is described.Durante seis semanas foram realizadas observações das abelhas visitantes de flores de três espécies de Clusia (Clusiaceae, na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, em Manaus. As três espécies de Clusia: C. grandiflora Splitg., C. panapanari (Aubl. e C. insignis Mart. apresentaram diferenças com relação às visitas de espécies de abelhas, tendo sido visitadas por 23 espécies. Abelhas Euglossini e Meliponinae foram os visitantes mais freqüentes em flores de Clusia. O comportamento de coleta de recursos florais é descrito.

  18. Uso de florestas secundárias por aves de sub-bosque em uma paisagem fragmentada na Amazônia central Use of secondary forests by understory birds in a fragmented landscape in central Amazonia

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    João Vitor Campos e Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Na Amazônia, as taxas de desmatamento crescem desde 1991 e as previsões não são otimistas quanto à desaceleração desse processo. A devastação da floresta é acompanhada de uma expansão de florestas secundárias (FS que se estabelecem nas áreas abandonadas. A tendência é um aumento de florestas secundárias, resultando num mosaico de floresta contínua e fragmentos separados por uma matriz de FS. Nesse cenário, autores acreditam que a Amazônia pode passar por um processo massivo de extinção de espécies. Por outro lado, a previsão de um processo massivo de extinção pode ser equivocada, pois muitas espécies florestais poderiam sobreviver nas florestas secundárias. Para avaliar o valor das florestas secundárias para espécies florestais amostramos por oito meses com redes de neblina uma capoeira (FS em regeneração e uma floresta primária (FP de uma paisagem fragmentada. Algumas espécies não foram capturadas na capoeira e aparentemente evitam esse tipo de hábitat. No entanto, a maioria das espécies do grupo focal não apresentou diferença na sobrevivência aparente entre os ambientes, o que nos indica que estão habitando a capoeira e a floresta primária da mesma forma. Na realidade amazônica, onde grande parte da matriz é composta por floresta secundária, a matriz tem valor para conservação e deve ser analisada como um elemento dinâmico que não apenas permite a movimentação de indivíduos, mas também serve de hábitat para muitas espécies de floresta primária. Mas ressaltamos que é fundamental a preservação de áreas de floresta primária que servirão de fonte às florestas secundárias adjacentes.Rates of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon have increased since 1991 and forecasts are not optimistic about the slowing of this process. Some authors believe that the Amazon may be experiencing a massive process of species extinction. However, the deforestation is accompanied by the expansion of

  19. Danos de Conotrachelus dubiae (Coleoptera: curculionidae em frutos de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia na Amazônia Central Damage of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia fruits by Conotrachelus dubiae (Coleoptera: curculionidae in Central Amazonia

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    Sidney Alberto do Nascimento Ferreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a ocorrência de Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh, Myrtaceae] tinha sido constatada somente em populações naturais. Relata-se sua ocorrência em um cultivo experimental, onde se avaliou os danos de C. dubiae em frutos de camu-camu, em diferentes graus de amadurecimento, entre 1999 e 2003. Os danos causados pela larva aumentaram com o amadurecimento dos frutos, havendo maior comprometimento da polpa do fruto (30 a 90% do que das sementes (7%. A incidência desse inseto pode implicar em perdas quantitativas significativas na produção de camu-camu.In Brazil, the occurrence of Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh, Myrtaceae] had only been verified in natural populations. This report describes its occurrence in an experimental cultivation, where damage of camu-camu fruits by C. dubiae at different ripening stages was evaluated between 1999 and 2003. The damage caused by the larva increased with the degree of ripening of the fruits, with greater damage of fruit pulp (30 to 90% than to seeds (7%. The incidence of this insect may cause significant quantitative losses in the camu-camu production.

  20. Seasonal dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plants of Theobroma grandiflorum Schum and Paullinia cupana Mart. of aN agroforestry system in Central Amazonia, Amazonas State, Brazil Dinâmica sazonal de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em plantas de Theobroma grandiflorum Schum e Paullinia cupana Mart. de um sistema agroflorestal na Amazônia Central, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF was investigated in the rhizosphere of two fruit species in a terra firme (upland ecosystem in Central Amazonia. Two host species (Theobroma grandiflorum and Paullinia cupana and nine sampling months (August, September and December/1998, February, April, May and December/1999, February and May/2000 were studied in a completely randomized design, with five replications, set in a 2 x 9 factorial experiment. Soil (0-20 cm depth and root samples were collected between August 1998 and May 2000. The mean percent colonization of AMF for both species reached maximal values in February and May 2000 (rainy season. In April and May 1999, February and May 2000 (rainy season the highest AMF spore numbers were registered. The pluvial precipitation was significantly positively correlated with AMF number spores for both fruit species, and significant positive correlation only with AMF colonization of P. cupana. Soil moisture content was positively correlated with colonization and spore numbers of AMF for both species evaluated. AMF colonization and AMF spore numbers of T. grandiflorum were positively correlated with soil Mg and K concentrations. AMF spore numbers of T. grandiflorum were also negatively correlated with effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC. AMF colonization and AMF spore numbers in the rhizosphere of P. cupana were positively correlated with pH and Mn concentrations. AMF colonization was also positively correlated with AMF spore numbers for both species evaluated. In conclusion, this study showed that AMF colonization and sporulation are seasonal and dependent on host plant species, pluvial precipitation, soil moisture content and soil chemistry in Central Amazonia conditions.A dinâmica sazonal de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA foi investigada na rizosfera de duas espécies frutíferas em um ecossistema de terra firme na Amazônia Central. Adotou-se o delineamento

  1. Gente, tierra y agua en la Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Buitrago Garavito, Ana Isabel; Jiménez, Eliana; Tobón, Marco Alejandro; Gendrau Acho, Sheila; Ciro Rodríguez, Estefanía; Ciro Rodríguez, Alejandra; Trujillo Osorio, Catalina; Currea Dereser , Alejandra; Torres Zambrano, Nestor Ned; Serrato Hurtado, Clemencia; Duque, Santiago R.; Moreno Hurtado, Flavio; Peñuela, Maria Cristina; Lloyd, Jon; Patiño, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Con el ánimo de contribuir a la comprensión social, histórica y económica de la gente que habita la región amazónica y al entendimiento del funcionamiento de sus ecosistemas surge el libro Gente, tierra y agua en la Amazonia. lmani mundo III. Este libro es el tercero de la serie Imani mundo, la cual expone trabajos de investigación en la región amazónica tanto en aspectos sociales como en aspectos ecológicos, realizados por el instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones IMANI de la Universidad Nac...

  2. Precipitação efetiva e interceptação em Caxiuanã, na Amazônia Oriental Net precipitation and interception in Caxiuanã, in the Eastern Amazonia

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    Leidiane Leão de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado na Estação Cientifica Ferreira Penna, dentro da Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, Melgaço, Pará, Brasil (01º 42" 30"S; 51º 31" 45"W; 60 m altitude. A região é uma floresta de terra firme, com vegetação densa e dossel com altura média de 35 m e árvores emergentes acima de 50 m, densidade de 450 a 550 árvores por hectare. O objetivo foi o de quantificar a precipitação total incidente acima do dossel, precipitação efetiva e precipitação interna, o escoamento da água pelos troncos e interceptação da precipitação pela vegetação no período de março a dezembro de 2004, quando foram realizadas 40 coletas semanais. Na medida da precipitação interna foram utilizados 25 pluviômetros, distribuídos aleatoriamente em um hectare, subdividido em cem parcelas de 10 x 10 m, os escoamentos pelos troncos foram medidos em sete árvores com diâmetros à altura do peito (DAP representativos para as árvores da área. O estudo revelou uma precipitação efetiva de 905,4 mm e precipitação interna de 885,4 mm, um escoamento pelos troncos de 20 mm e uma interceptação de 248 mm, correspondendo, a 78,5%, 76,8%, 1,7% e 21,5% da precipitação acima do dossel, que foi de 1.153,4 mm, no período de estudo, respectivamente.The present work was carried out at the Ferreira Penna Scientific Station, in the Caxiuanã National Forest, Melgaço, Pará, Brazil (01º 42" 30"S; 51º 31" 45"W; 60 m a.s.l.. The studied region is an upland forest with closed vegetation and a mean canopy height of 35 m although some trees can be 50 m high. The species density is between 450 and 550 plants per hectare. The aim was to quantify the net precipitation, throughfall, stemflow and rain interception by vegetation, from March to December of 2004. For the throughfall measurements 25 rain gauges were randomly distributed in an one hectare area subdivided in one hundred parcels of 10 x 10 m, while the stemflow was measured on seven

  3. Soil CO2 efflux in central Amazonia: environmental and methodological effects Efluxo de CO2 do solo na Amazônia central: efeitos ambiental e metodológico

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    Fabrício B. Zanchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration plays a significant role in the carbon cycle of Amazonian rainforests. Measurements of soil respiration have only been carried out in few places in the Amazon. This study investigated the effects of the method of ring insertion in the soil as well as of rainfall and spatial distribution on CO2 emission in the central Amazon region. The ring insertion effect increased the soil emission about 13-20% for sandy and loamy soils during the firsts 4-7 hours, respectively. After rainfall events below 2 mm, the soil respiration did not change, but for rainfall greater than 3 mm, after 2 hours there was a decrease in soil temperature and respiration of about 10-34% for the loamy and sand soils, with emissions returning to normal after around 15-18 hours. The size of the measurement areas and the spatial distribution of soil respiration were better estimated using the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM data. The Campina reserve is a mosaic of bare soil, stunted heath forest-SHF and tall heath forest-THF. The estimated total average CO2 emissions from the area was 3.08±0.8 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The Cuieiras reserve is another mosaic of plateau, slope, Campinarana and riparian forests and the total average emission from the area was 3.82±0.76 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1. We also found that the main control factor of the soil respiration was soil temperature, with 90% explained by regression analysis. Automated soil respiration datasets are a good tool to improve the technique and increase the reliability of measurements to allow a better understanding of all possible factors driven by soil respiration processes.Respiração do solo possui um importante papel no ciclo do carbono em florestas tropicais Amazônicas. Entretanto poucas medidas de respiração do solo foram feitas. Neste estudo são apontados os efeitos na metodologia de instalação dos anéis no solo, bem como os efeitos da precipitação e a distribuição espacial da emissão de CO2

  4. Do the recent severe droughts in the Amazonia have the same period of length?

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Yong; Sampaio, Gilvan; Mário, Antônio; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new measure based on drought period length to assess the temporal difference between the recent two severe droughts of 2005 and 2010 in the Amazonia. The sensitivity of the measure is demonstrated by disclosing the distinct spatial responding mechanisms of the Northeastern and Southwestern Amazon (NA, SA) to the surrounding sea surface temperature (SST) variabilities. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans have different roles on the precipitation patterns in Amazonia. More specifically, the very dry periods in the NA are influenced by El Ni\\~no events, while the very dry periods in the SA are affected by the anomalously warming of the SST in the North Atlantic. We show convincingly that the drought 2005 hit SA, which is caused by the North Atlantic only. There are two phases in the drought 2010: (i) it was started in the NA in August 2009 affected by the El Ni\\~no event, and (ii) later shifted the center of action to SA resulted from anomalously high SST in North Atlantic, which further intensifies the...

  5. Do the recent severe droughts in the Amazonia have the same period of length?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yong; Macau, Elbert E. N.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Ramos, Antônio M. T.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new measure based on drought period length to assess the temporal difference between the recent two severe droughts of 2005 and 2010 in the Amazonia. The sensitivity of the measure is demonstrated by disclosing the distinct spatial responding mechanisms of the Northeastern and Southwestern Amazon (NA, SA) to the surrounding sea surface temperature (SST) variabilities. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans have different roles on the precipitation patterns in Amazonia. More specifically, the very dry periods in the NA are influenced by El Niño events, while the very dry periods in the SA are affected by the anomalously warming of the SST in the North Atlantic. Our analysis discloses convincingly that the drought 2005 hit SA, which is correlated to the North Atlantic only. Furthermore, it suggests that there are two phases in the drought 2010: (1) it was started in the NA in August 2009 co-occurred with the El Niño event, and (2) later shifted the center of action to SA resulted from anomalously high SST in North Atlantic, which further intensifies the impacts on the spatial coverage.

  6. Distribuição espacial de insetos aquáticos em igarapés de pequena ordem na Amazônia Central Spatial distribution of aquatic insects communites in small streams in Central Amazonia

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    Luana Fidelis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Igarapés de pequena ordem, nas reservas do Projeto Dinâmica Biológica de Fragmentos Florestais - INPA, a cerca de 80 km ao norte da cidade de Manaus, AM foram estudados quanto à composição das comunidades de insetos aquáticos em diferentes substratos. Em cada um dos 20 trechos amostrados, foram coletadas amostras nos quatro substratos principais: folhiço retido em áreas de correnteza, folhiço depositado no leito do igarapé, areia e raízes/vegetação nos barrancos marginais. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a entomofauna aquática e relacioná-la com substratos específicos dentro do igarapé. O substrato com maior número de gêneros foi folhiço retido em áreas de correnteza (106 enquanto areia apresentou o menor número (55. As maiores similaridades ocorreram entre os substratos de folhiço depositado em áreas de remanso e barrancos marginais. As menores similaridades ocorreram entre folhiço retido em áreas de correnteza e areia. Alguns táxons coletados mostraram-se indicadores de um tipo de substrato, enquanto outros estiveram presentes em todos os substratos amostrados. Alguns táxons indicadores de folhas em correnteza foram encontrados em folhiço depositado em áreas de remanso em outros estudos na região Sudeste do país. Isso indica que a velocidade da correnteza pode estar determinando a fauna que ocupa esse biótopo. Igarapés maiores, com maiores valores de vazão e ordem, apresentaram comunidades mais distintas nos diferentes substratos amostrados que os igarapés menores.Small streams, at the Biological Dynamics of Fragmented Forest Project - INPA ca. 80 Km north from the city of Manaus (Amazonas, Braszil , were studied concerning the composition of the aquatic insects communities in different substrates. In each one of the 20 stretches, four samples of the principal biotopes were collected: leaf litter in riffle areas, leaf litter deposited on the botton of the stream, sand and roots/vegetation on marginal

  7. Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera da Amazônia brasileira Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera from brazilian Amazonia

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    Maria José do Nascimento Lopes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Amazônia brasileira são registradas dezenove espécies de Leptophlebiidae, distribuídas em dez gêneros. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma lista de todos os gêneros de Leptophlebiidae ocorrentes na Região Neotropical, o numero de espécies de cada gênero no Brasil e um catálogo das espécies registradas na Amazônia brasileira.Brazilian Amazonia has nineteen registered species of Leptophlebiidae, distributed in ten genera. In this work a list of all genera of Leptophlebiidae from the Neotropical Region is presented, the number of species of each genus in Brazil and a catalog of the species occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.

  8. Geographic pattern of genetic diversity in natural populations of Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora, in the Central Amazonia Padrão geográfico de diversidade genética em populações naturais de Pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora, na Amazônia Central

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    Ronaldo Pereira Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, Lauraceae is an Amazonian evergreen tree and a source of the purest linalool, the main component of its essential oil, which is very valuable in the international perfumery market. After decades of over-exploitation it is currently considered as threatened. We evaluated the genetic diversity and its distribution in four populations in Central Amazonia. Thirty-five reliable RAPD markers were generated, of which 32 were polymorphic (91.4%. Variation was higher within the populations (76.5%; p O Pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, Lauraceae é uma árvore amazônica fonte do mais puro linalol, o qual é o principal componente do seu óleo essencial e muito valioso no mercado internacional de perfumaria. Após várias décadas de intensa exploração, a espécie foi levada à categoria de ameaçada de extinção. Quatro populações naturais distribuídas na bacia Amazônia Central foram avaliadas quanto ao nível e a distribuição da diversidade genética. Trinta e cinco marcadores RAPD reprodutíveis foram gerados, dos quais 32 foram polimórficos (91,4%. A diversidade foi maior dentro das populações (76,5%; p < 0,0001 e a distribuição geográfica contribuiu para a diferenciação entre as populações (23,4%; p < 0,0001. A AMOVA indicou que pode haver uma influência parcial do Rio Amazonas no fluxo gênico (3,3%; p < 0,0001, mas foram identificadas evidências de fluxo gênico atravessando o rio. Houve diferenças significativas nas freqüências dos marcadores (p < 0,05 e o fluxo gênico estimado foi relativamente baixo (Nm = 2,02. A correlação entre a distância genética e o fluxo gênico foi de - 0,95 (p = 0,06 e para a distância geográfica e o fluxo gênico foi de - 0,78 (p = 0,12. Houve um padrão geográfico de variabilidade ao longo do eixo Leste - Oeste, influenciado também pelo Rio Amazonas, o que sugere que o rio poderia funcionar como uma barreira para o fluxo gênico. Apesar de amea

  9. Relações solo-geoambiente em áreas de ocorrências de Ipucas na planície do Médio Araguaia - Estado de Tocantins Soil-geoenvironment relationships in the Ipucas region of the Mid-Araguaia floodplain, Tocantins State, Southern Amazonia

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    Alan Kardec Elias Martins

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as paisagens do médio rio Araguaia, destacam-se as extensas planícies e depressões sazonalmente alagadas. Nelas se inserem formações florestais higrófilas denominadas Ipucas, como enclaves peculiares pela sua fitossociologia e ambiente pedogeomorfológico. Esses fragmentos florestais naturais ocorrem na planície fluvial, em região de ecótono entre o Cerrado e a Floresta Amazônica. Neste estudo, foi selecionada uma área de 8.200 ha, situada no Município de Lagoa da Confusão, TO, sendo caracterizados nove perfis de solos em diferentes pedoambientes e suas inter-relações nas paisagens da planície do Araguaia, com ênfase nas áreas de Ipucas. Os pedoambientes apresentam grande diversidade, com amplo domínio de solos gleizados, pobres em nutrientes e com plintita em subsuperfície, com teores variáveis de carbono orgânico. Excetuando as áreas de calcário aflorante na borda elevada da planície, onde predominam Cambissolos Háplicos eutróficos com acentuada riqueza química, os solos predominantes no interior da planície do Médio Araguaia, dominantemente Plintossolos e Gleissolos, são acentuadamente pobres em nutrientes e ácidos, mesmo sob formações florestais de Ipucas. Nessas últimas, há um acúmulo de matéria orgânica pelo ambiente hidromórfico redutor e ácido. Por serem áreas extremamente frágeis a intervenções antrópicas, e pouco interligadas, as Ipucas devem ser consideradas áreas de preservação permanente, sendo estreitamente ligadas ao ciclo hidrológico da planície do Araguaia.Amongst the landscape features of Mid Araguaia river valley, there are vast coalesced floodplains and waterlogging depressions, all seasonally inundated. There, scattered forest fragments are found, being regionally called 'Ipucas', with peculiar floristic and geomorphic features. These forest fragments are elements of the natural transition zone (ecotone between Amazonia Forest and Cerrado. We selected an area of

  10. Neogene climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C.; Dino, R.; Garcia, M.J.; Antonioli, L.; da Costa Casado, F.; Hooghiemstra, H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Strohschoen, O.; Cunha Lana, C.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change follows from the interaction between global atmospheric and oceanic processes with regional processes. In this chapter we review which factors determined climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast and present a recompilation of Neogene palynological and paleobotanical

  11. Carbon stock loss from deforestation through 2013 in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Euler Melo; Yanai, Aurora M; Fonseca, Frederico O R; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2015-03-01

    The largest carbon stock in tropical vegetation is in Brazilian Amazonia. In this ~5 million km(2) area, over 750,000 km(2) of forest and ~240,000 km(2) of nonforest vegetation types had been cleared through 2013. We estimate current carbon stocks and cumulative gross carbon loss from clearing of premodern vegetation in Brazil's 'Legal Amazonia' and 'Amazonia biome' regions. Biomass of 'premodern' vegetation (prior to major increases in disturbance beginning in the 1970s) was estimated by matching vegetation classes mapped at a scale of 1 : 250,000 and 29 biomass means from 41 published studies for vegetation types classified as forest (2317 1-ha plots) and as either nonforest or contact zones (1830 plots and subplots of varied size). Total biomass (above and below-ground, dry weight) underwent a gross reduction of 18.3% in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C) and 16.7% in the Amazonia biome (11.2 Pg C) through 2013, excluding carbon loss from the effects of fragmentation, selective logging, fires, mortality induced by recent droughts and clearing of forest regrowth. In spite of the loss of carbon from clearing, large amounts of carbon were stored in stands of remaining vegetation in 2013, equivalent to 149 Mg C ha(-1) when weighted by the total area covered by each vegetation type in Legal Amazonia. Native vegetation in Legal Amazonia in 2013 originally contained 58.6 Pg C, while that in the Amazonia biome contained 56 Pg C. Emissions per unit area from clearing could potentially be larger in the future because previously cleared areas were mainly covered by vegetation with lower mean biomass than the remaining vegetation. Estimates of original biomass are essential for estimating losses to forest degradation. This study offers estimates of cumulative biomass loss, as well as estimates of premodern carbon stocks that have not been represented in recent estimates of deforestation impacts.

  12. Soldagem em operação de dutos de alta resistência e baixa espessura com ênfase nas trincas a frio

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Aldo Santos; Buschinelli,Augusto J. A.; Carlos E. Niño; Kejelin,Norton Zanette

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência de trincas a frio quando da soldagem de dutos em operação. Foram executados dois conjuntos de experimentos: o primeiro denominado de experimento "F", em que foi variada a folga entre a calha e o tubo, e utilizados metal de base e de adição de alto carbono equivalente; o segundo denominado de experimento "R", em que foi imposta alta restrição à junta soldada e, promovido o resfriamento rápido mediante fluxo de água no interior do tubo. Foram f...

  13. Pre-Columbian Earthworks in Coastal Amazonia

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    Stéphen Rostain

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As in other parts of Amazonia, pre-Columbian Indians have profoundly modified the coast of the Guianas. Between 650 and 1650 AD, Arauquinoid people occupied a territory that was approximately 600 km long and used the raised field technique intensively before the European conquest. They erected thousands of raised fields of various shapes, dug canals, ditches, and pathways, and built artificial mounds to establish their villages. All these earthworks changed forever the face of the coastal flooded savannas and their ecology. Such labor was probably organized under the leadership of a central authority: it seems that Arauquinoid societies were organized in a chiefdom system. Statistical calculations, based on the known surface area of raised fields and on their estimated productivity, suggest a population density of 50 to 100 inhabitants per km2. Pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Guianas coast carefully organized, managed and “anthropisized” their territory following a specific pattern.

  14. Holocene development of Amazonia's oldest peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindles, Graeme T.; Morris, Paul J.; Whitney, Bronwen; Galka, Mariusz; Galloway, Jennifer M.; Gallego-Sala, Angela; Macumber, Andrew L.; Mullan, Donal; Smith, Mark W.; Amesbury, Matt; Roland, Thomas; Sanei, Hameed; Patterson, R. Timothy; Parry, Lauren; Charman, Dan J.; Lopez, Omar R.; Valderamma, Elvis; Watson, Elizabeth J.; Lähteenoja, Outi; Baird, Andy J.

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands represent some of the most carbon-dense ecosystems of Amazonia. However, little is known about the mechanisms of Amazonian peatland development and their ecohydrological dynamics over time. We present a comprehensive multiproxy dataset from Aucayacu peat dome, the oldest peatland yet discovered in Amazonia (peat initiation occurred between 8.9 and 5.8 ka cal. BP). Our dataset includes analyses of peat physical properties, carbon and nitrogen, humification, organic matter characteristics, macrofossils, pollen, charcoal and testate amoebae. Sedimentological techniques were applied to minerogenic deposits underneath the peatland to understand the nature of the floodplain environment before peat initiation. A transfer function was used to reconstruct past hydrological conditions from subfossil testate amoeba assemblages and carbon accumulation (CA) rates were determined from bulk density and percentage carbon data. A robust chronology was achieved using 210Pb and 14C (14 radiocarbon dates on a 3-m core) determinations, modelled using a Bayesian approach. We used the datasets to investigate the long-term ecohydrological development and controls on carbon accumulation in an Amazonian peat dome. The peatland developed in three distinct stages; (i) abandoned river channel with standing open water and aquatic plants; (ii) inundated forest swamp; and (iii) ombrotrophic bog ( 3.9 ka cal. BP). Local burning occurred twice during the peatland's development as evidenced by macroscopic charcoal but appears to have become more pronounced in the last 100 years. We present a conceptual model of the role of autogenic and allogenic (climate, floodplain) processes on the long-term development of the peatland and the marked variations in carbon accumulation rates over the Holocene. Amazonian peatlands are important carbon stores and ecosystems, and represent important archives of past climatic and ecological information. They should form key foci for conservation efforts.

  15. Circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly and exposure to PM2.5 generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon in 2005 Mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en los ancianos y la exposición a PM2,5 como resultado de la quema en la Amazonia brasileña en 2005 Mortalidade por doenças circulatórias na população idosa e exposição a PM2,5 em decorrência das queimadas na Amazônia brasileira em 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ignotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the exposure to fine particulate matter and circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly living in the Brazilian Amazon. An ecological study of circulatory disease, acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease mortality rates in micro areas of the Brazilian Amazon was carried out. The environmental exposure indicator used was percentage hours of PM2.5 concentrations > 25µg/m³ divided by the total number of estimated hours of PM2.5 in 2005. The association between exposure and circulatory disease mortality rates was strongest in the oldest age group. No significant statistical association was found between cerebrovascular disease mortality rates and exposure. Circulatory disease mortality rates in the elderly living in the Amazon have been influenced by atmospheric pollution from emissions caused by forest fires.El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la asociación entre la exposición a las partículas finas, con tasas de mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en los ancianos en la Amazonia brasileña. Se trata de un estudio ecológico de las tasas de mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares, el infarto agudo de miocardio y enfermedades cerebrovasculares en las microrregiones brasileñas de la Amazonia. El indicador de la exposición ambiental fue estimado como un porcentaje de horas de PM2,5 > 25µg/m³, dividido por el número total de horas estimado de PM2,5 en 2005. La asociación del indicador de exposición con las tasas de mortalidad para las enfermedades circulatorias fue mayor en el grupo de mayor edad. La tasa de mortalidad por enfermedad cerebrovascular no se asoció con el indicador de exposición. Las enfermedades cardiovasculares en los ancianos que viven en la Amazonia han sido influenciadas por la contaminación atmosférica, causada por las emisiones de los incendios.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a associação da exposição ao

  16. Amazonia desde dentro: aportes a la investigación de la Amazonia colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Palacio Castañeda, Germán A.; Nieto Moreno, Juana Valentina; Rosas Riaño, Diana; Buitrago Garavito, Ana Isabel; Cure Valdivieso, Salima; Hurtado Gómez, Lina María; Bolívar Urueta, Edgar Eduardo; Moncayo Martínez, Patricia; Bonilla López, Omar Alfonso; Lozano, Carolina María; Builes, Diego Fernando; Arias García, Juan Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Este libro es una compilación y selección de artículos cuya materia prima la constituyen algunos de los mejores trabajos de tesis de la Maestría en Estudios Amazónicos de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Amazonia. De este modo, los primeros artículos del libro están reunidos bajo el título "Sociedad, comunidades y representaciones"; donde Valentina Nieto describe cómo "mujer de la abundancia", una imagen central en la ideología uitoto, se mantiene viva en las actividades cotidian...

  17. Predicting pre-Columbian anthropogenic soils in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, C H; Palace, M W; Bush, M B; Braswell, B; Hagen, S; Neves, E G; Silman, M R; Tamanaha, E K; Czarnecki, C

    2014-02-22

    The extent and intensity of pre-Columbian impacts on lowland Amazonia have remained uncertain and controversial. Various indicators can be used to gauge the impact of pre-Columbian societies, but the formation of nutrient-enriched terra preta soils has been widely accepted as an indication of long-term settlement and site fidelity. Using known and newly discovered terra preta sites and maximum entropy algorithms (Maxent), we determined the influence of regional environmental conditions on the likelihood that terra pretas would have been formed at any given location in lowland Amazonia. Terra pretas were most frequently found in central and eastern Amazonia along the lower courses of the major Amazonian rivers. Terrain, hydrologic and soil characteristics were more important predictors of terra preta distributions than climatic conditions. Our modelling efforts indicated that terra pretas are likely to be found throughout ca 154 063 km(2) or 3.2% of the forest. We also predict that terra preta formation was limited in most of western Amazonia. Model results suggested that the distribution of terra preta was highly predictable based on environmental parameters. We provided targets for future archaeological surveys under the vast forest canopy and also highlighted how few of the long-term forest inventory sites in Amazonia are able to capture the effects of historical disturbance.

  18. Abundance of two Dendrocincla woodcreepers (aves: Dendrocolaptidae in relation to forest structure in Central Amazonia O uso do habitat por duas espécies de arapaçus Dendrocincla (aves: Dendrocolaptidae em relação a estrutura da floresta na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cintra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted to verify how the structure of the forest affects the occurence and abundance of neotropical birds. Our research was undertaken between January 2002 and July 2004 at the Reserva Ducke, near Manaus (02º55',03º01'S; 59º53',59º59'W in central Amazonia, to verify how the forest structure affects the occurrence and abundance of two bird species: the Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa and the White-chinned Woodcreeper Dendrocincla merula. Bird species occurrence was recorded using lines of 20 mist-nets (one sample unit, along 51 1-km transects distributed along 9 pararel 8 km trails covering an area of 6400 ha. Along these transects, we placed 50 x 50m plots where we recorded forest structure components (tree abundance, canopy openness, leaf litter, standing dead trees, logs, proximity to streams, and altitude. We then related these variables to bird occurence and abundance using multiple logistic and multiple linear regression models, respectively. We found that D. fuliginosa frequently used plateau areas; being more abundant in areas with more trees. On the other hand, D. merula occurred more frequently and was more abundant in areas with low tree abundance. Our results suggest that although both species overlap in the reserve (both were recorded in at least 68% of the sampled sites, they differ in the way they use the forest microhabitats. Therefore, local variation in the forest structure may contribute to the coexistence of congeneric species and may help to maintain local alpha diversity.Em florestas neotropicais, poucos estudos tem sido conduzidos para verificar como a estrutura da floresta afeta o uso desse ambiente por aves. Este estudo foi realizado entre Janeiro de 2002 e Julho de 2004 na Reserva Ducke próximo a Manaus (02º55',03º01'S; 59º53',59º59'W, para verificar como a estrutura da floresta afeta a ocorrência e abundância de duas espécies de aves: o Arapaçu-pardo, Dendrocincla

  19. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Density in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Daniel Gomes da; Sollmann, Rahel; Ramalho, Emiliano Esterci; Ilha, Renata; Tan, Cedric K W

    2016-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model that shared detection parameters among surveys. A total effort of 7020 camera-trap days resulted in 93 independent ocelot records. The estimate of ocelot density in Amanã Reserve (24.84 ± SE 6.27 ocelots per 100 km2) was lower than at other sites in the Amazon and also lower than that expected from a correlation of density with latitude and rainfall. We also discuss the importance of using common parameters for survey scenarios with low recapture rates. This is the first density estimate for ocelots in the Brazilian Amazon, which is an important stronghold for the species.

  20. Dynamics, Patterns and Causes of Fires in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Retana, Javier

    2012-01-01

    According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures) and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops). Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests. PMID:22523580

  1. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    Full Text Available According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops. Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  2. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Retana, Javier

    2012-01-01

    According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures) and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops). Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  3. Estimating Monthly Rainfall from Geostationary Satellite Imagery Over Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrim, Elen Maria Camara

    The infrared regression and the grid-history satellite rainfall estimating techniques were utilized to estimate monthly rainfall in Amazonia during one month of the rainy season (March, 1980) and one month of the dry season (September, 1980). The estimates were based on 3-hourly SMS-II infrared and visible images. Three sets of coefficients for the grid history method (Marajo, Arabian Sea, and GATE) were used to estimate rainfall. The estimated rain was compared with gauge measurements over the region. The infrared regression technique overestimated by a factor of 1.5. The Marajo coefficients yielded the best estimate, especially for eastern Amazonia. In the wet month Marajo coefficients overestimated rain by 10% and in the dry month by 70%. The Arabian Sea coefficients overestimated rain and the GATE coefficients slightly underestimated rain for Amazonia. Two maps of monthly rainfall over Amazonia were constructed for March and September, 1980, combining the ground station and satellite inferred rainfall of the grid history method using the Marajo coefficients. The satellite observations and ground data were mutually compatible and were contourable on these final, composite maps. Monthly rainfall was found to be much more inhomogeneous than previously reported. In March there was a belt of high precipitation trending southwest, with higher values and sharpest gradients in the coastal area. The upper Amazon was also an area of high precipitation, both north and south of the equator. In Roraima rainfall decreased drastically to the north. In September, the area of highest precipitation was the northwestern part of Amazonas State (northern hemisphere). Rainfall elsewhere was very localized and in northeastern Amazonia varied from 0 to 150 mm. Even though the grid history method presented better results for estimating rainfall over Amazonia, the IR model could be utilized more efficiently and economically on an operational basis if the calibration were properly made

  4. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  5. Hypotheses to explain the origin of species in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Haffer

    Full Text Available The main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different factors, as follow: (1 Changes in the distribution of land and sea or in the landscape due to tectonic movements or sea level fluctuations (Paleogeography hypothesis, (2 the barrier effect of Amazonian rivers (River hypothesis, (3 a combination of the barrier effect of broad rivers and vegetational changes in northern and southern Amazonia (River-refuge hypothesis, (4 the isolation of humid rainforest blocks near areas of surface relief in the periphery of Amazonia separated by dry forests, savannas and other intermediate vegetation types during dry climatic periods of the Tertiary and Quaternary (Refuge hypothesis, (5 changes in canopy-density due to climatic reversals (Canopy-density hypothesis (6 the isolation and speciation of animal populations in small montane habitat pockets around Amazonia due to climatic fluctuations without major vegetational changes (Museum hypothesis, (7 competitive species interactions and local species isolations in peripheral regions of Amazonia due to invasion and counterinvasion during cold/warm periods of the Pleistocene (Disturbance-vicariance hypothesis and (8 parapatric speciation across steep environmental gradients without separation of the respective populations (Gradient hypothesis. Several of these hypotheses probably are relevant to a different degree for the speciation processes in different faunal groups or during different geological periods. The basic paleogeography model refers mainly to faunal differentiation during the Tertiary and in combination with the Refuge hypothesis. Milankovitch‡ cycles leading to global main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on

  6. Hypotheses to explain the origin of species in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffer, J

    2008-11-01

    The main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different factors, as follow: (1) Changes in the distribution of land and sea or in the landscape due to tectonic movements or sea level fluctuations (Paleogeography hypothesis), (2) the barrier effect of Amazonian rivers (River hypothesis), (3) a combination of the barrier effect of broad rivers and vegetational changes in northern and southern Amazonia (River-refuge hypothesis), (4) the isolation of humid rainforest blocks near areas of surface relief in the periphery of Amazonia separated by dry forests, savannas and other intermediate vegetation types during dry climatic periods of the Tertiary and Quaternary (Refuge hypothesis), (5) changes in canopy-density due to climatic reversals (Canopy-density hypothesis) (6) the isolation and speciation of animal populations in small montane habitat pockets around Amazonia due to climatic fluctuations without major vegetational changes (Museum hypothesis), (7) competitive species interactions and local species isolations in peripheral regions of Amazonia due to invasion and counterinvasion during cold/warm periods of the Pleistocene (Disturbance-vicariance hypothesis) and (8) parapatric speciation across steep environmental gradients without separation of the respective populations (Gradient hypothesis). Several of these hypotheses probably are relevant to a different degree for the speciation processes in different faunal groups or during different geological periods. The basic paleogeography model refers mainly to faunal differentiation during the Tertiary and in combination with the Refuge hypothesis. Milankovitch cycles leading to global main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different

  7. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  8. Rupturing of Biological Spores As a Source of Secondary Particles in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Swarup; Wang, Bingbing; Weis, Johannes; Rizzo, Luciana; Brito, Joel; Cirino, Glauber G; Kovarik, Libor; Artaxo, Paulo; Gilles, Mary K; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-15

    Airborne biological particles, such as fungal spores and pollen, are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and may influence the atmospheric environment and climate, impacting air quality, cloud formation, and the Earth's radiation budget. The atmospheric transformations of airborne biological spores at elevated relative humidity remain poorly understood and their climatic role is uncertain. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), we observed rupturing of Amazonian fungal spores and subsequent release of submicrometer size fragments after exposure to high humidity. We find that fungal fragments contain elements of inorganic salts (e.g., Na and Cl). They are hygroscopic in nature with a growth factor up to 2.3 at 96% relative humidity, thus they may potentially influence cloud formation. Due to their hygroscopic growth, light scattering cross sections of the fragments are enhanced by up to a factor of 10. Furthermore, rupturing of fungal spores at high humidity may explain the bursting events of new particle formation in Amazonia.

  9. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. II. Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae, Sphaerodactylidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A

    2015-07-02

    I present distribution data of all geckos (Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae and Sphaerodactylidae) known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 19 species, belonging to nine genera. This represents six more taxa than previously reported for these families. Data were based on the direct examination of 23,094 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums. Most species (68.4%) are endemic to the Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia. As a whole, three taxa are widespread in Amazonia, two are restricted to eastern Amazonia, two to western Amazonia, three to northern Amazonia (either widespread or restriced to parts of the Guiana region), one to southern Amazonia, one to southwestern Amazonia, and three to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Additionally, four species have unique distributions and four species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in the area of endemism of Guiana, one in Inambari, and one in Tapajós.

  10. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. III. Anguidae, Scincidae, Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A; Amaral, Silvana

    2016-12-09

    We present distribution data of all Anguidae, Scincidae, and Teiidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 29 species-level taxa, belonging to 14 genera. This represents 11 more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families in this area. Data were based on literature and 46,806 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~55%) are endemic to Amazonia. Except for Ameiva ameiva, that is present in several environments and domains, non-endemic species are either associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, occupying similar environments outside Amazonia, gallery forests within the Cerrado, or present disjunct populations in the Atlantic Forest. As a whole, six taxa are widespread in Amazonia, four are restricted to eastern Amazonia, four to western Amazonia, three to southwestern Amazonia, one to northern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Besides, two species present apparently more restricted, unique distributions. Only three species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in AE Guiana and one in AE Inambari.

  11. Genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, C.C.; Marin, M.A.; Dias, G.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Edwards, R.A.; Iida, T.; Thompson, F.L.; Vicente, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis rev

  12. Genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, C.C.; Marin, M.A.; Dias, G.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Edwards, R.A.; Iida, T.; Thompson, F.L.; Vicente, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis

  13. Neogene climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C.; Dino, R.; Garcia, M.J.; Antonioli, L.; da Costa Casado, F.; Hooghiemstra, H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Strohschoen, O.; Cunha Lana, C.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change follows from the interaction between global atmospheric and oceanic processes with regional processes. In this chapter we review which factors determined climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast and present a recompilation of Neogene palynological and paleobotanical r

  14. Paleoclimates of Amazonia: An ice-age view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, M.B.; De Oliveira, P.E.; Raczka, M.F.; Gosling, W.D.; Mayle, F.E.; McMichael, C.H.; Urrego, D.H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Cunha Lana, C.; Strohschoen Jr., O.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence points to climatic complexity during the Ice-Ages. Amazonia does not respond uniformly to modern climatic forcing, and the same was true of the past. Although some climatic forcings were probably expressed everywhere, they were manifested differently. Consequently, climate

  15. On relict hydrobiid species in Brazilian Amazonia (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, Hydrobiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Two extant hydrobiid species from the lower Tapajos river of Brazil are redescribed. Potamopyrgus amazonicus Haas, 1949, is assigned to the genus Dyris Conrad, 1871. At least eleven species from Miocene deposits of Western Amazonia are assigned to Dyris, a genus that was previously assumed to be ext

  16. Evapotranspiration of deforested areas in central and southwestern Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randow, von R.C.S.; Randow, C.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Tomasella, J.; Kruijt, B.

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high rates of evapotranspiration of Amazonian forests, understanding the impacts of deforestation on water loss rates is important for assessing those impacts on a regional and global scale. This paper quantifies evapotranspiration rates in two different pasture sites in Amazonia and

  17. OSL age determinations of Pleistocene fluvial deposits in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio A.A. Soares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Absolute dating methods have been used in chronological studies of geological processes and sedimentary units of Quaternary age in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Although radiocarbon dating has been very useful in archaeological research and soil studies, the temporal interval of this method is inefficient in evaluating the sedimentation aspects and geological events from the beginning of the Quaternary in the Amazon basin. The use of crystal luminescence dating has been one of the most promising tool for determining the absolute dating of Quaternary deposits in the Amazonian region. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating, following the MAR and SAR protocols, in a tectonic-sedimentary study of Quaternary fluvial deposits in the confluence area of the Negro and Solimões rivers, indicated ages from 1.3 (Holocene to about 67.4 kyears (Late Pleistocene for these sediments. Low radioactive isotope concentrations were found about 2ppm for 235U and 238U; 5ppm for 232Th; and the 40K concentrations were almost zero. A comparison was made between MAR and SAR protocols taking into account the fluvial depositional process.Métodos de datação absoluta têm sido usados em estudos cronológicos de processos geológicos e unidades sedimentares de idade quaternária na Amazônia Central, Brasil. Embora as datações pelo 14C tenham sido muito úteis na pesquisa arqueológica e estudos de solos, o intervalo de tempo abrangido por este método é ineficiente para avaliar aspectos da sedimentação e eventos geológicos do início do Quaternário na bacia Amazônica. O uso da datação por luminescência de cristais tem sido uma das ferramentas mais promissoras para a determinação da idade absoluta de depósitos quaternários na região amazônica. A datação por luminescência opticamente estimulada (LOE, seguindo os protocolos MAR e SAR, em um estudo tectono-sedimentar de depósitos aluviais quaternários da área de confluência dos rios Negro e Solim

  18. Avaliação de processos MIG/MAG curto-circuito convencional e controlado para a soldagem de dutos de aço carbono em passe único Assessment of conventional and controlled short-circuit MIG/MAG processes for steel-pipe welding in single pass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonson Ferreira Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de fontes de soldagem com processos derivativos MIG/MAG com transferência por curto-circuito, também conhecidos como curto-circuito controlado, tem-se tornado uma tendência na busca de soldas de qualidade e produtividade, principalmente na união de dutos, pois acredita-se que, o controle da corrente permite melhorar a transferência metálica, proporcionando estabilidade ao processo de soldagem e a poça de fusão. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho é determinar envelope operacional e estabelecer vantagens e limitações operacionais dos processos MIG/MAG com transferência por curto-circuito convencional e derivativos (STT - SurfaceTensionTransfer, RMD - Regulated Metal Deposition e CMT - Cold Metal Transfer, para a união de dutos de aço carbono com diâmetro nominal de 2 ½"e parede fina com passe único, nas progressões ascendente e descendente. Para tal, optou-se por variar os parâmetros de regulagem de cada processo e a velocidade de alimentação do arame, além das técnicas de soldagem, procurando manter a mesma quantidade de material depositado por comprimento de solda. Os resultados encontrados mostraram que o curto-circuito convencional apresentou um envelope operacional constante para a progressão ascendente e para a descendente quanto ao número de ensaios. Ao passo que, o STT e o RMD apresentaram um maior envelope operacional na progressão descendente. Por outro lado, o CMT, com envelope operacional maior na ascendente, trabalha com valores de tensão de soldagem muito mais baixos, o que justifica o baixo aporte térmico do processo.The development of power sources towards the MIG/MAG derivative processes with short-circuit metal transfer (also known as controlled short-circuit has become a trend in the search for high productivity and high quality weldments, especially in pipe welding. It is believed that the control of current achieved in such processes improves the metal transfer, reaching

  19. Amazonia boliviana: arqueología de los Llanos de Mojos Bolivian Amazonia: archaeology of the Llanos de Mojos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Adolfo Calandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A arqueologia da Amazônia boliviana ou das "Terras Baixas" compreende um imenso território que mostra, a luz da informação disponível, significativas descontinuidades espaço-temporais. A identificação nesta área de sociedades constituindo "cacicados da floresta tropical" a partir de critérios baseados em preconceitos, requer a reavaliação da pré-história regional do ponto de vista causal. A arqueologia beniana (de Llanos de Mojos é conhecida, fundamentalmente, a partir das escavações de Erland Nordenskiöld, que sem dúvida estabeleceu as bases conceituais existentes atualmente. Entre os anos de 1977 e 1981 uma missão do Museu de La Plata (Argentina, sob a direção de B. Dougherty, e em estreita colaboração com o Instituto de Arqueologia de La Paz (Bolívia e com o Amazonian Ecosystem Research (EUA, conduziu pesquisas sistemáticas considerando variados itens antropológicos e produzindo numerosas datações de radiocarbono. Estas contribuições ajudaram a esclarecer, mas não a simplificar o panorama pré-hispânico regional, tão importante na temática arqueológica sul-americana. Complementa este artigo uma exaustiva lista de bibliografias que facilita o acesso ao conhecimento sobre este grande território.The archaeology of the Bolivian Amazonia or "Low lands" comprises a large territory that shows, significant time and spatial discontinuities. The identification of societies in this area constituting "Jefaturas de la Floresta Tropical", from criteria based on preconceptions requires the reassessment of regional prehistory from the causal point of view. Benian archeology (Llanos de Mojos is fundamentally known, from the Erland Nordenskiöld excavations, which undoubtedly sets the conceptual bases existing to date. Between 1977 and 1981 a Mission of Museo de La Plata (Argentina, under the direction of B. Dougherty together with the Instituto Nacional de Arqueología of La Paz (Bolivia and the Amazonian Ecosystem

  20. The first species of the genus Caponina from Brazilian Amazonia (Araneae: Caponiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescovit, Antonio D; Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    The genus Caponina Simon, 1891 comprises eleven species of medium-sized, soil-dwelling caponiids. Most members of Caponina have six eyes, but some have five, four, three or two eyes (Brignoli 1977, Platnick 1994). The genus is widespread in South and Central America (Platnick 2012). To date, only three species have been recorded from Brazil: Caponina alegre Platnick, 1994 from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, C. notabilis (Mello-Leitão, 1939) from the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, and C. tijuca Platnick, 1994 from the state of Rio de Janeiro (Platnick 1994). In this paper we describe a new species from the state of Pará, in Brazilian Amazonia. Caponina papamanga new species was collected during the "Butantan na Amazonia" project, founded by the Instituto Butantan. The phylogenetic relationships of C. papamanga could not be studied, but the greatly elongated embolus, the dorsal tubercle on the palpal femur (Figs. 7, 9) and the massive epigynal sclerotizations (Fig. 10) suggest that this species belongs to the monophyletic Andean group proposed by Platnick (1994: 7). All morphological observations and illustrations were made using a Leica MZ12 stereomicroscope with camera lucida. The epigynum was dissected and immersed in clove oil for visualization of internal structures following Levi (1965). Descriptions and measurements follow Platnick (1994). Measurements are given in millimeters. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken using a Jeol-JSM-5200 with attached SLR digital camera. The material examined was deposited in the collections of the Instituto Butantan, Sgo Paulo (IBSP, curator: D.M. Barros Battesti) and the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém (MPEG, curator: A.B. Bonaldo).

  1. Navigating Amazonia under uncertainty: past, present and future environmental governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Emily

    2008-05-27

    One of the major environmental challenges of the twenty-first century is the continued rapid deforestation of Amazonia. The 2005 dieback crisis emphasizes the unprecedented challenges facing Brazil. The examination of past and present institutions for ecosystem management, in Amazonia, shows structural barriers across public, private and community arrangements. The adaptive governance concept helps to understand why these institutions are failing to deliver sustainable futures. In looking forward, it is encouraging to see that important networks of knowledge and a number of novel initiatives are emerging in Brazil. These new arrangements are novel in the way that they seem to be adaptive and navigate structures in the hope of overcoming insurmountable drivers of deforestation.

  2. Controle ativo de ruído em dutos utilizando processadores digitais de sinais

    OpenAIRE

    Delfino, Leandro César

    2005-01-01

    Ruídos acústicos são conhecidos como fontes de poluição sonora que podem causar efeitos adversos na vida humana. Para solucionar estes problemas, interesse considerável tem sido mostrado em Controle Ativo de Ruído. O intuito deste trabalho é estudar e analisar os principais algoritmos de Controle Ativo de Ruído presentes na literatura, incluindo algoritmos de malha aberta (Feedfoward) e de malha fechada (Feedback), bem como um sistema híbrido que utilize os dois conceitos. O...

  3. Controle ativo de ruído em dutos utilizando processadores digitais de sinais

    OpenAIRE

    Delfino, Leandro César

    2005-01-01

    Ruídos acústicos são conhecidos como fontes de poluição sonora que podem causar efeitos adversos na vida humana. Para solucionar estes problemas, interesse considerável tem sido mostrado em Controle Ativo de Ruído. O intuito deste trabalho é estudar e analisar os principais algoritmos de Controle Ativo de Ruído presentes na literatura, incluindo algoritmos de malha aberta (Feedfoward) e de malha fechada (Feedback), bem como um sistema híbrido que utilize os dois conceitos. O...

  4. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. I. Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A

    2015-07-08

    I present distribution data of all Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae and Tropiduridae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 40 species-level taxa, belonging to 11 genera. This represents four more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families. Data were based on the direct examination of 41,243 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian musea, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (62.5%) are endemic to the Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, with a few exceptions. As a whole, seven taxa are widespread in Amazonia, one is restricted to eastern Amazonia, three to western Amazonia, five to northern Amazonia (either in part of it or widespread in the Guiana region), two to northwestern Amazonia, one to southern Amazonia, nine to southwestern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Five species have unique distributions and five species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates). The first herpetological gazetteer for the Brazilian Amazonia with about 3,600 georeferenced localities was also produced.

  5. The large scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA); concise experimental plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LBAScience Planning Group (Cachoeira Paulista),

    1996-01-01

    The large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA) aims at enhancing knowledge of the climatological, ecological, biogeochemical, and hydrological functioning of Amazonia. It will address the effects of changes in land use and climate on these functions, including also the

  6. Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Terra Preta; Amazonian Dark Earths; Shifting cultivation; Homegardens; Intensification; Diversification; Smallholder farming. André Braga Junqueira (2015). Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summary in English, 163 pp. Rural Amazonia is increasingly experiencing environmental and socio-economic changes that directly affect smallholder farmers, with ...

  7. New Odostomia species (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae) from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsen, van J.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Odostomia nuttalli spec. nov. and O. coluhensis spec. nov. are described from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Peruvian and Columbian Amazonia. A third pyramidellid snail is also diagnosed. These species are indicators for marine influence in the late Middle to early Late Miocence of Western Amazonia.

  8. Lowering of pipeline in the Peloneas's Beach and mechanical protection of pipeline in main and secondary piers; Rebaixamento de dutos na Praia das Peloneas e protecao mecanica de dutos nos piers principal e secundario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Ana Paula da Silva M.; Basilio, Kenia Afonso [PLANAVE, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The growing concern of PETROBRAS with the environmental protection aspects is intimately related with the need of developing preventive works of protection to the pipelines of the company. A study was accomplished in the pipelines inside the Guanabara Bay, whose goals was divided in three parts: identification of the risk areas for the pipelines; determination of the minimum depth of burying of the pipelines so that the risk in appreciation is minimized; identification of the areas in that the burying or a complemental burying make herself necessary. The study went based on to theory of conservation of energy, being admitted the non preservative embarkation system, and in the theory of the elasticity. For such a commercial program of finite elements was used. With base in the limits foreseen in the study, two critical areas of the Guanabara Bay were considered, which already suffered intervention with lowering. (author)

  9. Surface Ozone Enrichment Downwind of Manaus City, in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, S.; Rizzo, L. V.; Rodrigues, N. P.; Brito, J.; Cirino, G. G.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Barbosa, H. M.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Amazonia is a unique place to study the impact of anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric photochemistry, fueled by large inputs of solar radiation, humidity, biogenic emissions and turbulent mixing. In the wet season, thousands of km2 of Amazonian forest areas can be considered pristine, whereas in the dry season biomass burning emissions in regional scale add to picture. The Amazon region is also going through localized urban development, in particular, the Manaus city, with 2 million inhabitants. The GoAmazon2014/5 experiment seeks to understand the interactions between urban and biogenic emissions in Amazonia. The combination of biogenic volatile organic compounds and urban NOx emissions is expected to increase tropospheric O3 production, with impacts to the ecosystem and human health. To investigate this issue, surface O3 measurements were taken between Feb and Dec 2014 at two sites in Amazonia: T2, located in the outflow of the Manaus urban plume, and T3, sitting 60 km downwind of the city. The influence of the urban plume at T3 site was detected by a combination of typical ΔCN/ΔCO ratios, Hysplit backtrajectories and threshold concentrations of tracers such as particle number and black carbon. The transport from T2 to T3 typically lasted 7 hours. At T2, the O3 diurnal cycle showed a diurnal peak of 20 ppb in the wet season and of 35 ppb in the dry season, suggesting the contribution of regional biomass burning to O3 photochemical production. In the absence of urban or biomass burning emissions, O3 diurnal cycle at T3 showed a peak of 15 ppb, similar to observations taken in pristine forest areas in Amazonia. When the Manaus plume reached the T3 site in the afternoon, the diurnal O3 peak increased to 40 ppb, indicating a net O3 production rate of 3.6 ppb h-1 along this diurnal transport. When the Manaus plume reached the T3 site before sunrise, i.e., a transport during the night, the diurnal peak was anticipated and reached 25 ppb.

  10. Labrets in Africa and Amazonia: medical implications and cultural determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garve, Roland; Garve, Miriam; Türp, Jens C; Meyer, Christian G

    2017-02-01

    The custom of wearing labrets has a long tradition. Labrets appeared independently several thousand years ago in various culture groups in Asia, Europe, Africa and the Americas. Today, apart from diverse body modifications as increasingly practiced in western civilisations, lip plates and plugs are found among a small number of tribal groups only in Africa and Amazonia. We summarise the history of labrets in different societies, describe medical consequences of wearing lip plates and plugs for jaws and teeth and address relevant cultural issues.

  11. The expansion of intensive agriculture and ranching in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; DeFries, Ruth; del Carmen Vera-Diaz, Maria; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Venturieri, Adriano

    Agriculture in Amazonia has often provoked controversy, given the tremendous ecological value of the region's environment. First with ranching, and now with the soybean boom, tractors and cattle have marched across lands that for millennia supported only closed moist forest, resident ecosystems, and dispersed indigenous peoples. The present chapter considers this expansion, focusing on the Brazilian portion of the basin. Its premise is that effective Amazonian policy must be grounded on an understanding of the region's agriculture. The chapter pursues its objectives by first addressing the development initiatives that created the preconditions for Amazonia's current agricultural economy. The region is remote and has therefore required sustained government intervention to release its potential. The policy discussion is followed by descriptions of cattle ranching and soy farming. For each, market settings and trajectories of expansion are presented. Although these sectoral descriptions are data rich, they do not provide a conceptual framework for analyzing the environmental impacts of evolving market conditions. To accomplish this, the chapter invokes the classical land use model of von Thünen to explain Amazonian land cover dynamics in relation to soy-cattle linkages. It addresses these dynamics with remote sensing data from Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, and then discusses scenarios of agricultural advances on the forest. Conclusions follow, considering possible policy responses to deforestation, and the social context of agricultural intensification, with special attention to the issues of land tenure security and distributional equity.

  12. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  13. Encantarias afroindígenas na Amazônia Marajoara: Narrativas, Praticas de Cura e (Intolerâncias Religiosas (Afroindigena Encantarias in the Marajoara Amazonia: Narratives, Cure Practices and Religious (intolerance - DOI:10.5752/P.2175-5841.2010v8n17p88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agenor Sarraf Pacheco

    2011-02-01

    article brings, from the historical narratives, movements of control,  transgressions, negation and (reaffirmation putted between indians, negros, afroindigenas, political and religious elites, around the amazonic "encatarias", highlighting the perceptions and postures of the Augustinian recoletos priests, since 1928, the year of the foundation of the evangelization of the great archipelago in the times of expansion and dissemination of ways and forms of romanization. Key words: Afroindigena, encantaria, Cure practices, Religious (intolerance, Marajoara Amazonia.

  14. Rupturing of Biological Spores As a Source of Secondary Particles in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    China, Swarup; Wang, Bingbing; Weis, Johannes; Rizzo, Luciana; Brito, Joel; Cirino, Glauber G.; Kovarik, Libor; Artaxo, Paulo; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-15

    Airborne biological particles, such as fungal spores and pollen, are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere and play an important role in the atmospheric environment and climate, impacting air quality, cloud formation, and the Earth’s radiation budget. The atmospheric transformations of airborne biological spores at elevated relative humidity remain poorly understood and their climatic role is uncertain. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), we observed rupturing of Amazonian fungal spores and subsequent release of nanometer to submicron size fragments after exposure to high humidity. We find that fungal fragments contain elements of inorganic salts (e.g., Na and Cl). They are hygroscopic in nature with a growth factor up to 2.3 at 96% relative humidity, thus they may potentially influence cloud formation. Due to their hygroscopic growth, light scattering cross sections of the fragments are enhanced by up to a factor of 10. Furthermore, rupturing of fungal spores at high humidity may explain the bursting events of nanoparticles and may provide insight into new particle formation in Amazonia.

  15. Environmental changes in the western Amazonia: morphological framework, geochemistry, palynology and radiocarbon dating data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C., E-mail: ahorbe@ufam.edu.b [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias; Behling, Hermann [Georg August Universitaet Goettingen (Germany). Albrecht von Haller Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften. Abteilung fuer Palynologie und Klimadynamik; Nogueira, Afonso C.R. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Mapes, Russell [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

    2011-09-15

    The sediments from the Coari lake, a 'terra firme' lake sculpted into Plio-Pleistocene deposits, and the Acara lake, a flooding-type lake developed on Quaternary sediments in the flood plain of the mid-Solimoes river, in the western Amazonia, Brazil, were studied to investigate the environmental condition of their developing. This study includes mineral composition, geochemistry, Pb isotope, palynology, radiocarbon-age and morphological framework of the lakes obtained from SRTM satellite images. The geological and the environmental conditions in the two lakes are highly variable and suggest that their evolution reflect autogenic processes under humid rain forest condition. Although kaolinite, quartz, muscovite, illite, and smectite are the main minerals in both lakes, the geochemistry indicates distinct source, the Acara lake sediments have higher concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO, CaO, K{sub 2}O, MgO, Na{sub 2}O, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ba, V, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sr, Li, Y and La and have more radiogenic Pb than the Coari lake sediments. The radiocarbon ages suggest that at 10160 yr BP the Coari lake started to be developed due to avulsion of the Solimoes river, and the Acara lake was formed by the meander abandonment of Solimoes river retaining its grass dominated shore at ca. 3710 yr BP. (author)

  16. Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braga Junqueira, A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Terra Preta; Amazonian Dark Earths; Shifting cultivation; Homegardens; Intensification; Diversification; Smallholder farming. André Braga Junqueira (2015). Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns. PhD thesis, Wagening

  17. The Amazonia Variant of Vibrio cholerae: Molecular Identification and Study of Virulence Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptista MAS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenic O1 Amazonia variant of Vibrio cholerae has been shown previously to have a cytotoxin acting on cultured Vero and Y-1 cells, and to lack important virulence factors such as the cholera toxin (Coelho et al. 1995a. This study extends the molecular analysis of the Amazonia strains, detecting the presence of the toxR gene, with a very similar sequence to that of the El Tor and classical biotypes. The outer membrane proteins are analyzed, detecting a variation among the group of Amazonia strains, with three different patterns found. As a by-product of this work a polymerase chain reaction fragment was sequenced, reading part of the sequence of the Lon protease of the Amazonia strains. This gene was not previously described in V. cholerae, but its sequence is present in the TIGR database specific for this species.

  18. Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braga Junqueira, A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Terra Preta; Amazonian Dark Earths; Shifting cultivation; Homegardens; Intensification; Diversification; Smallholder farming. André Braga Junqueira (2015). Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns. PhD thesis, Wagening

  19. Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braga Junqueira, A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Terra Preta; Amazonian Dark Earths; Shifting cultivation; Homegardens; Intensification; Diversification; Smallholder farming. André Braga Junqueira (2015). Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns. PhD thesis,

  20. Pre-Columbian Floristic Legacies in Modern Homegardens of Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Lins; Helena P Lima; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Valdely F Kinupp; Glenn H Shepard; Clement, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more comple...

  1. Nuevos registros de Diatomeas (Bacillariophyceae de la Amazonia Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sala Silvia Estela

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten diatom taxa are recorded for the first time from the Colombian Amazon basin, in the genera Cyclotella (1, Aulacoseira (2, Achnanthes (1, Lemnicola (1, Amphipleura (1, Gyrosigma (1, Stauroneis (1, Hantzschia (1 and Nitzschia (1. Four of these, Aulacoseira granulata var. angustissima, Achnanthes intlete, Gyrosigma spencerii, and Stauroneis phoenicenteron, are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Details of the valve morphology for five taxa are discussed.Se citan diez taxones de diatomeas por primera vez para la Amazonia colombiana. Los taxones pertenecen a los géneros Cyclotella (1, Aulacoseira (2, Achnanthes (1, Lemnicola (1, Amphipleura (1, Gyrosigma (1, Stauroneis (1, Hantzschia (1 Y Nitzschia (1. Cuatro de ellos, Aulacosiera granulata var. anqustissima, Achnanthes inflata, Gyrosigma spencerii y Stauroneis phoenicenteron se registran por primera vez en Colombia. Se discute la morfología valvar de cinco de las especies tratadas.

  2. CHLOROCOCCALES DE LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA I: Chlorellaceae y Scenedesmaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECHENIQUE RICARDO O.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo damos a conocer 41 taxones pertenecientes a las familias Chlorellaceaey Scenedesmaceae del orden Chlorococcales (Algae, Cholophyceae hallados entres cuencas de la Amazonia colombiana: Amazonas (Solimões, Putumayo (Içã yCaquetá (Japurá. Del total encontrado, 19 son nuevas citas para Colombia, nueveson nuevos registros para la cuenca en estudio y se propone una nueva entidadtaxonómica Tetraedron triangulare f. major Echenique nova forma. La mayor riquezase encontró en los lagos de inundación del río Amazonas, en particular en el lagoYahuarcaca que presenta amplio desarrollo de macrófitos y los mayores nivelestróficos de la región.

  3. Drug tourism or spiritual healing? Ayahuasca seekers in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Michael

    2005-06-01

    This research addresses the question of whether Westerners who seek traditional spiritual medicine known as ayahuasca can be best characterized as "drug tourists" or as people pursuing spiritual and therapeutic opportunities. Participants in an ayahuasca retreat in Amazonia were interviewed regarding their motivations for participation and the benefits they felt that they received. These findings from the interviews were organized to reveal common motivations and benefits. Contrary to the characterization as "drug tourists", the principal motivations can be characterized as: seeking spiritual relations and personal spiritual development; emotional healing; and the development of personal self-awareness, including contact with a sacred nature, God, spirits and plant and natural energies produced by the ayahuasca. The motivation and perceived benefits both point to transpersonal concerns, with the principal perceived benefits involving increased self awareness, insights and access to deeper levels of the self that enhanced personal development and the higher self, providing personal direction in life.

  4. Shuttle imaging radar A analysis of land use in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Thomas A.; Woodwell, George M.

    1988-01-01

    Over large areas in the tropics, satellite imagery is the principal source of data on the area, current stature, and extent of disturbance of the forests. The information from imagery that covers large areas at low resolution is greatly enhanced when different types of imagery can be compared. The paper presents a comparison of data from Landsat MSS and from the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) L band HH polarization data for sites in the Amazon Basin. Results indicate that SIR-A backscatter from the undisturbed forest was lower than that from some disturbed areas and from flooded forests and that SIR-A brightness, increases nonlinearly with the Landsat normalized difference vegetation index. It is hypothesized that the brightest radar returns in southern Amazonia are from newly cleared forests that are littered with standing and fallen tree boles that function as corner reflectors; and that backscatter will diminish from disturbed areas over time as fields are burned repeatedly.

  5. USOS DE LAS PALMAS EN LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA MESA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de obtener un diagnóstico del estado actual de conocimiento sobre usos de las palmas en la Amazonia colombiana, se revisaron las principales fuentes de información. Treinta y seis de las 41 etnias indígenas consideradas tuvieron registros de uso. Se registraron 82 especies de palmas usadas (78% de las potenciales y 165 usos distribuidos en ocho categorías; todos los usos se presentan de manera detallada en un catálogo. Las categorías de uso más importantes fueron: utensilios y herramientas, construcción, y alimentación humana. Las diez especies más importantes fueron Bactris gasipaes, Euterpe precatoria, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea maripa, Oenocarpus minor, Astrocaryum chambira, Iriartea deltoidea, Oenocarpus bacaba y Socratea exorrhiza; la mayoría de ellas también han sido registradas como las más importantes en otras partes del Neotrópico. No se encontró ninguna información sobre usos de palmas para varios grupos indígenas, especialmente para las etnias cocama, letuama, piaroa, pisamira y yurí, para las cuales se requieren investigaciones detalladas. Se concluye que a pesar de los vacíos de información, los resultados muestran que las palmas son un recurso muy importante con un gran potencial, y una pieza fundamental para la seguridad alimentaria y el desarrollo sustentable de la Amazonia colombiana. Sugerimos la inclusión de las especies más importantes en programas de manejo y agroforestales, al igual que la implementación y popularización de técnicas de cosecha no destructivas. Recomendamos además que las investigaciones futuras estén enfocadas en desarrollar estrategias de manejo que garanticen el uso sostenible de todas estas especies útiles.

  6. Marine intervals in Neogene fluvial deposits of western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Melanie; Troelstra, Simon; Lammertsma, Emmy; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Amazonia is one of the most species rich areas on Earth, but this high diversity is not homogeneous over the entire region. Highest mammal and tree-alpha diversity is found in the fluvio-lacustrine Pebas system, a Neogene wetland associated with rapid radiation of species. The estuarine to marine origin of various modern Amazonian fish, plants, and invertebrates has been associated with past marine ingressions into this freshwater Pebas system. The exact nature and age of these invasions is, however, debated. Here we present new evidence from fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Neogene age in southeast Colombia, that point to periods of widespread marine conditions in western Amazonia. Our evidence is based on an analysis of marine palynomorphs, such as organic linings of foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, present in dark sandy clay sediments that outcrop along the Caqueta and Amazon rivers. Characteristically, the foraminiferal linings can be assigned to three benthic morphotypes only, e.g. Ammonia, Elphidium and Trochammina. This low diversity assemblage is associated with estuarine/marginal marine conditions. No distinct marine elements such as shelf or planktonic species were encountered. The observed foraminiferal linings and dinocyst assemblages are typical for a (eutrophic) shallow marine environment, suggesting that the Pebas freshwater wetland system occasionally changed to (marginal) marine. Although some reworked elements are found, a typical Neogene dinocyst taxon is commonly found supporting in situ deposition. Sedimentological features typical for tidal conditions that are reported for sites in Peru and northeastern Brazil likely relate to these marine ingressions. Sea level changes as well as foreland basin development related to Andes formation may have facilitated the entry of marine water during the Neogene.

  7. Two hundred years of local avian extinctions in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Nárgila G; Lees, Alexander C; Aleixo, Alexandre; Barlow, Jos; Dantas, Sidnei M; Ferreira, Joice; Lima, Maria de Fátima C; Gardner, Toby A

    2014-10-01

    Local, regional, and global extinctions caused by habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation have been widely reported for the tropics. The patterns and drivers of this loss of species are now increasingly well known in Amazonia, but there remains a significant gap in understanding of long-term trends in species persistence and extinction in anthropogenic landscapes. Such a historical perspective is critical for understanding the status and trends of extant biodiversity as well as for identifying priorities to halt further losses. Using extensive historical data sets of specimen records and results of contemporary surveys, we searched for evidence of local extinctions of a terra firma rainforest avifauna over 200 years in a 2500 km(2) eastern Amazonian region around the Brazilian city of Belém. This region has the longest history of ornithological fieldwork in the entire Amazon basin and lies in the highly threatened Belém Centre of Endemism. We also compared our historically inferred extinction events with extensive data on species occurrences in a sample of catchments in a nearby municipality (Paragominas) that encompass a gradient of past forest loss. We found evidence for the possible extinction of 47 species (14% of the regional species pool) that were unreported from 1980 to 2013 (80% last recorded between 1900 and 1980). Seventeen species appear on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, and many of these are large-bodied. The species lost from the region immediately around Belém are similar to those which are currently restricted to well-forested catchments in Paragominas. Although we anticipate the future rediscovery or recolonization of some species inferred to be extinct by our calculations, we also expect that there are likely to be additional local extinctions, not reported here, given the ongoing loss and degradation of remaining areas of native vegetation across eastern Amazonia.

  8. Prevalência de excesso de peso e fatores associados em adolescentes de escolas privadas de região urbana na Amazônia Prevalencia de exceso de peso y factores asociados en adolescentes de escuelas privadas de región urbana en Amazonia Prevalence of excess weight and associated factors in adolescents of private schools of an Amazonic urban area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio M. Silva Júnior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência e fatores associados ao excesso de peso corporal em adolescentes do ensino médio. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 741 adolescentes de escolas privadas de Rio Branco, Acre. O peso e a altura foram aferidos de forma prospectiva e o índice de massa corporal calculado, definindo-se excesso de peso de acordo com a curva de referência da Organização Mundial da Saúde de 2007. Coletaram-se informações quanto a sexo, idade, classe socioeconômica, escolaridade dos pais, número de moradores no domicílio, número de irmãos, atividade física, tempo gasto assistindo à televisão e tempo de uso de computador. Os fatores associados ao excesso de peso foram identificados mediante regressão múltipla de Poisson e utilizando-se o procedimento de eliminação retrógrada para a seleção das variáveis do modelo múltiplo. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de excesso de peso foi de 29,5%. O sexo masculino mostrou maior prevalência (33,2% em comparação ao feminino (26,4%. Quanto à idade, a prevalência foi maior aos 14 anos (40% em ambos os sexos. Na análise múltipla, ajustada pela idade e sexo, o uso de computador acima de duas horas diárias e o sedentarismo associaram-se ao excesso de peso. CONCLUSÕES: O excesso de peso apresenta-se como um sério problema de saúde pública em escolares do ensino médio de instituições particulares de Rio Branco, Acre. Sugere-se a promoção da atividade física e a redução no tempo de uso de computador para o declínio do excesso de peso.OBJETIVO: Analizar la prevalencia y los factores asociados al exceso de peso corporal en adolescentes de la secundaria. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con 741 adolescentes de escuelas privadas de Rio Branco, Acre (Brasil. El peso y la altura fueron medidos de modo prospectivo y el índice de masa corporal calculado, definiéndose exceso de peso conforme a la curva de referencia de la Organización Mundial de la Salud de 2007. Se recogieron

  9. Uso de água subterrânea em sistema de abastecimento público de comunidades na várzea da Amazônia central The use of groundwater in public water supply system of floodplain communities in the central Amazonia

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    Rainier Pedraça de Azevedo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O paradoxo das águas marca as populações amazônicas que habitam as várzeas. Se na cheia as águas abundam, na seca escasseiam, chegando desfalcar os ribeirinhos seja pela insuficiência e/ou por condições impróprias para consumo. Esse trabalho descreve o aproveitamento do manancial subterrâneo para abastecimento público, através de poço tubular construído na comunidade de várzea de Santo Antônio, no município de Urucará, Estado do Amazonas. O estudo demonstrou a ocorrência de variações nas características físico-químicas da água do poço durante um ciclo das de superfície da região, principalmente a elevação do teor de ferro total no período de cheia máxima, sendo esse um indicativo de falha no processo construtivo do poço, uma vez que a água subterrânea local apresenta condições satisfatórias para o consumo humano. O aproveitamento do manancial subterrâneo em sistemas de abastecimento de água em comunidades de várzea na Amazônia é tecnicamente viável, entretanto, carece de obras de captação corretas, visando a conservação da qualidade da água desse rico ecossistema.The Amazonian populations that live in the floodplains are marked by a water paradox. If in the flood season water is plentiful, during the drought period water is scarce, either not having enough for the people's needs or it is inappropriate for human consumption. This paper describes the use of groundwater for public water supply system through a tubular well built in Santo Antonio floodplain community, in the district of Urucará, Amazonas State. The study has shown the occurrence of variations in the water quality of the well during the cycle of the superficial water, mainly an increase in the level of iron. This indicates a fault in the building process of the well, given that the local groundwater has good quality for consumption. The use of groundwater in public supply system in the floodplain communities in the Amazon is

  10. Soil water storage in an upland forest after selective logging in Central Amazonia Armazenamento de água no solo após extração seletiva de madeira em floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Central

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    S. J. F. Ferreira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil water storage of Central Amazonian soil profiles in upland forest plots subjected to selective logging (in average, 8 trees or 34, 3 m³ of timber per hectare were removed was measured in four layers, down to a depth of 70 cm. The study lasted 27-months and was divided in two phases: measurements were carried out nearly every week during the first 15 months; in the following year, five intensive periods of measurements were performed. Five damage levels were compared: (a control (undisturbed forest plot; (b centre of the clearing/gap; (c edge of the gap; (d edge of the remaining forest; and (e remaining forest. The lowest values for water storage were found in the control (296 ± 19.1 mm, while the highest were observed (333 ± 25.8 mm in the centre of the gap, during the dry period. In the older gaps (7.5-8.5 year old, soil water storage was similar to the remaining and the control forest, indicating a recovery of hydric soil properties to nearly the levels prior to selective logging.Foi medido o armazenamento de água em perfis de solo de 0-70 cm, divididos em quatro camadas em parcelas de floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Central, submetidas à extração seletiva de madeira, tendo sido retiradas, em média, 8 árvores por hectare ou 34 m³ de madeira. O estudo foi realizado num período de 27 meses em duas fases: na primeira, as medidas foram, na sua maioria, semanais, num período de 15 meses. Na segunda, as medidas foram feitas em cinco períodos intensivos. Foram comparados cinco tratamentos: (a controle (floresta intacta, (b centro da clareira, (c borda da clareira, (d borda da floresta remanescente e (e floresta remanescente. Os valores mais baixos de armazenamento de água no solo (296 ± 19,1 mm foram encontrados no controle, enquanto os mais altos foram medidos no centro da clareira (333 ± 25,8 mm, no período seco. Nas clareiras mais antigas (7,5-8,5 anos de idade, os armazenamentos de água no solo foram similares aos da

  11. Growth rate of a terra firme rain forest in Brazilian Amazonia over an eight-year period in response to logging Crescimento de uma floresta de terra firme na Amazônia brasileira em um período de oito anos após a exploração florestal

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    João Olegário Pereira de Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with growth rates of trees > 5cm dbh over an eight-year period from 257 species at the Tapajós National Forest. The discussion is centred on the behaviour of the forest after logging. Permanent sample plots were established in 1981 and measured at the first time. The area was logged in 1982. Measurements after logging occurred in 1983, 1987 and 1989. Considering all species together, diameter increment was similar for both intensities of logging until five years after logging. Light-demanding species showed significantly higher growth rates than shade-tolerant species in the logged forest, with greater increment in the heavier treatment intensity. Commercial species also had higher growth rates in the heavier logged area, although those were significantly different only in the period from one to five years after logging. In the undisturbed forest, growth rates increased with increasing dbh size. At species level, growth rate varied between and within treatments, as well as between trees within species, depending mainly on degree of canopy opening. The logging favoured the growth of commercial species, chiefly the light-demanders. Therefore, if the same growth conditions continue being given, for example by silvicultural treatments, to those species of commercial interest, the forest would reach a stock available for harvesting around year 30 after logging. However, the high variation in increment rates indicates that an eight-year period is not sufficient to allow predictions on cutting cycles or polycyclic management systems for the study forest.É analisado o crescimento de 257 espécies arbóreas, considerando indivíduos com DAP > 5cm, na Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, em um período de oito anos. Em 1981 foram estabelecidas parcelas permanentes, e medidas pela primeira vez. Em 1982 a área foi explorada. Medições após a exploração foram realizadas em 1983, 1987 e 1989. Considerando todas as espécies juntas, o

  12. Density, size and distribution of stomata in 35 rainforest tree species in Central Amazonia Densidade, tamanho e distribuição estomática em 35 espécies de árvores na Amazônia Central

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    Miguel Angelo Branco Camargo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stomata are turgor-operated valves that control water loss and CO2 uptake during photosynthesis, and thereby water relation and plant biomass accumulation is closely related to stomatal functioning. The aims of this work were to document how stomata are distributed on the leaf surface and to determine if there is any significant variation in stomatal characteristics among Amazonian tree species, and finally to study the relationship between stomatal density (S D and tree height. Thirty five trees (>17 m tall of different species were selected. Stomatal type, density (S D, size (S S and stomatal distribution on the leaf surface were determined using nail polish imprints taken from both leaf surfaces. Irrespective of tree species, stomata were located only on the abaxial surface (hypostomaty, with large variation in both S D and S S among species. S D ranged from 110 mm-2 in Neea altissima to 846 mm-2 in Qualea acuminata. However, in most species S D ranges between 271 and 543 mm-2, with a negative relationship between S D and S S. We also found a positive relationship between S D and tree height (r² = 0.14, p Estômatos são válvulas operadas a turgor que controlam a perda de água e a captura de CO2 durante a fotossíntese. Assim, as relações hídricas e o acumulo de biomassa vegetal são fortemente influenciadas pelo funcionamento estomático. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: documentar como os estômatos estão distribuídos na superfície foliar e determinar se existe variação das características estomáticas entre espécies da Amazônia, estudar a relação entre densidade estomática (S D e altura arbórea. Trinta e cinco árvores (>17 m de altura de diferentes espécies foram selecionadas. Tipo de complexo estomático, S D, tamanho (S S e distribuição na superfície foliar foram determinados utilizando impressões de ambas as superfícies foliares com esmalte incolor. Independente da espécie, os estômatos foram encontrados

  13. Two Contrasting Severe Seasonal Extremes in Tropical South America in 2012: Flood in Amazonia and Drought in Northeast Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marengo, Jose A; Alves, Lincoln M; Soares, Wagner R; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Camargo, Helio; Riveros, Marco Paredes; Pabló, Amelia Diaz

    2013-01-01

    ... transport of Atlantic moisture into the western part of Amazonia then turning southward to the southern Amazonia region, where the Chaco low was intensified. This was favored by the intensification of subtropical high pressure over the region, associated with an anomalously intense and northward-displaced Atlantic high over a relatively colder subtropica...

  14. Hakani e a campanha contra o infanticídio indígena: percepções contrastantes de humanidade e pessoa na Amazônia brasileira Hakani and the campaign against native infanticide: clashing perceptions of humanness and personhood in Brazilian Amazonia

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    Fernando Santos-Granero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo examina o debate, desencadeado pela campanha da ONG ATINI-Voz pela Vida e travado tanto no ciberespaço quanto na mídia brasileira, a respeito do infanticídio na Amazônia. Argumenta que este debate foi levado adiante em termos ocidentais-o suposto isomorfismo entre as noções de "humanidade" e "pessoa"-e, como tal, contribui pouco para entender esta incomum prática indígena. Para evitar o duplo risco do "imperialismo cultural" e do "relativismo cultural", adota um ponto de vista indígena, sustentando que os indígenas amazônicos consideram humanidade e pessoa como "estados de existência" independentes. Explora esta percepção por meio da análise de uma série de "instantâneos" etnográficos, à luz dos recentes desenvolvimentos teóricos, e conclui que, ao invés de confirmar o "primitivismo" das sociedades indígenas da Amazônia, este debate expõe a fratura da noção ocidental de "humano/pessoa", bem como a profunda- embora potencialmente positiva- crise do "moderno" pensamento ocidental.This article examines the debate on native Amazonian infanticide triggered by the lobbying of the NGO ATINI-Voice for Life in both cyberspace and the Brazilian media. It argues that this debate has been carried out in Western terms- the supposed isomorphism between the notions of 'humanness' and 'personhood'- and, as such, contributes little to understanding this unusual indigenous practice. To avoid the dual peril of 'cultural imperialism' and 'cultural relativism,' the article adopts a native point of view. The article contends that native Amazonians consider humanness and personhood as independent 'states of being.' It explores this perception through the analysis of a series of ethnographic 'snapshots' in the light of recent theoretical developments. The author concludes that rather than confirming the 'primitiveness' of native Amazonian societies, this debate exposes the fracture of the Western notion of 'human/person,' as

  15. Efeito dos óleos vegetais de andiroba (Carapa sp. e Copaíba (Copaifera sp. sobre forídeo, pragas de colméias, (Diptera: Phoridae na Amazônia Central Effect of andiroba (Carapa sp. and copaiba's (Copaifera sp. vegetable oils on phorides, hives's prague (Diptera: Phoridae in Central Amazonia

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    Delci da Costa Brito Freire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento de substâncias repelentes para forídeos é um passo importante para a meliponicultura brasileira, pois esses insetos podem causar sérios danos às colméias de abelhas nativas. Os óleos de copaíba e andiroba, naturalmente encontrados na região amazônica, são muito utilizados pelos povos tradicionais da região como repelentes de insetos. Foi observado o efeito de dois óleos vegetais (andiroba e copaíba sobre a postura de ovos por fêmeas de forídeos em condições de laboratório. A postura das fêmeas foi realizada preferencialmente no substrato pólen e diferiu estatisticamente dos substratos contendo óleo de andiroba ou copaíba, nos quais houve considerável diminuição (até nenhuma postura, e do substrato contendo mel. Esses óleos são uma boa alternativa no controle preventivo e curativo dessa praga em colônias de Meliponineos, devido ao seu efeito repelente, ao baixo custo e disponibilidade na Região Amazônica.The knowlegment of repellants substances to phoride flies is an important step to the Brazilian stinglessbee beekeeping due to the serious damage to the native bee hives they can do. The copaiba and andiroba oils, found commonly in the Amazon region, are very employed by the traditional people as insects' repellants. We observed the effect of these oils over the phoride's laying in laboratory conditions. The female phoride's eggs occurred preferentially in the pollen substrate and statistically differed from those containing andiroba and copaiba oils, which was strongly reduced (until none eggs were laid, and from the substrate containing honey. These oils showed to be quite good alternative for this plague's preventive and curative control in stingless bee hives due to its repellant effect, low cost, and availability to get it in the region.

  16. Workplan for Catalyzing Collaboration with Amazonian Universities in the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. Foster; Moreira, Adriana

    1997-01-01

    Success of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmospheric Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) program depends on several critical factors, the most important being the effective participation of Amazonian researchers and institutions. Without host-county counterparts, particularly in Amazonia, many important studies cannot he undertaken due either to lack of qualified persons or to legal constraints. No less important, the acceptance of the LBA program in Amazonia is also dependent on what LBA can do for improving the scientific expertise in Amazonia. Gaining the active investment of Amazonian scientists in a comprehensive research program is not a trivial task. Potential collaborators are few, particularly where much of the research was to be originally focused - the southern arc of Brazilian Amazonia. The mid-term goals of the LBA Committee on Training and Education are to increase the number of collaborators and to demonstrate that LBA will be of benefit to the region.

  17. Leishmaniose cutânea na Amazônia: registro do primeiro caso humano de infecção mista, determinado por duas espécies distintas de Leishmnias: Leishmania brasiliensis e Leishmania mexicana amazonensis Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Amazonia: the first record of a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by two different parasites: Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis and Leishmania mexicana amazonensis

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    F. T. Silveira

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se o registro, na Amazônia, do primeiro caso humano de infecção cutânea mista determinada por duas espécies distintas de Leishmania: a Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis e a Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. As duas amostras, em questão, foram isoladas de lesões distintas de um mesmo paciente, e a caracterização das espécies foi feita com base em observações de infecção experimental em hamsters, comportamento em meios artificiais de cultura, desenvolvimento de infecção experimental em Lutzomyia longipalpis, e eletroforese de isoenzimas em gel de amido. Conclui-se ser de interesse o achado que, combinado com o fato já conhecido de ausência de imunidade cruzada entre a maioria das leishmânias, sugere a necessidade do emprego de uma vacina polivalente para a região.For the first time, in the Amazon region, a mixed infection of two Leishmania was found in a patient suffering from dermal leishmaniasis. L. mexicana amazonensis was isolated from one lesion and L. braziliensis braziliensis from another. Both parasites were characterized in sandflies, hamsters, in vitro cultures, by their morphology and by isoenzyme studies in starch gel. The Authors conclude that the occurrence of this case combined with the known lack of cross immunity between most leishmanial parasites means that a vaccine for this region must be polyvalent.

  18. Allometria da palmeira babaçu em um agroecossistema de derruba-e-queima na periferia este da Amazônia Allometry of the babassu palm growing on a slash-and-burn agroecosystem of the eastern periphery of Amazonia

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    Christoph Gehring

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A palmeira babaçu (Attalea speciosa C.Martius, Arecaceae tem grande importância socioeconômica e ecológica em grande parte da área tropical brasileira, especialmente em áreas degradadas por queimadas freqüentes na Amazônia. No entanto, ainda pouco se sabe sobre as características ecológicas desta espécie-chave. Este estudo investiga a alometria do babaçu com o objetivo de estabelecer uma metodologia eficiente na estimativa da biomassa aérea de palmeiras juvenis e adultas e para um melhor entendimento da sua arquitetura. A biomassa de palmeiras juvenis pode ser estimada facilmente e com precisão com o diâmetro mínimo das ráquis das folhas a 30 cm de extensão. A biomassa de palmeiras adultas pode ser estimada com base na altura do tronco lenhoso, também relativamente de fácil medição em campo. A biomassa foliar das palmeiras adultas foi em media 31,7% da biomassa aérea, porém houve uma alta variação e, portanto, somente pode ser estimada indiretamente através da relação entre a razão madeira:folha e biomassa aérea total. Os teores de carbono no babaçu apresentaram baixa variação, sem diferenças sistemáticas em relação ao tamanho ou estágio de crescimento, o que aponta à aplicabilidade geral dos valores 42.5% C para troncos, 39.8% C para folhas. Em conseqüência do limitado crescimento secundário do diâmetro inerente de palmeiras, não houve relação do diâmetro de tronco com a altura e a biomassa das palmeiras adultas. Observou-se que o afilamento do caule diminui com o aumento da altura das palmeiras, o que é parcialmente compensado pelo incremento da densidade de madeira em troncos quase-cilíndricos. No entanto, a altura máxima do babaçu, de cerca de 30 metros, aparentemente está definida por limitações na estabilidade mecânica. Todas as relações alométricas aqui descritas são independentes da idade da vegetação, indicando a aplicabilidade geral das relações encontradas

  19. Evolução do estado nutricional de menores de 5 anos em aldeias indígenas da Tribo Parakanã, na Amazônia Oriental Brasileira (1989-1991 Nutritional status of Parakanã Indian - children from birth through 5 years of age, eastern Amazonia, Brazil

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    Sandro J. Martins

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a recente evolução do estado nutricional de menores de 5 anos nas aldeias Parakanã, Maroxewara e Paranatinga. Dados antropométricos (peso, altura foram obtidos em três estudos transversais para avaliação da prevalência de desnutrição e acompanhamento da evolução nutricional pelo incremento médio do índice peso/idade de 70 crianças (87,5% dos menores existentes. A desnutrição nas aldeias foi proporcional ao tempo de contato com nossa cultura e atribuível a fatores socioculturais relatados. Na Paranatinga, os valores médios dos indicadores antropométricos - peso/idade, altura/idade e peso/altura - foram os menores, principalmente nas crianças entre o sexto e o 24º mês. Reduziu-se em 76, 1 % a prevalência de desnutrição global no grupo estudado, não havendo mais casos de desnutrição aguda na última avaliação. O incremento do indicador peso/idade foi proporcional à severidade do caso, não havendo diferença significante entre as aldeias. Medidas de natureza preventiva adotadas foram eficazes em reduzir a prevalência de desnutrição infantil entre os Parakanã.The evolution of the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age living in two Indian settlements of the Parakanã tribe, Maroxewara and Paratininga, situated in the southest of Pará State (Brazil, with less than 20 years of direct contact with our society, was studied. The main purpose of this study was to register the effects of the preventive and curative health activities of the "Parakanã Program" (created by an agreement between the National Indian Foundation- FUNAI and Northern Hydroelectric Project- ELETRONORTE, undertaken with the technical cooperation of the Tropical Medicine Center (Federal University of Pará. Anthropometric data were obtained in there cross-sectional studies (April 89; January 90 and October 91 for the purpose of evaluating the prevalence of malnutrition by means of Gomez's, Waterlow's and WHO criteria. The

  20. The effect of plantation silviculture on soil organic matter and particle-size fractions in Amazonia O efeito de manejo silvicultural de eucalipto sobre matéria orgânica e frações de solo na Amazônia

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    Troy Patrick Beldini

    2009-12-01

    ão diminuiu os estoques de C total, e não mudou a densidade do solo. Agregados dos solos manejados não diminuíram em massa, o que indica que a subsolagem e o manejo em ciclos de 6 anos não causaram um efeito negativo na agregação do solo em ambas as texturas. Os agregados do solo arenoso sob plantio aumentaram seus conteúdos de silte, argila e C, indicando que, na estrutura de agregação do solo, C está mudando para um ambiente de maior proteção contra decomposição. O solo argiloso sob plantio teve um aumento de matéria orgânica contida nas frações consideradas menos protegidas, e não demonstrou essas mudanças de C para formas estruturais consideradas mais protegidas.

  1. Efeito da fertilidade de terra preta de índio da Amazônia Central no estado nutricional e na produtividade do mamão hawaí (Carica papaya L. Effect of amazonian dark earth fertility on nutritional status and fruit production of papaya(Carica papaya L.in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Paulo de Souza Falcão

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da fertilidade de solos antropogênicos no estado nutricional e na produtividade do mamão Havaí (Carica papaya L., conduziu-se o presente estudo em um plantio, localizado na Costa do Açutuba, Iranduba, AM, em Latossolo Amarelo antrópico em plantas com oito meses de idade e no início da produção de frutos, no período de agosto a outubro de 2003. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e nove repetições, constituídos de uma amostra composta por três plantas e trinta e seis unidades experimentais, sendo os tratamentos Tpn = plantio em terra preta não adubada; Tpa = plantio em terra preta adubada; Tm1 = plantio em terra mulata não adubada; Tm2 = plantio em terra mulata com um ano de pousio. O tratamento que apresentou maior produção foi o Tpa, com média de 61,10 frutos/planta, e o que apresentou menor produção foi o Tpn, com média de 18,18 frutos/planta. A acidez potencial em todos os tratamentos apresentou-se em níveis médios, mesmo com o manejo da fertilidade praticado nos últimos anos. Observou-se um desbalanço nutricional provocado pelos altos teores de P, Ca, Mg e baixo teor de K; todos os tratamentos apresentaram teores de Zn e Mn considerados tóxicos, enquanto que o Fe apresentou níveis adequados.The effect of Amazonian dark earth fertility on the nutritional status and fruit production of a Carica papaya plantation was evaluated in Açutuba Coast, Iranduba Municipality, Amazonas, Brazil, between August and Octuber 2003, when the plantation was eight months old and just starting production. A completely randomized experimental design, with four treatments and nine replications, was used; each replication contained three plants. The treatment were: Tpn - Amazonian Dark Earth with no supplemental fertilizer; Tpa - Amazonian Dark Earth with supplemental fertilizer (3 kg aged chicken manure and 300 g dolomite per plant; Tm1 - Mulata Earth with no

  2. Land use and land change dynamic analysis in southeast region of Roraima – Amazonia= Análise da dinâmica das conversões de uso e cobertura da terra na região sudeste de Roraima - Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Ramalho Xaud

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying the dynamics of land use and land cover is of great relevance in understanding processes involving the occupation and consolidation of territory in the Amazon region. Remote sensing and its dataanalysis tools, such as techniques for detecting change, have high exploratory potential in quantifying and qualifying land use and land cover, as well as the processes of conversion and modification. The aim of this study was to analyse the dynamics of the changes in land use and the current land cover in already modified areas in the southeast of the State of Roraima, for the periods of 1997-2004 and 2004-2010. Conversions (groupings were analysed for settlement project and road distance (BR-210 and local. The results pointed out differences between the periods under analysis for the presence of change, characterising the period of 1997- 2004 as of intense activity in clearing forested areas in relation to the following period, when changes linked to previous land use predominated. The results showed a concentration of conversions by road distance, for up to 1500 m from the roads, resulting in increased loss of biomass in the most distant areas from one period to another, and suggests that this type of conversion was occurring on private property, a fact confirmed in field interviews. From one period to another, the increase in conversions from forest to pasture in two projects (Entre Rios and Caroebe may show a tendency towards increased farming activity in the region. = O estudo da dinâmica do uso e cobertura da terra tem relevância no entendimento dos processos que envolvem a ocupação e consolidação do território na região amazônica. O sensoriamento remoto e suas ferramentas de análise de dados, como as técnicas de detecção de mudanças, têm elevado potencial exploratório na quantificação e qualificação do uso e cobertura da terra, assim como dos seus processos de conversão e modificação. Objetivou-se com o presente

  3. Arcella peruviana sp. nov. (Amoebozoa: Arcellinida, Arcellidae), a new species from a tropical peatland in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczuga, Monika K; Swindles, Graeme T; Grewling, Łukasz; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2015-10-01

    There has only been one study on the ecology of testate amoebae from Amazonian peatlands, despite Amazonia being a biodiversity hotspot of global importance. During analysis of litter samples from Aucayacu peatland, western (Peruvian) Amazonia, we discovered a testate amoeba with a distinct morphology unlike any other species reported previously. We describe a new species, Arcella peruviana, based on its distinct morphology, compare it to morphologically similar species and provide information about its ecology. This new species is characterised by a distinct cruciform aperture (diameter ranges between 12 and 17μm) which is slightly invaginated. The test is small (height 43-57μm) and polygonal in cross-section. Our discovery suggests the existence of an unknown diversity of testate amoebae in Amazonia. The absence of the new Arcella species in more intensively-sampled regions supports the view that protists have restricted distributions.

  4. Deforestation and threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICG. Vieira

    Full Text Available This is a review of the main factors currently perceived as threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia. Deforestation and the expansion of the agricultural frontier go hand in hand within the context of occupation and land use in the region, followed by a hasty process of industrialization since the 1950s and, more recently, by a nation-wide attempt to adapt Brazil to economic globalization. Intensive agriculture and cattle-raising, lack of territorial planning, the monoculture of certain crops often promoted by official agencies, and the introduction of exotic species by cultivation are some of the factors affecting Amazonian biodiversity. There are still large gaps in knowledge that need to be dealt with for a better understanding of the local ecosystems so as to allow their preservation, but such investigation is subjected to manifold hindrances by misinformation, disinformation and sheer ignorance from the legal authorities and influential media. Data available for select groups of organisms indicate that the magnitude of the loss and waste of natural resources associated with deforestation is staggering, with estimated numbers of lost birds and primates being over ten times that of such animals illegally commercialized around the world in one year. The challenges to be met for an eventual reversal of this situation demand more systematic and concerted studies, the consolidation of new and existing research groups, and a call for a halt to activities depleting the Amazonian rainforest.

  5. Electric systems failures produced by CG lightning in Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Paes dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Operational records of power outages of the electric energy distribution systems in eastern Amazonia presented a large number of events attributed to lightning strikes, during the 2006 to 2009 period. The regional electricity concessionary data were compared to actual lightning observations made by SIPAM's LDN system, over two areas where operational sub systems of transmission lines are installed. Statistical relations were drawn between the monthly lightning occurrence density and the number of power outages of the electric systems for both areas studied. The results showed that, although with some delays between these variables peaks, the number of power disruptions has a tendency to follow the behavior of the lightning occurrence densities variations. The numerical correlations were positive and may be useful to the transmission lines maintenance crews at least for the Belém-Castanhal electricity distribution sub system. Evidence was found, that the SST's over certain areas of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, influence convection over the area of interest, and may help to prognosticate the periods of intense electric storms, requiring repair readiness for the regional electric systems.

  6. [Environmental sustainability and health indicators in the Legal Amazonia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Carlos Machado de; Giatti, Leandro Luiz

    2009-06-01

    One of the challenges for public health is to build systems of indicators that allow monitoring current conditions and trends in environmental and health sustainability. This article focuses on the Legal Amazonia macro-region, which has undergone profound socioeconomic, environmental, and health changes since the mid-20th century. The conceptual framework adopted here was the model entitled Driving Forces, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, and Action (DPSEEA) proposed by the World Health Organization and adopted for environmental health surveillance by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The results show that numerous motor forces and pressures have contributed to the growth of the economy and the population, as well as to improvements in some traditional health indicators (a reduction in infant mortality and an increase in life expectancy), alongside major social and economic inequalities and heterogeneity in environmental health impacts. This same process has been accompanied by environmental changes that indicate an unsustainable development model for present and future generations, demanding comprehensive action by public health and environmental institutions.

  7. Deforestation and threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, I C G; Toledo, P M; Silva, J M C; Higuchi, H

    2008-11-01

    This is a review of the main factors currently perceived as threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia. Deforestation and the expansion of the agricultural frontier go hand in hand within the context of occupation and land use in the region, followed by a hasty process of industrialization since the 1950s and, more recently, by a nation-wide attempt to adapt Brazil to economic globalization. Intensive agriculture and cattle-raising, lack of territorial planning, the monoculture of certain crops often promoted by official agencies, and the introduction of exotic species by cultivation are some of the factors affecting Amazonian biodiversity. There are still large gaps in knowledge that need to be dealt with for a better understanding of the local ecosystems so as to allow their preservation, but such investigation is subjected to manifold hindrances by misinformation, disinformation and sheer ignorance from the legal authorities and influential media. Data available for select groups of organisms indicate that the magnitude of the loss and waste of natural resources associated with deforestation is staggering, with estimated numbers of lost birds and primates being over ten times that of such animals illegally commercialized around the world in one year. The challenges to be met for an eventual reversal of this situation demand more systematic and concerted studies, the consolidation of new and existing research groups, and a call for a halt to activities depleting the Amazonian rainforest.

  8. Biome-Scale Forest Properties in Amazonia Based on Field and Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana O. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forests are extremely heterogeneous at different spatial scales. This review intends to present the large-scale patterns of the ecosystem properties of Amazonia, and focuses on two parts of the main components of the net primary production: the long-lived carbon pools (wood and short-lived pools (leaves. First, the focus is on forest biophysical properties, and secondly, on the macro-scale leaf phenological patterns of these forests, looking at field measurements and bringing into discussion the recent findings derived from remote sensing dataset. Finally, I discuss the results of the three major droughts that hit Amazonia in the last 15 years. The panorama that emerges from this review suggests that slow growing forests in central and eastern Amazonia, where soils are poorer, have significantly higher above ground biomass and higher wood density, trees are higher and present lower proportions of large-leaved species than stands in northwest and southwest Amazonia. However, the opposite pattern is observed in relation to forest productivity and dynamism, which is higher in western Amazonia than in central and eastern forests. The spatial patterns on leaf phenology across Amazonia are less marked. Field data from different forest formations showed that new leaf production can be unrelated to climate seasonality, timed with radiation, timed with rainfall and/or river levels. Oppositely, satellite images exhibited a large-scale synchronized peak in new leaf production during the dry season. Satellite data and field measurements bring contrasting results for the 2005 drought. Discussions on data processing and filtering, aerosols effects and a combined analysis with field and satellite images are presented. It is suggested that to improve the understanding of the large-scale patterns on Amazonian forests, integrative analyses that combine new technologies in remote sensing and long-term field ecological data are imperative.

  9. Mangrove vegetation in Amazonia: a review of studies from the coast of Pará and Maranhão States, north Brazil Vegetação de manguezais na Amazônia: uma revisão dos estudos da costa dos Estados Pará e Maranhão, norte do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moirah Paula Machado de Menezes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a compilation of the literature about vegetation of mangrove forest of the north coast of Brazil. It synthesizes the knowledge about this important ecosystem and lists the currently available literature. The study focuses on the coast of Pará and Maranhão states, which are covered by a continuous belt of mangroves. The mangrove flora comprises six mangrove tree species and several associated species. Mangrove tree height and stem diameter vary as a function of abiotic local stand parameters. Seasonal variation in rainfall and salinity affect the species' phenology and litter fall. Local population use products derived from mangrove plants for different purposes (e.g. fuel; medicinal; rural construction. The increase in the coastal population has given rise to conflicts, which impact on mangrove forest.O presente estudo apresenta uma compilação da literatura sobre a vegetação dos manguezais da costa norte do Brasil, apresentando uma síntese do conhecimento e listando a literatura disponível. O estudo se concentra na costa dos estados do Pará e Maranhão que formam um cinturão contínuo de manguezais . Foram contabilizadas seis espécies arbóreas exclusivas de mangue e várias outras associadas. A altura e o diâmetro das árvores de mangue variam em função de parâmetros abióticos locais. As variações sazonais do regime de chuvas e da salinidade afetam a fenologia das espécies e a produção de serapilheira. A população costeira utiliza a flora do manguezal para diferentes fins (ex: combustível, medicinal, construção rural. O aumento da ocupação costeira inicia um processo de impacto para as florestas de mangue e a disponibilidade de seus recursos.

  10. Efeito da colheita seletiva de madeira sobre algumas características físicas de um latossolo amarelo sob floresta na Amazônia Central Effect of selective logging on some physical characteristics of a yellow latosol under rainforest in Central Amazonia State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walane Maria Pereira de Mello-Ivo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A colheita seletiva de madeira pode vir a ser uma forma sustentável de uso da terra para ecossistemas florestais da Amazônia, uma vez que permite a manutenção de parte considerável da biomassa florestal, diminuindo, assim, a perturbação nas áreas exploradas. Neste sentido, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da exploração seletiva de madeira sobre as características físicas de um Latossolo Amarelo. A área de estudo localiza-se a cerca de 80 km ao norte de Manaus e a vegetação é do tipo Floresta Ombrófila Densa. O número de árvores retiradas com um trator de esteiras D6, por arraste, em 1993, variou de sete a dez árvores/ha (DAP > 55 cm. O delineamento experimental foi do tipo blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Seis tratamentos foram avaliados, equivalendo às seguintes classes de perturbação identificadas na área: trilha de trator, centro de clareira, borda da clareira/floresta, borda da floresta/clareira, floresta remanescente e floresta-controle. A colheita seletiva de madeira provocou modificações nas características físicas do solo, principalmente nas trilhas de trator, e representou, em média, 13,8 % da área total explorada. Os valores de densidade do solo e resistência à penetração foram maiores para o solo sob estas áreas, enquanto a macroporosidade e o volume de água disponível para as plantas apresentaram-se menores do que nas demais classes de perturbação. Estas classes foram menos afetadas, não se estabelecendo diferenças significativas para as características físicas do solo entre estas e a floresta-controle, indicando, assim, a colheita seletiva como uma prática de menor impacto para o solo dos ecossistemas florestais da Amazônia.Selective logging may become a form of sustainable use of Amazon forest ecosystems since most part of the forest biomass is maintained and the impacts on the exploited area are lower than in comparison to those under other land uses. The

  11. Validação do balanço de radiação obtido a partir de dados MODIS/TERRA na Amazônia com medidas de superfície do LBA Validation of net radiation obtained from MODIS/TERRA data in Amazonia with LBA surface measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo estimar os componentes do balanço de radiação em duas regiões do estado de Rondônia (sudoeste da Amazônia brasileira, a partir de dados do Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS/TERRA por intermédio do modelo Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL, e validar os resultados com informações adquiridas por torres micrometeorológicas do projeto LBA sob as condições de pastagem (Fazenda Nossa Senhora Aparecida e floresta (Reserva Biológica do Jaru. A implementação do modelo SEBAL foi realizada diretamente sobre os dados MODIS e incluiu etapas envolvendo o cômputo de índices de vegetação, albedo e transmitância atmosférica. A comparação das estimativas geradas a partir de dados MODIS com as observações resultou em erros relativos para a condição de pastagem variando entre 0,2 e 19,2%, e para a condição de floresta variando entre 0,8 e 15,6%. A integração de dados em diferentes escalas constituiu uma proposição útil para a estimativa e espacialização dos fluxos de radiação na região amazônica, o que pode contribuir para a melhor compreensão da interação entre a floresta tropical e a atmosfera e gerar informações de entrada necessárias aos modelos de superfície acoplados aos modelos de circulação geral da atmosfera.This study aims to estimate the components of net radiation in two regions located in the state of Rondônia (southwest of the Brazilian Amazon, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS/TERRA data based on Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL model, and to validate the results with information acquired by the micrometeorological towers of LBA under the conditions of pasture (Fazenda Nossa Senhora Aparecida and forest (Reserva Biológica do Jaru. Implementation of SEBAL model was performed directly on the MODIS data and included steps involving the computation of vegetation indices, albedo and atmospheric

  12. Endemias e epidemias na Amazônia: malária e doenças emergentes em áreas ribeirinhas do Rio Madeira. Um caso de escola Endemic and epidemic diseases in Amazonia: malaria and other emerging diseases in riverine areas of the Madeira river. A school case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hiroshi Katsuragawa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Após fazer uma análise da evolução da malária na Amazônia brasileira, detalhando em particular a situação em Rondônia e no município de Porto Velho, onde ocorreram episódios dramáticos de epidemias de malária no passado, os autores apresentam o quadro atual da prevalência de malária nas áreas do Vale do Rio Madeira, que sofrerão impactos com a construção das hidrelétricas de Santo Antônio e Jirau, e alertam sobre a situação particular da malária em áreas ribeirinhas. Nessas áreas, observam-se alta incidência de malária vivax e falciparum, a presença de grande número de portadores assintomáticos de parasitas e altas densidades do vetor Anopheles darlingi o ano todo. Esses elementos, associados à provável chegada de migrantes oriundos de áreas não-endêmicas de Rondônia e de outros Estados do país, atraídos pela possibilidade de trabalho nessas hidrelétricas e oportunidades de comércio, lazer, educação e atividades domésticas, criam condições favoráveis à ocorrência de epidemias de malária e de outras doenças tropicais se não forem realizadas intervenções adequadas de controle, em particular no domínio do saneamento.The authors present a short review on the evolution of malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon, with particular reference to the Rondônia State and the Municipality of Porto Velho, where dramatic epidemics of malaria and other tropical diseases have been registered in the past. Next, they analyze the present endemic malaria situation in the Madeira River Valley where two important Hydroelectric Power Plants will be constructed in the localities of Santo Antônio and Jirau. Longitudinal surveys performed in the last four years in this area allow to demonstrate a high prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria carriers in the area, associated to the presence of high densities of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi all over the year. These elements are correlated to the

  13. Satellite communication on pipeline supervision using TCP-IP Protocol; Comunicacao via satelite na supervisao de dutos usando o protocolo TCP-IP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Agliberto Pessoa da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brunette, Sergio Henrique de Moraes

    2003-07-01

    Bit transparent type or X-25 protocols have been used in VSAT satellite communication by PETROBRAS pipeline Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) as access protocol. Both solutions have inconveniences. By the first one, difficulties exist for analysis and diagnosis of connection flaws, and therefore, for a ready identification by the system management stations of abnormality location. On the other hand, the usage of the X-25 brings an additional over-head in the communication since this is not an available option in most of the equipment that compose the SCADA. The access to VSAT through Ethernet, in the opposite, makes available all networks management tools of the TCP/IP platform and it allows a direct connection to the field devices, since the main models of the several makers of Programmable Controllers and Remote Terminal Units have Ethernet port. An additional earnings is the possibility of standardization that this solution allows. This paper describes a series of communication tests between two Programmable Controllers communicating through the satellite, using a protocol over Ethernet/TCP/IP. (author)

  14. Pipeline integrity evaluation: 10 years experience at Campos basin; Avaliacao de integridade de dutos submarinos de transferencia: 10 anos de atividades na Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Sergio Ibaje Oliveira; Franzoi, Aldo Renato [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    PETROBRAS E and P department (up-stream segment) had assigned first contract for pipeline inspection using smart pigs in 1995. Up to this time only TRANSPETRO (down-stream segment) had an experience with those inspections mainly focused on first generation tools. On this contract, it was first time required high resolution tools, which had bigger defect detection capability and sizing accuracy as advantages but with higher cost. It was regarded necessary due to high costs involved on a virtual sub sea survey or repair. The investment was regarded fair as there is no way to establish correlation digs as well as normally done after on shore pipelines surveys. Actually the first internal inspection was carried out in 1997. From this period it has been realized the enormous importance on verifying all platforms installations and all procedures involving cleaning runs. We have taken many lessons from these inspections. Commissioning using all kinds of cleaning pigs (some was invented) that could be specially contracted on scaling removing jobs; diesel batch to make easy US pigs inspection, cleaning steps that should be gradual to allow receiving of debris without disturbing platforms process efficiency; special tools designed in-house to meet some specific installations requirements as limited pigability; were some issues that demanded efforts on this period. PETROBRAS/E and P through its Campos Basin Production Unit has been strongly involved on looking for solutions to keep its sub sea pipeline net integrity; a strategic asset that will guarantee the Brazilian development on oil and gas production. (author)

  15. Inspection of non-piggable pipelines at PETROBRAS-UN Bahia; Inspecao de dutos nao-pigaveis na PETROBRAS-UN Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Luis F.C.; Lopes, Paulo R. [PETROBRAS, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bahia

    2005-07-01

    PETROBRAS has made a huge effort to inspect and rehabilitate its pipeline net, mainly over the past 10 years. Currently, E and P inspection teams are being challenged to find feasible solutions for the inspection of non-piggable pipelines, so named because they have unsuitable geometry and/or operating conditions for usual in-line inspections. Inside this pipeline category, flow lines, injection and distribution lines and even non-metallic pipelines may be highlighted. This paper presents the results of tests and developments of new inspection tools for the inspection of non piggable pipelines, future tests to be performed in PETROBRAS/E and P Bahia (UN-BA) and some inspection cases in which the operating conditions hinder the run of smart pigs. (author)

  16. Automated system of hydrostatic test - one reality of the analysis of the pipeline integrity; Sistema de teste hidrostatico automatizado - uma realidade na analise da integridade dos dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxe, Victor; Ataide, Leonardo [CONDUTO, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The accomplishment of hydrostatic tests in pipeline has been used to long years in the certification of the construction methods and assembly. Now with the considerable increase of the installed pipeline, the hydrostatic tests became a tool of significant importance in the evaluation and analysis of the structural integrity of the mesh pipeline. Inserted in this purpose, to CONDUIT it developed an automated system of hydrostatic tests for lines Onshore and Offshore, where the monitoring and registrations, of the essential variables - in 'real team' - such as pressure, temperature, flows and volumes, they made possible to detect leaks, besides the one of small scales, with larger speed and reliability. A supervisory system controlled with PLC's, interlinked the sensor ones and computers, they register and operate the essential variables and the injection of chemical during whole the test, besides generating graphs in 'real team' with inferior input to 5 seconds, making possible the monitoring of several lines, simultaneous and independently. With a system compact, versatile, of easy and fast mobilization, it allows installation in places where the traditional measurement instruments and control are unviable, as uninhabited and automated platforms, points in field open of difficult access, guaranteeing like this continuity and reliability in all of the stages of the test. The application of this technology results in the reduction of work hand and period, bringing reliable necessary results in any situation. (author)

  17. Influence of the inter-layer adhesion on the structural strength of sandwich pipes; Influencia da adesao entre camadas na resistencia estrutural de dutos sanduiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello, Xavier; Estefen, Segen [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Oceanica

    2005-07-01

    Sandwich pipes composed of two steel layers separated by a polypropylene annulus can be used for the transport of oil and gas in deep waters, combining high structural resistance with thermal insulation in order to prevent blockage by paraffin and hydrates. In this work, sandwich pipes with typical inner diameters of those employed in the offshore production are analyzed numerically regarding to the influence of the inter-layer adhesion of steel pipes and polymer on the limit strength under external pressure and longitudinal bending as well as the bending and straightening process representative of the reeling installation method. The numerical model incorporates geometric and material non-linearity, which had been based on previous works of the authors. Tests of specimens under tension and segments of sandwich pipes are carried through to evaluate the maximum shear stresses of the interfaces metal-polymer. The adhesion is modeled by contact adopting a maximum shear stress value to allow the relative displacement between the layers. It was observed that the structural resistance of the sandwich pipe is strongly dependent on the shear stress acting at the interface, occurring the collapse of the pipe when the maximum shear stress is reached. The results obtained are analyzed to determine the minimum shear strength at the union which provides adequate structural resistance for the sandwich pipe under representative conditions of the installation and operation loading phases. (author)

  18. Tracking anthropogenic influence on isoprene chemistry over Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; McKinney, K. A.; Watson, T. B.; Springston, S. R.; Seco, R.; Park, J. H.; Kim, S.; Shilling, J. E.; Guenther, A. B.; Dorris, M. R.; Thayer, M.; Keutsch, F. N.; Yee, L.; Isaacman, G. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Wurm, F.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Silva Dias, M. A. F.; Longo, K.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Manzi, A. O.; Martin, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    Primarily emitted by vegetation, isoprene is the dominant nonmethane hydrocarbon in the atmosphere. Photooxidation of isoprene has a large influence on the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and the production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). As a part of the GoAmazon2014 Experiment, isoprene and some of its oxidation products were measured using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) at a research site 60 km west of the city of Manaus, Brazil. The fetch of the research site oscillated between the extremes of a pristine atmosphere and the interactions of heavy pollution from Manaus with the natural environment, which allowed for an assessment of the modifications of natural isoprene chemistry by anthropogenic pollution over Amazonia. Photooxidation of isoprene leads to chemically different oxidation products depending on the fate of isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO), but different oxidation products can produce the same ions in PTR-MS analysis due to similarity in their chemical structures. A cold trap was deployed in front of the PTR-TOF-MS for separation and differential classification of some of these isoprene oxidation products. For example, isoprene-derived hydroperoxides (C5H10O3) and methyl vinyl ketone/methacrolein (C4H6O), which are the major oxidation products of the HO2 and NO pathways of ISOPOO reaction, respectively, and both detected as C4H7O+ ion by PTR-MS, were separately measured. Using the measurements of these and other oxidation products of isoprene by PTR-TOF-MS and other complementary measurements, the isoprene chemistry (particularly the fate of ISOPOO) under pristine and polluted scenarios are compared and the implication for SOA formation is discussed.

  19. Estimates of the height of the boundary layer using SODAR and rawinsoundings in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, G [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-904 (Brazil); Santos, L A R dos [Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET), BrasIlia, 70680-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: gfisch@iae.cta.br, E-mail: landre@inmet.gov.br

    2008-05-01

    During the LBA campaign in Amazonia 2002, simultaneous measurements were made of the boundary layer using different instruments (rawinsoundings and SODAR). The profiles of potential temperature and humidity were used to estimates the height of the boundary layer using 3 different techniques. The SODAR's measurements did not capture the shallow morning boundary layer observed at the profiles.

  20. Phytolith assemblages along a gradient of ancient human disturbance in western Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McMichael, C.N.H.; Piperno, D.R.; Neves, E.G.; Bush, M.B.; Almeida, F.O.; Mongelo, G.; Eyjolfsdottir, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    The ecological status of prehistoric Amazonian forests remains widely debated. The concept of ancient Amazonia as a pristine wilderness is largely discredited, but the alternative hypothesis of extensive anthropogenic landscapes remains untested in many regions. We assessed the degree of ancient hum

  1. Amazon forest dynamics under changing abiotic conditions in the early Miocene (Colombian Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamanca Villegas, S.; van Soelen, E.; Teunissen van Manen, M.L.; Flantua, S.G.A.; Santos, R.V.; Roddaz, M.; Dantas, E.L.; van Loon, E.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, J.-H.; Hoorn, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim We analysed in detail a past marine incursion event in north-westernAmazonia and measured its effect on the forest composition. We also deter-mined the sediment provenance in the ?uvio-estuarine system and recon-structed the overall ?oral composition of the Amazon lowland forest duringthe Miocen

  2. Ecological research in the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia: early results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, M.; Alencar, A.; Asner, G.P.; Braswell, B.; Bustamante, M.; Davidson, E.; Feldpausch, T.; Fernandes, E.; Goulden, M.; Kabat, P.; Kruijt, B.; Luizão, F.; Miller, S.; Markewitz, D.; Nobre, A.D.; Nobre, C.A.; Priante Filho, N.; Rocha, da H.; Silva Dias, P.; Randow, von C.; Vourlitis, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage,. nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, a

  3. Species richness and distribution of understorey bryophytes in different forest types in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, J.C.; Duque, A.J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The first bryophyte survey results from Colombian Amazonia are presented. Bryophyte species, differentiated into mosses and liverworts, and further into four life-form classes, were sampled in 0.1-ha plots. These plots were distributed over four landscape units in the middle Caquetá area: floodplain

  4. Association of vascular epiphytes with landscape units and phorophytes in humid lowland forests of Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, A.M.; Vasco, A.; Duque, A.J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    The species composition of vascular epiphytes and phorophytes (trees and lianas) was studied in ten 0.1-ha forest plots distributed over three landscape units (floodplains, swamps and well-drained uplands) in Colombian Amazonia. The aim was to analyse how host-preferences contributed to the patterns

  5. An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae (Insecta, Plecoptera genera in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada Neusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae collected in streams of Central Amazonia, Brazil is provided. Three genera are reported for this region: Macrogynoplax Enderlein, Anacroneuria Klapálek and Enderleina Jewett. Additional diagnostic characters are provided for Enderleina nymphs.

  6. The Pleasures and Pitfalls of a "Participatory" Documentation Project: An Experience in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    This article adds a voice from Amazonia to the reflective discussion on documentation projects designed within a "participatory" or "collaborative" paradigm of language research. It offers a critical assessment of one such documentation project carried out from 2007-2011 with the Kotiria and Wa'ikhana (East Tukano) language…

  7. Contrasting andean geodynamics drive evolution of lowland taxa in western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a palm lineage of 15 species (Astrocaryum sect. Huicungo), we tested an hypothesis that past geologic events in western Amazonia influenced the modern configuration of the upper Amazon drainage and thus diversification and distribution of these palsm, which found only in this region. The chang...

  8. Mapping landscape scale variations of forest structure, biomass, and productivity in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saatchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape and environmental variables such as topography, geomorphology, soil types, and climate are important factors affecting forest composition, structure, productivity, and biomass. Here, we combine a network of forest inventories with recently developed global data products from satellite observations in modeling the potential distributions of forest structure and productivity in Amazonia and examine how geomorphology, soil, and precipitation control these distributions. We use the RAINFOR network of forest plots distributed in lowland forests across Amazonia, and satellite observations of tree cover, leaf area index, phenology, moisture, and topographical variations. A maximum entropy estimation (Maxent model is employed to predict the spatial distribution of several key forest structure parameters: basal area, fraction of large trees, fraction of palms, wood density, productivity, and above-ground biomass at 5 km spatial resolution. A series of statistical tests at selected thresholds as well as across all thresholds and jackknife analysis are used to examine the accuracy of distribution maps and the relative contributions of environmental variables. The final maps were interpreted using soil, precipitation, and geomorphological features of Amazonia and it was found that the length of dry season played a key role in impacting the distribution of all forest variables except the wood density. Soil type had a significant impact on the wood productivity. Most high productivity forests were distributed either on less infertile soils of western Amazonia and Andean foothills, on crystalline shields, and younger alluvial deposits. Areas of low elevation and high density of small rivers of Central Amazonia showed distinct features, hosting mainly forests with low productivity and smaller trees.

  9. The challenge of energy attendance in Amazon; O desafio do atendimento eletrico na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Corbiniano; Pereira, Marcio Giannini [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: corbiniano@gmail.com, giannini@cepel.br

    2010-07-01

    Considering many of alternatives already developed in the region, some projects are presented that signalize the possibility of viable alternatives implantation. So, such approach is brought, reaching to demonstrate how the territorial question limits the development of some regions of Brazil, demonstrating that this problem follows the integrated aspects to the adopted model of development, showing the fact a specific priority which elects certain areas, but leaving non assisted those which are not part of the political and economical context.

  10. Avaliacao da gestao ambiental dos hoteis de selva na Amazonia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes de Moraes, Adriana

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the challenge of desvelar of that it forms the hoteleiros enterprises they manage its ambient action without causing great impacts in one of biggest ecosystems of the world, the Amazonian forest, was tried to know in this research the forms of ambient management of the located hotels of forest in the legal Amazônia. The norteadora question of the research was to know that type of ambient management is made by the hotels of selva?Foi used as instrument of collection of data the questionnaire, that if subdividiui in four great subjects to be searched. The first one was relative questions to the planning of the place, according to to the profile of the customer, third to the room and the relative questions architecture the building subject relative questions to the energy resources and infrastructure of the public services. As result of this analysis was concluded that two of three hotels searched are practising management ambient of form less impactante, since type of construction adopted until services offered to guests, or either shows objective that its hotel is coadjuvante for customer that visits this type of place, that stops it does not import luxury, comfort and amenities, more yes contact with the fauna and flora and way of life of the natives.

  11. Hornborg, A. & Hill, J. D. (eds. 2011. Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia: Reconstructing Past Identities from Archaeology, Linguistics and Ethnohistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Riris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Book review: Hornborg, A. & Hill, J. D. (eds. 2011. 'Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia:' 'Reconstructing Past Identities from Archaeology, Linguistics and Ethnohistory.' Boulder: University Press of Colorado, £60

  12. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  13. Remote sensing of forest dynamics and land use in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Michael Paul

    The rich, vast Amazonian ecosystem is directly and indirectly threatened by human activities; remote sensing serves as an essential tool for monitoring, understanding and mitigating these threats. A multi-faceted body of work is described here, addressing three major issues that employ and advance remote sensing techniques for the study of Amazonia and other tropical rainforest regions. In Chapter 2, canopy reflectance modeling and satellite observations were used to quantify the effect of epiphylls on remote sensing of humid forests. Modeling simulations demonstrated sensitivity of canopy-level near infrared and green reflectance to epiphylls on leaves. Time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data corroborated the modeling results, suggesting a degree of coupling between epiphyll cover and vegetation indices which must be accounted for when using optical remote sensing in humid forests. In Chapter 4, 11 years (2000--2010) of MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data covering the entire Amazon basin were used to ascertain the role of heat stress during droughts in 2005 and 2010. Preliminary accuracy assessments showed that LST data provided reasonably accurate estimates of daytime air temperatures (RMSE = 1.45°C; Chapter 3). There were moderate to strong correlations between LST-based air temperature estimates and tower measurements (mean r = 0.64), illustrating a sensitivity to temporal variability. During both droughts, MODIS LST data detected anomalously high daytime and nighttime canopy temperatures throughout drought-affected regions. Multivariate linear models of LST and precipitation anomalies explained 65.1% of the variability in forest biomass losses, as determined from a wide network of forest inventory plots. These results suggest that models should incorporate both heat and moisture to predict drought effects on tropical forests. In Chapter 5, I performed high spatial and temporal resolution modeling of carbon stocks and fluxes

  14. After trees die: quantities and determinants of necromass across Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-J. Chao

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon basin, one of the most substantial biomass carbon pools on earth, is characterised by strong macroecological gradients in biomass, mortality rates, and wood density from west to east. These gradients could affect necromass stocks, but this has not yet been tested. This study aims to assess the stocks and determinants of necromass across Amazonian forests. Field-based and literature data were used to find relationships between necromass and possible determinants. Furthermore, a simple model was applied to estimate and extrapolate necromass stocks across terra firma Amazonian forests. In eight northwestern and three northeastern Amazonian permanent plots, volumes of coarse woody debris (≥10 cm diameter were measured in the field and the density of each decay class was estimated. Forest structure and historical mortality data were used to determine the factors controlling necromass. Necromass is greater in forests with low stem mortality rates (northeast rather than in forests with high stem mortality rates (northwest (58.5±10.6 and 27.3±3.2 Mg ha−1, respectively. Using all published necromass values, we find that necromass across terra firma forests in Amazonia is positively related to both forest dynamics (mortality mass inputs and a surrogate for decomposition rate (average wood density of living trees and forest structure (biomass, but is better explained by forest dynamics. We propose an improved method to estimate necromass for plots where necromass has not been measured. The estimates, together with other actual measurements of necromass, were scaled-up to project a total Amazonian necromass of 9.6±1.0 Pg C. The ratio of necromass (on average weighted by forest region to coarse aboveground biomass is 0.127. Overall, we find (1 a strong spatial trend in necromass in parallel with other macroecological gradients and (2 that necromass is a substantial component of the carbon pool

  15. Continuous soil carbon storage of old permanent pastures in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Clément; Fontaine, Sébastien; Klumpp, Katja; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Grise, Marcia Mascarenhas; Dezécache, Camille; Ponchant, Lise; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Soussana, Jean-François; Blanfort, Vincent

    2016-12-14

    Amazonian forests continuously accumulate carbon (C) in biomass and in soil, representing a carbon sink of 0.42-0.65 GtC yr(-1) . In recent decades, more than 15% of Amazonian forests have been converted into pastures, resulting in net C emissions (~200 tC ha(-1) ) due to biomass burning and litter mineralization in the first years after deforestation. However, little is known about the capacity of tropical pastures to restore a C sink. Our study shows in French Amazonia that the C storage observed in native forest can be partly restored in old (≥24 year) tropical pastures managed with a low stocking rate (±1 LSU ha(-1) ) and without the use of fire since their establishment. A unique combination of a large chronosequence study and eddy covariance measurements showed that pastures stored between -1.27 ± 0.37 and -5.31 ± 2.08 tC ha(-1)  yr(-1) while the nearby native forest stored -3.31 ± 0.44 tC ha(-1)  yr(-1) . This carbon is mainly sequestered in the humus of deep soil layers (20-100 cm), whereas no C storage was observed in the 0- to 20-cm layer. C storage in C4 tropical pasture is associated with the installation and development of C3 species, which increase either the input of N to the ecosystem or the C:N ratio of soil organic matter. Efforts to curb deforestation remain an obvious priority to preserve forest C stocks and biodiversity. However, our results show that if sustainable management is applied in tropical pastures coming from deforestation (avoiding fires and overgrazing, using a grazing rotation plan and a mixture of C3 and C4 species), they can ensure a continuous C storage, thereby adding to the current C sink of Amazonian forests.

  16. Long term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-04-01

    The central region of the Amazonian forest is a pristine region in terms of aerosol and trace gases concentrations. In the wet season, Amazonia is actually one of the cleanest continental region we can observe on Earth. A long term observational program started 20 years ago, and show important features of this pristine region. Several sites were used, between then ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory) and ZF2 ecological research site, both 70-150 Km North of Manaus, receiving air masses that traveled over 1500 km of pristine tropical forests. The sites are GAW regional monitoring stations. Aerosol chemical composition (OC/EC and trace elements) is being analysed using filters for fine (PM2.5) and coarse mode aerosol as well as Aerodyne ACSM (Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors). VOCs are measured using PTR-MS, while CO, O3 and CO2 are routinely measured. Aerosol absorption is being studied with AE33 aethalometers and MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometers). Aerosol light scattering are being measured at several wavelengths using TSI and Ecotech nephelometers. Aerosol size distribution is determined using scanning mobility particle sizer at each site. Lidars measure the aerosol column up to 12 Km providing the vertical profile of aerosol extinction. The aerosol column is measures using AERONET sun photometers. In the wet season, organic aerosol comprises 75-85% of fine aerosol, and sulfate and nitrate concentrations are very low (1-3 percent). Aerosols are dominated by biogenic primary particles as well as SOA from biogenic precursors. Black carbon in the wet season accounts for 5-9% of fine mode aerosol. Ozone in the wet season peaks at 10-12 ppb at the middle of the day, while carbon monoxide averages at 50-80 ppb. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) is a low 0.05 to 0.1 at 550 nm in the wet season. Sahara dust transport events sporadically enhance the concentration of soil dust aerosols and black carbon. In the dry season (August-December), long range transported

  17. Light Absorption of Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, B. A.; Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Andreae, M. O.; Saturno, J.; Pöhlker, C.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol absorption is a key issue in proper calculation of aerosol radiative forcing. Especially in the tropics with the dominance of natural biogenic aerosol and brown carbon, the so called anomalous absorption is of particular interest. A special experiment was designed to study the wavelength dependence of aerosol absorption for PM2.5 as well as for PM10 particles in the wet season in Central Amazonia. Aerosol analysis occurred from May to August 2014, in the ZF2 ecological reservation, situated at about 55 km North of Manaus in very pristine conditions Two 7 wavelengths AE33 Aethalometers were deployed measuring in parallel, but with a PM2.5 and PM10 inlets. Two MAAP (Multiangle Aerosol Absorption Photometer) were operated in parallel with the AE33 exactly at the same PM2.5 and PM10 inlets. Organic and elemental carbon was analyzed using collection with quartz filters and analysis using a Sunset OC/EC analyzer. Aerosol light scattering for 3 wavelengths was measured using Air Photon and TSI Nephelometers. Aerosol size distribution was measured with one TSI SMPS and a GRIMM OPC to have the size range from 10 nm to 10 micrometers. Particles were measured under dry conditions using diffusion dryers. Aerosol optical depth and absorption was also measured with an AERONET sunphotometer operated close to the site. As the experiment was run in the wet season, very low equivalent black carbon (EBC) were measured, with average concentrations around 50 ng/m³ during May, increasing to 130 ng/m³ in June and July. The measurements adjusted for similar wavelengths shows excellent agreement between the MAAP and AE33 for both inlets (PM2.5 and PM10). It was not possible statistically infer absorption from the coarse mode biogenic particles, since the absorption was completely dominated by fine mode particles. AERONET measurements shows very low values of AOD, at 0.17 at 500 nm and 0.13 at 870 nm, with very low absorption AOD values at 0.00086 at 676 nm and 0.0068 at 872 nm

  18. Parâmetro de design para configuração de dutos de luz Solar

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, Gandhi Escajadillo

    2013-01-01

    Orientador: Prof. Dr. Alexandre Vieira Pelegrini Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Parana, Setor de Ciências Humanas, Letras e Artes, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Design. Defesa: Curitiba, 27/11/2013 Inclui referências Resumo: No contexto atual de aumento de consumo de energia, o desenvolvimento de tecnologias que contribuam na redução do consumo energético encontra-se em ascensão. Uma destas tecnologias que possibilitam a redução do consumo de energia elétrica associa...

  19. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  20. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julissa Roncal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonoma macrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae, a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia.

  1. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncal, Julissa

    2014-01-01

    Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonomamacrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae), a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia.

  2. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O.; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectorie...

  3. CARNE DE MONTE Y CONSUMO DE FAUNA SILVESTRE EN LA ORINOQUIA Y AMAZONIA ( COLOMBIA Y VENEZUELA)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Este taller regional estuvo dirigido al tema de carne de monte, consumo de fauna silvestre y procesos alternativos (cría de animales en cautiverio y piscicultura extensiva, entre otros), como elementos que aportan a la seguridad alimentaria de las comunidades locales (rurales e indígenas) en la Orinoquia y Amazonia (Colombia -­ Venezuela). Este evento tuvo como antecedente tres talleres realizados desde 2009 (talleres II, III, IV) y reuniones de expertos llevadas a cabo en 2002 para actual...

  4. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia in a Healthy Patient Returning from a Trip to the Ecuadorian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, A C; Barrera, S; Leon, A; Trueba, G

    2016-12-27

    Campylobacter fetus is an opportunistic pathogen which causes bacteremia and other invasive infections in immunocompromised patients who have been exposed to livestock or ingested animal products (uncooked meat or unpasteurized milk). The present report describes a C. fetus infection in a healthy adult (immunocompetent) who returned from a visit to the Ecuadorian Amazonia and who did not report exposure to the typical sources of infection.

  5. A new species of phlebotomine, Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (Diptera: Psychodidae of Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Vasconcelos dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sandfly Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the male and female morphological characteristics of specimens collected at Km 27 of the Trans-Amazonian Highway, municipality of Vitória do Xingu, state of Pará, Brazilian Amazonia. This is an area subject to the direct influence of Belo Monte hydroelectric system. With the description of this new species the number of Trichophoromyia sandflies recorded in Brazil is increased to 20.

  6. Phytolith assemblages along a gradient of ancient human disturbance in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal eMcmichael

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ecological status of prehistoric Amazonian forests remains widely debated. The concept of ancient Amazonia as a pristine wilderness is largely discredited, but the alternative hypothesis of extensive anthropogenic landscape remains untested in many regions. We assessed the degree of ancient human impacts across western Amazonia based on archaeological and paleoecological data using methodologies that would allow inter-regional comparisons. We also aimed to establish baselines for estimating the legacies of ancient disturbances on modern vegetation. We analyzed charcoal and phytolith assemblages from soil samples from an archaeological site, sites in close proximity to archaeological sites, sites from riverine and interfluvial forests, and a biological research station believed to contain some of the least disturbed forests within Amazonia. We then quantitatively compared phytolith assemblages within and between the surveyed regions. Palm enrichment was evident at the archaeological site, and the biological station survey contained little to no evidence of ancient human activity. The other sites exhibited a gradient of ancient disturbance across the landscape. The phytolith assemblages showed statistically significant between-region variations that indicated our metrics were sufficiently sensitive to detecting ancient disturbance. Our data highlight the spatial heterogeneity of ancient human disturbances in Amazonian forests. The quantification of these disturbances provides empirical data and a more concrete link between the composition of the modern forest and ancient disturbance regimes. Accounting for ancient disturbances will allow a deeper understanding of the landscape heterogeneity observed in the modern forests.

  7. Poverty and environment in Amazonia: a specific challenge for joint implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitschein, T.A.; Schreiber, V. [Federal University of Para (Brazil). Program Poverty and Environment in Amazonia

    1998-08-01

    The largest continuous tropical forest is found in Amazonia. Its destruction by burning for cattle pastures and subsistence agriculture contributes to the increases in concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere and at the same time exhausts the extraordinary biodiversity of this region. In this sense, global ecological problems such as the greenhouse effect and genetic erosion and the future modes of development in Amazonia represent the same side of a coin. This means that the elaboration and implementation of strategies that understand the value of joint implementation as an indispensable element to reverse the tendencies of devastation which are underway in the regional context are required. It is from this principle that the Program Poverty and Environment in Amazonia of the Federal University of Para has been working since its creation in 1992. Through this approach, encroachment on primary forest areas is avoided, while agroforestry systems restore degraded areas in a manner which mimics the natural regeneration of the forest, enriched with species which produce natural products with potential for industrial use. (author)

  8. Hydro-climate and ecological behaviour of the drought of Amazonia in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, J A; Nobre, C A; Tomasella, J; Cardoso, M F; Oyama, M D

    2008-05-27

    In 2005, southwestern Amazonia experienced the effects of an intense drought that affected life and biodiversity. Several major tributaries as well as parts of the main river itself contained only a fraction of their normal volumes of water, and lakes were drying up. The consequences for local people, animals and the forest itself are impossible to estimate now, but they are likely to be serious. The analyses indicate that the drought was manifested as weak peak river season during autumn to winter as a consequence of a weak summertime season in southwestern Amazonia; the winter season was also accompanied by rainfall that sometimes reached 25% of the climatic value, being anomalously warm and dry and helping in the propagation of fires. Analyses of climatic and hydrological records in Amazonia suggest a broad consensus that the 2005 drought was linked not to El Niño as with most previous droughts in the Amazon, but to warming sea surface temperatures in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean.

  9. Forest productivity and water stress in Amazonia: observations from GOSAT chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Eun; Frankenberg, Christian; van der Tol, Christiaan; Berry, Joseph A; Guanter, Luis; Boyce, C Kevin; Fisher, Joshua B; Morrow, Eric; Worden, John R; Asefi, Salvi; Badgley, Grayson; Saatchi, Sassan

    2013-06-22

    It is unclear to what extent seasonal water stress impacts on plant productivity over Amazonia. Using new Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) satellite measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, we show that midday fluorescence varies with water availability, both of which decrease in the dry season over Amazonian regions with substantial dry season length, suggesting a parallel decrease in gross primary production (GPP). Using additional SeaWinds Scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT satellite measurements of canopy water content, we found a concomitant decrease in daily storage of canopy water content within branches and leaves during the dry season, supporting our conclusion. A large part (r(2) = 0.75) of the variance in observed monthly midday fluorescence from GOSAT is explained by water stress over moderately stressed evergreen forests over Amazonia, which is reproduced by model simulations that include a full physiological representation of photosynthesis and fluorescence. The strong relationship between GOSAT and model fluorescence (r(2) = 0.79) was obtained using a fixed leaf area index, indicating that GPP changes are more related to environmental conditions than chlorophyll contents. When the dry season extended to drought in 2010 over Amazonia, midday basin-wide GPP was reduced by 15 per cent compared with 2009.

  10. Construction and assembly of pipelines using API 5L grade X80 tubes - considerations to be observed with high-strength steels; Construcao e montagem de dutos terrestres utilizando tubos API 5L Gr. X80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ailton C. de; Rabello, Jose Mauricio B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The use of line pipes API 5L Grade X80, at the point of view of designer allows: reduction of wall thickness and pipe weight or increase of design pressure. In the pipeline construction point of view, the use of line pipes API 5L Grade X80 provide some advantages, however some difficulties must be expected in several stages of the construction and assembly. The implications in cost, productivity, inspection and integrity, with the application of these high resistance steels, complying with PETROBRAS Standard N - 464 Construcao, Montagem e Condicionamento de Dutos Terrestres (Rev. H - 2004 Dec) and the experience consolidated in pipelines construction abroad were presented. At the design stage, a comparison between pipelines designed using API 5L-X70 and API 5L-X80 was carried out approaching the aspects of variation of thickness, pressure design and design factor. An evaluation of the expected gains when choosing API 5L Grade X80 steels were done, regarding reduction of costs and pipe weight. Regarding API 5L-X80 pipe fabrication, the obtained results were reported, proving that this aspect was already overcome, showing the viability of its production in Brazil. Difficulties were detected regarding construction and assembly stage and showing the need of revision of PETROBRAS standard N-464. (author)

  11. The effect of atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds on Net Ecosystem Exchange in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, G. G.; Souza, R. F.; Adams, D. K.; Artaxo, P.

    2013-11-01

    Carbon cycling in Amazonia is closely linked to atmospheric processes and climate in the region as a consequence of the strong coupling between the atmosphere and biosphere. This work examines the effects of changes in net radiation due to atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds on the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of CO2 in the Amazon region. Some of the major environmental factors affecting the photosynthetic activity of plants, such as air temperature and relative humidity were also examined. An algorithm for clear-sky irradiance was developed and used to determine the relative irradiance f, which quantifies the percentage of solar radiation absorbed and scattered due to atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) was calculated from irradiances measured with the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor, onboard the TERRA and AQUA satellites, and was validated with ground-based AOD measurements from AERONET sun photometers. Carbon fluxes were measured using eddy-correlation techniques at LBA (The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) flux towers. Two sites were studied: the Biological Reserve of Jaru (located in Rondonia) and the Cuieiras Biological Reserve (located in a preserved region in central Amazonia). In the Jaru Biological Reserve, a 29% increase in carbon uptake (NEE) was observed when the AOD ranged from 0.10 to 1.5. In the Cuieiras Biological Reserve, this effect was smaller, accounting for an approximately 20% increase in NEE. High aerosol loading (AOD above 3 at 550 nm) or cloud cover leads to reductions in solar flux and strong decreases in photosynthesis up to the point where NEE approaches 0. The observed increase in NEE is attributed to an enhancement (~50%) in the diffuse fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Significant changes in air temperature and relative humidity resulting from changes in solar radiation fluxes under high aerosol loading were also observed at

  12. Cloud condensation nuclei in pristine tropical rainforest air of Amazonia:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunthe, S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. We have measured and characterized CCN at water vapor supersaturations in the range of S = 0.10-0.82% in pristine tropical rainforest air during the AMAZE-08 campaign in central Amazonia. The effective hygroscopicity parameters describing the influence of chemical composition on the CCN activity of aerosol particles varied in the range of ΰ = 0.05-0.45. The overall median value of ΰ ? 0.15 was only half of the value typically observed for continental aerosols in other regions of the world. Aitken mode particles were less hygroscopic than accumulation mode particles (ΰ ? 0.1 at D ? 50 nm; ΰ ? 0.2 at D ? 200 nm). The CCN measurement results were fully consistent with aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) data, which showed that the organic mass fraction (Xm,org) was on average as high as ~90% in the Aitken mode (D ? 100 nm) and decreased with increasing particle diameter in the accumulation mode (~80% at D ? 200 nm). The ΰ values exhibited a close linear correlation with Xm,org and extrapolation yielded the following effective hygroscopicity parameters for organic and inorganic particle components: ΰorg ? 0.1 which is consistent with laboratory measurements of secondary organic aerosols and ΰinorg ? 0.6 which is characteristic for ammonium sulfate and related salts. Both the size-dependence and the temporal variability of effective particle hygroscopicity could be parameterized as a function of AMS-based organic and inorganic mass fractions (ΰp = 0.1 Xm,org + 0.6Xm,inorg), and the CCN number concentrations predicted with ΰp were in fair agreement with the measurement results. The median CCN number concentrations at S = 0.1-0.82% ranged from NCCN,0.10 ? 30 cm-3to NCCN,0.82 ? 150 cm-3, the median concentration of aerosol particles larger than 30 nm was NCN,30 ? 180 cm-3, and the corresponding integral CCN efficiencies

  13. Variações regionais e interespecíficas na morfologia de insetos do complexo Lutzomyia intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Carlos B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇ��O: Lutzomyia intermedia s. s. e L. neivai, usualmente consideradas como pertencentes a uma só espécie, constituem um complexo de espécies. Foram analisadas as medidas de várias estruturas de exemplares das duas espécies, provenientes do Brasil, Paraguai, Argentina e Bolívia. MÉTODO: Foram medidas 39 estruturas em exemplares de ambos os sexos, com ocular graduada, fazendo-se comparações por análise de variância (ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se desvio significativo nas proporções de fêmeas e de machos com cada fórmula palpal e influência da região de origem dos insetos. O labro e os palpos maxilares foram mais longos nas fêmeas e o antenômero III mais longo nos machos. Foram constatadas várias diferenças entre medidas das asas, quase todas maiores nas fêmeas. A proporção de espermatecas com cabeça simples em L. neivai é significativamente maior que em L. intermedia. Também foram observadas diferenças significativas nos comprimentos das bombas e dos dutos ejaculadores entre as espécies. DISCUSSÃO: As variações nas fórmulas palpais ressaltam o risco do uso desta fórmula para a associação entre exemplares de ambos os sexos. As diferenças nos comprimentos dos palpos e no labro podem estar ligadas à hematofagia das fêmeas. Comenta-se sobre as possíveis implicações da maior relação comprimento/largura das asas em machos. As diferenças nas proporções de fêmeas das duas espécies com os diferentes tipos de cabeça de espermatecas podem auxiliar na identificação específica. As diferenças nos comprimentos das bombas e dos dutos ejaculadores e nas relações entre estes comprimentos podem auxiliar na identificação dos machos, ainda difícil.

  14. Variações regionais e interespecíficas na morfologia de insetos do complexo Lutzomyia intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos B. Marcondes

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Lutzomyia intermedia s. s. e L. neivai, usualmente consideradas como pertencentes a uma só espécie, constituem um complexo de espécies. Foram analisadas as medidas de várias estruturas de exemplares das duas espécies, provenientes do Brasil, Paraguai, Argentina e Bolívia. MÉTODO: Foram medidas 39 estruturas em exemplares de ambos os sexos, com ocular graduada, fazendo-se comparações por análise de variância (ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se desvio significativo nas proporções de fêmeas e de machos com cada fórmula palpal e influência da região de origem dos insetos. O labro e os palpos maxilares foram mais longos nas fêmeas e o antenômero III mais longo nos machos. Foram constatadas várias diferenças entre medidas das asas, quase todas maiores nas fêmeas. A proporção de espermatecas com cabeça simples em L. neivai é significativamente maior que em L. intermedia. Também foram observadas diferenças significativas nos comprimentos das bombas e dos dutos ejaculadores entre as espécies. DISCUSSÃO: As variações nas fórmulas palpais ressaltam o risco do uso desta fórmula para a associação entre exemplares de ambos os sexos. As diferenças nos comprimentos dos palpos e no labro podem estar ligadas à hematofagia das fêmeas. Comenta-se sobre as possíveis implicações da maior relação comprimento/largura das asas em machos. As diferenças nas proporções de fêmeas das duas espécies com os diferentes tipos de cabeça de espermatecas podem auxiliar na identificação específica. As diferenças nos comprimentos das bombas e dos dutos ejaculadores e nas relações entre estes comprimentos podem auxiliar na identificação dos machos, ainda difícil.

  15. Vegetation and hydrology changes in Eastern Amazonia inferred from a pollen record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro B. de Toledo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen, charcoal, and C14 analyses were performed on a sediment core obtained from Lake Tapera (Amapá to provide the palaeoenvironmental history of this part of Amazonia. A multivariate analysis technique, Detrended Correspondence Analysis, was applied to the pollen data to improve visualization of sample distribution and similarity. A sedimentary hiatus lasting 5,500 years was identified in the Lake Tapera. Because the timing of the hiatus overlapped with the highest Holocene sea-level, which would have increased the local water table preventing the lake from drying out, it is clear that sea-level was not important in maintaining the lake level. Lake Tapera probably depended on riverine flood waters, and the sedimentary gap was caused by reduced Amazon River discharge, due to an extremely dry period in the Andes (8,000-5,000 years BP, when precipitation levels markedly decreased. The lack of Andean pollen (river transported in the record after this event supports this interpretation. The pollen analysis shows that when sedimentation resumed in 1,620 cal. years BP, the vegetation around the lake was changed from forest into savanna. This record demonstrates the need to improve our understanding of climate changes and their associated impacts on vegetation dynamics.Análises de pólen, carvões e datações C foram conduzidas em um testemunho coletado no lago Tapera (Amapá com o objetivo de interpretar a história paleoambiental desta parte da Amazônia. Uma das técnicas de análises multivariadas, Análise de Correspondência Destendenciada (DCA, foi utilizada a fim de melhor visualizar a distribuição e similaridade das amostras. Foi identificado um hiato sedimentar com duração de 5.500 anos no lago Tapera. Como o hiato ocorreu simultaneamente ao nível do mar mais alto do Holoceno, o que deveria ter aumentado o lençol freático, impedindo assim o lago de secar, é evidente que variações do nível do mar não foram importantes na

  16. There's no place like home: seedling mortality contributes to the habitat specialisation of tree species across Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunel, Claire; Paine, C E Timothy; Fine, Paul V A; Mesones, Italo; Goret, Jean-Yves; Burban, Benoit; Cazal, Jocelyn; Baraloto, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the mechanisms generating species distributions remains a challenge, especially in hyperdiverse tropical forests. We evaluated the role of rainfall variation, soil gradients and herbivory on seedling mortality, and how variation in seedling performance along these gradients contributes to habitat specialisation. In a 4-year experiment, replicated at the two extremes of the Amazon basin, we reciprocally transplanted 4638 tree seedlings of 41 habitat-specialist species from seven phylogenetic lineages among the three most important forest habitats of lowland Amazonia. Rainfall variation, flooding and soil gradients strongly influenced seedling mortality, whereas herbivory had negligible impact. Seedling mortality varied strongly among habitats, consistent with predictions for habitat specialists in most lineages. This suggests that seedling performance is a primary determinant of the habitat associations of adult trees across Amazonia. It further suggests that tree diversity, currently mostly harboured in terra firme forests, may be strongly impacted by the predicted climate changes in Amazonia.

  17. Amazonia Introduced to General Relativity: The May 29, 1919, Solar Eclipse from a North-Brazilian Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispino, Luís C. B.; de Lima, Marcelo C.

    2016-12-01

    In 1919, A. C. D. Crommelin and C. R. Davidson, British astronomers from the Greenwich Observatory in England, passed by Amazonia on their Brazilian journey aiming to measure the bending of stars' light rays during the total solar eclipse of May 29, 1919, and thereby put the theory of general relativity to the test. In the context of Crommelin's and Davidson's visit, we discuss how Amazonia was introduced to Einstein's theory of gravitation, and also the observations and repercussions of the May 29, 1919, solar eclipse in Belém, capital city of the North-Brazilian Pará state.

  18. N2O Emissions in Southeastern Amazonia: The Effect of Agricultural Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C.; Brando, P. M.; Cerri, C. E.; Coe, M. T.; Davidson, E. A.; Galford, G. L.; Macedo, M.; Neill, C.; Venterea, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the last 30 years, Amazonia has been home to extraordinary growth in agricultural production, in part from agricultural expansion, but also due to more intense management on Amazonia's existing croplands. We use a year-long campaign and approximately 500 field chamber measurements to estimate how cropland intensification in Mato Grosso, Brazil affects the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and soil N dynamics. In this system, soybean cropland intensification occurs when double cropping is introduced, in which maize is planted directly after soybean harvest and fertilized twice with inorganic N. We find that dry season N2O emissions in single-cropped (soybean only) fields, double-cropped (soybean/maize) fields and reference tropical forest are uniformly near zero, or ~0-0.5 ngN/cm^2/hr. Surprisingly, wet season emissions rates remain low as well, between 1-4 ngN/cm^2/hr, for both cropland types and reference forest. By contrast, isolated post-fertilization spikes in N2O emissions are large, with a maximum increase of ~800% and a mean increase of ~400%, though these flux increases resolve rapidly and rates return to their low baseline within days. Finally, we explore the role that soil moisture, soil N availability, and soil C availability play in regulating N2O fluxes in reference forest, soybean fields and intensified soybean-maize fields. Open questions surround how the Amazon's land resources can be leveraged to increase agricultural production at the least harm to the environment. Here, we quantify the consequences of land use change on N2O, a powerful greenhouse gas, in a critical ecosystem undergoing novel agricultural intensification. These results may inform both greenhouse gas accounting and our understanding of the effects of Amazonia's changing agricultural landscape on the nitrogen cycle.

  19. New species and geographical records of dactylogyrids (Monogenea) of catfish (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Kuchta, Roman

    2012-06-01

    Three new species of gill monogeneans (Dactylogyridae: Ancyrocephalinae) are described from siluriform catfish from Iquitos, Peru: Demidospermus mortenthaleri n. sp. from Brachyplatystoma juruense (Boulenger), Demidospermus brevicirrus n. sp. from Pimelodus sp., and Aphanoblastella aurorae n. sp. from Goeldiella eques (Müller & Troschel). Demidospermus mortenthaleri is characterized by a male copulatory organ (MCO) with a small loop at its middle portion; 2 types of hooks, of which pairs 5 and 6 are longer than the remaining hooks; a proximal subunit round and highly depressed thumb; and a sclerotized vagina with a round pad at the vaginal aperture. Demidospermus brevicirrus is distinguished from other congeners by the presence of a short, straight, and robust MCO and boot-shaped accessory piece with a hooked projection directed posteriorly. Aphanoblastella aurorae is the only species of the genus that possesses an arrow-shaped sclerotized vagina and a medial process on the dorsal bar. Another 6 dactylogyrids described previously are recorded for the first time from the Peruvian Amazonia: Cosmetocleithrum bulbocirrus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Vancleaveus fungulus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. janauacaensis Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. platyrhynchi Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Unilatus unilatus Mizelle and Kritsky, 1967 ; and U. brittani Mizelle, Kritsky and Crane, 1968 . Based on observations of specimens collected in the Peruvian Amazonia, new morphological data for these species are provided. Comparison of new specimens of U. unilatus and U. brittani with those of Unilatus brevispinus Suriano, 1985 and Unilatus longispinus Suriano, 1985 , both originally described from Brazil, has shown that they are conspecific. Therefore, the latter species were synonymized with U. unilatus and U. brittani , respectively. In addition, 56 undescribed monogeneans found in catfish from the Peruvian Amazonia, some of them probably belonging

  20. Environmental impact of geometric earthwork construction in pre-Columbian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John Francis; Whitney, Bronwen S; Mayle, Francis E; Iriarte, José; Prümers, Heiko; Soto, J Daniel; Watling, Jennifer

    2014-07-22

    There is considerable controversy over whether pre-Columbian (pre-A.D. 1492) Amazonia was largely "pristine" and sparsely populated by slash-and-burn agriculturists, or instead a densely populated, domesticated landscape, heavily altered by extensive deforestation and anthropogenic burning. The discovery of hundreds of large geometric earthworks beneath intact rainforest across southern Amazonia challenges its status as a pristine landscape, and has been assumed to indicate extensive pre-Columbian deforestation by large populations. We tested these assumptions using coupled local- and regional-scale paleoecological records to reconstruct land use on an earthwork site in northeast Bolivia within the context of regional, climate-driven biome changes. This approach revealed evidence for an alternative scenario of Amazonian land use, which did not necessitate labor-intensive rainforest clearance for earthwork construction. Instead, we show that the inhabitants exploited a naturally open savanna landscape that they maintained around their settlement despite the climatically driven rainforest expansion that began ∼2,000 y ago across the region. Earthwork construction and agriculture on terra firme landscapes currently occupied by the seasonal rainforests of southern Amazonia may therefore not have necessitated large-scale deforestation using stone tools. This finding implies far less labor--and potentially lower population density--than previously supposed. Our findings demonstrate that current debates over the magnitude and nature of pre-Columbian Amazonian land use, and its impact on global biogeochemical cycling, are potentially flawed because they do not consider this land use in the context of climate-driven forest-savanna biome shifts through the mid-to-late Holocene.

  1. New species of Lachesilla Westwood in the pedicularia group (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae) from the Colombian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2015-02-05

    Two species of Lachesilla, in the pedicularia species group, from the Colombian Amazonia, are here described and illustrated. Also, a record of L. asymmetriproctus García Aldrete, for the Colombian Department of Putumayo is provided. An identification key to Lachesilla species in the pedicularia group with a single male clunial apophysis is presented, together with a diagnosis of this assemblage of species. A table is included indicating the distribution of Lachesilla species with one and two male clunial apophyses. The species treated in this paper constitute the first lachesillids known from the Department of Putumayo, Colombia. 

  2. Anuran amphibians of the urban region of Altamira (Oriental Amazonia, state of Pará, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Bezerra Barros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to take stock of the species of anurans in three localities of the urban region of Altamira, a municipal district in the west of the state of Pará (Oriental Amazonia. Collections were made between January and June of 2004. Fifteen species were recorded during the study. The family Hylidae was the most represented, with eight species. The data was compatible with the degree of conservation of the collection areas. The necessity of making new fauna inventories in all Brazilian biomes is of extreme urgency, particularly in the Amazon, given its vast extension and lack of inventories.

  3. The Flux of Carbon from Selective Logging, Fire, and Regrowth in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    The major goal of this work was to develop a spatial, process-based model (CARLUC) that would calculate sources and sinks of carbon from changes in land use, including logging and fire. The work also included Landsat data, together with fieldwork, to investigate fire and logging in three different forest types within Brazilian Amazonia. Results from these three activities (modeling, fieldwork, and remote sensing) are described, individually, below. The work and some of the personnel overlapped with research carried out by Dr. Daniel Nepstad's LBA team, and thus some of the findings are also reported in his summaries.

  4. Gerenciamento da integridade de dutos

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Hudson Régis

    2005-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Civil. Obras lineares, tais como estradas, linhas de transmissão, gasodutos, oleodutos, etc, bem como outros tipos de obras de engenharia, podem ser ameaçadas por eventos e fenômenos de origem natural, ou seja, deslizamentos de terra, inundações, erosões, terremotos, furacões, maremotos, etc, podendo ocasionar impactos ambientais consideráveis, gerar prejuízos financ...

  5. Study of the sodalite Bayer synthesis process from reject of kaolin of the Amazon region, Brazil; Estudo do processo de sintese da sodalita Bayer a partir de rejeito de caulim da regiao amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, A.A.B.; Neves, R.F.; Angelica, R.S., E-mail: anabmaia@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), PA (Brazil); Pöllmann, H. [Martin-Luther Universität, Halle Winttenberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents an application for the kaolin rejects from Amazonia through the synthesis of sodalite, in addition, the series of sodalites was synthesized with the same conditions of the Bayer process to understand and control their formation when necessary. These tailings are generated by companies located in the state of Para and are mainly composed of kaolinite, thus forming an excellent starting material for the production of zeolites. The synthesis process was carried out in autoclaves and two synthesis temperatures, 150 and 200 deg C, were evaluated, the same ones used in the Bayer process. The anions used in the reaction mixture to obtain the sodalite series were: carbonate chloride and sulfate, and NaOH solution was used as the sodium source. Sodalite was produced in all the synthesis conditions, showing that through the kaolin rejects from the Amazon it was possible to study the sodalite synthesis process.

  6. Evolutionary ecology of the Pachydontinae (Bivalvia, Corbulidae) in the Pebas lake/wetland system (Miocene, western Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    Miocene deposits in western Amazonia and adjacent areas of South America harbour a diverse suite of endemic corbulid bivalves, commonly referred to as Pachydontinae, that show a wide variety of morphologies. Especially in the Miocene Pebas Formation (Peru, Colombia and Brazil), this group diversifie

  7. Evidences for a Paleocene marine incursion in southern Amazonia (Madre de Dios Sub-Andean Zone, Peru)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louterbach, M.; Roddaz, M.; Bailleul, J.; Antoine, P.O.; Adnet, S.; Kim, J.H.; van Soelen, E.E.; Parra, F.; Gérard, J.; Calderon, Y.; Gagnaison, C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Baby, P.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents new biostratigraphic dating, facies analysis, organic geochemical data and Nd–Sr isotopic provenance from five outcrops of southern Amazonia (MD-85, MD-177 MD-184, MD-255 and MD-256) to document for the first time the presence of a shallow marine ingression in the Paleocene of

  8. Interpreting seasonal changes in the carbon balance of southern Amazonia using measurements of XCO2 and chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Bowman, Kevin; Frankenberg, Christian; Lee, Jung-Eun; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Berry, Joseph; Collatz, G. James; Baker, Ian T.; Jung, Martin; Liu, Junjie; Osterman, Gregory; O'Dell, Chris; Sparks, Athena; Butz, Andre; Guerlet, Sandrine; Yoshida, Yukio; Chen, Huilin; Gerbig, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Amazon forests exert a major influence on the global carbon cycle, but quantifying the impact is complicated by diverse landscapes and sparse data. Here we examine seasonal carbon balance in southern Amazonia using new measurements of column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) and solar

  9. Interpreting seasonal changes in the carbon balance of southern Amazonia using measurements of XCO2 and chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Bowman, Kevin; Frankenberg, Christian; Lee, Jung-Eun; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Berry, Joseph; Collatz, G. James; Baker, Ian T.; Jung, Martin; Liu, Junjie; Osterman, Gregory; O'Dell, Chris; Sparks, Athena; Butz, Andre; Guerlet, Sandrine; Yoshida, Yukio; Chen, Huilin; Gerbig, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Amazon forests exert a major influence on the global carbon cycle, but quantifying the impact is complicated by diverse landscapes and sparse data. Here we examine seasonal carbon balance in southern Amazonia using new measurements of column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) and solar ind

  10. Remote sensing of selective logging in Amazonia Assessing limitations based on detailed field observations, Landsat ETM+, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asnera; Michael Keller; Rodrigo Pereira; Johan C. Zweeded

    2002-01-01

    We combined a detailed field study of forest canopy damage with calibrated Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) reflectance data and texture analysis to assess the sensitivity of basic broadband optical remote sensing to selective logging in Amazonia. Our field study encompassed measurements of ground damage and canopy gap fractions along a chronosequence of...

  11. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  12. Occurrence of filamentous fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello (diptera: simuliidae) larvae in central Amazonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Quézia Ribeiro; de Moura Sarquis, Maria Inez; Hamada, Neusa; Alencar, Yamile Benaion

    2008-01-01

    The family Simuliidae is the host of simbiontes fungi that inhabit the digestive tracts of arthropods. This paper reports the presence of fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello larvae in Amazonia. We observed that the larvae are a good component of aquatic systems to isolate filamentous fungi. PMID:24031217

  13. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  14. Miocene long-lived lake Pebas as a stage of mollusc radiations, with implications for landscape evolution in western Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    The Miocene Pebas system was a huge (> 1 million km2) system of long-lived lakes and wetlands that occupied most of western Amazonia between c. 23 and 8 Ma. Remarkable endemic radiations of molluscs and ostracods occurred in the Pebas system. The continuity of many of the endemic lineages between c.

  15. Large-scale expansion of agriculture in Amazonia may be a no-win scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leydimere J. C.; Costa, Marcos H.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.; Coe, Michael T.

    2013-06-01

    Using simplified climate and land-use models, we evaluated primary forests’ carbon storage and soybean and pasture productivity in the Brazilian Legal Amazon under several scenarios of deforestation and increased CO2. The four scenarios for the year 2050 that we analyzed consider (1) radiative effects of increased CO2, (2) radiative and physiological effects of increased CO2, (3) effects of land-use changes on the regional climate and (4) radiative and physiological effects of increased CO2 plus land-use climate feedbacks. Under current conditions, means for aboveground forest live biomass (AGB), soybean yield and pasture yield are 179 Mg-C ha-1, 2.7 Mg-grains ha-1 and 16.2 Mg-dry mass ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Our results indicate that expansion of agriculture in Amazonia may be a no-win scenario: in addition to reductions in carbon storage due to deforestation, total agriculture output may either increase much less than proportionally to the potential expansion in agricultural area, or even decrease, as a consequence of climate feedbacks from changes in land use. These climate feedbacks, usually ignored in previous studies, impose a reduction in precipitation that would lead agriculture expansion in Amazonia to become self-defeating: the more agriculture expands, the less productive it becomes.

  16. Pre-Columbian floristic legacies in modern homegardens of Central Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lins

    Full Text Available Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more complex the archaeological context, the more variable the floristic composition of useful native plants in homegardens cultivated there today. Species diversity was 10% higher in homegardens situated in multi-occupational archaeological contexts compared with homegardens situated in single-occupational ones. Species heterogeneity (β-diversity among archaeological contexts was similar for the whole set of species, but markedly different when only native Amazonian species were included, suggesting the influence of pre-conquest indigenous occupations on current homegarden species composition. Our findings show that the legacy of pre-Columbian occupations is visible in the most dynamic of all agroecosystems, adding another dimension to the human footprint in the Amazonian landscape.

  17. Coupling Between the Climate Variables of Amazonia and its Surrounding Oceans During Drought Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Antônio M. de T.; Macau, Elbert E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Teleconnection patterns between different climate systems have been seen as a feature of the internal dynamics of atmosphere and ocean. However several questions about this non-linear dynamics remain open, especially the interplay of the warming of Oceans and the anomaly precipitation in the Amazon region. For this reason, we investigate how the coupling between the ocean's temperature and the precipitation in Amazon evolve in time. In particular, how does this coupling behave during an anomalous drought period in Amazonia. Here a data-driven approach is applied to detect the coupling time scale between the precipitation in the North/South Amazonia and its surrounding oceans. The framework comprises statistical and information theory approaches that can reveal directional links between the different regional domains. The method is applied on a daily resolution data sets, the variables are average over regional domains well studied in the literature. Finally, the outcomes are systematically analysed seeking patterns that may reveal the underlying dynamics between these climate systems. Also, the study sheds light into the elementary form of the climate network between these systems.

  18. Long term measurements of the elemental composition and optical properties of aerosols in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arana A. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols are being collected and analyzed for trace elements in two sites in Amazonia since January 2008. On eof the site, Manaus is located in a very pristine area in Central Amazonia. The site is nt affected directly by any urban plume for thousands of kilometers. A second site is located in Porto Velho, in a region with heavy land use change and deforestation. Optical properties (light scattering ad absorption are also being measured in order to study the climatic impact of aerosols. It was observed a clear seasonal pattern for both sites, with higher concentrations in the dry season. But the difference in seasonal concentrations observed for Porto Velho is much larger due to stronger anthropogenic influences. In Manaus during the wet season, very low concentrations of heavy metals, maybe the smallest measured in continental regions are reported. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF was used to separate the different aerosol components. In general, for fine and coarse mode and wet and dry season, 3 aerosol components could be observed: 1 Natural biogenic aerosol; 2 biomass burning component; 3 Soil dust both locally and long range transported Sahara dust

  19. Pre-Columbian Floristic Legacies in Modern Homegardens of Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Juliana; Lima, Helena P.; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Kinupp, Valdely F.; Shepard, Glenn H.; Clement, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more complex the archaeological context, the more variable the floristic composition of useful native plants in homegardens cultivated there today. Species diversity was 10% higher in homegardens situated in multi-occupational archaeological contexts compared with homegardens situated in single-occupational ones. Species heterogeneity (β-diversity) among archaeological contexts was similar for the whole set of species, but markedly different when only native Amazonian species were included, suggesting the influence of pre-conquest indigenous occupations on current homegarden species composition. Our findings show that the legacy of pre-Columbian occupations is visible in the most dynamic of all agroecosystems, adding another dimension to the human footprint in the Amazonian landscape. PMID:26030879

  20. Oil palm expansion drives avifaunal decline in the Pucallpa region of Peruvian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Srinivas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of the world’s most rapidly expanding crops, replacing humid forests across tropical regions. Studies examining the effect of this land conversion on biodiversity have tended to focus predominantly on Southeast Asia, where the majority of the world’s oil palm is produced. Because the Amazon possesses the greatest area of suitable land for oil palm expansion, oil palm is considered an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity. This is the first study to examine how oil palm agriculture affects avian diversity within the context of Western Amazonia. We used mist nets to conduct avifaunal surveys of forest and oil palm habitat in the Pucallpa region of Peruvian Amazonia. Bird species richness, species evenness, and overall abundance were all significantly higher in the forest than in oil palm habitat. Strikingly, less than 5% of all captured species were common to both forest and oil palm habitat. The species absent from the oil palm plantations were disproportionately habitat specialists, forest interior birds, birds with high sensitivity to disturbance, and insectivores and frugivores. The results suggest that oil palm is particularly poor habitat for Amazonian birds, and that the species that are persist on them are of lower conservation value. Given the apparent lack of diversity on oil palm plantations, preventing further conversion of forests to oil palm should be prioritized.

  1. Early and Middle Holocene Hunter-Gatherer Occupations in Western Amazonia: The Hidden Shell Middens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M.; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region’s past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene “Earthmovers” of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged. PMID:24013964

  2. Aerosol chemistry during the wet season in central Amazonia - The influence of long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Artaxo, P.; Garstang, M.

    1990-01-01

    The temporal variation in the concentration and chemistry of the atmospheric aerosol over central Amazonia, Brazil, during the 1987 wet season is discussed based on ground and aircraft collected data obtained during the NASA GTE ABLE 2B expedition conducted in April/May 1987. It is found that wet-season aerosol concentrations and composition are variable in contrast to the more uniform biogenic aerosol observed during the 1985 dry season; four distinct intervals of enhanced aerosol concentration coincided with short periods (3 to 5 d) of extensive rainfall. It is hypothesized that aerosol chemistry in Amazonia during the wet season is strongly influenced by long-range transport of soil dust, marine aerosol, and possibly biomass combustion products advected into the central Basin by large-scale tropospheric circulation, producing periodic pulses of material input to local boundary layer air. The resultant wet-season aerosol regime is dynamic, in contrast to the uniformity of natural biogenic aerosols during the dry season.

  3. Avian malaria, ecological host traits and mosquito abundance in southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecchio, Alan; Ellis, Vincenzo A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Andretti, Christian B; D'Horta, Fernando M; Silva, Allan M; Tkach, Vasyl V; Weckstein, Jason D

    2017-03-27

    Avian malaria is a vector transmitted disease caused by Plasmodium and recent studies suggest that variation in its prevalence across avian hosts is correlated with a variety of ecological traits. Here we examine the relationship between prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium lineages in southeastern Amazonia and: (1) host ecological traits (nest location, nest type, flocking behaviour and diet); (2) density and diversity of avian hosts; (3) abundance and diversity of mosquitoes; and (4) season. We used molecular methods to detect Plasmodium in blood samples from 675 individual birds of 120 species. Based on cytochrome b sequences, we recovered 89 lineages of Plasmodium from 136 infected individuals sampled across seven localities. Plasmodium prevalence was homogeneous over time (dry season and flooding season) and space, but heterogeneous among 51 avian host species. Variation in prevalence among bird species was not explained by avian ecological traits, density of avian hosts, or mosquito abundance. However, Plasmodium lineage diversity was positively correlated with mosquito abundance. Interestingly, our results suggest that avian host traits are less important determinants of Plasmodium prevalence and diversity in southeastern Amazonia than in other regions in which they have been investigated.

  4. Early and middle holocene hunter-gatherer occupations in western Amazonia: the hidden shell middens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region's past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene "Earthmovers" of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged.

  5. Land-use in Amazonia and the Cerrado of Brazil: State of Knowledge and GIS Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.

    1997-01-01

    We have assembled datasets to strengthen the LargeScale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These datasets can now be accessed through the Woods Hole Research Center homepage (www.whrc.org), and will soon be linked to the Pre-LBA homepages of the Brazilian Space Research Institute's Center for Weather and Climate Prediction (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, INPE/CPTEC) and through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL/DMC). Some of the datasets that we are making available involved new field research and/or the digitization of data available in Brazilian government agencies. For example, during the grant period we conducted interviews at 1,100 sawmills across Amazonia to determine their production of sawn timber, and their harvest intensities. These data provide the basis for the first quantitative assessment of the area of forest affected each year by selective logging (Nepstad et al, submitted to Nature). We digitized the locations of all of the rural households in the State of Para that have been mapped by the Brazilian malaria combat agency (SUCAM). We also mapped and digitized areas of deforestation in the state of Tocantins, which is comprised largely of savanna (cerrado), an ecosystem that has been routinely excluded from deforestation mapping exercises.

  6. A palaeobiogeographic model for biotic diversification within Amazonia over the past three million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Camila C; Aleixo, Alexandre; Nogueira, Afonso C R; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Cracraft, Joel

    2012-02-22

    Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain high species diversity in Amazonia, but few generalizations have emerged. In part, this has arisen from the scarcity of rigorous tests for mechanisms promoting speciation, and from major uncertainties about palaeogeographic events and their spatial and temporal associations with diversification. Here, we investigate the environmental history of Amazonia using a phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of trumpeters (Aves: Psophia), which are represented by species in each of the vertebrate areas of endemism. Their relationships reveal an unforeseen 'complete' time-slice of Amazonian diversification over the past 3.0 Myr. We employ this temporally calibrated phylogeny to test competing palaeogeographic hypotheses. Our results are consistent with the establishment of the current Amazonian drainage system at approximately 3.0-2.0 Ma and predict the temporal pattern of major river formation over Plio-Pleistocene times. We propose a palaeobiogeographic model for the last 3.0 Myr of Amazonian history that has implications for understanding patterns of endemism, the temporal history of Amazonian diversification and mechanisms promoting speciation. The history of Psophia, in combination with new geological evidence, provides the strongest direct evidence supporting a role for river dynamics in Amazonian diversification, and the absence of such a role for glacial climate cycles and refugia.

  7. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Crainey, James Lee; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  8. Pre-Columbian floristic legacies in modern homegardens of Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Juliana; Lima, Helena P; Baccaro, Fabricio B; Kinupp, Valdely F; Shepard, Glenn H; Clement, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more complex the archaeological context, the more variable the floristic composition of useful native plants in homegardens cultivated there today. Species diversity was 10% higher in homegardens situated in multi-occupational archaeological contexts compared with homegardens situated in single-occupational ones. Species heterogeneity (β-diversity) among archaeological contexts was similar for the whole set of species, but markedly different when only native Amazonian species were included, suggesting the influence of pre-conquest indigenous occupations on current homegarden species composition. Our findings show that the legacy of pre-Columbian occupations is visible in the most dynamic of all agroecosystems, adding another dimension to the human footprint in the Amazonian landscape.

  9. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92, Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  10. Use of MODIS Sensor Images Combined with Reanalysis Products to Retrieve Net Radiation in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Moraes, Elisabete C; Bertani, Gabriel; Dos Santos, Thiago V; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2016-06-24

    In the Amazon region, the estimation of radiation fluxes through remote sensing techniques is hindered by the lack of ground measurements required as input in the models, as well as the difficulty to obtain cloud-free images. Here, we assess an approach to estimate net radiation (Rn) and its components under all-sky conditions for the Amazon region through the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model utilizing only remote sensing and reanalysis data. The study period comprised six years, between January 2001-December 2006, and images from MODIS sensor aboard the Terra satellite and GLDAS reanalysis products were utilized. The estimates were evaluated with flux tower measurements within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) project. Comparison between estimates obtained by the proposed method and observations from LBA towers showed errors between 12.5% and 16.4% and 11.3% and 15.9% for instantaneous and daily Rn, respectively. Our approach was adequate to minimize the problem related to strong cloudiness over the region and allowed to map consistently the spatial distribution of net radiation components in Amazonia. We conclude that the integration of reanalysis products and satellite data, eliminating the need for surface measurements as input model, was a useful proposition for the spatialization of the radiation fluxes in the Amazon region, which may serve as input information needed by algorithms that aim to determine evapotranspiration, the most important component of the Amazon hydrological balance.

  11. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-05

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk.

  12. The movement of pre-adapted cool taxa in north-central Amazonia during the last glacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apolito, Carlos; Absy, Maria Lúcia; Latrubesse, Edgardo M.

    2017-08-01

    The effects of climate change on the lowland vegetation of Amazonia during the last glacial cycle are partially known for the middle and late Pleniglacial intervals (late MIS 3, 59-24 ka and MIS 2, 24-11 ka), but are still unclear for older stages of the last glacial and during the last interglacial. It is known that a more seasonal dry-wet climate caused marginal forest retraction and together with cooling rearranged forest composition to some extent. This is observed in pollen records across Amazonia depicting presence of taxa at glacial times in localities where they do not live presently. The understanding of taxa migration is hindered by the lack of continuous interglacial-glacial lowland records. We present new data from a known locality in NW Amazonia (Six Lakes Hill), showing a vegetation record that probably started during MIS 5 (130-71 ka) and lasted until the onset of the Holocene. The vegetation record unravels a novel pattern in tree taxa migration: (1) from the beginning of this cycle Podocarpus and Myrsine are recorded and (2) only later do Hedyosmum and Alnus appear. The latter group is largely restricted to montane biomes or more distant locations outside Amazonia, whereas the first is found in lowlands close to the study site on sandy soils. These findings imply that Podocarpus and Myrsine responded to environmental changes equally and this reflects their concomitant niche use in NW Amazonia. Temperature drop is not discarded as a trigger of internal forest composition change, but its effects are clearer later in the Pleniglacial rather than the Early Glacial. Therefore early climatic/environmental changes had a first order effect on vegetation that invoke alternative explanations. We claim last glacial climate-induced modifications on forest composition favoured the expansion of geomorphologic-soil related processes that initiated forest rearrangement.

  13. Relação entre a altura de inundação, riqueza específica de plantas e o tamanho de clareiras naturais em uma floresta inundável de igapó, na Amazônia Central Relationship between flooding level, plant species diversity and tree fall gap size in a seasonally flooded forest in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Valle Ferreira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do considerável número de estudos publicados sobre clareiras em regiões tropicais, nenhum deles foi publicado sobre a regeneração de espécies de plantas em clareiras naturais nas florestas inundadas da Amazônia. Essas florestas apresentam forte flutuação do nível dos rios, que pode variar em até 15 m, entre as estações de seca e cheia, inundando extensas áreas ao longo de rios e igarapés. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se diferenças na posição das clareiras no gradiente de inundação e conseqüentemente no tempo de inundação anual poderiam afetar os padrões de tamanho, riqueza e composição específica em clareiras naturais. Também, foram amostradas 10 clareiras naturais situadas em diferentes posições do gradiente de inundação do rio Tarumã-Mirim, um afluente do rio Negro, no Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Houve aumento significativo na área das clareiras, variando de 101 a 1.001 m², em relação ao aumento do gradiente de inundação. Houve, ainda, incremento significativo no número total de espécies regenerando nas clareiras, variando de 14 a 51 espécies, em relação ao aumento do gradiente de inundação. A composição de espécies regenerando nas clareiras foi bastante relacionada com sua posição no gradiente de inundação, e clareiras situadas em regiões sujeitas a longos períodos de inundação são colonizadas principalmente por espécies com grande tolerância à inundação, enquanto as clareiras situadas em regiões submetidas a períodos curtos de inundação são, sobretudo, colonizadas por espécies pouco tolerantes à inundação. Concluindo, a área total, o número e a composição das espécies nas clareiras da floresta de igapó amostrada neste estudo foram relacionados com o gradiente de inundação, demonstrando que o tempo anual de inundação influiu nos parâmetros analisados.Despite the considerable number of studies published about tree gaps in tropical regions, none

  14. The Greatest Legacy of the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA): A Bibliometric Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is an international continental scale effort led by Brazil to understand how land use change and climate change affects the role of Amazonia in the Earth system. During the first decade of studies (1998-2007), LBA researchers generated new understanding of Amazonia and published over 1000 papers. However, most LBA participants agree that training and education of a large cohort of scientists, especially students from Brazil, was the greatest contribution of LBA. I analyzed bibliographic data from the NASA supported component project known as LBA-ECO. This component covered a large cross-section of the LBA subject areas highlighting land use and land cover change, carbon cycling, nutrient cycling and other aspects of terrestrial and aquatic ecology. I reviewed the complete bibliography of peer-reviewed papers reported by LBA-ECO researchers (http://www.lbaeco.org/cgi-bin/web/investigations/lbaeco_refs.pl). The researchers reported 691 contributions from 1996 through 2013 of which 24 were theses that were removed them from further analysis. Of 667 papers and book chapters, I tallied the first authors separating categories for Brazilians, all students, and Brazilian students. Numerically, LBA-ECO production of papers peaked in 2004. Publication by Brazilians, students, and Brazilian students generally followed the same pattern as publication in general. However, student and Brazilian student contributions as first authors showed clearly increasing proportions of the papers from project initiation through peak publication. Brazilian student participation as first authors averaged more than 20% of all publications from 2003 to 2010 and more than half of all student publications had Brazilians as first authors. Foreign researchers, some initially reluctant to invest in Brazilian students, almost universally adapted the belief that the greatest legacy of LBA would be the contribution to building a cadre of

  15. 1.3-0.9 Ga Oaxaquia (Mexico): Remnant of an arc/backarc on the northern margin of Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppie, J. Duncan; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Rocks with ages of ca. 1 Ga occur in central and southern Mexico as inliers surrounded by ubiquitous Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks. They appear to share a common history consisting of: (i) ca. 1300-1200 Ma arc magmatism and deposition of sediments including evaporites; (ii) ca.1160-1100 Ma intrusion of syenite, granite and anorthosite, the later part of which is synchronous with migmatization; (iii) intrusion of a ca. 1035-1010 Ma anorthosite-gabbro-charnockite-granite (AMCG) suite; (iv) a 1000-980 Ma granulite facies tectonothermal event with a stretching axis parallel to the long axis of Oaxaquia; (v) gradual exhumation at 750 and/or 545 Ma; and (vi) 517 Ma intrusion of an isolated calcalkaline granitoid pluton. The common Precambrian geological record of these outcrops suggests that they belonged to a single terrane (Oaxaquia) and formed a juvenile arc/backarc bordering a continent that underwent collision with, and overthrusting of, the Avalonian arc at 1000-980 Ma. This buried Oaxaquia to 25-30 km and was followed by further supra-subduction zone magmatism at ca. 917 Ma. These Precambrian rocks are unconformably overlain by uppermost Cambrian and Silurian platform rocks containing Gondwanan fauna and ca. 1 detrital zircons of Oaxacan provenance. The neighbouring Mixteca terrane includes lower Paleozoic, rift-passive margin sedimentary rocks that also contain 900-750 Ma detrital zircons probably derived from the Goiás arc in eastern Amazonia. The arc-backarc tectonic setting inferred for the 1300-900 Ma rocks also suggests that Oaxaquia lay on an active periphery of Amazonia until ca. 900 Ma, well after the amalgamation of Rodinia. This precludes a location for Oaxaquia off southern and western Amazonia that are inferred to have been juxtaposed against eastern Laurentia; contiguity with eastern Amazonia is also unlikely given the absence of the 900-750 Ma convergent tectonics in the Goiás arc. This leaves northern Amazonia as the most likely position, a

  16. Heterotrophic components of soil respiration in pastures and forests in southwestern Amazonia, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Atlas Davidson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present data on soil microbial biomass and heterotrophic respiration in pastures, mature and secondary forests, in order to elucidate their contribution to total CO2 flux from soil to atmosphere. The research was conducted in Southwestern Amazonia, Acre State, Brazil. Microbial biomass was estimated using a variation of the traditional fumigation-extraction method and heterotrophic respiration was measured using respirometry flasks attached to an infrared gas analyzer. Soil microbial biomass and heterotrophic respiration did not differ statistically among pastures, mature and secondary forests. These laboratory results indicate that higher CO2 fluxes from pasture soils measured in situ are probably due to higher root respiration by pasture grasses.

  17. Chemical fingerprints of hydrological compartments and flow paths at La Cuenca, western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbeer, Helmut; Lack, Andreas; Cassel, Keith

    A forested first-order catchment in western Amazonia was monitored for 2 years to determine the chemical fingerprints of precipitation, throughfall, overland flow, pipe flow, soil water, groundwater, and streamflow. We used five tracers (hydrogen, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and silica) to distinguish ``fast'' flow paths mainly influenced by the biological subsystem from ``slow'' flow paths in the geochemical subsystem. The former comprise throughfall, overland flow, and pipe flow and are characterized by a high potassium/silica ratio; the latter are represented by soil water and groundwater, which have a low potassium/silica ratio. Soil water and groundwater differ with respect to calcium and magnesium. The groundwater-controlled streamflow chemistry is strongly modified by contributions from fast flow paths during precipitation events. The high potassium/silica ratio of these flow paths suggests that the storm flow response at La Cuenca is dominated by event water.

  18. Hydrometric and hydrochemicai evidence for fast flowpaths at La Cuenca, Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbeer, Helmut; Lack, Andreas

    1996-05-01

    A hydrological reconnaissance study in a first-order tropical rainforest catchment in western Amazonia implicated overland flow as an important hydrological pathway. A complementary hydrometric and hydrochemical approach that involved the recording of overland flow hydrographs and the determination of streamflow, overland flow, groundwater, soil water, and throughfall chemical signatures, was essential to establish unambiguously the importance of this pathway. Largely uncontrolled by topography, overland flow does occur in any season, regardless of antecedent moisture conditions, which only influence the volumes generated. The latter effect is also reflected in a close approximation of stormflow and overland flow chemical signatures, as expressed in the K/SiO ratio. We conclude that, despite its greater logistical demands, a complementary hydrometric/hydrochemical approach is essential to understand a catchment's hydrological behaviour, especially where fast pathways are at work; such pathways are apparently common in more forest ecosystems than has been previously assumed.

  19. Evaluating the impact of distance measures on deforestation simulations in the fluvial landscapes of amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Maria; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Toivonen, Tuuli

    2014-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) models frequently employ different accessibility measures as a proxy for human influence on land change processes. Here, we simulate deforestation in Peruvian Amazonia and evaluate different accessibility measures as LUCC model inputs. We demonstrate how the selection, and different combinations, of accessibility measures impact simulation results. Out of the individual measures, time distance to market center catches the essential aspects of accessibility in our study area. The most accurate simulation is achieved when time distance to market center is used in association with distance to transport network and additional landscape variables. Although traditional Euclidean measures result in clearly lower simulation accuracy when used separately, the combination of two complementary Euclidean measures enhances simulation accuracy significantly. Our results highlight the need for site and context sensitive selection of accessibility variables. More sophisticated accessibility measures can potentially improve LUCC models' spatial accuracy, which often remains low.

  20. Neogene and Quaternary history of vegetation, climate, and plant diversity in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hammen, Thomas; Hooghiemstra, Henry

    2000-04-01

    The neotropical Amazonian and Andean plant diversity developed mainly during the Tertiary. In Amazonia, Miocene floral diversity seems considerably higher than today. During the Neogene, tropical taxa entered newly created montane area, and montane taxa entered the tropical lowlands. The general decrease of temperature during the upper Neogene and especially during the Quaternary glacial periods may have caused considerable extinctions in the lowlands. Representation of pollen of apparently principally montane taxa ( Podocarpus, Hedyosmum) in Miocene, Pliocene, and Quaternary sediments of Amazonia and surroundings, is still difficult to interpret in terms of temperature decrease at low elevation. Changes in precipitation may have profound impact on the composition of vegetation communities; Ilex and Melastomataceae increase significantly in many glacial pollen records. Increase of Weinmannia in Amazonian pollen records seems the best indicator of downward migration of montane vegetation belts. A temperature lowering at sea-level of 4.5 ±1°C during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) seems reasonable; it may have caused a downslope migration of some 700 m of the lower montane vegetation belt; lower montane arboreal species may have been able to grow in higher elevation areas (>500 m) of Amazonia, increasing background pollen values of montane taxa in the area. Difference between a cool and wet Middle Pleniglacial (60-28 ka BP), and a cold and dry Upper Pleniglacial (28-14 ka BP; thus including the LGM) is evident in Andean and Amazonian records; statements about environmental conditions of the ice-age Amazon should be specified chronologically. The Middle Pleniglacial is a time of accumulation of fluvial sediments. The Upper Pleniglacial is a time of incision of the rivers in their sediments; sedimentation started again in the Lateglacial (since ca. 13 ka BP) and the Holocene, when lake levels rose again. Based on simplified considerations of precipitation changes and

  1. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae from western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius barretti , a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador. R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l. , but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the “robustus lineage”, i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus , Rhodnius neglectus , Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l. , including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic.

  2. Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Michael T; Marthews, Toby R; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R; Greenglass, Nora L; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M A; Levine, Naomi M; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L; Saleska, Scott R; Solorzano, Luis A; Wang, Jingfeng

    2013-06-05

    A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south-southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms.

  3. Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south–southeastern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Michael T.; Marthews, Toby R.; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R.; Greenglass, Nora L.; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M. A.; Levine, Naomi M.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L.; Saleska, Scott R.; Solorzano, Luis A.; Wang, Jingfeng

    2013-01-01

    A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south–southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms. PMID:23610166

  4. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Pavan, Márcio G; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Palomeque, Francisco S; Dale, Carolina; Chaverra, Duverney; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2013-01-01

    Rhodnius barretti , a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador). R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l. , but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the “robustus lineage”, i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus , Rhodnius neglectus , Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l. , including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic. PMID:24473808

  5. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Pavan, Márcio G; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Palomeque, Francisco S; Dale, Carolina; Chaverra, Duverney; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2013-01-01

    Rhodnius barretti, a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador). R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l., but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the "robustus lineage", i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus, Rhodnius neglectus, Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l., including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic.

  6. Glacial Amazonia at the canopy-scale: Using a biophysical model to understand forest robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiromitsu; Cowling, Sharon Anne

    2017-09-01

    A canopy-scale model (CANOAK) was used to simulate lowland Amazonia during the Last Glacial Maximum. Modeled values of Net Ecosystem Exchange driven by glacial environmental conditions were roughly half the magnitude of modern fluxes. Factorial experiments reveal lowered [CO2] to be the primary cause of reduced carbon fluxes while lowered air temperatures enhance net carbon uptake. LGM temperatures are suggested to be closer to optimal for carbon uptake than modern temperatures, explained through the canopy energy balance. Further analysis of the canopy energy balance and resultant leaf temperature regime provide viable mechanisms to explain enhanced carbon-water relations at lowered temperatures and forest robustness over glaciations. An ecophysiological phenomena known as the 'cross-over' point, wherein leaf temperatures sink below air temperature, was reproduced and found to demarcate critical changes in energy balance partitioning.

  7. Rainfall and surface kinematic conditions over central amazonia during ABLE 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Steven; Swap, Robert; Garstang, Michael; Ulanski, Stanley; Shipham, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Rainfall, rainfall systems, and surface kinematics of the central Amazon basin wet season are investigated using meteorological and chemical data collected during the wet season Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE) near Manaus, Brazil. Through analysis of (GOES-West) imagery, it is determined that, based on location of the initial development, there are three main types of convective systems which influence a mesoscale network near Manaus, namely the Coastal Occurring Systems (COS), the Basin Occurring Systems (BOS), and the Locally Occurring Systems (LOS). Chemical analysis of rainwater delivered by these systems shows significant differences in concentrations of formate, acetate, pyruvate, sulfate, and hydrogen ion, and measurements of aerosol concentrations near Manaus show large influxes of aerosols into central Amazonia after passage of BOS and COS. Results of satellite based classification of the rain-producing systems are discussed.

  8. Variation in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic vegetation along edaphic and compositional gradients in northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M. A.; Asner, G. P.; Perez, E.; Elespuru, N.; Alonso, A.

    2014-07-01

    Tropical forests vary substantially in aboveground properties such as canopy height, canopy structure, and plant species composition, corresponding to underlying variations in soils and geology. Forest properties are often difficult to detect and map in the field, however, due to the remoteness and inaccessibility of these forests. Spectral mixture analysis of Landsat imagery allows mapping of photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic vegetation quantities (PV and NPV), corresponding to biophysical properties such as canopy openness, forest productivity, and disturbance. Spectral unmixing has been used for applications ranging from deforestation monitoring to identifying burn scars from past fires, but little is known about variations in PV and NPV in intact rainforests. Here we use spectral unmixing of Landsat imagery to map PV and NPV in northern Amazonia, and to test their relationship to soils and plant species composition. To do this we sampled 117 sites crossing a geological boundary in northwestern Amazonia for soil cation concentrations and plant species composition. We then used the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System to map PV and NPV for these sites from multiple dates of Landsat imagery. We found that soil cation concentrations and plant species composition consistently explain a majority of the variation in remotely sensed PV and NPV values. After combining PV and NPV into a single variable (PV-NPV), we determined that the influence of soil properties on canopy properties was inseparable from the influence of plant species composition. In all cases, patterns in PV and NPV corresponded to underlying geological patterns. Our findings suggest that geology and soils regulate canopy PV and NPV values in intact tropical forests, possibly through changes in plant species composition.

  9. Assessing the Impact of Recurrent Fires on Forests in Southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.

    2008-12-01

    Human-caused fires in Amazon forests alter forest structure, species composition, and the likelihood of future disturbance. Repeated exposure to fire may eventually convert tropical forest into fire-adapted grasslands, a process described as savannization, with dramatic consequences for carbon storage, regional climate, and biodiversity. We tested the savannization hypothesis for a study area in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso using annual satellite data to determine the frequency of fire damages and characterize vegetation recovery following repeated burning. We then incorporated results from the remote sensing analysis into the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model to quantify the long-term carbon consequences of recurrent forest fire damages in southern Amazonia. Our analysis of time series data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) revealed that burned forests are an extensive and long-term component of the frontier landscape, but recurrent fire damages did not lead to evidence of savannization in MODIS-based measures of vegetation greenness following fire. Comparable recovery of dry-season vegetation greenness in the years following first, second, and third fires suggests that tree sprouts and other woody vegetation quickly regained dominance following initial and repeated burning. ED model results demonstrated that establishment of pioneer tree species in fire-damaged forests leads to a short-term increase in the risk of future fires and a long-term decrease in aboveground biomass. Without widespread conversion of forests to grasslands, the long-term impacts from fire in southern Amazonia could still be large if frequent fires trap burned forests in early succession.

  10. Genetic structure of traditional varieties of bitter manioc in three soils in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Peroni, Nivaldo; Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves; Gribel, Rogério; Clement, Charles R

    2011-10-01

    Manioc is the most important food crop that originated in Amazonia. Many studies have increased our understanding of its evolutionary dynamics under cultivation. However, most of them focused on manioc cultivation in environments with low soil fertility, generally Oxisols. Recent ethnobotanical observations showed that bitter manioc also performs well in high fertility soils, such as Amazonian dark earths (ADE) and the floodplain. We used 10 microsatellite loci to investigate the genetic diversity and structure of bitter manioc varieties grown in different soil types in communities of smallholder farmers along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. The genetic diversity of some sweet varieties and seedlings was also evaluated. Adult individuals showed higher levels of genetic diversity and smaller inbreeding coefficients (A ( R ) = 5.52, H ( O ) = 0.576, f = 0.086) than seedlings (A ( R ) = 4.39, H ( O ) = 0.421, f = 0.242). Bitter manioc varieties from the floodplain showed higher levels of genetic diversity (A ( R ) = 5.19, H ( O ) = 0.606) than those from ADE (A ( R ) = 4.45, H ( O ) = 0.538) and from Oxisols (A ( R ) = 4.15, H ( O ) = 0.559). The varieties grown in the floodplain were strongly differentiated from the varieties grown in Oxisols (F ( ST ) = 0.093) and ADE (F ( ST ) = 0.108), suggesting important genetic structuring among varieties grown in the floodplain and upland soils (ADE and Oxisols). This is the first time that genetic divergence of bitter manioc varieties in cultivation in different Amazonian soils in a small geographic area is reported.

  11. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Maíra; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species) responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  12. Helminth fauna of chiropterans in Amazonia: biological interactions between parasite and host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Ana Cláudia Alexandre; Moraes, Marcela Figueiredo Duarte; Silva, Ana Carolina; Lapera, Ivan Moura; Tebaldi, José Hairton; Lux Hoppe, Estevam G

    2016-08-01

    Amazonia, the largest Brazilian biome, is one of the most diverse biomes around the world. Considering the Brazilian chiropteran species, 120 out of known 167 species are registered in Pará state, with 10 endemic species. Despite the high diversity of bats in Amazonia, studies on their parasites, especially on helminths, are scarce. Therefore, the present study aims to study the helminth fauna of different bats from the Pará state, Amazon biome, determine the descriptors of infection, and evaluate the host-parasite interactions, as well as evaluate differences in ecological indexes in accordance with the feeding guilds. The study was developed on 67 bats of 21 species captured in several areas of the Pará state. The animals were identified, divided into feeding guilds, and necropsied. The parasites obtained were identified and quantified. A total of 182 parasites were found in 20.89 % of the studied bats, representing nine species, as follows: Anenterotrema eduardocaballeroi, Anenterotrema liliputianum, Ochoterenatrema caballeroi, Tricholeiperia sp., Parahistiostrongylus octacanthus, Litomosoides guiterasi, Litomosoides brasiliensis, Capillariinae gen. sp., and Hymenolepididae gen. sp. Also, the results indicated that there was no impact of parasitism on host body condition and no relationship between sex and parasite intensity. In relation to the feeding guilds, the omnivores showed higher prevalence and mean intensity. Animals from regions closer to the equator tend to have greater richness in parasite species, but the present study revealed low diversity and richness in species. In conclusion, the ecological pattern observed for other animal groups, in which higher parasitic diversity are registered in lower latitudes, is not applicable to chiropterans from the study area.

  13. Atmospheric aerosols in Amazonia and land use change: from natural biogenic to biomass burning conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Rizzo, Luciana V; Brito, Joel F; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Arana, Andrea; Sena, Elisa T; Cirino, Glauber G; Bastos, Wanderlei; Martin, Scot T; Andreae, Meinrat O

    2013-01-01

    In the wet season, a large portion of the Amazon region constitutes one of the most pristine continental areas, with very low concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosol particles. However, land use change modifies the biosphere-atmosphere interactions in such a way that key processes that maintain the functioning of Amazonia are substantially altered. This study presents a comparison between aerosol properties observed at a preserved forest site in Central Amazonia (TT34 North of Manaus) and at a heavily biomass burning impacted site in south-western Amazonia (PVH, close to Porto Velho). Amazonian aerosols were characterized in detail, including aerosol size distributions, aerosol light absorption and scattering, optical depth and aerosol inorganic and organic composition, among other properties. The central Amazonia site (TT34) showed low aerosol concentrations (PM2.5 of 1.3 +/- 0.7 microg m(-3) and 3.4 +/- 2.0 microg m(-3) in the wet and dry seasons, respectively), with a median particle number concentration of 220 cm(-3) in the wet season and 2200 cm(-3) in the dry season. At the impacted site (PVH), aerosol loadings were one order of magnitude higher (PM2.5 of 10.2 +/- 9.0 microg m(-3) and 33.0 +/- 36.0 microg m(-3) in the wet and dry seasons, respectively). The aerosol number concentration at the impacted site ranged from 680 cm(-3) in the wet season up to 20 000 cm(-3) in the dry season. An aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) was deployed in 2013 at both sites, and it shows that organic aerosol account to 81% to the non-refractory PM1 aerosol loading at TT34, while biomass burning aerosols at PVH shows a 93% content of organic particles. Three years of filter-based elemental composition measurements shows that sulphate at the impacted site decreases, on average, from 12% of PM2.5 mass during the wet season to 5% in the dry season. This result corroborates the ACSM finding that the biomass burning contributed overwhelmingly to the organic

  14. Interpreting seasonal changes in the carbon balance of southern Amazonia using measurements of XCO2 and chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT

    OpenAIRE

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Bowman, Kevin; Frankenberg, Christian; Lee, Jung-Eun; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Berry, Joseph; Collatz, G James; Baker, Ian T.; Jung, Martin; Liu, Junjie; Osterman, Gregory; O'Dell, Chris; Sparks, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Amazon forests exert a major influence on the global carbon cycle, but quantifying the impact is complicated by diverse landscapes and sparse data. Here we examine seasonal carbon balance in southern Amazonia using new measurements of column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO_2 (XCO_2) and solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) from July 2009 to December 2010. SIF, which reflects gross primary production (GPP), is used to disentang...

  15. Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae) support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The temporal and geographical diversification of Neotropical insects remains poorly understood because of the complex changes in geological and climatic conditions that occurred during the Cenozoic. To better understand extant patterns in Neotropical biodiversity, we investigated the evolutionary history of three Neotropical swallowtail Troidini genera (Papilionidae). First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene. Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses. The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods. Results The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33–42 Ma) origin in North America. Two independent lineages (Battus and Euryades + Parides) reached South America via the GAARlandia temporary connection, and later became extinct in North America. They only began substantive diversification during the early Miocene in Amazonia. Macroevolutionary analysis supports the “museum model” of diversification, rather than Pleistocene refugia, as the best explanation for the diversification of these lineages. Conclusions This study demonstrates that: (i) current Neotropical biodiversity may have originated ex situ; (ii) the GAARlandia bridge was important in facilitating invasions of South America; (iii) colonization of Amazonia initiated the crown diversification of these swallowtails; and (iv) Amazonia is not only a species-rich region but also acted as a sanctuary for the dynamics of this diversity. In particular, Amazonia probably allowed the persistence of old

  16. Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condamine Fabien L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The temporal and geographical diversification of Neotropical insects remains poorly understood because of the complex changes in geological and climatic conditions that occurred during the Cenozoic. To better understand extant patterns in Neotropical biodiversity, we investigated the evolutionary history of three Neotropical swallowtail Troidini genera (Papilionidae. First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene. Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses. The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods. Results The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33–42 Ma origin in North America. Two independent lineages (Battus and Euryades + Parides reached South America via the GAARlandia temporary connection, and later became extinct in North America. They only began substantive diversification during the early Miocene in Amazonia. Macroevolutionary analysis supports the “museum model” of diversification, rather than Pleistocene refugia, as the best explanation for the diversification of these lineages. Conclusions This study demonstrates that: (i current Neotropical biodiversity may have originated ex situ; (ii the GAARlandia bridge was important in facilitating invasions of South America; (iii colonization of Amazonia initiated the crown diversification of these swallowtails; and (iv Amazonia is not only a species-rich region but also acted as a sanctuary for the dynamics of this diversity. In particular, Amazonia probably allowed

  17. Maximizing Amazonia's Ecosystem Services: Juggling the potential for carbon storage, agricultural yield and biodiversity in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C. S.; Foley, J. A.; Gerber, J. S.; Polasky, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the next forty years it will continue to experience pressure from an urbanizing and increasingly affluent populace: under a business-as-usual scenario, global cropland, pasture and biofuels systems will carry on expanding, while the Amazon's carbon storage potential will likely become another viable revenue source under REDD+. Balancing those competing land use pressures ought also take into account Amazonia's high - but heterogeneous - biodiversity. Knowing where Amazonia has opportunities to make efficient or optimal trade offs between carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity can allow policymakers to direct or influence LUC drivers. This analysis uses a spatially-explicit model that takes climate and management into account to quantify the potential agricultural yield of both the Amazon's most important agricultural commodities - sugar, soy and maize - as well as several that are going to come into increasing prominence, including palm oil. In addition, it maps the potential for carbon to be stored in forest biomass and relative species richness across Amazonia. We then compare carbon storage, agricultural yield and species richness and identify areas where efficient trade offs occur between food, carbon, and biodiversity - three critical ecosystem goods and services provided by the world's largest tropical forest.

  18. Ostracods (Crustacea) and their palaeoenvironmental implication for the Solimões Formation (Late Miocene; Western Amazonia/Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines; Caporaletti, Marco; Piller, Werner E

    2013-03-01

    Western Amazonia's landscape and biota were shaped by an enormous wetland during the Miocene epoch. Among the most discussed topics of this ecosystem range the question on the transitory influx of marine waters. Inter alia the occurrence of typically brackish water associated ostracods is repeatedly consulted to infer elevated salinities or even marine ingressions. The taxonomical investigation of ostracod faunas derived from the upper part of the Solimões Formation (Eirunepé; W-Brazil) documents a moderately diverse assemblage (19 species). A wealth of freshwater ostracods (mainly Cytheridella, Penthesilenula) was found co-occurring with taxa (chiefly Cyprideis) usually related to marginal marine settings today. The observed faunal compositions as well as constantly very light δ(18)O- and δ(13)C-values obtained by measuring both, the freshwater and brackish water ostracod group, refer to entirely freshwater conditions. These results corroborate with previous sedimentological and palaeontological observations, which proposed a fluvial depositional system for this part of western Amazonia during the Late Miocene. We demonstrate that some endemic, "brackish" water ostracods (i.e., Cyprideis) have been effectively adapted to freshwater conditions. Thus, their occurrence is no univocal evidence for the influence of brackish or marine waters in western Amazonia during the Miocene.

  19. Desenvolvimento e Validação de Algoritmos para Emprego de Sensores na Soldagem Robótica Orbital do Passe de Raiz de Tubulações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Medeiros Kindermann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Os sistemas comerciais destinados à automação da soldagem orbital enfrentam desafios perante o controle da trajetória e a parametrização do processo. Os tubos e dutos do setor de Petróleo e Gás apresentam descontinuidades, advindas de sua fabricação, críticas para o processo de soldagem. Para superar isto, o presente trabalho investiga a utilização de sensores para correção em tempo real da soldagem orbital. Um robô antropomórfico atua na condução da tocha. Um sensor a arco para seguimento de junta e um sensor baseado no contato elétrico para procura da junta foram empregados. Um programa em forma de algoritmos para geração de uma trajetória orbital automática e alocação dos parâmetros de soldagem foi desenvolvido. A validação da estratégia proposta e do controle da tocha pelo sensor a arco foi realizada com depósitos em corpos de prova de tubos. A soldagem do passe de raiz com um processo MIG/MAG com controle de corrente no curto-circuito também foi executada em conjunto com o sensor a arco.

  20. Oil and gas projects in Amazon: an environmental challenge; Projetos de petroleo e gas na Amazonia: um desafio ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taam, Mauricio [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cabral, Nelson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regional Norte SMS ; Cardoso, Vanderlei [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude

    2004-07-01

    In the heart of the Amazon forest, some 600 km from the city of Manaus, the Brazilian Oil Company - PETROBRAS - is developing the 'URUCU PROJECT'. Consisting on 3 oil and gas production fields and 3 natural gas processing plant, 2 huge pipelines crossing the dense Amazon forest and its rivers and going towards COARI - the Fluvial Terminal of Solimoes river. Then, vessels and ferries, loads LGN to the north region and oil to feed the Manaus refinery plant. In a near future natural gas pipelines will connect COARI to Manaus and URUCU to Porto Velho. The whole project will allow energy supply to the less developed and isolated region of Brazil, and brings relief for the local population, but represents one of the biggest challenges for the oil and gas industry in terms of environmental sustainability for projects in very sensitive areas. The paper concludes that it is viable to face such a challenges counting on an Environmental Management System tailored to fit the region peculiarities, including a high level of Preparedness and Response for oil incidents, and last but never least assuming a respectful attitude towards the Amazon and its people. (author)

  1. Impact of mixing state and hygroscopicity on CCN activity of biomass burning aerosol in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Gácita, Madeleine; Longo, Karla M.; Freire, Julliana L. M.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Martin, Scot T.

    2017-02-01

    Smoke aerosols prevail throughout Amazonia because of widespread biomass burning during the dry season, and external mixing, low variability in the particle size distribution and low particle hygroscopicity are typical. There can be profound effects on cloud properties. This study uses an adiabatic cloud model to simulate the activation of smoke particles as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) for three hypothetical case studies, chosen as to resemble biomass burning aerosol observations in Amazonia. The relative importance of variability in hygroscopicity, mixing state, and activation kinetics for the activated fraction and maximum supersaturation is assessed. For a population with κp = 0.04, an overestimation of the cloud droplet number concentration Nd for the three selected case studies between 22.4 ± 1.4 and 54.3 ± 3.7 % was obtained when assuming a hygroscopicity parameter κp = 0.20. Assuming internal mixing of the aerosol population led to overestimations of up to 20 % of Nd when a group of particles with medium hygroscopicity was present in the externally mixed population cases. However, the overestimations were below 10 % for external mixtures between very low and low-hygroscopicity particles, as seems to be the case for Amazon smoke particles. Kinetic limitations were significant for medium- and high-hygroscopicity particles, and much lower for very low and low-hygroscopicity particles. When particles were assumed to be at equilibrium and to respond instantly to changes in the air parcel supersaturation, the overestimation of the droplet concentration was up to ˜ 100 % in internally mixed populations, and up to ˜ 250 % in externally mixed ones, being larger for the higher values of hygroscopicity. In addition, a perceptible delay between the times when maximum supersaturation and maximum aerosol activated fraction are reached was noticed and, for aerosol populations with effective hygroscopicity κpeff higher than a certain threshold value, the delay in

  2. A phylogenetic lineage of closely related trypanosomes (Trypanosomatidae, Kinetoplastida) of anurans and sand flies (Psychodidae, Diptera) sharing the same ecotopes in brazilian amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Robson C; De Souza, Adelson A; Freitas, Rui A; Campaner, Marta; Takata, Carmem S A; Barrett, Toby V; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among trypanosomes from vertebrates and invertebrates disclosed a new lineage of trypanosomes circulating among anurans and sand flies that share the same ecotopes in Brazilian Amazonia. This assemblage of closely related trypanosomes was determined by comparing whole SSU rDNA sequences of anuran trypanosomes from the Brazilian biomes of Amazonia, the Pantanal, and the Atlantic Forest and from Europe, North America, and Africa, and from trypanosomes of sand flies from Amazonia. Phylogenetic trees based on maximum likelihood and parsimony corroborated the positioning of all new anuran trypanosomes in the aquatic clade but did not support the monophyly of anuran trypanosomes. However, all analyses always supported four major clades (An01-04) of anuran trypanosomes. Clade An04 is composed of trypanosomes from exotic anurans. Isolates in clades An01 and An02 were from Brazilian frogs and toads captured in the three biomes studied, Amazonia, the Pantanal and the Atlantic Forest. Clade An01 contains mostly isolates from Hylidae whereas clade An02 comprises mostly isolates from Bufonidae; and clade An03 contains trypanosomes from sand flies and anurans of Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae, and Leiuperidae exclusively from Amazonia. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing morphological and growth features, and molecular phylogenetic affiliation of trypanosomes from anurans and phlebotomines, incriminating these flies as invertebrate hosts and probably also as important vectors of Amazonian terrestrial anuran trypanosomes.

  3. Saharan dust in Brazil and Suriname during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) - Cooperative LBA Regional Experiment (CLAIRE) in March 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, P.; Andreae, M. O.; Lange, L.; Roberts, G.; Cafmeyer, J.; Rajta, I.; Maenhaut, W.; Holben, B. N.; Artaxo, P.; Lelieveld, J.

    2001-07-01

    Advection of Saharan dust was observed via chemical and optical measurements during March 1998 in Brazil and Suriname during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)-Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment (CLAIRE)-98 experiment. In Brazil the dust outbreak produced an increase of a factor of 3 in the daily mean mass concentration (up to 26±7 μg m-3) of particles smaller than 10 μm equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD), and in the daily mean aerosol particle scattering coefficient σs (up to 26±8 Mm-1 STP, ambient humidity). Background levels of aerosol scattering (ambient) were σs ˜ 10 Mm-1. The effect of dust advection was evident for all major crustal elements (Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe), as well as the sea-salt elements (Na, Cl, and S), as the dust layer was transported at low altitude (below 800 hPa). Coarse P and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were not influenced by the occurrence of dust, and were mainly emitted by the rain forest. The dry scattering mass efficiency of dust (particles smaller than 10 μm EAD) was estimated to be between 0.65 (±0.06) and 0.89 (±0.08) m2 g-1. Airborne profiles of aerosol scattering showed two distinct types of vertical structure in the dust layer over Suriname, either vertically uniform (15, 26 March), or plume-like (25 March). Dust layers extended generally up to 700 hPa, while scattering layers occasionally encountered at higher altitudes resulted from smoke emitted by biomass burning in Venezuela and Colombia. Observations in South America were supported by measurements in Israel and Tenerife (Canary Islands), where the dust outbreaks were also detected.

  4. Extreme seasonal droughts and floods in Amazonia: causes, trends and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    J. A. Marengo * and J. C. Espinoza** * Centro Nacional de Monitoramento e Alerta de Desastres Naturais, Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Sao Paulo, Brazil ** Subdirección de Ciencias de la Atmósfera e Hidrósfera (SCAH), Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima, Peru This paper reviews recent progress in the study and understanding of extreme seasonal events in the Amazon region, focusing on drought and floods. The review includes a history of droughts and floods in the past, in the present and some discussions on future extremes in the context of climate change and its impacts on the Amazon region. Several extreme hydrological events, some of them characterized as 'once in a century', have been reported in the Amazon region during the last decade. While abundant rainfall in various sectors of the basin has determined extreme floods along the river's main stem in 1953, 1989, 1999, 2009, 2012-2015, deficient rainfall in 1912, 1926, 1963, 1980, 1983, 1995, 1997, 1998, 2005 and 2010 has caused anomalously low river levels, and an increase in the risk and number of fires in the region, with consequences for humans. This is consistent with changes in the variability of the hydrometeorology of the basin and suggests that extreme hydrological events have been more frequent in the last two decades. Some of these intense/reduced rainfalls and subsequent floods/droughts were associated (but not exclusively) with La Niña/El Niño events. In addition, moisture transport anomalies from the tropical Atlantic into Amazonia, and from northern to southern Amazonia alter the water cycle in the region year-to-year. We also assess the impacts of such extremes on natural and human systems in the region, considering ecological, economic and societal impacts in urban and rural areas, particularly during the recent decades. In the context of the future climate change, studies show a large range of uncertainty, but suggest that drought might intensify through the 21st

  5. Epidemiology of disappearing Plasmodium vivax malaria: a case study in rural Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Barbosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New frontier settlements across the Amazon Basin pose a major challenge for malaria elimination in Brazil. Here we describe the epidemiology of malaria during the early phases of occupation of farming settlements in Remansinho area, Brazilian Amazonia. We examine the relative contribution of low-density and asymptomatic parasitemias to the overall Plasmodium vivax burden over a period of declining transmission and discuss potential hurdles for malaria elimination in Remansinho and similar settings.Eight community-wide cross-sectional surveys, involving 584 subjects, were carried out in Remansinho over 3 years and complemented by active and passive surveillance of febrile illnesses between the surveys. We used quantitative PCR to detect low-density asexual parasitemias and gametocytemias missed by conventional microscopy. Mixed-effects multiple logistic regression models were used to characterize independent risk factors for P. vivax infection and disease.P. vivax prevalence decreased from 23.8% (March-April 2010 to 3.0% (April-May 2013, with no P. falciparum infections diagnosed after March-April 2011. Although migrants from malaria-free areas were at increased risk of malaria, their odds of having P. vivax infection and disease decreased by 2-3% with each year of residence in Amazonia. Several findings indicate that low-density and asymptomatic P. vivax parasitemias may complicate residual malaria elimination in Remansinho: (a the proportion of subpatent infections (i.e. missed by microscopy increased from 43.8% to 73.1% as P. vivax transmission declined; (b most (56.6% P. vivax infections were asymptomatic and 32.8% of them were both subpatent and asymptomatic; (c asymptomatic parasite carriers accounted for 54.4% of the total P. vivax biomass in the host population; (d over 90% subpatent and asymptomatic P. vivax had PCR-detectable gametocytemias; and (e few (17.0% asymptomatic and subpatent P. vivax infections that were left untreated

  6. Juvenile tree growth correlates with photosynthesis and leaf phosphorus content in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Marenco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Light and soil water availability may limit carbon uptake of trees in tropical rainforests. The objective of this work was to determine how photosynthetic traits of juvenile trees respond to variations in rainfall seasonality, leaf nutrient content, and opening of the forest canopy. The correlation between leaf nutrient content and annual growth rate of saplings was also assessed. In a terra firme rainforest of the central Amazon, leaf nutrient content and gas exchange parameters were measured in five sapling tree species in the dry and rainy season of 2008. Sapling growth was measured in 2008 and 2009. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect leaf gas exchange parameters. Subtle changes in the canopy opening affected CO2 saturated photosynthesis (A pot, p = 0.04. Although A pot was affected by leaf nutrient content (as follows: P > Mg > Ca > N > K, the relative growth rate of saplings correlated solely with leaf P content (r = 0.52, p = 0.003. At present, reduction in soil water content during the dry season does not seem to be strong enough to cause any effect on photosynthesis of saplings in central Amazonia. This study shows that leaf P content is positively correlated with sapling growth in the central Amazon. Therefore, the positive effect of atmospheric CO2 fertilization on long-term tree growth will depend on the ability of trees to absorb additional amount of P

  7. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Higgins

    Full Text Available Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  8. Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera. Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin. By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity.

  9. The legacy of the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions on nutrient availability in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E.; Wolf, Adam; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2013-09-01

    In the late Pleistocene, 97 genera of large animals went extinct, concentrated in the Americas and Australia. These extinctions had significant effects on ecosystem structure, seed dispersal and land surface albedo. However, the impact of this dramatic extinction on ecosystem nutrient biogeochemistry, through the lateral transport of dung and bodies, has never been explored. Here we analyse this process using a novel mathematical framework that analyses this lateral transport as a diffusion-like process, and we demonstrate that large animals play a disproportionately large role in the horizontal transfer of nutrients across landscapes. For example, we estimate that the extinction of the Amazonian megafauna decreased the lateral flux of the limiting nutrient phosphorus by more than 98%, with similar, though less extreme, decreases in all continents outside of Africa. This resulted in strong decreases in phosphorus availability in eastern Amazonia away from fertile floodplains, a decline which may still be ongoing. The current P limitation in the Amazon basin may be partially a relic of an ecosystem without the functional connectivity it once had. We argue that the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions resulted in large and ongoing disruptions to terrestrial biogeochemical cycling at continental scales and increased nutrient heterogeneity globally.

  10. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolman, A.J.; Ashby, M.; Kabat, P. [DLO, Wageningen (Netherlands). Winand Staring Centre; Silva Dias, M.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Calvet, J.-C.; Delire, C. [Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, 31 - Toulouse (France); Tahara, A.S.; Nobre, C.A. [INPE/CPTEC, Cachoeira Paulista (Brazil). Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estidps Climaticos; Fisch, G.A. [Centro Tecnico Aerospacial, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    1999-08-01

    As part of the preparation for the large-scale biosphere atmosphere experiment in amazonia, a mesoscale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to subcontinental scales in the dry season. Mesoscale models were run in 1D and 3D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture) poor. The models` underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area. The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the mesoscale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric mesoscale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role. (orig.) 39 refs.

  11. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, André P.; Fewster, Rachel M.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Peres, Carlos A.; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an “empty forest” loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance. PMID:27757421

  12. Party size and diet of syntopic atelids (Ateles chamek and Lagothrix cana) in Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, S; Ferrari, S F

    2001-01-01

    Syntopic Alouatta seniculus, Ateles chamek and Lagothrix cana (Atelidae) were studied in southwestern Amazonia. Primate populations were first surveyed, and then the party size, diet and vertical spacing were monitored over a 5-month period. Atelids accounted for more than half the survey sightings and Lagothrix was the most abundant. Party sizes recorded for both Alouatta and Lagothrix during monitoring were significantly larger than those recorded during surveys, but no such difference was found for Ateles. Monitored parties were significantly larger in Lagothrix in comparison with either Alouatta or Ateles, as were groups of Ateles in comparison with Alouatta. Mean party size in Ateles decreased progressively during the course of the study, from 8.9 +/- 3.4 in June to 3.9 +/- 2.3 in October. Moraceae was the most important dietary resource for Ateles and Lagothrix, in terms of both feeding records and number of species exploited. There was considerable overlap in the plant taxa exploited, but some notable differences, such as the exclusive use of Hymenaea courbaril (Caesalpinaceae) by Lagothrix and of Euterpe precatoria (Arecaceae) by Ateles. As at other sites in the region, Ateles occupied significantly higher forest strata in comparison with Lagothrix. Despite the preliminary nature of the study, the results indicate a number of ecological differences between species that undoubtedly play an important role in niche separation. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Temporal Scales of the Nocturnal Flow Within and Above a Forest Canopy in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Daniel M.; Acevedo, Otávio C.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Fuentes, José D.; Gerken, Tobias; Stoy, Paul C.

    2016-10-01

    Multiresolution decomposition is applied to 10 months of nocturnal turbulence observations taken at eight levels within and above a forest canopy in Central Amazonia. The aim is to identify the contributions of different temporal scales of the flow above and within the canopy. Results show that turbulence intensity in the lower canopy is mostly affected by the static stability in the upper canopy. Horizontal velocity fluctuations peak at time scales longer than 100 s within the canopy, which correspond to the scale of non-turbulent submeso motions above the canopy. In the vertical velocity spectrum near the surface, the peak occurs at time scales around 100 s, which are larger than the time scales of the turbulent flow above the canopy. Heat-flux cospectra within the canopy peak at the same temporal scales as the vertical velocity fluctuations at that level, suggesting the existence of buoyancy driven turbulence. Case studies are presented as evidence that low-frequency fluctuations propagate towards the canopy interior more easily than does turbulence.

  14. Food habits of Anilius scytale (Serpentes: Aniliidae in the Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleomar F. Maschio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Information on the diet of Anilius scytale is provided based on the analysis of 162 specimens from the Brazilian Amazonia. Amphisbaenians (Aulura anomala Barbour, 1914; Leposternon polystegumn [Duméril, 1951] and Amphisbaena sp., which are highly specialized for a fossorial life, accounted for 81.25% of the recorded items, followed by snakes - Anilius scytale (Linnaeus, 1758, and Tantilla melanocephala (Linnaeus, 1758: 12.5% - and caecilians - Caecilia cf. gracilis Shaw, 1802: 6.25%. We found a positive, although not significant, relationship between the snout-vent length of A. scytale and the total length of the prey and a tendency for smaller specimens to ingest proportionately larger prey. Anilius scytale forages mainly on the ground, at night, as well as in aquatic environments. The non-selective capture of either proportionately large or small prey by A. scytale may reflect the opportunistic nature of the encounters. A tendency of the juveniles of this species to ingest proportionately larger prey may be associated with either a low availability of prey with a size compatible to that of the juveniles, or with their inexperience in selecting prey. Ingestion of prey headfirst may be an attempt to minimize the risk of injury the prey could cause through their rigid, pointed and sharp structures or powerful bites.

  15. Dietary practices and nutritional status of 0-24-month-old children from Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, T G; Baraldi, L G; Muniz, P T; Cardoso, M A

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and dietary practices of 0-24-month-old children living in Brazilian Amazonia. Cross-sectional study. Information on children's dietary intakes was obtained from diet history data. Weight and length were measured for anthropometric evaluation. Fe status was assessed using fasting venous blood samples; Hb, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations were measured. The towns of Assis Brasil and Acrelândia in the state of Acre, north-west Brazil. A total of sixty-nine randomly selected 0-24-month-old children. Of these children, 40.3 % were anaemic, 63.1 % were Fe-deficient, 28.1 % had Fe-deficiency anaemia and 11.6 % were stunted. Breast-feeding was initiated by 97.1 % of mothers, followed by early feeding with complementary foods. The dietary pattern reflected a high intake of carbohydrate-rich foods and cow's milk, with irregular intakes of fruit, vegetables and meat. All infants and 92.3 % of toddlers were at risk of inadequate Fe intakes. Fe from animal foods contributed on average 0.5 % and 14.3 % to total dietary Fe intake among infants and toddlers, respectively. Poor nutritional status and inadequate feeding practices in this study population reinforce the importance of exclusive breast-feeding during the first 6 months of life. Greater emphasis is required to improve the bioavailability of dietary Fe during complementary feeding practices.

  16. Open access to information bridges science and development in Amazonia: lessons of the SIAMAZONIA service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalliola, Risto [Department of Geography, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Toivonen, Tuuli [Department of Geography, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Miyakawa, Victor; Mavila, Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones de la AmazonIa Peruana, Apartado Postal 784, Iquitos (Peru)

    2008-07-15

    Access to and availability of accurate information has often been stated to play an important role in sustainable environmental management. There is a growing trend of setting up internet-based information services to support the availability of relevant information. The current initiatives that aim to facilitate such information sharing through the web are still, however, often premature and unable to ensure constant flow of data from producers to users. We examine these common challenges by using as an example a network-based facility of biodiversity and environmental information about the Peruvian Amazon region called SIAMAZONIA. Launched in 2001, the service includes data provided by 13 different nodes. The experiences of this initiative have been both encouraging and confusing. A good professional level has been reached, but participation by large information holders is impeded. Participation is obviously considered an additional task rather than an attractive option for enhanced performance at the individual or institutional levels. This dilemma reflects a genuine problem in the modern scientific community, which still lacks agreed ways to reward those who share their data and results through the web. If these problems are solved, internet-based information sharing may become a vital resource for environmental management in Amazonia and also elsewhere.

  17. Functional diversity of bacterial genes associated with aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gomes Germano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the catabolic gene diversity for the bacterial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE and their biochar (BC. Functional diversity analyses in ADE soils can provide information on how adaptive microorganisms may influence the fertility of soils and what is their involvement in biogeochemical cycles. For this, clone libraries containing the gene encoding for the alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (α-ARHD bacterial gene were constructed, totaling 800 clones. These libraries were prepared from samples of an ADE soil under two different land uses, located at the Caldeirão Experimental Station - secondary forest (SF and agriculture (AG -, and the biochar (SF_BC and AG_BC, respectively. Heterogeneity estimates indicated greater diversity in BC libraries; and Venn diagrams showed more unique operational protein clusters (OPC in the SF_BC library than the ADE soil, which indicates that specific metabolic processes may occur in biochar. Phylogenetic analysis showed unidentified dioxygenases in ADE soils. Libraries containing functional gene encoding for the alpha subunit of the aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHD gene from biochar show higher diversity indices than those of ADE under secondary forest and agriculture.

  18. Megafans and Trumpeter Bird Biodiversity-Psophia Phylogeography and Landscape Evolution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Based on geomorphic character and mapped geology, geologists have interpreted the landscape surrounding the Andes Mountains as becoming progressively younger to the East. These sedimentary materials filled the late Miocene swampland that formerly occupied central and western Amazonia. Apart from the ancient landscapes of the Guiana Highlands (top right, figure 1a), Zone Ac is the oldest, followed by Zone Aw, within which megafan Jw is older than megafan Je (figure 1a). DNA-based paleogeography of the trumpeters shows that younger clades diverge from parent lineages with increasing distance from the Andes chain. Thus, Psophia napensis diverges from the P. crepitans parent, and P. ochroptera diverges from P. napensis. The P. ochroptera population is confined solely to the Je megafan (figure 1a). The same trend is seen on the south side of the Amazon depression. Since the timing of the events seems to be of exactly the same order [post-Miocene for the land surfaces and trumpeter divergence within the last 3 million years (figure 1d)], it seems reasonable to think that the megafans provided the substrate on which new bird lineages could speciate. Such physical controls of evolution are becoming more important in the understanding of biodiversity.

  19. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

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    Robin R. Sears

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural–urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural–urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural–urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural–urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  20. EFFECT OF WATER AVAILABILITY ON SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS IN SECONDARY FOREST IN EASTERN AMAZONIA

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    Lívia Gabrig Turbay Rangel-Vasconcelos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbial biomass (SMB plays an important role in nutrient cycling in agroecosystems, and is limited by several factors, such as soil water availability. This study assessed the effects of soil water availability on microbial biomass and its variation over time in the Latossolo Amarelo concrecionário of a secondary forest in eastern Amazonia. The fumigation-extraction method was used to estimate the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content (SMBC and SMBN. An adaptation of the fumigation-incubation method was used to determine basal respiration (CO2-SMB. The metabolic quotient (qCO2 and ratio of microbial carbon:organic carbon (CMIC:CORG were calculated based on those results. Soil moisture was generally significantly lower during the dry season and in the control plots. Irrigation raised soil moisture to levels close to those observed during the rainy season, but had no significant effect on SMB. The variables did not vary on a seasonal basis, except for the microbial C/N ratio that suggested the occurrence of seasonal shifts in the structure of the microbial community.

  1. Late Quaternary landscape evolution of northeastern Amazonia from pollen and diatom records

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    DARCILÉA F. CASTRO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to reconstruct the Late Pleistocene-Holocene floristic composition in an area of the northern Brazilian Amazonia, comparing the results with other Amazonian localities in order to discuss the factors that have influenced phytophysiognomic changes over this time period. The work in eastern Marajó Island at the mouth of the Amazonas River was approached based on analysis of 98 pollen and diatom samples from core data distributed along a proximal to distal transect of a paleoestuarine system. The results indicated high concentration of Rhizophora, associated with arboreal pollen grains typical of the modern Amazonian rainforest during the last 40,000 cal yrs BP. Pollen composition also included wetland herbs. Diatoms were dominated by marine and fresh water taxa. Wetland forest, mangrove and, subordinately herbs remained constant during most of the latest Pleistocene-early/middle Holocene. At 5,000 cal yrs BP, there was a distinguished change from forest and mangrove to wet grassland savanna due to sea level fluctuation. As marine influence decreased, the estuary gave rise to fresh water lacustrine and swamp environments, with establishment of herbaceous campos. A main conclusion from this study is that solely the occurrence of herbaceous savanna can not be used as a definitive indicator of past dry climates in Amazonian areas.

  2. Molecular phylogeny and morphometric analyses reveal deep divergence between Amazonia and Atlantic Forest species of Dendrophryniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Recoder, Renato; Teixeira, Mauro; Cassimiro, José; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Camacho, Agustín; Damasceno, Roberta; Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Moritz, Craig; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2012-03-01

    Dendrophryniscus is an early diverging clade of bufonids represented by few small-bodied species distributed in Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest. We used mitochondrial (414 bp of 12S, 575 bp of 16S genes) and nuclear DNA (785 bp of RAG-1) to investigate phylogenetic relationships and the timing of diversification within the genus. These molecular data were gathered from 23 specimens from 19 populations, including eight out of the 10 nominal species of the genus as well as Rhinella boulengeri. Analyses also included sequences of representatives of 18 other bufonid genera that were publically available. We also examined morphological characters to analyze differences within Dendrophryniscus. We found deep genetic divergence between an Amazonian and an Atlantic Forest clade, dating back to Eocene. Morphological data corroborate this distinction. We thus propose to assign the Amazonian species to a new genus, Amazonella. The species currently named R. boulengeri, which has been previously assigned to the genus Rhamphophryne, is shown to be closely related to Dendrophryniscus species. Our findings illustrate cryptic trends in bufonid morphological evolution, and point to a deep history of persistence and diversification within the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests. We discuss our results in light of available paleoecological data and the biogeographic patterns observed in other similarly distributed groups.

  3. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, André P; Fewster, Rachel M; Venticinque, Eduardo M; Peres, Carlos A; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H

    2016-10-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an "empty forest" loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance.

  4. The Cotingo Dam as a test of Brazil's system for evaluating proposed developments in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M.; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    1996-09-01

    The proposed Cotingo Dam in Brazil's far northern state of Roraima is examined with the objective of drawing lessons for Brazil's system of evaluating environmental, social, and financial consequences of development decisions. The Cotingo Dam illustrates the difficulty of translating into practice the principles of economic and environmental assessment. Examination of the financial arguments for the Cotingo Dam indicates that justifications in this sphere are insufficient to explain why the project is favored over other alternatives and points to political factors as the best explanation of the project's high priority. Strong pressure from political and entrepreneurial interest groups almost invariably dominates decision making in Amazonia. The analysis indicates the inherent tendency of the present system to produce decisions in favor of large construction projects at the expense of the environment and local peoples. The requirements intended to assure proper weight for these concerns, such as the report on environmental impacts (RIMA) and the public hearing, fail to serve this role. Cotingo also provides a test case for constitutional protections restricting construction of dams in indigenous lands.

  5. Late Quaternary landscape evolution of northeastern Amazonia from pollen and diatom records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Darciléa F; De Oliveira, Paulo E; Rossetti, Dilce F; Pessenda, Luiz C R

    2013-03-01

    The main goal of this study was to reconstruct the Late Pleistocene-Holocene floristic composition in an area of the northern Brazilian Amazonia, comparing the results with other Amazonian localities in order to discuss the factors that have influenced phytophysiognomic changes over this time period. The work in eastern Marajó Island at the mouth of the Amazonas River was approached based on analysis of 98 pollen and diatom samples from core data distributed along a proximal to distal transect of a paleoestuarine system. The results indicated high concentration of Rhizophora, associated with arboreal pollen grains typical of the modern Amazonian rainforest during the last 40,000 cal yrs BP. Pollen composition also included wetland herbs. Diatoms were dominated by marine and fresh water taxa. Wetland forest, mangrove and, subordinately herbs remained constant during most of the latest Pleistocene-early/middle Holocene. At 5,000 cal yrs BP, there was a distinguished change from forest and mangrove to wet grassland savanna due to sea level fluctuation. As marine influence decreased, the estuary gave rise to fresh water lacustrine and swamp environments, with establishment of herbaceous campos. A main conclusion from this study is that solely the occurrence of herbaceous savanna can not be used as a definitive indicator of past dry climates in Amazonian areas.

  6. Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Piller, Werner E; Ramos, Maria Ines; Douglas da Silva Paz, Jackson

    2011-08-01

    In Miocene times a vast wetland existed in Western Amazonia. Whereas the general development of this amazing ecosystem is well established, many questions remain open on sedimentary environments, stratigraphical correlations as well as its palaeogeographical configuration. Several outcrops located in a barely studied region around Eirunepé (SW Amazonas state, Brazil) were investigated to obtain basic sedimentological data. The observed deposits belong to the upper part of the Solimões Formation and are biostratigraphically dated to the Late Miocene. Vertically as well as laterally highly variable fine-grained clastic successions were recorded. Based on the lithofacies assemblages, these sediments represent fluvial deposits, possibly of an anastomosing river system. Sand bodies formed within active channels and dominant overbank fines are described (levees, crevasse splays/channels/deltas, abandoned channels, backswamps, floodplain paleosols). Lacustrine environments are restricted to local floodplain ponds/lakes. The mollusc and ostracod content as well as very light δ(18)O and δ(13)C values, measured on ostracod valves, refer to exclusively freshwater conditions. Based on palaeontological and geological results the existence of a long-lived lake ("Lake Pebas") or any influx of marine waters can be excluded for that region during the Late Miocene.

  7. Mortality from contact-related epidemics among indigenous populations in Greater Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert S; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Hill, Kim R

    2015-09-10

    European expansion and contact with indigenous populations led to catastrophic depopulation primarily through the introduction of novel infectious diseases to which native peoples had limited exposure and immunity. In the Amazon Basin such contacts continue to occur with more than 50 isolated indigenous societies likely to make further contacts with the outside world in the near future. Ethnohistorical accounts are useful for quantifying trends in the severity and frequency of epidemics through time and may provide insight into the likely demographic consequences of future contacts. Here we compile information for 117 epidemics that affected 59 different indigenous societies in Greater Amazonia and caused over 11,000 deaths between 1875 and 2008, mostly (75%) from measles, influenza, and malaria. Results show that mortality rates from epidemics decline exponentially through time and, independently, with time since peaceful contact. The frequency of documented epidemics also decreases with time since contact. While previous work on virgin soil epidemics generally emphasizes the calamity of contacts, we focus instead on improvements through time. The prospects for better survivorship during future contacts are good provided modern health care procedures are implemented immediately.

  8. Diversity of bats trypanosomes in hydroeletric area of Belo Monte in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa P; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Leite, Beatriz Helena Santos; Ferreira, Juliana Isabel G da S; Tonhosolo, Renata; da Rosa, Adriana Ruckert; da Rocha, Patricio Adriano; Aires, Caroline Cotrim; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2016-12-01

    The Trypanosoma comprises flagellates able to infect many mammalian species and is transmitted by several groups of invertebrates. The order Chiroptera can be infected by the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum and Trypanozoon. In this study, we described the diversity of bats trypanosomes, inferring the phylogenetic relationships among the trypanosomes from bats caught Belo Monte Hydroeletric area (Brazilian Amazonia). Trypanosomes from bats were isolated by haemoculture, and the molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and glycosomal-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene sequences. Morphological characterization included light and scanning electron microscopy. A total of 157 bats were caught in the area belonging 6 Families (Emballonuridae, Furipteridae, Mormoopidae, Natalidae, Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae) and 34 species. The bat trypanosome prevalence, as evaluated through haemoculture, was 5,7%. Phylogenetic trees grouped the isolates in T. cruzi branch (TCI and TCbat lineage), T. cruzi marinkellei and Trypanosoma wauwau from Pteronotus parnellii. This is the first isolate from T. wauwau in Para state. The occurrence of T. cruzi in the ​​ Belo Monte Hydroeletric area (UHE Belo Monte) in Amazon/Brazil attentive to the risk of migration human population required for the works of the dam and new cities that grow in the vicinity of these businesses, but it is a zoonosis already known to the Amazon region, and the presence of unclassified Trypanosoma species, attend to the large parasitic biodiversity still unknown.

  9. Population Development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Landrace Bean Varieties Occurring in Southwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, L M; Araújo, A E F; Santos, A C V; Santos, V B; Sousa, A H

    2016-02-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), is one of the most important sources of protein worldwide, and Latin America is one of the recognized centers of diversity of this species. However, storage of this product after harvest is not feasible because of bruchid attacks. This study determined the accumulated normalized rate of emergence and the daily emergence rate of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) in five landrace varieties of common bean (BRL 01, SNA 01, RDR 01, RBC 01, and RBC 13) that occurin southwestern Amazonia. These varieties were selected for this study because they are well-distributed throughout the Amazonian communities. Beans of each variety were infested with 50 unsexed adults, and the insects were removed 13 d after beginning the bioassays. The adult progeny obtained from the feeding substrate were counted and removed every other day after the first emergence, until the end of the emergence period. Differences were observed in the calculated rates of development; however, the time required for development and emergence of the insects was independent. Of the five varieties of bean investigated, we observed that the RDR 01, BRL 01, and SNA 01 cultivars are resistant to Z. subfasciatus; the results indicate that the use of these three varieties can reduce problems associated with bruchid attacks and enable storage of the product after harvesting.

  10. Responses of Aquatic Saproxylic Macroinvertebrates to Reduced-Impact Logging in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, F O; Escarpinati, S C; Valente-Neto, F; Hamada, N

    2015-08-01

    Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is an alternative land use because it reduces damage to forest cover in comparison with clear-cut practices. However, management practices adopted in RIL can affect wood availability and, consequently, fauna associated with dead wood during part of their life cycle (saproxylic). In this study, we evaluated whether aquatic saproxylic macroinvertebrates are affected by reduced-impact logging in Central Amazonia. We selected six streams in areas under reduced-impacted logging and six in primary forest areas and collected submerged woody debris. We did not find any differences in water pH, conductivity, and wood availability between reduced-impacted forest and primary forest streams. We found 248 saproxylic aquatic macroinvertebrates belonging to 37 taxa. We found five wood specialist (Dryops, Lutrochus, Stenochironomus, Oukuriella, and Endotribelos) and 32 generalists, totalling 98 and 150 individuals, respectively. In general, our results show that reduced-impact logging does not affect richness, abundance, and composition of saproxylic macroinvertebrates. The main explanation for this pattern is that management practices do not change important macroinvertebrate niche dimensions, including wood availability and the water's chemical and physical variables. Thus, controlled logging, such as applied in the area of the Central Amazonian streams studied, opens a new prospect for insect conservation and commercial exploitation of wood, which is not possible when clear-cut practices are adopted.

  11. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

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    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  12. Tersilochinae of Western Amazonia (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Genus Stethantyx Townes, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaim, Andrey I; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Bordera, Santiago

    2015-07-02

    In this paper we describe four new species of Stethantyx Townes (Ichneumonidae: Tersilochinae) from Ecuador and Peru characterized by the fore wing with first and second abscissae of radius meeting at right angle: S. erwini Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, sp. nov., S. radiata Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, sp. nov., S. rufispa Khalaim & Bordera, sp. nov. and S. undulata Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, sp. nov. Second part of the key to species of Stethantyx occurring in Western Amazonia is given. Additionally, S. altamira Khalaim & Broad and S. aprica Khalaim & Broad are recorded from South America for the first time, and new data on distribution of S. alajuela Khalaim & Broad, S. amazonica Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, S. heredia Kha-laim & Broad, S. orellana Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, S. sinuata Khalaim & Sääksjärvi and S. trepida Khalaim & Sääksjärvi in South America are provided. Male of S. orellana is recorded for the first time.

  13. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maurício; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration.

  14. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mark A; Asner, Gregory P; Anderson, Christopher B; Martin, Roberta E; Knapp, David E; Tupayachi, Raul; Perez, Eneas; Elespuru, Nydia; Alonso, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared) imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  15. Soldagem em operação de dutos de alta resistência e baixa espessura com ênfase nas trincas a frio In-service welding of pipelines in high strength low thickness with emphasis on cold cracks

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    Aldo Santos Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência de trincas a frio quando da soldagem de dutos em operação. Foram executados dois conjuntos de experimentos: o primeiro denominado de experimento "F", em que foi variada a folga entre a calha e o tubo, e utilizados metal de base e de adição de alto carbono equivalente; o segundo denominado de experimento "R", em que foi imposta alta restrição à junta soldada e, promovido o resfriamento rápido mediante fluxo de água no interior do tubo. Foram feitas as soldagens com os seguintes processos e materiais: processo eletrodo revestido (SMAW, tubo e calha em aço ASTM A 335 P5, metal de adição AWS E 8018-B8 (experimento "F". Processos MIG/MAG pulsado (GMAW-P e arame tubular auto-protegido (FCAW-S, tubo e calha em aço API 5L X70, metais de adição AWS ER 80S-G e AWS E 71T-11, respectivamente (experimento "R". Para detectar as trincas a frio foram realizados exame visual e a inspeção com líquidos penetrantes. Adicionalmente as soldas foram avaliadas por macrografia e medição de dureza. Não foram detectadas trincas, apesar da utilização de metais de base e de adição com alto carbono equivalente e da junta com alta restrição, com o objetivo de aumentar as tensões. Admite-se que não houve fissuração devido ao uso de processos e/consumíveis com baixo teor de hidrogênio.The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of cold cracks associated with in-service welding of pipelines. Two sets of experiments were performed : the first of them was called experiment "F", where the gap between sleeve and pipe was varied and base and weld metal of high carbon equivalent were used, the second set of experiment was denominated "R", when higher restriction was imposed to the welded joint, which was simultaneously more rapid cooled by water flow within the pipe. The welds were made ​​with the following procedures and materials: shielded metal arc welding (SMAW of tube and pipeline

  16. Late Pleistocene-Holocene paleoclimate in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia with basis on floristic changes interpreted from isotope data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, D. F.; Cohen, M. C. L.; Pessenda, L. C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Previous late Quaternary paleoclimatic interpretations in Amazonia have considered fluctuating dry to wet episodes with changes from savanna to forest, a view that concurs with other proposals of undisturbed rainforest despite global oscillations. Most of this debate is based on pollen data, but such elements are scarce in Amazonian sedimentary records. This work interprets vegetation in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in a southwestern Amazonia lowland using δ13C, δ15N, C/N integrated with geomorphology, sedimentology and radiocarbon dating. The goal was to reconstruct vegetation changes through time and analyze their relation to climate and sedimentary dynamics. Fluvial channel and floodplain deposits with phytoplankton, as well as C3 and C4 land plants, were recorded. Between 42,033-43,168 cal yr BP and 34,804-35,584 cal yr BP, C4 land plants increased as a result of a climate drier than todaýs. However, wet climate prevailed from this time-frame until the onset of the Last Glaciation Maximum. In the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, there was an increased contribution of C4 land plants potentially related to dry episodes. However, the increased contribution of this type of land plant is not synchronous with Holocene dry episodes previously documented for the Amazonian lowland. On the other hand, it is remarkable that the record of this plant type was verified only in sites with modern grassland confined to fluvial paleo-landforms. Thus, rather than due to a dry climatic episode, the recorded grassland expansion and its maintenance up to the present time in the studied sites is more likely associated with the evolution of depositional environments, being coincidental with the progressive abandonment of fluvial systems. An important conclusion derived from the present work is that great care must be placed when reconstructing late Quaternary paleoclimate in Amazonia based on changes in floristic patterns, as they may be also a response to sedimentary dynamics.

  17. On the ability of a global atmospheric inversion to constrain variations of CO2 fluxes over Amazonia

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    L. Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exchanges of carbon, water, and energy between the atmosphere and the Amazon Basin have global implications for current and future climate. Here, the global atmospheric inversion system of the Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate service (MACC was used to further study the seasonal and interannual variations of biogenic CO2 fluxes in Amazonia. The system assimilated surface measurements of atmospheric CO2 mole fractions made over more than 100 sites over the globe into an atmospheric transport model. This study added four surface stations located in tropical South America, a region poorly covered by CO2 observations. The estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE optimized by the inversion were compared to independent estimates of NEE upscaled from eddy-covariance flux measurements in Amazonia, and against reports on the seasonal and interannual variations of the land sink in South America from the scientific literature. We focused on the impact of the interannual variation of the strong droughts in 2005 and 2010 (due to severe and longer-than-usual dry seasons, and of the extreme rainfall conditions registered in 2009. The spatial variations of the seasonal and interannual variability of optimized NEE were also investigated. While the inversion supported the assumption of strong spatial heterogeneity of these variations, the results revealed critical limitations that prevent global inversion frameworks from capturing the data-driven seasonal patterns of fluxes across Amazonia. In particular, it highlighted issues due to the configuration of the observation network in South America and the lack of continuity of the measurements. However, some robust patterns from the inversion seemed consistent with the abnormal moisture conditions in 2009.

  18. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  19. On the ability of a global atmospheric inversion to constrain variations of CO2 fluxes over Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Molina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the atmosphere and the Amazon basin have global implications for the current and future climate. Here, the global atmospheric inversion system of the Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC service is used to study the seasonal and interannual variations of biogenic CO2 fluxes in Amazonia during the period 2002–2010. The system assimilated surface measurements of atmospheric CO2 mole fractions made at more than 100 sites over the globe into an atmospheric transport model. The present study adds measurements from four surface stations located in tropical South America, a region poorly covered by CO2 observations. The estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE optimized by the inversion are compared to an independent estimate of NEE upscaled from eddy-covariance flux measurements in Amazonia. They are also qualitatively evaluated against reports on the seasonal and interannual variations of the land sink in South America from the scientific literature. We attempt at assessing the impact on NEE of the strong droughts in 2005 and 2010 (due to severe and longer-than-usual dry seasons and the extreme rainfall conditions registered in 2009. The spatial variations of the seasonal and interannual variability of optimized NEE are also investigated. While the inversion supports the assumption of strong spatial heterogeneity of these variations, the results reveal critical limitations of the coarse-resolution transport model, the surface observation network in South America during the recent years and the present knowledge of modelling uncertainties in South America that prevent our inversion from capturing the seasonal patterns of fluxes across Amazonia. However, some patterns from the inversion seem consistent with the anomaly of moisture conditions in 2009.

  20. Límites a la autonomía indígena en la Amazonia colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Correa Rubio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas tres décadas, la imagen del Estado sobre la Amazonia se ha transformado. De considerarla como una región que solo producía gastos al erario público, las prospecciones minero-energéticas demuestran la presencia de recursos ávidamente demandados por el mercado mundial que aclimatará la política de reprimarización de la economía y la privatización de los procesos extractivos, en manos de empresas transnacionales, amparado en la propiedad estatal del subsuelo y en el de interés nacional con respecto a sus bienes. Paradójicamente, durante el mismo periodo, las normas nacionales e internacionales han reconocido la autonomía de los indígenas, como un derecho fundamental, que promovió su reorganización, bajo una entidad panétnica, con vínculosnacionales e internacionales, que participa de escenarios de concertación política con el Estado, en defensa de sus derechos colectivos, articulándolos con reivindicaciones popularesregionales. Aunque la autonomía no se restringe al control territorial, como siempre ocurre con las economías de enclave, su oneroso impacto se descargará sobre el territorioy sus pobladores, que en la Amazonia incluye más del 60 % de los grupos indígenas del país. Este artículo introduce la tensión sobre las expectativas y el reciente impacto de las políticas de intervención del Estado en la Amazonia y el proceso de reorganización del movimiento indígena. 

  1. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Santos, Ronaldo P; Desmouliere, Sylvain J M; Ferreira, Evandro J L; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  2. Ecological Adaptation of Wild Peach Palm, Its In Situ Conservation and Deforestation-Mediated Extinction in Southern Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R.; Santos, Ronaldo P.; Desmouliere, Sylvain J. M.; Ferreira, Evandro J. L.; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    Background The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Methodology/Principal Findings Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Conclusions/Significance Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources. PMID:19238213

  3. Disentangling the contribution of multiple land covers to fire-mediated carbon emissions in Amazonia during the 2010 drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liana Oighenstein; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Gloor, Manuel; Arai, Egídio; Adami, Marcos; Saatchi, Sassan S; Malhi, Yadvinder; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Barlow, Jos; Berenguer, Erika; Duarte, Valdete

    2015-10-01

    In less than 15 years, the Amazon region experienced three major droughts. Links between droughts and fires have been demonstrated for the 1997/1998, 2005, and 2010 droughts. In 2010, emissions of 510 ± 120 Tg C were associated to fire alone in Amazonia. Existing approaches have, however, not yet disentangled the proportional contribution of multiple land cover sources to this total. We develop a novel integration of multisensor and multitemporal satellite-derived data on land cover, active fires, and burned area and an empirical model of fire-induced biomass loss to quantify the extent of burned areas and resulting biomass loss for multiple land covers in Mato Grosso (MT) state, southern Amazonia-the 2010 drought most impacted region. We show that 10.77% (96,855 km(2)) of MT burned. We estimated a gross carbon emission of 56.21 ± 22.5 Tg C from direct combustion of biomass, with an additional 29.4 ± 10 Tg C committed to be emitted in the following years due to dead wood decay. It is estimated that old-growth forest fires in the whole Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA) have contributed to 14.81 Tg of C (11.75 Tg C to 17.87 Tg C) emissions to the atmosphere during the 2010 fire season, with an affected area of 27,555 km(2). Total C loss from the 2010 fires in MT state and old-growth forest fires in the BLA represent, respectively, 77% (47% to 107%) and 86% (68.2% to 103%) of Brazil's National Plan on Climate Change annual target for Amazonia C emission reductions from deforestation.

  4. Estudo dos fatores que influenciam a deposição de enxofre em dutos de gás natural

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, João Paulo Lobo dos

    2013-01-01

    O gás natural vem conquistando uma participação cada vez maior na matriz energética mundial. Com isso, as atenções têm se voltado para este combustível, não somente pelo seu potencial de proporcionar estabilidade ao setor elétrico, através da operação das usinas térmicas, mas também, pelos inúmeros benefícios ambientais que o mesmo apresenta quando comparado com outros combustíveis fósseis. Porém, diversos problemas podem ocorrer no transporte do gás natural, sendo a formação e deposição de e...

  5. Performance evaluation of cast iron pipe for crude oil and salt water transportation; Avaliacao e desempenho de duto de aco fundido no transporte de petroleo com aguas salgadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Alexandre Martins da [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mainier, Fernando B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The present paper aims to study and to evaluate the performance of casting iron pipe for transportation of salty and produced waters, presented in the oil industry, where salt contents ranging on very large values. The cast iron above mentioned has an yield strength of 23 kg/mm{sup 2}, tensile strength of de 46 kg/mm{sup 2} (minimum) and an elongation of 15%, and contents of some chemical alloys, such as Cr (0,8 -1,3 %), Mn (1,5 % max) and Si (1,%). Nevertheless it is an exploratory study, the dynamic tests of weight loss carried out in laboratory, with specimens machined from a used pipe piece, with salty solution (3,5 % NaCl) aerated media, has shown very promising results, enabling to qualify, satisfactorily, such material for using in transportation and transferring operations of fluids with a high salty contents, such as crude oil. (author)

  6. Performance evaluation of cast iron pipe for crude oil and salt water transportation; Avaliacao e desempenho de duto de aco fundido no transporte de petroleo com aguas salgadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Alexandre Martins da [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mainier, Fernando B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The present paper aims to study and to evaluate the performance of casting iron pipe for transportation of salty and produced waters, presented in the oil industry, where salt contents ranging on very large values. The cast iron above mentioned has an yield strength of 23 kg/mm{sup 2}, tensile strength of de 46 kg/mm{sup 2} (minimum) and an elongation of 15%, and contents of some chemical alloys, such as Cr (0,8 -1,3 %), Mn (1,5 % max) and Si (1,%). Nevertheless it is an exploratory study, the dynamic tests of weight loss carried out in laboratory, with specimens machined from a used pipe piece, with salty solution (3,5 % NaCl) aerated media, has shown very promising results, enabling to qualify, satisfactorily, such material for using in transportation and transferring operations of fluids with a high salty contents, such as crude oil. (author)

  7. Automatic process control for pipeline: an ally in the quest for excellence in quality; Controle automatizado do processo de revestimento de dutos: um aliado na busca da excelencia em qualidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Christian E.; Santos, Paulo T.; Nunes, Matheus; Sartori, Marcio [Soco Ril do Brasil S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil); Populin, German [Soco-Ril da Argentina S.A. (Argentina); Ferreira, Joaquim C. [Tenaris Confab, Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Process is any specific combination of machines, methods, tools and people which aim to obtain products or services with high quality. Any changing in one of these elements may result in another process. The concern in assuring its control totally owe to the necessity of having quickly answers related to the standards deviation. Herewith, it is possible to get as much uniformity as possible from that quality characteristic. Through a thickness automatic controlled system it may be possible to evaluate in real time the process itself, identifying tendencies of sequential or temporal performance. Therefore it is possible to act instantaneously adjusting the process, complying with client's specification. The present paper describes the applicability of a automatic controlled system and shows the advantages of its using. (author)

  8. An analysis of the thickness influence in performance and structural integrity of gas pipelines; Um estudo sobre a influencia de rigidez de dutos no desempenho e na integridade de gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Waldir T.; Pinto, Rosa Irene T. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents an analysis on the influence of the changes on pipe rigidity on the safety of buried gas pipelines. The work consists of the adoption of a parameter defined by the ratio between the wall thickness and the diameter of the pipe to assess the pipeline structural performance under several loading conditions, such as internal pressure, external pressure, external loading, longitudinal analysis, and corrosion. Results for a 14 inches pipe with wall thicknesses of 5.6 mm, 7.1 mm, and 7.9 mm are presented for each one of the loading conditions. These results show that for most cases a small increase in the wall thickness leads to significant increase of the pipeline safety. This suggests that in many cases the adoption of wall thicker than them minimum thickness suggested by technical codes present a better cost/benefit relation. (author)

  9. Impacts of fuel oil substitution by natural gas in a pipeline network scheduling; Impactos da substituicao do oleo combustivel por gas natural na programacao de uma rede de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In recent decades, due to the advancement and computational methods for solving optimization problems, the number of articles addressing the scheduling of products has grown. The mathematical models developed have proved useful to schedule from a single pipeline with multiple products to complex networks of multiple pipelines. Moreover, the planning of these activities is of even greater importance when considering the existence of new environmental requirements to be applied to production and marketing of petroleum products. An example of this paradigm shift is the reduction in fuel oil consumption due to increased share of natural gas in the Brazilian energy matrix. In this context, this paper proposes a mathematical model to obtain feasible solutions for problems of scheduling a network of pipelines considering replacing all or part of the demand for fuel oil to natural gas. We tested the model on three real instances of a multi commodity network consists of 4 terminals, 4 refineries and 8 unidirectional pipelines, considering a planning horizon of one week. (author)

  10. REDVET y RECVET están disponibles desde la biblioteca de la Universidad de la Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veterinaria.org

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos artículos publicados en REDVET y en RECVET son inmediatamente accesibles desde la Biblioteca de la Universidad de la Amazonia, con sede en Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia, Suramérica, donde las dos revistas científicas editadas por Veterinaria Organización aparece en el área de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia junto a la Bases de datos bibliográficas de la Biblioteca Agropecuaria de Colombia (BAC del Centro Internacional de Agricultura tropical (CIAT y la Biblioteca de la FAO (Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación.

  11. Morphological characterization of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Nematoda, Dioctophymatoidea) parasite of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Melo, Caroline do Socorro Barros; Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva do; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-06-07

    Absctract Eustrongylides spp. nematodes have birds as final hosts and uses other vertebrates as intermediate/paratenic host (fish, amphibians and reptiles) and have zoonotic potential. In amphibians, the larvae may be located in the subcutaneous tissues, liver and mesentery, between the muscle fibres, especially in the lower limbs. Rhinella marina, which is widely observed in Brazil, has exhibited complex diversity in its helminth fauna, reflecting the unique habitat of the Amazon biome. For the first time, this study describes the morphological aspects of third-stage larvae of Eustrongylides sp. in Rhinella marina from Santa Cruz do Ararí, Marajó Archipelago, Eastern Amazonia, using light and scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Synergistic impacts of deforestation, climate change and fire on the future biomes distribution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, G.; Cardoso, M. F.; Nobre, C. A.; Salazar, L. F.

    2013-05-01

    Several studies indicate future increase of environmental risks for the ecosystems in the Amazon region as a result of climate and land-use change, and their synergistic interactions. Modeling studies (e.g. Oyama and Nobre 2004, Salazar et al. 2007, Malhi et al. 2008) project rapid and irreversible replacement of forests by savannas with large-scale losses of biodiversity and livelihoods for people in the region. This process is referred to as the Amazon Dieback, where accelerated plant mortality due to environmental changes lead to forest collapse and savannas expansion after "tipping points" in climate and land surface changes are achieved. In this study we performed new analyses to quantify how deforestation, climate change and fire may combine to affect the distribution of major biomes in Amazonia. Changes in land use consider deforestation scenarios of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 50% (Sampaio et al., 2007), with and without fires (Cardoso et al., 2008), under the two greenhouse gases scenarios B1 and A2 and three "representative concentration pathways" (RCPs): 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5, for years 2015-2034 and 2040-2059 ("2025" and "2050" time-slices), from IPCC AR4 and CMIP5. The results show that the area affected in scenarios A2 and RCP 8.5 is larger than in the climate scenario B1 and RCP 2.6, and in both cases the effect is progressively higher in time. Most important changes occur in the East and South of the Amazon, with replacement of tropical forest by seasonal forest and savanna. The effect of fire in this region is important in all scenarios. The Northwest Amazon presents the smallest changes in the area of tropical forest, indicating that even for substantial land-use modifications and global climate change, the resulting atmospheric conditions would still support tropical forest in the region. In summary, we conclude that the synergistic combination of deforestation, climate change resulting from global warming, and the potential for higher fire occurrence may lead

  13. a Bayesian Approach for Calibration of Trmm 3B42 Over North Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguet, L.; Marie-Joseph, I.; Becker, M.; Seyler, F.

    2013-12-01

    Northern Amazonian regions experience extremes conditions like floods and droughts. These regions are also characterized by the limited spatial coverage of ground based rain gauges, and unavailability of real-time rainfall data. Satellite-based rainfall estimates (SRE) may be one of the best and appropriate approaches in detecting rainfall distribution. However SRE data need specific calibration and validation for use in flood and drought monitoring activities. This study aimed to calibrate of TRMM 3B42 RT rainfall products over northern Amazonia with a Bayesian filtering approach [1] [2]. The study area is located north of the Amazon River and includes the three Guianas and northern states of Brazil. A set of daily satellite rainfall products with spatial resolution of 0.25°x0.25° (TRMM 3B42 RT) from the year 2000 to 2010 has been selected. Ground reference data are located in French Guiana (27 ground stations from French national meteorological agency) and in the northern Brazilian states (70 ground stations from Brazilian Agência Nacional de Aguas). A lot of bias-adjustment methods rely on computing the difference between satellite and gauge-based precipitation [3] [4]. In this study we defend the idea that an inverse approach based on sequential Monte Carlo filtering helps to calibrate of TRMM 3B42 RT rainfall products. The developed method combines a model of the rainfall process at rain gauge locations with a stochastic observation model based on the joint distribution between ground reference data of the state variable (rainfall data) and the observed satellite data. 50% of the total ground based rainfall measurements were used for the joint distribution and the remaining 50% were used for validation purposes. Validation of the method has been done by comparing the corrected satellite data against independent observed data from rain gauges using the standard verification techniques: mean bias error, root mean square error, and correlation coefficient

  14. Impacts of Amazonia biomass burning aerosols assessed from short-range weather forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kolusu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols (BBA on meteorology are investigated using short-range forecasts from the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM over South America during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA. The impacts are evaluated using a set of three simulations: (i no aerosols, (ii with monthly mean aerosol climatologies and (iii with prognostic aerosols modelled using the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies In Climate (CLASSIC scheme. Comparison with observations show that the prognostic CLASSIC scheme provides the best representation of BBA. The impacts of BBA are quantified over central and southern Amazonia from the first and second day of 2-day forecasts during 14 September–3 October 2012. On average, during the first day of the forecast, including prognostic BBA reduces the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m−2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiation by 8 ± 1 W m−2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m−2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude: 9.0 ± 1 W m−2 at the surface and 4.0 ± 1 W m−2 at TOA. In this modelling study the BBA therefore exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth–atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation. Due to the reduction of net radiative flux at the surface, the mean 2 m air temperature is reduced by around 0.1 ± 0.02 °C. The BBA also cools the boundary layer (BL but warms air above by around 0.2 °C due to the absorption of shortwave radiation. The overall impact is to reduce the BL depth by around 19 ± 8 m. These differences in heating lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa, with winds changing by around 0.6 m s−1. Inclusion of climatological or prognostic BBA in the MetUM makes a small but significant improvement in forecasts of temperature and relative humidity, but improvements were

  15. Chronology of Terra Firme formation in western Amazonia and implications for the diversification of Amazonian biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupim, Fabiano do N.; Sawakushi, André O.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Savian, Jairo F.; Kern, Andrea K.; Mineli, Thays D.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Almeida, Renato P.; Grohmann, Carlos H.; Ribas, Camila C.; d'Horta, Fernando M.; Bertassoli, Dailson J.; Marconato, André; Nogueira, Luciana; Lohmann, Lúcia G.

    2017-04-01

    The shift from a large wetland dominated by avulsive channels and flooded forests to the incised transcontinental Amazon River valley (Várzea) bounded by non-flooded forests (Terra Firme) is suggested as one of the main drivers of diversification of the mega diverse Amazonian Biota. Nonetheless, there is no consensus about the timing of this landscape shift, with the current literature suggesting a period that ranges from the Miocene (11 Ma) and the Late Pleistocene (100 ka). This uncertainty may be due to a lack of absolute ages for the sediments forming Terra Firme forest substrates in western Amazonian lowlands. In Brazil, the Içá Formation represents the uppermost fluvial deposits of Terra Firme forests substrates in western Amazonia. Therefore, a reliable chronology for the last depositional stage of the Içá Formation is key for an improved understanding of the formation of the current Terra Firme-Várzea system. Four sediment profiles were sampled along the margins of the Solimões and Içá rivers for Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating, geomagnetic excursions, and palynological analysis. OSL dating was performed in twelve samples using a Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) protocol in quartz sand grains. The equivalent doses ranged from 47 to 130 Gy (Central Age Model) and the dose rate values ranged from 0.4 to 2.0 Gy/ka. The resulting sediment burial ages range from 48 to 112 ka. Paleomagnetic data were obtained from samples collected at same profiles sampled for OSL dating and results suggest the presence of Post-Blake geomagnetic excursion ( 100 ka). The age of 100 ka for Post-Blake excursion are adopted for the Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale. Pollen assemblage data show a similarity to a more modern flora and the presence of Alnus clearly points towards Pleistocene deposition as it is unknown before in South America. The combined OSL, paleomagnetism and pollen data is a robust geochronological dataset that indicates Late Pleistocene

  16. Allocating logging rights in Peruvian Amazonia--does it matter to be local?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Salo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fate of tropical forests is a global concern, yet many far-reaching decisions affecting forest resources are made locally. We explore allocation of logging rights using a case study from Loreto, Peruvian Amazonia, where millions of hectares of tropical rainforest were offered for concession in a competitive tendering process that addressed issues related to locality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After briefly presenting the study area and the tendering process, we identify and define local and non-local actors taking part in the concession process. We then analyse their tenders, results of the tendering, and attributes of the concession areas. Our results show that there was more offer than demand for concession land in the tendering. The number of tenders the concession areas received was related to their size and geographic location in relation to the major cities, but not to their estimated timber volumes or median distances from transport routes. Small and Loreto-based actors offered lower yearly area-based fees compared to larger ones, but the offers did not significantly affect the results of the tenders. Local experience in the form of logging history or residence near the solicited concession areas, as well as being registered in the region of Loreto, improved the success of the tenders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The allocation process left a considerable number of forest areas under the management of small and local actors, and if Peru is to reach its goal of zero deforestation rate by safeguarding 75 per cent of its forests by 2020, the small and the local actors need to be integrated to the forest regime as important constituents of its legitimacy.

  17. CO2 and CO emission rates from three forest fire controlled experiments in Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Amaral, S. S.; Costa, M. A. M.; Soares Neto, T. G.; Veras, C. A. G.; Costa, F. S.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Krieger Filho, G. C.; Tourigny, E.; Forti, M. C.; Fostier, A. H.; Siqueira, M. B.; Santos, J. C.; Lima, B. A.; Cascão, P.; Ortega, G.; Frade, E. F., Jr.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important role in the control of atmospheric emissions through carbon capture. However, in forest fires, the carbon stored during photosynthesis is released into the atmosphere. The carbon quantification, in forest burning, is important for the development of measures for its control. The aim of this study was to quantify CO2 and CO emissions of forest fires in Western Amazonia. In this paper, results are described of forest fire experiments conducted in Cruzeiro do Sul and Rio Branco, state of Acre, and Candeias do Jamari, state of Rondônia, Brazil. These cities are located in the Western portion of the Brazilian Amazon region. The biomass content per hectare, in the virgin forest, was measured by indirect methods using formulas with parameters of forest inventories in the central hectare of the test site. The combustion completeness was estimated by randomly selecting 10% of the total logs and twelve 2 × 2 m2 areas along three transects and examining their consumption rates by the fire. The logs were used to determine the combustion completeness of the larger materials (characteristic diameters larger than 10 cm) and the 2 × 2 m2 areas to determine the combustion completeness of small-size materials (those with characteristic diameters lower than 10 cm) and the. The overall biomass consumption by fire was estimated to be 40.0%, 41.2% and 26.2%, in Cruzeiro do Sul, Rio Branco and Candeias do Jamari, respectively. Considering that the combustion gases of carbon in open fires contain approximately 90.0% of CO2 and 10.0% of CO in volumetric basis, the average emission rates of these gases by the burning process, in the three sites, were estimated as 191 ± 46.7 t ha-1 and 13.5 ± 3.3 t ha-1, respectively.

  18. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O.; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for ‘extensive cattle ranching’, ‘agro-silvopastoral use’ and ‘intensive cattle ranching and agriculture’. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire

  19. Fish Consumption during Pregnancy, Mercury Transfer, and Birth Weight along the Madeira River Basin in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S. Leão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Birth weight can be a predictor of maternal health issues related to nutrition and environmental contaminants. Total hair mercury (HHg concentration was studied as an indicator of both fish consumption and methylmercury exposure in mothers (and newborns living in selected low income areas of the Madeira River basin, Amazonia, Brazil. This cohort study (n = 1,433 consisted of traditional riverines (n = 396, riverines who had moved to urban (n = 676 and rural (n = 67 settings, and tin miner settlers (n = 294. Median maternal HHg was significantly different (p = 0.00001 between riverine (12.1 µg·g−1, rural (7.82 µg·g−1, urban (5.4 µg·g−1, and tin miner (4.5 µg·g−1 groups studied. The same trend (of medians was observed for newborns’ HHg which also showed significant differences between riverine (3.0 µg·g−1, rural (2.0 µg·g−1, urban (1.5 µg·g−1, and tin miner (0.8 µg·g−1 groups. The correlation between maternal and newborn HHg was statistically significant in the riverine (r = 0.8952; p = 0.0001, urban (r = 0.6744; p = 0.0001, and rural (r = 0.8416; p = 0.0001 groups but not in the mother-infant pairs in the tin miner group (r = 0.0638; p = 0.2752. Birth weight was significantly different among groups but did not show a pattern consistent with that of fish consumption (and HHg. A multiple regression analysis showed that only family income and gestational age had a significant impact on birth weight. Conclusions: Maternal HHg is an important biomarker of maternal fish consumption and of methylmercury exposure during pregnancy. However, in these Amazonian groups, only maternal education and gestational age seemed to affect birth weight positively.

  20. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

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    A. J. Dolman

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  1. The costs of evaluating species densities and composition of snakes to assess development impacts in amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Fraga

    Full Text Available Studies leading to decision-making for environmental licensing often fail to provide accurate estimates of diversity. Measures of snake diversity are regularly obtained to assess development impacts in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, but this taxonomic group may be subject to poor detection probabilities. Recently, the Brazilian government tried to standardize sampling designs by the implementation of a system (RAPELD to quantify biological diversity using spatially-standardized sampling units. Consistency in sampling design allows the detection probabilities to be compared among taxa, and sampling effort and associated cost to be evaluated. The cost effectiveness of detecting snakes has received no attention in Amazonia. Here we tested the effects of reducing sampling effort on estimates of species densities and assemblage composition. We identified snakes in seven plot systems, each standardised with 14 plots. The 250 m long centre line of each plot followed an altitudinal contour. Surveys were repeated four times in each plot and detection probabilities were estimated for the 41 species encountered. Reducing the number of observations, or the size of the sampling modules, caused significant loss of information on species densities and local patterns of variation in assemblage composition. We estimated the cost to find a snake as $ 120 U.S., but general linear models indicated the possibility of identifying differences in assemblage composition for half the overall survey costs. Decisions to reduce sampling effort depend on the importance of lost information to target-issues, and may not be the preferred option if there is the potential for identifying individual snake species requiring specific conservation actions. However, in most studies of human disturbance on species assemblages, it is likely to be more cost-effective to focus on other groups of organisms with higher detection probabilities.

  2. Ecological speciation in the tropics: insights from comparative genetic studies in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheregaray, Luciano B; Cooke, Georgina M; Chao, Ning L; Landguth, Erin L

    2014-01-01

    Evolution creates and sustains biodiversity via adaptive changes in ecologically relevant traits. Ecologically mediated selection contributes to genetic divergence both in the presence or absence of geographic isolation between populations, and is considered an important driver of speciation. Indeed, the genetics of ecological speciation is becoming increasingly studied across a variety of taxa and environments. In this paper we review the literature of ecological speciation in the tropics. We report on low research productivity in tropical ecosystems and discuss reasons accounting for the rarity of studies. We argue for research programs that simultaneously address biogeographical and taxonomic questions in the tropics, while effectively assessing relationships between reproductive isolation and ecological divergence. To contribute toward this goal, we propose a new framework for ecological speciation that integrates information from phylogenetics, phylogeography, population genomics, and simulations in evolutionary landscape genetics (ELG). We introduce components of the framework, describe ELG simulations (a largely unexplored approach in ecological speciation), and discuss design and experimental feasibility within the context of tropical research. We then use published genetic datasets from populations of five codistributed Amazonian fish species to assess the performance of the framework in studies of tropical speciation. We suggest that these approaches can assist in distinguishing the relative contribution of natural selection from biogeographic history in the origin of biodiversity, even in complex ecosystems such as Amazonia. We also discuss on how to assess ecological speciation using ELG simulations that include selection. These integrative frameworks have considerable potential to enhance conservation management in biodiversity rich ecosystems and to complement historical biogeographic and evolutionary studies of tropical biotas.

  3. Modern pollen-rain characteristics of tall terra firme moist evergreen forest, southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, William D.; Mayle, Francis E.; Tate, Nicholas J.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2005-11-01

    The paucity of modern pollen-rain data from Amazonia constitutes a significant barrier to understanding the Late Quaternary vegetation history of this globally important tropical forest region. Here, we present the first modern pollen-rain data for tall terra firme moist evergreen Amazon forest, collected between 1999 and 2001 from artificial pollen traps within a 500 × 20 m permanent study plot (14°34'50″S, 60°49'48″W) in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NE Bolivia). Spearman's rank correlations were performed to assess the extent of spatial and inter-annual variability in the pollen rain, whilst statistically distinctive taxa were identified using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Comparisons with the floristic and basal area data of the plot (stems ≥10 cm d.b.h.) enabled the degree to which taxa are over/under-represented in the pollen rain to be assessed (using R-rel values). Moraceae/Urticaceae dominates the pollen rain (64% median abundance) and is also an important constituent of the vegetation, accounting for 16% of stems ≥10 cm d.b.h. and ca. 11% of the total basal area. Other important pollen taxa are Arecaceae (cf. Euterpe), Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Cecropia, Didymopanax, Celtis, and Alchornea. However, 75% of stems and 67% of the total basal area of the plot ≥10 cm d.b.h. belong to species which are unidentified in the pollen rain, the most important of which are Phenakospermum guianensis (a banana-like herb) and the key canopy-emergent trees, Erisma uncinatum and Qualea paraensis.

  4. The Costs of Evaluating Species Densities and Composition of Snakes to Assess Development Impacts in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fraga, Rafael; Stow, Adam J.; Magnusson, William E.; Lima, Albertina P.

    2014-01-01

    Studies leading to decision-making for environmental licensing often fail to provide accurate estimates of diversity. Measures of snake diversity are regularly obtained to assess development impacts in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, but this taxonomic group may be subject to poor detection probabilities. Recently, the Brazilian government tried to standardize sampling designs by the implementation of a system (RAPELD) to quantify biological diversity using spatially-standardized sampling units. Consistency in sampling design allows the detection probabilities to be compared among taxa, and sampling effort and associated cost to be evaluated. The cost effectiveness of detecting snakes has received no attention in Amazonia. Here we tested the effects of reducing sampling effort on estimates of species densities and assemblage composition. We identified snakes in seven plot systems, each standardised with 14 plots. The 250 m long centre line of each plot followed an altitudinal contour. Surveys were repeated four times in each plot and detection probabilities were estimated for the 41 species encountered. Reducing the number of observations, or the size of the sampling modules, caused significant loss of information on species densities and local patterns of variation in assemblage composition. We estimated the cost to find a snake as $ 120 U.S., but general linear models indicated the possibility of identifying differences in assemblage composition for half the overall survey costs. Decisions to reduce sampling effort depend on the importance of lost information to target-issues, and may not be the preferred option if there is the potential for identifying individual snake species requiring specific conservation actions. However, in most studies of human disturbance on species assemblages, it is likely to be more cost-effective to focus on other groups of organisms with higher detection probabilities. PMID:25147930

  5. Molecular composition of organic aerosols in central Amazonia: an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.; Connors, Sarah; Levine, James G.; Archibald, Alex T.; Godoi, Ana F. L.; Paralovo, Sarah L.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Seco, Roger; Sjostedt, Steve; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Guenther, Alex; Kim, Saewung; Smith, James; Martin, Scot T.; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-09-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key role in atmospheric chemistry, biodiversity and climate change. In this study we applied nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) for the analysis of the organic fraction of PM2.5 aerosol samples collected during dry and wet seasons at a site in central Amazonia receiving background air masses, biomass burning and urban pollution. Comprehensive mass spectral data evaluation methods (e.g. Kendrick mass defect, Van Krevelen diagrams, carbon oxidation state and aromaticity equivalent) were used to identify compound classes and mass distributions of the detected species. Nitrogen- and/or sulfur-containing organic species contributed up to 60 % of the total identified number of formulae. A large number of molecular formulae in organic aerosol (OA) were attributed to later-generation nitrogen- and sulfur-containing oxidation products, suggesting that OA composition is affected by biomass burning and other, potentially anthropogenic, sources. Isoprene-derived organosulfate (IEPOX-OS) was found to be the most dominant ion in most of the analysed samples and strongly followed the concentration trends of the gas-phase anthropogenic tracers confirming its mixed anthropogenic-biogenic origin. The presence of oxidised aromatic and nitro-aromatic compounds in the samples suggested a strong influence from biomass burning especially during the dry period. Aerosol samples from the dry period and under enhanced biomass burning conditions contained a large number of molecules with high carbon oxidation state and an increased number of aromatic compounds compared to that from the wet period. The results of this work demonstrate that the studied site is influenced not only by biogenic emissions from the forest but also by biomass burning and potentially other anthropogenic emissions from the neighbouring urban environments.

  6. A 6900-year history of landscape modification by humans in lowland Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M. B.; Correa-Metrio, A.; McMichael, C. H.; Sully, S.; Shadik, C. R.; Valencia, B. G.; Guilderson, T.; Steinitz-Kannan, M.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2016-06-01

    A sedimentary record from the Peruvian Amazon provided evidence of climate and vegetation change for the last 6900 years. Piston cores collected from the center of Lake Sauce, a 20 m deep lake at 600 m elevation, were 19.7 m in length. The fossil pollen record showed a continuously forested catchment within the period of the record, although substantial changes in forest composition were apparent. Fossil charcoal, found throughout the record, was probably associated with humans setting fires. Two fires, at c. 6700 cal BP and 4270 cal BP, appear to have been stand-replacing events possibly associated with megadroughts. The fire event at 4270 cal BP followed a drought that caused lowered lake levels for several centuries. The successional trajectories of forest recovery following these large fires were prolonged by smaller fire events. Fossil pollen of Zea mays (cultivated maize) provided evidence of agricultural activity at the site since c. 6320 cal BP. About 5150 years ago, the lake deepened and started to deposit laminated sediments. Maize agriculture reached a peak of intensity between c. 3380 and 700 cal BP. Fossil diatom data provided a proxy for lake nutrient status and productivity, both of which peaked during the period of maize cultivation. A marked change in land use was evident after c. 700 cal BP when maize agriculture was apparently abandoned at this site. Iriartea, a hyperdominant of riparian settings in western Amazonia, increased in abundance within the last 1100 years, but declined markedly at c. 1070 cal BP and again between c. 80 and -10 cal BP.

  7. The Temporal Scale of Holocene Climatic Variability: From the Galapagos to Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M. B.; Restrepo, A.; Correa, A.; Ford, R.; Valencia, B.; Gosling, W.; Silman, M.; Conroy, J.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution lake cores from the Andes and Amazonian lowlands of W. South America and the Galapagos Islands provide new insights into the Holocene climate history of this region and its interactions with Pacific climate drivers. Our data reveal that a major drought event reported broadly from the Andes and Amazonia in the early to mid-Holocene is actually a complex series of droughts with wet interludes. These results suggest strong climatic instability prior to c. 5600 cal. yr BP. Establishment of wetter conditions at our Andean study site at c. 5600 cal. yr BP correspond to the start of Quinoa cultivation. A similar pattern of higher lake levels coinciding with the local spread of agriculture is also evident in the lowlands. Within an overall pattern of progressively wetter conditions over the last 4000 years there are periods of pronounced climatic instability (drought and flood). Fossil pollen, charcoal, sediment color, and carbon content identify periods of peak erosion between c. 900 and 1100 cal. yr BP. On the Galapagos Islands, a subdecadally resolved analysis of fossil pollen provides a striking pattern of climatic change and human-induced alteration of the landscape. Prior to the period of transforming human activity, the fossil pollen record contains a multidecadal oscillation, with wavlet analysis evealing a quasi- periodicty of c. 60 years. Andean pollen are readily identifible in the Galapagos record and transport of mainland pollen to the islands has varied markedly within the past millennium. These multiproxy records reveal the dynamic nature of Holocene climates in the tropics and the impact those changes have had on people and landscapes.

  8. The Challenges from Extreme Climate Events for Sustainable Development in Amazonia: the Acre State Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M. D. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past ten years Acre State, located in Brazil´s southwestern Amazonia, has confronted sequential and severe extreme events in the form of droughts and floods. In particular, the droughts and forest fires of 2005 and 2010, the 2012 flood within Acre, the 2014 flood of the Madeira River which isolated Acre for two months from southern Brazil, and the most severe flooding throughout the state in 2015 shook the resilience of Acrean society. The accumulated costs of these events since 2005 have exceeded 300 million dollars. For the last 17 years, successive state administrations have been implementing a socio-environmental model of development that strives to link sustainable economic production with environmental conservation, particularly for small communities. In this context, extreme climate events have interfered significantly with this model, increasing the risks of failure. The impacts caused by these events on development in the state have been exacerbated by: a) limitations in monitoring; b) extreme events outside of Acre territory (Madeira River Flood) affecting transportation systems; c) absence of reliable information for decision-making; and d) bureaucratic and judicial impediments. Our experience in these events have led to the following needs for scientific input to reduce the risk of disasters: 1) better monitoring and forecasting of deforestation, fires, and hydro-meteorological variables; 2) ways to increase risk perception in communities; 3) approaches to involve more effectively local and regional populations in the response to disasters; 4) more accurate measurements of the economic and social damages caused by these disasters. We must improve adaptation to and mitigation of current and future extreme climate events and implement a robust civil defense, adequate to these new challenges.

  9. Regional N2O fluxes in Amazonia derived from aircraft vertical profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tans

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Globally, the main sources of N2O are nitrification and denitrification in soils. About two thirds of the soil emissions occur in the tropics and approximately 20% originate in wet rainforest ecosystems, like the Amazon forest. The work presented here involves aircraft vertical profiles of N2O from the surface to 4 km over two sites in the Eastern and Central Amazon: Tapajós National Forest (SAN and Cuieiras Biologic Reserve (MAN, and the estimation of N2O fluxes for regions upwind of these sites. To our knowledge, these regional scale N2O measurements in Amazonia are unique and represent a new approach to looking regional scale emissions. The fluxes upwind of MAN exhibited little seasonality, and the annual mean was 2.1±1.0 mg N2O m−2 day−1, higher than that for fluxes upwind of SAN, which averaged 1.5±1.6 mg N2O m−2 day−1. The higher rainfall around the MAN site could explain the higher N2O emissions. For fluxes from the coast to SAN seasonality is present for all years, with high fluxes in the months of March through May, and in November through December. The first peak of N2O flux is strongly associated with the wet season. The second peak of high N2O flux recorded at SAN occurs during the dry season and can not be easily explained. However, about half of the dry season profiles exhibit significant correlations with CO, indicating a larger than expected source of N2O from biomass burning. The average CO:N2O ratio for all profiles sampled during the dry season is 94±77 mol CO:mol N2O and suggests a larger biomass burning contribution to the global N2O budget than previously reported.

  10. DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN DIFFERENT SOIL FRACTIONS IN ECOSYSTEMS OF CENTRAL AMAZONIA

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    Jean Dalmo de Oliveira Marques

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter plays an important role in many soil properties, and for that reason it is necessary to identify management systems which maintain or increase its concentrations. The aim of the present study was to determine the quality and quantity of organic C in different compartments of the soil fraction in different Amazonian ecosystems. The soil organic matter (FSOM was fractionated and soil C stocks were estimated in primary forest (PF, pasture (P, secondary succession (SS and an agroforestry system (AFS. Samples were collected at the depths 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100, 100-160, and 160-200 cm. Densimetric and particle size analysis methods were used for FSOM, obtaining the following fractions: FLF (free light fraction, IALF (intra-aggregate light fraction, F-sand (sand fraction, F-clay (clay fraction and F-silt (silt fraction. The 0-5 cm layer contains 60 % of soil C, which is associated with the FLF. The F-clay was responsible for 70 % of C retained in the 0-200 cm depth. There was a 12.7 g kg-1 C gain in the FLF from PF to SS, and a 4.4 g kg-1 C gain from PF to AFS, showing that SS and AFS areas recover soil organic C, constituting feasible C-recovery alternatives for degraded and intensively farmed soils in Amazonia. The greatest total stocks of carbon in soil fractions were, in decreasing order: (101.3 Mg ha-1 of C - AFS > (98.4 Mg ha-1 of C - FP > (92.9 Mg ha-1 of C - SS > (64.0 Mg ha-1 of C - P. The forms of land use in the Amazon influence C distribution in soil fractions, resulting in short- or long-term changes.

  11. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire and land

  12. The costs of evaluating species densities and composition of snakes to assess development impacts in amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Rafael de; Stow, Adam J; Magnusson, William E; Lima, Albertina P

    2014-01-01

    Studies leading to decision-making for environmental licensing often fail to provide accurate estimates of diversity. Measures of snake diversity are regularly obtained to assess development impacts in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, but this taxonomic group may be subject to poor detection probabilities. Recently, the Brazilian government tried to standardize sampling designs by the implementation of a system (RAPELD) to quantify biological diversity using spatially-standardized sampling units. Consistency in sampling design allows the detection probabilities to be compared among taxa, and sampling effort and associated cost to be evaluated. The cost effectiveness of detecting snakes has received no attention in Amazonia. Here we tested the effects of reducing sampling effort on estimates of species densities and assemblage composition. We identified snakes in seven plot systems, each standardised with 14 plots. The 250 m long centre line of each plot followed an altitudinal contour. Surveys were repeated four times in each plot and detection probabilities were estimated for the 41 species encountered. Reducing the number of observations, or the size of the sampling modules, caused significant loss of information on species densities and local patterns of variation in assemblage composition. We estimated the cost to find a snake as $ 120 U.S., but general linear models indicated the possibility of identifying differences in assemblage composition for half the overall survey costs. Decisions to reduce sampling effort depend on the importance of lost information to target-issues, and may not be the preferred option if there is the potential for identifying individual snake species requiring specific conservation actions. However, in most studies of human disturbance on species assemblages, it is likely to be more cost-effective to focus on other groups of organisms with higher detection probabilities.

  13. Amazonia and the Anthropocene: What was the spatial extent and intensity of human landscape modification in the Amazon Basin at the end of prehistory?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Piperno; C. McMichael; M.B. Bush

    2015-01-01

    The nature and spatial scale of prehistoric human landscape modifications in Amazonia are enduring questions. Original conceptions of the issues by archaeologists published more than 40 years ago posited little human influence because of putative environmental constraints. Empirical data accumulated

  14. Learning to Question: The Roles of Multiple Hypotheses, Successive Approximations, Balloons and Toilet Paper in University Science Programs of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Learning to question is essential for determining pathways of conservation and development in southwestern Amazonia during a time of rapid global environmental change. Teaching such an approach in graduate science programs in regional universities can be done using play-acting and simulation exercises. Multiple working hypotheses help students…

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazilian Amazonia: Lineages TCI and TCIIa in wild primates, Rhodnius spp. and in humans with Chagas disease associated with oral transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcili, Arlei; Valente, Vera C; Valente, Sebastião A; Junqueira, Angela C V; da Silva, Flávia Maia; Pinto, Ana Yecê das Neves; Naiff, Roberto D; Campaner, Marta; Coura, José R; Camargo, Erney P; Miles, Michael A; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we provide phylogenetic and biogeographic evidence that the Trypanosoma cruzi lineages T. cruzi I (TCI) and T. cruzi IIa (TCIIa) circulate amongst non-human primates in Brazilian Amazonia, and are transmitted by Rhodnius species in overlapping arboreal transmission cycles, sporadically infecting humans. TCI presented higher prevalence rates, and no lineages other than TCI and TCIIa were found in this study in wild monkeys and Rhodnius from the Amazonian region. We characterised TCI and TCIIa from wild primates (16 TCI and five TCIIa), Rhodnius spp. (13 TCI and nine TCIIa), and humans with Chagas disease associated with oral transmission (14 TCI and five TCIIa) in Brazilian Amazonia. To our knowledge, TCIIa had not been associated with wild monkeys until now. Polymorphisms of ssrDNA, cytochrome b gene sequences and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns clearly separated TCIIa from TCIIb-e and TCI lineages, and disclosed small intra-lineage polymorphisms amongst isolates from Amazonia. These data are important in understanding the complexity of the transmission cycles, genetic structure, and evolutionary history of T. cruzi populations circulating in Amazonia, and they contribute to both the unravelling of human infection routes and the pathological peculiarities of Chagas disease in this region.

  16. Tiempos afroindígenas en la Amazonia brasileña. Primera mitad del siglo XIX

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    Ruiz-Peinado Alonso, José Luis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of the nineteenth century, the Brazilian Amazonia was marked by extraordinary political-military instability: its belated support of Brazil’s independence (1823, the discussion on slavery and the explosion of the Cabanagem. During this period the leading figures were not only the Portuguese-Brazilian political elites, but also the different groups of fugitive slaves and natives who operated along the vast and complicated border areas, alert to revolutionary ideas coming from abroad, and who played an essential role in the construction of the specificity of northern Brazil.

    La Amazonia brasileña durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX estuvo marcada por una extraordinaria inestabilidad político-militar. Su adhesión tardía a la independencia de Brasil (1823, el debate sobre la esclavitud y la explosión de la Cabanagem fueron procesos que tuvieron como protagonistas no sólo a las elites políticas lusobrasileñas, sino también a diferentes grupos cimarrones e indígenas que actuaban desde amplios e intrincados espacios de frontera, atentos a las ideas revolucionarias que provenían del exterior y que jugaron un papel fundamental en la construcción de la especificidad del norte de Brasil.

  17. Soil-vegetation relationships on a banded ironstone 'island', Carajás Plateau, Brazilian Eastern Amazonia

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    Jaquelina A. Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation and soil properties of an iron-rich canga (laterite island on the largest outcrop of banded-iron formation in Serra de Carajás (eastern Amazonia, Brazil were studied along a topographic gradient (738-762 m asl, and analyzed to test the hypothesis that soil chemical and physical attributes play a key role in the structure and floristic composition of these plant communities. Soil and vegetation were sampled in eight replicate plots within each of the four vegetation types. Surface (0-10 cm soil samples from each plot were analyzed for basic cations, N, P and plant species density for all species was recorded. CCA ordination analysis showed a strong separation between forest and non-forest sites on the first axis, and between herbaceous and shrubby campo rupestre on the second axis. The four vegetation types shared few plant species, which was attributed to their distinctive soil environments and filtering of their constituent species by chemical, physical and hydrological constraints. Thus, we can infer that Edaphic (pedological factors are crucial in explaining the types and distributions of campo rupestre vegetation associated with ferruginous ironstone uplands (Canga in Carajás, eastern Amazonia, therefore the soil properties are the main drivers of vegetation composition and structure on these ironstone islands.

  18. On the Miocene Cyprideis species flock (Ostracoda; Crustacea) of Western Amazonia (Solimões Formation): Refining taxonomy on species level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F; Piller, Werner E

    2014-12-18

    The Miocene mega-wetland of western Amazonia holds a diverse, largely endemic ostracod fauna. Among them, especially the genus Cyprideis experienced a remarkable radiation. Micropalaeontologic investigations of a 400 m long sediment core (~62 km SW Benjamin Constant, Amazonia, Brazil) permitted a taxonomic revision of about two-thirds of hitherto described Cyprideis species. We evaluate the diagnostic value of shell characters and provide an extensive illustration of the intraspecific variability of species. Based on comparative morphology, the 20 recorded Cyprideis species are arranged in groups and subgroups. The "smooth" group comprises C. amazonica, C. kotzianae, C. kroemmelbeini, C. machadoi, C. multiradiata, C. olivencai, C. paralela and C. simplex; the "ornate" group C. curucae nom. nov., C. cyrtoma, C. aff. graciosa, C. inversa, C. ituiae n. sp., C. matorae n. sp., C. minipunctata, C. munoztorresi nom. nov., C. pebasae, C. reticulopunctata, C. schedogymnos and C. sulcosigmoidalis. Five species have been revalidated, two renamed, two synonymised and two are new descriptions. Along with 10 further formally established species, for which a review is pending, Cyprideis keeps at least 30 endemic species in that region during Miocene times. Up to 12 Cyprideis species have been found to occur sympatrically, representing >90% of the entire ostracod fauna. Ostracod index species enable a biostratigraphic allocation of the well succession to the Cyprideis minipunctata to Cyprideis cyrtoma biozones, corresponding to a late Middle to early Late Miocene age (late Serravallian-early Tortonian).

  19. Soil-vegetation relationships on a banded ironstone 'island', Carajás Plateau, Brazilian Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jaquelina A; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Ferreira Júnior, Walnir G; Neri, Andreza V; Correa, Guilherme R; Enright, Neal J

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation and soil properties of an iron-rich canga (laterite) island on the largest outcrop of banded-iron formation in Serra de Carajás (eastern Amazonia, Brazil) were studied along a topographic gradient (738-762 m asl), and analyzed to test the hypothesis that soil chemical and physical attributes play a key role in the structure and floristic composition of these plant communities. Soil and vegetation were sampled in eight replicate plots within each of the four vegetation types. Surface (0-10 cm) soil samples from each plot were analyzed for basic cations, N, P and plant species density for all species was recorded. CCA ordination analysis showed a strong separation between forest and non-forest sites on the first axis, and between herbaceous and shrubby campo rupestre on the second axis. The four vegetation types shared few plant species, which was attributed to their distinctive soil environments and filtering of their constituent species by chemical, physical and hydrological constraints. Thus, we can infer that Edaphic (pedological) factors are crucial in explaining the types and distributions of campo rupestre vegetation associated with ferruginous ironstone uplands (Canga) in Carajás, eastern Amazonia, therefore the soil properties are the main drivers of vegetation composition and structure on these ironstone islands.

  20. Agricultura en Amazonia: Crecimiento con Abundancia de Recursos Naturales en una Región Periférica Agricultura en Amazonia: Crecimiento con Abundancia de Recursos Naturales en una Región Periférica

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    Steve C. Kyle

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how lack of competitiveness for commercial agriculture in Amazonia makes difficult the attraction or retention of mobile factors (capital and labor generating a state of continuous scarcity for these factors. It is also shown that policies attempting to regain equilibrium in factor proportions like capital subsidies or colonization programs are ineffective. Finally, it is shown that attempts to maximize the return on scarce factors lead to overutilization of natural resource and environmental degradation. Although global price incentives policies can help, technical progress is the important variable for the long run sustainability of agriculture in Amazonia. Agricultura en Amazonia: Crecimiento con Abundancia de Recursos Naturales en una Región Periférica

  1. Spatial and temporal contrasts in the distribution of crops and pastures across Amazonia: A new agricultural land use data set from census data since 1950.

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    Imbach, P; Manrow, M; Barona, E; Barretto, A; Hyman, G; Ciais, P

    2015-06-01

    Amazonia holds the largest continuous area of tropical forests with intense land use change dynamics inducing water, carbon, and energy feedbacks with regional and global impacts. Much of our knowledge of land use change in Amazonia comes from studies of the Brazilian Amazon, which accounts for two thirds of the region. Amazonia outside of Brazil has received less attention because of the difficulty of acquiring consistent data across countries. We present here an agricultural statistics database of the entire Amazonia region, with a harmonized description of crops and pastures in geospatial format, based on administrative boundary data at the municipality level. The spatial coverage includes countries within Amazonia and spans censuses and surveys from 1950 to 2012. Harmonized crop and pasture types are explored by grouping annual and perennial cropping systems, C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways, planted and natural pastures, and main crops. Our analysis examined the spatial pattern of ratios between classes of the groups and their correlation with the agricultural extent of crops and pastures within administrative units of the Amazon, by country, and census/survey dates. Significant correlations were found between all ratios and the fraction of agricultural lands of each administrative unit, with the exception of planted to natural pastures ratio and pasture lands extent. Brazil and Peru in most cases have significant correlations for all ratios analyzed even for specific census and survey dates. Results suggested improvements, and potential applications of the database for carbon, water, climate, and land use change studies are discussed. The database presented here provides an Amazon-wide improved data set on agricultural dynamics with expanded temporal and spatial coverage.

  2. Long term measurements of aerosol optical properties at a primary forest site in Amazonia

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    L. V. Rizzo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A long term experiment was conducted in a primary forest area in Amazonia, with continuous in-situ measurements of aerosol optical properties between February 2008 and April 2011, comprising, to our knowledge, the longest database ever in the Amazon Basin. Two major classes of aerosol particles, with significantly different optical properties were identified: coarse mode predominant biogenic aerosols in the wet season (January–June, naturally released by the forest metabolism, and fine mode dominated biomass burning aerosols in the dry season (July–December, transported from regional fires. Dry particle median scattering coefficients at the wavelength of 550 nm increased from 6.3 Mm−1 to 22 Mm−1, whereas absorption at 637 nm increased from 0.5 Mm−1 to 2.8 Mm−1 from wet to dry season. Most of the scattering in the dry season was attributed to the predominance of fine mode (PM2 particles (40–80% of PM10 mass, while the enhanced absorption coefficients are attributed to the presence of light absorbing aerosols from biomass burning. As both scattering and absorption increased in the dry season, the single scattering albedo (SSA did not show a significant seasonal variability, in average 0.86 ± 0.08 at 637 nm for dry aerosols. Measured particle optical properties were used to estimate the aerosol forcing efficiency at the top of the atmosphere. Results indicate that in this primary forest site the radiative balance was dominated by the cloud cover, particularly in the wet season. Due to the high cloud fractions, the aerosol forcing efficiency absolute values were below −3.5 W m−2 in 70% of the wet season days and in 46% of the dry season days. Besides the seasonal variation, the influence of out-of-Basin aerosol sources was observed occasionally. Periods of influence of the Manaus urban plume were detected, characterized by a consistent increase on particle scattering (factor 2.5 and absorption coefficients (factor 5. Episodes of

  3. Airborne measurements of trace gas and aerosol particle emissions from biomass burning in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, P.; Frank, G. P.; Welling, M.; Chand, D.; Artaxo, P.; Rizzo, L.; Nishioka, G.; Kolle, O.; Fritsch, H.; Silva Dias, M. A. F.; Gatti, L. V.; Cordova, A. M.; Andreae, M. O.

    2005-11-01

    As part of the LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate) 2002 campaign, we studied the emission of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and aerosol particles from Amazonian deforestation fires using an instrumented aircraft. Emission ratios for aerosol number (CN) relative to CO (ERCN/CO) fell in the range 14-32 cm-3 ppb-1 in most of the investigated smoke plumes. Particle number emission ratios have to our knowledge not been previously measured in tropical deforestation fires, but our results are in agreement with values usually found from tropical savanna fires. The number of particles emitted per amount biomass burned was found to be dependent on the fire conditions (combustion efficiency). Variability in ERCN/CO between fires was similar to the variability caused by variations in combustion behavior within each individual fire. This was confirmed by observations of CO-to-CO2 emission ratios (ERCO/CO2), which stretched across the same wide range of values for individual fires as for all the fires observed during the sampling campaign, reflecting the fact that flaming and smoldering phases are present simultaneously in deforestation fires. Emission factors (EF) for CO and aerosol particles were computed and a correction was applied for the residual smoldering combustion (RSC) fraction of emissions that are not sampled by the aircraft, which increased the EF by a factor of 1.5-2.1. Vertical transport of smoke from the boundary layer (BL) to the cloud detrainment layer (CDL) and the free troposphere (FT) was found to be a very common phenomenon. We observed a 20% loss in particle number as a result of this vertical transport and subsequent cloud processing, attributable to in-cloud coagulation. This small loss fraction suggests that this mode of transport is very efficient in terms of particle numbers and occurs mostly via non-precipitating clouds. The detrained aerosol particles

  4. Hair mercury (signature of fish consumption) and cardiovascular risk in Munduruku and Kayabi Indians of Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; de Souza, Jurandir R; Rodrigues, Patricia; Ferrari, Iris; Barbosa, Antonio C

    2005-02-01

    Fish is an important natural resource in the diet of inhabitants of the Amazon rain forest and a marker of its consumption (hair Hg) was used to compare selected cardiovascular risk parameters between tribes of Eastern Amazonia. Three Munduruku (Terra Preta, Kaburua, Cururu) villages and one Kayabi village at the banks of head rivers (Tapajos, Tropas, Kabitutu, Cururu, Curuzinho, Teles Pires) of the Tapajos Basin were studied in relation to fish Hg concentrations, mercury in hair (fish consumption) and erythrocytes, body mass index (height/weight, kg/cm2), and blood pressure. The mean fish Hg concentrations were higher in predatory (578.6 ng/g) than in nonpredatory species (52.8 ng/g). Overall only 26% of fish Hg concentrations were above 500 ng/g, and only 11% were above 1000 ng/g. There was no systematic trend in fish Hg concentrations from rivers with a history of gold-mining activities. The biomarker of fish consumption (hair Hg) was significantly associated with erythrocyte-Hg (r=0.5181; P=0.0001) and was significantly higher in Kayabi (12.7 microg/g) than in the Munduruku (3.4 microg/g). Biomarker-assessed fish consumption rate was higher in the Kayabi (110 g/day) than in the Munduruku villages (30 g/day). Although no significant differences in body mass index (BMI) were observed between tribes, there was a trend of lower increase in blood pressure with age among the higher fish consumers (Kayabi). Summary clinical evaluation did not detect neurologic complaints compatible with Hg intoxication (paraparesis, numbness, tremor, balancing failure), but endemic tropical diseases such as clinical history of malaria showed a high prevalence (55.4%). Fish is an abundant natural resource, important in the Indian diet, that has been historically consumed without perceived problems and can easily be traced through hair Hg. The exposure to freshwater fish monomethyl mercury is less of an issue than endemic infectious diseases such as malaria and lack of basic medical

  5. Mayaro virus infection in amazonia: a multimodel inference approach to risk factor assessment.

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    Fernando Abad-Franch

    in village-like areas. This suggests either a vector shift (synanthropic mosquitoes vectoring MAYV or a habitat/habits shift (classical MAYV vectors adapting to densely populated landscapes and nocturnal biting; any such ecological/adaptive novelty could increase the likelihood of MAYV emergence in Amazonia.

  6. Post-Fire Changes in Forest Biomass Retrieved by Airborne LiDAR in Amazonia

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    Luciane Yumie Sato

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire is one of the main factors directly impacting Amazonian forest biomass and dynamics. Because of Amazonia’s large geographical extent, remote sensing techniques are required for comprehensively assessing forest fire impacts at the landscape level. In this context, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR stands out as a technology capable of retrieving direct measurements of vegetation vertical arrangement, which can be directly associated with aboveground biomass. This work aims, for the first time, to quantify post-fire changes in forest canopy height and biomass using airborne LiDAR in western Amazonia. For this, the present study evaluated four areas located in the state of Acre, called Rio Branco, Humaitá, Bonal and Talismã. Rio Branco and Humaitá burned in 2005 and Bonal and Talismã burned in 2010. In these areas, we inventoried a total of 25 plots (0.25 ha each in 2014. Humaitá and Talismã are located in an open forest with bamboo and Bonal and Rio Branco are located in a dense forest. Our results showed that even ten years after the fire event, there was no complete recovery of the height and biomass of the burned areas (p < 0.05. The percentage difference in height between control and burned sites was 2.23% for Rio Branco, 9.26% for Humaitá, 10.03% for Talismã and 20.25% for Bonal. All burned sites had significantly lower biomass values than control sites. In Rio Branco (ten years after fire, Humaitá (nine years after fire, Bonal (four years after fire and Talismã (five years after fire biomass was 6.71%, 13.66%, 17.89% and 22.69% lower than control sites, respectively. The total amount of biomass lost for the studied sites was 16,706.3 Mg, with an average loss of 4176.6 Mg for sites burned in 2005 and 2890 Mg for sites burned in 2010, with an average loss of 3615 Mg. Fire impact associated with tree mortality was clearly detected using LiDAR data up to ten years after the fire event. This study indicates that fire disturbance

  7. The Roles and Movements of Actors in the Deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia

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    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Containing the advance of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia requires understanding the roles and movements of the actors involved. The importance of different actors varies widely among locations within the region, and also evolves at any particular site over the course of frontier establishment and consolidation. Landless migrants have significant roles in clearing the land they occupy and in motivating landholders to clear as a defense against invasion or expropriation. Colonists in official settlements and other small farmers also are responsible for substantial amounts of clearing, but ranchers constitute the largest component of the region's clearing. This group is most responsive to macroeconomic changes affecting such factors as commodity prices, and also receives substantial subsidies. Ulterior motives, such as land speculation and money laundering, also affect this group. Drug trafficking and money laundering represent strong forces in some areas and help spread deforestation where it would be unprofitable based only on the legitimate economy. Goldminers increase the population in distant areas and subsequently enter the ranks of other groups. Work as laborers or debt slaves provides an important entry to the region for poor migrants from northeast Brazil, providing cheap labor to large ranches and a large source of entrants to other groups, such as landless farmers and colonists. Capitalized farmers, including agribusiness for soy production, have tremendous impact in certain areas, such as Mato Grosso. This group responds to commodity markets and provides justification for major infrastructure projects. Landgrabbers, or grileiros, are important in entering public land and beginning the process of deforestation and transfer of land to subsequent groups of actors. These include sawmill owners and loggers, who play an important role in generating funds for clearing by other groups, ranging from landless migrants to large ranchers. They

  8. Leaf Wax δ13C Varies with Elevation in the Peruvian Andes and Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. S.; Feakins, S. J.; Ponton, C.; Peters, T.; West, A. J.; Galy, V.; Bentley, L. P.; Salinas, N.; Shenkin, A.; Martin, R.; Asner, G. P.; Malhi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Plant leaf wax carbon isotopic composition (δ13Cwax) reflects the net isotopic effects associated with diffusion into the leaf, fixation of carbon by Rubisco and biosynthesis of individual leaf wax biochemicals. As declining pCO2 with elevation affects the first two fractionations, we expect to find an isotopic gradient in δ13Cwax, if the fractionation of leaf wax biosynthesis is constant. To test this, we report δ13Cwax values from 500 samples of leaves collected by tree-climbers from the upper canopy from 9 forest-inventory plots spanning a 3.5km elevation transect in the Peruvian Andes and western Amazonia during the CHAMBASA field campaign. These samples provide a unique opportunity to study the relationship between δ13Cwax and pCO2 in diverse species across this remote tropical montane forest and lowland rainforest. The very wet climate throughout (2-5 m rainfall per year) minimizes fractionation effects due to stomatal restrictions (i.e. water use efficiency) that may be an important factor elsewhere. Preliminary results show δ13Cwax values on average increase with elevation by ~1.5‰/km, a trend consistent with bulk plant δ13C in previous studies. The mean epsilon between bulk and C29 n-alkane is -7.3±2.2‰. Inter-sample differences are large on the order of 10‰. Shaded leaves and understory leaves are found to be depleted relative to sunlit leaves, presumably due to a lower photosynthetic rate and use of respired CO2 in the understory. C29 n-alkanes are on average ~2.5‰ more depleted than C30 n-alkanoic acids, indicating fractionation during selective decarboxylation. We further compare results from plants with soil and river sediments to provide insights into how leaf wax signals are archived in soils and exported from the landscape. We find a ~1.4‰/km gradient in forest soils similar to plants. We observe a ~2‰ offset between C29 n-alkane in plant leaves and in soils across the elevation profile, which is likely a signal of degradation

  9. Sampling effort and fish species richness in small terra firme forest streams of central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Maeda Batista dos Anjos

    Full Text Available Small streams are important components of the landscape in terra firme forests in central Amazonia and harbor a large number of fish species. Nevertheless, the lack of a common sampling protocol in studies of this ichthyofauna hinders comparisons among available results. This study evaluates how the length of stream reach sampled affects estimates of local fish species density in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams, and proposes a mean minimum sampling length that best approximates the absolute number of species in a given stream segment. We sampled three streams in the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project's study sites, between May and August 2004. At each stream, one 1st order, one 2nd order, and one 3rd order segment was sampled. We sampled five 20-m reaches in each stream segment. Three to four people collected along each reach for 45 to 60 minutes. We used Jaccard's coefficient to estimate the similarity of species composition among stream reaches and segments. Estimates of species richness were obtained with Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap algorithms and species accumulation curves. We used simple linear regressions to look for relationships between species density and fish abundance and between species density and the volume of 100-m stream segments. Species density in 1st order stream reaches was slightly higher than in 2nd and 3rd order stream reaches, whereas fish abundance was apparently higher in 3rd order reaches. Similarity in fish species composition between 20-m reaches was low for all studied streams. Species density values in pooled 100-m stream segments represented 71.4% to 94.1% of the estimated values for these streams. Species density showed a direct relationship both with volume of the sampled stream segment and fish abundance. It seems plausible that larger streams contain a higher number of microhabitat types, which allow for the presence of more fish species per stream length. Based on the values of asymptotes and

  10. Weather and climate impacts of biomass burning aerosols during the dry season in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolusu, Seshagirirao; Marsham, John; Spracklen, Dominic; Parker, Douglas; Dalvi, Mohit; Johnson, Ben; Mann, Graham

    2016-04-01

    Amazonia is a major global source of biomass burning aerosols (BBA) with impacts on weather and climate. BBA can be represented in weather models, with satellite-observed fires used to provide emissions fields, but such emissions normally require tuning to give realistic aerosol fields in models. Here, we investigate the two-way coupling between BBA and regional weather during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign, using both a set of short-range (2-day) forecasts and nested 20-day runs with the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM). Short-range forecasts with parametrised convection show that BBA exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth-atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation: BBA reduce the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m-2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere radiation by 8 ± 1 W m-2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m-2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude, but of the same sign. The differences in heating induced by BBA lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa. BBA cools the boundary layer, but warms air above, reducing the BL depth by around 19 m. Locally, on a 150 km scale, changes in precipitation reach around 4 mm day-1 due to changes in the location of convection, with BBA leading to fewer rain events that are more intense, which may be linked to the BBA changing the vertical profile of stability in the lower atmosphere. The localised changes in rainfall tend to average out to give a 5 % (0.06 mm day-1) decrease in total precipitation, but the change in regional water budget is dominated by decreased evapotranspiration from the reduced net surface fluxes (0.2 to 0.3 mm day-1). The results show that although including BBA either prognostoically, or through a climatology, improves forecasts, but differences between the impacts of prognostic and climatological aerosol are small

  11. Medicinal use of fauna by a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia

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    Barros Flávio B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zootherapy inventories are important as they contribute to the world documentation of the prevalence, importance and diversity of the medicinal use of animals in traditional human communities. The present study aims to contribute with a more valuable example of the zootherapy practices of a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia – the “Riozinho do Anfrísio” Extractive Reserve, in Northern Brazil. Methods We used the methods of participant observation and semi-structured interviews, applied to 25 informants. We employed the combined properties of two indices to measure the medicinal importance of each cited species to the studied community, as well as their versatility in the treatment of diseases: the well known Use Value (UV and the Medicinal Applications Value (MAV that we developed. Results We recorded 31 species of medicinal animals from six taxonomic categories, seven of which are new to science. The species are used for the treatment of 28 diseases and one species is used as an amulet against snakebites. The five species with the highest UV indices are the most popular and valued by the studied community. Their contrasting MAV indices indicate that they have different therapeutic properties: specific (used for the treatment of few diseases; low versatility and all-purpose (several diseases; high versatility. Similarly, the most cited diseases were also those that could be treated with a larger number of animal species. Ten species are listed in the CITES appendices and 21 are present in the IUCN Red List. The knowledge about the medicinal use of the local fauna is distributed evenly among the different age groups of the informants. Conclusions This study shows that the local fauna represents an important medicinal resource for the inhabitants of the protected area. The combined use of the UV and MAV indices allowed identifying the species with the highest therapeutic potential. This type of information

  12. Modeling Fire Emissions from Multiple Land Use Transitions in Southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.; van der Werf, G. R.; Defries, R. S.; Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.

    2008-12-01

    Fires for deforestation and other land cover changes in southern Amazonia are an uncertain but significant source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Recent expansion of mechanized cropland in the region has increased the rates, clearing sizes, and combustion completeness of forest and Cerrado conversion compared to previous deforestation for cattle ranching. To more accurately quantify the influence of agricultural intensification on carbon emissions, we developed a high-resolution (250 m) model of DEforestation CArbon Fluxes (DECAF). DECAF estimates variations in forest and Cerrado biomass based on time series of MODIS NDVI and explicitly tracks the duration and combustion completeness of new deforestation as a function of post-clearing vegetation phenology and MODIS-based fire frequency. In our model runs for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, we quantified the contribution of fires for deforestation, conversion of pasture and Cerrado to mechanized cropland, and pasture maintenance to total fire emissions under low, middle, and high emissions scenarios. During 2001-2005, carbon losses from all types of deforestation were 48-82 Tg per year (mean = 67 Tg C), representing approximately 74% of annual fire emissions in the study region. Cropland expansion in non-forest areas contributed 19% of estimated fire emissions, while maintenance fires in pasture and Cerrado land cover types averaged 7% of all fire emissions during 2001-2005. Conversion of forest to other land uses often takes more than one year, and part of the biomass that was not burned in the dry season following deforestation burned in consecutive years. This led to a partial decoupling of annual deforestation rates and fire emissions, and lowered interannual variability in fire emissions. In total, DECAF-based emissions for Mato Grosso represent 1/3 of estimated fire emissions for all of southern hemisphere South America during this period. Our results demonstrate how DECAF can be used to model

  13. Medicinal use of fauna by a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Flávio B; Varela, Susana A M; Pereira, Henrique M; Vicente, Luís

    2012-09-27

    Zootherapy inventories are important as they contribute to the world documentation of the prevalence, importance and diversity of the medicinal use of animals in traditional human communities. The present study aims to contribute with a more valuable example of the zootherapy practices of a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia - the "Riozinho do Anfrísio" Extractive Reserve, in Northern Brazil. We used the methods of participant observation and semi-structured interviews, applied to 25 informants. We employed the combined properties of two indices to measure the medicinal importance of each cited species to the studied community, as well as their versatility in the treatment of diseases: the well known Use Value (UV) and the Medicinal Applications Value (MAV) that we developed. We recorded 31 species of medicinal animals from six taxonomic categories, seven of which are new to science. The species are used for the treatment of 28 diseases and one species is used as an amulet against snakebites. The five species with the highest UV indices are the most popular and valued by the studied community. Their contrasting MAV indices indicate that they have different therapeutic properties: specific (used for the treatment of few diseases; low versatility) and all-purpose (several diseases; high versatility). Similarly, the most cited diseases were also those that could be treated with a larger number of animal species. Ten species are listed in the CITES appendices and 21 are present in the IUCN Red List. The knowledge about the medicinal use of the local fauna is distributed evenly among the different age groups of the informants. This study shows that the local fauna represents an important medicinal resource for the inhabitants of the protected area. The combined use of the UV and MAV indices allowed identifying the species with the highest therapeutic potential. This type of information about a species may be of interest to pharmacological research, and is

  14. Patrones de distribución espacial de Pteridófitos en la Amazonia colombiana

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    Polanía Silgado Carolina Patricia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la composición, riqueza y patrones de distribución espacial de las comunidades de pteridófitos en tres paisajes de la región de Chiribiquete, Amazonia colombiana. Se realizaron diez parcelas de 20 x 50 m (1 ha, distribuidas así: cuatro en tierra firme, tres en plano inundable bien drenado y tres en plano inundable mal drenado. Se registraron 39.552 individuos pertenecientes a 45 especies que se agrupan en 15 familias y 22 géneros. La especie más abundante, en total y para los planos inundables, es Trichomanes vandenboschii, mientras que para tierra firme es Adiantum  tomentosum. El paisaje más diverso en cuanto a número de especies es tierra firme y el menos diverso es el plano inundable mal drenado. De acuerdo a los métodos utilizados para evaluar la distribución espacial: gráfica de las posiciones de cada individuo dentro de la parcela, método de cuadrantes contiguos (TTLQV y el índice  estandarizado de Morisita, la comunidad y las especies más abundantes presentan una distribución agregada, con grupos que se presentan entre 3 y 21 m en tierra firme y 3 y 24 m en los planos inundables, las diferencias entre paisajes son en la intensidad y en las distancias de repetición del patrón. Las especies menos abundantes, presentaron una distribución agregada o aleatoria. Los factores ambientales que mejor
    explican la composición, la diferenciación de los tipos de bosque y la distribución espacial de las especies de pteridófitos son: el drenaje, la pendiente, la cantidad de luz sobre la parcela, la
    profundidad de la capa de hojarasca, la densidad arbórea, la concentración de iones intercambiables en el suelo, la relación Carbono/Nitrógeno y la cobertura de pteridófitos terrestres.

  15. Trabajo y relaciones laborales en los enclaves minero-metalúrgicos de la Amazonia

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    Josep Pont Vidal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  Labour and labour relations in the enclaves of metallurgical mining in the AmazonThis article is based upon an empirical study of  life and labour conditions in the metallurgical  mining enclaves of the eastern Amazon region.  From the perspective of civil society (associations  of workers, labour conditions are analysed according to interviews with workers and their  family members given outside the work sphere.  Using the method based on ‘grounded theory’, and specifically on the qualitative analysis of  theorization, a scheme of two levels has been  made: the ‘situational activity’ and the ‘subjectivization of the activity’. The first level, the ‘situational activity’, is centred in the sphere of the  organizations of workers and their perceptions  and strategies for action. The second level, the  ‘subjective of the activity’, addresses the subjective interpretations adopted by workers and their  families. Resumen:Este escrito se basa en un estudio empírico de las  condiciones de vida y relaciones laborales en los  enclaves minero-metalúrgicos de la Amazonia  oriental. En él se analizan las condiciones laborales desde la perspectiva de la sociedad civil (asociaciones de trabajadores, recurriendo para ello a  entrevistas con trabajadores y sus familias fuera  del ambiente de trabajo. A partir del método basado en la teorización anclada, y específicamente  en el denominado análisis cualitativo de teorización, se ha confeccionado un esquema de dos  niveles: la ‘actividad situacional’, y la ‘subjetivización de la actividad’. El primer nivel -la ‘actividad situacional’- se centra en la esfera de las  organizaciones de trabajadores y sus ideas y estrategias de acción. El segundo nivel -la ‘subjetivización de la actividad’- trata las interpretaciones  subjetivas adoptadas por los trabajadores y sus  familias.

  16. Estudo do envelhecimento de poliuretanos aplicados na indústria de petróleo Study of ageing of polyurethanes applied to the offshore industry

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    Fabio G. Aquino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é mundialmente renomado como um líder na extração de petróleo, em águas profundas e ultra profundas. Dentro da cadeia produtiva, grande parte do petróleo e do gás produzido é escoada através de dutos flexíveis que conectam os poços de produção às plataformas. Quando estão apoiadas no fundo do mar, em condição de serviço estático, os dutos flexíveis são denominados flowlines e quando se elevam do fundo do mar até a plataforma, em condição de serviço dinâmico, são denominados risers. Os tubos projetados para aplicações dinâmicas são dotados de bends stiffeners, componentes com formato cônico e, em geral, de base uretânica que têm a função de fornecer uma transição entre a estrutura dos tubos, de rigidez suave, e a plataforma, extremamente rígida. Este trabalho abordou a variação das propriedades mecânicas de poliuretanos como resultado da ação da hidrólise, por envelhecimento acelerado. Os corpos de prova foram expostos a 50, 60 e 70 ºC. A variação de massa também foi determinada considerando que esses materiais são projetados para uma vida útil superior a vinte anos. Os poliuretanos apresentaram degradação significativa a 70 ºC, o que pode reduzir seu tempo de aplicação no campo por falha mecânica quando submetido a elevadas temperaturas.Brazil is worldwide renowned as a leader in oil and gas extraction in deep and ultra deep water. In the production chain, a great part of the oil and gas produced is conveyed through flexible pipelines that connect the production wells to the platforms. When the pipes are laid on the seabed in a static service condition, the flexible pipes are called flowlines and when raised from the seabed to the platform in a dynamic service condition, they are called risers. The pipes designed for dynamic applications are equipped with bend stiffeners, components with conical form and in general based on polyurethanes, which have the function of providing a

  17. Geographic distribution and abundance of woolly (Lagothrix cana) and spider (Ateles chamek) monkeys in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Simone; Ferrari, Stephen F

    2002-01-01

    Two species of frugivorous atelids, Ateles chamek and Lagothrix cana, occur in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. Populations were surveyed at 36 sites in the state of Rondônia. Ateles chamek is widespread, but the distribution of L. cana is limited by a combination of riverine barriers and ecological factors, possibly including competition with A. chamek. Groups of L. cana were generally larger and more abundant than those of A. chamek, even in syntopy. The transitional forest that predominates in the extreme south of Rondônia (Hylea-cerrado) is not a barrier to either species, with both species being tolerant of habitat disturbance when hunting pressure is low. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from Central Amazonia and four new records for the Amazonas state, Brazil

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    Veracilda R. Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand flies from Central Amazonia and four new records for the Amazonas state, Brazil. A survey was conducted in May and June 2008 to study the fauna of insects in Central Amazonia, Brazil. As part of the survey, we report here that sixty species of phlebotomine were identified, totaling 13,712 specimens from 13 genera. The collection sites were located at the border between the states of Pará and Amazonas, comprising three municipalities from the Amazonas state (Borba, Maués, and Nhamundá. Malaise, CDC and Shannon traps were used to collect the insects. Most of the sand flies were collected by CDC traps (89.5%, while Malaise and Shannon traps collected 7% and 3.5%, respectively. The most abundant genera, representing 97.1% of the total sand flies identified were: Trichopygomyia Barretto, 1962 (47.6%, Psathyromyia Barretto, 1962 (17.9%, Psychodopygus Mangabeira, 1941 (17.5% and Trichophoromyia Barretto, 1962 (14.3%. The genera with the largest number of species identified were: Psychodopygus (14, Psathyromyia (10, Evandromyia Mangabeira, 1941 (7, Trichophoromyia (5 and Trichopygomyia (5. The most abundant species was Trichopygomyia trichopyga (Floch & Abonnenc, 1945, which represented 29% of the total sand flies identified. Here we also report new records for four species in the Amazonas state: Ps. complexus (Mangabeira, 1941, Ps. llanosmartinsi Fraiha & Ward, 1980, Ty. pinna (Feliciangeli, Ramirez-Pérez & Ramirez, 1989, and Th. readyi (Ryan, 1986. The results of this study provide new, additional information on the distribution of sand flies in the Amazon and increase the number of species in the Amazonas state from 127 to 131.

  19. Analysis of biological and meteorological controls of evapotranspiration in pristine forests and a pasture site in Amazonia

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    Narciso Paulino Junior

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the behavior and seasonality of evapotranspiration influenced by biotic and abiotic factors through analysis of diurnal variation of aerodynamic resistance (ra, stomatal resistance (rs and decoupling factor (Ω. This index was proposed by Jarvis and McNaughton (1986 as an indicative of the control of these resistances on the evapotranspiration of vegetation. Selection of representative data from wet and dry seasons from a primary forest in Central Amazonia and a primary forest and a pasture sites in Southwestern Amazonia had shown that: (i ra is about 20 s.m-1 in both forests in both seasons, and ranges from 70 to 100 s.m-1 in the pasture site; (ii rs varies both throughout the day and seasonally, with medians increasing from 40 in the morning, to 150 s.m-1 in late afternoon, in the wet season in the forests and from 50 to 160 s.m-1 in the pasture. These values increase in the dry season, with the forests rs ranging from 50 up to 500 s.m-1 and pasture rs starting from 140 s.m 1 and reaching up to more than 1800 s.m-1 in the dry afternoons; (iii Ω ranges from 0.5 to 0.8 during the wet season, and reduces to values below 0.5 in the afternoons during the dry season, indicating that, although a strong influence of net radiation in the evaporative loss is present, to a large extent the evapotranspiration fluxes are coupled to the biotic control of stomatal closure in the vegetation, especially in the pasture and during dry periods.

  20. [Distribution patterns of canopy and understory tree species at local scale in a Tierra Firme forest, the Colombian Amazonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Silva, Juan Sebastian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque

    2014-03-01

    The effect of environmental variation on the structure of tree communities in tropical forests is still under debate. There is evidence that in landscapes like Tierra Firme forest, where the environmental gradient decreases at a local level, the effect of soil on the distribution patterns of plant species is minimal, happens to be random or is due to biological processes. In contrast, in studies with different kinds of plants from tropical forests, a greater effect on floristic composition of varying soil and topography has been reported. To assess this, the current study was carried out in a permanent plot of ten hectares in the Amacayacu National Park, Colombian Amazonia. To run the analysis, floristic and environmental variations were obtained according to tree species abundance categories and growth forms. In order to quantify the role played by both environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, the variation of the spatial configuration was included. We used Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis, followed by a variation partitioning, to analyze the species distribution patterns. The spatial template was evaluated using the Principal Coordinates of Neighbor Matrix method. We recorded 14 074 individuals from 1 053 species and 80 families. The most abundant families were Myristicaceae, Moraceae, Meliaceae, Arecaceae and Lecythidaceae, coinciding with other studies from Northwest Amazonia. Beta diversity was relatively low within the plot. Soils were very poor, had high aluminum concentration and were predominantly clayey. The floristic differences explained along the ten hectares plot were mainly associated to biological processes, such as dispersal limitation. The largest proportion of community variation in our dataset was unexplained by either environmental or spatial data. In conclusion, these results support random processes as the major drivers of the spatial variation of tree species at a local scale on Tierra Firme

  1. Increased dry-season length over southern Amazonia in recent decades and its implication for future climate projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rong; Yin, Lei; Li, Wenhong; Arias, Paola A; Dickinson, Robert E; Huang, Lei; Chakraborty, Sudip; Fernandes, Katia; Liebmann, Brant; Fisher, Rosie; Myneni, Ranga B

    2013-11-05

    We have observed that the dry-season length (DSL) has increased over southern Amazonia since 1979, primarily owing to a delay of its ending dates (dry-season end, DSE), and is accompanied by a prolonged fire season. A poleward shift of the subtropical jet over South America and an increase of local convective inhibition energy in austral winter (June-August) seem to cause the delay of the DSE in austral spring (September-November). These changes cannot be simply linked to the variability of the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Although they show some resemblance to the effects of anthropogenic forcings reported in the literature, we cannot attribute them to this cause because of inadequate representation of these processes in the global climate models that were presented in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report. These models significantly underestimate the variability of the DSE and DSL and their controlling processes. Such biases imply that the future change of the DSE and DSL may be underestimated by the climate projections provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report models. Although it is not clear whether the observed increase of the DSL will continue in the future, were it to continue at half the rate of that observed, the long DSL and fire season that contributed to the 2005 drought would become the new norm by the late 21st century. The large uncertainty shown in this study highlights the need for a focused effort to better understand and simulate these changes over southern Amazonia.

  2. New geological framework for Western Amazonia (Brazil) and implications for biogeography and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Rossetti, Dilce; Mann de Toledo, Peter; Góes, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    associated with a lake system (i.e., fan-delta) and/or fluvial flood plain areas. After a period of erosion, a fluvial system with eastward draining channels started to develop at around 27,000 14C yr B.P. The fluvial channels were overflooded in mid-Holocene time. This flooding is attributed to an increased period of humidity, with a peak between 5000 and 2500 14C yr B.P. The data presented herein support that, rather than being a monotonous area, the Amazonia was a place with frequent changes in landscape throughout the Neogene-Quaternary, probably as a result of climatic and tectonic factors. We hypothesize that these changes in the physical environment stressed the biota, resulting in speciation and thus had a great impact on modern biodiversity.

  3. Amazonia colombiana: Contacto-contagio y catástrofe demográfica indigena

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    Augusto Javier Gómez López

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Según el estudio elaborado por la COMISiÓN AMAZÓNICA DE DESARROLLO Y MEDIO AMBIENTE, en lo que va transcurrido del presente siglo, "90 tribus enteras han dejado de existir" en el conjunto de la región amazónica... "de los seis a nueve millones de indígenas que habitaban la Amazonia secular, sólo quedan hoy algunos grupos exiguos y dispersos" (Comisión, 1994; p.16. La historia de la destrucción de las sociedades nativas amazónicas es también la historia del contacto con los europeos y sus descendientes y, por supuesto, la del contagio de las enfermedades introducidas por éstos, desde que se iniciara alli la büsqueda de ~EI Dorado" y la del "País de la Canela" en el siglo XVI ... Hoy, cuando se invaden las últimas fronteras y refugios indigenas, la historia del contacto y del contagio continúa y sigue acompañada de ese viejo y persistente sueño de "El Dorador.: La invasión de los "garimpeiros" al territorio Yanomami (en la frontera amazónica brasilero-venezolana, a partir del segundo semestre de 1987, alterá el cuadro epidemiológico de las aldeas nativas más periféricas que habían entrado en contacto con los buscadores de oro: infecciones endémicas como la tuberculosis y la malaria fueron preliminarmente las consecuencias de esos iniciales contactos, ya que, por entonces, las aldeas más centrales del territorio Yanomami permaneclan libres aún de esas dolencias, pues allí todavía no habían logrado ingresar dichos buscadores de oro. Estos poco a poco fueron alcanzando el territorio Yanomami aprovechando la apertura de la carretera "Perimetral del Norte", iniciada en los años setentas, construcción que ya había causado la muerte y la desaparición completa de varias comunidades. La situación de salud en todo el territorio Yanomami era caótica en el año de 1990 y, según el diagnóstico de los médicos destacados en la zona con apoyo intemacional, la malaria era la mayor causa de morbilidad: algunas comunidades

  4. Mapping of oil spill environmental sensitivity index (ESI) in western Amazonia, Brazil, using USTC classification of dual season GRFM SAR image mosaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Fernando P. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Beisl, Carlos H.; Pedroso, Enrico C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Centro Brasileiro de Recursos - RADARSAT

    2003-07-01

    This study focuses on improving information about oil spill environmental sensitivity in Western Amazonia, Brazil, using a pair of multi seasonal (1995 - low flood to 1996 - high flood) GRFM JERS-1 SAR mosaics. Fuzzy analysis is carried out to extract information about landscape modifications within half hydrological cycle. The oil spill hazard information derived from JERS-1 SAR data is straightforward to interpret and constitutes a representation of the original Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) product conceived by PETROBRAS. (author)

  5. The neuraminidase gene is present in the non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae Amazonia strain: a different allele in comparison to the pandemic strains

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    Sonia Catarina de Abreu Figueiredo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuraminidase gene, nanH, is present in the O1, non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae Amazonia strain. Its location has been assigned to a 150 kb NotI DNA fragment, with the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA hybridization. This NotI fragment is positioned inside 630 kb SfiI and 1900 kb I-CeuI fragments of chromosome 1. Association of the pathogenicity island VPI-2, carrying nanH and other genes, with toxigenic strains has been described by other authors. The presence of nanH in a non-toxigenic strain is an exception to this rule. The Amazonia strain nanH was sequenced (Genbank accession No. AY825932 and compared to available V. cholerae sequences. The sequence is different from those of pandemic strains, with 72 nucleotide substitutions. This is the first description of an O1 strain with a different nanH allele. The most variable domain of the Amazonia NanH is the second lectin wing, comprising 13 out of 17 amino acid substitutions. Based on the presence of nanH in the same region of the genome, and similarity of the adjacent sequences to VPI-2 sequences, it is proposed that the pathogenicity island VPI-2 is present in this strain.

  6. Taxonomy and distribution of the salamander genus Bolitoglossa Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcko, Isabela Carvalho; Hoogmoed, Marinus Steven; Neckel-Oliverira, Selvino

    2013-01-01

    For nearly 40 years Bolitoglossa paraensis has been synonymized with Bolitoglossa altamazonica. This fact has been mainly related to taxonomic ambiguities arising from the morphological similarities between these species and the scarcity of material deposited in collections. However, during the past 30 years new material of Bolitoglossa has been collected in many places throughout the Brazilian Amazonia, including the type locality of B. paraensis, Santa Isabel do Pará. In this article we designate the neotype of B. paraensis based on new material from the type locality, correct misinterpretations about this name. We determined how many species of the genus Bolitoglossa occur in Brazilian Amazonia, described three new species, B. caldwellae sp. nov., B. madeira sp. nov., and B. tapajonica sp. nov., provide a key for identifying Brazilian salamanders. Were analyzed two hundred and seventy eight specimens of Bolitoglossa from the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, and Rondonia; morphological data ofB. altamazonica from Colombia were used for comparison purposes. We confirm the presence of B. altamazonica in extreme western Brazil, and expand the number of species occurring in Brazilian Amazonia to five.

  7. Ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of Marajó Island, Eastern Amazonia, Brazil Conhecimento etnoveterinário dos habitantes da Ilha de Marajó, Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vivina Barros Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been ethnoveterinary reports from around the world investigating plant usage in therapeutic protocols; however, there is no information regarding the ethnoveterinary practices in Brazilian Amazonia. The objective of this work was to register and document the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of the Island of Marajó, eastern Amazonia, Brazil. In the study, interviews were conducted with 50 individuals, with the application of semi-structured questionnaires that were quantitatively analyzed using descriptive statistic methods of frequency distribution. Use-value was calculated to determine the most important species. Samples of plants that were reported to have medicinal value were collected and identified by botanical classification. Fifty plants, distributed among 48 genera and 34 families, were indicated for 21 different medicinal uses. The family Asteraceae had the largest number of reported species; Carapa guianensis Aubl., Copaifera martii Hayne, Crescentia cujete L., Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Jatropha curcas L. and Momordica charantia L. were species with highest use- value. The plant parts that were more commonly utilized for the preparation of ethnoveterinary medicines were the leaves (56%, bark (18%, roots (14%, seeds (14% and fruit (8%. With regard to usage, tea was reported as a usage method by 56% of the informants; most preparations (90.9% utilized only a single plant. In addition to medicinal plants, informants reported using products of animal and mineral origin. The present study contributed to the construction of an inventory of Marajó Island's ethnoveterinary plants, which might be the basis for future scientific validation studies.Em várias partes do mundo existem relatos etnoveterinários sobre a utilização de plantas em protocolos terapêuticos, entretanto não existem informações disponíveis sobre a etnoveterinária praticada na Amazônia brasileira. Desta forma

  8. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in Amazonia derived from 1 year of ground-based lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Diego A.; Barja, Boris; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Seifert, Patric; Baars, Holger; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Artaxo, Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Cirrus clouds cover a large fraction of tropical latitudes and play an important role in Earth's radiation budget. Their optical properties, altitude, vertical and horizontal coverage control their radiative forcing, and hence detailed cirrus measurements at different geographical locations are of utmost importance. Studies reporting cirrus properties over tropical rain forests like the Amazon, however, are scarce. Studies with satellite profilers do not give information on the diurnal cycle, and the satellite imagers do not report on the cloud vertical structure. At the same time, ground-based lidar studies are restricted to a few case studies. In this paper, we derive the first comprehensive statistics of optical and geometrical properties of upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds in Amazonia. We used 1 year (July 2011 to June 2012) of ground-based lidar atmospheric observations north of Manaus, Brazil. This dataset was processed by an automatic cloud detection and optical properties retrieval algorithm. Upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds were observed more frequently than reported previously for tropical regions. The frequency of occurrence was found to be as high as 88 % during the wet season and not lower than 50 % during the dry season. The diurnal cycle shows a minimum around local noon and maximum during late afternoon, associated with the diurnal cycle of precipitation. The mean values of cirrus cloud top and base heights, cloud thickness, and cloud optical depth were 14.3 ± 1.9 (SD) km, 12.9 ± 2.2 km, 1.4 ± 1.1 km, and 0.25 ± 0.46, respectively. Cirrus clouds were found at temperatures down to -90 °C. Frequently cirrus were observed within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which are likely associated to slow mesoscale uplifting or to the remnants of overshooting convection. The vertical distribution was not uniform, and thin and subvisible cirrus occurred more frequently closer to the tropopause. The mean lidar ratio was 23.3 ± 8.0 sr. However, for

  9. Neotropics provide insights into the emergence of New World monkeys: New dental evidence from the late Oligocene of Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Adnet, Sylvain; Altamirano-Sierra, Ali J; Boivin, Myriam; Pujos, François; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have resulted in the discovery of a late Oligocene (ca. 26.5 Ma; Chambira Formation) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-61). In this paper, we analyze the primate material consisting of two isolated upper molars, the peculiar morphology of which allows us to describe a new medium-sized platyrrhine monkey: Canaanimico amazonensis gen. et sp. nov. In addition to the recent discovery of Perupithecus ucayaliensis, a primitive anthropoid taxon of African affinities from the alleged latest Eocene Santa Rosa locality (Peruvian Amazonia), the discovery of Canaanimico adds to the evidence that primates were well-established in the Amazonian Basin during the Paleogene. Our phylogenetic results based on dental evidence show that none of the early Miocene Patagonian taxa (Homunculus, Carlocebus, Soriacebus, Mazzonicebus, Dolichocebus, Tremacebus, and Chilecebus), the late Oligocene Bolivian Branisella, or the Peruvian Canaanimico, is nested within a crown platyrrhine clade. All these early taxa are closely related and considered here as stem Platyrrhini. Canaanimico is nested within the Patagonian Soriacebinae, and closely related to Soriacebus, thereby extending back the soriacebine lineage to 26.5 Ma. Given the limited dental evidence, it is difficult to assess if Canaanimico was engaged in a form of pitheciine-like seed predation as is observed in Soriacebus and Mazzonicebus, but dental microwear patterns recorded on one upper molar indicate that Canaanimico was possibly a fruit and hard-object eater. If Panamacebus, a recently discovered stem cebine from the early Miocene of Panama, indicates that the crown platyrrhine radiation was already well underway by the earliest Miocene, Canaanimico indicates in turn that the "homunculid" radiation (as a part of the stem radiation) was well underway by the late Oligocene. These new data suggest that the stem radiation likely occurred in the Neotropics

  10. Santarém, entre la Amazonia de los ríos y la Amazonia de las carreteras Santarém, entre l’Amazonie des fleuves et l’Amazonie des routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Valbuena

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La gran región septentrional de Brasil, la Amazonia, que por varios siglos ha representado un enorme vacío y una potencial fuente de riqueza, ha sido objeto durante el último medio siglo de un acelerado proceso de ocupación y puesta en explotación de forma intensiva. Una dinámica de apropiación apreciable, especialmente, en las tres últimas décadas, cuando la materialización de la red terrestre que ha articulado la margen derecha del gran río facilitó la incursión de los recursos humanos y financieros en el hinterland amazónico.Una red que ha reestructurado el espacio regional, al que daba sentido la malla fluvial y la débil red de lugares, configurada por los núcleos de población surgidos en las orillas de los cauces. Santarém, una ciudad histórica con una localización estratégica entre los dos mayores centros urbanos amazónicos, ha sido palco de enormes transformaciones desde la construcción de las carreteras, pues ligada mediante la Cuibá-Santarém al Centro Oeste de Brasil y a través de la Transamazônica al Nordeste brasileño y a la Amazonia Occidental ha pasado a desempeñar un importante papel como nexo articulador en la región Norte. Al mismo tiempo, se erige como el principal asentamiento humano de esta vasta región central, dirigiendo un proceso emergente de construcción regional.La grande région septentrionale du Brésil, l'Amazonie, qui durant plusieurs siècles n’a représenté qu’un énorme vide et une source de richesse potentielle, a fait l'objet pendant le dernier demi-siècle d'un processus accéléré d’occupation et d’une mise en exploitation intensive. Une forte dynamique d'appropriation a facilité l'incursion de nouvelles ressources humaines et financières dans l’hinterland amazonien, spécialement au cours des trois dernières décennies, quand la réalisation d’un réseau terrestre a articulé la rive droite de la grande rivière.Ce réseau a restructuré l'espace r

  11. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, E Y

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200-300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads.

  12. HBV/HDV co-infection in the Western Brazilian Amazonia: an intriguing mutation among HDV genotype 3 carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, A; Melo da Silva, E; Pedreira, H; Negreiros, S; Lobato, C; Braga, W; Muwonge, R; Dény, P; Reis, M; Zoulim, F; Trepo, C; D'Oliveira, A; Salcedo, J M; Schinoni, M I; Parana, R

    2014-12-01

    HDV infection still remains a serious public health problem in Amazonia. There are few data regarding the biomolecular aspects of HBV/HDV co-infection in this region. We studied 92 patients HBsAg(+) /anti-HDV IgG(+) followed at the Hepatitis Referral Centers of Porto Velho (RO), Rio Branco and Cruzeiro do Sul (AC), Brazil, from March 2006 to March 2007 for whom the HDV and/or the HBV genotype could be determined. The HDV genotype could be determined in 90 patients, while the HBV genotypes could be positively determined in 74. HBV subgenotype F2 is the most prevalent (40.2%), followed by the subgenotypes A1 (15.2%) and D3 (8.7%), while 16.4% were other subgenotypes or genotypes, 4.3% were discordant and 15.2% were unamplifiable. Surprisingly, HDV genotype 3 (HDV-3) was found in all of the HBV/HDV-infected patients that could be genotyped for HDV, confirming that HDV-3 can associate with non-F HBV genotypes. However, a HDV-3 mutant was found in 29.3% of patients and was more frequently associated with non-F HBV genotypes (P HBV genotypes.

  13. Primate abundance and habitat preferences on the lower Urubamba and Tambo rivers, central-eastern Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Rolando; Cornejo, Fanny M; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2013-10-01

    We report information on population density, group size, and habitat preferences of primates along the lower Río Urubamba and in the Río Urubamba-Río Tambo interfluvium, in central-eastern Peruvian Amazonia, an area that has been little explored with regard to its primate fauna. During 425 km of transect walks in October-November 2008 and April-May 2009 totally 174 groups of nine primate species were encountered, the most common being Callicebus brunneus (45 groups), Saguinus imperator (41 groups), and Aotus nigriceps (26 groups). Group sizes were smallest for A. nigriceps and C. brunneus (mean of 2.8 and 2.9, respectively) and largest for Saimiri boliviensis (mean 15.6). Population densities were lowest for Lagothrix cana (3.3 individuals/km(2)) and highest for A. nigriceps (31.1 individuals/km(2)). Groups of C. brunneus, S. imperator, S. boliviensis, Cebus albifrons, and Cebus apella were most frequently (83 % of sightings) encountered in semi-dense or in open primary forest that included stands of bamboo (Guadua sarcocarpa) or where bamboo was a very common species.

  14. Deforestation drivers in Southwest Amazonia: Comparing smallholder farmers in Iñapari, Peru, and Assis Brasil, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeyda Zambrano Angelica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broad interpretation of land use and forest cover studies has been limited by the biophysical and socio-economic uniqueness of the landscapes in which they are carried out and by the multiple temporal and spatial scales of the underlying processes. We coupled a land cover change approach with a political ecology framework to interpret trends in multi-temporal remote sensing of forest cover change and socio-economic surveys with smallholders in the towns of Iñapari, Peru and Assis Brasil, Brazil in southwest Amazonia. These adjacent towns have similar biogeophysical conditions, but have undergone differing development approaches, and are both presently undergoing infrastructure development for the new Interoceanic highway. Results show that forest cover patterns observed in these two towns cannot be accounted for using single land use drivers. Rather, deforestation patterns result from interactions of national and regional policies affecting financial credit and road infrastructure, along with local processes of market integration and household resources. Based on our results we develop recommendations to minimise deforestation in the study area. Our findings are relevant for the sustainability of land use in the Amazon, in particular for regions undergoing large-scale infrastructure development projects.

  15. Fractal properties of forest fires in Amazonia as a basis for modelling pan-tropical burned area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, I. N.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Lima, A.; Shimabukuro, Y.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2013-08-01

    Current methods for modelling burnt area in Dynamic Global Vegetation Models involve complex fire spread calculations, which rely on many inputs, including fuel characteristics, wind speed and countless parameters. They are therefore susceptible to large uncertainties through error propagation. Using observed fractal distributions of fire scars in Brazilian Amazonia, we propose an alternative burnt area model for tropical forests, with fire counts as sole input and few parameters. Several parameterizations of two possible distributions are calibrated at multiple spatial resolutions using a satellite-derived burned area map, and compared. The tapered Pareto model most accurately simulates the total area burnt (only 3.5 km2 larger than the recorded 16 387 km2) and its spatial distribution. When tested pan-tropically using MODIS MCD14ML fire counts, the model accurately predicts temporal and spatial fire trends, but produces generally higher estimates than the GFED3.1 burnt area product, suggesting higher pan-tropical carbon emissions from fires than previously estimated.

  16. Fractal properties of forest fires in Amazonia as a basis for modelling pan-tropical burnt area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, I. N.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Lima, A.; Shimabukuro, Y.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2014-03-01

    Current methods for modelling burnt area in dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) involve complex fire spread calculations, which rely on many inputs, including fuel characteristics, wind speed and countless parameters. They are therefore susceptible to large uncertainties through error propagation, but undeniably useful for modelling specific, small-scale burns. Using observed fractal distributions of fire scars in Brazilian Amazonia in 2005, we propose an alternative burnt area model for tropical forests, with fire counts as sole input and few parameters. This model is intended for predicting large-scale burnt area rather than looking at individual fire events. A simple parameterization of a tapered fractal distribution is calibrated at multiple spatial resolutions using a satellite-derived burnt area map. The model is capable of accurately reproducing the total area burnt (16 387 km2) and its spatial distribution. When tested pan-tropically using the MODIS MCD14ML active fire product, the model accurately predicts temporal and spatial fire trends, but the magnitude of the differences between these estimates and the GFED3.1 burnt area products varies per continent.

  17. The effect of seasonality on the structure of rotifers in a black-water shallow lake in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLARICE C. NOVA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotifers have often been used as indicators of sudden changes in physical and chemical features of the aquatic environment. Such features vary greatly during flood pulse events in small lakes connected to major floodplains. However, few are the studies that investigate the consequences of the flood pulse in rotifer species composition, abundance, richness and diversity, especially in Amazonian lakes. We analyzed samples from a small blackwater lake of an “igarapé” connected permanently to the Negro river, in Central Amazonia. Samples were taken twice a year for two years, comprising flooding and receding periods of the flood pulse. Rotifer abundance increased significantly after draught events, and electrical conductivity and turbidity were intrinsically related to such variation. Species composition also changed from flooding to receding periods. Some taxa, such as Brachionus zahniseri reductus and Lecane remanei were restricted to receding periods, while Brachionus zahniseri, Brachionus gillardi and Lecane proiecta were only present during flooding. A shift in the composition of rotifer families was observed from one period to another, showing the effect of renewing waters of the flood pulse. These results suggest that the flood pulse acts as a driving force and stressing condition, considerably altering rotifer community dynamics, either changing species composition or decreasing abundance.

  18. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Y Arima

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200-300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads.

  19. Holocene history of a lake filling and vegetation dynamics of the Serra Sul dos Carajás, southeast Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, José T F; Sahoo, Prafulla K; Souza-Filho, Pedro W M; Figueiredo, Mariana M J Costa DE; Reis, Luiza S; Silva, Marcio S DA; Rodrigues, Tarcísio M

    2017-07-24

    Down-core changes in sedimentary facies, elemental geochemistry, pollen, spore, δ13C, δ15N and radiocarbon records from a filled lake, named R4, of the Serra Sul dos Carajás were used to study the relationship between the paleomorphological and paleoecological processes and their significance for Holocene paleoclimatology of the southeast Amazonia. The sediment deposition of the R4 lake started around 9500 cal yr BP. Increase of detrital components from 9500 to 7000 cal yr BP suggests high weathering of surrounding catchment rocks and soils, and deposition into the lake basin under mudflows. At that time, montane savanna and forest formation were already established suggesting predominance of wet climate. However, from 7000 to 3000 cal yr BP, a decline of detrital input occurred. Also, forest formation and pteridophytes were declined, while palms and macrophytes were remained relatively stable, indicating that water levels of the lake is likely dropped allowing the development of plants adapted to subaerial condition under drier climate conditions. After 3000 cal yr BP, eutrophication and low accommodation space lead to high lake productivity and the final stage of the lake filling respectively, and forest formation may has acquired its current structure, which suggests return of wetter climate conditions.

  20. Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Amazonia: a comparison of sex-biased incidence among rural settlers and field biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Letícia; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Ferraz, Gonçalo

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is more frequently reported in men than in women; this may be due to male-biased exposure to CL vectors, female-biased resistance against the disease or both. We sought to determine whether gender-specific exposure to vector habitats explains male-biased CL incidence in two human populations of central Amazonia. We compared the CL incidence in one population of field researchers (N = 166), with similar exposure for males and females, and one population of rural settlers (N = 646), where exposure is overall male-biased. We used a combination of questionnaires and clinical data to quantify CL cases, and modelled disease incidence in a Bayesian framework. There was a moderately higher incidence of CL among men than among women in both populations, but male bias decreased as exposure time increased. Disease incidence was overall higher among field researchers, suggesting that they are an important but understudied CL risk group. Our comparison of two contrasting populations provided epidemiological evidence that CL incidence can be male-biased even when exposure is comparable in both sexes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Diversity and abundance of primates and their threats in the interfluvium of the Napo and Putumayo rivers, Peruvian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Aquino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the northeastern Peruvian Amazonia remain areas with scarce information on primates, one of them being the interfluvium between the Napo and Putumayo rivers. This lack of information motivated us to conduct a study to determine the diversity and abundance of primates within the area, as well as to identify the threats, which inhibit these primate species populations. For this purpose, we conducted transect censuses in three sampling sites in October 2007, September 2013 and November 2014. In 1040 km of transect walks we observed 308 groups of nine primate species, the most common being Leontocebus nigricollis (109 groups and the rarest being Alouatta seniculus (16 groups. Smaller groups of Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha (8-11 individuals and A. seniculus (3-5 individuals were observed in Tamboryacu, a majorly disturbed sampling site. Likewise, the lowest population densities estimated for L. l. lagothricha and A. seniculus corresponded to this same sampling site with 3.8 indiv. /km2 and 1.6 indiv. /km2, respectively, while for the remaining species there were no major differences among the sampling sites. Among the activities, hunting and logging are the predominant threats responsible for the scarce populations of A. seniculus and l. l. lagothricha, mainly in the Napo River Basin.

  2. Reproducing the organic matter model of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia and testing the ecotoxicity of functionalized charcoal compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Linhares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain organic compounds similar to the ones found in the organic matter of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE using a chemical functionalization procedure on activated charcoal, as well as to determine their ecotoxicity. Based on the study of the organic matter from ADE, an organic model was proposed and an attempt to reproduce it was described. Activated charcoal was oxidized with the use of sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance was performed to verify if the spectra of the obtained products were similar to the ones of humic acids from ADE. The similarity between spectra indicated that the obtained products were polycondensed aromatic structures with carboxyl groups: a soil amendment that can contribute to soil fertility and to its sustainable use. An ecotoxicological test with Daphnia similis was performed on the more soluble fraction (fulvic acids of the produced soil amendment. Aryl chloride was formed during the synthesis of the organic compounds from activated charcoal functionalization and partially removed through a purification process. However, it is probable that some aryl chloride remained in the final product, since the ecotoxicological test indicated that the chemical functionalized soil amendment is moderately toxic.

  3. Ecofunctional Traits and Biomass Production in Leguminous Tree Species under Fertilization Treatments during Forest Restoration in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto K. Jaquetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the correct species and fertilization treatments is a determining factor in the success of forest restoration. Methods: A field study was conducted in a degraded area near the Balbina hydroelectric dam in Amazonas State (AM, Brazil, to evaluate two hypotheses: (i leguminous tree species exhibit differences in growth, leaf nutrient content, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies; and (ii differences in these characteristics depend on the fertilization treatments to which the species have been subjected. Dipteryx odorata, Inga edulis and Schizolobium amazonicum were subjected to the following treatments: (T1 unfertilized control; (T2 post-planting chemical fertilization; (T3 post-planting organic fertilization and (T4 combined chemical and organic post-planting fertilization. Results: In general, I. edulis had the highest absolute growth rate of biomass under all of the fertilization treatments. I. edulis and S. amazonicum showed the highest growth rates under the T4 treatment. D. odorata showed the greatest responses under the T2 and T4 treatments. Native leguminous trees with higher photosynthetic performance and better nutrient use efficiency exhibited greater growth and biomass production. Conclusion: The results suggest that an adequate balance between leguminous species selection and fertilization will aid in the success of forest restoration in Amazonia.

  4. Activity patterns and diet of the howler monkey Alouatta belzebul in areas of logged and unlogged forest in Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto, A. C. B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This work compared the activity patterns and diet of a group of Alouatta belzebul in areas of logged and unlogged forest in eastern Amazonia. An instantaneous scan sampling procedure was used for the behavioral study (9.3 ± 1.9 complete observation days/month from February to November 2000. Fruit availability was estimated monthly. Activity budgets were not significantly different between sites. Rest was the predominant activity in both sites (53.6 % and 48.7 %, respectively. Average daily path length was 683.5 ± 215.1 m (n = 93, and the home range was 17.8 ha, including 7 ha in unlogged forest and 10.8 ha in the logged forest. Neither fruit availability nor diet varied significantly between sites. The diet was predominantly folivorous (43.4 % and 46.6 % in unlogged and logged forest, respectively and frugivorous (43.9 % and 42.8 %. The spatial use by the group was positively related to fruit sources. This study documented the ability of a ranging group of A. belzebul to survive in a habitat influenced by reduced impact logging without dramatically influencing its activity patterns and diet

  5. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, E. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200–300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads. PMID:27010739

  6. A community-based survey of human toxoplasmosis in rural Amazonia: seroprevalence, seroconversion rate, and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Hiramoto, Roberto M; Aureliano, Débora P; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; da Silva, Natal S; Malafronte, Rosely S; Muniz, Pascoal T

    2009-07-01

    IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected in, March-April 2004, in 65.8% (95% confidence interval, 60.8-70.8%) of 342 systematically sampled subjects 5-90 years of age (87.5% of the eligible) living in a rural settlement in Amazonia, with a seroconversion rate of 9% over 1 year of follow-up of 99 seronegative subjects. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified age as the only significant independent predictor of seropositivity at the baseline. Each additional year of age increases the odds of being seropositive by 6%, and 76.8% of the subjects are expected to be seropositive at 30 years of age. A single high-prevalence spatial cluster, comprising 11.9% of the seropositive subjects, was detected in the area; households in the cluster were less likely to have dogs as pets and their heads had a lower education level, when compared with households located outside the cluster. The challenges for preventing human toxoplasmosis in tropical rural settings are discussed.

  7. NA44 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    General view of NA44 experiment. NA44 is one of the seven experiments (NA44, NA45, NA49, NA50, NA52, WA97/NA57 and WA98) involved in CERN'S Heavy Ion programme which provided evidence for the existence of a new state of matter in which quarks, instead of being bound up into more complex particles such as protons and neutrons, are liberated and roam freely. Theory predicts that this state must have existed at about 10 microseconds after the Big Bang, before the formation of matter as we know it today.

  8. New molecular identifiers for Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. and the detection of genetic substructure with potential implications for onchocerciasis epidemiology in the Amazonia focus of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Priscila A; Crainey, James L; Almeida, Tatiana P; Shelley, Anthony J; Luz, Sergio L B

    2013-08-01

    The Amazonia onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil is the larger of the two remaining Latin American onchocerciasis foci where disease transmission still occurs and is often regarded as the most challenging of all the Latin American foci to eliminate onchocerciasis. The site is home to a population of over 20,000 semi-nomadic, hunter-gatherer Yanomami people and is made-up of a mosaic of rainforest and savannah ecologies, which are influenced by the area's undulating terrain and rich geological diversity. At least six blackfly vectors have been implicated in onchocerciasis transmission in this focus; however, because of the difficulty in their routine identification the relative importance of each has been obscured. Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. have both been recorded as vectors in the Amazonia focus, but they are difficult to discriminate morphologically and thus the ecological range of these species, and indeed the presence of S. limbatum in the Amazonia focus at all, have remained controversial. In the work described here, we report 15 S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences and 27 S. limbatum sequences obtained from field-caught adult female blackflies collected from forest and savannah localities, inside and just outside the Amazonia focus. Phylogenetic analysis with the sequences generated in this study, showed that both the S. limbatum and the S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences obtained (even from specimens living in sympatry) all fell into discrete species-specific bootstrap-supported monophyletic groups and thus confirmed the utility of the CO1 gene for identifying both these species inside the Amazonia focus. As the S. limbatum-exclusive cluster included CO1 sequences obtained from forest-caught and morphologically identified specimens these results provide the clearest evidence yet of the presence of S. limbatum inside the Amazonia focus. The question, however, of whether S. limbatum is actually a vector in the focus

  9. Enzimas hidrolíticas extracelulares de isolados de rizóbia nativos da Amazônia Central, Amazonas, Brasil Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes in indigenous strains of rhizobia in Central Amazonia, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A associação rizóbia x leguminosa contribui para enriquecer o solo com nitrogênio por meio da fixação biológica. Entretanto, pouco se conhece a respeito do perfil enzimático desses microrganismos. Nesse contexto, a presente investigação propõe avaliar a produção de enzimas hidrolíticas extracelulares por isolados de rizóbia nativos da Amazônia Central. Essa triagem constitui o primeiro passo na seleção de microrganismos nativos que são potencialmente exploráveis como produtores de enzimas. Foram testados 67 isolados nativos de rizóbia para as atividades amilolítica, celulolítica, lactolítica, lipolítica, pectinolítica e proteolítica, em meio YMA modificado. A atividade ureolítica foi detectada em meio ágar-uréia. As bactérias isoladas dos nódulos de feijão caupi mostraram maior capacidade em produzir enzimas do que os isolados bacterianos de soja. De todas as enzimas hidrolíticas avaliadas, apenas a pectinase não foi detectada neste estudo. Amilase (32,8%, protease (28,4%, urease (20,9% e carboximetilcelulase (9,0% foram as enzimas mais freqüentes produzidas pelos isolados. Neste trabalho, apenas as enzimas amilase e protease variaram significativamente entre os isolados de rizóbia. Os isolados INPA R-926 e INPA R-915 exibiram os maiores índices amilolíticos (IE = 3,1 e proteolíticos (IE = 6,6, respectivamente. Este estudo revelou alguns isolados de rizóbia nativos da Amazônia Central como fontes promissoras de enzimas de importância industrial para uso biotecnológico.Legumes enrich the soil by contributing nitrogen through symbiotic biological nitrogen fixation by rhizobia bacteria. However, very little is known about the extracellular enzymatic profile of these microorganisms. In this context, the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes by indigenous strains of rhizobia in Central Amazonia was evaluated. This screening constitutes the first step in selecting indigenous microorganisms that are

  10. From Amazonia to the Atlantic forest: molecular phylogeny of Phyzelaphryninae frogs reveals unexpected diversity and a striking biogeographic pattern emphasizing conservation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Loebmann, Daniel; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Padial, José M; Orrico, Victor G D; Lyra, Mariana L; Roberto, Igor Joventino; Kok, Philippe J R; Haddad, Célio F B; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2012-11-01

    Documenting the Neotropical amphibian diversity has become a major challenge facing the threat of global climate change and the pace of environmental alteration. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that the actual number of species in South American tropical forests is largely underestimated, but also that many lineages are millions of years old. The genera Phyzelaphryne (1 sp.) and Adelophryne (6 spp.), which compose the subfamily Phyzelaphryninae, include poorly documented, secretive, and minute frogs with an unusual distribution pattern that encompasses the biotic disjunction between Amazonia and the Atlantic forest. We generated >5.8 kb sequence data from six markers for all seven nominal species of the subfamily as well as for newly discovered populations in order to (1) test the monophyly of Phyzelaphryninae, Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, (2) estimate species diversity within the subfamily, and (3) investigate their historical biogeography and diversification. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the monophyly of each group and revealed deep subdivisions within Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, with three major clades in Adelophryne located in northern Amazonia, northern Atlantic forest and southern Atlantic forest. Our results suggest that the actual number of species in Phyzelaphryninae is, at least, twice the currently recognized species diversity, with almost every geographically isolated population representing an anciently divergent candidate species. Such results highlight the challenges for conservation, especially in the northern Atlantic forest where it is still degraded at a fast pace. Molecular dating revealed that Phyzelaphryninae originated in Amazonia and dispersed during early Miocene to the Atlantic forest. The two Atlantic forest clades of Adelophryne started to diversify some 7 Ma minimum, while the northern Amazonian Adelophryne diversified much earlier, some 13 Ma minimum. This striking biogeographic pattern coincides with

  11. Preliminary Compositional Evidence of Provenance of Ceramics from Hatahara Archaeological Site, Central Amazonia

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    K. P. Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred twenty four ceramic fragments and six clay samples from the Hatahara archaeological site in Amazonas state, Brazil, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, to determine the concentration of twenty chemical elements: Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, and Zn. The dataset was submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. The classification was done by cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. The results demonstrated the occurrence of four different groups of ceramics, which represent three archaeological phases: Paredão, Manacapuru, and Guarita. This data is consistent with previous traditional petrographic examination of the ceramic samples. Based on probability measures, the great majority of the ceramics are considered to be local in origin.

  12. Protocol for isolation of Moniliophthora roreri (Cif and Par Evans et al. from cacao fruits cv. `National' in the Ecuadorian Amazonia

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    Karina Carrera-Sánchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora roreri is a pathogen of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. that causes high economic losses in Ecuador. This paper is intended to present a protocol for the isolation of the pathogen from cocoa fruits cv. `National', showing signs and symptoms of disease. The fruits were collected on farms of Napo (Ecuador. By wet chamber, it was able to induce profusely, sporulation on the surface of selected lesions. The isolations were performed from conidia directly located on the surface of fruits with brown powdery appearance. Isolation procedures and suggested of possible applications are presented.   Key words: amazonia, basidiomycetes, fungi, moniliasis, Theobroma cacao L.

  13. Productos del mercado artesanal en la ciudad de Leticia (Amazonia colombiana) elaborados con especies de bosques de Mauritia flexuosa L.f.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Lorena Franco Arango; Mauricio Sánchez Sáenz; Ligia Estela Urrego Giraldo; Andrea Galeano González; María Cristina Peñuela-Mora

    2015-01-01

    Los productos forestales no maderables (PFNMs) han tomado fuerza como alternativa para la conservación de ecosistemas y la generación de ingresos económicos en las poblaciones asociadas. Se presenta un mayor interés sobre los productos que provienen de bosques oligárquicos (poco diversos y con alta densidad relativa), especialmente los dominados por palmas, como por ejemplo los bosques de Mauritia flexuosa (aguajales, cananguchales o buritizales). En el mercado artesanal de Leticia (Amazonia ...

  14. Modelo dinámico-probabilístico sobre el comportamiento de los pueblos indígenas en aislamiento de la Amazonia Ecuatoriana.

    OpenAIRE

    Heredia Rengifo, Marco G.; Hernández Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    La supervivencia de los pueblos en aislamiento (PIAs), Tagaeri? Taromenane en la Amazonia ecuatoriana, está influida por agentes externos y características culturales. El área definida como Zona Intangible para el desplazamiento de los PIAs presenta cierta debilidad geográfica, lo que alterna el funcionamiento de estas comunidades. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer el comportamiento de las comunidades aisladas en relación con las fronteras de contactos. Se ha utilizado el software libre ...

  15. Medio siglo de desarrollo en la Amazonia: ¿existen esperanzas para su desarrollo sustentable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J. Dourojeanni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A DESTRUIÇÃO DOS recursos naturais da Amazônia continua aumentando, especialmente o desmatamento, apesar de a retórica dos últimos 50 anos ter mudado de conquista e exploração para desenvolvimento sustentável. Entretanto, mudanças positivas são percebidas, ainda que pequenas: o crescimento da participação popular nas decisões; o Tratado de Cooperação Amazônica, que começa a dar resultados práticos; o interesse internacional melhor orientado; existem experiências bem-sucedidas e melhor documentadas sobre desenvolvimento sustentável; e muitos dos antigos mitos sobre a realidade amazônica estão sendo abandonados. O crescimento da população urbana é uma das principais mudanças percebidas. Hoje, mais de 60% de sua população é urbana e tem grande influência nas decisões políticas, ainda que não necessariamente favorável para o desenvolvimento sustentável. Neste trabalho explora-se algumas das razões pelas quais o desenvolvimento amazônico não é sustentável: entre outras, um paradigma de desenvolvimento sustentável mal definido, a persistente deficiência na identificação dos atores amazônicos e na solução de seus conflitos no planejamento regional, a fragilidade crescente das instituições públicas, a aplicação do simples crescimento econômico como estratégia dominante de desenvolvimento, o limitado acesso à educação, a desordem social. Duas ações estratégicas, que não constituem novidade, são consideradas essenciais para mudar gradativamente o padrão do desenvolvimento na região: a intensificação do uso da terra e a elevação da produtividade nas áreas já desmatadas (acima de 100 milhões de hectares na Amazônia produzem pouco ou nada; a avaliação e o pagamento em escala nacional e internacional dos serviços ambientais fornecidos pela floresta. Esses dois requisitos deverão ser acompanhados pela adoção outras estratégias bem conhecidas, como o manejo sustentável da floresta

  16. Chagas disease and globalization of the Amazon La enfermedad de Chagas y la globalización de la Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of autochthonous cases of Chagas disease in the Amazon since the 1970s has led to fear that the disease may become a new public health problem in the region. This transformation in the disease's epidemiological pattern in the Amazon can be explained by environmental and social changes in the last 30 years. The current article draws on the sociological theory of perverse effects to explain these changes as the unwanted result of the shift from the "inward" development model prevailing until the 1970s to the "outward" model that we know as globalization, oriented by industrial forces and international trade. The current article highlights the implementation of five new patterns in agriculture, cattle-raising, mining, lumbering, and urban occupation that have generated changes in the environment and the traditional indigenous habitat and have led to migratory flows, deforestation, sedentary living, the presence of domestic animals, and changes in the habitat that facilitate colonization of human dwellings by vectors and the domestic and work-related transmission of the disease. The expansion of Chagas disease is thus a perverse effect of the globalization process in the Amazon.El incremento de casos autóctonos de la enfermedad de Chagas en la Amazonia a partir de los años setenta hace temer que pueda convertirse en un novedoso problema de salud pública en la región. Este cambio del patrón epidemiológico de la enfermedad en la región amazónica debe ser explicado por las transformaciones ambientales y sociales que han ocurrido en los pasados treinta años. Este artículo utiliza la teoría sociológica de los efectos perversos para explicar esos cambios como el resultado indeseado del cambio de modelo de desarrollo "hacia adentro", que había existido hasta los años setenta, por otro "hacia fuera" que está orientado por las fuerzas de la producción y el comercio internacional que conocemos como globalización. El art

  17. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Anderson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of forests over Paleovarzea geomorphologycal formation, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  18. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. O.; Malhi, Y.; Ladle, R. J.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Y.; Phillips, O. L.; Baker, T.; Costa, A. C. L.; Espejo, J. S.; Higuchi, N.; Laurance, W. F.; López-González, G.; Monteagudo, A.; Núñez-Vargas, P.; Peacock, J.; Quesada, C. A.; Almeida, S.

    2009-09-01

    Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of forests over Paleovarzea geomorphologycal formation, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  19. Determinants of plant community assembly in a mosaic of landscape units in central Amazonia: ecological and phylogenetic perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Natalia Umaña

    Full Text Available The Amazon harbours one of the richest ecosystems on Earth. Such diversity is likely to be promoted by plant specialization, associated with the occurrence of a mosaic of landscape units. Here, we integrate ecological and phylogenetic data at different spatial scales to assess the importance of habitat specialization in driving compositional and phylogenetic variation across the Amazonian forest. To do so, we evaluated patterns of floristic dissimilarity and phylogenetic turnover, habitat association and phylogenetic structure in three different landscape units occurring in terra firme (Hilly and Terrace and flooded forests (Igapó. We established two 1-ha tree plots in each of these landscape units at the Caparú Biological Station, SW Colombia, and measured edaphic, topographic and light variables. At large spatial scales, terra firme forests exhibited higher levels of species diversity and phylodiversity than flooded forests. These two types of forests showed conspicuous differences in species and phylogenetic composition, suggesting that environmental sorting due to flood is important, and can go beyond the species level. At a local level, landscape units showed floristic divergence, driven both by geographical distance and by edaphic specialization. In terms of phylogenetic structure, Igapó forests showed phylogenetic clustering, whereas Hilly and Terrace forests showed phylogenetic evenness. Within plots, however, local communities did not show any particular trend. Overall, our findings suggest that flooded forests, characterized by stressful environments, impose limits to species occurrence, whereas terra firme forests, more environmentally heterogeneous, are likely to provide a wider range of ecological conditions and therefore to bear higher diversity. Thus, Amazonia should be considered as a mosaic of landscape units, where the strength of habitat association depends upon their environmental properties.

  20. Combined effects of deforestation and doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on the climate of Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, M.H.; Foley, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    It is generally expected that the Amazon basin will experience at least two major environmental changes during the next few decades and centuries: (1) increasing areas of forest will be converted to pasture and cropland, and (2) concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} will continue to rise. In this study, the authors use the National Center for Atmospheric Research GENESIS atmospheric general circulation model, coupled to the Integrated Biosphere Simulator, to determine the combined effects of large-scale deforestation and increased CO{sub 2} concentrations (including both physiological and radiative effects) on Amazonian climate. In these simulations, deforestation decreases basin-average precipitation by 0.73 mm day{sup {minus}1} over the basin, as a consequence of the general reduction in vertical motion above the deforested area (although there are some small regions with increased vertical motion). The overall effect of doubled CO{sub 2} concentrations in Amazonia is an increase in basin-average precipitation of 0.28 mm day{sup {minus}1}. The combined effect of deforestation and doubled CO{sub 2}, including the interactions among the processes, is a decrease in the basin-average precipitation of 0.42 mm day{sup {minus}1}. While the effects of deforestation and increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations on precipitation tend to counteract one another, both processes work to warm the Amazon basin. The effect of deforestation and increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations both tent to increase surface temperature, mainly because of decreases in evapotranspiration and the radiative effect of CO{sub 2}. The combined effect of deforestation and doubled CO{sub 2}, including the interactions among the processes, increases the basin-average temperature by roughly 3.5 C.

  1. Who Cares about Forests and Why? Individual Values Attributed to Forests in a Post-Frontier Region in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsello, Carla; Parry, Luke; Pardini, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the multiple ways people value forests is important, as individual values regarding nature have been shown to partly determine willingness to participate in conservation initiatives. As individual values are influenced by past experiences, the way people value forests may be related to the ecosystem services they use and receive. We here aim to investigate if people value forests because of material and non-material benefits forest provide (material and non-material values), and if these values are defined by previous experiences associated with using forest resources and having frequent contact with forests. By interviewing 363 residents across 20 landscapes varying in forest cover in a post-frontier region in Amazonia, we evaluated: (1) if the use of forest resources—especially bushmeat, important for sustenance and cash income in virtually all tropical forests—is associated with attributing higher material value to forests; (2) whether the contact with forest (estimated by local forest cover and visits to forests) is associated with attributing higher non-material value to forests. As expected, respondents from households where hunting occurs and bushmeat consumption is more frequent attributed higher material value to forests, and those living in more deforested landscapes and that visited forests less often attributed lower non-material value to forests. The importance of bushmeat in shaping the way people value forests suggests that encouraging the sustainable use of this product will encourage forest conservation. Results also point to a potential dangerous reinforcing cycle: low forest cover and the loss of contact with forests may erode forest values and facilitate further deforestation. Engaging rural communities in forest conservation initiatives is challenging yet urgent in degraded landscapes, although harnessing appreciation for bushmeat could offer a starting point. PMID:27942038

  2. Landscape dynamics in northwestern Amazonia: an assessment of pastures, fire and illicit crops as drivers of tropical deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Rodríguez, Nelly; Retana, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have identified drivers of deforestation throughout the tropics and, in most cases, have recognised differences in the level of threat. However, only a few have also looked at the temporal and spatial dynamics by which those drivers act, which is critical for assessing the conservation of biodiversity as well as for landscape planning. In this study, we analyse land cover change between 2000 and 2009 in north-western Colombian Amazonia to identify the interactions between the use of fire, cultivation of illicit crops and establishment of pastures, and their impacts on the loss of forest in the region. Yearly analyses were undertaken at randomly selected sample areas to quantify the average areas of transition of land cover types under different landscape compositions: forest-dominated mosaics, pasture mosaics, fire mosaics, and illicit crop mosaics. Our results indicate that despite the fact that forest areas were well-preserved, deforestation occurred at a low annual rate (0.06%). Conversion to pasture was the main factor responsible for forest loss (the area of pastures tripled within forest mosaics over 8 years), and this process was independent of the landscape matrix in which the forests were located. In fire mosaics, burning is a common tool for forest clearing and conversion to pasture. Thus, forests in fire mosaics were highly disturbed and frequently transformed from primary to secondary forests. The use of fire for illicit cropping was not detected, partly due to the small size of common illicit crops. Forest regeneration from pastures and secondary vegetation was observed in areas with large amounts of natural forest. Overall, assuming the continuation of the observed pasture conversion trend and the use of forest fire, we suggest that our results should be incorporated into a spatially explicit and integrated decision support tool to target and focus land-planning activities and policies.

  3. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Anderson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of alluvial terrain forest, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  4. Papel trófico del microbial loop en un lago de inundación en la Amazonia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caraballo Gracia Pedro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar la participación de las bacterias heterotróficas en el flujo de carbono en la cadena trófica de un lago de inundación amazónico, colectas mensuales de estos microorganismos fueron realizadas durante el año hidrológico de diciembre de 2007 hasta noviembre de 2008, en las regiones litoral, pelágica y de macrófitas acuáticas del lago Catalão, en la Amazonia Central brasilera. Las bacterias fueron multiplicadas in vitro, usando como sustrato el carbono orgánico disuelto (COD del lago en cada una de las regiones estudiadas, para posterior análisis de la abundancia de isotopos estables de carbono y nitrógeno. Estos datos fueron confrontados con los valores de COD de los cuatro periodos limnológicos del lago (seca, inundación, llena y bajada de aguas. En general se encontró que la fuente principal de carbono de las bacterias heterotróficas fue aquella de origen C4, que presentó un aporte mínimo de 75%, en la medida en que el δ13C de las bacterias presentó valor medio de -17,72‰ ± 2,25. Confrontando ese valor, con el δ13C del zooplancton en el mismo período (-33,04‰±3,81 se concluye que el aporte de las bacterias heterotróficas al flujo de carbono hacia niveles tróficos superiores en el lago estudiado es mínimo.

  5. Activity budget, diet, and use of space by two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2013-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) are widely distributed in the Amazon basin. This study describes the ecological and behavioral patterns of two social groups of S. sciureus in forests adjacent to the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir in eastern Amazonia, including range size, activity budgets, and composition of the diet. The groups were monitored at Base 4 (group B4) and Germoplasma Island (group GI). Quantitative behavioral data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling to record behavior, substrate use, and height. Home ranges were delimited using a GPS to determine group position after each 50 m of movement. Home ranges were 75.0 ha for group B4 (39 members) and 77.5 ha for group GI (32 members). The use of vertical strata was well defined, with a marked preference for the middle and lower levels of the canopy. The activity budgets of both groups were typical of those of other squirrel monkeys and were dominated by foraging (B4 = 48.7 %; GI = 49.6 %), moving (both groups 28.9 %), and feeding (B4 = 14.6 %; GI = 12.4 %). Resting was rare (B4 = 3.5 %; GI = 2.6 %) and less common than social behavior (B4 = 4.3 %; GI = 6.4 %). The diet of both groups was dominated by plant material (B4 = 70.7 % of feeding records; GI = 71.4 %), which is in contrast with the more insectivorous diets recorded for Saimiri at other sites. Group GI spent more time foraging during the dry season, whereas group B4 spent more time in the rainy season when the consumption of fruit increased (significantly, in the case of group GI). The less insectivorous diet of these groups may be due to a number of factors, including the unique habitat configuration at the site and reduced hydrological stress due to the proximity of the reservoir.

  6. Genetic structure of red-handed howler monkey populations in the fragmented landscape of Eastern Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor B. Bastos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We genotyped 15 microsatellite loci in order to evaluate the effects of habitat fragmentation, caused by flooding of the Tucuruí reservoir, on the genetic structure of Alouatta belzebul in eastern Amazonia. The analysis included two populations sampled in 1984, representing both margins of the Tocantins river, and three populations sampled 18 years later. Minimal differences in the diversity levels between present-day (Ho = 0.62-0.69 and A R = 6.07-7.21 and pre-flooding (Ho = 0.60-0.62 and A R = 6.27-6.77 populations indicated there was no significant loss of genetic variability, possibly because of successful management strategies applied during the flooding. The changes observed were limited to shifts in the composition of alleles, which presumably reflect the admixture of subpopulations during flooding. Given this, there were significant differences in the Rst values (p = 0.05 in all but one between-site comparison. Both present-day and original populations showed a deficit of heterozygotes, which suggests that this may be typical of the species, at least at a local level, perhaps because of specific ecological characteristics. The relatively large number of private alleles recorded in all populations may be a consequence of the Wahlund effect resulting from population admixture or a process of expansion rather than the loss of rare alleles through genetic drift. Additionally, the levels of genetic variability observed in this study were higher than those reported for other species of Neotropical primates, suggesting good fitness levels in these A. belzebul populations. Regular genetic monitoring of remnant populations, especially on islands, should nevertheless be an integral component of long-term management strategies.

  7. Who Cares about Forests and Why? Individual Values Attributed to Forests in a Post-Frontier Region in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignano Torres, Patricia; Morsello, Carla; Parry, Luke; Pardini, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the multiple ways people value forests is important, as individual values regarding nature have been shown to partly determine willingness to participate in conservation initiatives. As individual values are influenced by past experiences, the way people value forests may be related to the ecosystem services they use and receive. We here aim to investigate if people value forests because of material and non-material benefits forest provide (material and non-material values), and if these values are defined by previous experiences associated with using forest resources and having frequent contact with forests. By interviewing 363 residents across 20 landscapes varying in forest cover in a post-frontier region in Amazonia, we evaluated: (1) if the use of forest resources-especially bushmeat, important for sustenance and cash income in virtually all tropical forests-is associated with attributing higher material value to forests; (2) whether the contact with forest (estimated by local forest cover and visits to forests) is associated with attributing higher non-material value to forests. As expected, respondents from households where hunting occurs and bushmeat consumption is more frequent attributed higher material value to forests, and those living in more deforested landscapes and that visited forests less often attributed lower non-material value to forests. The importance of bushmeat in shaping the way people value forests suggests that encouraging the sustainable use of this product will encourage forest conservation. Results also point to a potential dangerous reinforcing cycle: low forest cover and the loss of contact with forests may erode forest values and facilitate further deforestation. Engaging rural communities in forest conservation initiatives is challenging yet urgent in degraded landscapes, although harnessing appreciation for bushmeat could offer a starting point.

  8. Chemical characterisation of total suspended particulate matter from a remote area in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cátia; Figueiredo, Bernardino R.; Alves, Célia A.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.; da Silva, Rodrigo; Kanzawa, Simone H.; Vicente, Ana Margarida

    2016-12-01

    This research had as study object the total suspended particulate matter collected in the Alenquer region, a remote area in the Pará state. The main objectives were the characterisation of the inorganic and organic chemical composition of the aerosol, looking for seasonal patterns and the identification of probable emission sources and formation processes. A set of 30 samples were collected in the rainy (April-May) and dry season (August-September) of 2014. The analytical methods included gravimetric analysis, water-soluble ions analysis by ion chromatography (IC), elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipped with collision cell technology, carbonaceous content determination with a thermal-optical system and organic speciation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The average concentrations of particulate matter ranged from 14 ± 1.3 μg·m- 3 to 31 ± 7.8 μg·m- 3, in the rainy and dry season, respectively. The carbonaceous content represented, on average, approximately 27% and 21% of the particulate matter in the rainy and dry season, respectively. Na+, Cl-, SO₄2 -, and NO₃- yield the highest concentrations in both seasons. Na was the dominant element, reflecting the transport of air masses from the Atlantic. An increase in concentrations between the rainy and dry seasons was especially noted for the terrigenous elements such Mn, Fe and Al. The chromatographically resolved organics included n-alkanes, n-alkenes, PAHs, n-alkanoic acids, n-di-acids, resin acids and some phenolic compounds. The primary inputs of organic constituents to the aerosols of Alenquer based on the homologous compound series and biomarkers were: (i) natural emissions from terrestrial higher plants waxes, particularly in dry season; (ii) anthropogenic emissions from diesel fuel combustion and biomass combustion, predominating during the dry season. The chemical characterisation along with the backward trajectory cluster analysis

  9. Os impactos da organização do ambiente institucional no desenvolvimento do arranjo produtivo local do município de Parintins na Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Augusto Ramalho de Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to discuss the organization and characterization of the institutional environment in the development of APL tour of Parintins in Amazonas. To develop the research, the methodology has a qualitative approach, and as a method of content analysis procedure. 10 questionnaires were applied with the managers of the leading institutions in the arrangement. Regionalization Project in Tourism, Parintins is inserted in the Southern Sateré / Tucandeira - Roadmap Boi Bumba festival. This demonstrates the high potential for tourism that has Parintins, depending on the linkage of the various players identified. Through research we can see that the institutional apparatus in the region is relatively developed, but still with little transfer of information between the agents and the lack of cooperative actions focused on developing the Local Productive Arrangement.

  10. Homens e cuidados de saúde em famílias empobrecidas na Amazônia Men and health care in impoverished families in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Machado Duran Gutierrez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigamos o lugar do homem em relação aos cuidados com saúde, em famílias de baixa renda no contexto amazônico. Utilizamos 11 entrevistas com eles e suas famílias e com 21 profissionais de Saúde sobre eles e observação dos contextos em que vivem e dos processos de utilização e atendimento dos serviços. Os dados empíricos foram analisados em seu conteúdo sob a perspectiva cultural do holismo-individualismo. Verificamos que os homens cuidam predominantemente da saúde de si e da família a partir dos papéis socialmente tradicionais que lhes são atribuídos. O cuidado de si para eles é, em geral, emergencial, superficial e mediado pela mulher. Já o cuidado com os outros está voltado para o cumprimento do papel de provedor. Fogem desse padrão, homens em que predomina a cultura indígena e jovens com visão social e familiar mais moderna. Via de regra, os parentes reforçam as principais tendências culturais do comportamento masculino a respeito dos cuidados com a saúde. Os profissionais, por sua vez, tendem a desqualificar as reivindicações masculinas, buscando equivocadamente combater o machismo, e falham em reconhecer diferenças pautadas em repertórios culturais.We investigated the position of men in relation to health care in low-income families at the Amazon region. We completed 11 interviews with the men and their families and with 21 health care professionals responsible for them. We made observations of the contexts in which they live and of the use and provision of health service process. Data were analyzed from the perspective of cultural holism-individualism. We found that men tend to follow traditional social roles in managing their own and their family's health. Health care for themselves is usually emergency care, superficial and mediated by the woman. The man's care for others is primarily focused on fulfilling the role of provider. However, men dominated by indigenous culture and young men with more modern social and family views tend not to follow this pattern. As a rule, the parents reinforce the main cultural tendencies of male behaviour related to health care. The professionals, in turn, tend to dismiss male's claims, seeking mistakenly to combat sexism, and fail to recognize differences based on cultural repertoires.

  11. Environmental impacts of thermal generation in the largest city of the Brazilian Amazon; Impactos ambientais da geracao termeletrica na maior cidade da Amazonia brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Ilsa Maria Valois; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (NIEMA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Energia Meio Ambiente e Agua

    2010-07-01

    The developing process of the Manaus city is questioned from the authors' concern about the built environment and 'destroyed' by the diversity of human actions. Reflecting on the impacts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere of the city of Manaus by thermoelectric plants, the main source of electricity in the state, the focus of this study is the urban atmosphere where physical and chemical phenomena accelerate the effects of pollution. It is based on two works: A) monitoring of emissions of gaseous pollutants emitted by Power Plant (UTE) Maua from the emission source. This is a project - 'Reducing Emissions of Gaseous Pollutants in Central Steam Power Plants' - conducted by the Interdisciplinary Center for Energy, Environment and Water of the Federal University of Amazonas (UFAM) approved by the Research and Development Program of the Concessionaire local power. B) the result of a Master thesis submitted to UFAM, 'Mapping the distribution of nitrogen dioxide in the city of Manaus' (MARINHO, 2007). This research has made an assessment of levels of distribution of NO{sup 2} in twenty points distributed in a strategic way, demonstrating that the minimum values were found in a region with little urban influence. The analysis of these two works subsidizes a preliminary research in analytical chemistry and attempts to demonstrate the need to advance the search for methods and techniques more consistent. This is an important step toward a policy of environmental management of atmospheric air that will complement future studies of air pollution in the capital of Amazonas. (author)

  12. Carbon content of Amazon forest biomass and changes after burning; Conteudo de carbono na biomassa florestal da Amazonia e alteracoes apos a queima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graca, Paulo Mauricio Lima de Alencastro

    1997-04-01

    The carbon contained in the various types of vegetation in the Brazilian legal Amazon was estimated in 80 Pg, based on data from the literature. Transformations of biomass caused by burning took place in an open forest located in Nova Vida Ranch, Arquimedes, Roraima state. The direct and indirect method to estimate the biomass and charcoal after burning were compared and correlation coefficients are presented. Based on combustion efficiency from the above mentioned location and other localities in the Amazon, the carbon released upon burning was calculated. The annual contribution of carbon emitted to the atmosphere was also calculated and presented 119 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Study for the energization of isolated community in the Amazon - Canaa Micro Hydropower Project; Estudo para a energizacao de comunidade isolada na Amazonia - Projeto Microcentral Canaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio; Lemos, Helmo; Nogueira, Fabio Jose Horta [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais. Centro Nacional de Referencias em PCH' s], Emails: tiago@unifei.edu.br, helmo@unifei.edu.br, fabioh@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    The initiatives for electrification of remote communities have proven, so far, to difficult economic sustainability, with high rates of discontinuation of service and low quality of electricity provided. Another important aspect of these initiatives is great difficulty for the energy supply in these communities. The program 'Luz para Todos' (Light for All), launched by federal government in 2002, is an alternative that aims to universalize the service of electricity in all throughout the country, mainly of small isolated communities by giving them access to development due to the arrival of energy. One of these communities who will benefit from the program is the Community settlement of Nova Canaa, located in Pimenta Bueno in the State of Rondonia in the Amazon region. It will be met 55 families who never had access to a power quality and continuous supply. The relevance of this project is expressed by the possibility of replication of its management model for other communities in the country, contributing to the improvement of quality of life, poverty reduction and rural exodus. (author)

  14. Palm oil as a sustainable energy alternative in degraded areas of the Amazon region; O dende como alternativa energetica sustentavel em areas degradadas na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villela, Alberto Arruda

    2009-02-15

    Bio fuels are important tools in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG); however, to minimize the conflict with food crops, energy crops with high efficiency and capacity to absorb Co2, such as the oil palm, should be prioritized. The European Union intends to replace 10% of liquid fossil fuel demand with bio fuels by 2020. According to studies conducted by the European Commission, this will entail the annual import of more than 3 million tonnes of palm oil, the most produced and least expensive vegetable oil in the world. 87% of global production comes from Indonesia and Malaysia, where the relentless expansion of oil palm cultivation has caused extensive forest devastation, threatening biodiversity and increasing GHG emissions. The Netherlands, a large importer of oil palm products, developed a methodology (Cramer) for the certification of sustainable bio energy production, assessing economic, social, environmental aspects, as well as GHG emissions, throughout the supply chain. It sets a mandatory minimum 30% reduction of GHG emissions in the bio-energy chain for use in transport and 70% for use in heat and power generation, as compared to the chain of the fossil counterpart. This dissertation shows that oil and bio diesel (ethyl ester) from palm grown in the Amazon meets this GHG mitigation criterion when degraded areas are utilized for cultivation, but not when forests are razed for that purpose. (author)

  15. Aspectos agronómicos sobre el cultivo del arazá (eugenia stipitata me vaugh Frutal promisorio de la amazonia colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quevedo Garcia Enrique

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio del manejo agronómico del cultivo del arazá (Eugenia slipitata Mc. Vaugh en la Amazonia colombiana y una revisión del manejo del arazá en la Amazonia del Brasil y Perú. Se concluye que esta es una especie en vía de domesticación que puede ser cultivada en otras regiones de Colombia y que podría ser un sustituto para los cultivos ilícitos. Si somos hábiles en logra establecer el cultivo del arazá. En reglones con características ecológicas adecuadas para esta especie en corto tiempo, obtendremos un fruto para el consumo humano y su usa extensivo en Colombia.

  16. Meteorological context of the onset and end of the rainy season in Central Amazonia during the GoAmazon2014/5

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    J. A. Marengo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The onset and demise of the rainy season in Amazonia are assessed in this study using meteorological data from the GoAmazon experiment, with a focus on the 2014–2015 rainy season. In addition, global reanalyses are also used to identify changes in circulation leading to the establishment of the rainy season in the region. Our results show that the onset occurred in January 2015, 2–3 pentads later than normal, and the rainy season during the austral summer of 2015 contained several periods with consecutive dry days in both Manacapuru and Manaus, which are not common for the wet season, and resulted in below-normal precipitation. The onset of the rainy season has been strongly associated with changes in large-scale weather conditions in the region due to the effect of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO. Regional thermodynamic indices and the height of the boundary layer did not present a significant difference between the onset and demise of the wet season of 2015. This suggests that local changes, such as those in the regional thermodynamic characteristics, may not have influenced its onset. Thus, variability of the large-scale circulation was responsible for regional convection and rainfall changes in Amazonia during the austral summer of 2014–2015.

  17. Abundancia de actinomicetes y micorrizas arbusculares en paisajes fragmentados de la Amazonia colombiana

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    Cardona Gladys I. Cardona

    2005-12-01

    ="Subtle Emphasis" />

    Se evalúo la abundancia de actinomicetes y hongos Micorriza Arbuscular (MA en suelos bajo coberturas de bosque y pasto, en una zona de colonización de la Amazonia colombiana con tres grados de transformación antrópica. Se realizó una estratificación espacial de la fragmentación del paisaje de tierra firme, en cercanías de San Jos

  18. Angelite: Paziteli na vhoda

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    Gerov Georgi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (bugarski Statijata prosledjava ikonografskata evoljucija na izobraženijata na arhangelite Mihail i Gavriil, pomesteni pri vhoda na pravoslavnija hram. Povraten moment v neja e 13 vek. Togava arhangel Mihail započva da se izobrazjava kato voin. S tova apotropejnite mu funkcii namirat adekvaten vizualen izraz. K'm kraja na stoletieto arhangel Gavriil započva da se izobrazjava kato pisar - ikonografija, kojato šče b'de dorazvita i utv'rdena prez 14 vek. Prez postvizantijskata epoha v obraza na Mihail se pojavjavat elementi, koito akcentirat v'rhu roljata mu na psihopomp.

  19. Dinâmica da mobilização de elementos em solos da Amazônia submetidos à inundação Dinamics of elements in soils from Amazonia after controlled inundation

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    Hedinaldo Narciso Lima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Parte significativa de solos da Amazônia permanece saturada ou inundada por períodos que podem variar de alguns dias a vários meses, em decorrência de enchentes ou deficiência de drenagem em algumas áreas, resultando em alterações químicas, físicas e biológicas nos solos. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica da mobilização de Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Si e P em solos da Amazônia submetidos a inundação. Amostras de vários solos foram submetidas à inundação durante seis meses. Alíquotas da solução foram coletadas periodicamente durante o tempo de inundação e determinaram-se os teores dos diversos elementos em solução. A inundação influenciou a cinética dos elementos, com aumento da mobilização dos mesmos, principalmente, nas primeiras semanas. Os teores de Fe em solução foram mais elevados para os solos mais ricos em Fe amorfo. Em amostras com baixos teores de Fe amorfo e baixo conteúdo de matéria orgânica, os teores de Fe em solução foram muito reduzidos. O teor de P em solução foi influenciado por todas as formas de P. O P ligado ao Fe foi a forma que maior influência exerceu sobre o teor de P solúvel. Os teores dos cátions Ca, Mg, K e Na, em solução, foram diretamente influenciados por seus respectivos teores trocáveis, bem como pela cinética do Fe e do Mn.Significant part of Amazonia soils stays partially or completely waterlogged for varying periods of days to months, as result of widespread inundation or drainage deficiency in some areas, causing changes in chemical, physical and biological properties. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the dynamics of mobilization of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Si, P in soils subjected to controlled six months inundation. Soil solution aliquots were collected periodically during the inundation period, determining all elements in solution. The inundation influenced the kinetics of elements, increasing their mobilization, notably in

  20. Micorrizas arbusculares del sur de la Amazonia colombiana y su relación con algunos factores fisicoquímicos y biológicos del suelo Micorrizas arbusculares no sul da Amazônia colombiana e sua relação com algumos fatores fisicoquímicos e biológicos do solo

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    Clara Patricia Peña-Venegas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de micorrizas arbusculares en la vegetación de la Amazonia mejora la nutrición de las plantas en suelos de baja fertilidad. Este trabajo evaluó la presencia natural de hongos micorrícicos de tipo arbuscular (HMA en suelos ácidos de textura franco-arcillosa a arcillosa del sur de la Amazonia colombiana bajo bosque, rastrojo joven, y praderas establecidas, a dos profundidades diferentes. Fue estudiada la presencia de HMA (riqueza y abundancia de esporas relacionado con la acidez, la capacidad de intercambio catiónico, el carbono orgánico, el fósforo total, las fracciones de fósforo soluble y fijado al aluminio, hierro y calcio, y el ADN total del suelo. Se detectaron diferencias significativas, en el contenido de ADN total y el número de esporas respecto a la profundidad de muestreo. El pH presentó un efecto significativo sobre el contenido de ADN y el número de esporas de HMA. El contenido de ADN en el suelo se vio afectado por las concentraciones de fosfatos de aluminio, mientras la esporulación de HMA fue afectada por las concentraciones de fosfatos de hierro del suelo. Así, el número de esporas de HMA en suelos de la Amazonia se ve afectada por la profundidad, el pH y por el tipo de fosfatos minerales presentes.A presença das micorrizas arbusculares na vegetação da Amazônia pode incrementar a nutrição das plantas nos solos com baixa fertilidade. Neste estudo foi avaliada a ocorrência natural de fungos formadores de micorriza arbuscular (MA em solos ácidos de textura argilosa no sul da Amazônia colombiana, considerando-se nas coberturas de floresta nativa, floresta secundaria jovem, e pastagens estabelecidas e duas profundidades. Foi estudada a ocorrência das MA (riqueza e abundância de esporos com relação à: acidez, capacidade de troca de cátions, carbono orgânico, fósforo total, frações de fósforo solúvel, frações fixadas ao alumínio, ferro e cálcio e DNA total do solo. Quanto

  1. Crecimiento del maíz en vertisoles con alto aluminio en la Baixada Maranhense pre-Amazonia, Brasil.

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    Alessandro Costa-da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el crecimiento del maíz en suelos con alto contenido de aluminio. Se midió el efecto del Al3+ en raíces y la cantidad de materia seca (raíz, hoja y tallo de maíz. Se efectuó la caracterización físico-química de cuatro muestras de suelo con alto aluminio colectadas del horizonte Ap, en tres municipios de la región conocida como Baixada Maranhense (Pre-Amazonia, Brasil: Santa Rita (SR, Arari (AR y Vitoria do Mearim (VM y un testigo colectado en el municipio de São Luís, Área del Núcleo de Tecnología Rural (T. El estudio, ejecutado en 2009, se llevó a cabo en invernadero y se utilizó 2 dm3 de suelo por maceta. Asimismo las muestras fueron divididas en muestras con y sin fertilización. La variación en la longitud de la raíz y de materia seca de las hojas difirió significativamente entre tratados con y sin fertilizante, excepto en la muestra de la localidad T. La producción de materia seca de raíz, tallo y hoja fue mayor en todos los suelos cuando se fertilizó. El suelo testigo también superó a todos los demás en cuanto a producción de materia seca en la raíz, posiblemente como resultado de una menor cantidad de Al3+ (1,2 cmolc/dm3 en comparación con los suelos SR, AR y VM (6,8; 8,0 y 7,0 cmolc/dm3 respectivamente. Se concluye la fertilización reduce el efecto detrimental del aluminio en la producción de maíz en la Baixada Maranhense.

  2. Influence of urban pollution on the production of organic particulate matter from isoprene epoxydiols in central Amazonia

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    S. S. de Sá

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric chemistry of isoprene contributes to the production of a substantial mass fraction of the particulate matter (PM over tropical forests. Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX produced in the gas phase by the oxidation of isoprene under HO2-dominant conditions are subsequently taken up by particles, thereby leading to production of secondary organic PM. The present study investigates possible perturbations to this pathway by urban pollution. The measurement site in central Amazonia was located 4 to 6 h downwind of Manaus, Brazil. Measurements took place from February through March 2014 of the wet season, as part of the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment. Mass spectra of organic PM collected with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer were analyzed by positive-matrix factorization. One resolved statistical factor (IEPOX-SOA factor was associated with PM production by the IEPOX pathway. The IEPOX-SOA factor loadings correlated with independently measured mass concentrations of tracers of IEPOX-derived PM, namely C5-alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols (R = 0. 96 and 0.78, respectively. The factor loading, as well as the ratio f of the loading to organic PM mass concentration, decreased under polluted compared to background conditions. For an increase in NOy concentration from 0.5 to 2 ppb, the factor loading and f decreased by two to three fold. Overall, sulfate concentration explained 37 % of the variability in the factor loading. After segregation of factor loading into subsets based on NOy concentration, the sulfate concentration explained up to 75 % of the variability. Considering both factors, the data sets show that the suppressing effects of increased NO concentrations dominated over the enhancing effects of higher sulfate concentrations. The pollution from Manaus elevated NOy concentrations more significantly than sulfate concentrations relative to background conditions. In this light, increased emissions of nitrogen oxides, as

  3. A minute ostracod (Crustacea: Cytheromatidae) from the Miocene Solimões Formation (western Amazonia, Brazil): evidence for marine incursions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F.; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-01-01

    A huge wetland (the ‘Pebas system’) covered western Amazonia during the Miocene, hosting a highly diverse and endemic aquatic fauna. One of the most contentious issues concerns the existence, potential pathways and effects of marine incursions on this ecosystem. Palaeontological evidences (body fossils) are rare. The finding of a new, presumably marine ostracod species (Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov.) in the upper middle Miocene Solimões Formation initiated a taxonomic, ecological and biogeographical review of the genus Pellucistoma. We demonstrate that this marine (sublittoral, euhaline), subtropical–tropical taxon is biogeographically confined to the Americas. The biogeographical distribution of Pellucistoma largely depends on geographical, thermal and osmotic barriers (e.g. land bridges, deep and/or cold waters, sea currents, salinity). We assume an Oligocene/early Miocene, Caribbean origin for Pellucistoma and outline the dispersal of hitherto known species up to the Holocene. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. is dwarfed in comparison to all other species of this genus and extremely thin-shelled. This is probably related to poorly oxygenated waters and, in particular, to strongly reduced salinity. The associated ostracod fauna (dominated by the eurypotent Cyprideis and a few, also stunted ostracods of possibly marine ancestry) supports this claim. Geochemical analyses (δ18O, δ13C) on co-occurring ostracod valves (Cyprideis spp.) yielded very light values, indicative of a freshwater setting. These observations point to a successful adaptation of P. curupira sp. nov. to freshwater conditions and therefore do not signify the presence of marine water. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. shows closest affinities to Caribbean species. We hypothesize that Pellucistoma reached northern South America (Llanos Basin) during marine incursions in the early Miocene. While larger animals of marine origin (e.g. fishes, dolphins, manatees) migrated actively into the Pebas

  4. a New Site at Central Amazonia Dedicated to Long Term Cloud Properties Observations - Description, First Results and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliquevis, T.; Barbosa, H. M.; Adams, D. K.; Artaxo, P.; Cirino, G. G.; Barja Gonzalez, B.; Correia, A. L.; Gomes, H. B.; Gouveia, D. A.; Padua, M. B.; Rosario, N. M. E. D.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Nascimento dos Santos, R. M.; Sapucci, L.; Portela, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    Amazon basin during the wet season is one of the few places on Earth where "natural atmosphere", as it is expected to be in pre-industrial era, can be observed. Atmosphere in clean Amazonia can be regarded as a baseline state of tropical atmosphere. Its hydrological cycle is extreme active, as well as its convection. Several scientific questions with respect to convection remain unclear. Diurnal cycle of convection is far from adequately represented in numeric models. Precipitation typically occurs in models in the first few hours in the morning, whereas actual rain occurs mostly in the early afternoon. Convection parameterizations lack the ability to represent it adequately due to the models coarse resolution of parameterizations compared to the spatial scale of shallow convection. An adequate comprehension of shallow to deep convection transition is critical to improve convection representation in models. To reach this goal, long term measurements that could characterize clouds and convection diurnal cycle are fundamental. The implementation of ACONVEX (Atmospheric CONVection EXperiment) site, situated 50 km upwind from the megacity of Manaus ( -2.894263S°, -59.971452W) aims to fill the existent gap in long term measurements. It is designed to make measurements for more than 10 yrs, and characterize cloud properties in a climatological perspective. The site started its operation in August, 2011, initially with the Raman Lidar. Present time instrumentation set comprises: 1) UV Lidar Raman, 2) CIMEL Sunphotometer, 3) MultiFilter shadow band Radiometer (MFR), 4) GNSS/GPS Receiver, 5) Vertical Pointing Radar, 6) Disdrometer, 7) Ceilometer, 8) Met station. Two sky imagers and a microwave radiometer are about to be operated and will be able to derive 1) Cloud Cover, 2) Cloud Top and Cloud Base Heights, 3) Liquid Water Content, 4) Integrated Precipitable Water, 5) PBL Height, 6) Rain Rate (vertical profile and at surface). In this poster we discuss the site in more

  5. Influence of urban pollution on the production of organic particulate matter from isoprene epoxydiols in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Suzane S.; Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Hu, Weiwei; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Yee, Lindsay D.; Thalman, Ryan; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Artaxo, Paulo; Goldstein, Allen H.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Mei, Fan; Shilling, John E.; Springston, Stephen R.; Wang, Jian; Surratt, Jason D.; Lizabeth Alexander, M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Martin, Scot T.

    2017-06-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of isoprene contributes to the production of a substantial mass fraction of the particulate matter (PM) over tropical forests. Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) produced in the gas phase by the oxidation of isoprene under HO2-dominant conditions are subsequently taken up by particles, thereby leading to production of secondary organic PM. The present study investigates possible perturbations to this pathway by urban pollution. The measurement site in central Amazonia was located 4 to 6 h downwind of Manaus, Brazil. Measurements took place from February through March 2014 of the wet season, as part of the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment. Mass spectra of organic PM collected with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer were analyzed by positive-matrix factorization. One resolved statistical factor (IEPOX-SOA factor) was associated with PM production by the IEPOX pathway. The IEPOX-SOA factor loadings correlated with independently measured mass concentrations of tracers of IEPOX-derived PM, namely C5-alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols (R = 0. 96 and 0.78, respectively). The factor loading, as well as the ratio f of the loading to organic PM mass concentration, decreased under polluted compared to background conditions. For an increase in NOy concentration from 0.5 to 2 ppb, the factor loading and f decreased by two to three fold. Overall, sulfate concentration explained 37 % of the variability in the factor loading. After segregation of factor loading into subsets based on NOy concentration, the sulfate concentration explained up to 75 % of the variability. Considering both factors, the data sets show that the suppressing effects of increased NO concentrations dominated over the enhancing effects of higher sulfate concentrations. The pollution from Manaus elevated NOy concentrations more significantly than sulfate concentrations relative to background conditions. In this light, increased emissions of nitrogen oxides, as anticipated for some scenarios of

  6. From forest to cropland and pasture systems: a critical review of soil organic carbon stocks changes in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Kenji; Perrin, Anne-Sophie; Desjardins, Thierry; Bernoux, Martial; Balbino, Luiz Carlos; Brossard, Michel

    2015-02-26

    The impact of deforestation on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks is important in the context of climate change and agricultural soil use. Trends of SOC stock changes after agroecosystem establishment vary according to the spatial scale considered, and factors explaining these trends may differ sometimes according to meta-analyses. We have reviewed the knowledge about changes in SOC stocks in Amazonia after the establishment of pasture or cropland, sought relationships between observed changes and soil, climatic variables and management practices, and synthesized the δ(13) C measured in pastures. Our dataset consisted of 21 studies mostly synchronic, across 52 sites (Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Suriname), totalling 70 forest-agroecosystem comparisons. We found that pastures (n = 52, mean age = 17.6 years) had slightly higher SOC stocks than forest (+6.8 ± 3.1 %), whereas croplands (n = 18, mean age = 8.7 years) had lower SOC stocks than forest (-8.5 ± 2.9 %). Annual precipitation and SOC stocks under forest had no effect on the SOC changes in the agroecosystems. For croplands, we found a lower SOC loss than other meta-analyses, but the short time period after deforestation here could have reduced this loss. There was no clear effect of tillage on the SOC response. Management of pastures, whether they were degraded/nominal/improved, had no significant effect on SOC response. δ(13) C measurements on 16 pasture chronosequences showed that decay of forest-derived SOC was variable, whereas pasture-derived SOC was less so and was characterized by an accumulation plateau of 20 Mg SOC ha(-1) after 20 years. The large uncertainties in SOC response observed could be derived from the chronosequence approach, sensitive to natural soil variability and to human management practices. This study emphasizes the need for diachronic and long-term studies, associated with better knowledge of agroecosystem management.

  7. A minute ostracod (Crustacea: Cytheromatidae) from the Miocene Solimões Formation (western Amazonia, Brazil): evidence for marine incursions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F; Piller, Werner E

    2016-07-02

    A huge wetland (the 'Pebas system') covered western Amazonia during the Miocene, hosting a highly diverse and endemic aquatic fauna. One of the most contentious issues concerns the existence, potential pathways and effects of marine incursions on this ecosystem. Palaeontological evidences (body fossils) are rare. The finding of a new, presumably marine ostracod species (Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov.) in the upper middle Miocene Solimões Formation initiated a taxonomic, ecological and biogeographical review of the genus Pellucistoma. We demonstrate that this marine (sublittoral, euhaline), subtropical-tropical taxon is biogeographically confined to the Americas. The biogeographical distribution of Pellucistoma largely depends on geographical, thermal and osmotic barriers (e.g. land bridges, deep and/or cold waters, sea currents, salinity). We assume an Oligocene/early Miocene, Caribbean origin for Pellucistoma and outline the dispersal of hitherto known species up to the Holocene. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. is dwarfed in comparison to all other species of this genus and extremely thin-shelled. This is probably related to poorly oxygenated waters and, in particular, to strongly reduced salinity. The associated ostracod fauna (dominated by the eurypotent Cyprideis and a few, also stunted ostracods of possibly marine ancestry) supports this claim. Geochemical analyses (δ(18)O, δ(13)C) on co-occurring ostracod valves (Cyprideis spp.) yielded very light values, indicative of a freshwater setting. These observations point to a successful adaptation of P. curupira sp. nov. to freshwater conditions and therefore do not signify the presence of marine water. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. shows closest affinities to Caribbean species. We hypothesize that Pellucistoma reached northern South America (Llanos Basin) during marine incursions in the early Miocene. While larger animals of marine origin (e.g. fishes, dolphins, manatees) migrated actively into the Pebas

  8. Contribuição para o conhecimento da taxonomia, ecologia e fitogeografia de Briófitas da Amazônia Oriental Contribution to the taxonomy, ecology and phytogeographical knowledge of Bryophytes from Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisi Dámaris Pereira Alvarenga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho documenta o inventário da brioflora da Estação Científica Ferreira Penna (ECFPn, localizada na FLONA Caxiuanã (1º42'30"S - 51º31'45"W, Melgaço - Pará, realizado por ocasião da primeira chamada do Programa de Residência em Estudos Amazônicos, iniciativa do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Musgos e Hepáticas foram amostrados nos ecossistemas de mata de terra firme, várzea, igapó, capoeiras e campina, e analisadas quanto à composição, riqueza e diversidade. Foram registradas 1081 ocorrências de briófitas de 120 espécies, sendo 79 hepáticas e 41 musgos, das quais oito hepáticas são novas referências para o Estado do Pará. As famílias de maior riqueza e assiduidade foram Lejeuneaceae (58 spp., Calymperaceae (13 spp., Sematophyllaceae (9 spp. e Plagiochilaceae (7 spp.. As comunidades que melhor se fizeram representar foram a epífita (97 espécies/ 565 ocorrências e a epíxila (65 spp./ 242 ocorr., seguidas pelas comunidades epífila (27 spp./ 174 ocorr. e terrícola (15 spp./ 96 ocorr. e o ecossistema que apresentou maior riqueza e diversidade foi mata de terra firme. Quanto à composição nos substratos inventariados, foi observada uma inversão gradativa na proporção de riqueza entre hepáticas/musgos, sendo as primeiras fortemente dominantes em folha, moderadamente dominantes em tronco vivo e morto, ao passo que musgos predominaram nos demais. Os resultados obtidos neste inventário, inclusive as novas referências para o Estado, contribuem para o entendimento dos padrões de riqueza e diversidade na Floresta Amazônica e enriquecem a flora conhecida para o Estado do Pará.This paper presents the floristic survey of Bryophytes from Ferreira Penna Scientific Station (ECFPn, located in the FLONA Caxiuanã (1º42'30"S - 51º31'45"W, Melgaço - Pará, that was undertaken in the first stage of the Residence Program in Amazonian Studies, a project of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Mosses and

  9. Lacustrine Records of Forest Fire Indicators and Trace Elements Deposition in an Land Use Change Region in the Brazilian Amazonia (Alta Floresta, MT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, R. R.; Conceicão, M. G.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B. J.; Seoane, J. S.; Sifeddine, A.

    2009-05-01

    The dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems depend on interactions between the carbon cycle, nutrient cycles, and the hydrological cycle, all of which may be modified by climate and human actions. Terrestrial ecological systems, in which carbon is retained in live biomass, decomposing organic matter, and soil, play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Human activities change carbon stocks in these pools and exchanges between them and the atmosphere through land-use change and other activities. From 1850 to 1998 about 136 (+55) Gt C has been emitted as a result of land-use change, predominantly from forest ecosystems. Amazonia's carbon storage potential gives great importance to land-use changes in this region because disturbances of the natural landscape can increase atmospheric carbon and affect global biogeochemical cycles. Mercury release from gold mining activities and deforestation are the two most important environmental issues in the Amazon Basin. Gold mining activities in Amazonia have been responsible for the release of about 2000-3000 t of Hg over the last 20 y. In Alta Floresta region (southern Amazonia), concurrent with the deforestation, an intense gold rush occurred with the exploration of riverbed sediments. This region was a significant gold mining site from 1980 to 1996. This study aims to understand the atmospheric deposition rates of charcoal particles, mercury and other trace elements and discuss the environmental changes caused by man activities in an area of an intense land use change. Accordingly to the fact that in Brazilian Amazonia the colonization process generally takes place after the building of a road, an 82 cm core (AF SSW 150) was collected in a lake formed by the barrier effect of a road embankment and distant 150 km of the center of Alta Floresta city. The ages of the sedimentary sections in the core were calculated by the activity of 210Pb. The grain size profile showed a huge change from 1985, with the dominance of fine

  10. Scientific Collaboration Along the Trinational Frontier of Brazil-Bolivia-Peru: Implications for Regional Land-Use in the MAP Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.

    2002-12-01

    High-speed road systems are connecting southwestern Amazonia (~1.5 million km2) to Pacific and Atlantic ports as well as providing greater access to Brazilian, Bolivian and Peruvian urban markets. Coupled with this increased accessibility are ambitious governmental plans to expand production of timber, non-timber forest products, and beef, all of which are likely to modify human migrations in the region. The heart of southwestern Amazonia lies in the trinational frontier region of Madre de Dios Department/Peru, eastern Acre State/Brazil and Pando Department/Bolivia (MAP region: ~200,000 km2, ~500,000 inhabitants). The MAP region composes a global hot spot of terrestrial biodiversity and has become an axis of integration for the three countries. Faced with rapid change in socioeconomic trends, regional environmental scientists and professionals have promoted collaborative projects to analyze land use trends and their forcing functions and to supply these results to local and regional societies. In addition, they have begun to develop a regional scientific community that bridges different nationalities and specialties. The projects are both international - as they involve three countries - and local/regional as they involve institutions that are within a radius of 300 km of the border. In the past two years, LBA-sponsored activities have helped bring over 100 professionals together in the region in five MAP-oriented workshops. The research results are now influencing public policy and are being incorporated into the regional school systems with the objective of maximizing the benefits and minimizing the adverse impacts of the changing socio-economic trends on land-use and development in the MAP region.

  11. Efektite na prostaciklin vo tretmanot na dijabeticnata nefropatija kaj staorci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Trojacanec

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mikrovaskularnite komplikacii, a pred se dijabeticnata nefropatija, se edni od najteskite komplikacii na dijabetot, od koi vo golema mera zavisi i prognozata na dijabetot kaj ovie pacienti. Etiopatogenezata na ovaa komplikacija e multifaktorijalna i za sega se uste ne kompletno rasvetlena, a vklucuva morfoloski, patolosko-anatomski i biohemiski metabolni narusuvanja. Se smeta deka narusuvanjeto na modularnata funkcija na endoteliumot moze da bide kriticen i inicijalen faktor vo razvojot na dijabeticnite vaskularni komplikacii. Vrz osnova na farmakodinamskite efekti koi sto gi poseduva prostaciklinot (PGI2 i negovite analozi, se smeta deka istite moze da bidat korisni vo tretmanot na dijabeti~nata nefropatija. Osnovna cel na ovaa studija be{e da se procenat efektite na prostaciklin (PGI2 vo tretmanot na dijabeticnata nefropatija, eksperimentalno predizvikana so streptozocin. Kaj normotenzivni staorci od sojot Wistar, eksperimentalno bese induciran najprvin dijabet so ednokratna i.p. administracija na streptozocin (STZ, a kako komplikacija na dijabetot i jasni znaci i simptomi na dijabeticna nefropatija (proteinurija, zgolemeno serumsko nivo na urea i kreatinin, poliurija, zgolemena aktivnost na NAG vo mockata. Tretman so prostaciklin (p.o. vo doza od 0.1 mg/kg /t.t./den, vo tekot na 4 nedeli, dovede do signifikantno namaluvanje na simptomite i znacite na bubreznite ostetuvanja, vo odnos na grupata zivotni koi ne primaa prostaciklin. Vrz osnova na dobienite rezultati moze da se zakluci deka prostaciklinot moze da ima znacajna uloga vo tretmanot na dijabeticnata nefropatija, eksperimentalno inducirana so streptozocin.

  12. Numerical analysis of palynological data from Neogene fluvial sediments as evidence for rainforest dynamics in western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Sonia; van Manen, Milan; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Deep-time records that give an insight into the composition and dynamics of the ancestral Amazon rain forest are rare. Yet to understand the modern biodiversity patterns it is important to untangle the long-term evolution of this forest. Sampling Neogene strata requires drilling operations or complex fieldwork along the rivers where outcrops generally are small. In the nineties an exceptionally good exposure of fluvial sediments of early Miocene age (17.7-16.1 Ma) was documented near the island of Mariñame (Caquetá River, Colombian Amazonia) (Hoorn, 1994). This 60 m sediment succession consists of quartz-rich sands with a circa 10 m black, sandy clay intercalation. Palynomorphs are well preserved in these organic-rich clays and palynological analysis indicated high pollen diversity and changes in composition following changes in the sedimentary environment and water composition (see van Soelen et al., this session). A numerical analysis in R (2013) of the existing data, using a number of multivariate and other statistical techniques now shows a gradient of change in the composition of the Miocene palynological assemblages. Non-metric-multidimensional scaling using distance matrixes (Oksanen, 2012) and their visualizations in correlograms (Friendly, 2002) indicate that the regional (palm) swamp forests of Mauritiides franciscoi (Mauritia), frequently found together with other palms such as Psilamonocolpites amazonicus (Euterpe?) and Psilamonocolpites rinconii, were affected by a marine incursion. The latter is suggested by the change of composition and the presence of estuarine elements such as Zonocostites ramonae (Rhizophora), foraminifer linings and dinoflagellate cysts, which became common during the marine event. In the older part of the section, and at the top, Rhoipites guianensis (Sterculiaceae/Tiliaceae) is quite abundant, in contrast with the relatively low abundance of M. franciscoi. The numerical analysis allowed us to: a) group the pollen data into 3

  13. Spatial variability of the direct radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols and the effects of land use change in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Sena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the Amazonian shortwave radiative budget over cloud-free conditions after considering three aspects of deforestation: (i the emission of aerosols from biomass burning due to forest fires; (ii changes in surface albedo after deforestation; and (iii modifications in the column water vapour amount over deforested areas. Simultaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES shortwave fluxes and aerosol optical depth (AOD retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS were analysed during the peak of the biomass burning seasons (August and September from 2000 to 2009. A discrete-ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT code was used to extend instantaneous remote sensing radiative forcing assessments into 24-h averages.

    The mean direct radiative forcing of aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA during the biomass burning season for the 10-yr studied period was −5.6 ± 1.7 W m−2. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols over Amazonia was obtained for the biomass burning season of each year. It was observed that for high AOD (larger than 1 at 550 nm the maximum daily direct aerosol radiative forcing at the TOA may be as high as −20 W m−2 locally. The surface reflectance plays a major role in the aerosol direct radiative effect. The study of the effects of biomass burning aerosols over different surface types shows that the direct radiative forcing is systematically more negative over forest than over savannah-like covered areas. Values of −15.7 ± 2.4 W m−2τ550 nm and −9.3 ± 1.7 W m−2τ550 nm were calculated for the mean daily aerosol forcing efficiencies over forest and savannah-like vegetation respectively. The overall mean annual land use change radiative forcing due to deforestation over the state of Rondônia, Brazil, was determined as −7.3 ± 0.9 W m

  14. A serendipidade na medicina e na anestesiologia

    OpenAIRE

    Vale,Nilton Bezerra do; Delfino,José; Vale,Lúcio Flávio Bezerra do

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Neste trabalho foram examinados mais de uma centena dos mais felizes acoplamentos de uma mente brilhante com a sorte benfazeja (serendipidade), através da releitura das mais relevantes histórias sobre invenções e descobertas relacionadas à ciência (n = 46), à Medicina (n = 46) e à Anestesiologia (n = 16). CONTEÚDO: Conceito de serendipidade; exemplos célebres de serendipidade em Ciência e Tecnologia; serendipidade na pesquisa e prática médicas; serendipidade na Anes...

  15. Bolonja na hrvatski način

    OpenAIRE

    Krstović, Jasna

    2009-01-01

    Iako je osnovna značajka obrazovnog sustava Republike Hrvatske horizontalna i okomita protočnost, ova se značajka još uvijek ne odnosi na obrazovanje odgajatelja. No u posljednje vrijeme događaju se pomaci i kvalitativne promjene koje su zahvatile i sustav obrazovanja hrvatskih odgajatelja.

  16. O desmatamento na Amazônia e a importância das áreas protegidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Valle Ferreira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O MODELO da ocupação demográfica da Amazônia legalnos últimos cinqueta anos tem levado a níveis significativos de desmatamento, resultante de múltiplos fatores, tais como a abertura de estradas pioneiras, o crescimento das cidades, a ampliação de pecuária extensiva, a acelerada exploração madeireira e a crescente agricultura intensiva de monoculturas. A área cumulativa desmatada na Amazônia legal brasileira chegou a cerca de 653.000 km² em 2003, correspondendo a 16,3% da região. Este estudo visou a determinar o desmatamento dentro e fora dos atuais Unidades de Conservação (UC e Terras Indígenas (TI na Amazônia legal, nos estados de Mato Grosso, Rondônia e Pará, que, juntos, corresponderam por mais de 90% do desmatamento observado entre 2001 e 2003. Os resultados mostraram que o desmatamento foi cerca de dez a vinte vezes menor dentro das Unidades de Conservação e Terras Indígenas do que em áreas contíguas fora delas. Isto demonstra a importância dessas áreas protegidas para diminuir o processo do desmatamento nos três estados. Isto refuta a hipótese generalizada de que estas áreas não cumprissem a sua função principal na conservação e uso racional dos recursos na Amazônia legal.DEMOGRAPHIC occupation of the Brazilian Legal Amazon within the past 50 years has lead to significant levels of deforestation as the result of several factors such as new road construction, urban growth, expansion of extensive cattle ranching, increasing timber extraction, and rising intensive agriculture of monocultures. The cumulative deforested area in Brazil's Legal Amazonia was approximately 653,000 km² in 2003, correspondingto 16,3% of the region. This study sought to assess deforestation within or near to protected areas (conservation units and indigenous reserves in Legal Amazonia in the states of Mato Grosso, Rondônia, and Pará that jointly were responsible for more than 90% of regional deforestation from 2001 to 2003

  17. At NA2

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    One of the NA2 calorimeter sections is moved in. The NA2 calorimeter was divided in two halves, to the left and the right of the beam, each half consisting of sheets of passive high Z material interleaved with blades of plastic scintillators. The photo shows on the right, the upstream 'electron' module with eleven lead plates for a total radiation length of 20.

  18. ETAŽNA LASTNINA S POUDARKOM NA ZVEtL

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetko, Tadej

    2014-01-01

    Etažna lastnina je lastnina posameznega dela zgradbe in solastnina na skupnih delih, ki služijo vsem ali nekaterim posameznim delom zgradbe. Etažna lastnino na območju Republike Slovenije je uvedel Zakon o lastnini na delih stavbe kot odgovor na potrebo po hitri nacionalizaciji stanovanj in odrazu doslednega uvajanja osnovne ideje takratnega socialističnega duha t.j. družbene lastnine. Slovenija kot mlada demokratična država je ob tranziciji iz socialističnega v demokratični sistem poskušala ...

  19. ¿Por qué estudiar la formación histórica y la problemática actual de la Amazonia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Amayo Zevallos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo trata la Amazonia como una región sudamericana, o sea, la considera independientemente de sus fronteras nacionales. Eso es así porque su punto de partida metodológico asume que la historia y los problemas de la totalidad amazónica trascienden y son más complejos que los que corresponden a la mera suma de las historias y problemas de las ocho regiones amazónicas nacionales (correspondientes a Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Perú, Surinam y Venezuela. También hace referencia a la creciente importancia económica y estratégica de esa región en el escenario mundial. En ese cuadro destacan problemas como los siguientes: las diferencias nacionales al tratar sus pueblos y culturas indígenas amazónicos, la “piratería” de los recursos de su extraordinaria biodiversidad como fenómeno de larga duración, etc. En el trabajo se asume la posición que esos problemas podrán resolverse luchando por ampliar la conciencia democrática igualitaria, universalista y preservacionista.

  20. Acción gubernamental e institucionalismo en la Amazonia brasileña. El conflicto entorno a las infraestructuras hidroeléctricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Pont Vidal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito es el fruto de la investigación basada en el conflicto social originado por el proyecto de construcción de la hidroeléctrica de Belo Monte en el río Xingu (estado de Pará, Amazonia oriental y del diagnóstico del "Plano de Desarrollo Regional Sostenible de la Región de Xingú". Se parte de un marco analítico conceptual más amplio que combina los postulados de la corriente sociológica del Nuevo Institucionalismo y la teoría de la acción de Jürgen Habermas. A partir del análisis de la acción instrumental y estratégica de los actores políticos, sociales y económicos de esta región caracterizada de periférica, se establecen una serie de variables.

  1. Comparisons of dental morphology in river stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) with new fossils from the middle Eocene of Peruvian Amazonia rekindle debate on their evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnet, Sylvain; Salas Gismondi, Rodolfo; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Endemic South American river stingrays (Potamotrygonidae), which include the most diversified living freshwater chondrichthyans, were conspicuously absent from pre-Neogene deposits in South America despite the fact that recent phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest an older origination for this clade. To date, the rare representatives of this family were mostly represented by ambiguous isolated remains. Here, we report 67 isolated fossil teeth of a new obligate freshwater dasyatoid (Potamotrygon ucayalensis nov. sp) from the fossiliferous level CTA-27 (Yahuarango Formation), near Contamana, in the Peruvian Amazonia. We assigned this sample to a new representative of Potamotrygon by comparison with numerous fresh jaws of living specimens of Potamotrygonidae, thus providing the first detailed review of dental morphology for this poorly understood clade. These new fossils fill a long stratigraphic gap by extending the family range down to the middle Eocene (~41 Mya). Moreover, the relative modernity and diversity in tooth morphology among Eocene freshwater stingrays (including Potamotrygon ucayalensis nov. sp. and coeval North American dasyatoids) indicate that the hypothetically marine ancestor of potamotrygonids probably invaded the rivers earlier than in the middle Eocene. The first potamotrygonids and affiliates were possibly more generalized and less endemic than now, which is consistent with an opportunistic filling of vacated ecospace.

  2. Productos del mercado artesanal en la ciudad de Leticia (Amazonia colombiana elaborados con especies de bosques de Mauritia flexuosa L.f.

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    Sandra Lorena Franco Arango

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los productos forestales no maderables (PFNMs han tomado fuerza como alternativa para la conservación de ecosistemas y la generación de ingresos económicos en las poblaciones asociadas. Se presenta un mayor interés sobre los productos que provienen de bosques oligárquicos (poco diversos y con alta densidad relativa, especialmente los dominados por palmas, como por ejemplo los bosques de Mauritia flexuosa (aguajales, cananguchales o buritizales. En el mercado artesanal de Leticia (Amazonia colombiana se identificaron 68 productos provenientes de nueve especies de plantas del canaguchal, teniendo las palmas (Astrocaryum chambira, Euterpe precatoria, M. flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua y Socratea exorrhiza el mayor potencial comercial. Los productos más frecuentes fueron las mochilas de fibras de A. chambira (chambira y los precios de venta más altos correspondieron a las esculturas de Brosimum rubescens (palo de sangre. No existen estadísticas oficiales de este mercado, ni entes del Estado que regulen y orienten la producción y comercialización de los productos que se extraen del bosque. No obstante, los PFNMs representan una alternativa para diversificar las oportunidades productivas de los pobladores de la región.

  3. Increasing concentrations of CO and O{sub 3} - rising deforestation rates and increasing tropospheric carbon monoxide and ozone in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhoff, W.J.H. [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, San Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Increasing carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations have been observed in the lower troposphere of the Brazilian Amazon region in recent years (1989-1995). Carbon monoxide and ozone have been measured in the region continuously; from observations at a single site and many sporadic field missions, there is a clear indication that the chemical activity in the troposphere is growing, with increasing concentrations especially during the dry season. On the other hand, the most recent deforestation assessment by the Brazilian Government, performed by the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) using Landsat data, shows yearly rates rising from the 11,130 km{sup 2} year{sup -1} minimum of the 1990/91 survey, to 13,786 km{sup 2} year{sup -1} for the 1991/92 period, and 14,896 km{sup 2} year{sup -1} for the period 1992/94. It is argued that the increase in deforestation/biomass burning activities in `Amazonia` have produced larger carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations in the lower atmosphere. (orig.)

  4. Zebragryllus Desutter-Grandcolas & Cadena-Casteñada, n.gen. a new Gryllinae genus from Eastern and Western Amazonia, South America (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J; Jaiswara, Ranjana; Anso, Jeremy

    2014-02-24

    We describe a new genus of grylline cricket, Zebragryllus Desutter-Grandcolas & Cadena-Casteñada n. gen., from the Neotropical Region, using characters of morphology and male genitalia; genitalic characters clearly show that Zebragryllus n. gen. is closely related to Anurogryllus Saussure, 1878. Six species are described as new to science, originating from western (Peru, Colombia) and eastern (French Guiana) Amazonia: Zebragryllus fuscus Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. guianensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. intermedius Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Zebragryllus nauta Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Zebragryllus nouragui Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., and Zebragryllus wittoto Desutter-Grandcolas and Cadena-Casteñada, n. sp., type species of the genus. They are characterized by their size, coloration (shining black, most often with white patterns of coloration, hence the genus name), and male and female genitalia. The calling songs of Z. guianensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. intermedius Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. nouragui Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., and Z. wittoto Desutter-Grandcolas and Cadena-Casteñada, n. sp. are described. An identification key is proposed for both males and females.

  5. Learning to Question: The Roles of Multiple Hypotheses, Successive Approximations, Balloons and Toilet Paper in University Science Programs of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. Foster

    2008-06-01

    Learning to question is essential for determining pathways of conservation and development in southwestern Amazonia during a time of rapid global environmental change. Teaching such an approach in graduate science programs in regional universities can be done using play-acting and simulation exercises. Multiple working hypotheses help students learn to question their own research results and expert witnesses. The method of successive approximations enables students to question the results of complex calculations, such as estimates of forest biomass. Balloons and rolls of toilet paper provide means of questioning two-dimensional representations of a three-dimensional Earth and the value of pi. Generation of systematic errors can illustrate the pitfalls of blind acceptance of data. While learning to question is essential, it is insufficient by itself; students must also learn how to be solutionologists in order to satisfy societal demands for solutions to environmental problems. A little irreverence can be an excellent didactic tool for helping students develop the skills necessary to lead conservation and development efforts in the region.

  6. Simulating deforestation and carbon loss in Amazonia: impacts in Brazil's Roraima state from reconstructing Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro

    2015-02-01

    Reconstruction of Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) would allow for access from the "arc of deforestation" in the southern part of Brazil's Amazon region to vast blocks of forests in central and northern Amazonia. Building roads is known to be a major driver of deforestation, allowing entry of squatters, and other actors. Rather than deforestation along the highway route, here we consider the road's potential for stimulating deforestation in a separate location, approximately 550 km north of BR-319's endpoint in Manaus. Reconstructing BR-319 has great potential impact to start a new wave of migration to this remote region. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, the focus of our study, is already connected to Manaus by Highway BR-174. We modeled deforestation in southern Roraima and simulated carbon emissions between 2007 and 2030 under four scenarios. Simulations used the AGROECO model in DINAMICA-EGO © software. Two scenarios were considered with reconstruction of BR-319 and two without this road connection. For each of the two possibilities regarding BR-319, simulations were developed for (1) a "conservation" (CONSERV) scenario that assumes the creation of a series of protected areas, and (2) a "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario that assumes no additional protected areas. Results show that by 2030, with BR-319 rebuilt, deforestation carbon emissions would increase between 19% (CONSERV) and 42% (BAU) over and above those corresponding to no-road scenarios.

  7. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  8. New species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) infecting the gills of catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    During a research on gill ectoparasites of siluriform fishes from the Peruvian Amazonia, the following monogeneans were found: Ameloblastella edentensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz; Ameloblastella peruensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus sp.; Ameloblastella formatrium n. sp. from Pimelodidae gen. sp. (type-host) and Duopalatinus cf. peruanus Eigenmann & Allen; Ameloblastella unapioides n. sp. from Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider) (type-host) and Pimelodus sp; Cosmetocleithrum tortum n. sp. from Nemadoras hemipeltis (Eigenmann); and Cosmetocleithrum bifurcum n. sp. from Hassar orestis (Steindachner) (both Doradidae). All new species described herein are mainly differentiated from their congeners based on the morphology of the copulatory complex. The pimelodids H. edentatus and S. lima, and the doradids N. hemipeltis and H. orestis represent new hosts species for species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986, respectively. The morphological diagnosis of the present species of Ameloblastella and Cosmetocleithrum also supported by a previous molecular analysis of these species is briefly discusssed herein.

  9. The genus Manota Williston (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) in Peruvian Amazonia, with description of sixteen new species and notes on local species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippa, Heikki; Kurina, Olavi; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2017-02-21

    A comprehensive study of material of the worldwide fungus gnat genus Manota Williston, sampled from the Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve in Peruvian Amazonia, was conducted. The following 16 species are described as new: M. aligera sp. n., M. aristoseta sp. n., M. calva sp. n., M. ciliata sp. n., M. exigua sp. n., M. digitata sp. n., M. flabellata sp. n., M. iquitosensis sp. n., M. limulata sp. n., M. micella sp. n., M. minutula sp. n., M. nuda sp. n., M. parvula sp. n., M. pauloides sp. n., M. pustulosa sp. n. and M. serrulata sp. n. In addition, the following 16 species are recorded: M. acuminata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. acutistylus Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. anfracta Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. appendiculata Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. aristata Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. bisulca Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. diversiseta Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. iota Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. micula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. papillosa Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. paula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. penicillata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. pisinna Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. quantula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. spinosa Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 and M. virgata Hippa & Kurina, 2013. Altogether 67 species of Manota are now known from the Neotropical region.

  10. Late Holocene paleoenvironments of the floodplain of the Solimões River, Central Amazonia, based on the palynological record of Lake Cabaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Paula Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The core PD-67 of 160 cm depth was collected from the delta of Lake Cabaliana situated on the Solimões River. Seventeen samples were removed for palynological and sedimentological analysis and three for radiocarbon analysis. Two dry periods, both in the Late Holocene, were observed (2800-2550 cal yr BP, 1450-550 cal yr BP separated by a wetter phase (2550-1450 cal yr BP. In 2800-2550 cal yr BP, varzea forests of Alchornea, Symmeria, Cecropia, Alternanthera and Asteraceae were predominant. Beginning in 2,550-1450 cal yr BP, the varzea was characterized by pioneer elements, such as Cassia, Laetia, Mabea, Symmeria and Cecropia, and by the expansion of Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Sagittaria, Montrichardia and Asteraceae. In 1450-550 cal yr BP the succession of varzea continued with Pseudobombax, Laetia, Luehea/Lueheopsis and Ryanaea increasing simultaneously with the terra firme vegetation of Rutaceae, Sapotaceae, Styrax, Scleronema, Anthurium, Araceae, pteridophytes and Pariana. The successional dynamics at Lake Cabaliana indicated that the local varzea had become established recently, and is composed of a mosaic of different successional stages of vegetation influenced mainly by flood pulse and variation in rainfall. It is therefore possible to propose that the recent climate history of Central Amazonia reflects changes in rainfall patterns in the basin.

  11. Run, hide, or fight: anti-predation strategies in endangered red-nosed cuxiú (Chiropotes albinasus, Pitheciidae) in southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian A; Silla, João M; de Oliveira, Tadeu; Boyle, Sarah A; Bezerra, Bruna M; Spironello, Wilson R; Setz, Eleonore Z F; da Silva, Rafaela F Soares; de Albuquerque Teixeira, Samara; Todd, Lucy M; Pinto, Liliam P

    2017-01-23

    Although primate predation is rarely observed, a series of primate anti-predation strategies have been described. Energetic costs of such strategies can vary from high-cost mobbing, via less costly alarm calling, to low-cost furtive concealment. Here we report the anti-predation strategies of red-nosed cuxiú, Chiropotes albinasus, based on direct observations from four study sites in southeastern Brazilian Amazonia. Over a collective period of 1255 fieldwork hours, we observed nine direct interactions between raptors (all potential predators) and red-nosed cuxiús. Of these, one (11%) resulted in predation. Raptors involved were: Harpia harpyja (four events), Leucopternis sp. (two events), Spizaëtus tyrannus (one event), and unidentified large raptors (two events). Predation attempts occurred in flooded-forest and terra firme rainforest, were directed at both adult and non-adult cuxiús, and involved both adult and juvenile raptors. Anti-predation strategies adopted by the cuxiús included: (1) group defence and mobbing behaviour (two occasions), (2) dropping into dense sub-canopy (seven occasions), (3) alarm calling (eight occasions), and (4) fleeing to, and hiding in, dense vegetation (eight occasions). During each encounter at least two of these behaviours were recorded. These are the first published records of predation, predation attempts, and anti-predator behaviour involving red-nosed cuxiú.

  12. Description and phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and two new species of lizards from Brazilian Amazonia, with nomenclatural comments on the taxonomy of Gymnophthalmidae (Reptilia: Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Guarino R; Hoogmoed, Marinus S; Cannatella, David C; Cassimiro, José; Gomes, Jerriane Oliveira; Ghellere, José Mário; Gomes, Jerriane Oliveira; Ghellere, José Mário; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Pellegrino, Kátia C M; Salerno, Patricia; Souza, Sergio Marques De; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2015-08-18

    We describe a new genus and two new species of gymnophthalmid lizards based on specimens collected from Brazilian Amazonia, mostly in the "arc of deforestation". The new genus is easily distinguished from other Gymnophthalmidae by having very wide, smooth, and imbricate nuchals, arranged in two longitudinal and 6-10 transverse rows from nape to brachium level, followed by much narrower, strongly keeled, lanceolate, and mucronate scales. It also differs from all other Gymnophthalmidae, except Iphisa, by the presence of two longitudinal rows of ventrals. The new genus differs from Iphisa by having two pairs of enlarged chinshields (one in Iphisa); posterior dorsal scales lanceolate, strongly keeled and not arranged in longitudinal rows (dorsals broad, smooth and forming two longitudinal rows), and lateral scales keeled (smooth). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular data indicate the new species form a clade that is most closely related to Iphisa. We also address several nomenclatural issues and present a revised classification of Gymnophthalmidae.

  13. Diagnóstico actitudinal hacia la conservación ambiental en estudiantes de la Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Guimet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudio descriptivo no experimental, que tuvo como objetivo principal, encontrar las diferencias en las actitudes hacia la conservación ambiental entre los estudiantes de la Facultad de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana; según el nivel de estudios, sexo, edad cronológica y el lugar de residencia; la población estuvo conformada por 189 estudiantes y se trabajó con una muestra de 111 estudiantes; la técnica utilizada para recolección de datos fue la encuesta, utilizando como instrumento la escala tipo Likert; los resultados mostraron que en la variable nivel de estudios los estudiantes del III nivel ocuparon el primer lugar, mostrando mejores actitudes y último lugar lo ocupó el V nivel; con respecto a la variable sexo, se encontraron diferencias a favor del sexo masculino; en la variable edad cronológica puede decirse que las actitudes de los estudiantes mayores  ocuparon el primer lugar, seguido de los más jóvenes y finalizando con los estudiantes  del grupo intermedio; así mismo se hallaron diferencias actitudinales entre los estudiantes de los cuatro distrito, como lugar de residencia. La variable nivel de estudios, parece no tener un papel distintivo en las actitudes hacia la conservación ambiental.

  14. Pressure based leak detection system implanted on the business Unit Exploration and Production of PETROBRAS in Rio Grande do Norte e Ceara; Sistema de deteccao de vazamentos em dutos baseado em pressao implantado na Unidade de Negocios de Exploracao e Producao da PETROBRAS no Rio de Grande do Norte e Ceara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolim, Tuerte A.; Oliveira, Abenildo A.de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the experience faced by people who works in PETROBRAS Business Unit (UN-RNCE), located in Rio Grande do Norte Province, Brazil, during the implementation of a pipeline leak detection system. That application involved nine multiphase oil pipelines distributed along several production facilities. Because of the emergency after the leakage that polluted the Guanabara bay and due to the two phases and multi phases pipelines characteristics, the UN-RNCE decided to apply the Pressure Point Analysis (PPA) technology in order to detect leakages. It is a statistical method for leak detection e uses a very simple instrumentation which facilitates the installation and maintenance. However, in order to get the best performance of the system, it is necessary to know thoroughly the whole process and have a fast and reliable SCADA system for long distance communication. Finally it will be shown the test results, the recommendations to expand the system and the conclusions. (author)

  15. NAKUPOVANJE NA SPLETU

    OpenAIRE

    Visenjak, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Nakupovanje na spletu je prihodnost poslovanja. Za podjetja pomeni manjše stroške, lažje prilagajanje tržnim pogojem. Hitreje lahko razvijajo odnose in analizirajo uporabnike, saj jim je dan dostop o nakupnih podatkih uporabnika. Za potrošnike je nakupovanje na spletu možnost hitrega, preprostega in učinkovitega nakupovanja od doma ali pisarne. Pomembno je, da se seznanijo z vsemi informacijami in pogoji spletnih trgovin, saj se lahko le tako izognejo nezadovoljstvu ob nakupu v spletni trgovi...

  16. Insegurança alimentar em domicílios com adolescentes da Amazônia Legal Brasileira: prevalência e fatores associados Inseguridad alimentaria en domicilios con adolescentes de la Amazonia Legal Brasileña: prevalencia y factores asociados Food insecurity in households with adolescents in the Brazilian Amazon: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Dias da Silva Guerra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal de base populacional, realizado em 2007, para investigar a prevalência de insegurança alimentar e fatores associados em domicílios com adolescentes da área urbana de quatro municípios da Amazônia Legal Brasileira, abrangência da rodovia BR-163, que liga Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, a Santarém, Pará. Aplicou-se a Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar a uma amostra de 363 domicílios e se realizou avaliação antropométrica de 534 adolescentes com idade entre 10 e 19 anos. Na análise múltipla, utilizou-se o modelo de regressão de Poisson. Os resultados apresentaram uma prevalência de 23,1% de insegurança alimentar moderada e grave, indicando associação com as seguintes categorias: baixa renda familiar, condições de saneamento precárias, naturalidade do Estado de Mato Grosso e raça/cor (preta do adolescente. Os resultados apontam a necessidade de ações para a melhoria do acesso ao saneamento básico, a qualificação de recursos humanos visando à geração de emprego e renda e a ações educativas que ampliem a compreensão sobre insegurança alimentar e seus determinantes nos municípios.Estudio transversal de base poblacional, realizado en 2007, para investigar la prevalencia de la inseguridad alimentaria y factores asociados en domicilios con adolescentes del área urbana de cuatro municipios de la Amazonia Legal, que abarca la carretera BR-163, que conecta Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, con Santarém, Pará. Se aplicó la Escala Brasileña de Inseguridad Alimentaria a una muestra de 363 domicilios y se realizó una evaluación antropométrica de 534 adolescentes con edades comprendidas entre 10 y 19 años. En el análisis múltiple, se utilizó el modelo de regresión de Poisson. Los resultados presentaron una prevalencia de un 23,1% de inseguridad alimentaria moderada y grave, indicando asociación con las siguientes categorías: baja renta familiar, condiciones de saneamiento precarias, originario del estado

  17. Diurnal variability of rainfall in southwest Amazonia during the LBA-TRMM field campaign of the austral summer of 1999 Variação diurna da chuva no sudoeste da Amazônia durante a campanha de campo do experimento LBA-TRMM no verão austral de 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Marengo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The TRMM-LBA field campaign was held during the austral summer of 1999 in southwestern Amazonia. Among the major objectives, was the identification and description of the diurnal variability of rainfall in the region, associated with the different rain producing weather systems that occurred during the January-February season. By using a network of 40 digital rain gauges implemented in the state of Rondônia, and together with observations and analyses of circulation and convection, it was possible to identify details of the diurnal cycle of rainfall and the associated rainfall mechanisms. Rainfall episodes were characterized by regimes of "low-level easterly" and "westerly" winds in the context of the large-scale circulation. The westerly regime is related to an enhanced South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ and an intense and/or wide Low Level Jet (LLJ east of the Andes, which can extend eastward towards Rondônia, even though some westerly regime episodes also show a LLJ that remains close to the foothill of the Andes. The easterly regime is related to easterly propagating systems (e.g. squall-lines with possible weakened or less frequent LLJs and a suppressed SACZ. Diurnal variability of rainfall during westerly surface wind regime shows a characteristic maximum at late afternoon followed by a relatively weaker second maximum at early evening (2100 Local Standard Time LST. The easterly regime composite shows an early morning maximum followed by an even stronger maximum in the afternoon.O experimento de campo do TRMM-LBA ocorreu conteceu durante o verão austral de 1999, na região do sudeste de Amazonia. Entre os principais objetivos deste trabalho pode-se citar a identificação e descrição da variabilidade diurna da chuva nesta região, associada a diferentes fenômenos meteorológicos e sistemas de tempo que ocorreram durante o período de Janeiro-Fevereiro. Usando uma rede de 40 pluviômetros instalados no estado de Rond

  18. Variações regionais e interespecíficas na morfologia de insetos do complexo Lutzomyia intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae Regional and interspecific variations in the morphology of insects of the Lutzomyia intermedia complex (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos B. Marcondes

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Lutzomyia intermedia s. s. e L. neivai, usualmente consideradas como pertencentes a uma só espécie, constituem um complexo de espécies. Foram analisadas as medidas de várias estruturas de exemplares das duas espécies, provenientes do Brasil, Paraguai, Argentina e Bolívia. MÉTODO: Foram medidas 39 estruturas em exemplares de ambos os sexos, com ocular graduada, fazendo-se comparações por análise de variância (ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se desvio significativo nas proporções de fêmeas e de machos com cada fórmula palpal e influência da região de origem dos insetos. O labro e os palpos maxilares foram mais longos nas fêmeas e o antenômero III mais longo nos machos. Foram constatadas várias diferenças entre medidas das asas, quase todas maiores nas fêmeas. A proporção de espermatecas com cabeça simples em L. neivai é significativamente maior que em L. intermedia. Também foram observadas diferenças significativas nos comprimentos das bombas e dos dutos ejaculadores entre as espécies. DISCUSSÃO: As variações nas fórmulas palpais ressaltam o risco do uso desta fórmula para a associação entre exemplares de ambos os sexos. As diferenças nos comprimentos dos palpos e no labro podem estar ligadas à hematofagia das fêmeas. Comenta-se sobre as possíveis implicações da maior relação comprimento/largura das asas em machos. As diferenças nas proporções de fêmeas das duas espécies com os diferentes tipos de cabeça de espermatecas podem auxiliar na identificação específica. As diferenças nos comprimentos das bombas e dos dutos ejaculadores e nas relações entre estes comprimentos podem auxiliar na identificação dos machos, ainda difícil.INTRODUCTION: Lutzomyia intermedia s. s. and L. neivai, usually considered as belonging to just one species, constitute a complex of species. The measurements of several anatomical structures of specimens of both groups, from Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina and

  19. Species diversity of edaphic mites (Acari: Oribatida) and effects of topography, soil properties and litter gradients on their qualitative and quantitative composition in 64 km² of forest in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Jamile; Franklin, Elizabeth; de Morais, José Wellington; de Souza, Jorge Luiz Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Small-scale spatial distribution of oribatid mites has been investigated in Amazonia. In addition, medium- and large-scale studies are needed to establish the utility of these mites in detecting natural environmental variability, and to distinguish this variability from anthropogenic impacts. We are expanding the knowledge about oribatid mites in a wet upland forest reserve, and investigate whether a standardized and integrated protocol is an efficient way to assess the effects of environmental variables on their qualitative and quantitative composition on a large spatial scale inside an ecological reserve in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Samples for Berlese-Tullgren extraction were taken in 72 plots of 250 × 6 m distributed over 64 km(2). In total 3,182 adult individuals, from 82 species and 79 morphospecies were recorded, expanding the number of species known in the reserve from 149 to 254. Galumna, Rostrozetes and Scheloribates were the most speciose genera, and 57 species were rare. Rostrozetes ovulum, Pergalumna passimpuctata and Archegozetes longisetosus were the most abundant species, and the first two were the most frequent. Species number and abundance were not correlated with clay content, slope, pH and litter quantity. However, Principal Coordinate Analysis indicated that as the percentage of clay content, litter quantity and pH changed, the oribatid mite qualitative and quantitative composition also changed. The standardized protocol effectively captured the diversity, as we collected one of the largest registers of oribatid mites' species for Amazonia. Moreover, biological and ecological data were integrated to capture the effects of environmental variables accounting for their diversity and abundance.

  20. Riso na epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edymar Jardim

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available São estudados três casos de síndrome convulsiva temporal, com manifestações concomitantes de riso na sua fase inicial. As características principais foram a imotivação e á incoercibilidade do riso. Esses sintomas desapareceram com o uso de anticonvulsivantes.

  1. The NA48 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    The NA48 experiment is designed to study the Charge-Parity (CP) violation. CP violation is observed in certain very rare decays. Its study is important in understanding Nature's preference of matter over antimatter, which resulted in asymmetry soon after the Big Bang, creating a matter-dominated Universe.

  2. Biotecnologia na agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine Carrer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A expectativa de o crescimento populacional atingir 9 bilhões de habitantes em 2050 em adição às questões da sustentabilidade e do aquecimento global nos desafiam a aumentar a oferta de alimentos. Uma metodologia alternativa que contribua para a redução do impacto desse cenário envolve a biotecnologia, que, nas últimas décadas, trouxe marcantes oportunidades tecnológicas na agricultura, resultando em relevante desenvolvimento na obtenção de novas variedades de plantas, na melhoria da qualidade de diversos alimentos e atualmente também na bioenergia. As técnicas biotecnológicas envolvendo os marcadores moleculares, a genômica e a transformação genética estão transformando a agricultura e são discutidas neste artigo.The expected population growth to reach 9 billion by 2050 in addition to issues of sustainability and global warming challenges us to increase the supply of food. An alternative approach to help reducing the impact of this scenario involves biotechnology which in recent decades has brought remarkable technological opportunities in the agriculture that resulted in relevant development in obtaining new plant varieties, improved quality of different foods, and now also in bioenergy. The biotechnology techniques involving molecular markers, genomics and genetic transformation are transforming agriculture and will be discussed in this article.

  3. Comment by J.P. Figueiredo, & Hoorn, C. on 'Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil)' by Martin Gross, Werner E. Piller, Maria Ines Ramos, Jackson Douglas da Silva Paz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Jorge Jesus Picanço

    2012-04-01

    In their paper Gross et al., 2011 present an excellent description of a series of outcrops from the Eirunepe region in western Amazonia (Brazil). The authors interpret these sediments as relics of a Late Miocene anastomosing fluvial system and conclude that the paleogeography of the entire western Amazon region must have been characterized by this environmental setting. They also imply that therefore a long-lived lake system - or megawetland - never existed. We contend this assumption for some reasons, amongst them, the most important are: (1) this is an inconsistent overgeneralized conclusion; (2) The authors make references to previous scientific works we published which we consider incorrect, and therefore can mislead their readers.

  4. The Amazon Region; A Vision of Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    da Amazonia (Brazilian Regional Commander of Amazon), about Ŕ Exercito na Amazonia " ("The Army in the Amazon) . Manaus, AM, 1996. 3 Instituto...accessed 23 Dec 97. 6 Editora Abril, Almanaque Abril 97, 205. 7 Comando Militär da Amazonia , lecture. 8 Comando Militär da Amazonia , lecture. 9...Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. 10 Editora Abril, Almanaque Abril 97, 98. 11 Gelio Fregapani, Amazonia 1996 - Soberania Ameacada (Amazon

  5. O JORNALISTA NA PESQUISA E NA ARTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Marocco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O jornalista tem sido objeto das artes e das ciências. Nesta incisão no tema do painel “Configurações e perspectivas da pesquisa em jornalismo no Brasil em diálogo com os estudos latinoamericanos em jornalismo”, realizado no Encontro Nacional da Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisadores em Jornalismo/SBPJor (Curitiba, 10/11/2012, reconheci que o âmbito acadêmico projeta dois tipos de ação: em rede de pesquisadores de diferentes países e regiões do mundo, com participação de países da América Latina, na pesquisa colaborativa e em projetos de investigação com outras bases de colaboração. Ambas as modalidades dialogam com a produção do cinema e da literatura – que visibiliza a grande potência do profissional para tramas e tensões. 

  6. Epidemiologia das infecções diarréicas entre populações indígenas da Amazonia Epidemiology of diarrhea infection among indian populations of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Linhares

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Enteropatógenos bacterianos, viróticos e parasitários têm sido associados freqüentemente a processos gastrintestinais entre indígenas da Amazônia. Entre os índios Parakanã, registrou-se freqüência da ordem de 4% para Shigella flexneri. Por outro lado, taxas de soroprevalência de 98% para a toxina lábil de E. coli foram assinaladas no seio dos Menkrangnotí, Parakanã, Xikrín e Asuriní. Revelaram-se expressivos reservatórios de Salmonella sp. os edentados (63% de positívidade e os marsupiais (20%. Cepas de Shigella disenteriae foram detectadas em 4,2% de 40 índios Suruí avaliados, enquanto entre os Karitiána, isolaram-se, a partir de 85 coproculturas, uma amostra de Shigella boydii e 11 de E. coli. Os rotavírus se constituíram no agente causai do episódio epidêmico explosivo que acometeu os Tiriyó, em julho-agosto de 1977. Utilizando-se a contra-imuno-eletro-osmoforese, detectaram-se 25,6% de soroconversões, com base no exame de 127 amostras pareadas. O sorotipo I de Birmingham caracterizou-se como o agente causai da epidemia que abrangeu, pelo menos, 80% da população sob risco: crianças e velhos foram os mais atingidos. Estudos soroepidemiológicos empreendidos em 13 comunidades indígenas da região amazônica denotaram elevadas taxas de soropositividade (maiores de 50% para rotavírus, em termos gerais, conquanto os Parakanã Novo se tenham revelado não-imunes a esses agentes. O gradativo aumento na freqüência de anticorpos com a idade sugere persistência dos rotavírus nessas comunidades. Ainda, o registro de resultados positivos em crianças de baixa idade sugere o caráter endêmico das infecções. Expressivas taxas de positividade quanto à presença de anticorpos para rotavírus foram detectadas entre os Suruí (67,8% e os Karitiána (77,4%. Enteroparasitas de importância médica também foram detectados. S. stercoralis, Giardia lamblia e Entamoeba hystolitica foram assinaladas, entre os Suruí, em freq

  7. Cloud condensation nuclei in pristine tropical rainforest air of Amazonia: size-resolved measurements and modeling of atmospheric aerosol composition and CCN activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunthe, S. S.; King, S. M.; Rose, D.; Chen, Q.; Roldin, P.; Farmer, D. K.; Jimenez, J. L.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M. O.; Martin, S. T.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. We have measured and characterized CCN at water vapor supersaturations in the range of S=0.10-0.82% in pristine tropical rainforest air during the AMAZE-08 campaign in central Amazonia. The effective hygroscopicity parameters describing the influence of chemical composition on the CCN activity of aerosol particles varied in the range of κ≍0.1-0.4 (0.16±0.06 arithmetic mean and standard deviation). The overall median value of κ≍0.15 was by a factor of two lower than the values typically observed for continental aerosols in other regions of the world. Aitken mode particles were less hygroscopic than accumulation mode particles (κ≍0.1 at D≍50 nm; κ≍0.2 at D≍200 nm), which is in agreement with earlier hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) studies. The CCN measurement results are consistent with aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) data, showing that the organic mass fraction (forg) was on average as high as ~90% in the Aitken mode (D≤100 nm) and decreased with increasing particle diameter in the accumulation mode (~80% at D≍200 nm). The κ values exhibited a negative linear correlation with forg (R2=0.81), and extrapolation yielded the following effective hygroscopicity parameters for organic and inorganic particle components: κorg≍0.1 which can be regarded as the effective hygroscopicity of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and κinorg≍0.6 which is characteristic for ammonium sulfate and related salts. Both the size dependence and the temporal variability of effective particle hygroscopicity could be parameterized as a function of AMS-based organic and inorganic mass fractions (κp=κorg×forg +κinorg×finorg). The CCN number concentrations predicted with κp were in fair agreement with the measurement results (~20% average deviation). The median CCN number concentrations at S=0

  8. Low-Cost Evaluation of EO-1 Hyperion and ALI for Detection and Biophysical Characterization of Forest Logging in Amazonia (NCC5-481)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Keller, Michael M.; Silva, Jose Natalino; Zweede, Johan C.; Pereira, Rodrigo, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    quantify both the presence and degree of structural disturbance caused by various logging regimes. Our quantitative assessment of Hyperion hyperspectral and ALI multi-spectral data for the detection and structural characterization of selective logging in Amazonia will benefit from data collected through an ongoing project run by the Tropical Forest Foundation, within which we have developed a study of the canopy and landscape biophysics of conventional and reduced-impact logging. We will add to our base of forest structural information in concert with an EO-1 overpass. Using a photon transport model inversion technique that accounts for non-linear mixing of the four biogeophysical indicators, we will estimate these parameters across a gradient of selective logging intensity provided by conventional and reduced impact logging sites. We will also compare our physical ly-based approach to both conventional (e.g., NDVI) and novel (e.g., SWIR-channel) vegetation indices as well as to linear mixture modeling methods. We will cross-compare these approaches using Hyperion and ALI imagers to determine the strengths and limitations of these two sensors for applications of forest biophysics. This effort will yield the first physical ly-based, quantitative analysis of the detection and intensity of selective logging in Amazonia, comparing hyperspectral and improved multi-spectral approaches as well as inverse modeling, linear mixture modeling, and vegetation index techniques.

  9. Pipeline river crossing studies; Estudos de travessias de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Marcos de Castro; Stasiak, Luciano; Silva, Alessandra de Barros e [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This work has for objective to guide the execution of study of pipelines crossings under courses of water, channels, flooded areas and reservoirs. The study seeks the minimal risks to the pipelines, be them anthropics, geotechnics, hydraulics or environmental, as in the implantation phase as of operation. It also seeks to determine which is the best constructive method for the crossing in question. (author)

  10. Cryptic speciation in the white-shouldered antshrike (Thamnophilus aethiops, Aves - Thamnophilidae): the tale of a transcontinental radiation across rivers in lowland Amazonia and the northeastern Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Gregory; Aleixo, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The growing knowledge on paleogeography and the recent applications of molecular biology and phylogeography to the study of the Amazonian biota have provided a framework for testing competing hypotheses of biotic diversification in this region. Here, we reconstruct the spatio-temporal context of diversification of a widespread understory polytypic Amazonian bird species (Thamnophilus aethiops) and contrast it with different hypotheses of diversification and the taxonomy currently practiced in the group. Sequences of mtDNA (cytochrome b and ND2) and nuclear (β-fibrinogen introns 5 and 7 and the Z-liked Musk4) genes, adding up to 4093bp of 89 individuals covering the Amazonian, Andean, and Atlantic Forest populations of T. aethiops were analyzed. Phylogenetic and population genetics analyses revealed ten reciprocally monophyletic and genetically isolated or nearly-isolated lineages in T. aethiops, highlighting several inconsistencies between taxonomy and evolutionary history in this group. Our data suggest that the diversification of T. aethiops started in the Andean highlands, and then proceeded into the Amazonian lowlands probably after the consolidation of the modern Amazonian drainage. The main cladogenetic events in T. aethiops may be related to the formation and structuring of large Amazonian rivers during the Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene, coinciding with the dates proposed for other lineages of Amazonian organisms. Population genetics data do not support climatic fluctuations as a major source of diversification in T. aethiops. Even though not entirely concordant with paleobiogeographic models derived from phylogenies of other vertebrate lineages, our results support a prominent role for rivers as major drivers of diversification in Amazonia, while underscoring that different diversification scenarios are probably related to the distinct evolutionary origins of groups being compared. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Close evolutionary affinities between freshwater corbulid bivalves from the Neogene of western Amazonia and Paleogene of the northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laurie C.; Hartman, Joseph H.; Wesselingh, Frank

    2006-03-01

    Freshwater corbulid bivalves found in Miocene deposits of western Amazonia have been considered products of an endemic radiation of a marine clade within the large lacustrine system occupying the region at that time. Our reexamination of Paleocene freshwater corbulids of the Tongue River Formation of western North Dakota and eastern Montana, however, extends the stratigraphic and geographic range of three Amazonian taxa— Pachydon, Ostomya, and Anticorbula—to the Paleocene of the northern Great Plains of the United States. Both Paleocene and Miocene freshwater corbulid taxa occur in large freshwater systems with an intermittent marine connection. To test the phylogenetic relationships of one particularly widespread Paleocene species ( Pachydon mactriformis), we conducted cladistic analyses using maximum parsimony and heuristic searches of matrices of conchologic characters. Seven species of Pachydon and Pebasia dispar from the western Amazonian Neogene, Pachydon mactriformis from the Paleocene of North Dakota, representative species of eight neotropical marine corbulid genera, and three additional corbulid taxa were included. Corbula was the outgroup. All analyses produced similar regions of stability within trees. One such area is a Pachydon crown group that includes P. mactriformis, indicating that Paleocene and Miocene Pachydon are not convergent. Our results also indicate that Pachydon does not represent a separate basal radiation within the family. However, we have not resolved a robust sister clade relationship for the Pachydon crown group. Two Amazonian Neogene taxa do not fall within the Pachydon crown group, and their phylogenetic position is not resolved. At this time, we do not have sufficient evidence to refine the definitions of Pachydon and Pachydontinae as monophyletic clades. Although we have evidence that three genera of corbulid bivalves ( Pachydon, Ostomya, and Anticorbula) in the Pebas Formation are not endemic and have long geologic

  12. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, we explored the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa among the Tsimane', an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages. We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic, and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane' have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. Although local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane' undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  13. Patrones de distribución de especies arbóreas de dosel y sotobosque a escala local en bosques de tierra firme, Amazonia colombiana

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    Juan Sebastian Barreto-Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de la variación ambiental en la estructura de las comunidades arbóreas en bosques tropicales, aún se debate. En paisajes como los bosques de tierra firme, donde el gradiente ambiental disminuye, el efecto de los suelos sobre los patrones de distribución de especies es mínimo. En contraste, un mayor efecto de la variación edáfica y topográfica sobre la composición florística, se ha reportado en estudios con diferentes tipos de plantas en bosques tropicales. Este estudio se realizó en diez hectáreas de una parcela permanente. Se evaluó el efecto de la variación ambiental y la configuración espacial sobre los patrones florísticos de las especies arbóreas a escala local, según el estado de desarrollo y categorías de abundancia relativa. Se registraron 14 074 individuos de 1 053 especies y 80 familias. Los suelos son ácidos, presentan altas concentraciones de Aluminio y son predominantemente arcillosos. La diversidad beta fue baja. Las diferencias florísticas explicadas fueron asociadas con procesos biológicos espacialmente estructurados, particularmente, con la limitación en dispersión. Aunque, la mayor parte de la variación no fue explicada por las variables consideradas. Estos resultados sugieren que procesos aleatorios son determinantes esenciales de la variación florística en bosques de tierra firme de la amazonia.

  14. Ocurrencia de hongos formadores de micorriza arbuscular asociados a ají (Capsicum sp. en la Amazonia colombiana

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    Cardona Gladys

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Capsicum sp. es una especie nativa de América de gran importancia por su diversidad de usos. La Amazonia colombiana es considerada uno de los centros de origen y alberga una gran riqueza de morfoespecies. A pesar de su importancia para el crecimiento y supervivencia de plantas bajo condiciones limitantes de nutrientes, son escasos los trabajos relacionados con la dinámica de los hongos formadores de micorriza arbuscular (HFMA en Capsicum. Se estudió la ocurrencia de HFMA, a partir de colecta de rizósferas y raíces de ají en diferentes rutas. La colonización se evaluó por medio de la metodología de Phillips y Hayman (1970, con modificaciones de Sieverding (1983. El aislamiento y cuantificación de esporas por la técnica de Gerdeman y Nicolson (1963, modificada por Sieverding (1983. La asignación de géneros se realizó a partir de la descripción morfológica de esporas. Todas las plántulas de ají muestreadas presentaron asociaciones con HFMA. Características químicas del suelo, presencia de otras especies vegetales en chagras, fuente de colecta y especies del género Capsicum incidieron en una alta o baja alta ocurrencia de la simbiosis micorrícica. Se identificaron nueve morfotipos de endomicorrizas; Glomus sp. fue el de mayor ocurrencia.

  15. Los pueblos indígenas de la Amazonia Peruana y el uso político de los medios de comunicación

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    Oscar ESPINOSA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo trata sobre el uso político de los medios de comunicación (radio, televisión e Internet por parte de los pueblos indígenas de la Amazonia Peruana. En particular, analiza la utilización que el pueblo Shipibo ha hecho de la radio en el proceso de construcción de su identidad étnica y en la creación de sus organizaciones políticas representativas; el tipo de vinculación de los pueblos Ashaninka y Aguaruna, el estado y la televisión sobre todo en la redefinición del concepto de identidad nacional en el contexto de diferentes conflictos armados, y finalmente, se presenta el uso de Internet por el pueblo Ashaninka.El objetivo principal del articulo es mostrar como el empleo de los medios de comunicación permite a las comunidades indígenas hacerse más visibles y actuar políticamente en distintos espacios públicos.ABSTRACT: This article deals with the political use of the means of communication (radio, tv, Internet by the indigenous peoples of the Peruvian Amazonas. In particular, it analyzes the use made by the Shipibo people of the radio in the construction of their ethnic identity and the creation of representative political organization; the links among the Ashaninka and Aguaruna peoples, the state and the tv in the redefinition of the national identity in the context of armed conflicts, and finally, it presents the use of Internet by Ashaninka people.This article aims at showing that the use of mass media allows indigenous groups to become more visible and to act in different political scenarios.

  16. Anthropogenic landscape in southeastern Amazonia: contemporary impacts of low-intensity harvesting and dispersal of Brazil nuts by the Kayapó Indigenous people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maria Beatriz N; Jerozolimski, Adriano; de Robert, Pascale; Salles, Nilson V; Kayapó, Biribiri; Pimentel, Tania P; Magnusson, William E

    2014-01-01

    Brazil nut, the Bertholletia excelsa seed, is one of the most important non-timber forest products in the Amazon Forest and the livelihoods of thousands of traditional Amazonian families depend on its commercialization. B. excelsa has been frequently cited as an indicator of anthropogenic forests and there is strong evidence that past human management has significantly contributed to its present distribution across the Amazon, suggesting that low levels of harvesting may play a positive role in B. excelsa recruitment. Here, we evaluate the effects of Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó Indigenous people of southeastern Amazonia on seedling recruitment in 20 B. excelsa groves subjected to different harvesting intensities, and investigated if management by harvesters influences patterns of B. excelsa distribution. The number of years of low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó over the past two decades was positively related to B. excelsa seedling density in groves. One of the mechanisms behind the higher seedling density in harvested sites seems to be seed dispersal by harvesters along trails. The Kayapó also intentionally plant B. excelsa seeds and seedlings across their territories. Our results show not only that low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó people does not reduce recruitment of seedlings, but that harvesting and/or associated activities conducted by traditional harvesters may benefit B. excelsa beyond grove borders. Our study supports the hypothesis that B. excelsa dispersal throughout the Amazon was, at least in part, influenced by indigenous groups, and strongly suggests that current human management contributes to the maintenance and formation of B. excelsa groves. We suggest that changes in Brazil nut management practices by traditional people to prevent harvesting impacts may be unnecessary and even counterproductive in many areas, and should be carefully evaluated before implementation.

  17. Activity budget and social interactions in semi-captive gray woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha cana) living in an ex situ conservation area in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena-Matos, Bárbara; Gasnier, Thierry; Cravo-Mota, Mariana; Martins Bezerra, Bruna

    2017-01-01

    Areas holding primates in semi-captivity conditions represent an excellent opportunity for collecting data on rare, little known, and endangered taxa, contributing with insightful information to help in their conservation. Here, we present information on the activity budget and social interactions of the elusive gray woolly monkeys, Lagothrix lagotricha cana, in an ex situ conservation area in central Amazonia. We studied the behavior of 18 semi-captive individuals through instantaneous scan and focal animal samplings during 4 months in the wet season. The most frequent activity registered was resting (45%). The remaining time was dedicated to foraging (29%), travelling (23%), social interactions (3%), and self-grooming (1%). Resting and travelling time may be correlated to fruit availability in the area through different seasons. Huddling was the most frequent social interaction, being more common from young individuals toward adult females, which may be associated with breastfeeding. Playing was more common among young males. This activity prepares them to defend themselves from possible attacks and allows them to develop their role in the social group, as future adult males. Aggression was most frequent among adults, primarily from males toward females, likely to demonstrate their dominance over females. Social grooming occurred predominantly from mother to offspring. This interaction can reduce the risk of young predation, directly increasing the female reproductive success. Our data not only add to our understanding of the sociality and behaviors of the genus Lagothrix, but may also serve as a tool to identify environments that support an adequate activity budget for these monkeys. Zoo Biol. 36:21-29, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Guèze, Maximilien; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, this work explores the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa) amongst the Tsimane', an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages). We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane' have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. While local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane' undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  19. Vaginose Bacteriana na Colpocitologia

    OpenAIRE

    Consolaro,Márcia Edilaine Lopes; Suzuki, Linda Emiko

    2008-01-01

    A flora vaginal representa um ecossistema dinâmico influenciado por fatores diversos, existindo mecanismos desconhecidos que alteram esta flora, desencadeando distúrbios como vaginoses bacterianas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a incidência de vaginoses bacterianas detectadas por colpocitologia na população atendida pelo Setor de Citologia Clínica do Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Análises Clínicas (LEPAC) da Univers...

  20. Preparing for NA4

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Here, in one of the EF workshop, Albert Duchêne works on a pretty piece of mechanics. A few others await to be attended on the left. There are indications that the pipes were meant to house the carbon target (subdivided in eight sections) to be installed inside the toroid magnet of the NA4 experiment. The external strips were designed to possibly correct the magnetic field (???).

  1. A epilepsia na neurocisticercose

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    Luís Marques-Assis

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 131 casos de epilepsia com etiologia cisticercótica comprovada. A idade variou de 2 a 68 anos; 75 pacientes eram de sexo masculino e 56 de sexo feminino; 117 eram brancos, 10 pardos, três pretos e um amarelo. A idade de início da doença predominou na primeira década. O estudo foi feito em relação ao tipo de epilepsia, ao tempo decorrido após a primeira crise, à freqüência das crises e ao eletrencefalograma relativamente às epilepsias em geral. Investigação foi feita também em relação à cefaléia, aos achados neurológicos, liquóricos, radiológicos simples e contrastados e anátomo-patológicos. A análise dos resultados permitiu aos autores as seguintes conclusões: 1 No grupo de neurocisticercose o início da doença predominou na primeira e a partir da quarta década em relação às epilepsias em geral. 2 Dentre as manifestações clínicas predominaram as formas convulsivas da doença (61%, sendo as crises bravas-jacksonianas as menos freqüentes (4%; quando comparadas com as epilepsias em geral, verifica-se incidência menor das convulsões generalizadas na neurocisticercose. 3 Quanto ao tempo de doença, verifica-se predomínio das formas de duração mais curta (um ano ou menos na neurocisticercose. 4 A severidade da epilepsia, traduzida pela freqüência das crises, foi menor no grupo com neurocisticercose. 5 Excluídos os casos com anormalidades eletrencefalográficas contínuas, foram encontrados maiores índices percentuais de EEG normal na neurocisticercose que nas epilepsias em geral. 6 A cefaléia estava presente em 68% dos casos, assumindo caráter paroxístico na maior parte (78%; em 67% dos casos com cefaléia paroxística não havia concomitantemente sinais de hipertensão intracraniana; nos casos com cefaléia contínua, em apenas dois (13% esses sinais não estavam presentes. 7 Na maior parte dos casos (62% as manifestações epilépticas se apresentaram isoladamente, sem sinais neurol

  2. A review of green- and blue-water resources and their trade-offs for future agricultural production in the Amazon Basin: what could irrigated agriculture mean for Amazonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuillière, Michael J.; Coe, Michael T.; Johnson, Mark S.

    2016-06-01

    The Amazon Basin is a region of global importance for the carbon and hydrological cycles, a biodiversity hotspot, and a potential centre for future economic development. The region is also a major source of water vapour recycled into continental precipitation through evapotranspiration processes. This review applies an ecohydrological approach to Amazonia's water cycle by looking at contributions of water resources in the context of future agricultural production. At present, agriculture in the region is primarily rain-fed and relies almost exclusively on green-water resources (soil moisture regenerated by precipitation). Future agricultural development, however, will likely follow pathways that include irrigation from blue-water sources (surface water and groundwater) as insurance from variability in precipitation. In this review, we first provide an updated summary of the green-blue ecohydrological framework before describing past trends in Amazon